Science.gov

Sample records for doubly labeled water

  1. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  2. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  3. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  4. Doubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promise.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ((2)H) and heavy oxygen ((18)O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ((2)H 2(18) O) to increase background enrichment of body water for (18)O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for (2)H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm. Subsequently, the difference between the apparent turnover rates of the hydrogen and oxygen of body water is assessed from blood-, saliva-, or urine samples, collected at the start and end of the observation interval of 1-3 weeks. Samples are analyzed for (18)O and (2)H with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The doubly labelled water method is the indicated method to measure energy expenditure in any environment, especially with regard to activity energy expenditure, without interference with the behavior of the subjects. Applications include the assessment of energy requirement from total energy expenditure, validation of dietary assessment methods and validation of physical activity assessment methods with doubly labelled water measured energy expenditure as reference, and studies on body mass regulation with energy expenditure as a determinant of energy balance.

  5. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN.

  6. Sensitivity of methods for calculating energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, J.; Miles, C.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1989-02-01

    Attempts to estimate human energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water have produced three methods currently used for calculating carbon dioxide production from isotope disappearance data: (1) the two-point method, (2) the regression method, and (3) the integration method. An ideal data set was used to determine the error produced in the calculated energy expenditure for each method when specific variables were perturbed. The analysis indicates that some of the calculation methods are more susceptible to perturbations in certain variables than others. Results from an experiment on one adult human subject are used to illustrate the potential for error in actual data. Samples of second void urine, 24-h urine, and breath collected every other day for 21 days are used to calculate the average daily energy expenditure by three calculation methods. The difference between calculated energy expenditure and metabolizable energy on a weight-maintenance diet is used to estimate the error associated with the doubly labeled water method.

  7. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-20

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  8. Use of doubly labeled water technique in soldiers training for jungle warfare.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Ewan, C H; Morrissey, B L; Gregg, G C; Waters, D R

    1989-07-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to estimate the energy expended by four members of an Australian Army platoon (34 soldiers) engaged in training for jungle warfare. Each subject received an oral isotope dose sufficient to raise isotope levels by 200-250 (18O) and 100-120 ppm (2H). The experimental period was 7 days. Concurrently, a factorial estimate of the energy expenditure of the platoon was conducted. Also, a food intake-energy balance study was conducted for the platoon. Mean daily energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method was 4,750 kcal (range 4,152-5,394 kcal). The factorial estimate of mean daily energy expenditure was 4,535 kcal. Because of inherent inaccuracies in the food intake-energy balance technique, we were able to conclude only that energy expenditure, as measured by this method, was greater than the estimated mean daily intake of 4,040 kcal. The doubly labeled water technique was well tolerated, is noninvasive, and appears to be suitable in a wide range of field applications.

  9. Use of doubly labeled water technique in soldiers training for jungle warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes-Ewan, C.H.; Morrissey, B.L.; Gregg, G.C.; Waters, D.R. )

    1989-07-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to estimate the energy expended by four members of an Australian Army platoon (34 soldiers) engaged in training for jungle warfare. Each subject received an oral isotope dose sufficient to raise isotope levels by 200-250 ({sup 18}O) and 100-120 ppm ({sup 2}H). The experimental period was 7 days. Concurrently, a factorial estimate of the energy expenditure of the platoon was conducted. Also, a food intake-energy balance study was conducted for the platoon. Mean daily energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method was 4,750 kcal (range 4,152-5,394 kcal). The factorial estimate of mean daily energy expenditure was 4,535 kcal. Because of inherent inaccuracies in the food intake-energy balance technique, we were able to conclude only that energy expenditure, as measured by this method, was greater than the estimated mean daily intake of 4,040 kcal. The doubly labeled water technique was well tolerated, is noninvasive, and appears to be suitable in a wide range of field applications.

  10. Energy expenditure in space flight (doubly labelled water method) (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Expenditure in Space Flight (ESS) experiment is to demonstrate and evaluate the doubly labeled water method of measuring the energy expended by crew members during approximately 7 days in microgravity. The doubly labeled water technique determines carbon dioxide production which is then used to calculate energy expenditure. The method relies on the equilibrium between oxygen in respiratory carbon dioxide and oxygen in body water. Because of this equilibrium, the kinetic of water turnover and respiration are interdependent. Under normal conditions, man contains small but significant amounts of deuterium and oxygen 18. Deuterium is eliminated from the body as water while oxygen 18 is eliminated as water and carbon dioxide. The difference in the turnover rates in the two isotopes is proportional to the carbon dioxide production. Deliberately enriching the total body water with both of these isotopes allows the isotope turnovers to be accurately measured in urine, plasma, or saliva samples. The samples are taken to the laboratory for analysis using an ion-ratio spectrometer.

  11. Energy expenditure in space flight (doubly labelled water method) (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Expenditure in Space Flight (ESS) experiment is to demonstrate and evaluate the doubly labeled water method of measuring the energy expended by crew members during approximately 7 days in microgravity. The doubly labeled water technique determines carbon dioxide production which is then used to calculate energy expenditure. The method relies on the equilibrium between oxygen in respiratory carbon dioxide and oxygen in body water. Because of this equilibrium, the kinetic of water turnover and respiration are interdependent. Under normal conditions, man contains small but significant amounts of deuterium and oxygen 18. Deuterium is eliminated from the body as water while oxygen 18 is eliminated as water and carbon dioxide. The difference in the turnover rates in the two isotopes is proportional to the carbon dioxide production. Deliberately enriching the total body water with both of these isotopes allows the isotope turnovers to be accurately measured in urine, plasma, or saliva samples. The samples are taken to the laboratory for analysis using an ion-ratio spectrometer.

  12. Adaptation of the doubly labeled water method for subjects consuming isotopically enriched water.

    PubMed

    Gretebeck, R J; Schoeller, D A; Socki, R A; Davis-Street, J; Gibson, E K; Schulz, L O; Lane, H W

    1997-02-01

    The use of doubly labeled water (DLW) to measure energy expenditure is subject to error if the background abundance of the oxygen and hydrogen isotope tracers changes during the test period. This study evaluated the accuracy and precision of different methods by which such background isotope changes can be corrected, including a modified method that allows prediction of the baseline that would be achieved if subjects were to consume water from a given source indefinitely. Subjects in this study were eight women (4 test subjects and 4 control subjects) who consumed for 28 days water enriched to resemble drinking water aboard the United States space shuttle. Test subjects and control subjects were given a DLW dose on days 1 and 15, respectively. The change to an enriched water source produced a bias in expenditure calculations that exceeded 2.9 MJ/day (35%), relative to calculations from intake-balance. The proposed correction based on the predicted final abundance of 18O and deuterium after equilibration to the new water source eliminated this bias, as did the traditional use of a control group. This new modified correction method is advantageous under field conditions when subject numbers are limited.

  13. The role of technology in the past and future development of the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2005-12-01

    The doubly labelled water method is an isotope-based technique that is used to measure the energy demands of free-living animals and humans. It is based on the observation that, in the body, the oxygen in carbon dioxide is in complete isotope exchange equilibrium with the oxygen in body water. Hence, a label of isotopic oxygen in body water is eliminated by both respiratory CO(2) and water turnover, whereas a similarly introduced label of deuterium is eliminated only by water flux. The difference in isotope fluxes therefore permits estimation of CO(2) production, which is correlated to energy demands. The doubly labelled water method has been advanced predominantly by technological advances in mass spectrometry. Although it was first described in the 1950s, it was only used on small animals and in low numbers because the costs of the isotopes were a primary constraint. However, advances in mass spectrometry precision and accuracy in the 1980s made it possible to reduce the quantities of isotope used, and hence apply the method on humans, although still in small numbers. The advent of continuous flow inlets in the 1990s made possible the processing of samples in much larger numbers and the sample sizes of studies have expanded. Ironically, however, the technique is now under treat because of technological advances in another area (positron emission tomography), which has generated an enormous demand for (18)O and pushed up the price of isotopes. A continuation of this trend might drive prices to levels where sustained application of the method in human studies is questionable. Replacing determination of isotope enrichments currently performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with determinations made by stable isotope infrared laser spectrometry may be a technological advance that will get us out of this problem.

  14. Natural abundance deuterium and 18-oxygen effects on the precision of the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, M. A.; Schoeller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The doubly labeled water method for measuring total energy expenditure is subject to error from natural variations in the background 2H and 18O in body water. There is disagreement as to whether the variations in background abundances of the two stable isotopes covary and what relative doses of 2H and 18O minimize the impact of variation on the precision of the method. We have performed two studies to investigate the amount and covariance of the background variations. These were a study of urine collected weekly from eight subjects who remained in the Madison, WI locale for 6 wk and frequent urine samples from 14 subjects during round-trip travel to a locale > or = 500 miles from Madison, WI. Background variation in excess of analytical error was detected in six of the eight nontravelers, and covariance was demonstrated in four subjects. Background variation was detected in all 14 travelers, and covariance was demonstrated in 11 subjects. The median slopes of the regression lines of delta2H vs. delta18O were 6 and 7, respectively. Modeling indicated that 2H and 18O doses yielding a 6:1 ratio of final enrichments should minimize this error introduced to the doubly labeled water method.

  15. Natural abundance deuterium and 18-oxygen effects on the precision of the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, M. A.; Schoeller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The doubly labeled water method for measuring total energy expenditure is subject to error from natural variations in the background 2H and 18O in body water. There is disagreement as to whether the variations in background abundances of the two stable isotopes covary and what relative doses of 2H and 18O minimize the impact of variation on the precision of the method. We have performed two studies to investigate the amount and covariance of the background variations. These were a study of urine collected weekly from eight subjects who remained in the Madison, WI locale for 6 wk and frequent urine samples from 14 subjects during round-trip travel to a locale > or = 500 miles from Madison, WI. Background variation in excess of analytical error was detected in six of the eight nontravelers, and covariance was demonstrated in four subjects. Background variation was detected in all 14 travelers, and covariance was demonstrated in 11 subjects. The median slopes of the regression lines of delta2H vs. delta18O were 6 and 7, respectively. Modeling indicated that 2H and 18O doses yielding a 6:1 ratio of final enrichments should minimize this error introduced to the doubly labeled water method.

  16. Total energy expenditure by the doubly-labeled water method in rural preschool children in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Salazar, Gabriela; Díaz, Erik; Sánchez, Vivian; Basabe, Beatriz; González, Soraya; Díaz, Maria Elena

    2002-09-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of the Cuban Nutrition Program for covering the energy requirements of children was carried out in children 5.0 +/- 1.0 years of age in a rural mountain community in Cuba. Five males and six females (19 +/- 3.05 kg average weight) with a mean BMI 15.4 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) were included in the study. Six of the subjects were well-nourished, three were undernourished, and two were overweight. Total energy expenditure was determined by the doubly-labeled water technique. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry. Energy intake, measured by a three-day weighed dietary record, was 1,527 kcal/day (6.39 MJ). The total energy expenditure of the well-nourished children was 11.8% lower than present energy recommendations (1,773 kcal). This implies that well-nourished children who are moderately to heavily physically active require 82.6 kcal/kg per day. The physical activity level of normal Cuban children is nearly 1.8, which is much higher than that reported in studies of children from industrialized countries using the doubly-labeled water technique. The measured daily energy intake was 1.7 times the resting metabolic rate RMR and 1.04 times the total energy expenditure.

  17. Comparison of energy estimates in chronic kidney disease using doubly-labelled water.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, S; Wong, J; Vilar, E; Farrington, K

    2016-02-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) is estimated in clinical practice as a combined measure of resting energy expenditure and physical activity level. Commonly available questionnaires to estimate physical activity level have not been validated in patients with kidney disease using the doubly-labelled water method. This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 40 patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-5 with the objective of validating two physical activity questionnaires: the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and the Stanford 7-day recall questionnaire. TEE was measured using doubly-labelled water technique. TEE was also estimated using predicted resting energy expenditure and estimated physical activity measures from the questionnaires. Measured TEE correlated better with TEE estimated from RPAQ compared to that from the Stanford questionnaire. In Bland-Altman analysis, TEE estimated from RPAQ had the least bias and narrower limits of agreement compared to the measured TEE. A metabolic equivalent of task value of 1.3 for the unaccounted time in RPAQ provided the best approximation of estimated TEE to the measured TEE. RPAQ is an acceptable questionnaire tool for assessing physical activity level in patients with chronic kidney disease. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Doubly labeled water method: in vivo oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Leitch, C.A.; Brown, C.

    1986-12-01

    The accuracy and precision of the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure are influenced by isotope fractionation during evaporative water loss and CO/sub 2/ excretion. To characterize in vivo isotope fractionation, we collected and isotopically analyzed physiological fluids and gases. Breath and transcutaneous water vapor were isotopically fractionated. The degree of fractionation indicated that the former was fractionated under equilibrium control at 37/sup 0/C, and the latter was kinetically fractionated. Sweat and urine were unfractionated. By use of isotopic balance models, the fraction of water lost via fractionating routes was estimated from the isotopic abundances of body water, local drinking water, and dietary solids. Fractionated water loss averaged 23% (SD = 10%) of water turnover, which agreed with our previous estimates based on metabolic rate, but there was a systematic difference between the results based on O/sub 2/ and hydrogen. Corrections for isotopic fractionation of water lost in breath and (nonsweat) transcutaneous loss should be made when using labeled water to measure water turnover or CO/sub 2/ production.

  19. Validation of doubly labeled water method for energy expenditure in postsurgical infants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.J.H.; Winthrop, A.L.; Schoeller, D.A.; Swyer, P.R.; Filler, R.M.; Smith, J.M.; Heim, T.

    1986-03-05

    To validate the doubly labeled water method (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O) in infants without concurrent water balance, carbon dioxide production rate (rCO/sub 2/) and energy expenditure (EE) were measured for 5 or 6 days by /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O and periodic open circuit respiratory gas exchange in 5 infants (mean age: 5.3 wk, range 1-14 wk). Following abdominal surgery (mean = 10.3 d, range 7-18 d), infants were maintained on constant oral or parenteral nutrition 4 d prior to and during the study. This avoided changes in baseline isotopic enrichment of body water diet induced changes in relative isotopic abundance of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O could introduce significant errors in rCO/sub 2/. For /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sub 1//sup 8/O, they assumed insensible water loss would be proportional to respiration volume and body surface area and hence rCO/sub 2/. This calculated insensible loss averaged 18% of water turnover. EE was calculated using measured respiratory quotients (m) and dietary intake (i) data. In 6 blinded studies with 5 infants, rCO/sub 2/ = 34.2 L/d (range 27.3-48.0), EE = 191 kcal/d (133-266) and EE/sub i/ = 197 kcal/d (138-281). Percent differences (+/- SD) from respiratory gas exchange were -1.1 +/- 5.8, -1.1 +/- 5.8, and 1.4 +/- 5.2, respectively. These findings demonstrate the validity of the doubly labeled water method for determining energy expenditure without concurrent water balance studies.

  20. Foraging flights of the white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus): Radiotracking and doubly-labelled water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pennycuick, C.J.; Shaffner, F.C.; Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H.; Sternberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiotracking transmitters were fitted to White-tailed Tropicbirds nesting at Culebra, Puerto Rico. Foragers were located by light aircraft out to 89 km SSW of the nesting colony, over a deep-water foraging area south of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and west of St Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Two birds were followed out to 176 km NNW from the colony, over the Puerto Rico Trench, but these did not subsequently return. Foragers carrying radio transmitters performed similarly to those without, in terms of duration of absence from the colony, and mass of food brought for the chick. However, measuremetns of energy consumption by the doubly labelled water method indicated that birds with transmitters consumed significantly more energy than those without.

  1. Validation of a non-invasive blood-sampling technique for doubly-labelled water experiments.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Helversen, Otto Von; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for bleeding small mammals have been used in doubly-labeled water (DLW) studies, including vena puncture and the use of starved nymphal stages of hematophagous reduviid bugs (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). In this study, we tested the validity of using reduviid bugs in doubly-labeled water experiments. We found that the isotope enrichment in initial blood samples collected with bugs was significantly lower compared to isotope enrichment in blood samples obtained using vena puncture. We therefore used the desiccation method for estimating total body water (TBW) in DLW experiments because TBW calculated using the isotope dilution method was overestimated when blood samples were collected using reduviid bugs. In our validation experiment with nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), we compared estimates of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using DLW with those derived from the energy balance method. We considered Speakman's equation (controlling for 25% fractionated water loss) as the most appropriate for our study animal and calculated DEE accordingly. On average, DEE estimated with DLW was not significantly different from the mean value obtained with the energy balance method (mean deviation 1.2%). We conclude that although bug hemolymph or intestinal liquids most likely contaminate the samples, estimates of DEE are still valid because the DLW method does not depend on absolute isotope enrichments but on the rate of isotope decrease over time. However, dilution of blood with intestinal liquids or hemolymph from a bug may lead to larger variation in DEE estimates. We also tested how the relative error of DLW estimates changed with varying assumptions about fractionation. We used three additional equations for calculating DEE in DLW experiments. The basic equation for DLW experiments published by Lifson and McClintock (LM-6) assumes no fractionation, resulted in an overestimate of DEE by 10%. Nagy's equation (N-2) controls for changes in body mass but not for

  2. A rapid analytical technique for the determination of energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Barrie, A; Coward, W A

    1985-09-01

    The doubly labelled water method involves the administration of water enriched in 2H and 18O followed by determination of the turnover rates of these isotopes. Since 18O is eliminated from the body as both CO2 and water, while 2H leaves only as water, the difference between the two turnover rates provides a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Isotopic analysis by conventional stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) is labour intensive and time consuming, as it requires off-line conversion of water samples to gases (H2 and CO2) followed by sequential analysis for each of the two isotopes using the mass spectrometer. Lack of suitable automated instrumentation with the ability to process large numbers of samples has prevented routine application of the method. We describe here an automated technique in which body water samples (urine, saliva, breath water or milk) are analysed simultaneously for 2H and 18O. The single bench system comprises two mass spectrometer analysers, one for measuring 2H from H2 gas, the other for measuring 18O from the water vapour (masses 18, 20). Both analysers share a common heated inlet system into which microlitre quantities of the body fluids are injected from an autosampler (102 samples). The water vapour flows both directly to one analyser for 18O measurement and into a uranium reduction furnace for conversion to H2, prior to 2H measurement by the second analyser. Both analysers also share vacuum and electronic components, enabling savings in both space and cost. In this paper we present results illustrating performance characteristics and procedures for routine application to human subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Energy Expenditure in Older Adults Who Are Frail: A Doubly Labeled Water Study.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Bastone, Alessandra; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Bruno; Diz, Juliano Bergamaschine Mata; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2017-08-03

    Frailty is a common and important geriatric syndrome, distinct from any single chronic disease, and an independent predictor of mortality. It is characterized by age-associated decline in physiological reserve and function across multiple systems, culminating in a vicious cycle of altered energy expenditure. The total energy expenditure (TEE) of an individual includes the resting metabolic rate (RMR), the thermic effect of feeding, and the energy expenditure in physical activity (PAEE). The investigation of the energy expenditure of older adults who are frail is essential for better understanding the syndrome. Therefore, we compared the RMR, the PAEE, the physical activity level (PAL), and the TEE of older adults who were frail with those who were not frail. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 26 community-dwelling older adults (66-86 years of age). Older adults in the frail and nonfrail groups were matched for age and gender, and the matched pairs were randomly selected to continue the study. The RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. The TEE was obtained by the multipoint, doubly labeled water method. After collecting a baseline urine sample, each participant received an oral dose of doubly labeled water composed of deuterium oxide and oxygen-18 (H2O). Subsequently, urine samples were collected on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 13th, and 14th days after the baseline collection and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The older adults who were frail presented significantly lower PAEE (1453.7 [1561.9] vs 3336.1 [1829.3] kj/d, P < .01), PAL (1.4 [0.3] vs 1.9 [0.6], P = .04), and TEE (7919.0 [2151.9] vs 10442.4 [2148.0] kj/d, P < .01) than the older adults who were nonfrail. There was no difference in their RMRs (5673.3 [1569.2] vs 6062.0 [1891.7] kj/d, P = .57). Frailty has been associated with a smaller lean body mass and with a disease-related hypermetabolic state, which might explain the lack of difference in the RMR. The PAL of the older adults who were frail

  4. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    SciTech Connect

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2.

  5. Contributions of the doubly labeled water method to studies of energy balance in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Coward, W A

    1998-10-01

    Of >250 studies on energy metabolism using the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, approximately 12 full papers describe work performed in the Third World. Unfortunately, the term "Third World" is imprecise and the focuses of individual studies were too varied to allow much comparison among the data. There is a need to develop a more uniform approach. Useful investigations will allow comparisons of energy metabolism to be made in a consistent way across a variety of socioeconomic groups within the same country, and between the Third World and the developed world, with a commitment to the long term. In this way, the DLW method, if combined with other measurements of activity, energy intake, and body composition, will provide useful information on energy requirements and the consequences of inadequate or excessive energy intakes for the individual. Such investigations should be done, with standard protocols where possible, not just for the DLW method but also for those methods with which DLW should be integrated. Only if these suggestions are followed will real "value for money" be obtained from DLW studies in the Third World or elsewhere. In the context of these criteria, studies in the Third World using the DLW method have been only partly successful.

  6. Total energy expenditure as measured by doubly-labeled water in outpatients with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kotler, L A; Devlin, M J; Matthews, D E; Walsh, B T

    2001-05-01

    This study measured total energy expenditure (TEE) in symptomatic outpatient women with bulimia nervosa and normal controls. The study aimed to test the conceptual model of bulimia nervosa as an illness characterized by a physiological state of starvation, despite normal weight. Total fat and fat-free mass were measured using hydrodensitometry and total energy expenditure was assessed via the doubly-labeled water method, in nine normal weight outpatient females with DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa and ten healthy female controls. Patients and controls were similar in age, body mass index, weight, lean body mass, and levels of exercise and general activity. Patients had an average baseline binge frequency of 14.7 episodes per week and purge frequency of 16.8 times per week, and had been ill for an average of 11.9 years. Group mean TEE did not differ between patients and controls (patients 2380 +/- 482 kcal/day, controls 2368 +/- 515 kcal day). Observed TEE in the bulimic subjects did not differ significantly from TEE predicted on the basis of data from the controls. This finding of normal TEE in symptomatic outpatients with bulimia nervosa is consistent with a previous study that found no difference in TEE in a sample of symptomatic inpatients with bulimia nervosa. These data suggest that the energy conserving metabolic adaptations characteristic of semi-starvation do not occur in patients with bulimia nervosa. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Energetics during hatchling dispersal of the olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Clusella Trullas, Susana; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    Studies of metabolism are central to the understanding of the ecology, behavior, and evolution of reptiles. This study focuses on one phase of the sea turtle life cycle, hatchling dispersal, and gives insight into energetic constraints that dispersal imposes on hatchlings. Hatchling dispersal is an energetically expensive phase in the life cycle of the olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. Field metabolic rates (FMRs), determined using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, for L. olivacea hatchlings digging out of their nest chamber, crawling at the sand surface, and swimming were five, four, and seven times, respectively, the resting metabolic rate (RMR). The cost of swimming was 1.5 and 1.8 times the cost of the digging and crawling phases, respectively, and we estimated that if L. olivacea hatchlings swim at frenzy levels, they can rely on yolk reserves to supply energy for only 3-6 d once they reach the ocean. We compared our RMR and FMR values by establishing an interspecific RMR mass-scaling relationship for a wide range of species in the order Testudines and found a scaling exponent of 1.06. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the DLW method to estimate energetic costs of free-living sea turtle hatchlings and emphasizes the need for metabolic studies in various life-history stages.

  8. Determinants of the energy costs of light activities: inferences for interpreting doubly labeled water data.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, D A; Jefford, G

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the controversy regarding the means of adjusting the energy cost of physical activity measured by doubly labeled water for differences in body size. We performed a cross-sectional study of the energy costs of carefully reproduced light activities with careful control for fidgeting and other unnecessary movement. :The study was performed in 23 healthy, young to middle aged adults with body masses between 39 and 118 kg. Energy expenditure was measured by respiratory gas exchange while subjects performed controlled light activities representative of activities of daily life. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The energy costs of individual controlled light activities were proportional to body weight except for mock vacuum cleaning. When the energy costs of all five activities were taken together, allometric regression analysis indicated that the energy cost of these light activities was proportional to body weight (slope=0.88+/-0.07), but not to fat-free mass (1.24+/-0.10), fat mass (0.27+/-0.03) or resting metabolic rate (1.43+/-0.12). Normalization of energy expenditure of physical activity by division by body weight is an appropriate means for comparing the volume (intensity x time) of physical activity between individuals of different body size.

  9. Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2010-03-01

    Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.

  10. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes.

  11. A review of seabird energetics using the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott A

    2011-03-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method has been essential for understanding animal energetics of free-ranging individuals. The first published studies on free-ranging seabirds were conducted on penguins in the early 1980s. Since then, nearly 50 seabird species with representatives from each major taxonomic order have been studied using DLW. Although the basic methodology has not changed, there are at least nine different equations, varying with respect to assumptions on fractionation and the total body water pool, to estimate field metabolic rate (FMR) from isotopic water turnover. In this review, I show that FMR can vary by as much as 45% depending on the equation used to calculate CO(2) production in five albatross species. Energy budgets derived from DLW measurements are critical tools for understanding patterns of energy use and allocation in seabirds. However, they depend on accurate and representative measurements of FMR, so analyses that include greater partitioning of activity specific FMR yield more realistic cost estimates. I also show how the combined use of DLW and biologging methods can 1) provide greater clarity for explaining observed variation in FMR measurements within a species and 2) allow FMRs to be viewed in a wider physiological, behavioral, or ecological context. Finally, I update existing allometric equations with new FMR data. These updates reaffirm that albatrosses have the lowest at-sea FMRs per equivalent body mass and that individuals of other seabird orders have FMRs ranging between 1.39 and 2.24 times higher than albatrosses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy Requirement Assessment in Japanese Table Tennis Players Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Genki; Toguchi, Makiko; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Yamada, Yosuke; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-05-22

    Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) are important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The PAL of table tennis has been estimated to about 2.0: it is categorized as a moderate-activity sport (4.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in the Compendium of Physical Activities. However, modern table tennis makes high physiological demands. The aims of the present study were to examine (1) TEE and PAL of competitive table tennis players and (2) the physiological demands of various types of table tennis practice. In Experiment 1, we measured TEE and PAL in 10 Japanese college competitive table tennis players (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method during training and with an exercise training log and self-reported energy intake. TEE was 15.5 ± 1.9 MJ·day(-1) (3695 ± 449 kcal·day(-1)); PAL was 2.53 ± 0.25; and the average training duration was 181 ± 38 min·day(-1). In Experiment 2, we measured METs of five different practices in seven college competition players (20.6 ± 1.2 years). Three practices without footwork were 4.5-5.2 METs, and two practices with footwork were 9.5-11.5 METs. Table tennis practices averaged 7.1 ± 3.2 METS demonstrating similarities with other vigorous racket sports. In conclusion the current Compendium of Physical Activities underestimates the physiological demands of table tennis practice for competition; the estimated energy requirement should be based on DLW method data.

  13. Special Considerations for Measuring Energy Expenditure with Doubly Labeled Water under Atypical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Surabhi; Racine, Natalie; Shriver, Tim; Schoeller, Dale A

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased interest in understanding the factors that influence human total energy expenditure (TEE). This in turn has increased interest in the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, a technique for measurement of total energy expenditure in free-living humans. The increasing use of this method is attributed to its portability, objectivity, minimal invasiveness, high accuracy and good precision. Although a relatively standard protocol for the method has emerged, the new generation of users often is unfamiliar with rationale behind aspects of the protocol as well as the approaches to avoid or correct for in situations that are not covered by the standard protocol procedure. The primary uncommon situations like introduction of isotopically different diet and fluids with or without geographical relocation, seasonal and temperature variations, activity level of participants etc. during or prior to the DLW measurements can lead to shift in baseline abundance of 2H and 18O or tracer elimination, resulting in moderate to large errors in the measured TEE. These unique situations call for special modifications to the conventional protocol to minimize errors. The objective of the present review was to assemble a list of frequently asked questions and the issues they represent, and then examine the available literature to describe and explain the modifications to the standard DLW protocol to maintain the method’s accuracy. This discussion of DLW protocol modification can be an excellent resource for investigators who intend to use this measurement technique for interesting and uncommon study designs. PMID:26962472

  14. Assessing Energy Requirements in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Comparison Against Doubly Labeled Water.

    PubMed

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Klempel, Monica C; Gilmore, L Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Altazan, Abby D; Burton, Jeffrey H; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-06-01

    Weight loss is prescribed to offset the deleterious consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but a successful intervention requires an accurate assessment of energy requirements. Describe energy requirements in women with PCOS and evaluate common prediction equations compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Cross-sectional study. Academic research center. Twenty-eight weight-stable women with PCOS completed a 14-day DLW study along with measures of body composition and resting metabolic rate and assessment of physical activity by accelerometry. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) determined by DLW. TDEE was 2661 ± 373 kcal/d. TDEE estimated from four commonly used equations was within 4% to 6% of the TDEE measured by DLW. Hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was associated with TDEE estimates from all prediction equations (both r = 0.45; P = 0.02) but was not a significant covariate in a model that predicts TDEE. Similarly, hyperandrogenemia (total testosterone, free androgen index, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) was not associated with TDEE. In weight-stable women with PCOS, the following equation derived from DLW can be used to determine energy requirements: TDEE (kcal/d) = 438 - [1.6 * Fat Mass (kg)] + [35.1 * Fat-Free Mass (kg)] + [16.2 * Age (y)]; R2 = 0.41; P = 0.005. Established equations using weight, height, and age performed well for predicting energy requirements in weight-stable women with PCOS, but more precise estimates require an accurate assessment of physical activity. Our equation derived from DLW data, which incorporates habitual physical activity, can also be used in women with PCOS; however, additional studies are needed for model validation.

  15. Active-Q: Validation of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Using Doubly Labeled Water

    PubMed Central

    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Christensen, Sara Elisabeth; Möller, Elisabeth; Wright, Antony; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased use of the Internet provides new opportunities for collecting data in large studies. The aim of our new Web-based questionnaire, Active-Q, is to assess total physical activity and inactivity in adults. Active-Q assesses habitual activity during the past year via questions in four different domains: (1) daily occupation, (2) transportation to and from daily occupation, (3) leisure time activities, and (4) sporting activities. Objective The objective of our study is to validate Active-Q’s energy expenditure estimates using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and to assess the reproducibility of Active-Q by comparing the results of the questionnaire completed by the same group on two occasions. Methods The validity and reproducibility of Active-Q were assessed in a group of 37 individuals, aged 20 to 65 years. Active-Q was distributed via email to the participants. The total energy expenditure of the participants was assessed using DLW for 11 consecutive days. Results The median time to complete Active-Q was 6.1 minutes. The majority of participants (27/37, 73%) reported that the questionnaire was “easy” or “very easy” to answer. On average, Active-Q overestimated the total daily energy expenditure by 440 kJ compared with the DLW. The Spearman correlation between the two methods was r = 0.52 (P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for total energy expenditure between the results of Active-Q completed on two occasions was 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.93). Conclusions Active-Q is a valid and reproducible method of assessing total energy expenditure. It is also a user-friendly method and suitable for Web-based data collection in large epidemiological studies. PMID:22356755

  16. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores.

  17. Energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry and doubly labeled water: do they agree?

    PubMed

    Leenders, Nicole Y; Sherman, William Michael; Nagaraja, Haikady N

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure derived from regression equations determined from accelerometry with energy expenditure obtained from the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Thirteen subjects participated in a 7-d protocol during which total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was measured with DLW. Simultaneously, during the 7 d, subjects wore a Tritrac-R3D and an Actigraph (ACT). Pearson and concordance correlations and one-sample t-tests were used to determine the agreement of six Tritrac and eight ACT regression equations that convert body acceleration to energy expenditure with the DLW measurements. Tritrac TDEE determined from the different Tritrac regression equations under- and overestimated TDEE determined with DLW that ranged from -10 to +101%. For ACT, the percent difference between DLW and ACT-TDEE determined with the regression equation developed by Hendelman and Swartz were not statistically significantly different from zero. The mean of the difference was -2 and -4%, but the range of the difference was large for both equations, -29 to +24%. TDEE determined with the six other ACT equations were significantly different compared with DLW. Of the 14 different regression equations from the literature, only two developed for ACT compared favorably with DLW; however, the difference in TDEE between these two methods was variable and rather large. These results reemphasize the difficulty in converting body movement into energy expenditure on an individual basis from accelerometry. These results imply that researchers may want to avoid using accelerometers to predict energy expenditure in free-living conditions, instead using these instruments only to measure patterns of physical activity.

  18. Validation of Web-Based Physical Activity Measurement Systems Using Doubly Labeled Water

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Yosuke; Tokushima, Satoru; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems—the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB). Objective To examine the validity of two Web-based physical activity measurement systems using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Methods We assessed the validity of the 24hPAR WEB and 7daysRecall WEB in 20 individuals, aged 25 to 61 years. The order of email distribution and subsequent completion of the two Web-based measurements systems was randomized. Each measurement tool was used for a week. The participants’ activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed over each week using the DLW method and compared with the respective energy expenditures estimated using the Web-based systems. Results The mean AEE was 3.90 (SD 1.43) MJ estimated using the 24hPAR WEB and 3.67 (SD 1.48) MJ measured by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .679 (P < .001). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –2.10 to 2.57 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .874 (P < .001). The mean AEE was 4.29 (SD 1.94) MJ using the 7daysRecall WEB and 3.80 (SD 1.36) MJ by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .144 (P = .54). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –3.83 to 4.81 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .590 (P = .006). The average input times using terminal devices were 8 minutes and 10 seconds for the 24hPAR WEB and 6 minutes and 38 seconds for the 7daysRecall WEB. Conclusions Both Web-based systems were found to be effective methods for collecting physical activity data and are appropriate for use in epidemiological studies. Because the measurement

  19. Validation of Web-based physical activity measurement systems using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Namba, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Yosuke; Tokushima, Satoru; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-09-25

    Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems-the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB). To examine the validity of two Web-based physical activity measurement systems using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. We assessed the validity of the 24hPAR WEB and 7daysRecall WEB in 20 individuals, aged 25 to 61 years. The order of email distribution and subsequent completion of the two Web-based measurements systems was randomized. Each measurement tool was used for a week. The participants' activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed over each week using the DLW method and compared with the respective energy expenditures estimated using the Web-based systems. The mean AEE was 3.90 (SD 1.43) MJ estimated using the 24hPAR WEB and 3.67 (SD 1.48) MJ measured by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .679 (P < .001). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from -2.10 to 2.57 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .874 (P < .001). The mean AEE was 4.29 (SD 1.94) MJ using the 7daysRecall WEB and 3.80 (SD 1.36) MJ by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .144 (P = .54). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from -3.83 to 4.81 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .590 (P = .006). The average input times using terminal devices were 8 minutes and 10 seconds for the 24hPAR WEB and 6 minutes and 38 seconds for the 7daysRecall WEB. Both Web-based systems were found to be effective methods for collecting physical activity data and are appropriate for use in epidemiological studies. Because the measurement accuracy of the 24hPAR WEB was moderate to high, it could

  20. Blood-sucking bugs as a gentle method for blood-collection in water budget studies using doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Michener, Robert; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kunz, Thomas H; von Helversen, Otto

    2005-11-01

    During doubly-labelled water (DLW) experiments, blood collection by venous puncture may traumatize animals and consequently affect the animals' behaviour and energy budget. Recent studies have shown that blood-sucking bugs (Triatominae; Heteroptera) can be used instead of conventional needles to obtain blood from animals. In this paper, we validate the bug method in captive nectar-feeding bats, Glossophaga soricina, for water budget analysis by comparing the daily water flux estimated with the DLW method with values measured by an energy balance method. As the mean daily water flux of the DLW method was not significantly deviating from the expected value, blood-sucking bugs may substitute more invasive methods of blood collection in DLW experiments. Based on the DLW estimates, daily energy and water intake rates were calculated and compared to values measured with the energy balance method. The DLW method and the energy balance method yielded on average similar results regarding the daily energy intake (DLW method: 48.8+/-14.2 kJ d(-1) versus energy balance method: 48.1+/-9.9 kJ d(-1)) and daily water intake (DLW method: 13.7+/-2.4 mL d(-1) versus energy balance method: 14.7+/-3.0 mL d(-1)). Based on the calculated water and sugar intake per day, we estimated the sugar concentration of ingested nectar to equal on average 16.2+/-2.4% (mass/mass), which fell close to the measured sugar concentration of 17% (mass/mass) bats fed on during the experiment. We conclude that it is possible to extrapolate mean daily energy and water intake for animal groups, populations and species based on DLW estimates, but due to the large variance of results (low accuracy), it seems inadequate to calculate values for single individuals.

  1. Validation of the doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) method for measuring water flux and energy metabolism in tenebrionid beetles

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) has been used to determine water flux and energy metabolism in a variety of vertebrates. This study examines the applicability of this technique to arthropods. The theory of the technique depends upon the assumption that doubly-labeled water introduced into the animal's body water equilibrates with water and carbon dioxide by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Tritium (/sup 3/H) is lost from the animal only with water while oxygen-18 is lost with both water and carbon dioxide. The difference bwtween the rates of loss of the two isotopes is proportional to CO/sub 2/ loss rate. Validation of the use of tritiated water for measuring water flux was accomplished by comparing gravimetric measurements of water gain with flux rates determined by loss of tritiated water. At room humidity, an overestimate for influx calculated from labeled water calculations was found, averaging 12 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/. Comparison of CO/sub 2/ loss rate determined isotopically with rates of CO/sub 2/ loss determined by standard metabolic rates also yielded overestimates for the isotopic technique, overestimates ranging between 20 and 30%. The relevance of this for studies using labeled water for studying water fluxes and free metabolism of free-ranging arthropods is discussed.

  2. Use of an automated chromium reduction system for hydrogen isotope ratio analysis of physiological fluids applied to doubly labeled water analysis.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, D A; Colligan, A S; Shriver, T; Avak, H; Bartok-Olson, C

    2000-09-01

    The doubly labeled water method is commonly used to measure total energy expenditure in free-living subjects. The method, however, requires accurate and precise deuterium abundance determinations, which can be laborious. The aim of this study was to evaluate a fully automated, high-throughput, chromium reduction technique for the measurement of deuterium abundances in physiological fluids. The chromium technique was compared with an off-line zinc bomb reduction technique and also subjected to test-retest analysis. Analysis of international water standards demonstrated that the chromium technique was accurate and had a within-day precision of <1 per thousand. Addition of organic matter to water samples demonstrated that the technique was sensitive to interference at levels between 2 and 5 g l(-1). Physiological samples could be analyzed without this interference, plasma by 10000 Da exclusion filtration, saliva by sedimentation and urine by decolorizing with carbon black. Chromium reduction of urine specimens from doubly labeled water studies indicated no bias relative to zinc reduction with a mean difference in calculated energy expenditure of -0.2 +/- 3.9%. Blinded reanalysis of urine specimens from a second doubly labeled water study demonstrated a test-retest coefficient of variation of 4%. The chromium reduction method was found to be a rapid, accurate and precise method for the analysis of urine specimens from doubly labeled water. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Estimating free-living human energy expenditure: Practical aspects of the doubly labeled water method and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Kazuko, Ishikawa-Takata; Kim, Eunkyung; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy and noninvasive nature of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method makes it ideal for the study of human energy metabolism in free-living conditions. However, the DLW method is not always practical in many developing and Asian countries because of the high costs of isotopes and equipment for isotope analysis as well as the expertise required for analysis. This review provides information about the theoretical background and practical aspects of the DLW method, including optimal dose, basic protocols of two- and multiple-point approaches, experimental procedures, and isotopic analysis. We also introduce applications of DLW data, such as determining the equations of estimated energy requirement and validation studies of energy intake. PMID:24944767

  4. Validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire: comparison with energy expenditure according to the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Hertogh, Emmy M; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Schouten, Evert G; Peeters, Petra HM; Schuit, Albertine J

    2008-01-01

    Background In epidemiological research, physical activity is usually assessed by questionnaires. Questionnaires are suitable for large study populations since they are relatively inexpensive and not very time consuming. However, questionnaire information is by definition subjective and prone to recall bias, especially among elderly subjects. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire, developed by Voorrips and coworkers, measures habitual physical activity in the elderly. The questionnaire includes questions on household activities, sports, and leisure time activities, over a time period of one year. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire results in a score to classify people as high, moderate, or low in daily physical activity, based on tertiles. Methods The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire score was assessed among 21 elderly men and women using the doubly labeled water method as the reference criterion. This method is considered to be the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Energy expenditure on physical activity is estimated by the ratio of total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and resting metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. This ratio is called the physical activity ratio. Results The Spearman correlation coefficient between the questionnaire score and the physical activity ratio (PAR) was 0.54 (95% CI 0.22–0.66). Correct classification by the questionnaire occurred in 71% of participants who were in the lowest tertile of PAR, in 14% of participants in the middle tertile, and in 43% of participants in the highest tertile. Subjects were not wrongly classified in an opposite tertile. Conclusion The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire is fair-to-moderate. This study shows that the questionnaire can correctly classify individuals as low or high active, but does a poor job for moderately active individuals. PMID:18505554

  5. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  6. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  7. Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Lena; Al-Ghanim, Jameela; Al-Ati, Tareq; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Al-Mutairi, Anwar; Al-Olayan, Lulwa; Preston, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in 35 obese 7–9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys). Total body water (TBW) and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of 18O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM), using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM) was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. Body weight was not statistically different but TBW was significantly higher (p = 0.018) in boys (44.9% ± 3.3%) than girls (42.4% ± 3.0%), while girls had significantly higher estimated FM (45.2 ± 3.9 weight % versus 41.6% ± 4.3%; p = 0.014). TEE was significantly higher in boys (2395 ± 349 kcal/day) compared with girls (1978 ± 169 kcal/day); p = 0.001. Estimated physical activity level (PAL) was significantly higher in boys; 1.61 ± 0.167 versus 1.51 ± 0.870; p = 0.034. Our results provide the first dataset of TEE in 7–9 years old obese Kuwaiti children and highlight important gender differences to be considered during the development of school based interventions targeted to combat childhood obesity. PMID:27754397

  8. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, M.B.; Prentice, A.M.; Coward, W.A.; Ceesay, S.M.; Strain, J.J.; McKenna, P.G.; Nevin, G.B.; Barker, M.E.; Hickey, R.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.

  9. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults.

    PubMed

    Boushey, Carol J; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B; DeLany, James P; Kerr, Deborah A

    2017-03-22

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21-65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy.

  10. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-06-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake.

  11. Predicting free-living energy expenditure using a miniaturized ear-worn sensor: an evaluation against doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Bouarfa, Loubna; Atallah, Louis; Kwasnicki, Richard Mark; Pettitt, Claire; Frost, Gary; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-02-01

    Accurate estimation of daily total energy expenditure (EE)is a prerequisite for assisted weight management and assessing certain health conditions. The use of wearable sensors for predicting free-living EE is challenged by consistent sensor placement, user compliance, and estimation methods used. This paper examines whether a single ear-worn accelerometer can be used for EE estimation under free-living conditions.An EE prediction model as first derived and validated in a controlled setting using healthy subjects involving different physical activities. Ten different activities were assessed showing a tenfold cross validation error of 0.24. Furthermore, the EE prediction model shows a mean absolute deviation(MAD) below 1.2 metabolic equivalent of tasks. The same model was applied to a free-living setting with a different population for further validation. The results were compared against those derived from doubly labeled water. In free-living settings, the predicted daily EE has a correlation of 0.74, p 0.008, and a MAD of 272 kcal day. These results demonstrate that laboratory-derived prediction models can be used to predict EE under free-living conditions [corrected].

  12. A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery [W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile] from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is [(98 x FFM + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)], kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.

  13. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boushey, Carol J.; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; DeLany, James P.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. PMID:28327502

  14. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  15. Evidence of negative energy balance using doubly labelled water in elite Kenyan endurance runners prior to competition.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Barry W; Westerterp, Klaas R; Kiplamai, Festus K; Onywera, Vincent O; Boit, Michael K; Kayser, Bengt; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found Kenyan endurance runners to be in negative energy balance during training and prior to competition. The aim of the present study was to assess energy balance in nine elite Kenyan endurance runners during heavy training. Energy intake and expenditure were determined over 7 d using weighed dietary intake and doubly labelled water, respectively. Athletes were on average in negative energy balance (mean energy intake 13 241 (SD 1330) kJ/d v. mean energy expenditure 14 611 (SD 1043) kJ/d; P=0.046), although there was no loss in body mass (mean 56.0 (SD 3.4) kg v. 55.7 (SD 3.6) kg; P=0.285). The calculation of underreporting was 13 % (range -24 to +9 %) and almost entirely accounted for by undereating (9 % (range -55 to +39 %)) as opposed to a lack of significant underrecording (i.e. total water intake was no different from water loss (mean 4.2 (SD 0.6) l/d v. 4.5 (SD 0.8) l/d; P=0.496)). Fluid intake was modest and consisted mainly of water (0.9 (SD 0.5) l/d) and milky tea (0.9 (SD 0.3) l/d). The diet was high in carbohydrate (67.3 (SD 7.8) %) and sufficient in protein (15.3 (SD 4.0) %) and fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) %). These results confirm previous observations that Kenyan runners are in negative energy balance during periods of intense training. A negative energy balance would result in a reduction in body mass, which, when combined with a high carbohydrate diet, would have the potential in the short term to enhance endurance running performance by reducing the energy cost of running.

  16. Validation of the doubly labeled water method using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Swibas, Tracy; Kohrt, Wendy M; Catenacci, Vicki A; Creasy, Seth A; Plasqui, Guy; Wouters, Loek; Speakman, John R; Berman, Elena S F

    2017-10-03

    When the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), isotope measurements are typically performed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). New technologies, such as off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) provide comparable isotopic measurements of standard waters and human urine samples, but the accuracy of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) determined with OA-ICOS has not been demonstrated. We compared simultaneous measurement of VCO2 obtained using whole-room indirect calorimetry (IC) with DLW-based measurements from IRMS and OA-ICOS. 17 subjects (10 female; 22 to 63 yrs.) were studied for 7 consecutive days in the IC. Subjects consumed a dose of 0.25 g H2(18)O (95% APE) and 0.14 g (2)H2O (99.8% APE) per kg of total body water, and urine samples were obtained on days 1 and 8 to measure average daily VCO2 using OA-ICOS and IRMS. VCO2 was calculated using both the plateau and intercept methods. There were no differences in VCO2 or TDEE measured by OA-ICOS or IRMS compared with IC when the plateau method was used. When the intercept method was used, VCO2 measured using OA-ICOS did not differ from IC, but VCO2 measured using IRMS was significantly lower than IC. Accuracy (~1-5%), precision (~8%), intraclass correlation coefficients (R=0.87-90), and root mean squared error (30-40 L/day) of VCO22 measured by OA-ICOS and IRMS were similar. Both OA-ICOS and IRMS produced measurements of VCO2 with comparable accuracy and precision when compared to IC. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  17. Measurement of Energy Expenditure under Field Conditions Using Doubly Labeled Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-31

    nstitutes of Health . j ’PI Signature D ’ 1m TABLE OF CONTENTS Page IWTROUCTION 3 I Hypothesis 3 II Objectives 3 III Military Significance 3 VI Background 3...Surface water for use as drinking water was abundant during this field training exercise. The study was conducted in late September and October, with...8used to correct isotope abundances in subjects receiving H 0. These changes are quite close to the anticipated change. Although actual drinking water

  18. Energy expenditure of Chinese infants in Guangdong Province, south China, determined with use of the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Yan, Q; Su, Y; Acheson, K J; Thélin, A; Piguet-Welsch, C; Ritz, P; Ho, Z C

    1998-06-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to measure the energy expenditure of a group of 41, 4- or 6-mo-old infants with a cross-sectional design. The infants were divided into two groups according to whether they were breast-fed (11 at 4 mo, 9 at 6 mo) or formula fed (11 at 4 mo, 10 at 6 mo). Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth and at the beginning and end of the 8-d study. Anthropometric data, which were supported by the food intake and energy expenditure results, indicated that the infants were within the norms for European and American infants of the same age. Mean energy intakes of 352 kJ (84 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 4 and 6 mo were lower than the FAO/WHO/UNU recommended value of 452 kJ (108 kcal) x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and Chinese recommendations of 502 kJ (120 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1). However, some authors believe that values of 398 kJ (95 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 4 mo and 356 kJ (85 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 6 mo are more appropriate. At 6 mo the infants' length-for-age and weight-for-age were at the National Center for Health Statistics 55th and 47th percentiles, respectively, whereas 58% were below the 50th percentile for weight-for-length. We conclude that at 4 mo infants receive sufficient energy for their requirements. However, at 6 mo energy requirements might well be greater than the revised recommendations, when infants are being weaned to alternative foods and are more prone to the influence of diet on their growth and development.

  19. Assessment of energy requirements in patients with short bowel syndrome by using the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Fassini, Priscila Giacomo; Pfrimer, Karina; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Suen, Vivian Miguel Marques; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Das, Sai Krupa

    2016-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious malabsorption disorder, and dietetic management of patients with SBS is extremely challenging. Once the degree of undernutrition has been assessed, successful dietary intervention is contingent on an accurate estimation and provision of energy needs. We quantified total energy expenditure (TEE) in patients with SBS by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to inform energy needs and nutritional therapy goals. In this observational study, TEE was measured in 22 participants, 11 with SBS and 11 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (non-SBS), for 14 d with the DLW method. Predicted energy requirements were determined by using the Escott-Stump equation and compared with TEE determined with DLW. Resting energy expenditure was measured by using indirect calorimetry, and an accelerometer was also used to determine physical activity level. Participants were aged (mean ± SD) 53 ± 8 y. Measured TEE was significantly higher than predicted TEE for the SBS group (1875 ± 276 compared with 1517 ± 175 kcal/d, P = 0.001) and also for the non-SBS group (2393 ± 445 compared with 1532 ± 178 kcal/d, P < 0.01). Measured TEE was significantly lower in the SBS group than in the non-SBS group (P < 0.01); however, predicted TEE did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.84). No significant differences were seen between measured and predicted resting energy expenditure either within or between groups. Measured TEE in patients with SBS was significantly higher than predicted by using standard equations but also lower than values for age-, BMI-, and sex-matched non-SBS controls. Currently used formulas in clinical practice appear to underestimate energy requirements of patients with SBS, and revision is needed to prevent underfeeding and improve long-term prognosis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02113228. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Effect of weaning on accuracy of doubly labeled water method in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.B.; Coward, W.A.; Ewing, G.; Savage, J.; Cole, T.J.; Lucas, A.

    1988-04-01

    Variations in background /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O abundances in body water influence the accuracy and precision of the /sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O method for determination of energy expenditure. To investigate the effect of weaning during infancy on background /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O abundances, urine samples from 44 breast- or formula-fed infants aged 5-16 wk were analyzed. /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O abundances were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in breast- than in formula-fed infants. The relationship between /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O abundances was linear and independent of diet (slope, 4.16 +/- 0.43 (SE)). By use of this information, the effect of weaning on the accuracy of the /sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O method was evaluated, taking into account the effect of /sup 2/H-/sup 18/O abundances in the isotope loading dose. In infants weaned completely from breast milk to formula during the measurement, energy expenditure can be overestimated by 18.0%, even if /sup 2/H-/sup 18/O abundances in the isotope dose equal the ratio of naturally occurring background changes. However, this error can be reduced to less than 3.0% by manipulating the study duration and isotope dose. During gradual weaning, the overestimation of energy expenditure is only 0.3-2.0%.

  1. Estimation of Free-Living Energy Expenditure by Heart Rate and Movement Sensing: A Doubly-Labelled Water Study

    PubMed Central

    Brage, Søren; Westgate, Kate; Franks, Paul W.; Stegle, Oliver; Wright, Antony; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important for the study of energy balance and metabolic disorders. Combined heart rate (HR) and acceleration (ACC) sensing may increase precision of physical activity EE (PAEE) which is the most variable component of total EE (TEE). Objective To evaluate estimates of EE using ACC and HR data with or without individual calibration against doubly-labelled water (DLW) estimates of EE. Design 23 women and 23 men (22–55 yrs, 48–104 kg, 8–46%body fat) underwent 45-min resting EE (REE) measurement and completed a 20-min treadmill test, an 8-min step test, and a 3-min walk test for individual calibration. ACC and HR were monitored and TEE measured over 14 days using DLW. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaire. PAEE (TEE ÷ REE ÷ DIT) and TEE were compared to estimates from ACC and HR using bias, root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation statistics. Results Mean(SD) measured PAEE and TEE were 66(25) kJ·day-1·kg-1, and 12(2.6) MJ·day-1, respectively. Estimated PAEE from ACC was 54(15) kJ·day-1·kg-1 (p<0.001), with RMSE 24 kJ·day-1·kg-1 and correlation r = 0.52. PAEE estimated from HR and ACC+HR with treadmill calibration were 67(42) and 69(25) kJ·day-1·kg-1 (bias non-significant), with RMSE 34 and 20 kJ·day-1·kg-1 and correlations r = 0.58 and r = 0.67, respectively. Similar results were obtained with step-calibrated and walk-calibrated models, whereas non-calibrated models were less precise (RMSE: 37 and 24 kJ·day-1·kg-1, r = 0.40 and r = 0.55). TEE models also had high validity, with biases <5%, and correlations r = 0.71 (ACC), r = 0.66–0.76 (HR), and r = 0.76–0.83 (ACC+HR). Conclusions Both accelerometry and heart rate may be used to estimate EE in adult European men and women, with improved precision if combined and if heart rate is individually calibrated. PMID:26349056

  2. [Study on the validation of the computer science application's activity monitor in assessing the physical activity among adults using doubly labeled water method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-ling; Li, Yan-ping; Song, Jun; Pan, Hui; Han, Xiu-ming; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2005-03-01

    Using doubly labeled water method to validate the colmputer science application's activity monitor (CSA) in assessing physical activity of free-living adults in Beijing, in order to develop equations to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) from activity counts (AC) and anthropometric variables. A total of 72 healthy adults (33 males and 39 females, mean age 43.6 +/- 4.0 yr) were monitored for 7 consecutive days by CSA. TEE was simultaneously measured using doubly labeled water method. Average AC (counts/min(-1)) was compared with TEE, AEE and physical activity level (PAL). Physical activity determined by AC was significantly related to data on energy expenditures: TEE (r = 0.31, P < 0.01), AEE (r = 0.30, P < 0.05), and PAL (r = 0.26, P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that TEE was significantly influenced by gender, fat-free mass (FFM) or BMI and AC (R(2) = 0.52 - 0.70) while AEE was significantly influenced by gender, FFM and AC (R(2) = 0.25 - 0.32). AC from CSA activity monitor seemed a useful measure in studying the total amount of physical activity in free-living adults while AC significantly contributed to the explained variation in TEE and AEE.

  3. Two-point vs multipoint sample collection for the analysis of energy expenditure by use of the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Welle, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Energy expenditure over a 2-wk period was determined by the doubly labeled water (2H2(18)O) method in nine adults. When daily samples were analyzed, energy expenditure was 2859 +/- 453 kcal/d (means +/- SD); when only the first and last time points were considered, the mean calculated energy expenditure was not significantly different (2947 +/- 430 kcal/d). An analysis of theoretical cases in which isotope flux is not constant indicates that the multipoint method can cause errors in the calculation of average isotope fluxes, but these are generally small. Simulations of the effect of analytical error indicate that increasing the number of replicates on two points reduces the impact of technical errors more effectively than does performing single analyses on multiple samples. It appears that generally there is no advantage to collecting frequent samples when the 2H2(18)O method is used to estimate energy expenditure in adult humans.

  4. Validation of the use of doubly labeled water for estimating metabolic rate in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.): a word of caution.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Todd; Hastings, Mervin D; Bostrom, Brian L; Andrews, Russel D; Jones, David R

    2009-08-01

    Marine turtles often have extremely high water turnover accompanied by a low field metabolic rate (FMR), a combination that can contraindicate the use of doubly labelled water (DLW). Therefore, we conducted a validation study to assess the suitability of the DLW technique for determining FMR of marine turtles. Six green turtles (22.42+/-3.13 kg) were injected with DLW and placed in a tank of seawater with a respirometer for continuous monitoring of oxygen consumption (MR) over a 5-day period. Trials were conducted for turtles in both fed and fasted states. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was determined in a dry respirometer and used to calculate energy expenditure. For fed and fasted turtles, total body water (TBW) was 66.67+/-3.37% and 58.70+/-7.63% of body mass, and water flux rates were 9.57+/-1.33% and 6.14+/-0.65% TBW day(-1), respectively. Water turnover in fasted turtles was 36% lower than that of fed turtles but MR (from oxygen consumption) of fasted turtles (13.77+/-1.49 kJ kg(-1) day(-1)) was 52% lower than in fed turtles (28.66+/-5.31 kJ kg(-1) day(-1)). Deuterium to oxygen-18 turnover rate (k(d):k(o)) ratios averaged 0.91+/-0.02 for fed turtles and 1.07+/-0.16 for fasted turtles. Fed turtles had a mean group difference of 8% and a mean individual difference of 53% between DLW and respirometry. The DLW method gave negative MR values in fasted turtles and could not be compared with respirometry data. Researchers should use caution when applying the DLW method in marine reptiles, especially when high water flux causes >90% of the labeled oxygen turnover to be due to water exchange.

  5. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  6. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Alexandrou, Christina; Bergström, Anna; Bonn, Stephanie; Bälter, Katarina; Löf, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001) from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively). Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001), as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children. PMID:28098765

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  8. Energy costs of surgery as measured by the doubly labeled water (/sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, W.M.; Nusbaum, M.; Stein, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Energy expenditure before and after surgery was determined in seven patients by the doubly labeled water (/sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O) method (DLW). The values were compared with values obtained by respiratory gas exchange by means of a metabolic measuring cart (MMC). Patients were maintained on total parenteral nutrition before and after trauma. The principal finding was an increase in the rate of CO/sub 2/ production of 11.9 +/- 5.0% after surgery. This corresponds to a 267 +/- increase in energy expenditure (p less than 0.05). No trauma-associated change in energy expenditure was found with the MMC. The correlation of preoperative values from MMC and DLW was not statistically significant (r = 0.25), nor was the correlation of MMC and the Harris-Benedict equation, but the correlation of DLW with Harris-Benedict equation was statistically significant (r = 0.73, p less than 0.05). We suggest that the discrepancy is because the DLW method measures the cumulative energy expenditure over a period, whereas the MMC gives a spot measurement.

  9. Using doubly-labelled water to measure free-living energy expenditure: Some old things to remember and some new things to consider.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The doubly-labelled water (DLW) method provides the ability to measure the energy expenditure of free-living animals based only on the injection of two isotopes in water (one of oxygen and one of hydrogen) and traditionally the collection of 2 blood samples. We review here the fundamental basis of how the method works, and highlight how the choice of the appropriate calculation equation can have a large impact on the resultant estimates, particularly in species where the difference between the isotope elimination constants is small. This knowledge is not new, but is worth reiterating given the potential for error by making the wrong choice. In particular, it is important to remember that for mammals weighing less than 5kg, and birds weighing less than 2kg, the single pool models perform best in validation studies, while in mammals above 15kg the two-pool models perform best. Above 2kg in birds and between 5 and 15kg in mammals, however, the model superiority is uncertain. Even where the choice based on body mass would appear clear, the decision may need to be tempered by species specific information regarding potential additional sources for hydrogen turnover, such as de novo lipogenesis or methanogenesis. Recent advances in the technique have included attempts to make the method less invasive by using innovative methods for dosing and sample collection. In addition, the advent of laser spectroscopy, as a replacement technology for mass spectrometry, may open up many new opportunities in the field. These potentially include direct sampling of breath in the field and tracking background isotope drift using (17)oxygen levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High levels of isotope elimination improve precision and allow individual-based measurements of metabolic rates in animals using the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Masaki; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Maki; Oda, Emiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Oka, Nariko; Yoda, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Doubly labeled water (DLW) can be used to measure energy expenditure in free-ranging animals, but questions have been raised about its accuracy in different species or contexts. We investigated whether differences in the extent of isotope elimination affects the precision and accuracy of the DLW method, which can vary according to the experimental design or metabolic rate of the species. Estimated total energy expenditure by the DLW method (TEEdlw) was compared with actual total energy expenditure simultaneously measured via respirometry (TEEresp) in streaked shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas, a pelagic seabird. Subjects were divided into three groups with different experimental conditions: at rest on the ground for 24 h (Group A) or for 48 h (Group B), and at rest on the water for 24 h (Group C). TEEdlw in Group A matched TEEresp, whereas there was an overestimation of TEEdlw in both Groups B and C compared with TEEresp. However, compared with Group A, TEEdlw in Groups B and C had reduced the isotopic analytical variability and thus higher precision. The best regression model (TEEdlw = 1.37 TEEresp − 14.12) showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.82) between TEEdlw and TEEresp and allows a correction factor for field metabolic rates in streaked shearwaters. Our results demonstrate that the commonly made assumption that the DLW method is not appropriate for individual-based estimates may be incorrect in certain circumstances. Although a correction factor may be necessary when using the DLW method to estimate metabolic rate, greater levels of isotope eliminations provides DLW estimates with high precision, which can adequately represent relative individual estimates. Nevertheless, the DLW method, should be used with caution when characterizing interspecies difference of energy expenditures. PMID:26611463

  11. High levels of isotope elimination improve precision and allow individual-based measurements of metabolic rates in animals using the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Masaki; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Maki; Oda, Emiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Oka, Nariko; Yoda, Ken

    2015-11-01

    Doubly labeled water (DLW) can be used to measure energy expenditure in free-ranging animals, but questions have been raised about its accuracy in different species or contexts. We investigated whether differences in the extent of isotope elimination affects the precision and accuracy of the DLW method, which can vary according to the experimental design or metabolic rate of the species. Estimated total energy expenditure by the DLW method (TEEdlw) was compared with actual total energy expenditure simultaneously measured via respirometry (TEEresp) in streaked shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas, a pelagic seabird. Subjects were divided into three groups with different experimental conditions: at rest on the ground for 24 h (Group A) or for 48 h (Group B), and at rest on the water for 24 h (Group C). TEEdlw in Group A matched TEEresp, whereas there was an overestimation of TEEdlw in both Groups B and C compared with TEEresp. However, compared with Group A, TEEdlw in Groups B and C had reduced the isotopic analytical variability and thus higher precision. The best regression model (TEEdlw = 1.37 TEEresp - 14.12) showed a high correlation (R(2) = 0.82) between TEEdlw and TEEresp and allows a correction factor for field metabolic rates in streaked shearwaters. Our results demonstrate that the commonly made assumption that the DLW method is not appropriate for individual-based estimates may be incorrect in certain circumstances. Although a correction factor may be necessary when using the DLW method to estimate metabolic rate, greater levels of isotope eliminations provides DLW estimates with high precision, which can adequately represent relative individual estimates. Nevertheless, the DLW method, should be used with caution when characterizing interspecies difference of energy expenditures.

  12. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Metabolic power of European starlings Sturnus vulgaris during flight in a wind tunnel, estimated from heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water and mask respirometry.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Möller, U; Rayner, J M V; Jackson, D M; Nachtigall, W; Speakman, J R

    2004-11-01

    It is technically demanding to measure the energetic cost of animal flight. Each of the previously available techniques has some disadvantage as well advantages. We compared measurements of the energetic cost of flight in a wind tunnel by four European starlings Sturnus vulgaris made using three independent techniques: heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water (DLW) and mask respirometry. We based our heat transfer model on thermal images of the surface temperature of the birds and air flow past the body and wings calculated from wing beat kinematics. Metabolic power was not sensitive to uncertainty in the value of efficiency when estimated from heat transfer modelling. A change in the assumed value of whole animal efficiency from 0.19 to 0.07 (the range of estimates in previous studies) only altered metabolic power predicted from heat transfer modelling by 13%. The same change in the assumed value of efficiency would cause a 2.7-fold change in metabolic power if it were predicted from mechanical power. Metabolic power did not differ significantly between measurements made using the three techniques when we assumed an efficiency in the range 0.11-0.19, although the DLW results appeared to form a U-shaped power-speed curve while the heat transfer model and respirometry results increased linearly with speed. This is the first time that techniques for determining metabolic power have been compared using data from the same birds flying under the same conditions. Our data provide reassurance that all the techniques produce similar results and suggest that heat transfer modelling may be a useful method for estimating metabolic rate.

  14. Application of the two-sample doubly labelled water method alters behaviour and affects estimates of energy expenditure in black-legged kittiwakes.

    PubMed

    Schultner, Jannik; Welcker, Jorg; Speakman, John R; Nordøy, Erling S; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2010-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of the doubly labelled water (DLW) method in energetic studies of free-ranging animals, effects of the method on study animals are rarely assessed. We studied behavioural effects of two alternative DLW protocols. During two consecutive breeding seasons, 42 parent black-legged kittiwakes received either the commonly used two-sample (TS) or the less invasive single-sample (SS) DLW treatment. A third group served as a non-treated control. We evaluated the effect of treatment with respect to the time birds took to return to their nest after treatment and recaptures, and the nest attendance during DLW measurement periods. We found that TS kittiwakes took on average 20 times longer to return to their nest than SS kittiwakes after initial treatment, and nest attendance was reduced by about 40% relative to control birds. In contrast, nest attendance did not differ between control and SS kittiwakes. Estimates of energy expenditure of SS kittiwakes exceeded those of TS kittiwakes by 15%. This difference was probably caused by TS birds remaining inactive for extended time periods while at sea. Our results demonstrate that the common assumption that the TS DLW method has little impact on the behaviour of study subjects is in some circumstances fallacious. Estimates of energy expenditure derived by the SS approach may thus more accurately reflect unbiased rates of energy expenditure. However, the choice of protocol may be a trade-off between their impact on behaviour, and hence accuracy, and their differences in precision. Adopting procedures that minimize the impact of TS protocols may be useful.

  15. Wearable cameras can reduce dietary under-reporting: doubly labelled water validation of a camera-assisted 24 h recall.

    PubMed

    Gemming, Luke; Rush, Elaine; Maddison, Ralph; Doherty, Aiden; Gant, Nicholas; Utter, Jennifer; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-28

    Preliminary research has suggested that wearable cameras may reduce under-reporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of a wearable camera-assisted 24 h dietary recall against the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed over 15 d using the DLW protocol among forty adults (n 20 males, age 35 (sd 17) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2 and n 20 females, age 28 (sd 7) years, BMI 22 (sd 2) kg/m2). EI was assessed using three multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls (MP24) on days 2-4, 8-10 and 13-15. On the days before each nutrition assessment, participants wore an automated wearable camera (SenseCam (SC)) in free-living conditions. The wearable camera images were viewed by the participants following the completion of the dietary recall, and their changes in self-reported intakes were recorded (MP24+SC). TEE and EI assessed by the MP24 and MP24+SC methods were compared. Among men, the MP24 and MP24+SC measures underestimated TEE by 17 and 9%, respectively (P< 0.001 and P= 0.02). Among women, these measures underestimated TEE by 13 and 7%, respectively (P< 0.001 and P= 0.004). The assistance of the wearable camera (MP24+SC) reduced the magnitude of under-reporting by 8% for men and 6% for women compared with the MP24 alone (P< 0.001 and P< 0.001). The increase in EI was predominantly from the addition of 265 unreported foods (often snacks) as revealed by the participants during the image review. Wearable cameras enhance the accuracy of self-report by providing passive and objective information regarding dietary intake. High-definition image sensors and increased imaging frequency may improve the accuracy further.

  16. Accuracy of dietary reference intake predictive equation for estimated energy requirements in female tennis athletes and non-athlete college students: comparison with the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Ndahimana, Didace; Lee, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ye-Jin; Son, Hee-Ryoung; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jonghoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a dietary reference intake (DRI) predictive equation for estimated energy requirements (EER) in female college tennis athletes and non-athlete students using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a reference method. Fifteen female college students, including eight tennis athletes and seven non-athlete subjects (aged between 19 to 24 years), were involved in the study. Subjects' total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the DLW method, and EER were calculated using the DRI predictive equation. The accuracy of this equation was assessed by comparing the EER calculated using the DRI predictive equation (EERDRI) and TEE measured by the DLW method (TEEDLW) based on calculation of percentage difference mean and percentage of accurate prediction. The agreement between the two methods was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. The percentage difference mean between the methods was -1.1% in athletes and 1.8% in non-athlete subjects, whereas the percentage of accurate prediction was 37.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In the case of athletic subjects, the DRI predictive equation showed a clear bias negatively proportional to the subjects' TEE. The results from this study suggest that the DRI predictive equation could be used to obtain EER in non-athlete female college students at a group level. However, this equation would be difficult to use in the case of athletes at the group and individual levels. The development of a new and more appropriate equation for the prediction of energy expenditure in athletes is proposed.

  17. Accuracy of dietary reference intake predictive equation for estimated energy requirements in female tennis athletes and non-athlete college students: comparison with the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Ndahimana, Didace; Lee, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ye-Jin; Son, Hee-Ryoung; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jonghoon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a dietary reference intake (DRI) predictive equation for estimated energy requirements (EER) in female college tennis athletes and non-athlete students using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a reference method. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifteen female college students, including eight tennis athletes and seven non-athlete subjects (aged between 19 to 24 years), were involved in the study. Subjects' total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the DLW method, and EER were calculated using the DRI predictive equation. The accuracy of this equation was assessed by comparing the EER calculated using the DRI predictive equation (EERDRI) and TEE measured by the DLW method (TEEDLW) based on calculation of percentage difference mean and percentage of accurate prediction. The agreement between the two methods was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. RESULTS The percentage difference mean between the methods was -1.1% in athletes and 1.8% in non-athlete subjects, whereas the percentage of accurate prediction was 37.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In the case of athletic subjects, the DRI predictive equation showed a clear bias negatively proportional to the subjects' TEE. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study suggest that the DRI predictive equation could be used to obtain EER in non-athlete female college students at a group level. However, this equation would be difficult to use in the case of athletes at the group and individual levels. The development of a new and more appropriate equation for the prediction of energy expenditure in athletes is proposed. PMID:28194265

  18. Validation of Cross-Sectional Time Series and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Models for the Prediction of Energy Expenditure in Children and Adolescents Using Doubly Labeled Water12

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Wong, William W.; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Vohra, Firoz A.; Zakeri, Issa F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant characteristics, heart rate (HR), and accelerometer counts (AC) for prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h total EE (TEE), against a 7-d doubly labeled water (DLW) method in children and adolescents. Our secondary aim was to demonstrate the utility of CSTS and MARS to predict awake EE, sleep EE, and activity EE (AEE) from 7-d HR and AC records, because these shorter periods are not verifiable by DLW, which provides an estimate of the individual's mean TEE over a 7-d interval. CSTS and MARS models were validated in 60 normal-weight and overweight participants (ages 5–18 y). The Actiheart monitor was used to simultaneously measure HR and AC. For prediction of TEE, mean absolute errors were 10.7 ± 307 kcal/d and 18.7 ± 252 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively, relative to DLW. Corresponding root mean square error values were 305 and 251 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the predicted values were in good agreement with the DLW-derived TEE values. Validation of CSTS and MARS models based on participant characteristics, HR monitoring, and accelerometry for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h TEE, against the DLW method indicated no systematic bias and acceptable limits of agreement for pediatric groups and individuals under free-living conditions. PMID:20573939

  19. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): Reliability and Validity Against Doubly Labeled Water and 7-Day Activity Diaries

    PubMed Central

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K.; Kopciuk, Karen A.; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E.; Lau, David C. W.; Robson, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009–2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE. PMID:25038920

  20. Energy expenditure in adults living in developing compared with industrialized countries: a meta-analysis of doubly labeled water studies123

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Lara R; Harders, Regina; Merrill, Sarah; Ebersole, Kara; Shoham, David A; Rush, Elaine C; Assah, Felix K; Forrester, Terrence; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Luke, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is an assumption that people in developing countries have a higher total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) than do people in developed nations, but few objective data for this assertion exist. Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of TEE and PAL by using data from countries that have a low or middle human development index (HDI) compared with those with a high HDI to better understand how energy-expenditure variables are associated with development status and population differences in body size. Design: We performed a literature search for studies in which energy expenditure was measured by using doubly labeled water. Mean data on age, weight, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), TEE, and PAL were extracted, and HDI status was assessed. Pooled estimates of the mean effect by sex were obtained, and the extent to which age, weight, HDI status, and year of publication explained heterogeneity was assessed. Results: A total of 98 studies (14 studies from low- or middle-HDI countries) that represented 183 cohorts and 4972 individuals were included. Mean (±SE) BMI was lower in countries with a low or middle HDI than in those with a high HDI for both men and women (22.7 ± 1.0 compared with 26.0 ± 0.7, respectively, in men and 24.3 ± 0.7 compared with 26.6 ± 0.4, respectively, in women). In meta-regression models, there was an inverse association of age (P < 0.001) and a positive association of weight (P < 0.001) with TEE for both sexes; there was an association of age only in men with PAL (P < 0.001). There was no association of HDI status with either TEE or PAL. Conclusion: TEE adjusted for weight and age or PAL did not differ significantly between developing and industrialized countries, which calls into question the role of energy expenditure in the cause of obesity at the population level. PMID:21159791

  1. Walking as a Contributor to Physical Activity in Healthy Older Adults: 2 Week Longitudinal Study Using Accelerometry and the Doubly Labeled Water Method

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is recommended to promote healthy aging. Defining the importance of activities such as walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity might provide indications for interventions. Objective To describe the importance of walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity in older adults. Methods The study included 42 healthy subjects aged between 51 and 84 years (mean body mass index 25.6 kg/m2 [SD 2.6]). Physical activity, walking, and nonwalking activity were monitored with an accelerometer for 2 weeks. Physical activity was quantified by accelerometer-derived activity counts. An algorithm based on template matching and signal power was developed to classify activity counts into nonwalking counts, short walk counts, and long walk counts. Additionally, in a subgroup of 31 subjects energy expenditure was measured using doubly labeled water to derive physical activity level (PAL). Results Subjects had a mean PAL of 1.84 (SD 0.19, range 1.43-2.36). About 20% of the activity time (21% [SD 8]) was spent walking, which accounted for about 40% of the total counts (43% [SD 11]). Short bouts composed 83% (SD 9) of walking time, providing 81% (SD 11) of walking counts. A stepwise regression model to predict PAL included nonwalking counts and short walk counts, explaining 58% of the variance of PAL (standard error of the estimate=0.12). Walking activities produced more counts per minute than nonwalking activities (P<.001). Long walks produced more counts per minute than short walks (P=.001). Nonwalking counts were independent of walking counts (r=−.05, P=.38). Conclusions Walking activities are a major contributor to physical activity in older adults. Walking activities occur at higher intensities than nonwalking activities, which might prevent individuals from engaging in more walking activity. Finally, subjects who engage in more walking activities do not tend to compensate by limiting nonwalking activities. Trial Registration

  2. Refinement Composition Using Doubly Labeled Transition Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Left-Right Total if: AG CG )),’(:’:’())’,(’:’:( RvvVvvVvvRvvVvvVvv CAAC GGGG ∈∧∈∃⇒∈∀∧∈∧∈∃⇒∈∀ From here on, unless we say otherwise, we assume that...trace equivalence. y trace xyRx GGGG ≡⇒≈ Proof: Suppose by way of contradiction that there are two Labeled Transition Graphs and such that xG yG yx...IR = , where I is the identity relation and II =−1 , yields: ≲ ≲AG( AAI GG ()∧ AIAAI GGG ≈⇒− )1 . Lemma 2.3: Bisimulation is symmetric ARBBRA GGGG

  3. Synthesis of γ-Phosphate-Labeled and Doubly Labeled Adenosine Triphosphate Analogs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Welter, Moritz; Marx, Andreas

    2015-03-09

    This unit describes the synthesis of γ-phosphate-labeled and doubly labeled adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogs and their characterization using the phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus adamanteus (snake venom phosphodiesterase; SVPD). In the key step of the synthesis, ATP or an ATP analog, bearing a linker containing a trifluoroacetamide group attached to the nucleoside, are modified with an azide-containing linker at the terminal phosphate using an alkylation reaction. Subsequently, different labels are introduced to the linkers by transformation of one functional group to an amine and coupling to an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Specifically, the Staudinger reaction of the azide is employed as a straightforward means to obtain an amine in the presence of various labels. Furthermore, the fluorescence characteristics of a fluorogenic, doubly labeled ATP analog are investigated following enzymatic cleavage by SVPD.

  4. Accuracy of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for assessing energy expenditure in free-living adults during a double-blind crossover caffeine trial using doubly labeled water as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Santos, D A; Matias, C N; Júdice, P B; Magalhães, J P; Ekelund, U; Sardinha, L B

    2015-01-01

    A combined heart rate (HR) and motion sensor (Actiheart) has been proposed as an accurate method for assessing total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). However, the extent to which factors such as caffeine may affect the accuracy by which the estimated HR-related PAEE contribution will affect TEE and PAEE estimates is unknown. Therefore, we examined the validity of Actiheart in estimating TEE and PAEE in free-living adults under a caffeine trial compared with doubly labeled water (DLW) as reference criterion. Using a double-blind crossover trial (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: #NCT01477294) with two conditions (4-day each with a 3-day-washout period), randomly ordered as caffeine (5 mg/kg per day) and placebo (malt-dextrine) intake, TEE was measured by DLW in 17 physically active men (20-38 years) who were non-caffeine users. In each condition, resting energy expenditure (REE) was assessed by indirect calorimetry and PAEE was calculated as (TEE-(REE+0.1 TEE)). Simultaneously, PAEE and TEE were estimated by Actiheart using an individual calibration (ACC+HRstep). Under caffeine, ACC+HRstep explained 76 and 64% of TEE and PAEE from DLW, respectively; corresponding results for the placebo condition were 82 and 66%. No mean bias was found between ACC+HRstep and DLW for TEE (caffeine:-468 kJ per day; placebo:-407 kJ per day), although PAEE was slightly underestimated (caffeine:-856 kJ per day; placebo:-1147 kJ per day). Similar limits of agreement were observed in both conditions ranging from -2066 to 3002 and from -3488 to 1776 kJ per day for TEE and PAEE, respectively. Regardless of caffeine intake, the combined HR and motion sensor is valid for estimating free-living energy expenditure in a group of healthy men but is less accurate for an individual assessment.

  5. Comparison of a web-based food record tool and a food-frequency questionnaire and objective validation using the doubly labelled water technique in a Swedish middle-aged population.

    PubMed

    Nybacka, Sanna; Bertéus Forslund, Heléne; Wirfält, Elisabet; Larsson, Ingrid; Ericson, Ulrika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Bergström, Göran; Hedblad, Bo; Winkvist, Anna; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2016-01-01

    Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEEDLW), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50-64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEEDLW was measured in a subsample (n 40). Compared with TEEDLW, both methods underestimated energy intake: -2·5 (sd  2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; -2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEEDLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method (P < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.

  6. The Assessment of Total Energy Expenditure During a 14-Day In-Season Period of Professional Rugby League Players Using the Doubly Labelled Water Method.

    PubMed

    Morehen, James Cameron; Bradley, Warren Jeremy; Clarke, Jon; Twist, Craig; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morton, James Peter; Close, Graeme Leonard

    2016-10-01

    Rugby League is a high-intensity collision sport competed over 80 min. Training loads are monitored to maximize recovery and assist in the design of nutritional strategies although no data are available on the total energy expenditure (TEE) of players. We therefore assessed resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEE in six Super League players over 2 consecutive weeks in-season including one game per week. Fasted RMR was assessed followed by a baseline urine sample before oral administration of a bolus dose of hydrogen (deuterium (2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotopes in the form of water ((2)H2(18)O). Every 24 hr thereafter, players provided urine for analysis of TEE via DLW method. Individual training load was quantified using session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. There were unclear differences in RMR between forwards and backs (7.7 ± 0.5 cf. 8.0 ± 0.3 MJ, respectively). Indirect calorimetry produced RMR values most likely lower than predictive equations (7.9 ± 0.4 cf. 9.2 ± 0.4 MJ, respectively). A most likely increase in TEE from Week 1 to 2 was observed (17.9 ± 2.1 cf. 24.2 ± 3.4 MJ) explained by a most likelyincrease in weekly sRPE (432 ± 19 cf. 555 ± 22 AU), respectively. The difference in TEE between forward and backs was unclear (21.6 ± 4.2 cf. 20.5 ± 4.9 MJ, respectively). We report greater TEE than previously reported in rugby that could be explained by the ability of DLW to account for all match and training-related activities that contributes to TEE.

  7. Autodissociation of doubly charged water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, S. W. J.; Wyer, J. A.; Senthil, V.; Shah, M. B.; Montenegro, E. C.

    2006-04-01

    The electron impact dissociative double-ionization cross sections for H2O between 45 and 1500eV have been measured using time of flight mass spectrometry. The energy dependence of the H++OH+ and H++O+ ion pair production cross sections indicate that Auger-like autoionization following a vacancy in the 2a1 molecular orbital is the main double ionization channel at high velocities. In contrast to expectation, these findings show that dissociation through the H2O2+ precursor state is a significant process at high collision energies. Knowledge of this process is vital as it has a direct affect on the production of important molecular species, such as H2 , during water radiolysis. Branching ratios of the various fragments produced following both autoionization and double ionization have also been obtained.

  8. Autodissociation of doubly charged water molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, S. W. J.; Wyer, J. A.; Senthil, V.; Shah, M. B.; Montenegro, E. C.

    2006-04-15

    The electron impact dissociative double-ionization cross sections for H{sub 2}O between 45 and 1500 eV have been measured using time of flight mass spectrometry. The energy dependence of the H{sup +}+OH{sup +} and H{sup +}+O{sup +} ion pair production cross sections indicate that Auger-like autoionization following a vacancy in the 2a{sub 1} molecular orbital is the main double ionization channel at high velocities. In contrast to expectation, these findings show that dissociation through the H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} precursor state is a significant process at high collision energies. Knowledge of this process is vital as it has a direct affect on the production of important molecular species, such as H{sub 2}, during water radiolysis. Branching ratios of the various fragments produced following both autoionization and double ionization have also been obtained.

  9. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  10. Measurement of /sup 2/H/sub 2/O by IR absorbance in doubly labeled H/sub 2/O studies of energy expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Han, L.R.; Munger, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The energy expenditure of animals in their natural surroundings can be determined by measuring the turnover in body water of isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. We evaluated the use of infrared spectrophotometry for measuring /sup 2/H/sub 2/O in small (20-microliters) water samples also labeled with 18O. For /sup 2/H/sub 2/O over the enrichment range of 0.1-1 atom%, there was a linear relationship between infrared absorbance and /sup 2/H/sub 2/O enrichment. /sup 2/H/sub 2/O enrichments could be measured with a precision and accuracy of less than or equal to 1%, using this relationship. The presence of /sup 18/O in water samples in enrichments of up to 1 atom% had no significant effect on measurement of /sup 2/H/sub 2/O by infrared absorbance. We measured the simultaneous turnover rates of /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 3/H in mice and turtles also labeled with 18O. Our results validated the use of infrared absorbance in doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure and indicated that the fractionation factors in vivo for /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 3/H do not differ.

  11. Analytical aspects of measuring (2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O ratios in urine from doubly labelled water studies by high-temperature conversion elemental analyser-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chery, I; Zahariev, A; Simon, C; Blanc, S

    2015-04-15

    Total Body Water (TBW) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) are routinely measured in free-living conditions by the (2)H2(18)O method. Isotope eliminations can be measured from spot urine samples by HTC-EA IRMS, but only after cumbersome cryogenic distillation to extract water. Distillation may, however, be replaced by charcoal treatment and filtration. This study tested (1) the effect of sample treatments (filtration versus distillation) on the isotope ratios, (2) the effect of different ways of normalization that respect or not the principle of identical treatment of the sample and references, and (3) the impact on the biological outcomes. Two filters (PES membrane; 10 kDa) accepting volumes of urine samples (V500: 0.5 mL versus V6: 3.0 mL) were tested. In-house water standards and in-house urine standards were prepared and normalized against the international scale to calibrate the urine samples. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values from water in the urine were measured by HTC-EA IRMS. Filtered urine normalized with water standards showed a bias in the δ(2)H values that was corrected when calibration was performed with urine standards. At a δ(2)H value of 1101.4‰, the accuracy increased from -11.9 to -0.2 δ‰ (V500) and from -3.8 to 0.4 δ‰ (V6). The TBW errors were greatest with V500 and water calibration (1.20%) and lowest with V6 and urine calibration (0.34%; preparation-by-calibration interaction p = 0.027). For the δ(18)O values the accuracy of enrichments and TBW were not affected whatever preparations and normalization were used. The average TEE was not affected but the variability increased from 0.6 to 2.7% versus cryogenic distillation. Cryogenic distillation remains the gold standard for small sample size experiments where small changes in TEE are to be detected. Filtration offers an alternative for large-scale experiments. When the body composition is derived from (2)H2O dilution, it is strongly recommended that urine standards should be used to

  12. WaterSense Labeled New Homes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Homes built to meet EPA’s specification can earn the WaterSense label. EPA criteria include WaterSense labeled plumbing fixtures, efficient hot water delivery systems, water-smart landscape design, and other features.

  13. Pulse dipolar ESR of doubly labeled mini TAR DNA and its annealing to mini TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

    2015-02-17

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ~35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Myers, William K.; Freed, Jack H.; Scholes, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3′- and 5′-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26–27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ∼35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

  15. Reactions of doubly ionized benzene with nitrogen and water: a nitrogen-mediated entry into superacid chemistry.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Christopher J; Schröder, Detlef; Alcaraz, Christian; Žabka, Ján; Zins, Emilie-Laure

    2012-08-06

    Even in the highly diluted gas phase, rather than electron transfer the benzene dication C(6)H(6)(2+) undergoes association with dinitrogen to form a transient C(6)H(6)N(2)(2+) dication which is best described as a ring-protonated phenyl diazonium ion. Isotopic labeling studies, photoionization experiments using synchrotron radiation, and quantum chemical computations fully support the formation of protonated diazonium, which is in turn a prototype species of superacidic chemistry in solution. Additionally, reactions of C(6)H(6)(2+) with background water involve the transient formation of diprotonated phenol and, among other things, afford a long-lived C(6)H(6)OH(2)(2+) dication, which is attributed to the hydration product of Hogeveen's elusive pyramidal structure of C(6)H(6)(2+), as the global minimum of doubly ionized benzene. Nitrogen is essential for the formation of the C(6)H(6)OH(2)(2+) dication in that it mediates the formation of the water adduct, while the bimolecular encounter of the C(6)H(6)(2+) dication with water only leads to (dissociative) electron transfer.

  16. Doubly Spin-Labeled RNA as an EPR Reporter for Studying Multicomponent Supramolecular Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Malygin, Alexey A; Graifer, Dmitri M; Meschaninova, Maria I; Venyaminova, Aliya G; Krumkacheva, Olesya A; Fedin, Matvey V; Karpova, Galina G; Bagryanskaya, Elena G

    2015-12-15

    mRNAs are involved in complicated supramolecular complexes with human 40S and 80S ribosomes responsible for the protein synthesis. In this work, a derivative of nonaribonucleotide pUUCGUAAAA with nitroxide spin labels attached to the 5'-phosphate and to the C8 atom of the adenosine in sixth position (mRNA analog) was used for studying such complexes using double electron-electron resonance/pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy. The complexes were assembled with participation of tRNA(Phe), which targeted triplet UUC of the derivative to the ribosomal peptidyl site and predetermined location of the adjacent GUA triplet coding for Val at the aminoacyl (A) site. The interspin distances were measured between the two labels of mRNA analog attached to the first nucleotide of the peptidyl site bound codon and to the third nucleotide of the A site bound codon, in the absence/presence of second tRNA bound at the A site. The values of the obtained interspin distances agree with those calculated for available near-atomic structures of similar complexes of 40S and 80S ribosomes, showing that neither 60S subunit nor tRNA at the A site have a noticeable effect on arrangement of mRNA at the codon-anticodon interaction area. In addition, the shapes of distance distributions in four studied ribosomal complexes allowed conclusions on conformational flexibility of mRNA in these complexes. Overall, the results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, demonstration of double electron-electron resonance/pulsed electron-electron double resonance application for measurements of intramolecular distances in multicomponent supramolecular complexes involving intricate cellular machineries and for evaluating dynamic properties of ligands bound to these machineries. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Doubly Spin-Labeled RNA as an EPR Reporter for Studying Multicomponent Supramolecular Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Malygin, Alexey A.; Graifer, Dmitri M.; Meschaninova, Maria I.; Venyaminova, Aliya G.; Krumkacheva, Olesya A.; Fedin, Matvey V.; Karpova, Galina G.; Bagryanskaya, Elena G.

    2015-01-01

    mRNAs are involved in complicated supramolecular complexes with human 40S and 80S ribosomes responsible for the protein synthesis. In this work, a derivative of nonaribonucleotide pUUCGUAAAA with nitroxide spin labels attached to the 5′-phosphate and to the C8 atom of the adenosine in sixth position (mRNA analog) was used for studying such complexes using double electron-electron resonance/pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy. The complexes were assembled with participation of tRNAPhe, which targeted triplet UUC of the derivative to the ribosomal peptidyl site and predetermined location of the adjacent GUA triplet coding for Val at the aminoacyl (A) site. The interspin distances were measured between the two labels of mRNA analog attached to the first nucleotide of the peptidyl site bound codon and to the third nucleotide of the A site bound codon, in the absence/presence of second tRNA bound at the A site. The values of the obtained interspin distances agree with those calculated for available near-atomic structures of similar complexes of 40S and 80S ribosomes, showing that neither 60S subunit nor tRNA at the A site have a noticeable effect on arrangement of mRNA at the codon-anticodon interaction area. In addition, the shapes of distance distributions in four studied ribosomal complexes allowed conclusions on conformational flexibility of mRNA in these complexes. Overall, the results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, demonstration of double electron-electron resonance/pulsed electron-electron double resonance application for measurements of intramolecular distances in multicomponent supramolecular complexes involving intricate cellular machineries and for evaluating dynamic properties of ligands bound to these machineries. PMID:26682820

  18. On the intermolecular Coulombic decay of singly and doubly ionized states of water dimer.

    PubMed

    Stoychev, Spas D; Kuleff, Alexander I; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2010-10-21

    A semiquantitative study of the intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) of singly and doubly ionized water dimer has been carried out with the help of ab initio computed ionization spectra and potential energy curves (PECs). These PECs are particular cuts through the (H(2)O)(2), (H(2)O)(2) (+), and (H(2)O)(2) (++) hypersurfaces along the distance between the two oxygen atoms. A comparison with the recently published experimental data for the ICD in singly ionized water dimers [T. Jahnke, H. Sann, T. Havermeier et al., Nat. Phys. 6, 139 (2010)] and in large water clusters [M. Mucke, M. Braune, S. Barth et al., Nat. Phys. 6, 143 (2010)] shows that such a simplified description in which the internal degrees of freedom of the water molecules are frozen gives surprisingly useful results. Other possible decay channels of the singly ionized water dimer are also investigated and the influence of the H-atom participating in the hydrogen bond on the spectra of the proton-donor and proton-acceptor molecules in the dimer is discussed. Importantly, the decay processes of one-site dicationic states of water dimer are discussed and an estimate of the ICD-electron spectra is made. More than 33% of the dications produced by Auger decay are found to undergo ICD. The qualitative results show that the ICD following Auger decay in water is also expected to be an additional source of low-energy electrons proven to be extremely important for causing damages to living tissues.

  19. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): a study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Elka R; Roy, Aritro S; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Borbat, Petr P; Earle, Keith A; Scholes, Charles P; Freed, Jack H

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (≤100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  20. Effect of Freezing Conditions on Distances and Their Distributions Derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A Study of Doubly-Spin-Labeled T4 Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (≤100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions. PMID:22341208

  1. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (⩽100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  2. Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications.

  3. Fragmentation of doubly-protonated peptide ion populations labeled by H/D exchange with CD3OD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Kristin A.; Kuppannan, Krishna; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2006-03-01

    Doubly-protonated bradykinin (RPPGFSPFR) and an angiotensin III analogue (RVYIFPF) were subjected to hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange with CD3OD in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. A bimodal distribution of deuterium incorporation was present for bradykinin after H/D exchange for 90 s at a CD3OD pressure of 4 × 10-7 Torr, indicating the existence of at least two distinct populations. Bradykinin ion populations corresponding to 0-2 and 5-11 deuteriums (i.e., D0, D1, D2, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, and D11) were each monoisotopically selected and fragmented via sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI) collision-induced dissociation (CID). The D0-D2 ion populations, which correspond to the slower exchanging population, consistently require lower SORI amplitude to achieve a similar precursor ion survival yield as the faster-reacting (D5-D11) populations. These results demonstrate that conformation/protonation motif has an effect on fragmentation efficiency for bradykinin. Also, the partitioning of the deuterium atoms into fragment ions suggests that the C-terminal arginine residue exchanges more rapidly than the N-terminal arginine. Total deuterium incorporation in the b1/y8 and b2/y7 ion pairs matches very closely the theoretical values for all ion populations studied, indicating that the ions of a complementary pair are likely formed during the same fragmentation event, or that no scrambling occurs upon SORI. Deuterium incorporation into the y1/a8 pseudo-ion pair does not closely match the expected theoretical values. The other peptide, doubly-protonated RVYIFPF, has a trimodal distribution of deuterium incorporation upon H/D exchange with CD3OD at a pressure of 1 × 10-7 Torr for 600 s, indicating at least three distinct ion populations. After 90 s of H/D exchange where at least two distinct populations are detected, the D0-D7 ion populations were monoisotopically selected and fragmented via SORI-CID over a range of SORI

  4. PRN 93-3: Labeling Statement Prohibiting Application to Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice explaining the policy on label statement prohibiting pesticide application to water pertains only to the labeling statement on pesticide products. It does not address the term wetlands as defined with respect to the Clean Water Act.

  5. Time-resolved detection of transient movement of helices F and G in doubly spin-labeled bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Radzwill, N; Gerwert, K; Steinhoff, H J

    2001-01-01

    Photo-excited structural changes of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin were monitored using double-site-directed spin labeling combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The inter-spin distances between nitroxides attached at residue positions 100 and 226, 101 and 160, and 101 and 168 were determined for the BR initial state and the trapped M photo-intermediate. Distance changes that occur during the photocycle were followed with millisecond time resolution under physiological conditions at 293 K. The kinetic analysis of the EPR data and comparison with the absorbance changes in the visible spectrum reveal an outward movement of helix F during the late M intermediate and a subsequent approach of helix G toward the proton channel. The displacements of the cytoplasmic moieties of these helices amount to 0.1-0.2 nm. We propose that the resulting opening of the proton channel decreases the pK of the proton donor D96 and facilitates proton transfer to the Schiff base during the M-to-N transition. PMID:11371459

  6. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R. )

    1991-09-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 {plus minus} 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 {plus minus} 0.76 and 7.39 {plus minus} 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 {plus minus} 2 and 122 {plus minus} 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 {plus minus} 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs.

  7. WaterSense Labeled Homes Quick Reference Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green building has grown from a niche market to a savvy business strategy. WaterSense labeled homes capitalize on consumer demand by offering homeowners a whole-house solution to help them save water, energy, and money.

  8. Tritium labeling of antisense oligonucleotides by exchange with tritiated water.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, M J; Freier, S M; Crooke, R M; Ecker, D J; Maslova, R N; Lesnik, E A

    1993-01-01

    We describe a simple, efficient, procedure for labeling oligonucleotides to high specific activity (< 1 x 10(8) cpm/mumol) by hydrogen exchange with tritiated water at the C8 positions of purines in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol, an effective radical scavenger. Approximately 90% of the starting material is recovered as intact, labeled oligonucleotide. The radiolabeled compounds are stable in biological systems; greater than 90% of the specific activity is retained after 72 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in serum-containing media. Data obtained from in vitro cellular uptake experiments using oligonucleotides labeled by this method are similar to those obtained using 35S or 14C-labeled compounds. Because this protocol is solely dependent upon the existence of purine residues, it should be useful for radiolabeling modified as well as unmodified phosphodiester oligonucleotides. Images PMID:8367289

  9. Doubly excited states of water as studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy in coincidence with detecting Lyman-α photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchida, Toshinori; Odagiri, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Lisa; Yachi, Kazufumi; Shigemura, Keisuke; Ohno, Naruhito; Hosaka, Kouichi; Kitajima, Masashi; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2011-09-01

    The electron energy loss spectrum of H2O in coincidence with detecting Lyman-α photons (CoEELS) has been measured at the incident electron energy of 100 eV and electron scattering angle of 8° in the inner valence range in order to investigate the formation and decay of the doubly excited states. The present CoEELS has been compared with that at the infinite incident electron energy and 0° electron scattering angle, which was derived from the density of the dipole oscillator strength of H2O for the emission of the Lyman-α photons against the incident photon energy (Nakano et al 2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 215206). It is remarkable that there exists a large difference in shape between these CoEELSs. This difference has turned out to be attributed to the noticeable contribution of the forbidden doubly excited states at 100 eV incident electron energy and 8° scattering angle. They lie at 25.0 and 27.4 eV and have been found out in this study. The differential cross sections for the excitation to the superexcited states resulting in H(2p) formation have been obtained at 100 eV and 8° and compared with those at the infinite energy and 0°. The electron collisions at 100 eV and 8° enhance the dissociative double excitation against the dissociative single excitation as compared with the electron collision at the infinite energy and 0°.

  10. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jai Dayal, Gerald Lofstead

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  11. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  12. Kinugasa reactions in water: from green chemistry to bioorthogonal labelling.

    PubMed

    Chigrinova, Mariya; MacKenzie, Douglas A; Sherratt, Allison R; Cheung, Lawrence L W; Pezacki, John Paul; Pezacki, Paul

    2015-04-16

    The Kinugasa reaction has become an efficient method for the direct synthesis of β-lactams from substituted nitrones and copper(I) acetylides. In recent years, the reaction scope has been expanded to include the use of water as the solvent, and with micelle-promoted [3+2] cycloadditions followed by rearrangement furnishing high yields of β-lactams. The high yields of stable products under aqueous conditions render the modified Kinugasa reaction amenable to metabolic labelling and bioorthogonal applications. Herein, the development of methods for use of the Kinugasa reaction in aqueous media is reviewed, with emphasis on its potential use as a bioorthogonal coupling strategy.

  13. Sputtering of water ice films: A re-assessment with singly and doubly charged oxygen and argon ions, molecular oxygen, and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, A.; Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the erosion rates from thin water ice films on a microbalance upon irradiation with ions (O+, O2+, O2+ , Ar+ , and Ar2+) and electrons at energies between 0.1 keV and 80 keV. The results with O+ and Ar+ irradiation confirm previous results of other research groups that relied on the same experiment set-up. In addition, we assessed how the ice film thickness affects the results and we compared the results for singly versus doubly charged ions and for O+ versus O2+ ions. The irradiation with 1 keV and 3 keV electrons offer the first experimental results at these energies. Our results confirm theoretical predictions that the yield per impacting electron does not increase with energy ad infinitum but rather levels off between 0.1 and 1 keV. The results for ion and electron sputtering have important implications for atmosphere-less icy bodies in a plasma environment. We briefly discuss the implications for the icy moons of Jupiter. Finally, the experiments also allow us to assess the viability of two methods to measure the erosion rate in the case that the icy sample cannot be attached on a microbalance. This is an important step for future laboratory studies where regolith ice samples and their reaction to particle irradiation are to be characterized.

  14. Doubly robust survival trees.

    PubMed

    Steingrimsson, Jon Arni; Diao, Liqun; Molinaro, Annette M; Strawderman, Robert L

    2016-09-10

    Estimating a patient's mortality risk is important in making treatment decisions. Survival trees are a useful tool and employ recursive partitioning to separate patients into different risk groups. Existing 'loss based' recursive partitioning procedures that would be used in the absence of censoring have previously been extended to the setting of right censored outcomes using inverse probability censoring weighted estimators of loss functions. In this paper, we propose new 'doubly robust' extensions of these loss estimators motivated by semiparametric efficiency theory for missing data that better utilize available data. Simulations and a data analysis demonstrate strong performance of the doubly robust survival trees compared with previously used methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Inspection and Verification Guidance for WaterSense Labeled New Homes (Version 1.2)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A new home must be built by a WaterSense builder partner, certified by an EPA licensed certification provider, and meet all of the applicable criteria in the specification to become a WaterSense labeled new home.

  16. WaterSense Labeled Weather-Based Irrigation Controller Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WaterSense labeled irrigation controllers, which act like a thermostat for your sprinkler system by telling it when to turn on and off, use local weather and landscape conditions to tailor watering schedules to actual conditions on the site.

  17. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AD-AO 545 MOTOROLA INC SCOTTSDALE AZ GOVERNMENT ELECTRONICS DIV F/O 20/2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES.( U) APR 81 0 F WILLIAMS, F Y CHO DAAK2O 79...f we Ma. he0 _TL ft . *VM or seu3f? 6 090100 cove mis interim Report.~arch 198 ’ Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices .r etme 9 9. SInFY T ON 6MNY mUUUUf L...exploratory development of doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing superior Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) properties for applications involving

  18. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A0-AI03 -728 MOTOROLA INC SCOTTSDALE AZ GOVERNMENT ELECTRONICS DIV FIG 20/2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES. U P AUG 81 0 F WILLIAMS, F Y CHO OAAK20...79-C-0275 UNCLASSIFIED DELET-TR-79-0275-3 ML wIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII illlllllllllr: K8 MMR UNCLASSIFIED / JZ R-79-0273 Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices...towme. e *#* tooeeeimp md fallp p, uh9lbme The objective of this program is the exploratory development of doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing

  19. Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus.

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R. V. F.; Physics

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope {sup 24}O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability.

  20. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  1. PRN 93-8: Labeling Statement Prohibiting Application to Water; Amendment to PR Notice 93-3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice adds one paragraph to P.R. Notice 93-3, which requested registrants to amend product labeling to include a new labeling statement prohibiting application of a pesticide to water for certain products.

  2. Visualizing Water Molecules in Transmembrane Proteins Using Radiolytic Labeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Gupta, S; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2010-01-01

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of 'ordered' waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  3. Observation of the interference between the intramolecular IR-visible and visible-IR processes in the doubly resonant sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Deng, Gang-Hua; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hong-fei

    2009-05-28

    Using the picosecond visible light at 532.1 nm and infrared light at 2800-3100 cm(-1), we observed the interference between the intramolecular IR-visible and visible-IR processes in the doubly resonant sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed at the air/water interface. The interference phenomenon exists for both the C-H stretching vibrations in the 2800-3100 cm(-1) region and the skeleton vibrations in the 1450-1700 cm(-1) region. The relative strength of the visible-IR process at different wavelengths is the result of the electronic structure of the molecule. This is the first direct observation of the visible-IR sum frequency generation process in the electronically excited state of a model molecular system.

  4. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ..., clothes washers, and water heaters must contain the model's estimated annual energy consumption as...

  5. Water-Soluble Lipophilic MR Contrast Agents for Cell Membrane Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Christiane E.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term cell tracking with MR imaging necessitates the development of contrast agents that both label and are retained by cells. One promising strategy for long-term cell labeling is the development of lipophilic Gd(III)-based contrast agents that anchor into the cell membrane. We have previously reported the efficacy of monomeric and multimeric lipophilic agents and showed that the monomeric agents have improved labeling and contrast enhancement of cell populations. Here, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro testing of a series of monomeric lipophilic contrast agents with varied alkyl chain compositions. We show that these agents disperse in water, localize to the cell membrane, and label HeLa and MCF7 cells effectively. Additionally, these agents have up to 10-fold improved retention in cells compared to clinically available ProHance®. PMID:26215869

  6. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    A D A O S G 7 3 A M T O R A I N C S C O T T S A L E A R I Z G V E R N M E N T E L C T R O N I C S I V F / B 2 0 / 2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES...IEEEEI-/ II//E///III I jjj 5.1 -I I II II II F~ ~ 2, I UUGLASSIF1 U100TVw CLAMOGmeIawor OU I lulP&g EWhm oe ae & oubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices& . r...doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing speri r Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) properties for applications involving environmentally hardened devices. The

  7. Pulsed EPR Determination of Water Accessibility to Spin-Labeled Amino Acid Residues in LHCIIb

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, A.; Dockter, C.; Bund, T.; Paulsen, H.; Jeschke, G.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane proteins reside in a structured environment in which some of their residues are accessible to water, some are in contact with alkyl chains of lipid molecules, and some are buried in the protein. Water accessibility of residues may change during folding or function-related structural dynamics. Several techniques based on the combination of pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with site-directed spin labeling can be used to quantify such water accessibility. Accessibility parameters for different residues in major plant light-harvesting complex IIb are determined by electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy in the presence of deuterated water, deuterium contrast in transversal relaxation rates, analysis of longitudinal relaxation rates, and line shape analysis of electron-spin-echo-detected EPR spectra as well as by the conventional techniques of measuring the maximum hyperfine splitting and progressive saturation in continuous-wave EPR. Systematic comparison of these parameters allows for a more detailed characterization of the environment of the spin-labeled residues. These techniques are applicable independently of protein size and require ∼10–20 nmol of singly spin-labeled protein per sample. For a residue close to the N-terminus, in a domain unresolved in the existing x-ray structures of light-harvesting complex IIb, all methods indicate high water accessibility. PMID:19186148

  8. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant cha...

  9. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    A O-AIIO 663 NOTO AOI.A INC SCOTTS A LEJ AZ S0V RNmF.NT ELECTRONICS DV F/S WI1 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAV DEVICES.(U) JAN 82 D F WIL.IANMS F T CHO DAK20...quartz substrates for the purpose of locating promising angular ranges with properties superior to the singly rotated cuts now in existence More...detailed calculations follow to refine the angular coordinates in order to specify cuts for experimental erification in Task I1. In Task II, sets of

  10. The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains two articles concerned with doubly exceptional children and gifted education. In "The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma," (Carol J. Mills and Linda E. Brody), such children do not fit into the usual categories for sorting children because their gifts and disabilities often mask each other. Suggestions are…

  11. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts.

  12. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts. PMID:26552990

  13. Measurement of vascular water transport in human subjects using time-resolved pulsed arterial spin labelling.

    PubMed

    Bibic, Adnan; Knutsson, Linda; Schmidt, Anders; Henningsson, Erik; Månsson, Sven; Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Åkeson, Jonas; Gunther, Matthias; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Wirestam, Ronnie

    2015-08-01

    Most approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) data analysis aim to provide a quantitative measure of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study, however, focuses on the measurement of the transfer time of blood water through the capillaries to the parenchyma (referred to as the capillary transfer time, CTT) as an alternative parameter to characterise the haemodynamics of the system. The method employed is based on a non-compartmental model, and no measurements need to be added to a common time-resolved ASL experiment. Brownian motion of labelled spins in a potential was described by a one-dimensional general Langevin equation as the starting point, and as a Fokker-Planck differential equation for the averaged distribution of labelled spins at the end point, which takes into account the effects of flow and dispersion of labelled water by the pseudorandom nature of the microvasculature and the transcapillary permeability. Multi-inversion time (multi-TI) ASL data were acquired in 14 healthy subjects on two occasions in a test-retest design, using a pulsed ASL sequence and three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (3D-GRASE) readout. Based on an error analysis to predict the size of a region of interest (ROI) required to obtain reasonably precise parameter estimates, data were analysed in two relatively large ROIs, i.e. the occipital lobe (OC) and the insular cortex (IC). The average values of CTT in OC were 260 ± 60 ms in the first experiment and 270 ± 60 ms in the second experiment. The corresponding IC values were 460 ± 130 ms and 420 ± 139 ms, respectively. Information related to the water transfer time may be important for diagnostics and follow-up of cerebral conditions or diseases characterised by a disrupted blood-brain barrier or disturbed capillary blood flow.

  14. Diffusion of oxygen in water and hydrocarbons using an electron spin resonance spin-label technique.

    PubMed Central

    Subczynski, W K; Hyde, J S

    1984-01-01

    The Smoluchowski equation for the bimolecular collision rate of dissolved oxygen molecules with spin labels yielded values for the diffusion constant of oxygen in water that are in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein equation (D infinity T/eta, where eta is the macroscopic viscosity) and with published values obtained by conventional methods. Heisenberg exchange at an interaction distance of 4.5 A occurs with a probability close to one for each encounter. In mixed hydrocarbons (olive oil, paraffin oils) and sec-butyl benzene, D infinity (T/eta)rho, where rho lies between 0.5 and 1. Oxygen diffuses in the hydrocarbons between 10 and 100 times more rapidly than predicted from the macroscopic viscosity. Similar results would be expected for diffusion of oxygen in model and biological membranes. Parallel measurements of rotational diffusion of the spin labels show little correlation with measurements of translational diffusion of oxygen. Dipolar interactions between spin labels and oxygen appear negligible except in the limit of highest viscosities. PMID:6326877

  15. Multispot, label-free biodetection at a phantom plastic-water interface.

    PubMed

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Salina, Matteo; Cerbino, Roberto; Bassi, Mattia; Prosperi, Davide; Ceccarello, Erica; Damin, Francesco; Sola, Laura; Rusnati, Marco; Chiari, Marcella; Chini, Bice; Bellini, Tommaso; Buscaglia, Marco

    2013-06-04

    Recognizing and quantifying specific biomolecules in aqueous samples are constantly needed in research and diagnostic laboratories. As the typical detection procedures are rather lengthy and involve the use of labeled secondary antibodies or other agents to provide a signal, efforts have been made over the last 10 y to develop alternative label-free methods that enable direct detection. We propose and demonstrate an extremely simple, low-cost, label-free biodetector based on measuring the intensity of light reflected by the interface between a fluid sample and an amorphous fluoropolymer substrate having a refractive index very close to that of water and hosting various antibodies immobilized in spots. Under these index-matching conditions, the amount of light reflected by the interface allows straightforward quantification of the amount of antigen binding to each spot. Using antibodies targeting heterologous immunoglobulins and antigens commonly used as markers for diagnoses of hepatitis B and HIV, we demonstrate the limit of detection of a few picograms per square millimeter of surface-bound molecules. We also show that direct and real-time access to the amount of binding molecules allows the precise extrapolation of adhesion rates, from which the concentrations of antigens in solution can be estimated down to fractions of nanograms per milliliter.

  16. Multispot, label-free biodetection at a phantom plastic–water interface

    PubMed Central

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Salina, Matteo; Cerbino, Roberto; Bassi, Mattia; Prosperi, Davide; Ceccarello, Erica; Damin, Francesco; Sola, Laura; Rusnati, Marco; Chiari, Marcella; Chini, Bice; Bellini, Tommaso; Buscaglia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing and quantifying specific biomolecules in aqueous samples are constantly needed in research and diagnostic laboratories. As the typical detection procedures are rather lengthy and involve the use of labeled secondary antibodies or other agents to provide a signal, efforts have been made over the last 10 y to develop alternative label-free methods that enable direct detection. We propose and demonstrate an extremely simple, low-cost, label-free biodetector based on measuring the intensity of light reflected by the interface between a fluid sample and an amorphous fluoropolymer substrate having a refractive index very close to that of water and hosting various antibodies immobilized in spots. Under these index-matching conditions, the amount of light reflected by the interface allows straightforward quantification of the amount of antigen binding to each spot. Using antibodies targeting heterologous immunoglobulins and antigens commonly used as markers for diagnoses of hepatitis B and HIV, we demonstrate the limit of detection of a few picograms per square millimeter of surface-bound molecules. We also show that direct and real-time access to the amount of binding molecules allows the precise extrapolation of adhesion rates, from which the concentrations of antigens in solution can be estimated down to fractions of nanograms per milliliter. PMID:23696673

  17. Pentaquarks and doubly heavy exotic mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek

    2016-11-01

    I discuss the experimental evidence for and theoretical interpretation of the new mesons and baryons with two heavy quarks. These include doubly-heavy baryons, exotic hadronic quarkonia and most recently a manifestly exotic pentaquark-like doubly heavy baryon with a minimal quark content uudc¯ discovered by LHCb, whose mass, decay mode and width are in agreement with a prediction based on a physical picture of a deuteron-like Σc D¯* "hadronic molecule".

  18. Doubly special relativity and Finsler geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mignemi, S.

    2007-08-15

    We discuss the recent proposal of implementing doubly special relativity in configuration space by means of Finsler geometry. Although this formalism leads to a consistent description of the dynamics of a particle, it does not seem to give a complete description of the physics. In particular, the Finsler line element is not invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations of doubly special relativity. We study in detail some simple applications of the formalism.

  19. Synthesis of water-dispersible zinc oxide quantum dots with antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity for cell labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Lin, Ying Yi; Huang, Sherry; Lem, Kwok Wai; Huong Nguyen, Dinh; Lee, Dai Soo

    2013-11-01

    Typical photoluminescent semiconductor nanoparticles, called quantum dots (QDs), have potential applications in biological labeling. When used to label stem cells, QDs may impair the differentiation capacity of the stem cells. In this study, we synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) QDs in methanol with an average size of ∼2 nm. We then employed two different types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (SH-PEG-NH2 and NH2-PEG-NH2) to conjugate ZnO QDs and made them water-dispersible. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicated the attachment of PEG molecules on ZnO QDs. No obvious size alteration was observed for ZnO QDs after PEG conjugation. The water-dispersible ZnO QDs still retained the antibacterial activity and fluorescence intensity. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that ZnO QDs at higher concentrations decreased cell viability but were generally safe at 30 ppm or below. Cell lines of hepatocytes (HepG2), osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were successfully labeled by the water-dispersible ZnO QDs at 30 ppm. The ZnO QD-labeled MSCs maintained their stemness and differentiation capacity. Therefore, we conclude that the water-dispersible ZnO QDs developed in this study have antibacterial activity, low cytotoxicity, and proper labeling efficiency, and can be used to label a variety of cells including stem cells.

  20. Liquid state DNP for water accessibility measurements on spin-labeled membrane proteins at physiological temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Andrin; Bordignon, Enrica; Joseph, Benesh; Tschaggelar, René; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate the application of continuous wave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 0.35 T for site-specific water accessibility studies on spin-labeled membrane proteins at concentrations in the 10-100 μM range. The DNP effects at such low concentrations are weak and the experimentally achievable dynamic nuclear polarizations can be below the equilibrium polarization. This sensitivity problem is solved with an optimized home-built DNP probe head consisting of a dielectric microwave resonator and a saddle coil as close as possible to the sample. The performance of the probe head is demonstrated with both a modified pulsed EPR spectrometer and a dedicated CW EPR spectrometer equipped with a commercial NMR console. In comparison to a commercial pulsed ENDOR resonator, the home-built resonator has an FID detection sensitivity improvement of 2.15 and an electron spin excitation field improvement of 1.2. The reproducibility of the DNP results is tested on the water soluble maltose binding protein MalE of the ABC maltose importer, where we determine a net standard deviation of 9% in the primary DNP data in the concentration range between 10 and 100 μM. DNP parameters are measured in a spin-labeled membrane protein, namely the vitamin B12 importer BtuCD in both detergent-solubilized and reconstituted states. The data obtained in different nucleotide states in the presence and absence of binding protein BtuF reveal the applicability of this technique to qualitatively extract water accessibility changes between different conformations by the ratio of primary DNP parameters ɛ. The ɛ-ratio unveils the physiologically relevant transmembrane communication in the transporter in terms of changes in water accessibility at the cytoplasmic gate of the protein induced by both BtuF binding at the periplasmic region of the transporter and ATP binding at the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains.

  1. Analysis of Hydrogen Isotopic Exchange: Lava Creek Tuff Ash and Isotopically Labeled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. M.; Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Nolan, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nolan and Bindeman (2013) placed secondarily hydrated ash from the 7.7 ka eruption of Mt. Mazama (δD=-149‰, 2.3wt% H2Ot) in isotopically labeled water (+650 ‰ δD, +56 ‰ δ18O) and observed that the H2Ot and δ18O values remained constant, but the δD values of ash increased with the surrounding water at 20, 40 and 70 °C. We expand on this work by conducting a similar experiment with ash from the 640 ka Lava Creek Tuff (LCT, δD of -128 ‰; 2.1 wt.% H2Ot) eruption of Yellowstone to see if significantly older glass (with a hypothesized gel layer on the surface shielding the interior from alteration) produces the same results. We have experiments running at 70, 24, and 5 °C, and periodically remove ~1.5 mg of glass to measure the δD (‰) and H2Ot (wt.%) of water extracted from the glass on a TC/EA MAT 253 continuous flow system. After 600 hours, the δD of the samples left at 5 and 24 °C remains at -128 ‰, but increased 8‰ for the 70 °C run series. However, there is no measurable change in wt.% of H2Ot, indicating that hydrogen exchange is not dictated by the addition of water. We are measuring and will report further progress of isotope exchange. We also plan to analyze the water in the LCT glass for δ18O (‰) to see if, as is the case for the Mt. Mazama glass, the δ18O (‰) remains constant. We also analyzed Mt. Mazama glass from the Nolan and Bindeman (2013) experiments that have now been sitting in isotopically labeled water at room temperature for ~5 years. The water concentration is still unchanged (2.3 wt.% H2Ot), and the δD of the water in the glass is now -111 ‰, causing an increase of 38 ‰. Our preliminary results show that exchange of hydrogen isotopes of hydrated glass is not limited by the age of the glass, and that the testing of hydrogen isotopes of secondarily hydrated glass, regardless of age, may not be a reliable paleoclimate indicator.

  2. Applying Doubly Labeled Transition Systems to the Refinement Paradox

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Schmidt. Binary relations for abstraction and refinement. Technical Report KSU Report 2000-3 .8, Kansas State University, 2000. [6] Joseph Goguen and...abstraction. Artificial Intelli- gence, 57(2-3):323–390, 1992. [48] B Davey and H Priestley . Introduction To Lattices and Order. University of Oxford, 2nd...1977. [66] Joseph Goguen and J. Meseguer. Interference control and unwinding. In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 75–86, Oakland, CA, April

  3. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  5. Masses of doubly and triply charmed baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ke-Wei; Chen, Bing; Guo, Xin-Heng

    2015-10-01

    Until now, the first reported doubly charmed baryon Ξcc +(3520 ) is still a puzzle. It was discovered and confirmed by SELEX collaboration, but not confirmed by LHCb, BABAR, BELLE, FOCUS, or any other collaboration. In the present paper, by employing Regge phenomenology, we first express the mass of the ground state (L =0 ) doubly charmed baryon Ωcc *+ as a function of masses of the well established light baryons and singly charmed baryons. Inserting the recent experimental data, the mass of Ωcc *+ is given to be 3809 ±36 MeV , which is independent of any unobservable parameters. Then, with the quadratic mass relations, we calculate the masses of the ground state triply charmed baryon Ωcc c ++ and doubly charmed baryons Ξcc (*)++, Ξcc (*)+ , and Ωcc + [the mass of Ξcc + is determined as 3520-40+41 MeV , which agrees with the mass of Ξcc +(3520 ) ]. The isospin splitting MΞcc ++-MΞcc +=0.4 ±0.3 MeV . After that, masses of the orbitally excited (L =1 , 2, 3) doubly and triply charmed baryons are estimated. The results are reasonable comparing with those extracted in many other approaches. We suggest more efforts to study doubly and triply charmed baryons both theoretically and experimentally, not only for the abundance of baryon spectra, but also for numerically examining whether the linear mass relations or the quadratic mass relations are realized in nature. Our predictions are useful for the discovery of unobserved doubly and triply charmed baryon states and the JP assignment of these states.

  6. Doubly fed machine review: agenda. Conference report, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The visual aids presented at the doubly fed machine review are presented. The doubly fed machine is a generating system either for wind turbines or hydro systems. Conceptual design and trade-offs are included, as well as testing. (LEW)

  7. Co-Permeability of 3H-Labeled Water and 14C-Labeled Organic Acids across Isolated Plant Cuticles1

    PubMed Central

    Niederl, Sabine; Kirsch, Thomas; Riederer, Markus; Schreiber, Lukas

    1998-01-01

    Penetration of 3H-labeled water (3H2O) and the 14C-labeled organic acids benzoic acid ([14C]BA), salicylic acid ([14C]SA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([14C]2,4-D) were measured simultaneously in isolated cuticular membranes of Prunus laurocerasus L., Ginkgo biloba L., and Juglans regia L. For each of the three pairs of compounds (3H2O/[14C]BA, 3H2O/[14C]SA, and 3H2O/[14C]2,4-D) rates of cuticular water penetration were highly correlated with the rates of penetration of the organic acids. Therefore, water and organic acids penetrated the cuticles by the same routes. With the combination 3H2O/[14C]BA, co-permeability was measured with isolated cuticles of nine other plant species. Permeances of 3H2O of all 12 investigated species were highly correlated with the permeances of [14C]BA (r2 = 0.95). Thus, cuticular transpiration can be predicted from BA permeance. The application of this experimental method, together with the established prediction equation, offers the opportunity to answer several important questions about cuticular transport physiology in future investigations.

  8. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  9. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  10. Enrichment of H(2)(17)O from tap water, characterization of the enriched water, and properties of several (17)O-labeled compounds.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Brinda; Lewis, Andrew R; Plettner, Erika

    2011-01-01

    A low-abundance form of water, H(2)(17)O, was enriched from 0.04% to ∼90% by slow evaporation and fractional distillation of tap water. The density and refractive index for H(2)(17)O are reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of (16)O- and (17)O-1-hexanols and their trimethyl silyl ethers and of (16)O- and (17)O-hexamethyl disiloxanes was used to determine the percentage of (17)O enrichment in the H(2)(17)O. Furthermore, the chemical shifts of labeled and nonlabeled water dissolved in CDCl(3) differed sufficiently that we could verify the enrichment of H(2)(17)O. (17)O hexanol was synthesized by the reaction of iodohexane with Na(17)OH. (17)O-Labeled trimethylsilanol and (17)O-labeled hexamethyldisiloxane were prepared by the reaction of H(2)(17)O with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). To generate standards for (17)O NMR, H(2)(17)O(2), and (17)O camphor were prepared. H(2)(17)O was electrolyzed to form (17)O-labeled hydrogen peroxide which was quantified using two colorimetric assays. (17)O-Labeled camphor was prepared by exchanging the ketone oxygen of camphor using H(2)(17)O. The (17)O-labeled compounds were characterized using (17)O, (1)H, and (13)C NMR and GC-MS. While we were characterizing the labeled camphor, we also detected an unexpected oxygen exchange reaction of primary alcohols, catalyzed by electrophilic ketones such as camphor. The reaction is a displacement of the alcohol OH group by water. This is an example of the usefulness of (17)O NMR in the study of a reaction mechanism that has not been noticed previously.

  11. Measurement of protein synthesis using heavy water labeling and peptide mass spectrometry: Discrimination between major histocompatibility complex allotypes

    PubMed Central

    De Riva, Alessandra; Deery, Michael J.; McDonald, Sarah; Lund, Torben; Busch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Methodological limitations have hampered the use of heavy water (2H2O), a convenient, universal biosynthetic label, for measuring protein synthesis. Analyses of 2H-labeled amino acids are sensitive to contamination; labeling of peptides has been measured for a few serum proteins, but this approach awaits full validation. Here we describe a method for quantifying protein synthesis by peptide mass spectrometry (MS) after 2H2O labeling, as applied to various proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Human and murine antigen-presenting cells were cultured in medium containing 5% 2H2O; class I and class II MHC proteins were immunoprecipitated, bands were excised, and Ala-/Gly-rich, allele-specific tryptic peptides were identified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Mass isotopomer distributions were quantified precisely by LC–MS and shifted markedly on 2H2O labeling. Experimental data agreed closely with models obtained by mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) and were consistent with contributions from Ala, Gly, and other amino acids to labeling. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis from peptides of the same protein were precise and internally consistent. The method was capable of discriminating between MHC isotypes and alleles, applicable to primary cells, and readily extendable to other proteins. It simplifies measurements of protein synthesis, enabling novel applications in physiology, in genotype/phenotype interactions, and potentially in kinetic proteomics. PMID:20406617

  12. Temperature tuned doubly resonant OPO: Peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarutis, Vygandas; Jurkus, Karolis; Smilgevičius, Valerijus

    2017-01-01

    We show experimentally and theoretically that under some circumstances the doubly resonant OPO's output energy and spectrum periodically depend on the nonlinear crystal temperature. We explain these phenomena using a simple matrix formalism, and interpret them as oscillations between two states of light in the DRO cavity.

  13. On doubly stochastic rarefaction of renewal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. Yu.; Korchagin, A. Yu.; Zeifman, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    In the paper, the concepts of π-mixed geometric and π-mixed binomial distributions are introduced within the setting of Bernoulli trials with a random probability of success. A generalization of the Rényi theorem concerning the asymptotic behavior of rarefied renewal processes is proved for doubly stochastic rarefaction resulting in that the limit process is mixed Poisson.

  14. Doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lanying; Ren, Yong

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution to a class of doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations (DPNSFEs in short) under some non-Lipschitz conditions. The solution is constructed by successive approximation. Furthermore, we give the continuous dependence of the solution on the initial value by means of the corollary of Bihari inequality.

  15. Room-Temperature Distance Measurements of Immobilized Spin-Labeled Protein by DEER/PELDOR

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Virginia; Swanson, Michael A.; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Stein, Richard A.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Rajca, Andrzej; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide spin labels are used for double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements of distances between sites in biomolecules. Rotation of gem-dimethyls in commonly used nitroxides causes spin echo dephasing times (Tm) to be too short to perform DEER measurements at temperatures between ∼80 and 295 K, even in immobilized samples. A spirocyclohexyl spin label has been prepared that has longer Tm between 80 and 295 K in immobilized samples than conventional labels. Two of the spirocyclohexyl labels were attached to sites on T4 lysozyme introduced by site-directed spin labeling. Interspin distances up to ∼4 nm were measured by DEER at temperatures up to 160 K in water/glycerol glasses. In a glassy trehalose matrix the Tm for the doubly labeled T4 lysozyme was long enough to measure an interspin distance of 3.2 nm at 295 K, which could not be measured for the same protein labeled with the conventional 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-(methyl)methanethio-sulfonate label. PMID:25762332

  16. (Bio)degradation of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms - A stable isotope co-labeling approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Seiwert, Bettina; Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja; Schäffer, Andreas; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Yang, Qi; Nowak, Karolina M

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are frequently detected in water and sediments. Up to date, there are no comprehensive studies on the fate of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms according to OECD 308 guideline. Stable isotope co-labeled (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate was used to determine the turnover mass balance, formation of metabolites, and formation of residues over a period of 80 days. In the water-sediment system, 56% of the initial (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents was ultimately mineralized, whereas the mineralization in the water system (without sediment) was low, reaching only 2% of (13)C-glyphosate equivalents. This finding demonstrates the key role of sediments in its degradation. Glyphosate was detected below detection limit in the water compartment on day 40, but could still be detected in the sediments, ultimately reaching 5% of (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate equivalents. A rapid increase in (13)C(15)N-AMPA was noted after 10 days, and these transformation products ultimately constituted 26% of the (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents and 79% of the (15)N-glyphosate equivalents. In total, 10% of the (13)C label and 12% of the (15)N label were incorporated into amino acids, indicating no risk bearing biogenic residue formation from (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate. Initially, glyphosate was biodegraded via the sarcosine pathway related to microbial growth, as shown by co-labeled (13)C(15)N-glycine and biogenic residue formation. Later, degradation via AMPA dominated under starvation conditions, as shown by the contents of (13)C-glycine. The presented data provide the first evidence of the speciation of the non-extractable residues as well as the utilization of glyphosate as a carbon and nitrogen source in the water-sediment system. This study also highlights the contribution of both the sarcosine and the AMPA degradation pathways under these conditions.

  17. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... covered by this section shall be process yellow or equivalent and process black. The label shall be printed full bleed process yellow. All type and graphics shall be print process black. (d) Label types... volume (VT) as determined in accordance § 305.7. (5) Unless otherwise indicated in this...

  18. Water-soluble phosphines for direct labeling of peptides with technetium and rhenium: insights from electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Greenland, William E P; Blower, Philip J

    2005-01-01

    Direct labeling of salmon calcitonin (sCT) is possible in one step using water-soluble phosphines (sulfonated triphenylphosphines) as the reducing agent both for disulfide and for pertechnetate. Phosphines were the most efficient reducing agent for disulfide bonds among those examined. The phosphines both reduced the pertechnetate to Tc(III), and contributed to the technetium coordination sphere in the labeled product. In contrast, the phosphines did not reduce rhenium below oxidation state V, nor did they participate in the rhenium coordination sphere in the labeled peptide. Instead, the expected oxorhenium(V) moiety was incorporated. Both Tc and Re labeling processes gave rise to dimers with two peptides linked by the metal center, as well as simple monomeric species. Positive mode electrospray mass spectrometry not only revealed the presence of phosphine bound to technetium and oxygen bound to rhenium in the metallopeptides but also revealed the oxidation states of the metals. Electrospray mass spectrometry is proving to be an exceptionally valuable technique for characterizing radiopharmaceuticals. Although the one-step direct labeling method described gives mixed products and poor receptor affinity when applied to the small peptide sCT, it might be readily adapted to monoclonal antibodies.

  19. Entropy production of doubly stochastic quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Stilck França, Daniel Wolf, Michael M.

    2016-02-15

    We study the entropy increase of quantum systems evolving under primitive, doubly stochastic Markovian noise and thus converging to the maximally mixed state. This entropy increase can be quantified by a logarithmic-Sobolev constant of the Liouvillian generating the noise. We prove a universal lower bound on this constant that stays invariant under taking tensor-powers. Our methods involve a new comparison method to relate logarithmic-Sobolev constants of different Liouvillians and a technique to compute logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities of Liouvillians with eigenvectors forming a projective representation of a finite abelian group. Our bounds improve upon similar results established before and as an application we prove an upper bound on continuous-time quantum capacities. In the last part of this work we study entropy production estimates of discrete-time doubly stochastic quantum channels by extending the framework of discrete-time logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities to the quantum case.

  20. Entropy production of doubly stochastic quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Stilck França, Daniel; Wolf, Michael M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the entropy increase of quantum systems evolving under primitive, doubly stochastic Markovian noise and thus converging to the maximally mixed state. This entropy increase can be quantified by a logarithmic-Sobolev constant of the Liouvillian generating the noise. We prove a universal lower bound on this constant that stays invariant under taking tensor-powers. Our methods involve a new comparison method to relate logarithmic-Sobolev constants of different Liouvillians and a technique to compute logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities of Liouvillians with eigenvectors forming a projective representation of a finite abelian group. Our bounds improve upon similar results established before and as an application we prove an upper bound on continuous-time quantum capacities. In the last part of this work we study entropy production estimates of discrete-time doubly stochastic quantum channels by extending the framework of discrete-time logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities to the quantum case.

  1. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... size dimensions for all labels shall be as follows: width must be between 5 1/4 inches and 5 1/2 inches (13.34 cm. and 13.97 cm.); length must be between 7 3/8 inches (18.78 cm.) and 7 5/8 (19.34 cm.). Copy... process yellow or equivalent and process black. The label shall be printed full bleed process yellow....

  2. Heavy water labeling of keratin as a non-invasive biomarker of skin turnover in vivo in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Lindwall, Glen; Hsieh, Elaine A; Misell, Lisa M; Chai, Christine M; Turner, Scott M; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2006-04-01

    Measurement of skin turnover has been problematic in humans. Heavy water (2H2O) labeling has recently been developed as a safe, simple method to study in vivo kinetics of many biosynthetic processes, including DNA and protein synthesis. Here, we apply this approach to the measurement of 2H incorporation into skin keratin and show close agreement between keratin and keratinocyte turnover data in the epidermis of rodents. Elevated turnover rates of both keratin and keratinocytes were observed in the epidermis of the flaky skin mouse, although topical treatments effective in human psoriasis had no effect on either turnover rate in these mice. In humans, keratin turnover was monitored non-invasively by serial tape stripping during and after 2H2O labeling. Kinetic data were consistent with previous estimates of epidermal turnover, with a lag time of 18 days before label appeared at the skin surface and a transit time of 4-5 weeks. Variability in skin keratin turnover rates was present among healthy individuals. In summary, 2H2O labeling of skin keratin represents a non-invasive approach for assessing skin turnover dynamics in pre-clinical models and in human subjects.

  3. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Eddy M; Arunachalam, Sankara; Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-06-28

    Omniphobic surfaces, that is, which repel all known liquids, have proven of value in applications ranging from membrane distillation to underwater drag reduction. A limitation of currently employed omniphobic surfaces is that they rely on perfluorinated coatings, increasing cost and environmental impact and preventing applications in harsh environments. Thus, there is a keen interest in rendering conventional materials, such as plastics, omniphobic by micro/nanotexturing rather than via chemical makeup, with notable success having been achieved for silica surfaces with doubly reentrant micropillars. However, we found a critical limitation of microtextures comprising pillars that they undergo catastrophic wetting transitions (apparent contact angles, θr → 0° from θr > 90°) in the presence of localized physical damages/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. In response, a doubly reentrant cavity microtexture is introduced, which can prevent catastrophic wetting transitions in the presence of localized structural damage/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. Remarkably, our silica surfaces with doubly reentrant cavities could exhibit apparent contact angles, θr ≈ 135° for mineral oil, where the intrinsic contact angle, θo ≈ 20°. Further, when immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications of conventional materials without chemical modifications, especially in scenarios that are prone to localized damages or immersion in wetting liquids, for example, hydrodynamic drag reduction and membrane distillation.

  4. Is {sup 276}U a doubly magic nucleus?

    SciTech Connect

    Liliani, N. Sulaksono, A.

    2016-04-19

    We investigate a possible new doubly magic heavy nucleus by using a relativistic mean-field (RMF) model with the addition of a cross interaction term of omega-rho mesons and an electromagnetic exchange term. We propose that {sup 276}U is a doubly magic nucleus. The evidence for {sup 276}U being a doubly magic nucleus is shown through the two-nucleon gaps, the single-particle energies, and the neutron skin thickness of the nucleus. We have also found that the prediction of {sup 276}U as a doubly magic nucleus by the RMF model is not affected by the inclusion of isoscalar-isovector and electromagnetic exchange couplings.

  5. Using power spectrum analysis to evaluate (18)O-water labeling data acquired from low resolution mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sadygov, Rovshan G; Zhao, Yingxin; Haidacher, Sigmund J; Starkey, Jonathan M; Tilton, Ronald G; Denner, Larry

    2010-08-06

    We describe a method for ratio estimations in (18)O-water labeling experiments acquired from low resolution isotopically resolved data. The method is implemented in a software package specifically designed for use in experiments making use of zoom-scan mode data acquisition. Zoom-scan mode data allow commonly used ion trap mass spectrometers to attain isotopic resolution, which makes them amenable to use in labeling schemes such as (18)O-water labeling, but algorithms and software developed for high resolution instruments may not be appropriate for the lower resolution data acquired in zoom-scan mode. The use of power spectrum analysis is proposed as a general approach that may be uniquely suited to these data types. The software implementation uses a power spectrum to remove high-frequency noise and band-filter contributions from coeluting species of differing charge states. From the elemental composition of a peptide sequence, we generate theoretical isotope envelopes of heavy-light peptide pairs in five different ratios; these theoretical envelopes are correlated with the filtered experimental zoom scans. To automate peptide quantification in high-throughput experiments, we have implemented our approach in a computer program, MassXplorer. We demonstrate the application of MassXplorer to two model mixtures of known proteins and to a complex mixture of mouse kidney cortical extract. Comparison with another algorithm for ratio estimations demonstrates the increased precision and automation of MassXplorer.

  6. Using Power Spectrum Analysis to Evaluate 18O-Water Labeling Data Acquired from Low Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Sadygov, Rovshan G.; Zhao, Yingxin; Haidacher, Sigmund J.; Starkey, Jonathan M.; Tilton, Ronald G.; Denner, Larry

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for ratio estimations in 18O-water labeling experiments acquired from low resolution isotopically resolved data. The method is implemented in a software package specifically designed for use in experiments making use of zoom-scan mode data acquisition. Zoom-scan mode data allows commonly used ion trap mass spectrometers to attain isotopic resolution, which make them amenable to use in labeling schemes such as 18O-water labeling, but algorithms and software developed for high resolution instruments may not be appropriate for the lower resolution data acquired in zoom-scan mode. The use of power spectrum analysis is proposed as a general approach which may be uniquely suited to these data types. The software implementation uses power spectrum to remove high-frequency noise, and band-filter contributions from co-eluting species of differing charge states. From the elemental composition of a peptide sequence we generate theoretical isotope envelopes of heavy-light peptide pairs in five different ratios; these theoretical envelopes are correlated with the filtered experimental zoom scans. To automate peptide quantification in high-throughput experiments, we have implemented our approach in a computer program, MassXplorer. We demonstrate the application of MassXplorer to two model mixtures of known proteins, and to a complex mixture of mouse kidney cortical extract. Comparison with another algorithm for ratio estimations demonstrates the increased precision and automation of MassXplorer. PMID:20568695

  7. Methods for Scaling to Doubly Stochastic Form,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-26

    BIRKHOFF, G.: Tres observaciones sobre le algebra lineal , Rev. univ. nec. Tucuman, ser A, . 147-151, [1948] BRUALDI, R.A., S.V. PARTER, and H. SCHNEIDER...scaling square, nonnegative matrices to dou- bly stochastic form are described. A generalized version of the convergence theorem in SINKI-ORN and KNOPP... matrices D and E for a given square nonnegative matrix, A, such that DAE is doubly stochastic--or determine that such :.p h" du:es 7’. -,.xist. A

  8. NMR studies of the stability, protonation States, and tautomerism of (13)C- AND (15)N-labeled aldimines of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in water.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Sharif, Shasad; Tolstoy, Peter M; Toney, Michael D; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2010-12-28

    We have measured the pH-dependent (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR spectra of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate ((13)C(2)-PLP) mixed with equal amounts of either doubly (15)N-labeled diaminopropane, (15)N(α)-labeled l-lysine, or (15)N(ε)-labeled l-lysine as model systems for various intermediates of the transimination reaction in PLP-dependent enzymes. At low pH, only the hydrate and aldehyde forms of PLP and the free protonated diamines are present. Above pH 4, the formation of single- and double-headed aldimines (Schiff bases) with the added diamines is observed, and their (13)C and (15)N NMR parameters have been characterized. For 1:1 mixtures the single-headed aldimines dominate. In a similar way, the NMR parameters of the geminal diamine formed with diaminopropane at high pH are measured. However, no geminal diamine is formed with l-lysine. In contrast to the aldimine formed with the ε-amino group of lysine, the aldimine formed with the α-amino group is unstable at moderately high pH but dominates slightly below pH 10. By analyzing the NMR data, both the mole fractions of the different PLP species and up to 6 different protonation states including their pK(a) values were obtained. Furthermore, the data show that all Schiff bases are subject to a proton tautomerism along the intramolecular OHN hydrogen bond, where the zwitterionic form is favored before deprotonation occurs at high pH. This observation, as well as the observation that around pH 7 the different PLP species are present in comparable amounts, sheds new light on the mechanism of the transimination reaction.

  9. Tracing nitrogenous disinfection byproducts after medium pressure UV water treatment by stable isotope labeling and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Annemieke; Martijn, Bram J; Vughs, Dennis; Baken, Kirsten A; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-04-07

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides) in (drinking) water treatment. Studies indicate that medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 treatment leads to a positive response in Ames mutagenicity tests, which is then removed after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. The formed potentially mutagenic substances were hitherto not identified and may result from the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic material (NOM). In this study we present an innovative approach to trace the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of MP UV water treatment, based on stable isotope labeled nitrate combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. It was shown that after MP UV treatment of artificial water containing NOM and nitrate, multiple nitrogen containing substances were formed. In total 84 N-DBPs were detected at individual concentrations between 1 to 135 ng/L bentazon-d6 equivalents, with a summed concentration of 1.2 μg/L bentazon-d6 equivalents. The chemical structures of three byproducts were confirmed. Screening for the 84 N-DBPs in water samples from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant based on MP UV/H2O2 treatment showed that 22 of the N-DBPs found in artificial water were also detected in real water samples.

  10. Double photoionization of doubly-excited lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, G.; Pindzola, M. S.; Kheifets, A.; Schuricke, M.; Veeravalli, G.; Dornes, Ch.; Zhu, G.; Joachimsmeyer, K.; Treusch, R.; Dorn, A.; Colgan, J.

    2012-06-01

    We present triple differential cross sections and recoil ion momentum distributions for double photoionization of the 1s2s2p state of lithium. Double ionization of lithium may be treated as a two-active-electron process, where the ``active'' 2s and 2p electrons move in the field of the ``frozen-core'' Li^2+ 1s state.The time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) method is used to solve the two-electron time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in full dimensionality. This work is motivated by recent FLASH experiments, which have obtained recoil-ion momentum distributions at a photon energy of 59 eV, where the 1s2s2p state is first reached via a 1s-2p photoexcitation from the initial ground state, and may then be doubly-ionized after the absorption of a second photon. The TDCC calculations in this work treat the subsequent photoionization of this doubly-excited state. The results are compared to those obtained by the convergent close-coupling method and to measurement, and provide a first comparison between theory and experiment in this fundamental few-photon few-body problem.

  11. A novel single-labeled fluorescent oligonucleotide probe for silver(I) ion detection in water, drugs, and food.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liujiao; Ji, Xu; Hu, Wei

    2014-05-28

    Due to the high toxicity of silver(I) ions, a method for the rapid, sensitive, and selective detection for silver(I) ions in water, pharmaceutical products, and food is of great importance. Herein, a novel single-labeled fluorescent oligonucleotide (OND) probe based on cytosine-Ag(I)-cytosine coordination and the inherent fluorescence quenching ability of the G-quadruplex is designed to detect silver(I) ions. The formation of a hairpin structure in the OND-Ag(I) complex brings the hexachloro fluorescein (HEX) labeled at the 5'-end of the OND probe close to the G-quadruplex located at the 3'-end of the OND probe, leading to a fluorescence quenching due to photoinduced electron transfer between HEX and the G-quadruplex. Through this method, silver(I) ions can be detected quantitatively, the linear response range is from 1 to 100 nmol/L with a detection limit of 50 pmol/L, and no obvious interference occurs with other metal ions with a 10-fold concentration. This assay is simple, sensitive, and selective, and it can be used to detect silver(I) ions in actual water, drug, and food samples.

  12. Detection of Cu2+ in Water Based on Histidine-Gold Labeled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rilong; Zhou, Gangqiang; Tang, Fengxia; Wang, Yeyao

    2017-01-01

    Based on the strong interaction between histidine and copper ions and the signal enhancement effect of gold-labeling carbon nanotubes, an electrochemical sensor is established and used to measure copper ions in river water. In this study the results show that the concentrations of copper ion have well linear relationship with the peak current in the range of 10−11–10−7 mol/L, and the limit of detection is 10−12 mol/L. When using this method to detect copper ions in the Xiangjiang River, the test results are consistent with the atomic absorption method. This study shows that the sensor is convenient to be used in daily monitoring of copper ions in river water. PMID:28408929

  13. Detection of Cu(2+) in Water Based on Histidine-Gold Labeled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rilong; Zhou, Gangqiang; Tang, Fengxia; Tong, Chunyi; Wang, Yeyao; Wang, Jinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the strong interaction between histidine and copper ions and the signal enhancement effect of gold-labeling carbon nanotubes, an electrochemical sensor is established and used to measure copper ions in river water. In this study the results show that the concentrations of copper ion have well linear relationship with the peak current in the range of 10(-11)-10(-7 )mol/L, and the limit of detection is 10(-12 )mol/L. When using this method to detect copper ions in the Xiangjiang River, the test results are consistent with the atomic absorption method. This study shows that the sensor is convenient to be used in daily monitoring of copper ions in river water.

  14. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other

  15. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of water-deficit-stressed midmature peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed.

    PubMed

    Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A; Payton, Paxton

    2013-11-01

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. A comprehensive understanding of seed metabolism and the effects of water-deficit stress on the incorporation of the main storage reserves in seeds, such as proteins, fatty acids, starch, and secondary metabolites, will enhance our ability to improve seed quality and yield through molecular breeding programs. In the present study, we employed a label-free quantitative proteomics approach to study the functional proteins altered in the midmature (65-70 days postanthesis) peanut seed grown under water-deficit stress conditions. We created a pod-specific proteome database and identified 93 nonredundant, statistically significant, and differentially expressed proteins between well-watered and drought-stressed seeds. Mapping of these differential proteins revealed three candidate biological pathways (glycolysis, sucrose and starch metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism) that were significantly altered due to water-deficit stress. Differential accumulation of proteins from these pathways provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed physiological changes, which include reductions in pod yield and biomass, reduced germination, reduced vigor, decreased seed membrane integrity, increase in storage proteins, and decreased total fatty acid content. Some of the proteins encoding rate limiting enzymes of biosynthetic pathways could be utilized by breeders to improve peanut seed production during water-deficit conditions in the field. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000308.

  16. First observation of doubly charmed baryons

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Moinester et al.

    2003-09-25

    The SELEX experiment (E781) at Fermilab has observed two statistically compelling high mass states near 3.6 GeV/c{sup 2}, decaying to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. These final states are Cabibbo-allowed decay modes of doubly charmed baryons {Xi}{sub cc}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++}, respectively. The masses are in the range expected from theoretical considerations, but the spectroscopy is surprising. SELEX also has weaker preliminary evidence for a state near 3.8 GeV/c{sup 2}, a high mass state decaying to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}, possibly an excited {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++} (ccu*). Data are presented and discussed.

  17. Levels in doubly odd 138Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhowal, Samit; Bhowmik, R. K.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Ghosh, P.; Goswami, A.; Petrache, C.; Mukherjee, A.; Muralithar, S.; Raut, Rajarshi; Saha Sarkar, M.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-05-01

    The band structures of the doubly odd 138Pr nucleus have been investigated using the 128Te(14N, 4n)138Pr reaction at a beam energy of 55-65 MeV. Altogether six distinct structures have been established, of which the lower part of the yrast band and two side bands were known from earlier works. The observed level properties of the members of the yrast band have been compared with theoretical calculations performed within the Particle Rotor Model (PRM) with axially symmetric core. The experimental branching ratios and B(M1)/B(E2) values when compared with the theoretical results of the PRM, suggest an oblate core.

  18. Gravitational waves in doubly coupled bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Noller, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    We consider gravitational waves from the point of view of both their production and their propagation in doubly coupled bigravity in the metric formalism. In bigravity, the two gravitons are coupled by a nondiagonal mass matrix and show birefrigence. In particular, we find that one of the two gravitons propagates with a speed which differs from one. This deviation is tightly constrained by both the gravitational Cerenkov effect and the energy loss of binary pulsars. When emitted from astrophysical sources, the Jordan frame gravitational wave, which is a linear combination of the two propagating gravitons, has a wave form displaying beats. The best prospect of detecting this phenomenon would come from nano-Hertz interferometric experiments.

  19. Drifting localized structures in doubly diffusive convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Edgar; Lo Jacono, David; Bergeon, Alain

    2016-11-01

    We use numerical continuation to compute a multiplicity of spatially localized states in doubly diffusive convection in a vertical slot driven by imposed horizontal temperature and concentration differences. The calculations focus on the so-called opposing case, in which the resulting gradients are in balance. No-slip boundary conditions are used at the sides and periodic boundary conditions with large spatial period are used in the vertical direction. This system exhibits homoclinic snaking of stationary spatially localized structures with point symmetry. In this talk we demonstrate the existence, near threshold, of drifting pulses of spatially localized convection that appear when mixed concentration boundary conditions are used, and use homotopic continuation to identify similar states in the case of fixed concentration boundary conditions. We show that these states persist to large values of the Grasshof number and provide a detailed study of their properties.

  20. Doubly Magic Optical Trapping for Cs Atom Hyperfine Clock Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, A. W.; Saffman, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze doubly magic trapping of Cs hyperfine transitions including previously neglected contributions from the ground state hyperpolarizability and the interaction of the laser light and a static magnetic field. Extensive numerical searches do not reveal any doubly magic trapping conditions for any pair of hyperfine states. However, including the hyperpolarizability reveals light intensity insensitive traps for a wide range of wavelengths at specific intensities. We then investigate the use of bichromatic trapping light fields. Deploying a bichromatic scheme, we demonstrate doubly magic red and blue detuned traps for pairs of states separated by one or two single photon transitions.

  1. Temporal partitioning among diurnally and nocturnally active desert spiny mice: energy and water turnover costs.

    PubMed

    Kronfeld-Schor, N; Shargal, E; Haim, A; Dayan, T; Zisapel, N; Heldmaier, G

    2001-04-01

    Nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnally active A. russatus coexist in hot rocky deserts. Diurnal and nocturnal activity exposes them to different climatic challenges. A doubly-labelled water field study revealed no significant differences in water turnover between the species at all seasons, reflecting the adaptations of A. russatus to water conservation. In summers the energy expenditure of A. russatus tended to be higher than that of A. cahirinus. Energy requirements of A. cahirinus in winter are double than that of A. russatus, and may reflect the cost of thermoregulating during cold nights.

  2. SVM model for quality assessment of medium resolution mass spectra from 18O-water labeling experiments.

    PubMed

    Nefedov, Alexey V; Gilski, Miroslaw J; Sadygov, Rovshan G

    2011-04-01

    We describe a method for assessing the quality of mass spectra and improving reliability of relative ratio estimations from (18)O-water labeling experiments acquired from low resolution mass spectrometers. The mass profiles of heavy and light peptide pairs are often affected by artifacts, including coeluting contaminant species, noise signal, instrumental fluctuations in measuring ion position and abundance levels. Such artifacts distort the profiles, leading to erroneous ratio estimations, thus reducing the reliability of ratio estimations in high throughput quantification experiments. We used support vector machines (SVMs) to filter out mass spectra that deviated significantly from expected theoretical isotope distributions. We built an SVM classifier with a decision function that assigns a score to every mass profile based on such spectral features as mass accuracy, signal-to-noise ratio, and differences between experimental and theoretical isotopic distributions. The classifier was trained using a data set obtained from samples of mouse renal cortex. We then tested it on protein samples (bovine serum albumin) mixed in five different ratios of labeled and unlabeled species. We demonstrated that filtering the data using our SVM classifier results in as much as a 9-fold reduction in the coefficient of variance of peptide ratios, thus significantly improving the reliability of ratio estimations.

  3. Doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions: solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jenny; Chan, Po Shan; Sun, Caiming; Wing Ho, Choi; Tam, Wing Yim

    2010-04-01

    We have fabricated doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions using a double-exposure two-beam interference from two light sources with different wavelengths. The doubly slanted layers, with different spacings and overlapping with each other, are fabricated such that they are slanted in opposite directions making a 30° angle with the holographic plate. The doubly slanted layer structures exhibit photonic stop bands corresponding to the two layered structures. More importantly, diffracted light beams from the slanted layers travel in different directions and emerge, through internal reflections, at the opposite edges of the gelatin plate. The doubly slanted layer structures could be used as solar concentrators such that sunlight is separated into different components and steered directly to photovoltaics with the corresponding wavelength sensitivities to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  4. Signatures of doubly-charged Higgsinos at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Demir, D. A.; Frank, M.; Turan, I.; Huitu, K.; Rai, S. K.

    2008-11-23

    Several supersymmetric models with extended gauge structures predict light doubly-charged Higgsinos. Their distinctive signature at the large hadron collider is highlighted by studying its production and decay characteristics.

  5. Masses and axial currents of the doubly charmed baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Zhan-Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2015-05-01

    The chiral dynamics of the doubly heavy baryons is solely governed by the light quark. In this paper, we have derived the chiral corrections to the mass of the doubly heavy baryons up to N3LO . The mass splitting of Ξc c and Ωc c at the N2LO depends on one unknown low energy constant c7. By fitting the lattice masses of Ξc c(3520 ), we estimate the mass of Ωc c to be around 3.726 GeV. Moreover, we have also performed a systematical analysis of the chiral corrections to the axial currents and axial charges of the doubly heavy baryons. The chiral structure and analytical expressions will be very useful to the chiral extrapolations of the future lattice QCD simulations of the doubly heavy baryons.

  6. Doubly Fed Induction Machine Control For Wind Energy Conversion System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Induction Generator (DFIG), Voltage Source Inverter (VSI), Space Vector Modulation (SVM), Wind Turbine, Field Programmable Gate Array ( FPGA ), Wind...basics of using a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) to convert the mechanical energy of the wind into useful electrical power that can be used to...thesis covers the basics of using a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) to convert the mechanical energy of the wind into useful electrical power

  7. Searching for doubly-charged Higgs bosons at future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, J.F.; Loomis, C.; Pitts, K.T.

    1996-10-01

    Doubly-charged Higgs bosons ({Delta}{sup --}/{Delta}{sup ++}) appear in several extensions to the Standard Model and can be relatively light. We review the theoretical motivation for these states and present a study of the discovery reach in future runs of the Fermilab Tevatron for pair-produced doubly-charged Higgs bosons decaying to like-sign lepton pairs. We also comment on the discovery potential at other future colliders. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Heavy water and 15N labeling with NanoSIMS analysis reveals growth-rate dependent metabolic heterogeneity in chemostats

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Shawn E.; Green-Saxena, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    To measure single cell microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns in environmental systems, we employ a new technique using stable isotope labeling of microbial populations with heavy water (a passive tracer) and 15N ammonium in combination with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry. We demonstrate simultaneous NanoSIMS analysis of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen at high spatial and mass resolution, and report calibration data linking single cell isotopic compositions to the corresponding bulk isotopic equivalents for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results show that heavy water is capable of quantifying in situ single cell microbial activities ranging from generational time scales of minutes to years, with only light isotopic incorporation (∼0.1 atom % 2H). Applying this approach to study the rates of fatty acid biosynthesis by single cells of S. aureus growing at different rates in chemostat culture (∼6 hours, 1 day and 2 week generation times), we observe the greatest anabolic activity diversity in the slowest growing populations. By using heavy water to constrain cellular growth activity, we can further infer the relative contributions of ammonium vs. amino acid assimilation to the cellular nitrogen pool. The approach described here can be applied to disentangle individual cell activities even in nutritionally complex environments. PMID:25655651

  9. Performance optimization for doubly-fed generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Shibashis

    A variable speed generation (VSG) system converts energy from a variable resource such as wind or water flow into variable rotational mechanical energy of a turbine or a similar device that converts translational kinetic energy into rotational mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy by an electrical generator. Presently available and proposed generators include systems based mainly on dc machines, synchronous and induction machine technology as well as reluctance machines. While extracting more energy from the resource, most proposed VSG systems suffer a cost disadvantage due to the required rating of the power electronic interface. This cost penalty may eventually render the additional energy capture meaningless. Thus, reducing the cost of the power electronic hardware is essential for VSG systems to achieve viable and competitive $/kWh ratios when compared to fossil fuel-based generating systems. A variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system and controller are proposed that utilize a doubly-fed machine (DFM) as the energy conversion device. The system includes a power converter that provides the current excitation for the control winding of the DFM. Both the magnitude and frequency of the excitation is determined by an adaptive model-based controller which maximizes the power flow from the mechanical turbine to the electrical grid and reduces the generator losses by maintaining the maximum efficiency point throughout the mechanical input power range. The proposed strategy has been experimentally verified in controlled laboratory conditions for a proof-of-concept brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) system of 1500 Watts power rating. Issues relating to power converter development and its incorporation in the system have been investigated. The controller and circuit design of a four quadrant, AC/AC power converter is presented and a novel sensorless current controller for the active rectifier stage is presented in detail

  10. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-03-28

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours.

  11. Use of isotopically labeled fertilizer to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate and transport of a single N fertilizer application through plants, soil, runoff, and the unsaturated and saturated zones was determined for four years at a field site under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) management. Claypan soils, which underlie the site, were hypothesized to restrict the movement of agrichemicals from the soil surface to ground water. However, N fertilizer moved rapidly through preferential flow paths in the soil and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Most N transport occurred during the fall and winter when crops were not available to use excess N. Forty months after application, 33 percent of the fertilizer had been removed by grain harvests, 30 percent had been transpired to the atmosphere, and 33 percent had migrated to ground water. Although runoff volumes were 50 percent greater than infiltration, less than 2 percent of the fertilizer was lost to runoff. Small measured denitrification rates and large measured dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water favor the long-term stability of NO3-1 in ground water. Successive fertilizer applications, in areas that lack the ability to moderate N concentrations through consumptive N reactions, risk the potential of N-saturated ecosystems.

  12. Experimental investigation of rates and mechanisms of isotope exchange (O, H) between volcanic ash and isotopically-labeled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Gary S.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2013-06-01

    The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in hydrous minerals and volcanic glass are routinely used as paleo-proxies to infer the isotopic values of meteoric waters and thus paleo-climatic conditions. We report a series of long-term exposure experiments of distal 7700 BP Mt. Mazama ash (-149‰ δ2H, +7‰ δ18O, 3.8 wt.% H2O) with isotopically-labeled water (+650‰ δ2H, +56‰ δ18O). Experiments were done at 70, 40 and 20 °C, and ranged in duration from 1 to 14454 h (˜20 months), to evaluate the rates of deuterium and 18O exchange, and investigate the relative role of exchange and diffusion. We also investigate the effect of drying on H2Otot and δ2H in native and reacted ash that can be used in defining the protocols for natural sample preparation. We employ Thermal Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TCEA) mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis and a KBr pellet technique with infrared spectroscopy to measure the evolution of δ2H, total water, and OH water peaks in the course of exposure experiments, and in varying lengths of vacuum drying. Time series experiments aided by infrared measurements demonstrate the following new results: (i) It wasobserved that from 5 to >100‰ δ2H increases with time, with faster deuterium exchange at higher temperatures. Times at 15% of theoretical "full δ2H exchange" are: 15.8 years at 20 °C, 5.2 years at 40 °C, and 0.4 years at 70 °C. (ii) Even at extended exposure durations experiments show no net increase in water weight percent nor in δ18O in ash; water released from ash rapidly by thermal decomposition is not enriched in δ18O. This observation clearly suggests that it is hydrogen exchange, and not water addition or oxygen exchange that characterizes the process. (iii) Our time series drying, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-KBr and Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) analyses collectively suggest a simple mechanistic view that there are three kinds of "water" in ash: water (mostly H2O) that is less strongly bonded

  13. Mechanical Properties of Doubly Stabilized Microtubule Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Taviare L.; Sept, David; Mogessie, Binyam; Straube, Anne; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments responsible for cell morphology and intracellular organization. Their dynamical and mechanical properties are regulated through the nucleotide state of the tubulin dimers and the binding of drugs and/or microtubule-associated proteins. Interestingly, microtubule-stabilizing factors have differential effects on microtubule mechanics, but whether stabilizers have cumulative effects on mechanics or whether one effect dominates another is not clear. This is especially important for the chemotherapeutic drug Taxol, an important anticancer agent and the only known stabilizer that reduces the rigidity of microtubules. First, we ask whether Taxol will combine additively with another stabilizer or whether one stabilizer will dominate another. We call microtubules in the presence of Taxol and another stabilizer, doubly stabilized. Second, since Taxol is often added to a number of cell types for therapeutic purposes, it is important from a biomedical perspective to understand how Taxol added to these systems affects the mechanical properties in treated cells. To address these questions, we use the method of freely fluctuating filaments with our recently developed analysis technique of bootstrapping to determine the distribution of persistence lengths of a large population of microtubules treated with different stabilizers, including Taxol, guanosine-5′ [(α, β)-methyleno] triphosphate, guanosine-5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), tau, and MAP4. We find that combinations of these stabilizers have novel effects on the mechanical properties of microtubules. PMID:23561528

  14. Learning doubly sparse transforms for images.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Saiprasad; Bresler, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    The sparsity of images in a transform domain or dictionary has been exploited in many applications in image processing. For example, analytical sparsifying transforms, such as wavelets and discrete cosine transform (DCT), have been extensively used in compression standards. Recently, synthesis sparsifying dictionaries that are directly adapted to the data have become popular especially in applications such as image denoising. Following up on our recent research, where we introduced the idea of learning square sparsifying transforms, we propose here novel problem formulations for learning doubly sparse transforms for signals or image patches. These transforms are a product of a fixed, fast analytic transform such as the DCT, and an adaptive matrix constrained to be sparse. Such transforms can be learnt, stored, and implemented efficiently. We show the superior promise of our learnt transforms as compared with analytical sparsifying transforms such as the DCT for image representation. We also show promising performance in image denoising that compares favorably with approaches involving learnt synthesis dictionaries such as the K-SVD algorithm. The proposed approach is also much faster than K-SVD denoising.

  15. Time reversal communication over doubly spread channels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Xue

    2012-11-01

    Conventional time reversal can mitigate multipath delay dispersion by temporal focusing. But it is not applicable to time-varying channels with a Doppler spread. Although recently time reversal communication has been adapted to time-variant channels, the modified technique requires frequent channel updates to track channel variations and cannot handle large Doppler spread, which means that it cannot achieve frequency focusing. In this paper, two time reversal receivers for underwater acoustic communications over doubly spread channels are proposed. The proposed approach, which can be interpreted as time-frequency channel matching, is based on the channel spreading function rather than impulse response adopted by the existing techniques; this leads to much less frequent channel updates. Unlike existing methods that only correct a single Doppler shift, the proposed approach uses a rake-like structure to compensate for multiple Doppler shifts and hence can eliminate severe Doppler spread induced by temporal channel variations. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, indicating that it can simultaneously counteract delay and Doppler spreads, achieving both temporal and frequency focusing.

  16. Aromaticity of the doubly charged [8]circulenes.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V; Valiev, Rashid R; Karaush, Nataliya N; Sundholm, Dage; Minaev, Boris F

    2016-04-07

    Magnetically induced current densities and current pathways have been calculated for a series of fully annelated dicationic and dianionic tetraphenylenes, which are also named [8]circulenes. The gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method has been employed for calculating the current density susceptibilities. The aromatic character and current pathways are deduced from the calculated current density susceptibilities showing that the neutral [8]circulenes have two concentric pathways with aromatic and antiaromatic character, respectively. The inner octatetraene core (the hub) is found to sustain a paratropic (antiaromatic) ring current, whereas the ring current along the outer part of the macrocycle (the rim) is diatropic (aromatic). The neutral [8]circulenes can be considered nonaromatic, because the sum of the ring-current strengths of the hub and the rim almost vanishes. The aromatic character of the doubly charged [8]circulenes is completely different: the dianionic [8]circulenes and the OC-, CH-, CH2-, SiH-, GeH-, SiH2-, and GeH2-containing dicationic species sustain net diatropic ring currents i.e., they are aromatic, whereas the O-, S-, Se-, NH-, PH- and AsH-containing dicationic [8]circulenes are strongly antiaromatic. The present study also shows that GIMIC calculations on the [8]circulenes provide more accurate information about the aromatic character than that obtained using local indices such as nuclear-independent chemical shifts (NICSs) and (1)H NMR chemical shifts.

  17. Mechanical properties of doubly stabilized microtubule filaments.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Taviare L; Sept, David; Mogessie, Binyam; Straube, Anne; Ross, Jennifer L

    2013-04-02

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments responsible for cell morphology and intracellular organization. Their dynamical and mechanical properties are regulated through the nucleotide state of the tubulin dimers and the binding of drugs and/or microtubule-associated proteins. Interestingly, microtubule-stabilizing factors have differential effects on microtubule mechanics, but whether stabilizers have cumulative effects on mechanics or whether one effect dominates another is not clear. This is especially important for the chemotherapeutic drug Taxol, an important anticancer agent and the only known stabilizer that reduces the rigidity of microtubules. First, we ask whether Taxol will combine additively with another stabilizer or whether one stabilizer will dominate another. We call microtubules in the presence of Taxol and another stabilizer, doubly stabilized. Second, since Taxol is often added to a number of cell types for therapeutic purposes, it is important from a biomedical perspective to understand how Taxol added to these systems affects the mechanical properties in treated cells. To address these questions, we use the method of freely fluctuating filaments with our recently developed analysis technique of bootstrapping to determine the distribution of persistence lengths of a large population of microtubules treated with different stabilizers, including Taxol, guanosine-5' [(α, β)-methyleno] triphosphate, guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), tau, and MAP4. We find that combinations of these stabilizers have novel effects on the mechanical properties of microtubules.

  18. Comparison of cerebral blood flow measurement with [15O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fan, Audrey P; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cerebral blood flow provides critical information to understand normal brain physiology as well as to identify and manage patients with neurological disorders. To date, the reference standard for cerebral blood flow measurements is considered to be positron emission tomography using injection of the [(15)O]-water radiotracer. Although [(15)O]-water has been used to study brain perfusion under normal and pathological conditions, it is not widely used in clinical settings due to the need for an on-site cyclotron, the invasive nature of arterial blood sampling, and experimental complexity. As an alternative, arterial spin labeling is a promising magnetic resonance imaging technique that magnetically labels arterial blood as it flows into the brain to map cerebral blood flow. As arterial spin labeling becomes more widely adopted in research and clinical settings, efforts have sought to standardize the method and validate its cerebral blood flow values against positron emission tomography-based cerebral blood flow measurements. The purpose of this work is to critically review studies that performed both [(15)O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling to measure brain perfusion, with the aim of better understanding the accuracy and reproducibility of arterial spin labeling relative to the positron emission tomography reference standard.

  19. Deuterium labeling of soil water movement in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel; Koeniger, Paul; Hamutoko, Josefina; Uugulu, Shoopi; Wanke, Heike; Lohe, Christoph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Billib, Max

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater recharge estimations in semi-arid areas are challenging, especially in developing countries such as large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, where data is generally scarce. Due to high heterogeneity in soil characteristics, vegetation and land use as well as spatially and temporally highly variable rainfall, precise site studies are necessary in order to characterize processes and quantify groundwater recharge rates. The stable isotope deuterium, 2H has been shown to be particularly suitable for such investigations. In this study, a field experiment using deuterium as an artificial tracer (2H2O, 70% deuterated water) was conducted to characterize movement of water during and after a synthetic rain event. The study was carried out in the framework of the project SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management) in the Niipele catchment of the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia at two locations differing in both soil and vegetation type: A forest site dominated by terminalia sericea, baikiaea plurijuga, burkea africana and acacia erioloba with deep pure sand soil and a shrub-/woodland site characterized by smaller burkea africana, borchemia discolor and acacia erioloba on a dark loamy sand soil underlain by a thick layer of calcrete. At both locations, soils were first saturated to trigger typical rainy season conditions and avoid immediate evaporation of the deuterated water. Subsequently, 500 ml of 2H2O was applied homogenously over a 0.25 m2 test plot at 25 cm depth. Finally, a 10 mm artificial rain event was applied onto the plot. Soil samples were collected every 10 cm to a maximum depth of 2.5 m with an Eijkelkamp hand auger after 1, 2, and 5 (respective 10) days. From these, soil water is extracted in the laboratory and subsequently analyzed for deuterium concentrations using a Picarro L2120-i cavity-ringdown (CRD) water vapor analyzer after vaporization. Additionally, grain size distribution, water content

  20. Water-induced degradation of polymer solar cells studied by H2(18)O labeling.

    PubMed

    Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren A; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Water-induced degradation of polymer photovoltaics based on the active materials poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) was studied. The solar cell devices comprised a bulk heterojunction formed by the active material and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in a standard device geometry. The use of H2(18)O in conjunction with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry enabled mapping of the parts of the device that were induced by water. A comparison was made between the two active materials and between devices that were kept in the dark and devices that had been subjected to illumination under simulated sunlight. Devices that were exposed to ambient humidity were compared to devices exposed to saturated humidity. Finally, a comparison was made between results obtained using H2(18)O and earlier work involving 18O2. Water was found to have behavior similar to but not identical with molecular oxygen.

  1. Fate of the (14)C-labeled herbicide prosulfocarb in a soil and in a sediment-water system.

    PubMed

    Braun, Karsten E; Luks, Ann-Katrin; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2017-02-01

    The fate of (14)C-labeled herbicide prosulfocarb was studied in an agricultural soil and in a sediment-water system, the sediment part of which was derived from Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Time-course studies were performed for 28 d and 49 d, respectively. Main transformation routes of (14)C-prosulfocarb were mineralization to (14)CO2 and formation of nonextractable residues amounting to 12.13% and 10.43%, respectively, after 28 days (soil), and 9.40% and 11.98%, respectively, after 49 d (sediment-water system). Traces of prosulfocarbsulfoxide were detected by means of TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS; other transformation products were not found. Initial extraction of soil assays using 0.01 M CaCl2 solution showed that the bioavailability of the herbicide was considerably low; immediately after application (0.1 d of incubation), only 4.78% of applied radioactivity were detected in this aqueous fraction. DT50 values of (14)C-prosulfocarb estimated from radio-TLC and -HPLC analyses were above 28 d in soil and ranged between 29 d and 49 d in the sediment-water system. Partitioning of (14)C from water to sediment phase occurred with DT50 slightly above 2 d. With regard to the sediment-water system, adsorption occurred with log Koc = 1.38 (calculated from 2 day assays) and 2.35 (49 d assays). As similarly estimated from portions of (14)C found in CaCl2 extracts of the 0.1 d assays, (14)C-prosulfocarb's log Koc in soil was 2.96. With both experiments, similar portions of nonextractable radioactivity were associated with all soil organic matter fractions, i.e. nonhumics, fulvic acids, humic acids, and humin/minerals. Throughout all sample preparation, the experiments were severely impaired by losses of radioactivity especially with concentration of samples containing water in vacuo. All findings pointed to volatility of parent prosulfocarb in presence of water rather than volatility of transformation products. According to literature data, this behavior of

  2. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  3. Indirect MRI of (17) o-labeled water using steady-state sequences: Signal simulation and preclinical experiment.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Kohsuke; Harada, Taisuke; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Uwano, Ikuko; Yamashita, Fumio; Higuchi, Satomi; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Sasaki, Makoto

    2017-08-31

    Few studies have been reported for T2 -weighted indirect (17) O imaging. To evaluate the feasibility of steady-state sequences for indirect (17) O brain imaging. Signal simulation, phantom measurements, and prospective animal experiments were performed in accordance with the institutional guidelines for animal experiments. Signal simulations of balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) were performed for concentrations of (17) O ranging from 0.037-1.600%. Phantom measurements with concentrations of (17) O water ranging from 0.037-1.566% were also conducted. Six healthy beagle dogs were scanned with intravenous administration of 20% (17) O-labeled water (1 mL/kg). Dynamic 3D-bSSFP scans were performed at 3T MRI. (17) O-labeled water was injected 60 seconds after the scan start, and the total scan duration was 5 minutes. Based on the result of signal simulation and phantom measurement, signal changes in the beagle dogs were measured and converted into (17) O concentrations. The (17) O concentrations were averaged for every 15 seconds, and compared to the baseline (30-45 sec) with Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Signal simulation revealed that the relationships between (17) O concentration and the natural logarithm of relative signals were linear. The intraclass correlation coefficient between relative signals in phantom measurement and signal simulations was 0.974. In the animal experiments, significant increases in (17) O concentration (P < 0.05) were observed 60 seconds after the injection of (17) O. At the end of scanning, mean respective (17) O concentrations of 0.084 ± 0.026%, 0.117 ± 0.038, 0.082 ± 0.037%, and 0.049 ± 0.004% were noted for the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, cerebral white matter, and ventricle. Dynamic steady-state sequences were feasible for indirect (17) O imaging, and absolute quantification was possible. This method can be applied for the measurement of permeability and blood flow in the brain, and for

  4. Label-Free Electrical Immunosensor for Highly Sensitive and Specific Detection of Microcystin-LR in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Tan, Feng; Saucedo, Nuvia Maria; Ramnani, Pankaj; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-08-04

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is one of the most commonly detected and toxic cyclic heptapeptide cyanotoxins released by cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters, for which sensitive and specific detection methods are necessary to carry out its recognition and quantification. Here, we present a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs)-based label-free chemiresistive immunosensor for highly sensitive and specific detection of MCLR in different source waters. MCLR was initially immobilized on SWCNTs modified interdigitated electrode, followed by incubation with monoclonal anti-MCLR antibody. The competitive binding of MCLR in sample solutions induced departure of the antibody from the antibody-antigen complexes formed on SWCNTs, resulting in change in the conductivity between source and drain of the sensor. The displacement assay greatly improved the sensitivity of the sensor compared with direct immunoassay on the same device. The immunosensor exhibited a wide linear response to log value of MCLR concentration ranging from 1 to 1000 ng/L, with a detection limit of 0.6 ng/L. This method showed good reproducibility, stability and recovery. The proposed method provides a powerful tool for rapid and sensitive monitoring of MCLR in environmental samples.

  5. Application of a Label-Free Immunosensor for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp Cultivation Water.

    PubMed

    Waiyapoka, Thanyaporn; Deachamag, Panchalika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Bunsanong, Nittaya; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Loyprasert-Thananimit, Suchera

    2015-10-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen affecting the shrimp industry worldwide. In a preliminary study, WSSV binding protein (WBP) was specifically bound to the VP26 protein of WSSV. Therefore, we have developed the label-free affinity immunosensor using the WBP together with anti-GST-VP26 for quantitative detection of WSSV in shrimp pond water. When the biological molecules were immobilized on a gold electrode to form a self-assembled monolayer, it was then used to detect WSSV using a flow injection system with optimized conditions. Binding between the different copies of WSSV and the immobilized biological molecules was detected by an impedance change (ΔZ″) in real time. The sensitivity of the developed immunosensor was in the linear range of 1.6 × 10(1)-1.6 × 10(6) copies/μl. The system was highly sensitive for the analysis of WSSV as shown by the lack of impedance change when using yellow head virus (YHV). The developed immunosensor could be reused up to 37 times (relative standard deviation (RSD), 3.24 %) with a good reproducibility of residual activity (80-110 %). The immunosensor was simple to operate, reliable, reproducible, and could be applied for the detection and quantification of WSSV in water during shrimp cultivation.

  6. A deuterium-based labeling technique for the investigation of rooting depths, water uptake dynamics and unsaturated zone water transport in semiarid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, M.; Koeniger, P.; Gaj, M.; Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.; Himmelsbach, T.

    2016-02-01

    Non- or minimum-invasive methods for the quantification of rooting depths of plants are rare, in particular in (semi-)arid regions; yet, this information is crucial for the parameterization of SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer) models and understanding of processes within the hydrological cycle. We present a technique utilizing the stable isotope deuterium (2H) applied as artificial tracer to investigate the vertical extent of the root zone, characterize water uptake dynamics of trees and shrubs at different depths and monitor transport of water through the unsaturated zone of dry environments. One liter of 35% deuterated water (2H2O) was punctually applied at several depths (0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, 2.5 m and 4 m) at six different plots at a natural forested site in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB), Namibia/Angola. Subsequently, uptake of the tracer was monitored by collecting plant samples (xylem and transpired water) up to seven days after tracer injection. Soil profiles at the plots were taken after the campaign and again after six months in order to evaluate the transport and distribution of 2H within the unsaturated zone. Of 162 plant samples taken, 31 samples showed clear signals of artificially introduced 2H, of which all originate from the plots labeled up to 2 m depth. No artificially injected 2H was found in plants when tracer application occurred deeper than 2 m. Results further indicate a sharing of water resources between the investigated shrubs and trees in the upper 1 m whilst tree roots seem to have better access to deeper layers of the unsaturated zone. The soil profiles taken after six months reveal elevated 2H-concentrations from depths as great as 4 m up to 1 m below surface indicating upward transport of water vapor. Purely diffuse transport towards the soil surface yielded an estimated 0.4 mm over the dry season. Results are of particular significance for a more precise parameterization of SVAT models and the formulation of water balances in

  7. Non-labeled monitoring of targeted liposome interactions with a model receptor surface: effect of flow rate and water content.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huamin; Tuppurainen, Jussi-Pekka; Lehtinen, Julia; Viitala, Tapani; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2013-11-20

    In this study, we present a novel in vitro approach that utilizes two surface-sensitive and label-free techniques, i.e. surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), to study the interfacial events during liposome-target surface interactions. The flow channels of SPR and QCM devices were first synchronized via hydrodynamic modeling. Biotin-streptavidin was used as a model pair and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were utilized as model surfaces for targeted liposome-surface interaction studies. The interactions between biotin-liposomes and the streptavidin-biotin-SAM surfaces were investigated under controlled shear flows using the synchronized SPR and QCM devices. The response of the liposome interaction was monitored as a function of the flow rate. The affinity and the amount of bound liposome indicated that the increased flow rate improved the binding of the targeted liposomes to the model membrane surfaces. The combined use of the synchronized SPR and QCM devices for nanoparticle interaction studies clearly demonstrates the effect of the flow rate (or the shear stress) on the liposome binding. Our results suggest that the binding of liposomes to the model membranes is flow rate and shear stress regulated. Thus, the flow rate (or the shear stress), which is usually neglected, should be taken into account during the development and optimization of targeted liposome formulations. In addition, the water content within the liposome layer (including the water inside the liposomes and the water between the liposomes) had a significant influence on the visco-elasticity and the binding kinetics to the SAM surfaces.

  8. Performance optimization for doubly fed wind power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmik, S.; Spee, R.; Enslin, J.H.R.

    1999-08-01

    Significant variation of the resource kinetic energy, in the form of wind speed, results in substantially reduced energy capture in a fixed-speed wind turbine. In order to increase the wind energy capture in the turbine, variable-speed generation (VSG) strategies have been proposed and implemented. However, that requires an expensive ac/ac power converter, which increases the capital investment significantly. Consequently, doubly fed systems have been proposed to reduce the size of the power converter and, thereby, the associated cost. Additionally, in doubly fed systems, as a fixed operating point (power and speed), power flow can be regulated between the two winding systems on the machine. This feature can by utilized to essentially minimize losses in the machine associated with the given operating point or achieve other desired performance enhancements. In this paper, a brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM) is utilized to develop a VSG wind power generator. The VSG controller employs a wind-speed-estimation-based maximum power point tracker and a heuristic-model-based maximum efficiency point tracker to optimize the power output of the system. The controller has been verified for efficacy on a 1.5-kW laboratory VSG wind generator. The strategy is applicable to all doubly fed configurations, including conventional wound-rotor induction machines, Scherbius cascades, BDFM's and doubly fed reluctance machines.

  9. Energies of doubly excited 1,3 P ° resonances in He-like (Z =2-40) systems below the N = 3 hydrogenic threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakho, I.

    2017-09-01

    Eight doubly excited 1,3 P ° resonances in He-like systems below the N = 3 hydrogenic threshold are investigated in the framework of Screening Constant by Unit Nuclear Charge (SCUNC) formalism. The Rydberg series investigated are labelled in the (K, T, A) classification scheme. Accurate data are tabulated for the entire He-isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 40 with 3 ≤ n ≤ 9, n the principal quantum number of the outer electron.

  10. Metabolic fate of the (14)C-labeled herbicide clodinafop-propargyl in a sediment-water system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Weitzel, Pascal; Schäffer, Andreas; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic fate of (14)C-phenyl-labeled herbicide clodinafop-propargyl ((14)C-CfP) was studied for 28 days in lab assays using a sediment-water system derived from a German location. Mineralization was 5.21% of applied (14)C after 28 days exhibiting a distinct lag phase until day 14 of incubation. Portions of radioactivity remaining in water phases decreased at moderate rate to 18.48% after 28 days; 62.46% were still detected in water after 14 days. Soxhlet extraction of the sediment using acetonitrile released 35.56% of applied (14)C with day 28, while 33.99% remained as non-extractable residues. A remarkable increase of bound (14)C was observed between 14 and 28 days correlating with the distinct increase of mineralization. No correlation was found throughout incubation with microbial activity of the sediment as determined by dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. Dissolved oxygen and pH value of water phases remained almost constant for 28 days. Analyses of Soxhlet extracts of the sediment and ethyl acetate extracts of water phases by radio-TLC and radio-HPLC revealed that CfP was rapidly cleaved to free acid clodinafop (Cf), which was further (bio-) transformed. DT50 values (based on radio-HPLC) were below 1 day (CfP) and slightly above 28 days (Cf). Further metabolites were not detected. Fractionation of humic and non-humic components of the sediment demonstrated that CfP's non-extractable residues were predominantly associated with fulvic acids up to 14 days of incubation (3.36%), whereas after 28 days, the majority of radioactivity was found in the humin/mineral fraction (13.30% of applied (14)C). Due to high-performance size-exclusion chromatography of the fulvic acids fraction derived from assays incubated for 28 days, this portion of (14)C was firmly, possibly covalently bound to fulvic acids and did not consist of CfP or Cf. Using an isolation strategy comprising preincubation of sediment with CfP and mineralization of (14)C-CfP as criterion, a microorganism

  11. Evaluation of Chemical and Microbiological Quality in 21 Brands of Iranian Bottled Drinking Waters in 2012: A Comparison Study on Label and Real Contents

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, M.; Atefi, M.; Ebrahimi, A.; Razmjoo, P.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare chemical and microbiological quality of the 21 Iranian bottled drinking waters reported on manufacturer's labeling and standards in 2012. Samples were analyzed for chemical properties K+, F−, SO4 2−, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and pH. Total and fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate counts of selected samples were analyzed by MPN and HPC tests, respectively, for three months. Finally, the labeled and real contents of the samples were compared. Potassium and sulfate ions about 43 and 52 percent of studied sample contents had values higher than label amounts, respectively. Ca2+, Cl− ions, and pH were about 71, 48, and 67 percent, respectively, less than label values. Total and fecal coliforms had negative results. The mean concentrations and standard deviations for K+, Cl−, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2−, and HPC were 1.13 ± 1.06, 16.39 ± 31.97, 6.6 ± 0.7, 28.35 ± 10.34, 86.58 ± 33.21, 24.17 ± 17.30 mg/L, and 16855 ± 25603 cfu/mL, respectively. Thus, there is possibility of microorganisms' growth in favorite conditions in bottled water. It was imperative to assess the public health risks in bottled water in Iran. PMID:23690802

  12. Inverse probability weighted Cox regression for doubly truncated data.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Micha; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo; Simon, David K; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2017-09-08

    Doubly truncated data arise when event times are observed only if they fall within subject-specific, possibly random, intervals. While non-parametric methods for survivor function estimation using doubly truncated data have been intensively studied, only a few methods for fitting regression models have been suggested, and only for a limited number of covariates. In this article, we present a method to fit the Cox regression model to doubly truncated data with multiple discrete and continuous covariates, and describe how to implement it using existing software. The approach is used to study the association between candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms and age of onset of Parkinson's disease. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  13. A fluorophore-labelled copper complex: crystal structure, hybrid cyclic water-perchlorate cluster and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Satish S; Revankar, Vidyanand K; Shivalingegowda, Naveen; Lokanath, N K

    2017-09-01

    A fluorophore-labelled copper(II) complex, aquabis(dimethylformamide-κO)(perchlorato-κO)[2-(quinolin-2-yl)-1,3-oxazolo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline]copper(II) perchlorate monohydrate, [Cu(ClO4)(C22H12N4O)(C3H7NO)2(H2O)]ClO4·H2O, has been synthesized and characterized. A cyclic hydrogen-bonded water-perchlorate anionic cluster, i.e. [(ClO4)2(H2O)2](2-), has been identified within the structure. Each cyclic anionic cluster unit is interconnected by hydrogen bonding to the cation. The cations join into an infinite hydrogen-bonded chain running in the [010] direction. Furthermore, interaction of the complex with calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and cellular localization within the cells was explored. Spectroscopic studies indicate that the compound has a good affinity for DNA and stains the nucleus of the cells.

  14. DNA hybridization detection with water-soluble conjugated polymers and chromophore-labeled single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Gaylord, Brent S; Heeger, Alan J; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2003-01-29

    A sensor is provided that detects single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) with a specific base sequence. The ssDNA sequence sensor comprises an aqueous solution containing a cationic water-soluble conjugated polymer [in this case, poly(9,9-bis(6'-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-hexyl)-fluorene phenylene), 1] with a ssDNA labeled with a dye (in this case, fluorescein). The emission of light from the sensor solution with the wavelength characteristic of the probe oligonucleotide indicates the presence of ssDNA with a specific base sequence complementary to that of the probe ssDNA-fluorescein. Maximum energy transfer from 1 to the signaling chromophore occurs when the ratio of polymer chains to DNA strands is approximately 1:1. Energy transfer from 1 results in a fluorescein emission that is more intense than that observed by direct excitation of the chromophore. Furthermore, the decrease in energy transfer upon addition of electrolyte indicates that electrostatic forces dominate the interactions between 1 and DNA.

  15. Dark energy and doubly coupled bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Noller, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    We analyse the late time cosmology and the gravitational properties of doubly coupled bigravity in the constrained vielbein formalism (equivalent to the metric formalism) when the mass of the massive graviton is of the order of the present Hubble rate. We focus on one of the two branches of background cosmology where the ratio between the scale factors of the two metrics is algebraically determined. We find that the late time physics depends on the mass of the graviton, which dictates the future asymptotic cosmological constant. The Universe evolves from a matter dominated epoch to a dark energy dominated era where the equation of state of dark energy can always be made close to  -1 now by appropriately tuning the graviton mass. We also analyse the perturbative spectrum of the theory in the quasi-static approximation, well below the strong coupling scale where no instability is present, and we show that there are five scalar degrees of freedom, two vectors and two gravitons. In Minkowski space, where the four Newtonian potentials vanish, the theory manifestly reduces to one massive and one massless graviton. In a cosmological FRW background for both metrics, four of the five scalars are Newtonian potentials which lead to a modification of gravity on large scales. The fifth one gives rise to a ghost which decouples from pressure-less matter in the quasi-static approximation. In this scalar sector, gravity is modified with effects on both the growth of structure and the lensing potential. In particular, we find that the Σ parameter governing the Poisson equation of the weak lensing potential can differ from one in the recent past of the Universe. Overall, the nature of the modification of gravity at low energy, which reveals itself in the growth of structure and the lensing potential, is intrinsically dependent on the couplings to matter and the potential term of the vielbeins. We also find that the time variation of Newton’s constant in the Jordan frame can

  16. Search for doubly charged Higgs bosons at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DELPHI Collaboration; Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2003-01-01

    A search for pair-produced doubly charged Higgs bosons has been performed using the data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. No excess is observed in the data with respect to the Standard Model background. A lower limit for the mass of 97.3 GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level has been set for doubly charged Higgs bosons in left-right symmetric models for any value of the Yukawa coupling between the Higgs bosons and the /τ leptons.

  17. Search for doubly charged Higgs bosons at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; Delphi Collaboration

    2003-01-01

    A search for pair-produced doubly charged Higgs bosons has been performed using the data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. No excess is observed in the data with respect to the Standard Model background. A lower limit for the mass of 97.3 GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level has been set for doubly charged Higgs bosons in left-right symmetric models for any value of the Yukawa coupling between the Higgs bosons and the τ leptons.

  18. A mathematical model for the doubly fed wound rotor generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor machine used as a constant frequency generator is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to derive a consistent set of circuit equations which produce constant stator frequency and constant stator voltage. Starting with instantaneous circuit equations, the necessary rotor voltages and currents are derived. The model, thus obtained, is assumed to be valid, since the resulting relationships between mechanical power and active volt-amperes agrees with the results of others. In addition, the model allows for a new interpretation of the power flow in the doubly-fed generator.

  19. Doubly Dressed Bosons: Exciton Polaritons in a Strong Terahertz Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietka, B.; Bobrovska, N.; Stephan, D.; Teich, M.; Król, M.; Winnerl, S.; Pashkin, A.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Schneider, H.; Deveaud, B.; Helm, M.; Matuszewski, M.; Szczytko, J.

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a novel quasiparticle, an exciton in a semiconductor doubly dressed with two photons of different wavelengths: a near infrared cavity photon and terahertz (THz) photon, with the THz coupling strength approaching the ultrastrong coupling regime. This quasiparticle is composed of three different bosons, being a mixture of a matter-light quasiparticle. Our observations are confirmed by a detailed theoretical analysis, treating quantum mechanically all three bosonic fields. The doubly dressed quasiparticles retain the bosonic nature of their constituents, but their internal quantum structure strongly depends on the intensity of the applied terahertz field.

  20. Measurement of Doubly Charged Ions in Ion Thruster Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Domonkos, Matthew T.; Chavez, Joy M.

    2002-01-01

    The ratio of doubly to singly charged ions was measured in the plumes of a 30 cm and of a 40 cm ion thruster. The measured ratio was correlated with observed erosion rates and thruster operating conditions. The measured and calculated erosion rates paralleled variation in the j(sup ++)/j(sup +) ratio and indicated that the erosion was dominated by Xe III. Simple models of cathode potential surfaces which were developed in support of this work were in agreement with this conclusion and provided a predictive capability of the erosion given the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion currents.

  1. Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance methods to determine distances between spin labels on human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, M; Harbridge, J R; Hammarström, P; Mitri, R; Mårtensson, L G; Carlsson, U; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S

    2001-01-01

    Four doubly spin-labeled variants of human carbonic anhydrase II and corresponding singly labeled variants were prepared by site-directed spin labeling. The distances between the spin labels were obtained from continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra by analysis of the relative intensity of the half-field transition, Fourier deconvolution of line-shape broadening, and computer simulation of line-shape changes. Distances also were determined by four-pulse double electron-electron resonance. For each variant, at least two methods were applicable and reasonable agreement between methods was obtained. Distances ranged from 7 to 24 A. The doubly spin-labeled samples contained some singly labeled protein due to incomplete labeling. The sensitivity of each of the distance determination methods to the non-interacting component was compared. PMID:11371461

  2. Doubly Lopsided Models From SUSY SU(N)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S. M.

    2008-11-23

    It is shown that the doubly lopsided mass matrices, which are known to give realistic patterns of quark and lepton masses and mixings, arise naturally in the context of supersymmetric grand unified models based on SU(N) with N>5. An SU(7) model is presented as an illustration.

  3. Production of doubly charmed baryons nearly at rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groote, Stefan; Koshkarev, Sergey

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the production cross sections, momentum distributions and rapidity distributions for doubly charmed baryons which according to the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism are produced nearly at rest. These events should be measurable at fixed-target experiments like STAR@RHIC and AFTER@LHC.

  4. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  5. Theoretical and experimental evidence of non-symmetric doubly localized rogue waves.

    PubMed

    He, Jingsong; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Yongshuai; Chabchoub, Amin

    2014-11-08

    We present determinant expressions for vector rogue wave (RW) solutions of the Manakov system, a two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. As a special case, we generate a family of exact and non-symmetric RW solutions of the NLS equation up to third order, localized in both space and time. The derived non-symmetric doubly localized second-order solution is generated experimentally in a water wave flume for deep-water conditions. Experimental results, confirming the characteristic non-symmetric pattern of the solution, are in very good agreement with theory as well as with numerical simulations, based on the modified NLS equation, known to model accurately the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets in deep water.

  6. Theoretical and experimental evidence of non-symmetric doubly localized rogue waves

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingsong; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Yongshuai; Chabchoub, Amin

    2014-01-01

    We present determinant expressions for vector rogue wave (RW) solutions of the Manakov system, a two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. As a special case, we generate a family of exact and non-symmetric RW solutions of the NLS equation up to third order, localized in both space and time. The derived non-symmetric doubly localized second-order solution is generated experimentally in a water wave flume for deep-water conditions. Experimental results, confirming the characteristic non-symmetric pattern of the solution, are in very good agreement with theory as well as with numerical simulations, based on the modified NLS equation, known to model accurately the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets in deep water. PMID:25383023

  7. Syntheses of halogen derivatives of L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine labeled with hydrogen isotopes.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Małgorzata; Pałka, Katarzyna; Winnicka, Elżbieta; Kańska, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Halogenated, labeled with tritium and doubly with deuterium and tritium, derivatives of L-tryptophan, i.e. 5'-bromo-[2-(3)H]-, 5'-bromo-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 5'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-5'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 6'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-, 6'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-L-tryptophan, as well as, L-tyrosine, i.e. 3'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-, 3'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 3'-chloro-[2-(3)H]-, and 3'-chloro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-L-tyrosine, and also L-phenylalanine, i.e. 2'-fluoro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, 2'-fluoro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3) H]-, 2'-chloro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, 2'-chloro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3)H]-, 4'-chloro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, and 4'-chloro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3)H]-L-phenylalanine were synthesized using enzymatic methods. Isotopomers of L-tryptophan were synthesized by coupling of halogenated indoles with S-methyl-L-cysteine carried out in deuteriated or tritiated incubation media. Labeled halogenated derivatives of L-tyrosine were obtained by the enzymatically supported exchange between halogenated L-tyrosine and isotopic water. Labeled halogenated isotopologues of L-Phe were synthesized by the enzymatic addition of ammonia to halogenated cinnamic acid. As a source of hydrogen tritiated water (HTO) and heavy water (D2O) with addition of HTO were used.

  8. Multi-Isotope Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Combining Heavy Water 2H with 15N Labeling As Complementary Tracers for Metabolic Heterogeneity at the Single-Cell Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, S.; McGlynn, S.; Cowley, E.; Green, A.; Newman, D. K.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic rates of microbial communities constitute a key physiological parameter for understanding the in situ growth constraints for life in any environment. Isotope labeling techniques provide a powerful approach for measuring such biological activity, due to the use of isotopically enriched substrate tracers whose incorporation into biological materials can be detected with high sensitivity by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) combined with stable isotope labeling provides a unique tool for studying the spatiometabolic activity of microbial populations at the single cell level in order to assess both community structure and population diversity. However, assessing the distribution and range of microbial activity in complex environmental systems with slow-growing organisms, diverse carbon and nitrogen sources, or heterotrophic subpopulations poses a tremendous technical challenge because the introduction of isotopically labeled substrates frequently changes the nutrient availability and can inflate or bias measures of activity. Here, we present the use of hydrogen isotope labeling with deuterated water as an important new addition to the isotopic toolkit and apply it for the determination of single cell microbial activities by NanoSIMS imaging. This tool provides a labeling technique that minimally alters any aquatic chemical environment, can be administered with strong labels even in minimal addition (natural background is very low), is an equally universal substrate for all forms of life even in complex, carbon and nitrogen saturated systems, and can be combined with other isotopic tracers. The combination of heavy water labeling with the most commonly used NanoSIMS tracer, 15N, is technically challenging but opens up a powerful new set of multi-tracer experiments for the study of microbial activity in complex communities. We present the first truly simultaneous single cell triple isotope system

  9. Doubly renewable cellulose polymer for water-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Tristram, Cameron J; Mason, Jennifer M; Williams, D Bradley G; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2015-01-01

    A levulinoyl ester-containing cellulose polymer is introduced as a waterborne coating. Incorporation of the biomass-derived levulinic acid proceeds via an unexpected intermediate and provides the unusual feature of a cellulose derivative that is readily chemically modified. The levulinoyl-cellulose ester could be chemically manipulated, allowing it to be dispersed to generate a waterborne hydrocolloid latex. This was capable of film-formation at room temperature, and was formulated for use as a coating of high-renewable content.

  10. Ionization Efficiency of Doubly Charged Ions Formed from Polyprotic Acids in Electrospray Negative Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liigand, Piia; Kaupmees, Karl; Kruve, Anneli

    2016-07-01

    The ability of polyprotic acids to give doubly charged ions in negative mode electrospray was studied and related to physicochemical properties of the acids via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). It was discovered that the compound has to be strongly acidic (low p K a1 and p K a2) and to have high hydrophobicity (log P ow) to become multiply charged. Ability to give multiply charged ions in ESI/MS cannot be directly predicted from the solution phase acidities. Therefore, for the first time, a quantitative model to predict the charge state of the analyte in ESI/MS is proposed and validated for small anions. Also, a model to predict ionization efficiencies of these analytes was developed. Results indicate that acidity of the analyte, its octanol-water partition coefficient, and charge delocalization are important factors that influence ionization efficiencies as well as charge states of the analytes. The pH of the solvent was also found to be an important factor influencing the ionization efficiency of doubly charged ions.

  11. Grid-connected in-stream hydroelectric generation based on the doubly fed induction machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenberg, Timothy J.

    Within the United States, there is a growing demand for new environmentally friendly power generation. This has led to a surge in wind turbine development. Unfortunately, wind is not a stable prime mover, but water is. Why not apply the advances made for wind to in-stream hydroelectric generation? One important advancement is the creation of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM). This thesis covers the application of a gearless DFIM topology for hydrokinetic generation. After providing background, this thesis presents many of the options available for the mechanical portion of the design. A mechanical turbine is then specified. Next, a method is presented for designing a DFIM including the actual design for this application. In Chapter 4, a simulation model of the system is presented, complete with a control system that maximizes power generation based on water speed. This section then goes on to present simulation results demonstrating proper operation.

  12. Peroral administration of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine in drinking water is not a reliable method for labeling proliferating S-phase cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Ševc, Juraj; Matiašová, Anna; Smoleková, Ivana; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Mikeš, Jaromír; Tomášová, Lenka; Kútna, Viera; Daxnerová, Zuzana; Fedoročko, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, peroral (p.o.) administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) dissolved in drinking water is a widely used method for labeling newly formed cells over a prolonged time-period. Despite the broad applicability of this method, the pharmacokinetics of BrdU in rats or mice after p.o. administration remains unknown. Moreover, the p.o. route of administration may be limited by the relatively low amount of BrdU consumed over 24h and the characteristic drinking pattern of rats, with water intake being observed predominantly during the dark phase. Therefore, we investigated the reliability of staining proliferating S-phase cells with BrdU after p.o. administration (1mg/ml) to rats using both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor cells co-cultivated with sera from experimental animals exposed to BrdU dissolved in drinking water or 25% orange juice revealed that the concentration of BrdU in the blood sera of rats throughout the day was below the detection limits of our assay. Ingested BrdU was only sufficient to label approximately 4.2±0.3% (water) or 4.2±0.3% (25% juice) of all S-phase cells. Analysis of data from in vivo conditions indicates that only 7.6±3.3% or 15.5±2.3% of all S-phase cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was labeled in animals administered drinking water containing BrdU during the light and dark phases of the day. In addition, the intensity of BrdU-positive nuclei in animals receiving p.o. administration of BrdU was significantly lower than in control animals intraperitoneally injected with BrdU. Our data indicate that the conventional approach of p.o. administration of BrdU in the drinking water to rats provides strongly inaccurate information about the number of proliferating cells in target tissues. Therefore other administration routes, such as osmotic mini pumps, should be considered for labeling of proliferating cells over a prolonged time-period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Excited state mass spectra of doubly heavy Ξ baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Zalak; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the mass spectra are obtained for doubly heavy Ξ baryons, namely, Ξ _{cc}+, Ξ _{cc}^{++}, Ξ _{bb}-, Ξ _{bb}0, Ξ _{bc}0 and Ξ _{bc}+. These baryons consist of two heavy quarks ( cc, bb, and bc) with a light ( d or u) quark. The ground, radial, and orbital states are calculated in the framework of the hypercentral constituent quark model with Coulomb plus linear potential. Our results are also compared with other predictions, thus, the average possible range of excited states masses of these Ξ baryons can be determined. The study of the Regge trajectories is performed in ( n, M2) and ( J, M2) planes and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Lastly, the ground state magnetic moments of these doubly heavy baryons are also calculated.

  14. Heavy Pentaquarks and Doubly Heavy Baryons in Quasiparticle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, A.; Bhattacharya, A.; Chakrabarti, B.

    In the framework of the quasiparticle approach, the ground state mass of heavy pentaquarks have been investigated in diquark-diquark-antiquark picture and the higher states are investigated in the mass loaded flux tube model where two light diquarks are supposed to be linked by a flux tube to the heavy quark. The Regge trajectories for heavy pentaquarks have been studied. The Regge slope (α) of these particles have been obtained as ≈1 GeV2 which indicates that the Regge trajectory follows the linearity conditions with universal value of α ( 1 GeV2). The ground state mass of doubly charm and doubly bottom baryons like Ξ cc++, Ξ bb0, Ω cc+, Ω bb- have also been investigated in quasiparticle approach. The results are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical estimates.

  15. A doubly-localized solution of plane Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Evan; Gibson, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a new equilibrium solution of plane Couette flow localized in two spatially extended directions. The solution is derived from the EQ7/HVS solution of plane Couette flow discovered independently by Itano and Generalis (PRL 2009) and Gibson et al. (JFM 2009), of which a spanwise localized version has also recently been produced (Gibson, these proceedings). The doubly localized solution displays relatively long length scales in comparison with the spatially periodic and spanwise localized solutions, suggesting the importance of these scales in capturing the spatial complexity of transitional and low-Reynolds number turbulence. The solution is comparable in size and appearance to the doubly-localized, chaotically evolving edge states previously computed in this flow by Duguet et al. (PoF 2009) and Schneider et al. (JFM 2010). Additionally, we address the structure of localized solutions in the ``tails,'' i.e. in the region approaching laminar.

  16. Synthesis and application of water-soluble, photoswitchable cyanine dyes for bioorthogonal labeling of cell-surface carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Mertsch, Alexander; Letschert, Sebastian; Memmel, Elisabeth; Sauer, Markus; Seibel, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of cyanine dyes addressing absorption wavelengths at 550 and 648 nm is reported. Alkyne functionalized dyes were used for bioorthogonal click reactions by labeling of metabolically incorporated sugar-azides on the surface of living neuroblastoma cells, which were applied to direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) for the visualization of cell-surface glycans in the nm-range.

  17. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA).\\2\\ The Rule requires energy labeling for major home appliances and other... test procedures that measure how much energy appliances use, and to determine the representative... several energy, environmental and consumer organizations (including Alliance to Save Energy,...

  18. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  19. Doubly Excited Resonances in the Positronium Negative Ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Y.K.

    2007-01-01

    The recent theoretical studies on the doubly excited states of the Ps' ion are described. The results obtained by using the method of complex coordinate rotation show that the three-lepton system behaves very much like an XYX tri-atomic molecule. Furthermore, the recent investigation on the positronium negative ion embedded in Debye plasma environments is discussed. The problem is modeled by the use of a screened Coulomb potential to represent the interaction between the charge particles.

  20. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  1. Doubly-charged ions in the planetary ionospheres: a review.

    PubMed

    Thissen, Roland; Witasse, Olivier; Dutuit, Odile; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Gronoff, Guillaume; Lilensten, Jean

    2011-11-07

    This paper presents a review of the current knowledge on the doubly-charged atomic and molecular positive ions in the planetary atmospheres of the Solar System. It is focused on the terrestrial planets which have a dense atmosphere of N(2) or CO(2), i.e. Venus, the Earth and Mars, but also includes Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, which has a dense atmosphere composed mainly of N(2) and a few percent of methane. Given the composition of these neutral atmospheres, the following species are considered: C(++), N(++), O(++), CH(4)(++), CO(++), N(2)(++), NO(++), O(2)(++), Ar(++) and CO(2)(++). We first discuss the status of their detection in the atmospheres of planets. Then, we provide a comprehensive review of their complex and original photochemistry, production and loss processes. Synthesis tables are provided for those ions, while a discussion on individual species is also provided. Methods for detecting doubly-charged ions in planetary atmospheres are presented, namely with mass-spectrometry, remote sensing and fine plasma density measurements. A section covers some original applications, like the possible effect of the presence of doubly-charged ions on the escape of an atmosphere, which is a key topic of ongoing planetary exploration, related to the evolution of a planet. The results of models, displayed in a comparative way for Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, are discussed, as they can predict the presence of doubly-charged ions and will certainly trigger new investigations. Finally we give our view concerning next steps, challenges and needs for future studies, hoping that new scientific results will be achieved in the coming years and feed the necessary interdisciplinary exchanges amongst different scientific communities.

  2. Influence of curvature on the losses of doubly clad fibers.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1982-12-01

    The loss increase of the HE(11) mode of a doubly clad (depressed-index) fiber due to constant curvature is considered. The calculations presented in this paper are based on a simplified theory. We find that for typical fibers the leakage loss of the HE(11) mode begins to increase significantly when the radius of curvature of the fiber axis reaches the 1-10-cm range.

  3. Doubly Excited Resonance States of Helium Atom: Complex Entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroś, Arkadiusz; Kościk, Przemysław; Saha, Jayanta K.

    2016-12-01

    We provide a diagonal form of a reduced density matrix of S-symmetry resonance states of two electron systems determined under the framework of the complex scaling method. We have employed the variational Hylleraas type wavefunction to estimate the complex entropies in doubly excited resonance states of helium atom. Our results are in good agreement with the corresponding ones determined under the framework of the stabilization method (Lin and Ho in Few-Body Syst 56:157, 2015).

  4. Passive synchronization of finite dipoles in a doubly periodic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva

    2012-11-01

    We consider the interaction dynamics of finite dipoles in a doubly periodic domain. A finite dipole is a pair of equal and opposite strength point vortices separated by a finite distance throughout its time evolution. The finite dipole dynamical system has been proposed as a model that captures the far-field hydrodynamics interactions in fish schools or collections of swimming bodies in an inviscid fluid. In this work, we formulate the equations of motion governing the dynamics of finite dipoles in a doubly periodic domain. We show that a single dipole in a doubly-periodic box exhibits either regular or chaotic behavior, depending on the initial angle of orientation of the dipole. In the case of the two dipoles, we identify a variety of interesting interaction modes including collision, switching, and passive synchronization of the dipoles. In the case of three dipoles, we observe the formation of relative equilibrium in finite time when the dipoles move together in a way reminiscent to that of flocking behavior.

  5. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Doubly Sodiated Glycerophosphocholine Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaorong; Liu, Jian; LeBlanc, Yves; Covey, Tom; Ptak, A. Celeste; Brenna, J. Thomas; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to generate gaseous doubly charged cations of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) lipids via electrospray ionization has made possible the evaluation of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) for their structural characterization. Doubly sodiated GPC cations have been reacted with azobenzene radical anions in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The ion/ion reactions proceed through sodium transfer, electron transfer, and complex formation. Electron transfer reactions are shown to give rise to cleavage at each ester linkage with the subsequent loss of a neutral quaternary nitrogen moiety. Electron transfer without dissociation produces [M+2Na]+• radical cations, which undergo collision-induced dissociation (CID) to give products that arise from bond cleavage of each fatty acid chain. The CID of the complex ions yields products similar to those produced directly from the electron transfer reactions of doubly sodiated GPC, although with different relative abundances. These findings indicate that the analysis of GPC lipids by ETD in conjunction with CID can provide some structural information, such as the number of carbons, degree of unsaturation for each fatty acid substituent, and the positions of the fatty acid substituents; some information about the location of the double bonds may be present in low intensity CID product ions. PMID:17719238

  6. Extraction of water labeled with oxygen 15 during single-capillary transit. Influence of blood pressure, osmolarity, and blood-brain barrier damage

    SciTech Connect

    Go, K.G.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Paans, A.M.; Vaalburg, W.; Woldring, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    By external detection, the influence of arterial blood pressure (BP), osmolarity, and cold-induced blood-brain barrier damage was assessed on the extraction of water labeled with oxygen 15 during single-capillary transit in the rat. There was an inverse relation between arterial BP and extraction that was attributable to the influence of arterial BP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the relation between CBF and extraction. Neither arterial BP nor osmolarity of the injected bolus had any direct effect on extraction of water 15O, signifying that the diffusional exchange component (determined by blood flow) of extraction greatly surpasses the convection flow contribution by hydrostatic or osmotic forces. Damage to the blood-brain barrier did not change its permeability to water.

  7. Field measurement of seepage and evapotranspiration rate for a soil under plant cover: A comparison of soil water balance and tritium labeling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, K.; Strebel, O.; Renger, M.

    1980-08-01

    Vertical water flux at 90 cm depth and evapotranspiration were measured in a loess Parabraunerde soil profile, under spring wheat and sugar beets, respectively, during a time period of nearly 21 months. Two field methods were compared: the HTO-tracer method (labeling soil water at a depth of 60 cm followed by core sampling) and the soil water balance method (measuring soil water suction and water content as a function of depth and time). Outside the vegetation season the results of the two methods agreed well, but not during the vegetation season. The reason is that the reference soil compartment, with its reference depth of 90 cm, lies within the root zone and the HTO-method does not correctly reflect the water flux through the roots and the water withdrawal by the roots from this reference compartment. It is shown, that after correcting the HTO-values for these root-activity-dependent effects, a good agreement between the two methods was found also during periods with root activity. Investigations with the HTO-method lead to inaccurate results if the reference depth or the median value of the tracer distribution lie within the zone of active roots.

  8. From ISO14046 to water footprint labeling: A case study of indicators applied to milk production in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Hodges, Danni

    2017-12-01

    ISO14046 sets out principles, requirements and guidelines for the quantification of a water footprint taking a life cycle perspective. The international standard is intended to support product water footprint labeling and corporate sustainability reporting. However, the document is not prescriptive in regard to the use of any one specific water footprint indicator. In this study, water scarcity footprints were calculated for milk production on 75 farms in three parts of south-eastern Australia. Three indicators, with distinctly different conceptual basis and model structure, were applied. Included was the AWARE indicator recently developed under the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. The different indicator results were highly correlated (Spearman's rank correlation 0.91-0.99) and the life cycle stages and processes identified as important were the same. Therefore, all three indicators were considered suitable for informing internal strategic action. However, the different indicators produced results which differed greatly in absolute value, in some cases by a factor of >300. To enable consumers and others to make comparisons between the water scarcity footprints of different products or organisations, program (or scheme) operators will need to specify the indicator to be used. The three indicators were assessed according to scaling, interpretability and coherence with LCA results, and found to differ in terms of suitability for use in a water footprint program. The AWARE indicator was deemed to be least suitable. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  10. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  11. Origin of acetaldehyde during milk fermentation using (13)C-labeled precursors.

    PubMed

    Ott, A; Germond, J E; Chaintreau, A

    2000-05-01

    Acetaldehyde formation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus during fermentation of cow's milk was investigated using (13)C-labeled glucose, L-threonine, and pyruvate with a recent static-and-trapped-headspace technique that does not require derivatization of acetaldehyde prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Over 90% and almost 100% of acetaldehyde originated from glucose during fermentation by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, taking into account both singly and doubly labeled acetaldehyde. As both microorganisms showed threonine aldolase activity and formed labeled acetaldehyde from (13)C-labeled threonine during the fermentation of milk, this amino acid should also contribute to the acetaldehyde produced.

  12. Characterization of biodegradation intermediates of nonionic surfactants by MALDI-MS. 2. Oxidative biodegradation profiles of uniform octylphenol polyethoxylate in 18O-labeled water.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroaki; Shibata, Atsushi; Wang, Yang; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the biodegradation intermediates of octylphenol octaethoxylate (OP(8)EO) by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The biodegradation test study was carried out in a pure culture (Pseudomonas putida S-5) under aerobic conditions using OP(8)EO as the sole carbon source and (18)O-labeled water as an incubation medium. In the MALDI-MS spectra of biodegraded samples, a series of OP(n)EO molecules with n = 2-8 EO units and their corresponding carboxylic acid products (OP(n)EC) were observed. The use of purified OP(8)EO enabled one to distinguish the shortened OPEO molecules as biodegradation intermediates. Furthermore, the formation of OP(8)EC (the oxidized product of OP(8)EO) supported the notion that terminal oxidation is a step in the biodegradation process. When biodegradation study was carried out in (18)O-labeled water, incorporation of (18)O atoms into the carboxyl group was observed for OPEC, while no incorporation was observed for the shortened OPEO products. These results could provide some rationale to the biodegradation mechanism of alkylphenol polyethoxylates.

  13. A novel label-free fluorescence assay for one-step sensitive detection of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Liu, Nan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu; Hao, Yuwei; Ma, Xinhua; Li, Xiaoli; Huo, Yapeng; Lu, Jiahai; Tang, Shuge; Wang, Caiqin; Zhang, Yinhong; Gao, Zhixian

    2017-01-01

    A novel label-free fluorescence assay for detection of Hg2+ was developed based on the Hg2+-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and SYBR Green I (SG I). Differences from other assays, the designed rich-thymine (T) ssDNA probe without fluorescent labelling can be rapidly formed a T-Hg2+-T complex and folded into a stable hairpin structure in the presence of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples by facilitating fluorescence increase through intercalating with SG I in one-step. In the assay, the fluorescence signal can be directly obtained without additional incubation within 1 min. The dynamic quantitative working ranges was 5–1000 nM, the determination coefficients were satisfied by optimization of the reaction conditions. The lowest detection limit of Hg2+ was 3 nM which is well below the standard of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This method was highly specific for detecting of Hg2+ without being affected by other possible interfering ions from different background compositions of water samples. The recoveries of Hg2+ spiked in these samples were 95.05–103.51%. The proposed method is more viable, low-costing and simple for operation in field detection than the other methods with great potentials, such as emergency disposal, environmental monitoring, surveillance and supporting of ecological risk assessment and management. PMID:28378768

  14. A novel label-free fluorescence assay for one-step sensitive detection of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya; Liu, Nan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu; Hao, Yuwei; Ma, Xinhua; Li, Xiaoli; Huo, Yapeng; Lu, Jiahai; Tang, Shuge; Wang, Caiqin; Zhang, Yinhong; Gao, Zhixian

    2017-04-01

    A novel label-free fluorescence assay for detection of Hg2+ was developed based on the Hg2+-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and SYBR Green I (SG I). Differences from other assays, the designed rich-thymine (T) ssDNA probe without fluorescent labelling can be rapidly formed a T-Hg2+-T complex and folded into a stable hairpin structure in the presence of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples by facilitating fluorescence increase through intercalating with SG I in one-step. In the assay, the fluorescence signal can be directly obtained without additional incubation within 1 min. The dynamic quantitative working ranges was 5-1000 nM, the determination coefficients were satisfied by optimization of the reaction conditions. The lowest detection limit of Hg2+ was 3 nM which is well below the standard of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This method was highly specific for detecting of Hg2+ without being affected by other possible interfering ions from different background compositions of water samples. The recoveries of Hg2+ spiked in these samples were 95.05-103.51%. The proposed method is more viable, low-costing and simple for operation in field detection than the other methods with great potentials, such as emergency disposal, environmental monitoring, surveillance and supporting of ecological risk assessment and management.

  15. A novel label-free fluorescence assay for one-step sensitive detection of Hg(2+) in environmental drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Liu, Nan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu; Hao, Yuwei; Ma, Xinhua; Li, Xiaoli; Huo, Yapeng; Lu, Jiahai; Tang, Shuge; Wang, Caiqin; Zhang, Yinhong; Gao, Zhixian

    2017-04-05

    A novel label-free fluorescence assay for detection of Hg(2+) was developed based on the Hg(2+)-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and SYBR Green I (SG I). Differences from other assays, the designed rich-thymine (T) ssDNA probe without fluorescent labelling can be rapidly formed a T-Hg(2+)-T complex and folded into a stable hairpin structure in the presence of Hg(2+) in environmental drinking water samples by facilitating fluorescence increase through intercalating with SG I in one-step. In the assay, the fluorescence signal can be directly obtained without additional incubation within 1 min. The dynamic quantitative working ranges was 5-1000 nM, the determination coefficients were satisfied by optimization of the reaction conditions. The lowest detection limit of Hg(2+) was 3 nM which is well below the standard of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This method was highly specific for detecting of Hg(2+) without being affected by other possible interfering ions from different background compositions of water samples. The recoveries of Hg(2+) spiked in these samples were 95.05-103.51%. The proposed method is more viable, low-costing and simple for operation in field detection than the other methods with great potentials, such as emergency disposal, environmental monitoring, surveillance and supporting of ecological risk assessment and management.

  16. Quantitation of a spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) between a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled cell metabolite and water protons.

    PubMed

    Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Basharat, Meer; Seeley, Colm; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) describes the enhancement of spin polarization of solvent nuclei by the hyperpolarized spins of a solute. In this communication we demonstrate that SPINOEs can be observed between [1,4-(13) C2 ]fumarate, hyperpolarized using the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization technique, and solvent water protons. We derive a theoretical expression for the expected enhancement and demonstrate that this fits well with experimental measurements. Although the magnitude of the effect is relatively small (around 2% measured here), the SPINOE increases at lower field strengths, so that at clinically relevant magnetic fields (1.5-3 T) it may be possible to track the passage through the circulation of a bolus containing a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled substrate through the increase in solvent water (1) H signal. © 2014 The Authors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  17. Quantitation of a spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) between a hyperpolarized 13C-labeled cell metabolite and water protons

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Basharat, Meer; Seeley, Colm; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) describes the enhancement of spin polarization of solvent nuclei by the hyperpolarized spins of a solute. In this communication we demonstrate that SPINOEs can be observed between [1,4-13C2]fumarate, hyperpolarized using the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization technique, and solvent water protons. We derive a theoretical expression for the expected enhancement and demonstrate that this fits well with experimental measurements. Although the magnitude of the effect is relatively small (around 2% measured here), the SPINOE increases at lower field strengths, so that at clinically relevant magnetic fields (1.5–3 T) it may be possible to track the passage through the circulation of a bolus containing a hyperpolarized 13C-labeled substrate through the increase in solvent water 1H signal. © 2014 The Authors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. PMID:24523064

  18. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  19. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  20. Vibrations of cantilevered doubly-curved shallow shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissa, A. W.; Lee, J. K.; Wang, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Vibrational characteristics are determined for a previously unsolved class of problems, that of doubly-curved shallow shells having rectangular planforms, clamped along one edge and free on the other three. The solution procedure uses the Ritz method with algebraic polynomial trial functions. Convergence studies are made, and accurate frequencies and contour plots of mode shapes are presented for various curvature ratios, including spherical, circular cylindrical and hyperbolic paraboloidal shells. Particular emphasis is given to the effect of adding spanwise curvature to shells having chordwise curvature; numerous published references already exist for the case of zero spanwise curvature. The effects of changing aspect ratio, thickness ratio and Poisson's ratio are also studied.

  1. Coherence properties of a doubly resonant monolithic optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, C. D.; Yang, S. T.; Day, T.; Byer, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    A doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (DRO) pumped with the second harmonic of a narrow-linewidth Nd:YAG laser is described. The linewidth of the DRO signal was less than 13 kHz, the DRO was shown to generate a phase-locked subharmonic of the pump at degeneracy, and the signal and the idler were shown to be mutually coherent with the pump and to be phase-anticorrelated with each other away from degeneracy. The signal-idler heterodyne linewidth was 500 Hz, and pump phase modulation was shown to transfer to the DRO phase at degeneracy.

  2. The signatures of doubly charged leptons in future linear colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu-Chen; Yue, Chong-Xing; Liu, Zhi-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the production of the doubly charged leptons in future linear electron positron colliders, such as the International Linear Collider and Compact Linear Collider. Such states are introduced in extended weak-isospin multiplets by composite models. We discuss the production cross section of {e}-γ \\to {L}--{W}+ and carry out analyses for hadronic, semi-leptonic and pure leptonic channels based on the full simulation performance of the silicon detector. The 3- and 5-sigma statistical significance exclusion curves are provided in the model parameter space. It is found that the hadronic channel could offer the most possible detectable signature.

  3. Interference in spectrum of radiation from doubly scattered charged particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenco, M. V.; Shul'ga, N. F.

    2017-03-01

    Existence of different types of interference in the spectrum of radiation emitted by a doubly hard scattered electron is demonstrated. The spectrum develops oscillations in two regions: the hard, where they depend on the electron Lorentz factor, and the soft, where the oscillations depend on the electron scattering angles. This interference pattern owes to the presence of jetlike radiation configurations, formed by a piecewise-rectilinearly moving electron and the accompanying photon. The corresponding nondipole decomposition relation is derived. Notions describing proper field formation and interference, and presumably being applicable more generally, are discussed in detail.

  4. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLillo, T.K.; Pfaltzgraff, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  5. Stability analysis of doubly regenerative cylindrical grinding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoheng; Payre, Guy

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stability properties of a cylindrical grinding process. The dynamical model of the process includes two inherent delayed forcing terms, one from workpiece regeneration and the other from grinding wheel regeneration. The prediction of chatter onset is carried out by computing the spectrum of the doubly delayed differential equations for any set of physical and operational parameters. Stability diagrams are plotted in parameter space. The stability behavior obtained from this analysis is verified to be consistent with direct simulation results. A sensitivity analysis approach is also proposed, and can be used to lead an unstable process to a stable state by optimally varying one of the operational parameters.

  6. Image estimation using doubly stochastic gaussian random field models.

    PubMed

    Woods, J W; Dravida, S; Mediavilla, R

    1987-02-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) doubly stochastic Gaussian (DSG) model was introduced by one of the authors to provide a complete model for spatial filters which adapt to the local structure in an image signal. Here we present the optimal estimator and 2-D fixed-lag smoother for this DSG model extending earlier work of Ackerson and Fu. As the optimal estimator has an exponentially growing state space, we investigate suboptimal estimators using both a tree and a decision-directed method. Experimental results are presented.

  7. Spectroscopy of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael; Hadron Spectrum Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We present the ground and excited state spectra of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD with dynamical quark fields. Calculations are performed on anisotropic lattices of size 1 63×128 , with inverse spacing in temporal direction at-1=5.67 (4 ) GeV and with a pion mass of about 390 MeV. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice yet which retain a memory of their continuum analogues are used. These operators transform as irreducible representations of SU(3 ) F symmetry for flavor, SU(4) symmetry for Dirac spins of quarks and O(3) for spatial symmetry. The distillation method is utilized to generate baryon correlation functions which are analyzed using the variational fitting method to extract excited states. The lattice spectra obtained have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7 /2 and the pattern of low-lying states does not support the diquark picture for doubly charmed baryons. On the contrary the calculated spectra are remarkably similar to the expectations from models with an SU (6 )×O (3 ) symmetry. Various spin-dependent energy splittings between the extracted states are also evaluated.

  8. Structure of dipole bands in doubly odd 102Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Sihotra, S.; Malik, S. S.; Bhat, G. H.; Palit, R.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, N.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Sethi, J.; Saha, S.; Trivedi, T.; Mehta, D.

    2016-10-01

    Excited states in the transitional doubly odd 102Ag nucleus were populated in the 75As(31P,p 3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 125 MeV incident 31P beam. The subsequent deexcitations were investigated through in-beam γ -ray spectroscopic techniques using the Indian National Gamma Array spectrometer equipped with 21 clover Ge detectors. The level scheme in 102Ag has been established up to excitation energy ˜6.5 MeV and angular momentum 19 ℏ . The earlier reported level scheme is considerably extended and modified to result in a pair of nearly degenerate negative-parity dipole bands. Lifetime measurements for the states of these two dipole bands have been performed by using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The two nearly degenerate bands exhibit different features with regard to kinetic moment of inertia, and the reduced transition probabilities B (M 1 ) and B (E 2 ) , which do not favor these to be chiral partners. These bands are discussed in the framework of the hybrid version of tilted-axis cranking (tac) model calculations and assigned the π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2 and π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2(d5/2/g7 /2) 2 configurations. The tac model calculations are extended to the nearly degenerate bands observed in the heavier doubly odd Ag-108104 isotopes.

  9. Doubly robust and multiple-imputation-based generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Birhanu, Teshome; Molenberghs, Geert; Sotto, Cristina; Kenward, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE), proposed by Liang and Zeger (1986), provide a popular method to analyze correlated non-Gaussian data. When data are incomplete, the GEE method suffers from its frequentist nature and inferences under this method are valid only under the strong assumption that the missing data are missing completely at random. When response data are missing at random, two modifications of GEE can be considered, based on inverse-probability weighting or on multiple imputation. The weighted GEE (WGEE) method involves weighting observations by the inverse of their probability of being observed. Imputation methods involve filling in missing observations with values predicted by an assumed imputation model, multiple times. The so-called doubly robust (DR) methods involve both a model for the weights and a predictive model for the missing observations given the observed ones. To yield consistent estimates, WGEE needs correct specification of the dropout model while imputation-based methodology needs a correctly specified imputation model. DR methods need correct specification of either the weight or the predictive model, but not necessarily both. Focusing on incomplete binary repeated measures, we study the relative performance of the singly robust and doubly robust versions of GEE in a variety of correctly and incorrectly specified models using simulation studies. Data from a clinical trial in onychomycosis further illustrate the method.

  10. Doubly charged vector leptons and the Higgs portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen Jun; Ng, J. N.

    2016-11-01

    Using a bottom up phenomenological approach we constructed a simple doubly charged vector lepton E±± model for the possible 750 GeV diphoton resonance Φ at the LHC assuming it to be a scalar particle. Since no stable doubly charged leptons are seen, to facilitate their decays we complete the model by adding a charged standard model (SM) electroweak scalar S± . Φ is a SM singlet and can be either an inert scalar or a Higgs field. In the inert case more than one vector lepton is required to account for the photon fusion production of the resonance if the model is to remain perturbative. For a Higgs boson case S± can assist the production mechanism without using more than one such lepton. We also found that precision measurements constrain the couplings of E±± and S± to SM particles to be small. This raises the possibility that they can be fairly long lived and can give rise to displaced vertices if produced at the LHC.

  11. Spectroscopy of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael

    2015-05-06

    This study presents the ground and excited state spectra of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD with dynamical quark fields. Calculations are performed on anisotropic lattices of size 16³ × 128, with inverse spacing in temporal direction at⁻¹=5.67(4) GeV and with a pion mass of about 390 MeV. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice yet which retain a memory of their continuum analogues are used. These operators transform as irreducible representations of SU(3)F symmetry for flavor, SU(4) symmetry for Dirac spins of quarks and O(3) for spatial symmetry. The distillation method is utilized to generate baryon correlation functions which are analyzed using the variational fitting method to extract excited states. The lattice spectra obtained have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the pattern of low-lying states does not support the diquark picture for doubly charmed baryons. On the contrary the calculated spectra are remarkably similar to the expectations from models with an SU(6)×O(3) symmetry. Various spin-dependent energy splittings between the extracted states are also evaluated.

  12. Nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded doubly curved shallow shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, F.; Amabili, M.; Karagiozis, K.; Bakhtiari-Nejad, F.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear forced vibrations of FGM doubly curved shallow shells with a rectangular base are investigated. Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory is used and the shell is assumed to be simply supported with movable edges. The equations of motion are reduced using the Galerkin method to a system of infinite nonlinear ordinary differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Using the multiple scales method, primary and subharmonic resonance responses of FGM shells are fully discussed and the effect of volume fraction exponent on the internal resonance conditions, softening/hardening behavior and bifurcations of the shallow shell when the excitation frequency is (i) near the fundamental frequency and (ii) near two times the fundamental frequency is shown. Moreover, using a code based on arclength continuation method, a bifurcation analysis is carried out for a special case with two-to-one internal resonance between the first and second doubly symmetric modes with respect to the panel's center ( ω13≈2 ω11). Bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré maps are obtained through direct time integration of the equations of motion and chaotic regions are shown by calculating Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension.

  13. Can doubly strange dibaryon resonances be discovered at RHIC?

    SciTech Connect

    Paganis, S. D.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Ray, R. L.; Tang, J.-L.; Udagawa, T.; Longacre, R. S.

    2000-08-01

    The baryon-baryon continuum invariant mass spectrum generated from relativistic nucleus + nucleus collision data may reveal the existence of doubly strange dibaryons not stable against strong decay if they lie within a few MeV of threshold. Furthermore, since the dominant component of these states is a superposition of two color-octet clusters which can be produced intermediately in a color-deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP), an enhanced production of dibaryon resonances could be a signal of QGP formation. A total of eight, doubly strange dibaryon states are considered for experimental search using the STAR detector (solenoidal tracker at RHIC) at the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These states may decay to {lambda}{lambda} and/or p{xi}{sup -}, depending on the resonance energy. STAR's large acceptance, precision tracking and vertex reconstruction capabilities, and large data volume capacity, make it an ideal instrument to use for such a search. Detector performance and analysis sensitivity are studied as a function of resonance production rate and width for one particular dibaryon which can directly strong decay to p{xi}{sup -}, but not {lambda}{lambda}. Results indicate that such resonances may be discovered using STAR if the resonance production rates are comparable to coalescence model predictions for dibaryon bound states. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Quantum phase transition in ultra small doubly connected superconducting cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternfeld, I.; Koret, R.; Shtrikman, H.; Tsukernik, A.; Karpovski, M.; Palevski, A.

    2008-02-01

    The kinetic energy of Cooper pairs, in doubly connected superconducting cylinders, is a function of the applied flux and the ratio between the diameter of the cylinder and the zero temperature coherence length d/ ξ(0). If d >ξ(0) the known Little-Parks oscillations are observed. On the other hand if d <ξ(0), the superconducting state is energetically not favored around odd multiples of half flux quanta even at T∼0, resulting in the so called destructive regime [Y. Liu, et al., Science 294 (2001) 2332]. We developed a novel technique to fabricate superconducting doubly connected nanocylinders with both diameter and thickness less than 100 nm, and performed magnetoresistance measurements on such Nb and Al cylinders. In the Nb cylinders, where d >ξ(0), we observed the LP oscillations. In the Al cylinders we did not observe a transition to the superconducting state due to the proximity effect, resulted from an Au layer coating the Al. However, we did observe Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (h/2e) oscillations in these cylinders.

  15. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  16. A label-free fluorescent assay for free chlorine in drinking water based on protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tang, Yan; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin stabilized Au nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) were demonstrated as a novel fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective detection of free chlorine in drinking water. The fluorescence of BSA-AuNCs was found to be quenched effectively by the free chlorine, and the decrease in fluorescence intensity of BSA-AuNCs allowed the sensitive detection of free chlorine in the range of 0.8-800 μM. The detection limit is 0.50 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The present fluorescent assay for free chlorine possesses low detection limit, wide linear range and good selectivity. Real tap water samples were analyzed with satisfactory results, which suggested its potential for water quality analysis.

  17. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed making changes to the food labels that may correct these problems. AMOUNTS PER SERVING The total calories and the calories from fat are listed. These numbers help consumers make decisions about fat intake. The list of nutrients includes ...

  18. Shake-flask test for determination of biodegradation rates of (14)C-labeled chemicals at low concentrations in surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, F; Nyholm, N

    2000-03-01

    A simple shake-flask surface water biodegradability die away test with (14)C-labeled chemicals added to microgram per liter concentrations (usually 1-100 microg/L) is described and evaluated. The aim was to provide information on biodegradation behavior and kinetic rates at environmental (low) concentrations in surface water systems. The basic principle of measurement was to determine evolved CO(2) indirectly from measurements of total organic activity in subsamples after stripping off their content of CO(2). Used with surface water alone the test simulates a pelagic environment and amended with sediments (0.1-1 dry weight/L) the test is intended to simulate a water environment with suspended solids (e.g., resuspended sediments). A protocol of the test used with the (14)C technique or with specific chemical analysis was recently developed by the International Organization for Standardization. Practical experience with the method is presented for a set of reference substances. These substances could be ranked in five groups of decreasing biodegradability: aniline>p-nitrophenol, 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid>4-chloroaniline>maleic hydrazide, pentachlorophenol>atrazine. It was found that degradation rates and lag periods varied considerably among sampling sites and sometimes also among samples from the same site. No significant correlation could be established between degradation rates and microbial biomass estimates. Even small portions of added sediments greatly enhanced biodegradation of the absorbable compound pentachlorophenol, probably by providing sites for microbial attachment. Repeated tests indicated consistent degradation behavior for the readily degradable substances, whereas degradation sometimes stopped or failed with the more recalcitrant substances. A preadaptation step involving regular reinoculation with freshly collected surface water could, however, overcome the problems of false-negative results.

  19. 78 FR 78305 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... products, ceiling fans, certain types of water heaters, and televisions. The Rule requires manufacturers to... engineers, and applying an associated hourly wage rate of $44.14 per hour, labor costs for testing would... filing requirements will be implemented by data entry workers at an hourly wage rate of $15.11 per hour...

  20. Green approaches to late-stage fluorination: radiosyntheses of (18)F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in ethanol and water.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Megan N; Hockley, Brian G; Scott, Peter J H

    2015-10-11

    Green strategies for late-stage fluorination with (18)F, in which ethanol and water are the only solvents used throughout the entire radiolabeling process (azeotropic drying, nucleophilic fluorination, purification and formulation), have been developed and applied to the radiosyntheses of a range of radiopharmaceuticals commonly employed in clinical PET imaging.

  1. Doubly responsive polymer-microgel composites: rheology and structure.

    PubMed

    Monti, Fabrice; Fu, Shang-Yi; Iliopoulos, Ilias; Cloitre, Michel

    2008-10-21

    Mixtures of alkali swellable microgels and linear PNIPAm chains exhibit doubly responsive properties both with pH and temperature. Below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), the linear chains of PNIPAm are soluble and increase the osmotic pressure outside the microgels, which causes them to deswell. Above the LCST, the PNIPAm chains become insoluble and form spherical colloidal particles confined between the microgels that subsequently reswell. The swelling and deswelling of the microgels change the rheological properties of the composites, providing a unique way to tune the elasticity of the composites with temperature. The structure of the composites above the LCST is studied using multiple light scattering and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The phase separation of PNIPAm above the LCST is strongly affected by the confinement of the PNIPAm chains between the microgels.

  2. Properties of Doubly Heavy Baryons in the Relativistic Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, D.; Faustov, R.N.; Galkin, V.O.; Martynenko, A.P.

    2005-05-01

    Mass spectra and semileptonic decay rates of baryons consisting of two heavy (b or c) and one light quark are calculated in the framework of the relativistic quark model. The doubly heavy baryons are treated in the quark-diquark approximation. The ground and excited states of both the diquark and quark-diquark bound systems are considered. The quark-diquark potential is constructed. The light quark is treated completely relativistically, while the expansion in the inverse heavy-quark mass is used. The weak transition amplitudes of heavy diquarks bb and bc going, respectively, to bc and cc are explicitly expressed through the overlap integrals of the diquark wave functions in the whole accessible kinematic range. The relativistic baryon wave functions of the quark-diquark bound system are used for the calculation of the decay matrix elements, the Isgur-Wise function, and decay rates in the heavy-quark limit.

  3. Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.

  4. Observation of the doubly strange b baryon Omegab-.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; DeVaughan, K; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Komissarov, E V; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merekov, Y P; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rozhdestvenski, A; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Vertogradova, Y; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-12-05

    We report the observation of the doubly strange b baryon Omegab- in the decay channel Omegab(-)-->J/psiOmega-, with J/psi-->mu+mu(-) and Omega(-)-->LambdaK(-)-->(ppi-)K-, in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV. Using approximately 1.3 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we observe 17.8+/-4.9(stat)+/-0.8(syst) Omegab- signal events at a mass of 6.165+/-0.010(stat)+/-0.013(syst) GeV. The significance of the observed signal is 5.4sigma, corresponding to a probability of 6.7 x 10(-8) of it arising from a background fluctuation.

  5. Doubly Robust Learning for Estimating Individualized Treatment with Censored Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y. Q.; Zeng, D.; Laber, E. B.; Song, R.; Yuan, M.; Kosorok, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Individualized treatment rules recommend treatments based on individual patient characteristics in order to maximize clinical benefit. When the clinical outcome of interest is survival time, estimation is often complicated by censoring. We develop nonparametric methods for estimating an optimal individualized treatment rule in the presence of censored data. To adjust for censoring, we propose a doubly robust estimator which requires correct specification of either the censoring model or survival model, but not both; the method is shown to be Fisher consistent when either model is correct. Furthermore, we establish the convergence rate of the expected survival under the estimated optimal individualized treatment rule to the expected survival under the optimal individualized treatment rule. We illustrate the proposed methods using simulation study and data from a Phase III clinical trial on non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:25937641

  6. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  7. Nonsnaking doubly diffusive convectons and the twist instability

    SciTech Connect

    Beaume, Cédric Knobloch, Edgar; Bergeon, Alain

    2013-11-15

    Doubly diffusive convection in a three-dimensional horizontally extended domain with a square cross section in the vertical is considered. The fluid motion is driven by horizontal temperature and concentration differences in the transverse direction. When the buoyancy ratio N = −1 and the Rayleigh number is increased the conduction state loses stability to a subcritical, almost two-dimensional roll structure localized in the longitudinal direction. This structure exhibits abrupt growth in length near a particular value of the Rayleigh number but does not snake. Prior to this filling transition the structure becomes unstable to a secondary twist instability generating a pair of stationary, spatially localized zigzag states. In contrast to the primary branch these states snake as they grow in extent and eventually fill the whole domain. The origin of the twist instability and the properties of the resulting localized structures are investigated for both periodic and no-slip boundary conditions in the extended direction.

  8. Localized traveling pulses in natural doubly diffusive convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Jacono, D.; Bergeon, A.; Knobloch, E.

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional natural doubly diffusive convection in a vertical slot driven by an imposed temperature difference in the horizontal is studied using numerical continuation and direct numerical simulation. Two cases are considered and compared. In the first a concentration difference that balances thermal buoyancy is imposed in the horizontal and stationary localized structures are found to be organized in a standard snakes-and-ladders bifurcation diagram. Disconnected branches of traveling pulses TPn consisting of n ,n =1 ,2 ,⋯ , corotating cells are identified and shown to accumulate on a tertiary branch of traveling waves. With Robin or mixed concentration boundary conditions on one wall all localized states travel and the hitherto stationary localized states may connect up with the traveling pulses. The stability of the TPn states is determined and unstable TPn shown to evolve into spatio-temporal chaos. The calculations are done with no-slip boundary conditions in the horizontal and periodic boundary conditions in the vertical.

  9. Fermi Hypernetted Chain Description of Doubly Closed Shell Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Saavedra, F. Arias; Bisconti, C.; Co, G.

    2008-06-01

    For the first time, Fermi HyperNetted Chain (FHNC) techniques have been applied to describe the ground-state of medium and heavy doubly closed shell nuclei, with fully realistic nuclear interactions, including both two- and three-body forces, and operator dependent correlation functions. Calculations for the 12C, 16O,40Ca, 48Ca and 208Pb nuclei, have been done by using Argonne V8' two-body potential together with Urbana IX three-body force. These calculations reach an accuracy comparable to that of the best nuclear matter variational calculations. We have also investigated the effects produced by the short range correlations (SRC) on some ground state quantities related to observables.

  10. Triple differential cross sections of magnesium in doubly symmetric geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Y. Sun; X, Y. Miao; Xiang-Fu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A dynamically screened three-Coulomb-wave (DS3C) method is applied to study the single ionization of magnesium by electron impact. Triple differential cross sections (TDCS) are calculated in doubly symmetric geometry at incident energies of 13.65, 17.65, 22.65, 27.65, 37.65, 47.65, 57.65, and 67.65 eV. Comparisons are made with experimental data and theoretical predictions from a three-Coulomb-wave function (3C) approach and distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). The overall agreement between the predictions of the DS3C model and the DWBA approach with the experimental data is satisfactory. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274215).

  11. A lab-on-chip cell-based biosensor for label-free sensing of water toxicants.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Nordin, A N; Li, F; Voiculescu, I

    2014-04-07

    This paper presents a lab-on-chip biosensor containing an enclosed fluidic cell culturing well seeded with live cells for rapid screening of toxicants in drinking water. The sensor is based on the innovative placement of the working electrode for the electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique as the top electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator. Cell damage induced by toxic water will cause a decrease in impedance, as well as an increase in the resonant frequency. For water toxicity tests, the biosensor's unique capabilities of performing two complementary measurements simultaneously (impedance and mass-sensing) will increase the accuracy of detection while decreasing the false-positive rate. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were used as toxicity sensing cells. The effects of the toxicants, ammonia, nicotine and aldicarb, on cells were monitored with both the QCM and the ECIS technique. The lab-on-chip was demonstrated to be sensitive to low concentrations of toxicants. The responses of BAECs to toxic samples occurred during the initial 5 to 20 minutes depending on the type of chemical and concentrations. Testing the multiparameter biosensor with aldicarb also demonstrated the hypothesis that using two different sensors to monitor the same cell monolayer provides cross validation and increases the accuracy of detection. For low concentrations of aldicarb, the variations in impedance measurements are insignificant in comparison with the shifts of resonant frequency monitored using the QCM resonator. A highly linear correlation between signal shifts and chemical concentrations was demonstrated for each toxicant.

  12. New effects in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers from fluorescently labelled phospholipids and their possible use for water quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, G. R.; Geshev, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary water contamination poses significant challenges to the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors used for its detection and monitoring. Currently only lab tests can detect these contaminants and by the time this happens the contaminated water has entered the city water supply system. Fluorescent chromophore NitroBenzoxaDiazole (NBD) is very suitable and had been successfully used in biosensor applications due to its high sensitivity to close proximity polarity of the medium. Over the years we have discovered 3 new effects in NBD- labelled phospholipids which can significantly improve the performance of biosensors. The phospholipid matrix provides flexible biocompatible environment for immobilization of selectively reacting enzymes, microorganisms, DNA, immunoagents, whole cells. Use of single layer (3.1 nm thickness) films at the air-water interface (Langmuir films) or deposited on solid support as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film gives fast response times for real time monitoring (no slow diffusion processes) and precise molecule ordering and orientation. The first new effect was fluorescence self-quenching in Langmuir and LB films. In the liquid phase films exhibit normal fluorescence. Upon transition to solid phase fluorescence intensity is almost completely self-quenched and fluorescence lifetimes in the nanosecond region decrease 2 times. This is easily measured. Usually large heavy metal atoms quench fluorescence. We observed the opposite new effect when LB film is deposited in the solid phase from a subphase containing heavy metals. The third new effect is the obtaining of nanosized cylinders with bilayer thickness, which remain stable at least for months, when LB monolayer is deposited in the phase coexistence region at thermodynamic equilibrium. This greatly increases reacting surface and sensitivity of possible sensors. Almost all possible optical experimental methods were used for this research. This includes polarized ATR FTIR and polarized UV

  13. Doubly charged CO2 clusters formed by ionization of doped helium nanodroplets☆

    PubMed Central

    Daxner, Matthias; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Helium nanodroplets are doped with carbon dioxide and ionized by electrons. Doubly charged cluster ions are, for the first time, identified based on their characteristic patterns of isotopologues. Thanks to the high mass resolution, large dynamic range, and a novel method to eliminate contributions from singly charged ions from the mass spectra, we are able to observe doubly charged cluster ions that are smaller than the ones reported in the past. The likely mechanism by which doubly charged ions are formed in doped helium droplets is discussed. PMID:25844051

  14. Doubly heavy baryons and quark-diquark symmetry in quenched and partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2006-07-17

    We extend the chiral Lagrangian with heavy quark-diquark symmetry to quenched and partially quenched theories. These theories are used to derive formulae for the chiral extrapolation of masses and hyperfine splittings of doubly heavy baryons in lattice QCD simulations. A quark-diquark symmetry prediction for the hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons is rather insensitive to chiral corrections in both quenched and partially quenched QCD. Extrapolation formulae for the doubly heavy baryon electromagnetic transition moments are also determined for the partially quenched theory.

  15. Determination of microcystin-LR in water by a label-free aptamer based electrochemical impedance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenyu; Huang, Huiming; Xu, Yixiang; Gao, Xiaoyao; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Xi; Chen, Guonan

    2013-01-15

    In this study, an electrochemical impedance biosensor for cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) detection has been developed. MC-LR aptamers were immobilized on the gold electrode through Au-S interaction, in the presence of target (MC-LR); the binding of MC-LR and aptamers probe led to a complex formation change on the electrode surface and resulted in the impedance decreasing. The decrease rate had a linear relationship with logarithm of the MC-LR concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10(-7)-5.0 × 10(-11)mol/L, with a detection limit of 1.8 × 10(-11)mol/L. The sensor has good selectivity and stability, it has been applied to detect MC-LR in three kinds of real water samples with satisfying results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  17. Improved Doubly Robust Estimation when Data are Monotonely Coarsened, with Application to Longitudinal Studies with Dropout

    PubMed Central

    Tsiatis, Anastasios A.; Davidian, Marie; Cao, Weihua

    2010-01-01

    Summary A routine challenge is that of making inference on parameters in a statistical model of interest from longitudinal data subject to drop out, which are a special case of the more general setting of monotonely coarsened data. Considerable recent attention has focused on doubly robust estimators, which in this context involve positing models for both the missingness (more generally, coarsening) mechanism and aspects of the distribution of the full data, that have the appealing property of yielding consistent inferences if only one of these models is correctly specified. Doubly robust estimators have been criticized for potentially disastrous performance when both of these models are even only mildly misspecified. We propose a doubly robust estimator applicable in general monotone coarsening problems that achieves comparable or improved performance relative to existing doubly robust methods, which we demonstrate via simulation studies and by application to data from an AIDS clinical trial. PMID:20731640

  18. Production of the doubly charmed baryons at the SELEX experiment - The double intrinsic charm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshkarev, Sergey; Anikeev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The high production rate and > 0.33 of the doubly charmed baryons measured by the SELEX experiment is not amenable to perturbative QCD analysis. In this paper we calculate the production of the doubly heavy baryons with the double intrinsic charm Fock states whose existence is rigorously predicted by QCD. The production rate and the longitudinal momentum distribution are both reproduced. We also show that the production rates of the doubly charmed baryons and double J / ψ production observed by NA3 collaboration are comparable. Recent experimental results are reviewed. The production cross section of the doubly charmed baryons at a fixed-target experiment at the LHC is presented.

  19. Transient hydrogen bonding in uniformly ¹³C,¹⁵N-labeled carbohydrates in water.

    PubMed

    Norris, Scott E; Landström, Jens; Weintraub, Andrej; Bull, Thomas E; Widmalm, Göran; Freedberg, Darón I

    2012-03-01

    We report NMR studies of transient hydrogen bonding in a polysaccharide (PS) dissolved in water without cosolvent at ambient temperature. The PS portion of the Escherichia coli O142 lipopolysaccharide is comprised of repeating pentasaccharide units of GalNAc (N-acetyl galactosamine), GlcNAc (N-acetyl glucosamine), and rhamnose in a 3:1:1 ratio, respectively. A 105-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on one pentasaccharide repeat unit predicts transient inter-residue hydrogen bonds from the GalNAc NH groups in the PS. To investigate these predictions experimentally, the PS was uniformly ¹³C,¹⁵N enriched and the NH, carbonyl, C2, C4, and methyl resonances of the GalNAc and GlcNAc residues assigned using through-bond triple-resonance NMR experiments. Temperature dependence of amide NH chemical shifts and one-bond NH J couplings support that NH groups on two of the GalNAc residues are donors in transient hydrogen bonds. The remaining GalNAc and GlcNAc NHs do not appear to be donors from either temperature-dependent chemical shifts or one-bond NH J couplings. These results substantiate the presence of weak or partial hydrogen bonds in carbohydrates, and that MD simulations of repeating units in PSs provide insight into overall PS structure and dynamics.

  20. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  1. Label-Free Fluorescence Assay of S1 Nuclease and Hydroxyl Radicals Based on Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and WS2 Nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junting; Zhao, Qi; Tang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new method for detecting S1 nuclease and hydroxyl radicals based on the use of water-soluble conjugated poly[9,9-bis(6,6-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-fluorene)-2,7-ylenevinylene-co-alt-2,5-dicyano-1,4-phenylene)] (PFVCN) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets. Cationic PFVCN is used as a signal reporter, and single-layer WS2 is used as a quencher with a negatively charged surface. The ssDNA forms complexes with PFVCN due to much stronger electrostatic interactions between cationic PFVCN and anionic ssDNA, whereas PFVCN emits yellow fluorescence. When ssDNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease or hydroxyl radicals into small fragments, the interactions between the fragmented DNA and PFVCN become weaker, resulting in PFVCN being adsorbed on the surface of WS2 and the fluorescence being quenched through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The new method based on PFVCN and WS2 can sense S1 nuclease with a low detection limit of 5 × 10−6 U/mL. Additionally, this method is cost-effective by using affordable WS2 as an energy acceptor without the need for dye-labeled ssDNA. Furthermore, the method provides a new platform for the nuclease assay and reactive oxygen species, and provides promising applications for drug screening. PMID:27304956

  2. Attempting to monitor the incorporation of deuterium into indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in Zea mays grown on deuterium oxide labeled water

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, P.J.; Bandurski, R.S. )

    1989-04-01

    We are attempting to determine when seedlings of Zea mays sweet corn, var. Silver Queen begin de novo biosynthesis of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We wish to use the general precursor, deuterium labeled water, to minimize assumptions as to the biosynthetic route. Protium in positions 2, 4, 5, 6 7 of the indole ring are non-exchangeable. IAA and tryptophan synthesized via the shikimic acid pathway would contain deuterium in one or more of these positions . The protium on the indene nitrogen, the carboxyl, the amino group, or the protium alpha to the carboxyl exchange readily and so are removed prior to analysis by base catalyzed exchange. The IAA, or trypotophan, is then purified by DEAE, Dowex 50, and two HPLC steps. IAA is methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Trytophan is acetylated with triethylamine-acetic anhydride and then methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Results of these studies on plants grown for varying lengths of time and under various light and nutrient conditions will be reported.

  3. Memory deficits correlating with acetylcholinesterase splice shift and amyloid burden in doubly transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tina M; Berson, Amit; Sklan, Ella H; Younkin, Linda; Younkin, Steven; Brimijoin, Stephen; Soreq, Hermona

    2005-07-01

    Current mouse models of Alzheimer's disease show brain pathology that correlates to a degree with memory impairment, but underlying molecular mechanisms remained unknown. Here we report studies with three lines of transgenic mice: animals that doubly express mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) and human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE); and animals transgenic for only the APPswe or the hAChE. Among these genotypes, variations were observed in expression of mRNA for presenilin-1, which was highest in singly transgenic hAChE mice, and the stress-inducible form of AChE, which was elevated when both transgenes were present. At the age of nine months, both double and single transgenic mice displayed working memory impairment in a radial arm water maze. However, as compared with mice expressing amyloid alone, the double transgenic animals exhibited more numerous plaques and greater amyloid burden in brain (both by histochemistry and by ELISA of amyloid protein). Moreover, the amyloid burden in double transgenics was tightly correlated with memory impairment as measured by total maze errors (r2= 0.78, p = .002). This correlation was markedly stronger than observed in mice with amyloid alone. These new findings support the notion of cholinergic-amyloid interrelationships and highlight the double transgenic mice as a promising alternative for testing Alzheimer's therapies.

  4. Study of doubly strange systems using stored antiprotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kümmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, E.; Lisowski, F.; Michałek, M.; Poznański, P.; Płażek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Psyzniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Böhm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus Marinescu, D.; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Löchner, S.; Lühning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Täschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Olshevskiy, A.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savriè, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M. N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfarth, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J. C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Pütz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Liu, Z.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H. H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Martìnez Rojo, M.; Marta, M.; Michel, M.; Mora Espì, M. C.; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflüger, S.; Pitka, A.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, P.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Parmar, A.; Roy, B.; Sonika, G.; Fritzsch, C.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A. K.; Hetz, B.; Hüsken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Wessels, J. P.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Limphirat, A.; Srisawad, P.; Yan, Y.; Barnyakov, M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Martin, K.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S.; Sokolov, A.; Tikhonov, Y.; Atomssa, E.; Kunne, R.; Marchand, D.; Ramstein, B.; Van de Wiele, J.; Wang, Y.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Levin, A.; Melnik, Y.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Roy, U.; Yabsley, B.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhdanov, A.; Makonyi, K.; Preston, M.; Tegner, P.; Wölbing, D.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Olave, J.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Hu, J.; Lavezzi, L.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Calen, H.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Papenbrock, M.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Galnander, B.; Diaz, J.; Pothodi Chackara, V.; Chlopik, A.; Kesik, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Steinschaden, D.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Gerl, Jürgen; Kojouharov, Ivan; Kojouharova, Jasmina

    2016-10-01

    Bound nuclear systems with two units of strangeness are still poorly known despite their importance for many strong interaction phenomena. Stored antiprotons beams in the GeV range represent an unparalleled factory for various hyperon-antihyperon pairs. Their outstanding large production probability in antiproton collisions will open the floodgates for a series of new studies of systems which contain two or even more units of strangeness at the P ‾ ANDA experiment at FAIR. For the first time, high resolution γ-spectroscopy of doubly strange ΛΛ-hypernuclei will be performed, thus complementing measurements of ground state decays of ΛΛ-hypernuclei at J-PARC or possible decays of particle unstable hypernuclei in heavy ion reactions. High resolution spectroscopy of multistrange Ξ--atoms will be feasible and even the production of Ω--atoms will be within reach. The latter might open the door to the | S | = 3 world in strangeness nuclear physics, by the study of the hadronic Ω--nucleus interaction. For the first time it will be possible to study the behavior of Ξ‾+ in nuclear systems under well controlled conditions.

  5. Neutron interaction with doubly-magic {sup 40}Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B. |

    1993-11-01

    Differential neutron elastic and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental calcium (96.94% doubly-magic {sup 40}Ca) are measured from {approx} 1.5 to 10 MeV with sufficient detail to determine their energy-averaged behavior in the highly fluctuating environment. These results, combined with values previously reported in the literature, are assessed in the contexts of optical-statistical, dispersive optical, and coupled-channels models, applicable to the energy domain 0 {yields} 30+ MeV, with particular emphasis on the lower energies where the interpretations are sensitive to the dispersion relationship and the effective mass. The interpretations define the energy dependencies of the potential parameters (resolving prior ambiguities), suggest that previous estimates of the prominent low-energy (n,p) and (n,a) reactions are too large, reasonably describe observables to at least 30 MeV, and provide a vehicle for extrapolation into the bound-state regime that gives a good description of hole- and particle-state binding energies. The resulting real-potential parameters (in contrast to many {sup 40}Ca parameters reported in the literature) are shown consistent with global trends.

  6. On the metastability of doubly charged homonuclear diatomics.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, Felipe; Cardozo, Thiago M; Nascimento, Marco A C

    2017-07-26

    Generalized valence bond (GVB) and spin-coupled (SC) calculations were used in conjunction with the generalized product function energy partitioning (GPF-EP) method to describe the origin of metastability in doubly charged homonuclear dications. A model to describe the formation of metastable potential wells based on interference and quasi-classical effects is presented. The GPF-EP picture of dications is the result of polarization-aided strong covalent bonding surpassing Coulomb electrostatic repulsion. Important differences in the quasi-classical density profiles of He2(2+) and Ne2(2+) reveal the underlying mechanism that could lead to bound or unbound states. Finally, the nature of the chemical bond of N2(2+), O2(2+), and F2(2+) is described. The results suggest that the ground states of the mentioned dications are bounded and that the depth of the potential wells of these exotic species is related to the interference effect, in the same way as in previously studied neutral molecules.

  7. Observation of the Doubly Charmed Baryon Ξ_{cc}^{++}.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjoern, M B; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Borysova, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Huard, Z-C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Lisovskyi, V; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddock, B; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombacher, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Robert, A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Gonzalo, D; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Usachov, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M A; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2017-09-15

    A highly significant structure is observed in the Λ_{c}^{+}K^{-}π^{+}π^{+} mass spectrum, where the Λ_{c}^{+} baryon is reconstructed in the decay mode pK^{-}π^{+}. The structure is consistent with originating from a weakly decaying particle, identified as the doubly charmed baryon Ξ_{cc}^{++}. The difference between the masses of the Ξ_{cc}^{++} and Λ_{c}^{+} states is measured to be 1334.94±0.72(stat.)±0.27(syst.)  MeV/c^{2}, and the Ξ_{cc}^{++} mass is then determined to be 3621.40±0.72(stat.)±0.27(syst.)±0.14(Λ_{c}^{+})  MeV/c^{2}, where the last uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the Λ_{c}^{+} mass. The state is observed in a sample of proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.7  fb^{-1}, and confirmed in an additional sample of data collected at 8 TeV.

  8. Signal of doubly charged Higgs at e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, L. T.; Huong, D. T.; Long, H. N.; Hung, H. T.; Thao, N. H.

    2015-11-01

    The masses and signals of the production of doubly charged Higgses (DCH) in the framework of the supersymmetric reduced minimal 3-3-1 model are investigated. In the DCH sector, we prove that there always exists a region of the parameter space where the mass of the lightest DCH is of the order of O(100) GeV even when all other new particles are very heavy. The lightest DCH mainly decays to two same-sign leptons while the dominant decay channels of the heavy DCHs are those decaying to heavy particles. We analyze each production cross section for e^+e^- ⇒ H^{++} H^{-} as a function of a few kinematic variables, which are useful to discuss the creation of DCHs in e^+e^- colliders as an indicator of new physics beyond the Standard Model. A numerical study shows that the cross sections for creating the lightest DCH can reach values of a few pb. The other two DCHs are too heavy, beyond the observable range of experiments. The lightest DCH may be detected by the International Linear Collider or the Compact Linear Collider by searching for its decay to a same-sign charged lepton pair.

  9. Observation of the Doubly Charmed Baryon Ξcc ++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Beiter, A.; Bel, L. J.; Beliy, N.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Beranek, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Berninghoff, D.; Bertholet, E.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjoern, M. B.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Borysova, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calladine, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chitic, S.-G.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Del Buono, L.; Dembinski, H.-P.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Douglas, L.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Federici, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandez Declara, P.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gabriel, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Grabowski, J. P.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greim, R.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruber, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hancock, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hasse, C.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Hecker, M.; Heinicke, K.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P. H.; Huard, Z.-C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ibis, P.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kazeev, N.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Kopecna, R.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozeiha, M.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, P.-R.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Lionetto, F.; Lisovskyi, V.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Loi, A.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Macko, V.; Mackowiak, P.; Maddock, B.; Maddrell-Mander, S.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Marangotto, D.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Mead, J. V.; Meadows, B.; Meaux, C.; Meier, F.; Meinert, N.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Millard, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Minzoni, L.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Mombacher, T.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ossowska, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Ponce, S.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Pullen, H.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Quintana, B.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Ravonel Salzgeber, M.; Reboud, M.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Gonzalo, D.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarpis, G.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schreiner, H. F.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stepanova, M.; Stevens, H.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; Szymanski, M.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Toriello, F.; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R.; Tournefier, E.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Usachov, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagner, A.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Verlage, T. A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Winn, M. A.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zonneveld, J. B.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A highly significant structure is observed in the Λc+K-π+π+ mass spectrum, where the Λc+ baryon is reconstructed in the decay mode p K-π+. The structure is consistent with originating from a weakly decaying particle, identified as the doubly charmed baryon Ξcc ++. The difference between the masses of the Ξcc ++ and Λc+ states is measured to be 1334.94 ±0.72 (stat.) ±0.27 (syst. ) MeV /c2 , and the Ξcc ++ mass is then determined to be 3621.40 ±0.72 (stat.) ±0.27 (syst. ) ±0.14 (Λc+) MeV /c2 , where the last uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the Λc+ mass. The state is observed in a sample of proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.7 fb-1, and confirmed in an additional sample of data collected at 8 TeV.

  10. Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine system development program, phase 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, G. C.; Spee, R.; Wallace, A. K.

    Since the inception of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine (BDFM) System Development Program in 1989, the value of BDFM technology has become apparent. The BDFM provides for adjustable speed, synchronous operation while keeping costs associated with the required power conversion equipment lower than in competing technologies. This provides for an advantage in initial as well as maintenance expenses over conventional drive system. Thus, the BDFM enables energy efficient, adjustable speed process control for applications where established drive technology has not been able to deliver satisfactory returns on investment. At the same time, the BDFM challenges conventional drive technologies in established markets by providing for improved performance at lower cost. BDFM converter rating is kept at a minimum, which significantly improves power quality at the utility interface over competing power conversion equipment. In summary, BDFM technology can be expected to provide significant benefits to utilities as well as their customers. This report discusses technical research and development activities related to Phase 3 of the BDFM System Development Program, including work made possible by supplemental funds for laboratory improvement and prototype construction.

  11. Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

  12. Fast estimation of sparse doubly spread acoustic channels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Jun; Xu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of doubly spread underwater acoustic channels is addressed. By exploiting the sparsity in the delay-Doppler domain, this paper proposes a fast projected gradient method (FPGM) that can handle complex-valued data for estimating the delay-Doppler spread function of a time-varying channel. The proposed FPGM formulates the sparse channel estimation as a complex-valued convex optimization using an [script-l](1)-norm constraint. Conventional approaches to complex-valued optimization split the complex variables into their real and imaginary parts; this doubles the dimension compared with the original problem and may break the special data structure. Unlike the conventional methods, the proposed method directly handles the complex variables as a whole without splitting them into real numbers; hence the dimension will not increase. By exploiting the block Toeplitz-like structure of the coefficient matrix, the computational complexity of the FPGM is reduced to O(LNlogN), where L is the dimension of the Doppler shift and N is the signal length. Simulation results verify the accuracy and efficiency of the FPGM, indicating that is robust to parameter selection and is orders-of-magnitude faster than standard convex optimization algorithms. The Kauai experimental data processing results are also provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Doubly-polarised pion photoproduction on the nucleon at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    The A2 Collaboration at MAMI (Mainz) carried out new measurements of the helicity dependence of the total inclusive photo-absorption cross section and of the partial cross sections for several reaction channels on the proton and on the neutron in the photon energy region 200 < Eγ < 1500 MeV. The experiments were performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz, using circularly and linearly polarised photons on longitudinally polarised proton, deuteron and 3He targets. Hadronic reaction products were detected by the large acceptance Crystal Ball-TAPS spectrometer, complemented by plastic scintillators and vertex detectors for charged particle tracking and identification. These new, high-quality doubly-polarised pion-photoproduction data sets provide a valuable input to the study of the nucleon structure and excitation spectrum by significantly constraining the electromagnetic multipole evaluation performed by the different available partial wave analysis models. Furthermore, the helicity dependent observables provide the main ingredient for the verification of the well-known Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule, which relates the helicity-dependent photoasborption process to the main static nucleon properties (mass, charge, spin).

  14. Doubly Differential Multiple Ionization of Neon by Electron Impact*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Dubois, R. D.; Hasan, A.

    2003-05-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections for single, double and triple ionization of Ne atoms have been measured for 750 eV electron impact as a function of projectile energy loss and scattering angle. Angular distributions between 0 and +/- 12 degrees were obtained for energy losses between 0 and 600 eV. In this energy-loss range only L shell electrons are available for target ionization. The data were normalized to total ionization cross sections available in the literature. A comparison is made with photoionization data as well as with argon data taken using similar methods in order to study the role played by the static target potential. 1- R. D. DuBois, C. Doudna, C. Lloyd, M. Kahveci, Kh Khayyat, Y. Zhou, and D. H. Madison, J. Phys. B 34 (2001) L783-L789. 2- R. D. DuBois, Kh Khayyat, C. Doudna, C. Lloyd, NIM B 192 (2002) 63-66. 3- A. C. F. Santos, A. Hasan, T. Yates, R. D. DuBois, submitted to Phys. Rev. A (2003).

  15. Fragmentation network of doubly charged methionine: Interpretation using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Ha, D T; Yamazaki, K; Wang, Y; Alcamí, M; Maeda, S; Kono, H; Martín, F; Kukk, E

    2016-09-07

    The fragmentation of doubly charged gas-phase methionine (HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3) is systematically studied using the self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. We applied graph theory to analyze the large number of the calculated MD trajectories, which appears to be a highly effective and convenient means of extracting versatile information from the large data. The present theoretical results strongly concur with the earlier studied experimental ones. Essentially, the dication dissociates into acidic group CO2H and basic group C4NSH10. The former may carry a single or no charge and stays intact in most cases, whereas the latter may hold either a single or a double charge and tends to dissociate into smaller fragments. The decay of the basic group is observed to follow the Arrhenius law. The dissociation pathways to CO2H and C4NSH10 and subsequent fragmentations are also supported by ab initio calculations.

  16. Using the Triple Labelling Technique to apportion N2O Emissions to Nitrification and Denitrification from different Nitrogen Sources at different Water-Filled-Pore-Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loick, Nadine; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Repullo Ruibérriz de Torres, Miguel A.; Ciganda, Veronica; Lopez-Aizpun, Maria A.; Matthews, G. Peter; Müller, Christoph; Cardenas, Laura M.

    2017-04-01

    labelling technique - i.e. applying NH4NO3 with either the N at the NH4+ or at the NO3-, or in both places being labelled - this study investigates the effects of a low, medium and high water filled pore space (55, 70, 85%) in a clay soil on gaseous N emissions and investigates the source and processes leading to N2O emissions. To assess the utilisation of applied NO3- vs nitrified NO3- from applied NH4+, the model developed by Müller et al. (2007) is used to calculate the immobilisation of added NO3- and NH4+, nitrification of added NH4+, mineralisation of organic N and subsequent nitrification by the analysis of the 15N in the soil. Gross transformation rates, indicating the relative importance of added NO3- and NO3- derived from nitrified added NH4+ are calculated. Bergstermann et al. (2011) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 43, 240-250. Meijide et al. (2010) Eur. J. Soil Sci. 61, 364-374. Cárdenas et al. (2003) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 35, 867-870. Müller et al. (2007) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 39, 715-726.

  17. Basis set dependence of the doubly hybrid XYG3 functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Igor Ying; Luo, Yi; Xu, Xin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the basis set dependence of XYG3, a newly developed doubly hybrid functional [Y. Zhang, X. Xu, and W. A. Goddard III, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 4963 (2009)], in prediction of (1) heats of formation (HOFs), (2) bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs), (3) reaction barrier heights (RBHs), and (4) nonbonded interactions (NBIs). We used basis sets of triple-zeta quality starting from 6-311+G(d,p) with increasing completeness of the polarization functions to the largest Pople-type basis set 6-311++G(3df,3pd) and found that there was a continued improvement with larger basis sets. We showed that while HOF predictions were prone to basis set deficiencies, the basis set dependences in calculating BDEs, RBHs, and NBIs were mild. All of them converged fast with the increase of basis set size. We extended XYG3 to propose the XYG3o functional which was specifically optimized for a particular basis set in order to enhance its performance when using basis set of moderate size. With the 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set, XYG3o led to MADs of 2.56 kcal/mol for HOFs of the G3/99 set, 1.17 kcal/mol for BDEs of the BDE92/07 set, 1.11 kcal/mol for RBHs of the NHTBH38/04 and HTBH38/04 sets, and 0.40 kcal/mol for NBIs of the NCIE31/05 set, being comparable to those obtained by using XYG3/6-311++G(3df,3pd).

  18. The Torsional Spectrum of Doubly Deuterated Methanol CHD_2OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndao, M.; Coudert, L. H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Barros, J.; Margulès, L.; Manceron, Laurent; Roy, P.

    2014-06-01

    Although the torsional spectrum of several isotopic species of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 was analyzed some time ago, it is recently, and only for the monodeuterated species CH_2DOH, that such an analysis was extended to the case of an asymmetrical methyl group. In this talk, based on a Fourier transform high-resolution spectrum recorded in the 20 to 670 wn region, the first analysis of the torsional spectrum of doubly deuterated methanol CHD_2OH will be presented. The Q branch of many torsional subbands could be observed and their assignment was initiated using a theoretical torsion-rotation spectrum computed with an approach accounting for the torsion-rotation Coriolis coupling and for the dependence of the generalized inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. 46 torsional subbands were thus assigned. For 28 of them, their rotational structure could be assigned and fitted using an effective Hamiltonian expressed as a J(J+1) expansion; and for 2 of them microwave transitions within the lower torsional level could also be included in the analysis. In several cases these analysis revealed that the torsional levels are strongly perturbed. In the talk, the torsional parameters retrieved in the analysis of the torsional subband centers will be discussed. The results of the analysis of the rotational structure of the torsional subbands will be presented and we will also try to understand the nature of the perturbations. At last, preliminary results about the analysis of the microwave spectrum will be presented. El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309 Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256 (2009) 204 Quade, Liu, Mukhopadhyay, and Su, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 192 (1998) 378 Pearson, Yu, and Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 (2012) 119

  19. Structural Heterogeneity of Doubly-Charged Peptide b-Ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yiqun; O’Connor, Peter B.; Lin, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Performing collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) in tandem has shown great promise in providing comprehensive sequence information that was otherwise unobtainable by using either fragmentation method alone or in duet. However, the general applicability of this MS3 approach in peptide sequencing may be undermined by the formation of non-direct sequence ions, as sometimes observed under CAD, particularly when multiple stages of CAD are involved. In this study, varied-sized doubly-charged b-ions from three tachykinin peptides were investigated by ECD. Sequence scrambling was observed in ECD of all b-ions from neurokinin A (HKTDSFVGLM-NH2), suggesting the presence of N- and C-termini linked macro-cyclic conformers. On the contrary, none of the b-ions from eledoisin (pEPSKDAFIGLM-NH2) produced non-direct sequence ions under ECD, as it does not contain a free N-terminal amino group. ECD of several b-ions from Substance P (RPKPQQFFGLM-NH2) showed series of cm-Lys fragment ions which suggested that the macro-cyclic structure may also be formed by connecting the C-terminal carbonyl group and the ε-amino group of the lysine side chain. Theoretical investigation of selected Substance P b-ions revealed several low energy conformers, including both linear oxazolones and macro-ring structures, in corroboration with the experimental observation. This study showed that a b-ion may exist as a mixture of several forms, with their propensities influenced by its N-terminus, length, and certain side-chain groups. Further, the presence of several macro-cyclic structures may result in erroneous sequence assignment when the combined CAD and ECD methods are used in peptide sequencing. PMID:21472584

  20. Singly and Doubly Occupied Higher Quantum States in Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Juyeon; Yoon, Bitna; Kwon, Young-Wan; Choi, Dongsun; Jeong, Kwang Seob

    2017-02-08

    Filling the lowest quantum state of the conduction band of colloidal nanocrystals with a single electron, which is analogous to the filling the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in a molecule with a single electron, has attracted much attention due to the possibility of harnessing the electron spin for potential spin-based applications. The quantized energy levels of the artificial atom, in principle, make it possible for a nanocrystal to be filled with an electron if the Fermi-energy level is optimally tuned during the nanocrystal growth. Here, we report the singly occupied quantum state (SOQS) and doubly occupied quantum state (DOQS) of a colloidal nanocrystal in steady state under ambient conditions. The number of electrons occupying the lowest quantum state can be controlled to be zero, one (unpaired), and two (paired) depending on the nanocrystal growth time via changing the stoichiometry of the nanocrystal. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy proved the nanocrystals with single electron to show superparamagnetic behavior, which is a direct evidence of the SOQS, whereas the DOQS of the two- or zero-electron occupied nanocrystals in the 1Se exhibit diamagnetic behavior. In combination with the superconducting quantum interference device measurement, it turns out that the SOQS of the HgSe colloidal quantum dots has superparamagnetic property. The appearance and change of the steady-state mid-IR intraband absorption spectrum reflect the sequential occupation of the 1Se state with electrons. The magnetic property of the colloidal quantum dot, initially determined by the chemical synthesis, can be tuned from diamagnetic to superparamagnetic and vice versa by varying the number of electrons through postchemical treatment. The switchable magnetic property will be very useful for further applications such as colloidal nanocrystal based spintronics, nonvolatile memory, infrared optoelectronics, catalyst, imaging, and quantum computing.

  1. Simultaneous marginal survival estimators when doubly censored data is present.

    PubMed

    Julià, Olga; Gómez, Guadalupe

    2011-07-01

    A doubly censoring scheme occurs when the lifetimes T being measured,from a well-known time origin, are exactly observed within a window [L, R] of observational time and are otherwise censored either from above (right-censored observations)or below (left-censored observations). Sample data consists on the pairs (U, δ)where U = min{R, max{T, L}} and δ indicates whether T is exactly observed (δ = 0),right-censored (δ = 1) or left-censored (δ = −1). We are interested in the estimation of the marginal behaviour of the three random variables T, L and R based on the observed pairs (U, δ).We propose new nonparametric simultaneous marginal estimators Ŝ(T) , Ŝ(L) and Ŝ(R) for the survival functions of T, L and R, respectively, by means of an inverse-probability-of-censoring approach. The proposed estimators Ŝ(T) , Ŝ(L) and Ŝ(R) are not computationally intensive, generalize the empirical survival estimator and reduce to the Kaplan-Meier estimator in the absence of left-censored data. Furthermore,Ŝ(T) is equivalent to a self-consistent estimator, is uniformly strongly consistent and asymptotically normal. The method is illustrated with data from a cohort of drug users recruited in a detoxification program in Badalona (Spain). For these data we estimate the survival function for the elapsed time from starting IV-drugs to AIDS diagnosis, as well as the potential follow-up time. A simulation study is discussed to assess the performance of the three survival estimators for moderate sample sizes and different censoring levels.

  2. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  3. 33 CFR 181.19 - Construction of labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... labels. (a) Each label must be made of material that can withstand exposure to water, oil, salt spray, direct sunlight, heat, cold, and wear expected in normal use of the boat or item of associated...

  4. 33 CFR 181.19 - Construction of labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... labels. (a) Each label must be made of material that can withstand exposure to water, oil, salt spray, direct sunlight, heat, cold, and wear expected in normal use of the boat or item of associated equipment...

  5. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on a label must: (1) Be at least 1/16 inch high and (2) Contrast with the basic color of the label or... water, oil, salt spray, direct sunlight, heat, cold, and wear expected in normal operation of the...

  6. Doubly stochastic Poisson distribution of platelet adhesion on material surfaces and its implication on fluorescence image analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhengyu; Cawse, James N; Yu, Liming; Richards, William D

    2009-04-01

    An image based assay has been developed to quantify platelet adhesion on material surfaces. Briefly, citrated platelet rich plasma (PRP) is incubated with materials for 2 h to allow platelet adhesion on the surface, followed by fluorescence labeling of platelets with Celltracker Green. Multiple images are acquired by an automatic fluorescence microscope, IN Cell Analyzer 1000. Platelets are identified and counted by an automatic image analysis algorithm. We have observed that the variance of the counts is considerably greater than expected from simple distribution laws. Statistical analysis of that difference shows that these measurements will often follow a doubly stochastic Poisson process in which the variance is inherently very large. To overcome this, multiple images (n > or = 8 images/well, about 3% of total area) are necessary to achieve accurate counting. This method has been compared to the commonly used enzyme based platelet adhesion assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. It is concluded that the present method is only effective in quantifying adherent platelets when a large number of samples are used. However, this method does provide additional information on platelet morphology and spatial distribution, which is lacking in the LDH assay.

  7. Deep Label Distribution Learning With Label Ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bin-Bin; Xing, Chao; Xie, Chen-Wei; Wu, Jianxin; Geng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have achieved excellent recognition performance in various visual recognition tasks. A large labeled training set is one of the most important factors for its success. However, it is difficult to collect sufficient training images with precise labels in some domains such as apparent age estimation, head pose estimation, multi-label classification and semantic segmentation. Fortunately, there is ambiguous information among labels, which makes these tasks different from traditional classification. Based on this observation, we convert the label of each image into a discrete label distribution, and learn the label distribution by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence between the predicted and ground-truth label distributions using deep ConvNets. The proposed DLDL (Deep Label Distribution Learning) method effectively utilizes the label ambiguity in both feature learning and classifier learning, which help prevent the network from over-fitting even when the training set is small. Experimental results show that the proposed approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods for age estimation and head pose estimation. At the same time, it also improves recognition performance for multi-label classification and semantic segmentation tasks.

  8. Doubly-fed induction generator used in wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloumah, Hany M. Jabr

    Wound-rotor induction generator has numerous advantages in wind power generation over other generators. One scheme for wound-rotor induction generator is realized when a converter cascade is used between the slip-ring terminals and the utility grid to control the rotor power. This configuration is called the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). In this work, a novel induction machine model is developed. This model includes the saturation in the main and leakage flux paths. It shows that the model which considers the saturation effects gives more realistic results. A new technique, which was developed for synchronous machines, was applied to experimentally measure the stator and rotor leakage inductance saturation characteristics on the induction machine. A vector control scheme is developed to control the rotor side voltage-source converter. Vector control allows decoupled or independent control of both active and reactive power of DFIG. These techniques are based on the theory of controlling the B- and q- axes components of voltage or current in different reference frames. In this work, the stator flux oriented rotor current control, with decoupled control of active and reactive power, is adopted. This scheme allows the independent control of the generated active and reactive power as well as the rotor speed to track the maximum wind power point. Conventionally, the controller type used in vector controllers is of the PI type with a fixed proportional and integral gain. In this work, different intelligent schemes by which the controller can change its behavior are proposed. The first scheme is an adaptive gain scheduler which utilizes different characteristics to generate the variation in the proportional and the integral gains. The second scheme is a fuzzy logic gain scheduler and the third is a neuro-fuzzy controller. The transient responses using the above mentioned schemes are compared analytically and experimentally. It has been found that although the

  9. 16 CFR 305.6 - Duty to provide labels on Web sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Testing § 305.6 Duty to provide labels on Web sites. For each covered product that a...

  10. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  11. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Daniel E; Kofahl, Nathan; Fellers, Gary D; Gates, Natalie B; Houser, Dorian S

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210+/-32 mL d(-1)) and field metabolic rates (1,488+/-486 kJ d(-1)) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals.

  12. Dynamic stability of a doubly quantized vortex in a three-dimensional condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Lundh, Emil; Nilsen, Halvor M.

    2006-12-15

    The Bogoliubov equations are solved for a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate containing a doubly quantized vortex, trapped in a harmonic potential. Complex frequencies, signifying dynamical instability, are found for certain ranges of parameter values. The existence of alternating windows of stability and instability, respectively, is explained qualitatively and quantitatively using variational calculus and direct numerical solutions. It is seen that the windows of stability disappear in the limit of a cigar-shaped condensate, which is consistent with recent experimental results on the lifetime of a doubly quantized vortex in that regime.

  13. Splitting Times of Doubly Quantized Vortices in Dilute Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Huhtamaeki, J. A. M.; Pietilae, V.; Virtanen, S. M. M.; Moettoenen, M.; Isoshima, T.

    2006-09-15

    Recently, the splitting of a topologically created doubly quantized vortex into two singly quantized vortices was experimentally investigated in dilute atomic cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates [Y. Shin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004)]. In particular, the dependency of the splitting time on the peak particle density was studied. We present results of theoretical simulations which closely mimic the experimental setup. We show that the combination of gravitational sag and time dependency of the trapping potential alone suffices to split the doubly quantized vortex in time scales which are in good agreement with the experiments.

  14. Dynamic stability of a doubly quantized vortex in a three-dimensional condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundh, Emil; Nilsen, Halvor M.

    2006-12-01

    The Bogoliubov equations are solved for a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate containing a doubly quantized vortex, trapped in a harmonic potential. Complex frequencies, signifying dynamical instability, are found for certain ranges of parameter values. The existence of alternating windows of stability and instability, respectively, is explained qualitatively and quantitatively using variational calculus and direct numerical solutions. It is seen that the windows of stability disappear in the limit of a cigar-shaped condensate, which is consistent with recent experimental results on the lifetime of a doubly quantized vortex in that regime.

  15. Oxygen atom transfer and oxidative water incorporation in cuboidal Mn3MO(n) complexes based on synthetic, isotopic labeling, and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Kanady, Jacob S; Mendoza-Cortes, Jose L; Tsui, Emily Y; Nielsen, Robert J; Goddard, William A; Agapie, Theodor

    2013-01-23

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II contains a Mn(4)CaO(n) catalytic site, in which reactivity of bridging oxidos is fundamental to OEC function. We synthesized structurally relevant cuboidal Mn(3)MO(n) complexes (M = Mn, Ca, Sc; n = 3,4) to enable mechanistic studies of reactivity and incorporation of μ(3)-oxido moieties. We found that Mn(IV)(3)CaO(4) and Mn(IV)(3)ScO(4) were unreactive toward trimethylphosphine (PMe(3)). In contrast, our Mn(III)(2)Mn(IV)(2)O(4) cubane reacts with this phosphine within minutes to generate a novel Mn(III)(4)O(3) partial cubane plus Me(3)PO. We used quantum mechanics to investigate the reaction paths for oxygen atom transfer to phosphine from Mn(III)(2)Mn(IV)(2)O(4) and Mn(IV)(3)CaO(4). We found that the most favorable reaction path leads to partial detachment of the CH(3)COO(-) ligand, which is energetically feasible only when Mn(III) is present. Experimentally, the lability of metal-bound acetates is greatest for Mn(III)(2)Mn(IV)(2)O(4). These results indicate that even with a strong oxygen atom acceptor, such as PMe(3), the oxygen atom transfer chemistry from Mn(3)MO(4) cubanes is controlled by ligand lability, with the Mn(IV)(3)CaO(4) OEC model being unreactive. The oxidative oxide incorporation into the partial cubane, Mn(III)(4)O(3), was observed experimentally upon treatment with water, base, and oxidizing equivalents. (18)O-labeling experiments provided mechanistic insight into the position of incorporation in the partial cubane structure, consistent with mechanisms involving migration of oxide moieties within the cluster but not consistent with selective incorporation at the site available in the starting species. These results support recent proposals for the mechanism of the OEC, involving oxido migration between distinct positions within the cluster.

  16. Energetics of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes: Singly and Doubly doped Ceria Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukkilic, Salih

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have potential to convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy with high efficiency, with only water vapor as a by-product. However, the requirement of extremely high operating temperatures (~1000 °C) limits the use of SOFCs to only in large scale stationary applications. In order to make SOFCs a viable energy solution, enormous effort has been focused on lowering the operating temperatures below 700 °C. A low temperature operation would reduce manufacturing costs by slowing component degradation, lessening thermal mismatch problems, and sharply reducing costs of operation. In order to optimize SOFC applications, it is critical to understand the thermodynamic stabilities of electrolytes since they directly influence device stability, sustainability and performance. Rare-earth doped ceria electrolytes have emerged as promising materials for SOFC applications due to their high ionic conductivity at the intermediate temperatures (500--700 °C). However there is a fundamental lack of understanding regarding their structure, thermodynamic stability and properties. Therefore, the enthalpies of formation from constituent oxides and ionic conductivities were determined to investigate a relationship between the stability, composition, structural defects and ionic conductivity in rare earth doped ceria systems. For singly doped ceria electrolytes, we investigated the solid solution phase of bulk Ce1-xLnxO2-0.5x where Ln = Sm and Nd (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) and analyzed their enthalpies of formation, mixing and association, and bulk ionic conductivities while considering cation size mismatch and defect associations. It was shown that for ambient temperatures in the dilute dopant region, the positive heat of formation reaches a maximum as the system becomes increasingly less stable due to size mismatch. In concentrated region, stabilization to a certain solubility limit was observed probably due to the defect association of trivalent cations

  17. Doubly excited states of molecular nitrogen by scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Karin; Hasegawa, Toru; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements were performed on molecular nitrogen (N2) to study the relaxation dynamics of doubly excited states. Doubly excited states are typically so unstable that they result in either auto-ionization or a neutral dissociation. In auto-ionization, ionization and dissociation typically occur. Using a mixed-gas method, we determined the absolute values of the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) distributions using an incident electron energy of 200 eV and a scattering angle of 6°. The GOS distributions of N2+ and N+ were determined by combining the coincidence ion signals, which revealed some doubly excited states of N2. Since electron impact experiments can provide information on optically forbidden transitions, the contribution of optically forbidden states appears in the GOS distributions of both N2+ and N+. We observed auto-ionization and dissociative auto-ionization induced by excitation to the optically forbidden doubly excited states in the range of 30-40 eV.

  18. Torque ripple minimization in a doubly salient permanent magnet motors by skewing the rotor teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, N. K.; Sekharbabu, A. R. C.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the effects of skewing the rotor teeth on the performance of an 8/6 doubly salient permanent magnet motor using a simple method, which utilizes the results obtained from the 2-D FE analysis. The optimum skewing angle is obtained as 12-15° for the least ripple torque without much reduction in the back-emf.

  19. Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of doubly-excited states in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, Luca; Ott, Christian; Pfeifer, Thomas; Martín, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical calculations of the XUV attosecond transient absorption spectrum (ATAS) of helium in the doubly-excited state region reproduce recent high-precision measurements, reveal novel means of controlling the dynamics of transiently-bound electronic wavepackets in intense laser fields, and indicates a possible extension of 2D-spectroscopies to the XUV range.

  20. Search for doubly charmed baryons and study of charmed strange baryons at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Iijima, T.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Ban, Y.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bobrov, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, D.; Dutta, K.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Jaegle, I.; Julius, T.; Kang, J. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Klucar, J.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Krokovny, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y. -J.; Lee, S. -H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liu, Y.; Liventsev, D.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Mussa, R.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nayak, M.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ng, C.; Niiyama, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Peng, T.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sahoo, H.; Saito, T.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shiu, J. -G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Sohn, Y. -S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M. -Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamashita, Y.; Yashchenko, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2014-03-17

    We report results of a study of doubly charmed baryons and charmed strange baryons. The analysis is performed using a 980 fb-1 data sample collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider.

  1. Production of doubly charmed baryons at energy {radical}s=10.58 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V.V.; Likhoded, A.K.; Shevlyagin, M.V.

    1995-06-01

    The cross section for the production of doubly charmed baryons at a B-factory is estimated on the basis of perturbative QCD calculations of the cross sections for cc-diquark production and of the quark-hadron duality. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  2. On Measuring and Reducing Selection Bias with a Quasi-Doubly Randomized Preference Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted; Remler, Dahlia K.; Jaeger, David A.; Altindag, Onur; O'Connell, Stephen D.; Crockett, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Randomized experiments provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects, but are costly and time consuming. We demonstrate how a randomized experiment can be leveraged to measure selection bias by conducting a subsequent observational study that is identical in every way except that subjects choose their treatment--a quasi-doubly randomized…

  3. Design-Based Intervention Research as the Science of the Doubly Artificial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Michael; Packer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a variety of principles of cultural-historical activity theory to extend Herbert Simon's (1996) insight into the inherent linkage between the creation of artifacts and design. We argue that design research must grapple with the doubly artificial, as the classrooms in which many educational designs are implemented are themselves…

  4. Design-Based Intervention Research as the Science of the Doubly Artificial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Michael; Packer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a variety of principles of cultural-historical activity theory to extend Herbert Simon's (1996) insight into the inherent linkage between the creation of artifacts and design. We argue that design research must grapple with the doubly artificial, as the classrooms in which many educational designs are implemented are themselves…

  5. Field metabolism and water flux of carolina chickadees during breeding and nonbreeding seasons: A test of the "peak-demand" and "reallocation" hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Williams, J.B.; Grubb, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the "peak-demand" and "reallocation" hypotheses of seasonal energy expenditure which predict, respectively, that energy expenditure is greatest during the breeding season or varies little seasonally. We tested these predictions by utilizing the doubly labeled water technique to estimate energy expenditure and water flux of Carolina Chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) in both the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Similar to Weathers et al. (1999), we did not find support for either of these hypotheses, finding instead that energy expenditure was greater during the nonbreeding season. The fact that our study site was at the northern edge of the species' range, where winters are severe, may have influenced this result. Comparisons with other parid studies were equivocal because body size was an important factor in explaining seasonal energetics, and only the larger species have been examined during the breeding season.

  6. Synthesis of a water-soluble analog of 6-methyl-3-N-alkyl catechol labeled with carbon 13: NMR approach to the reactivity of poison ivy/oak sensitizers toward proteins.

    PubMed

    Goetz, G; Meschkat, E; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-04-19

    A 13-C labeled water soluble derivative of alkylcatechol was synthesized and reacted with human serum albumin in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 in air to allow a slow oxidation of the catechol into orthoquinone. The formation of several adducts was evidenced by a combination of 13C and 1H-13C correlation NMR. Although some adducts could result from a classical o-quinone formation - Michael type addition, our results suggest that a second pathway, involving a direct reaction of a carbon centered radical with proteins could be an important mechanism in the formation of modified proteins.

  7. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks: Labels. (a) Each fuel tank must have a label that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  8. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch in...

  9. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch in...

  10. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks: Labels. (a) Each fuel tank must have a label that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  11. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch in...

  12. 15N-labeling experiments to dissect the contributions of heterotrophic denitrification and anammox to nitrogen removal in the OMZ waters of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Holtappels, Moritz; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, (15)N-labeling experiments have become a powerful tool investigating rates and regulations of microbially mediated nitrogen loss processes in the ocean. This chapter introduces the theoretical and practical aspects of (15)N-labeling experiments to dissect the contribution of denitrification and anammox to nitrogen removal in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We provide a detailed description of the preparation and realization of the experiments on board. Subsequent measurements of N(2) isotopes using gas chromatography mass spectrometry as well as processing of data and calculation of anammox and denitrification rates are explained. Important supplementary measurements are specified, such as the measurement of nanomolar concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate. Nutrient profiles and (15)N-experiments from the Peruvian OMZ are presented and discussed as an example. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  14. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  15. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  16. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  17. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  18. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  19. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  20. The Labelling of Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on chemistry laboratories and teachers in the United Kingdom of the Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1978. These regulations require suppliers to label containers in particular ways. (HM)

  1. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  2. Dissociation of doubly charged clusters of lithium acetate: Asymmetric fission and breakdown of the liquid drop model: Dissociation of doubly charged clusters of lithium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Anil

    2016-06-08

    Unimolecular and collision-induced dissociation of doubly charged lithium acetate clusters, (CH3COOLi)nLi22+, demonstrated that Coulomb fission via charge separation is the dominant dissociation process with no contribution from the neutral evaporation processes for all such ions from the critical limit to larger cluster ions, although latter process have normally been observed in all earlier studies. These results are clearly in disagreement with the Rayleigh’s liquid drop model that has been used successfully to predict the critical size and explain the fragmentation behavior of multiply charged clusters.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  15. Effect of synthetic carbon amino saccharides on the transfer of labeled mineral 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.; Gracia, I.; Fabila, L.; Urbina, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The favorable effects of fulvic acids as fertilizers are very well known and they have been used long time ago in their natural state in dead leaves. Their extraction from natural sources is rather expensive, but the production of very similar carbon amino saccharides by sugar oxidation has been industrially applied in Mexico. Good properties of this commercial product as fertilizer have been proved empirically in different crops as well as at laboratory level, by the efficient absorption of radioactive labeled mineral ions in vegetables when they are carried by this synthetic organic matter in aqueous solution. Now, its effect has been tested by filtration of radioactively labeled 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum through mice liver and kidneys. The results indicate that the filtration and diffusion of these mineral ions also improved, the same that in vegetables, in the presence of the synthetic carbon amino saccharides highly soluble in water. These results suggest the appropriateness of further research to evaluate their possible use either as a dietary complement or as auxiliaries in the treatment of liver and kidney diseases.

  16. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  17. On the enantioselective olefin epoxidation by doubly bridged biphenyl azepine derivatives--mixed tropos/atropos chiral biaryls.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Jérôme; Rentsch, Samuel; Martinez, Alexandre; Marsol, Claire; Lacour, Jérôme

    2007-02-07

    Diastereomeric doubly bridged biphenyl azepines, atropos at 20 degrees C and tropos at 80 degrees C, are precursors to effective iminium organocatalysts that are employed in the enantioselective epoxidation of prochiral olefins (up to 85% ee).

  18. STATIC ANALYSIS OF SHELLS OF REVOLUTION USING DOUBLY-CURVED QUADRILATERAL ELEMENTS DERIVED FROM ALTERNATE VARIATIONAL MODELS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    geometrical shape of the finite element in both of the models is a doubly-curved quadrilateral element whose edge curves are the lines-of-curvature coordinates employed to define the shell midsurface . (Author)

  19. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  20. Relativistic description of pair production of doubly heavy baryons in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.; Trunin, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Relativistic corrections in the pair production of S-wave doubly heavy diquarks in electron-positron annihilation were calculated on the basis of perturbative QCD and the quark model. The relativistic corrections to the wave functions for quark bound states were taken into account with the aid of the Breit potential in QCD. Relativistic effects change substantially the nonrelativistic cross sections for pair diquark production. The yield of pairs of (ccq) doubly heavy baryons at B factories was estimated.

  1. Emulation of Wind Power with a DC Machine to Provide Input to a Doubly-Fed Induction Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    The behavioral modeling of a separately excited direct current ( DC ) motor as a prime mover for a doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) is studied in...this thesis. The output torque of the DC motor is computed in the simulation under controlled parameters. The input to the DFIM, used as a doubly-fed...induction generator (DFIG), is taken from the DC motor . In theory, the combination of the two machines can be used to emulate various wind patterns and

  2. Effect of skewing the rotor teeth on the performance of doubly salient permanent magnet motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, N. K.; Sekharbabu, A. R. C.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the effects of skewing the rotor teeth on the performance characteristics such as flux linkage, back emf, phase inductance, and reluctance torque of an 8/6 doubly salient permanent magnet motor using a simple method, which utilizes the results obtained from the two-dimensional finite element analysis. The optimum skewing angle is obtained as 12°-15° for the least ripple torque without much reduction in the back emf. Skewing the rotor teeth of an 8/6 doubly salient permanent magnet motor by 12°-15° will reduce the total harmonic distortion of the back emf profile to 29.69% from the original value of 44.69%. The reduction in the amplitude of the back emf in this case will be 18.79% only.

  3. Effects of doubly-connected finned surfaces on heat transfer during solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J. W.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of an enhanced heat conduction concept for the solidification of phase change materials (PCM) in thermal energy storage systems. The effects of doubly-connected fins have been demonstrated for a particular storage system configuration. The geometry is a pair of coaxial cylinders with longitudinal fins dividing the annular region into segments filled with the PCM. A 99% pure n-Octadecane paraffin was selected as the PCM because of its desirable properties. Outward solidification was achieved by convective cooling of the inner cylinder. For comparison, the investigation included singly-connected and doubly-connected finned surfaces along the unfinned surfaces of the coaxial cylinders. Axial views of the PCM containers were photographically recorded during solidification to document the growth history for each configuration.

  4. Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines with Fuzzy Controller: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyanarayanan, J. S.; Senthil Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine. PMID:25028677

  5. Analysis of rare earth elements in silicates by ion microprobe using doubly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Riciputi, L.R.; Christie, W.H.; Cole, D.R.; Rosseel, T.M. )

    1993-05-01

    A technique for measurement of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in silicates using a Camecaims-4f ion microprobe and doubly-charged, odd-mass isotopes has been developed. The secondary ion spectra of the doubly-charged odd-mass REE are virtually free of interferences, allowing measurements to be carried out at low energies and without the need for spectral stripping. Calibration lines have been established for La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb using a suite of clinopyroxene standards. This technique offers a relatively fast, simple approach for the in-situ analysis of REE on spots of <20 [mu]m and detection limits of <15 ppb for most elements. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A doubly periodic moment method solution for the analysis and design of an absorber covered wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chang-Fa; Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.

    1993-01-01

    The periodic moment method (PMM) solution for scattering from a doubly periodic array of lossy dielectric bodies is developed in this paper. The purpose of this study is to design electromagnetic wedge and pyramidal absorber for low reflectivity so that one can improve the performance of anechoic chamber measurements. The spectral-domain formulation and the moment method volume polarization current approach are applied to obtain the expressions used to determine the scattering from a doubly periodic array of lossy dielectric bodies. Through these studies, some wedge and pyramidal absorber configurations have been designed, fabricated, and then tested in the OSU/ESL compact range measurement facility. In this paper, wedge absorber, commercial pyramidal absorber, and some low-frequency pyramidal absorber designs are presented. By considering the complexity of dealing with real-world material structures, good agreement between calculations and measurements has been obtained.

  7. Microwave Measurements of Maleimide and its Doubly Hydrogen Bonded Dimer with Formic ACID*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Kang, Lu; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2016-06-01

    The microwave spectra were measured for the maleimide monomer and the maleimide-formic acid doubly hydrogen bonded dimer using a pulsed-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Many previously studied doubly hydrogen bonded dimers are formed between oxygen containing species, so it is important to also characterize and study other dimers containing nitrogen, as hydrogen bonding interactions with nitrogen are found in biological systems such as in DNA. The transition state of the dimer does not exhibit C_2_V symmetry, so the tunneling motion was not expected to be observed based on the symmetry, but it would be very important to also observe the tunneling process for an asymmetric dimer. Single-line b-type transitions were observed, so the tunneling motion was not observed in our microwave spectra. The hydrogen bond lengths were determined using a nonlinear least squares fitting program. *Supported by the NSF CHE-1057796

  8. Block Transmissions over Doubly Selective Channels: Iterative Channel Estimation and Turbo Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Kun; Rugini, Luca; Leus, Geert

    2010-12-01

    Modern wireless communication systems require high transmission rates, giving rise to frequency selectivity due to multipath propagation. In addition, high-mobility terminals and scatterers induce Doppler shifts that introduce time selectivity. Therefore, advanced techniques are needed to accurately model the time- and frequency-selective (i.e., doubly selective) channels and to counteract the related performance degradation. In this paper, we develop new receivers for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems and single-carrier (SC) systems in doubly selective channels by embedding the channel estimation task within low-complexity block turbo equalizers. Linear minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) pilot-assisted channel estimators are presented, and the soft data estimates from the turbo equalizers are used to improve the quality of the channel estimates.

  9. Nuclear structure in the neutron-rich doubly magic sup 78 Ni region

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.; Winger, J.A.; Warburton, E.K.; Gill, R.L.; Schuhmann, R.B.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Clark Univ., Worcester, MA )

    1989-01-01

    The magic numbers Z=28 and N=50 imply that very neutron-rich {sup 78}Ni, which has not yet been observed, is doubly magic. The {sup 78}Ni region was investigated by studying the N=50 isotones and neutron-rich Zn isotopes. Results on the level structure of {sup 83}As, {sup 74}Zn, and {sup 76}Zn populated in the decays of {sup 83}Ge, {sup 74}Cu, and {sup 76}Cu are presented. The parent nuclides were produced and mass separated using the TRISTAN facility on-line to the High-Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven. The systematics of the N=50 isotones and even-A Zn isotopes are discussed and compared with shell-model calculations involving active nucleons outside of a {sup 78}Ni and {sup 66}Ni core, respectively. The extent to which the {sup 78}Ni region can be considered doubly magic is assessed. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiming; Fu, Bo; Qin, Guoyou; Zhu, Zhongyi

    2017-04-03

    We develop a doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts. Our method extends the highly efficient aggregate unbiased estimating function approach proposed in Qu et al. (2010) to a doubly robust one in the sense that under missing at random (MAR), our estimator is consistent when either the linear conditional mean condition is satisfied or a model for the dropout process is correctly specified. We begin with a generalized linear model for the marginal mean, and then move forward to a generalized partial linear model, allowing for nonparametric covariate effect by using the regression spline smoothing approximation. We establish the asymptotic theory for the proposed method and use simulation studies to compare its finite sample performance with that of Qu's method, the complete-case generalized estimating equation (GEE) and the inverse-probability weighted GEE. The proposed method is finally illustrated using data from a longitudinal cohort study.

  11. A doubly averaging method for third body perturbations in planet equator coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwok, Johnny H.

    1992-01-01

    The first order doubly averaged potential due to third-body gravity is derived in any arbitrary coordinates. The equations of motion are nonsingular at zero eccentricity. The derivation uses a recursive method which allows easy expansion to higher order terms. Instead of using analytical quadrature to obtain the doubly averaged potential, the method presented in this paper simply eliminates the mean anomaly of the perturbed and perturbing bodies by inspection of the recursive formulation. The derivatives of the orbital elements can be numerically integrated rapidly. When a planet equator coordinate system is used, they can be added directly to the derivatives due to gravity harmonics without any coordinate transformation. The method is applied to various high altitude missions. The results are compared with a high precision numerical integration method and are found to provide excellent agreement.

  12. Neural network based control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator in wind power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbade, Swati A.; Kasliwal, Prabha

    2012-07-01

    To complement the other types of pollution-free generation wind energy is a viable option. Previously wind turbines were operated at constant speed. The evolution of technology related to wind systems industry leaded to the development of a generation of variable speed wind turbines that present many advantages compared to the fixed speed wind turbines. In this paper the phasor model of DFIG is used. This paper presents a study of a doubly fed induction generator driven by a wind turbine connected to the grid, and controlled by artificial neural network ANN controller. The behaviour of the system is shown with PI control, and then as controlled by ANN. The effectiveness of the artificial neural network controller is compared to that of a PI controller. The SIMULINK/MATLAB simulation for Doubly Fed Induction Generator and corresponding results and waveforms are displayed.

  13. Doubly fed induction generator wind turbines with fuzzy controller: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sathiyanarayanan, J S; Kumar, A Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine.

  14. Autoionizing doubly-excited states of 3Σg- symmetry of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoubi, F.; Telmini, M.; Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We report R-matrix calculations of doubly-excited 3Σg- states of molecular hydrogen corresponding to 3d˜πnℓ˜π configurations. These states form Rydberg series converging to the 3d˜π series limit. They lie in the continuum of the doubly-excited states of 3Σg- symmetry built on the 2p˜π ion core, and therefore they are autoionized. Calculations of resonance positions and widths are presented.

  15. On the invariance of the relative rest in doubly special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandanici, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the most-studied doubly special relativity models the use of the naive formula v = dE/dp has been argued to lead to inconsistencies connected to different rules of transformation, under boosts, of particles with the same energy but with different masses. In this paper, we show that, at least in 1 + 1 dimensions, doubly special relativity can be formulated in such a way that the formula v = dE/dp is fully consistent with the invariance of the relative rest, easily fitting to the relativity principle. It is also argued that, always in 1 + 1 dimensions, is not necessary to renounce to the usual (commutative) Minkowski spacetime endowed with energy-independent boost transformations. The compatibility of the approach with superluminal propagation, with linear addition rule for energy, and possible extensions to 3 + 1 dimensions are also discussed.

  16. Comparison of Strategies for Non-perturbing Labeling of α-Synuclein to Study Amyloidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Conor M.; Wissner, Rebecca F.; Warner, John B.; Wang, Yanxin J.; Ferrie, John J.; Covell, Dustin; Karpowicz, Richard J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of the amyloidogenic Parkinson’s Disease protein α-synuclein (αS) has proven difficult due to its structural plasticity. Here, we present a number of complementary methods to site-specifically introduce fluorescent probes to examine αS fibril formation and cellular uptake. By using various combinations of conventional Cys modification, amber codon suppression, transferase mediated N-terminal modification, and native chemical ligation, several variants of singly- and doubly-labeled αS were produced. We validated the nonperturbative nature of the label by a combination of in vitro aggregation kinetics measurements and imaging of the resulting fibrils. The labeled αS can then be used to monitor conformational changes during fibril formation or cellular uptake of αS fibrils in models of disease propagation. PMID:26695131

  17. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B.

    2009-11-01

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO 2:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl 2 precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08×10 14 lines/m 2) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2×10 14 lines/m 2), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 Ω/□) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl 2 precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  18. Few-valence-particle excitations around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.J.; Zhang, C.T.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    1996-11-01

    Prompt {gamma}-ray cascades in neutron-rich nuclei around doubly-magic {sup 132}Sn have been studied using a {sup 248}Cm fission source. Yrast states located in the N = 82 isotones {sup 134}Te and {sup 135}I are interpreted as valence proton and neutron particle-hole core excitations with the help of shell model calculations employing empirical nucleon-nucleon interactions from both {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb regions.

  19. A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.

  20. A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.

  1. Experimental evaluation of a rotor flux oriented control algorithm for brushless doubly-fed machines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Spee, R.; Alexander, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    The brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) has shown potential for adjustable speed drive applications. Although the BDFM is readily applicable for industrial drives requiring only slow speed response, control methods for higher performance operation need to be explored. With the help of a suitable synchronous reference frame dq model, this paper defines a BDFM synchronous angle and employs an electric torque estimator to establish a rotor flux oriented control algorithm. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  2. Doubly Robust Additive Hazards Models to Estimate Effects of a Continuous Exposure on Survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Lee, Mihye; Liu, Pengfei; Shi, Liuhua; Yu, Zhi; Awad, Yara Abu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D

    2017-08-19

    The effect of an exposure with survival can be biased when the regression model is misspecified. Hazard difference is easier to use in risk assessment than hazard ratio and has a clearer interpretation in the assessment of effect modifications. We proposed two doubly robust additive hazards models to estimate the causal hazard difference of a continuous exposure on survival. The first model is an inverse probability-weighted additive hazards regression. The second model is an extension of the doubly robust estimator for binary exposures by categorizing the continuous exposure. We compared these with the marginal structural model and outcome regression with correct and incorrect model specifications using simulations. We applied doubly robust additive hazard models to the estimation of hazard difference of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on survival using a large cohort of 13 million older adults residing in seven states of the Southeastern US. We demonstrated in theory and simulation studies that the proposed approaches are doubly robust. We found that each one μg m increase in annual PM2.5 exposure is associated with a causal hazard difference in mortality of 8.0 × 10 (95% confidence interval 7.4 × 10, 8.7 × 10), which was modified by age, medical history, socio-economic status, and urbanicity. The overall hazard difference translates to approximately 5.5 (5.1, 6.0) thousand deaths per year in the study population. The proposed approaches improve the robustness of the additive hazards model and produce a novel additive causal estimate of PM2.5 on survival and several additive effect modifications, including social inequality.

  3. Doubly charged state of EL2 defect in MOCVD-grown GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Nazir A.; Qurashi, Umar S.; Majid, Abdul; Zafar Iqbal, M.

    2007-12-01

    EL2 is the ubiquitous native defect in crystalline GaAs grown by a variety of different techniques. It has been proposed to be a doubly charged deep-level center with two states having distinct energy levels in the band gap. While the singly charged state has been the subject of many experimental studies and is, therefore, well established, the doubly charged state has only been occasionally alluded to in the literature. This paper provides evidence for a dominant inadvertent deep level in p-type GaAs most likely to be the doubly charged state of the EL2 center. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been applied to characterize epitaxial layers of p-type GaAs grown on p + GaAs substrates by low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). A pronounced peak is observed in the majority carrier (hole) emission deep-level spectra. Thermal emission rate of holes from the corresponding deep level is found to exhibit a strong electric field dependence, showing an increase of more than two orders of magnitude with an increase of the electric field by a factor of ∼2. The thermal activation energy for this level is found to vary from 0.29 to 0.61 eV as the electric field is varied from 2.8×10 5 to 1.4×10 5 V/cm. Direct pulse-filling measurements point to a temperature-dependent behavior of the hole capture cross section of this level. We identify this inadvertent deep-level defect, commonly observed in p-type GaAs grown by a variety of different methods, with the doubly charged state of the well-known As Ga antisite related defect, EL2.

  4. Mechanisms of doubly-vergent vs. single-sided orogens: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, K.; Matenco, L. C.; Gerya, T.; Cloetingh, S.

    2014-12-01

    Zones of continent collision form mountain ranges with high topographies and complex geometries. Compressional stresses during ongoing convergence result in crustal thickening and localized deformation, where crustal material is transported and redistributed within the orogen. We use numerical high-resolution thermo-mechanical models to investigate the physical processes of continent collision zones and its implications on rock exhumation. We demonstrate that compression of two continental blocks, separated by a rheologically weak suture zone can result in (i) doubly-vergent (Fig. A) or (ii) single-sided orogens (Fig. B), with distinct geometries, deformation and exhumation patterns. The transition between these different modes of collision is strongly controlled by the rheology of the continental lithosphere and therefore its temperature distribution. Doubly-vergent orogens form at relatively high thermal gradients, while single-sided orogens are typical for lower ones. Doubly-vergent orogens (Fig. A) are formed in response to the gradual accretion of crustal material to the upper plate along retro-shears. In these models continental subduction results in upper plate deformation and nested exhumation against retro-shears. Typical examples include the collision recorded by the Swiss Alps and the Pyrenees. In contrast, single-sided orogens are characterized by large-scale lower plate deformation and are accompanied by the subduction of lower crustal material (Fig. B). Modeling infers that shortening and associated exhumation will gradually propagate towards the foreland. In this situation, no significant retro-shear formation is observed, which is in agreement with recent physical modelling studies on deformation of the continental lithosphere [Willingshofer et al., 2013]. Natural examples of such single sided orogens are common in the Mediterranean (Carpathians, Dinarides, Apennines, Betics) or the SE Asia subduction zones. We conclude that deformation and

  5. Coplanar doubly symmetric (e,2e) process on sodium and potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, M. K.; Chauhan, Raj Kumar; Srivastava, R.

    2006-12-15

    We have used the distorted-wave Born approximation method to analyze the recently reported (e,2e) experimental results on sodium and potassium atoms in doubly symmetric geometry at excess energies of 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 eV. Post-collision interaction is included through an angle-dependent effective charge model using two different approximations. Our theoretical results are found to qualitatively reproduce the reported experimental data.

  6. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. Doubly excited states of ammonia by scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Karin; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-01

    To obtain information on the optically forbidden doubly excited states of ammonia (NH3), we performed scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements. First, we observed scattered electrons using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and determined the generalized oscillator strength distribution (GOSD) under 200 eV incident electron energy at a scattering angle of 8°. Ionic GOSDs were also determined by combination with the coincidence signal, which was observed by the time-of-flight mass spectrometer at each energy-loss value, for each ion. The total and partial ionic GOSDs were compared with the experimental results of both photon and fast electron impact. Moreover, the neutral GOSD determined by subtracting the total ionic GOSD from the total was compared with previous results. In addition to the optically forbidden doubly excited states, which were identified by Kato et al (2003 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 36 3541) and Ishikawa et al (2008 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41 195204), we found a new optically forbidden doubly excited state at around 35 eV.

  8. Use of Doubly Charged Precursors to Validate Dissociation Mechanisms of Singly Charged Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Charles, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation of doubly charged poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molecules was investigated to provide experimental evidence for fragmentation reactions proposed to occur upon activation of singly charged oligomers. This study focuses on two PDMS species holding trimethylsilyl or methoxy end-groups and cationized with ammonium. In both cases, introduction of the additional charge did not induce significant differences in dissociation behavior, and the use of doubly charged precursors enabled the occurrence of charge-separation reactions, allowing molecules always eliminated as neutrals upon activation of singly charged oligomers to be detected as cationized species. In the case of trimethylsilyl-terminated oligomers, random location of the adducted charge combined with rapid consecutive reactions proposed to occur from singly charged precursors could be validated based on MS/MS data of doubly charged oligomers. In the case of methoxy-terminated PDMS, favored interaction of the adducted ammonium with both end-groups, proposed to rationalize the dissociation behavior of singly charged molecules, was also supported by MS/MS data obtained for molecules adducted with two ammonium cations.

  9. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - II. Verifications

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Sooyoung; Kong, Chidong; Lee, Deokjung; ...

    2015-03-09

    A new methodology has been developed recently to treat resonance self-shielding in systems for which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. The theoretical development adopts equivalence theory in both micro- and macro-level heterogeneities to provide approximate analytical expressions for the shielded cross sections, which may be interpolated from a table of resonance integrals or Bondarenko factors using a modified background cross section as the interpolation parameter. This paper describes the first implementation of the theoretical equations in a reactor analysis code. In order to reduce discrepancies caused bymore » use of the rational approximation for collision probabilities in the original derivation, a new formulation for a doubly heterogeneous Bell factor is developed in this paper to improve the accuracy of doubly heterogeneous expressions. This methodology is applied to a wide range of pin cell and assembly test problems with varying geometry parameters, material compositions, and temperatures, and the results are compared with continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations to establish the accuracy and range of applicability of the new approach. It is shown that the new doubly heterogeneous self-shielding method including the Bell factor correction gives good agreement with reference Monte Carlo results.« less

  10. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - II. Verifications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sooyoung; Kong, Chidong; Lee, Deokjung; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-03-09

    A new methodology has been developed recently to treat resonance self-shielding in systems for which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. The theoretical development adopts equivalence theory in both micro- and macro-level heterogeneities to provide approximate analytical expressions for the shielded cross sections, which may be interpolated from a table of resonance integrals or Bondarenko factors using a modified background cross section as the interpolation parameter. This paper describes the first implementation of the theoretical equations in a reactor analysis code. In order to reduce discrepancies caused by use of the rational approximation for collision probabilities in the original derivation, a new formulation for a doubly heterogeneous Bell factor is developed in this paper to improve the accuracy of doubly heterogeneous expressions. This methodology is applied to a wide range of pin cell and assembly test problems with varying geometry parameters, material compositions, and temperatures, and the results are compared with continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations to establish the accuracy and range of applicability of the new approach. It is shown that the new doubly heterogeneous self-shielding method including the Bell factor correction gives good agreement with reference Monte Carlo results.

  11. Evaluation of a doubly-swept blade tip for rotorcraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wake, Brian E.; Egolf, T. Alan

    1992-01-01

    A computational study was performed for a doubly-swept rotor blade tip to determine its benefit for high-speed impulsive (HSI) and blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. This design consists of aft and forward sweep. For the HSI-noise computations, unsteady Euler calculations were performed for several variations to a rotor blade geometry. A doubly-swept planform was predicted to increase the delocalizing Mach number to 0.94 (representative of a 200+ kt helicopter). For the BVI-noise problem, it had been hypothesized that the doubly-swept blade tip, by producing a leading-edge vortex, would reduce the tip-vortex effect on BVI noise. A procedure was used in which the tip vortex velocity profile computed by a Navier-Stokes solver was used to compute the inflow associated with BVI. This inflow was used by a Euler solver to compute the unsteady pressures for an acoustic analysis. The results of this study were inconclusive due to the difficulty in accurately predicting the viscous tip vortex downstream of the blade. Also, for the condition studied, no leading-edge vortex formed at the tip.

  12. Frequency-comb formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Coen, S.; Wabnitz, S.; Erkintalo, M.

    2016-04-01

    We theoretically study the generation of optical frequency combs and corresponding pulse trains in doubly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). We find that, despite the large temporal walk-off characteristic of realistic cavity systems, the nonlinear dynamics can be accurately and efficiently modeled using a pair of coupled mean-field equations. Through rigorous stability analysis of the system's steady-state continuous-wave solutions, we demonstrate that walk-off can give rise to an unexplored regime of temporal modulation instability. Numerical simulations performed in this regime reveal rich dynamical behaviors, including the emergence of temporal patterns that correspond to coherent optical frequency combs. We also demonstrate that the two coupled equations that govern the doubly resonant cavity behavior can, under typical conditions, be reduced to a single mean-field equation akin to that describing the dynamics of singly-resonant-cavity SHG [F. Leo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 033901 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.033901]. This reduced approach allows us to derive a simple expression for the modulation instability gain, thus permitting us to acquire significant insight into the underlying physics. We anticipate that our work will have a wide impact on the study of frequency combs in emerging doubly resonant cavity SHG platforms, including quadratically nonlinear microresonators.

  13. Complex-scaling treatment for quantum entanglement in doubly excited helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have investigated entanglement measures in natural atomic systems that involve two highly correlated indistinguishable spin-1/2 fermions (electrons). Linear entropy and von Neumann entropy were calculated for spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement measures for ground and singly excited bound states in two-electron atomic systems, such as He, H- and Ps-. In our present work, we carry out an investigation on entanglement in doubly excited resonance states of helium. Since resonance states are lying in the scattering continuum, their energies are no longer bound by the variational theorem; we apply the complex scaling method to solve the complex energy pole with which the resonance energy and resonance width are deduced. Hylleraas-type wave functions are used to consider correlation effects. Once the wave function for a doubly excited state is obtained, we apply the Schmidt decomposition method to calculate the linear entropy and von Neumann entropy for the doubly excited 2s2, 2 s3 s, 2p2, 3s2, and 3p21Se resonance states in the helium atom. Work supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.

  14. Non-parametric estimation and doubly-censored data: general ideas and applications to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Jewell, N P

    In many epidemiologic studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, interest focuses on the distribution of the length of the interval of time between two events. In many such cases, statistical estimation of properties of this distribution is complicated by the fact that observation of the times of both events is subject to intervalcensoring so that the length of time between the events is never observed exactly. Following DeGruttola and Lagakos, we call such data doubly-censored. Jewell, Malani and Vittinghoff showed that, with certain assumptions and for a particular doubly-censored data structure, non-parametric maximum likelihood estimation of the interval length distribution is equivalent to non-parametric estimation of a mixing distribution. Here, we extend these ideas to various other kinds of doubly-censored data. We consider application of the methods to various studies generated by investigations into the natural history of HIV disease with particular attention given to estimation of the distribution of time between infection of an individual (an index case) and transmission of HIV to their sexual partner.

  15. Dual labeling of a binding protein allows for specific fluorescence detection of native protein.

    PubMed

    Karlström, A; Nygren, P A

    2001-08-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer has been investigated in the context of specific detection of unlabeled proteins. A model system based on the staphylococcal protein A (SPA)-IgG interaction was designed, in which a single domain was engineered to facilitate site-specific incorporation of fluorophores. An Asn23Cys mutant of the B domain from SPA was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently labeled at the introduced unique thiol and at an amino group, using N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (1,5-IAEDANS) and succinimidyl 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoate (NBD-X, SE), respectively. Biosensor analysis of purified doubly labeled protein showed that high-affinity binding to the Fc region of IgG was retained. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the doubly labeled protein showed a shift in the relative emission of the two fluorophores in the presence of Fc3(1) fragments, which bind specifically to the B domain. In addition, the fluorescence emission ratio 480/525 nm was shown to increase with increasing concentration of Fc3(1), whereas the presence of a control protein did not affect the emission ratio over the same concentration range.

  16. The field energetics and water fluxes of free-living wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae).

    PubMed

    Evans, Murray; Green, Brian; Newgrain, Keith

    2003-10-01

    Wombats are large, fossorial, herbivorous marsupials exhibiting physical and behavioural characteristics indicative of extreme energy conservation. Previous energetics studies have been limited to their basal metabolism under laboratory conditions; little is known of the energetics of free-living wombats. We measured seasonal field metabolic rates (FMR) and water fluxes in the three species of free-living wombat using the doubly labelled water technique, to further investigate the extent of energy conservation in the Vombatidae. Measurements were taken during the wet and dry annual extremes of their characteristically harsh environments, which corresponded to seasonal extremes of food and water availability. Seasonal FMRs for all wombat species were lower than that recorded for other marsupials and well below that predicted for herbivorous mammals. Dry-season FMR of Lasiorhinus kreftii was 40% of that predicted for a mammal. Wombats maintained energy balance during the poor season by reducing FMR to about half that of the good season. Water flux rates during the dry season for the arid-adapted Lasiorhinus are amongst the lowest recorded for mammals, being only 25% of that predicted for a similarly sized herbivorous mammal. These low water flux rates enable wombats in semi-arid areas to maintain water balance without drinking. Estimated food and nitrogen intake rates were also low. We conclude that the energetically frugal lifestyle of the Vombatidae is amongst the most extreme for mammals.

  17. Dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein-protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Benjamin J; Dzikovski, Boris G; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H; McDermott, Ann E

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces.

  18. Incorporation of Labeled Precursors into A16886B, a Novel β-Lactam Antibiotic Produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, J. G.; Brannon, D. R.; Mabe, J. A.; Wicker, K. J.

    1972-01-01

    The incorporation of C-14 from amino acids into A16886B, 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)-7-methoxy-3-carbamoyloxymethyl-3-cephem-4- carboxylic acid, by Streptomyces clavuligerus is reported. As with cephalosporin C biosynthesis by the mold Cephalosporium acremonium, labels from cysteine, valine, and α-amino-adipic acid were incorporated. Unlike cephalosporin C, in A16886B label from lysine was incorporated into the α-aminoadipic acid side chain. Label from methionine-14C-methyl was incorporated into the methoxyl group. The relative percentage of incorporation of 3H and 14C from doubly labeled cystine suggests the improbability of the C-7 methoxyl group arising from an intermediate containing a double bond between C-6 and C-7. PMID:5045471

  19. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  20. Incorporation of hydrogen atoms from deuterated water and stereospecifically deuterium-labeled nicotin amide nucleotides into fatty acids with the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthetase system.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kawaguchi, A; Okuda, S; Seyama, Y; Yamakawa, T

    1980-05-28

    The mechanism of hydrogen incorporation into fatty acids was investigated with intact Escherichia coli cells, a crude enzyme preparation and purified reductases of fatty acid synthetase system. The distributions of deuterium atoms incorporated into fatty acids from 2H2O and stereospecifically deuterium-labeled NADPH or NADH were determined by mass spectrometry. When E. coli was grown in 2H2O, almost every hydrogen atom of cellular fatty acids was incorporated from the medium. When fatty acids were synthesized from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH in the presence of a crude enzyme preparation of either E. coli or Bacillus subtilis, almost every hydrogen atom was also incorporated from the medium. In contrast to these results, purified beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier reductase directly transferred the HB hydrogen of NADPH to beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein, and purified enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase also transferred the HB hydrogen of NADPH and NADH directly to enoyl acyl carrier protein. In the crude enzyme preparation of E. coli, we found high activities which exchanged the HB hydrogen of NADPH with the deuterium of 2h2o. the conflicting results of the origin of hydrogen atoms of fatty acids mentioned above are explained by the presence of enzymes, which catalyzed the rapid exchange of NADPH with the deterium of 2H2O prior to the reaction of fatty acid synthetase.

  1. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    printers in each clinic to print labels .JDI Capt Cutter Research compatible printer, Cost, Time Frame Develop standard training for all clinics...Standardize label content, automate with inkless printers once process is proven c . Place visual reminders for providers and support staff 2. Event

  2. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  3. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  4. Water turnover and changes in body composition during arduous wildfire suppression.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Brent C; Schoeller, Dale A; Sharkey, Brian J; Burks, Catherine; Tysk, Sonja

    2003-10-01

    Our lab has recently documented the total energy expenditure during arduous wildfire suppression using the doubly labeled water methodology. The elevated rates of isotopic elimination indicate an arduous working environment that may often compromise energy balance and overall hydration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of arduous wildfire suppression on water turnover and changes in body composition in wildland firefighters (WLFF). WLFF (N = 14) were studied during a 5-d period of arduous fire suppression work. A comparison group (N = 13) of recreationally active college students (RACS) was also studied. Water turnover was measured from rates of 2H elimination (rH2O). Urine osmolality, specific gravity, and skinfold measures were also collected. WLFF demonstrated a decrease in nude body weight (pre = 71.9 +/- 10.4 kg, post = 70.9 +/- 10.2 kg, P = 0.0001) and total body water (pre = 42.9 +/- 7.2 kg, post = 42.0 +/- 6.7 kg, P = 0.0046). RACS maintained total body water and body weight during the experimental period. Isotope (2H2O) dilution demonstrated that rH2O was significantly higher for the WLFF (rH2O = 6.7 +/- 1.4 and 3.8 +/- 1.0 L.24 h-1 for the WLFF and RACS, respectively). These results demonstrate an arduous work environment that threatens hydration, energy balance, and perhaps normal glycogen status.

  5. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  6. A microfluidic device for label-free detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water using positive dielectrophoretic focusing, capturing, and impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myounggon; Jung, Taekeon; Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Changgeun; Woo, Kyungchul; Seol, Jae Hun; Yang, Sung

    2015-12-15

    While sensors that allow for high-throughput enumeration of microorganisms within drinking water are useful for water quality monitoring, it is particularly challenging to accurately quantify microorganisms that are present in low numbers (<100 CFU/mL) in a high-throughput manner. Negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) is typically utilized in DEP-based cell focusing methods; however, due to its low conductivity, drinking water cannot be analyzed by this approach. Here, we report a positive DEP (pDEP)-based Escherichia coli detection system that is integrated with a focusing and sensing electrode. By incorporating a passivation layer, we avoided issues with adhesion of E. coli to the electrode, and achieved efficient cell focusing under high flow rate conditions (1500 μL/h). The resulting focused E. coli cells were then trapped on the sensor electrode, resulting in changes in impedance. The proposed system was evaluated using four different E. coli populations (150-1500 CFU/mL). We successfully enumerated populations as low as 300 CFU/mL within 1 min, and the signal variation was 1.13±0.37%. The device introduced in this study provides the basis for the development of portable, highly sensitive microorganism sensors that enable rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water.

  7. Mining Multi-label Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  10. The Effects of Natural Hybridization on the Regulation of Doubly Uniparental Mtdna Inheritance in Blue Mussels (Mytilus Spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, P. D.; Secor, C. L.; Hilbish, T. J.

    1996-01-01

    Blue mussels in the Mytilus edulis species complex have a doubly uniparental mode of mtDNA inheritance with separate maternal and paternal mtDNA lineages. Female mussels inherit their mtDNA solely from their mother, while males inherit mtDNA from both parents. In the male gonad the paternal mtDNA is preferentially replicated so that only paternal mtDNA is transmitted from fathers to sons. Hybridization is common among differentiated blue mussel taxa; whenever it involves M. trossulus, doubly uniparental mtDNA inheritance is disrupted. We have found high frequencies of males without and females with paternal mtDNA among hybrid mussels produced by interspecific matings between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus. In contrast, hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis does not affect doubly uniparental inheritance, indicating a difference in the divergence of the mechanisms regulating mtDNA inheritance among the three blue mussel taxa. Our data indicate a high frequency of disrupted mtDNA transmission in F(1) hybrids and suggest that two separate mechanisms, one regulating the transmission of paternal mtDNA to males and another inhibiting the establishment of paternal mtDNA in females, act to regulate doubly uniparental inheritance. We propose a model for the regulation of doubly uniparental inheritance that is consistent with these observations. PMID:8878689

  11. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" />label> Healthy Water Home Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  12. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" />label> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  13. Doubly ionic hydrogen bond interactions within the choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P; Welton, Tom; Hunt, Patricia A

    2016-07-21

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are exemplars of systems with the ability to form neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. Herein, the pairwise interactions of the constituent components of the choline chloride-urea DES are examined. Evidence is found for a tripodal CHCl doubly ionic H-bond motif. Moreover it is found that the covalency of doubly ionic H-bonds can be greater than, or comparable with, neutral and ionic examples. In contrast to many traditional solvents, an "alphabet soup" of many different types of H-bond (OHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, OHCl, NHCl, OHNH, CHCl, CHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHOH and NHNH) can form. These H-bonds exhibit substantial flexibility in terms of number and strength. It is anticipated that H-bonding will have a significant impact on the entropy of the system and thus could play an important role in the formation of the eutectic. The 2 : 1 urea : choline-chloride eutectic point of this DES is often associated with the formation of a [Cl(urea)2](-) complexed anion. However, urea is found to form a H-bonded urea[choline](+) complexed cation that is energetically competitive with [Cl(urea)2](-). The negative charge on [Cl(urea)2](-) is found to remain localised on the chloride, moreover, the urea[choline](+) complexed cation forms the strongest H-bond studied here. Thus, there is potential to consider a urea[choline](+)·urea[Cl](-) interaction.

  14. Modeling the doubly excited state with time-dependent Hartree-Fock and density functional theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isborn, Christine M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2008-11-01

    Multielectron excited states have become a hot topic in many cutting-edge research fields, such as the photophysics of polyenes and in the possibility of multiexciton generation in quantum dots for the purpose of increasing solar cell efficiency. However, obtaining multielectron excited states has been a major obstacle as it is often done with multiconfigurational methods, which involve formidable computational cost for large systems. Although they are computationally much cheaper than multiconfigurational wave function based methods, linear response adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and density functional theory (TDDFT) are generally considered incapable of obtaining multielectron excited states. We have developed a real-time TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT approach that is beyond the perturbative regime. We show that TDHF/TDDFT is able to simultaneously excite two electrons from the ground state to the doubly excited state and that the real-time TDHF/TDDFT implicitly includes double excitation within a superposition state. We also present a multireference linear response theory to show that the real-time electron density response corresponds to a superposition of perturbative linear responses of the S0 and S2 states. As a result, the energy of the two-electron doubly excited state can be obtained with several different approaches. This is done within the adiabatic approximation of TDDFT, a realm in which the doubly excited state has been deemed missing. We report results on simple two-electron systems, including the energies and dipole moments for the two-electron excited states of H2 and HeH+. These results are compared to those obtained with the full configuration interaction method.

  15. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  16. Fragmentation Patterns and Mechanisms of Singly and Doubly Protonated Peptoids Studied by Collision Induced Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jianhua; Tian, Yuan; Hossain, Ekram; Connolly, Michael D.

    2016-04-01

    Peptoids are peptide-mimicking oligomers consisting of N-alkylated glycine units. The fragmentation patterns for six singly and doubly protonated model peptoids were studied via collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The experiments were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source. Both singly and doubly protonated peptoids were found to fragment mainly at the backbone amide bonds to produce peptoid B-type N-terminal fragment ions and Y-type C-terminal fragment ions. However, the relative abundances of B- versus Y-ions were significantly different. The singly protonated peptoids fragmented by producing highly abundant Y-ions and lesser abundant B-ions. The Y-ion formation mechanism was studied through calculating the energetics of truncated peptoid fragment ions using density functional theory and by controlled experiments. The results indicated that Y-ions were likely formed by transferring a proton from the C-H bond of the N-terminal fragments to the secondary amine of the C-terminal fragments. This proton transfer is energetically favored, and is in accord with the observation of abundant Y-ions. The calculations also indicated that doubly protonated peptoids would fragment at an amide bond close to the N-terminus to yield a high abundance of low-mass B-ions and high-mass Y-ions. The results of this study provide further understanding of the mechanisms of peptoid fragmentation and, therefore, are a valuable guide for de novo sequencing of peptoid libraries synthesized via combinatorial chemistry.

  17. Calculations of current densities for neutral and doubly charged persubstituted benzenes using effective core potentials.

    PubMed

    Rauhalahti, Markus; Taubert, Stefan; Sundholm, Dage; Liégeois, Vincent

    2017-03-08

    Magnetically induced current density susceptibilities and ring-current strengths have been calculated for neutral and doubly charged persubstituted benzenes C6X6 and C6X6(2+) with X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, SeH, SeMe, TeH, TeMe, and SbH2. The current densities have been calculated using the gauge-including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method, which has been interfaced to the Gaussian electronic structure code rendering current density calculations using effective core potentials (ECP) feasible. Relativistic effects on the ring-current strengths have been assessed by employing ECP calculations of the current densities. Comparison of the ring-current strengths obtained in calculations on C6At6 and C6At6(2+) using relativistic and non-relativistic ECPs show that scalar relativistic effects have only a small influence on the ring-current strengths. Comparisons of the ring-current strengths and ring-current profiles show that the C6I6(2+), C6At6(2+), C6(SeH)6(2+), C6(SeMe)6(2+), C6(TeH)6(2+), C6(TeMe)6(2+), and C6(SbH2)6(2+) dications are doubly aromatic sustaining spatially separated ring currents in the carbon ring and in the exterior of the molecule. The C6I6(+) radical cation is also found to be doubly aromatic with a weaker ring current than obtained for the dication.

  18. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead in it. For homes served by public water systems, data on lead in tap water may be available ... Many public water authorities have websites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to ...

  19. Label-Free LSPR Detection of Trace Lead(II) Ions in Drinking Water by Synthetic Poly(mPD-co-ASA) Nanoparticles on Gold Nanoislands.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guangyu; Ng, Siu Pang; Liang, Xiongyi; Ding, Ning; Chen, Xiangfeng; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2017-02-07

    Using self-assembly gold nanoislands (SAM-AuNIs) functionalized by poly(m-phenylenediamine-co-aniline-2-sulfonic acid) (poly(mPD-co-ASA)) copolymer nanoparticles as specific receptors, a highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) optochemical sensor is demonstrated for detection of trace lead cation (Pb(II)) in drinking water. The copolymer receptor is optimized in three aspects: (1) mole ratio of mPD:ASA monomers, (2) size of copolymer nanoparticles, and (3) surface density of the copolymer. It is shown that the 95:5 (mPD:ASA mole ratio) copolymer with size less than 100 nm exhibits the best Pb(II)-sensing performance, and the 200 times diluted standard copolymer solution contributes to the most effective functionalization protocol. The resulting poly(mPD-co-ASA)-functionalized LSPR sensor attains the detection limit to 0.011 ppb toward Pb(II) in drinking water, and the linear dynamic range covers 0.011 to 5000 ppb (i.e., 6 orders of magnitude). In addition, the sensing system exhibits robust selectivity to Pb(II) in the presence of other metallic cations as well as common anions. The proposed functional copolymer functionalized on AuNIs is found to provide excellent Pb(II)-sensing performance using simple LSPR instrumentation for rapid drinking-water inspection.

  20. Signature effects in 2qp bands of doubly even rare-earth nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Kawalpreet; Goel, Alpana; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The two-quasiparticle rotational bands in deformed doubly even nuclei in the rare-earth region have been studied in detail. A number of interesting features like odd-even staggering and signature inversion have been observed. The phenomenon of signature inversion/reversal is observed experimentally in 162 66Dy, 170 0Yb and 170 74W in even-even nuclei. Two quasiparticle plus rotor model (TQPRM) calculations are carried out to explain the reverse pattern of signature in 170 74W for the rotational band having configuration {(h_{11/2})p ⊗ (d_{5/2})p}.

  1. Power enhancement of burst-mode UV pulses using a doubly-resonant optical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rahkman, Abdurahim; Notcutt, Mark; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-24

    We report a doubly-resonant enhancement cavity (DREC) that can realize a simultaneous enhancement of two incoming laser beams at different wavelengths and different temporal structures. The double-resonance condition is theoretically analyzed and different DREC locking methods are experimentally investigated. Simultaneous locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity to both an infrared (IR, 1064 nm) and its frequency tripled ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) pulses has been demonstrated by controlling the frequency difference between the two beams with a fiber optic frequency shifter. The DREC technique opens a new paradigm in the applications of optical cavities to power enhancement of burst-mode lasers with arbitrary macropulse width and repetition rate.

  2. Ultrafast spectroscopy of super high frequency mechanical modes of doubly clamped beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristow, Oliver; Merklein, Moritz; Grossmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Grebing, Jochen; Erbe, Artur; Mounier, Denis; Gusev, Vitalyi; Scheer, Elke; Dekorsy, Thomas; Barretto, Elaine C. S.

    2013-12-01

    We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to study the mechanical vibrations in the time domain of doubly clamped silicon nitride beams. Beams with two different clamping conditions are investigated. Finite element method calculations are performed to analyse the mode spectra of both structures. By calculating the strain integral on the surface of the resonators, we are able to reproduce the effect of the detection mechanism and identify all the measured modes. We show that our spectroscopy technique combined with our modelling tools allow the investigation of several different modes in the super high frequency range (3-30 GHz) and above, bringing more information about the vibration modes of nanomechanical resonators.

  3. Possibility of Non Fermi Liquid Like States Co-exists With Superconductivity in Doubly Filled Skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateshwarlu, D.; Shanmukhrao, S.; Pandya, Swati; Chandra, L. S. Sharath; Vishwakarma, P. N.; Jain, Deepti; Gangrade, Mohan; Ganesan, V.

    2011-07-01

    Skutterudites is known to have fascinating ground states depending upon the void filling. Heat capacity of partially filled Pr0.8Pt4Ge12 and doubly filled Pr0.8Nd0.2Pt4Ge12 skutterudites has been investigated. Superconducting gaps have been quantified through heat capacity in the presence of magnetic fields. C/T versus T2 plot of Pr0.8Nd0.2Pt4Ge12 shows an upturn at low temperatures and this tendency increases with magnetic field, suggesting the possibility of a field induced NFL like states due to magnetic correlations co-existing with superconductivity.

  4. Generation of doubly charged vortex beam by concentrated loading of glass disks along their diameter.

    PubMed

    Skab, Ihor; Vasylkiv, Yuriy; Krupych, Oleh; Savaryn, Viktoriya; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2012-04-10

    We show that a system of glass disks compressed along their diameters enables one to induce a doubly charged vortex beam in the emergent light when the incident light is circularly polarized. Using such a disk system, one can control the efficiency of conversion of the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum by a loading force. The consideration presented here can be extended for the case of crystalline materials with high optical damage thresholds in order to induce high-power vortex beams.

  5. Purely-long-range krypton molecules in singly and doubly excited binding potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Z. S.; Harmon, A.; Banister, J.; Norman, R.; Hoogeboom-Pot, K.; Walhout, M.

    2010-01-15

    Diatomic potentials for krypton are computed and also probed experimentally. For a probe-laser wavelength near 811 nm, several strong dipole-dipole interactions produce purely-long-range potential wells in the singly excited manifold of (s+p) potentials and in the doubly excited manifold of (p+p) and (s+d) potentials. Evidence of resonant photoassociation into bound states of these potential wells is observed in the emission of ions and ultraviolet photons from a magneto-optically trapped krypton cloud.

  6. Slanted and saw-toothed stator poles for improved performance of doubly salient permanent magnet motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, A. R. C. Sekhar; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of extensive finite element analyses conducted on doubly salient permanent magnet motor (DSPM) for improving the torque characteristics by novel methods; namely (i) slanted stator pole and (ii) saw-toothed stator pole. In the first method, stator poles are given a slant at the pole face; the slant in a direction opposite to the rotation of the motor has resulted in 7.33% and 71.45% increase in the average and maximum torques, respectively, when compared with the motor with original stator poles. With appropriate saw-tooth shaped stator poles, various permanent magnet torque and static torque profiles can be achieved.

  7. Ultrasensitive mass sensing with nonlinear optics in a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2013-12-07

    Nanomechanical resonator makes itself as an ideal system for ultrasensitive mass sensing due to its ultralow mass and high vibrational frequency. The mass sensing principle is due to the linear relationship of the frequency-shift and mass-variation. In this work, we will propose a nonlinear optical mass sensor based on a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator in all-optical domain. The masses of external particles (such as nitric oxide molecules) landing onto the surface of carbon nanotube can be determined directly and accurately via using the nonlinear optical spectroscopy. This mass sensing proposed here may provide a nonlinear optical measurement technique in quantum measurements and environmental science.

  8. First evidence of γ collectivity close to the doubly magic core 132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, W.; Sieja, K.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Czerwiński, M.; Naïdja, H.; Nowacki, F.; Smith, A. G.; Ahmad, I.

    2016-03-01

    The 138Te and 140Xe nuclei have been reinvestigated using prompt γ -ray data from spontaneous fission of 248Cm, collected with the EUROGAM2 Ge array. γ bands have been identified in both nuclei. The γ band observed in 138Te, a nucleus with only six valence nucleons, indicates the presence of collectivity very close to the doubly magic 132Sn core. Such band is even more pronounced in 140Xe, the N = 86 isotone of 138Te. The newly observed bands are interpreted within the shell model, which reproduce well the γ collectivity at N = 86.

  9. Time-dependent Hartree-Fock Study of Octupole Vibrations in doubly magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simenel, C.; Buete, J.; Vo-Phuoc, K.

    2016-09-01

    Octupole vibrations are studied in some doubly magic nuclei using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a Skyrme energy density functional. Through the use of the linear response theory, the energies and transition amplitudes of the low-lying vibrational modes for each of the nuclei were determined. Energies were found to be close to experimental results. However, transition amplitudes, quantified by the deformation parameter β3, are underestimated by TDHF. A comparison with single-particle excitations on the Hartree-Fock ground-state shows that the collective octupole vibrations have their energy lowered due to attractive RPA residual interaction.

  10. New Measurements of Doubly Ionized Iron Group Spectra by High Resolution Fourier Transform and Grating Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R. J.; Smith, Peter L.; Nave, G.

    2006-01-01

    We report new measurements of doubly ionized iron group element spectra, important in the analysis of B-type (hot) stars whose spectra they dominate. These measurements include Co III and Cr III taken with the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer and measurements of Co III taken with the normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at NIST, below 135 nm. We report new Fe III grating spectra measurements to complement our FT spectra. Work towards transition wavelengths, energy levels and branching ratios (which, combined with lifetimes, produce oscillator strengths) for these ions is underway.

  11. Time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics simulation of doubly charged uracil in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Tarifa, Pablo; Hervé du Penhoat, Marie-Anne; Vuilleumier, Rodophe; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano; Le Padellec, Arnaud; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Alcamí, Manuel; Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Martín, Fernando; Politis, Marie-Françoise

    2014-02-01

    We use time-dependent density functional theory and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics methods to investigate the fragmentation of doubly ionized uracil in gas phase. Different initial electronic excited states of the dication are obtained by removing electrons from different inner-shell orbitals of the neutral species. We show that shape-equivalent orbitals lead to very different fragmentation patterns revealing the importance of the intramolecular chemical environment. The results are in good agreement with ionion coincidence measurements of uracil collision with 100 keV protons.

  12. One-neutron removal measurement reveals 24O as a new doubly magic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, R; Nociforo, C; Prochazka, A; Aumann, T; Boutin, D; Cortina-Gil, D; Davids, B; Diakaki, M; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Gerl, J; Janik, R; Jonson, B; Kindler, B; Knöbel, R; Krücken, R; Lantz, M; Lenske, H; Litvinov, Y; Lommel, B; Mahata, K; Maierbeck, P; Musumarra, A; Nilsson, T; Otsuka, T; Perro, C; Scheidenberger, C; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Sun, B; Szarka, I; Tanihata, I; Utsuno, Y; Weick, H; Winkler, M

    2009-04-17

    The first measurement of the momentum distribution for one-neutron removal from (24)O at 920A MeV performed at GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The observed distribution has a width (FWHM) of 99 +/- 4 MeV/c in the projectile rest frame and a one-neutron removal cross section of 63 +/- 7 mb. The results are well explained with a nearly pure 2s_{1/2} neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.74 +/- 0.19 within the eikonal model. This large s-wave probability shows a spherical shell closure thereby confirming earlier suggestions that (24)O is a new doubly magic nucleus.

  13. Search for Doubly Charged Higgs Bosons with Lepton-Flavor-Violating Decays Involving τ Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Azzurri, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Baroiant, S.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Bednar, P.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Belloni, A.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Berry, T.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bolshov, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooper, B.; Copic, K.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lentdecker, G.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; de Pedis, D.; Derwent, P. F.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Forrester, S.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Genser, K.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopolou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamilton, A.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Handler, R.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; Iyutin, B.; James, E.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeans, D.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Kerzel, U.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Klute, M.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Koay, S. A.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kusakabe, Y.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lai, S.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, S. W.; Lefèvre, R.; Leonardo, N.; Leone, S.; Levy, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.; Lin, C. S.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Lovas, L.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Luci, C.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Mack, P.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, M.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzemer, S.; Menzione, A.; Merkel, P.; Mesropian, C.; Messina, A.; Miao, T.; Miladinovic, N.; Miles, J.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Mumford, R.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, A.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Necula, V.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Oldeman, R.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramonov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Piedra, J.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Portell, X.; Poukhov, O.; Pounder, N.; Prakoshyn, F.; Pronko, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Reisert, B.; Rekovic, V.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Salamanna, G.; Saltó, O.; Santi, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Scheidle, T.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scott, A. L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shapiro, M. D.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Sherman, D.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Sidoti, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soderberg, M.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Spalding, J.; Spinella, F.; Spreitzer, T.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Stuart, D.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, H.; Suslov, I.; Suzuki, T.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Terashi, K.; Thom, J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Tiwari, V.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Tourneur, S.; Trischuk, W.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Veszpremi, V.; Vidal, M.; Vidal, R.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vine, T.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Würthwein, F.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wagner, W.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wynne, S. M.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamashita, T.; Yang, C.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A.; Zaw, I.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2008-09-01

    We search for pair production of doubly charged Higgs particles (H±±) followed by decays into electron-tau (eτ) and muon-tau (μτ) pairs using data (350pb-1) collected from pmacr p collisions at s=1.96TeV by the CDF II experiment. We search separately for cases where three or four final-state leptons are detected, and combine results for exclusive decays to left-handed eτ (μτ) pairs. We set an H±± lower mass limit of 114(112)GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level.

  14. Power enhancement of burst-mode ultraviolet pulses using a doubly resonant optical cavity.

    PubMed

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Notcutt, Mark; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    We report a doubly resonant enhancement cavity (DREC) that can realize a simultaneous enhancement of two incoming laser beams at different wavelengths and different temporal structures. The double-resonance condition is theoretically analyzed, and different DREC locking methods are experimentally investigated. Simultaneous locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity to both an infrared (1064 nm) and its frequency-tripled ultraviolet (355 nm) pulses has been demonstrated by controlling the frequency difference between the two beams with a fiber-optic frequency shifter. The DREC technique enables novel applications of optical cavities to power enhancement of burst-mode lasers with arbitrary macropulse width and repetition rate.

  15. First evidence of gamma collectivity close to the doubly magic core Sn-132

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W; Sieja, K.; Rzaca-Urban, T; Czerwinski, M.; Naidja, H.; Nowacki, F.; Smith, A. G.; Ahmad, I.

    2016-03-21

    The Te-138 and Xe-140 nuclei have been reinvestigated using prompt gamma-ray data from spontaneous fission of Cm-248, collected with the EUROGAM2 Ge array. gamma bands have been identified in both nuclei. The gamma band observed in Te-138, a nucleus with only six valence nucleons, indicates the presence of collectivity very close to the doubly magic Sn-132 core. Such band is even more pronounced in Xe-140, the N = 86 isotone of Te-138. The newly observed bands are interpreted within the shell model, which reproduce well the. collectivity at N = 86.

  16. Stabilization of the solution of a doubly nonlinear parabolic equation

    SciTech Connect

    Andriyanova, È R; Mukminov, F Kh

    2013-09-30

    The method of Galerkin approximations is employed to prove the existence of a strong global (in time) solution of a doubly nonlinear parabolic equation in an unbounded domain. The second integral identity is established for Galerkin approximations, and passing to the limit in it an estimate for the decay rate of the norm of the solution from below is obtained. The estimates characterizing the decay rate of the solution as x→∞ obtained here are used to derive an upper bound for the decay rate of the solution with respect to time; the resulting estimate is pretty close to the lower one. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  17. Dynamic analysis of a doubly fed generator in power system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rifai, M.B. ); Ortmeyer, T.H. )

    1993-01-25

    In this paper, the dynamic performance and control of a doubly fed generator is investigated. It is shown experimentally that a reactive current regulator can be used to control the machine excitation level. The study initially assumes an externally controlled field frequency, so that the machine is in the controlled speed mode. Linearized analysis is used to show that larger generators may be subject to dynamic instabilities at high slip operation. It is shown that feedback of shaft speed along with the stator or rotor current vector can be used to provide stable operation.

  18. Dynamic analysis of a doubly fed generator in power system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rifai, M.B. ); Ortmeyer, T.H. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic performance and control of a doubly fed generator is investigated. It is shown experimentally that a reactive current regulator can be used to control the machine excitation level. The study initially assumes an externally controlled field frequency, so that the machine is in the controlled speed mode. Linearized analysis is used to show that larger generators may be subject to dynamic instabilities at high slip operation. It is shown that feedback of shaft speed along with the stator or rotor current vector can be used to provide stable operation.

  19. Constraints on the Skyrme equations of state from properties of doubly magic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Brown, B Alex

    2013-12-06

    I use properties of doubly magic nuclei to constrain symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter equations of state. I conclude that these data determine the value of the neutron equation of state at a density of ρ(on)=0.10  nucleons/fm3 to be 11.4(10) MeV. The slope at that point is constrained by the value of the neutron skin. Analytical equations are given that show the dependence of the Skyrme equations of state on the neutron skin.

  20. Doubly hybrid density functional for accurate descriptions of nonbond interactions, thermochemistry, and thermochemical kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Xin; Goddard, William A.

    2009-01-01

    We develop and validate a density functional, XYG3, based on the adiabatic connection formalism and the Görling–Levy coupling-constant perturbation expansion to the second order (PT2). XYG3 is a doubly hybrid functional, containing 3 mixing parameters. It has a nonlocal orbital-dependent component in the exchange term (exact exchange) plus information about the unoccupied Kohn–Sham orbitals in the correlation part (PT2 double excitation). XYG3 is remarkably accurate for thermochemistry, reaction barrier heights, and nonbond interactions of main group molecules. In addition, the accuracy remains nearly constant with system size. PMID:19276116

  1. Mechanisms for production of doubly excited states in low energies Iq+-He collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, C.; Jouin, H.; Pons, B.

    1993-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of the mechanisms leading to the formation of doubly excited states of the series 3l3l' (or 4l') and 2lnl' in N7+, O8+ and C6+-He low energy collisions. The importance of both direct transitions from the entry channel (involving electron-electron interaction couplings) and transitions through a single electron capture channel has been analyzed for a range of impact velocities between 0.2 and 0.6 a.u.

  2. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  3. Computing Green's function on unbounded doubly connected regions via integral equation with the generalized Neumann kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspon, Siti Zulaiha; Murid, Ali Hassan Mohamed; Rahmat, Hamisan

    2014-07-01

    This research is about computing the Green's functions on unbounded doubly connected regions by using the method of boundary integral equation. The method depends on solving an exterior Dirichlet problem. The Dirichlet problem is then solved using a uniquely solvable Fredholm integral equation on the boundary of the region. The kernel of this integral equation is the generalized Neumann kernel. The method for solving this integral equation is by using the Nyström method with trapezoidal rule to discretize it to a linear system. The linear system is then solved by the Gaussian elimination method. Mathematica plots of Green's functions for several test regions are also presented.

  4. A NASTRAN implementation of the doubly asymptotic approximation for underwater shock response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everstine, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description is given of how the decoupling approximation known as the doubly asymptotic approximation is implemented with NASTRAN to solve shock problems for submerged structures. The general approach involves locating the nonsymmetric terms (which couple structural and fluid variables) on the right hand side of the equations. This approach results in coefficient matrices of acceptable bandwidth but degrades numerical stability, requiring a smaller time step size than would otherwise be used. It is also shown how the structure's added (virtual) mass matrix, is calculated with NASTRAN.

  5. Evidence for the production of the charmed, doubly strange baryon Ω c in e +e - annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Cronström, H. I.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reidenbach, M.; Reiner, R.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R. D.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Becker, U.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hölscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Kahn, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Britton, D. I.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Hyatt, E. R. F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Seidel, S. C.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Reßing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Jönsson, L.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Kostina, G.; Lubimov, V.; Murat, P.; Pakhlov, P.; Ratnikov, F.; Semenov, S.; Shibaev, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1992-08-01

    Using the detector ARGUS at the storage ring DORIS II of DESY, we have found evidence for the production of the charmed and doubly strange baryon Ω c through its decay channel Ξ -K -π +π +. Its mass has been determined to be ((2719.0±7.0±2.5)MeV/ c2, and the product of production cross section and branching ratio the above channel to be (2.41±0.90±0.30) pb.

  6. K-shell Auger lifetime variation in doubly ionized Ne and first row hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Kolorenc, Premysl; Averbukh, Vitali

    2011-10-07

    We consider 1s Auger decay in doubly (core-core and core-valence) ionized Ne and in the isoelectronic first row element hydrides. We show theoretically that the presence of the spectator inner valence vacancy leads to Auger lifetime variation of up to about a factor of 2, relative to the Auger lifetimes in the singly ionized species. The origin of this effect is traced to spin selection rules. Implications on the modelling of the radiation damage in strong x-ray fields are discussed.

  7. High resolution study of the six lowest doubly excited vibrational states of PH 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, C.; Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Onopenko, G. A.; Chudinova, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    The five lowest doubly excited deformational vibrational bands ν4 + ν6, 2 ν6, ν3 + ν4, ν3 + ν6, and 2 ν3 of PH 2D have been recorded for the first time using a Bruker 120 HR interferometer with a resolution 0.0033 cm -1 and analysed. Some transitions belonging to a very weak band 2 ν4 have been also assigned. From the fit 24 and 86, respectively, diagonal and resonance interaction parameters were obtained which reproduce 1089 upper energy levels obtained from more than 4600 assigned transitions with the rms deviation of 0.00059 cm -1.

  8. Deformation of doubly clamped single-walled carbon nanotubes in an electrostatic field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Philippe, Laetitia

    2009-05-29

    In this Letter, we demonstrate a strong dependence of the electrostatic deformation of doubly clamped single-walled carbon nanotubes on both the field strength and the tube length, using molecular simulations. Metallic nanotubes are found to be more sensitive to an electric field than semiconducting ones of the same size. For a given electric field, the induced deformation increases with tube length but decreases with tube radius. Furthermore, it is found that nanotubes can be more efficiently bent in a center-oriented transverse electric field.

  9. Isolation of homoleptic platinum oxyanionic complexes with doubly protonated diazacrown cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, Danila; Tkachev, Sergey; Baidina, Iraida; Romanenko, Galina; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Doubly protonated diazacrown ether cation (1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazoniacyclooctadecane DCH22+) was used for the efficient isolation of the homoleptic platinum complexes [Pt(NO3)6]2- and [Pt(C2O4)2]2- to crystalline solid phases from solutions containing mixtures of related platinum complexes. DCH22+ molecules in nitric acid solution were shown to prevent the condensation of mononuclear [Pt(H2O)n(NO3)6-n]n-2 species.

  10. Search for doubly charged Higgs bosons with lepton-flavor-violating decays involving tau leptons.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-09-19

    We search for pair production of doubly charged Higgs particles (H+/- +/-) followed by decays into electron-tau (etau) and muon-tau (mutau) pairs using data (350 pb(-1) collected from [over]pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV by the CDF II experiment. We search separately for cases where three or four final-state leptons are detected, and combine results for exclusive decays to left-handed etau (mutau) pairs. We set an H+/- +/- lower mass limit of 114(112) GeV/c(2) at the 95% confidence level.

  11. In-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Yongchao; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, a nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) mechanism is proposed to drive the in-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. The corresponding interactions between optical resonances and rotations are investigated. This is the first in-plane rotational tuning of the PhC cavities, which benefits from the flexible design of NEMS actuators. In experiments, more than 18 linewidths of the third order TE even mode corresponding to 0.037 mrad of the shrinking angle between the two nanobeam cavities are demonstrated; this study provides one more mechanical degree of freedom for the practical optomechanical interactions.

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  13. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign Up for Email Policies ...

  14. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  15. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  16. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  17. Label-fracture: a method for high resolution labeling of cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Silva, P; Kan, F W

    1984-09-01

    We introduce here a technique, "label-fracture," that allows the observation of the distribution of a cytochemical label on a cell surface. Cell surfaces labeled with an electron-dense marker (colloidal gold) are freeze-fractured and the fracture faces are replicated by plantinum/carbon evaporation. The exoplasmic halves of the membrane, apparently stabilized by the deposition of the Pt/C replica, are washed in distilled water. The new method reveals the surface distribution of the label coincident with the Pt/C replica of the exoplasmic fracture face. Initial applications indicate high resolution (less than or equal to 15 nm) and exceedingly low background. "Label-fracture" provides extensive views of the distribution of the label on membrane surfaces while preserving cell shape and relating to the freeze-fracture morphology of exoplasmic fracture faces. The regionalization of wheat germ agglutinin receptors on the plasma membranes of boar sperm cells is illustrated. The method and the interpretation of its results are straightforward. Label-fracture is appropriate for routine use as a surface labeling technique.

  18. Extension of cutoff in high harmonic by using doubly charged ions in a laser-ablation plume

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Baba, Motoyoshi; Kuroda, Hiroto; Ganeev, Rashid A.; Bom, Luc Bertrand Elouga; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki

    2007-11-15

    We report high-order harmonic generation from doubly charged ions in laser-ablation plasma produced by different prepulse intensities. At the prepulse intensity of 3.5x10{sup 10} W cm{sup -2}, harmonics up to the 63rd order (12.62 nm wavelength, 98.3 eV photon energy) were obtained by using a laser-ablation titanium plume. From analysis of the harmonics and visible radiation from the laser-ablation titanium plume at different prepulse intensities, we conclude that the highest harmonics near the cutoff region originated from doubly charged titanium ions. These studies show the effectiveness of using doubly charged ions to extend the cutoff energy of high-order harmonics.

  19. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  20. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  1. Effects of g-jitter and cross-diffusion on the onset of convection in doubly diffusive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrones, Guillermo; Chen, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a modulated gravity field in doubly diffusive layers with and without cross-diffusion are studied. Attention is focused on the determination of linear stability criteria for such systems. Floquet theory is used to establish the stability criteria by a systematic analysis of the topology of the neutral curves from which stability boundaries can be constructed. Convective stability boundaries for gravity-modulated doubly cross-diffusive systems are presented for the cases of dynamically free and rigid boundaries. Two physically different forms of layer stratification are considered: (1) imposed independent gradients of two components and (2) a solute gradient induced by a fixed temperature gradient.

  2. K speckle: space-time correlation function of doubly scattered light in an imaging system.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayan; Kelly, Damien P; Sheridan, John T

    2013-05-01

    The scattering of coherent monochromatic light at an optically rough surface, such as a diffuser, produces a speckle field, which is usually described by reference to its statistical properties. For example, the real and imaginary parts of a fully developed speckle field can be modeled as a random circular Gaussian process. When such a speckle field is used to illuminate a second diffuser, the statistics of the resulting doubly scattered field are in general no longer Gaussian, but rather follow a K distribution. In this paper we determine the space-time correlation function of such a doubly scattered speckle field that has been imaged by a single lens system. A space-time correlation function is derived that contains four separate terms; similar to the Gaussian case it contains an average DC term and a fluctuating AC term. However, in addition there are two terms that are related to contributions from each of the diffusers independently. We examine how our space-time correlation function varies as the diffusers are rotated at different speeds and as the point spread function of the imaging system is changed. A series of numerical simulations are used to confirm different aspects of the theoretical analysis. We then finish with a discussion of our results and some potential applications, including controlling spatial coherence and speckle reduction.

  3. Doubly 15N-substituted diazenylium: THz laboratory spectra and fractionation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, L.; Bizzocchi, L.; Wirström, E. S.; Degli Esposti, C.; Tamassia, F.; Charnley, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Isotopic fractionation in dense molecular cores has been suggested as a possible origin of large 14N/15N ratio variations in solar system materials. While chemical models can explain some observed variations with different fractionation patterns for molecules with -NH or -CN functional groups, they fail to reproduce the observed ratios in diazenylium (N2H+). Aims: Observations of doubly 15N-substituted species could provide important constraints and insights for theoretical chemical models of isotopic fractionation. However, spectroscopic data are very scarce. Methods: The rotational spectra of the fully 15N-substituted isopologues of the diazenylium ion, 15N2H+ and 15N2D+, have been investigated in the laboratory well into the THz region by using a source-modulation microwave spectrometer equipped with a negative glow discharge cell. An extended chemical reaction network has been used to estimate what ranges of 15N fractionation in doubly 15N-substituted species could be expected in the interstellar medium (ISM). Results: For each isotopologue of the H- and D-containing pair, nine rotational transitions were accurately measured in the frequency region 88 GHz-1.2 THz. The analysis of the spectrum provided very precise rest frequencies at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths, useful for the radioastronomical identification of the rotational lines of 15N2H+ and 15N2D+ in the ISM.

  4. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M.

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  5. Doubly-robust Estimators of Treatment-specific Survival Distributions in Observational Studies with Stratified Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaofei; Tsiatis, Anastasios A.; O'Brien, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Observational studies are frequently conducted to compare the effects of two treatments on survival. For such studies we must be concerned about confounding; that is, there are covariates that affect both the treatment assignment and the survival distribution. With confounding the usual treatment-specific Kaplan-Meier estimator might be a biased estimator of the underlying treatment-specific survival distribution. This paper has two aims. In the first aim we use semiparametric theory to derive a doubly robust estimator of the treatment-specific survival distribution in cases where it is believed that all the potential confounders are captured. In cases where not all potential confounders have been captured one may conduct a substudy using a stratified sampling scheme to capture additional covariates that may account for confounding. The second aim is to derive a doubly-robust estimator for the treatment-specific survival distributions and its variance estimator with such a stratified sampling scheme. Simulation studies are conducted to show consistency and double robustness. These estimators are then applied to the data from the ASCERT study that motivated this research. PMID:24117096

  6. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - I. Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Mark L.; Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung

    2015-03-04

    A new methodology has been developed to treat resonance self-shielding in doubly heterogeneous very high temperature gas-cooled reactor systems in which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. This new method first homogenizes the fuel grain and matrix materials using an analytically derived disadvantage factor from a two-region problem with equivalence theory and intermediate resonance method. This disadvantage factor accounts for spatial self-shielding effects inside each grain within the framework of an infinite array of grains. Then the homogenized fuel compact is self-shielded using a Bondarenko method to accountmore » for interactions between the fuel compact regions in the fuel lattice. In the final form of the equations for actual implementations, the double-heterogeneity effects are accounted for by simply using a modified definition of a background cross section, which includes geometry parameters and cross sections for both the grain and fuel compact regions. With the new method, the doubly heterogeneous resonance self-shielding effect can be treated easily even with legacy codes programmed only for a singly heterogeneous system by simple modifications in the background cross section for resonance integral interpolations. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the new method and a sensitivity study of double-heterogeneity parameters introduced during the derivation. The implementation of the method and verification results for various test cases are presented in the companion paper.« less

  7. General and mechanistic optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Sonia M; Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2015-04-30

    We propose a general framework for determining optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression. This approach is based on the observation that tensile strength is directly proportional to the breaking force and inversely proportional to a non-linear function of geometric parameters and materials properties. This generalization reduces to the analytical expression commonly used for flat faced tablets, i.e., Hertz solution, and to the empirical relationship currently used in the pharmaceutical industry for convex-faced tablets, i.e., Pitt's equation. Under proper parametrization, optimal tensile strength relationship can be determined from experimental results by minimizing a figure of merit of choice. This optimization is performed under the first-order approximation that a flat faced tablet and a doubly curved tablet have the same tensile strength if they have the same relative density and are made of the same powder, under equivalent manufacturing conditions. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations and best practices for assessing the performance of optimal tensile strength relationships in general. Based on these guidelines, we identify two new models, namely the general and mechanistic models, which are effective and predictive alternatives to the tensile strength relationship currently used in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing doubly charged Higgs bosons at the LHC through photon initiated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Jana, Sudip

    2017-03-01

    We show that the photon-photon fusion process contributes significantly to the pair production of doubly charged Higgs bosons at the LHC at a level comparable to the Drell-Yan production. We reinterpret the ATLAS lower limit of 570 GeV (420 GeV) on the mass of ΔL±± (ΔR±±) arising from an S U (2 )L triplet (singlet) scalar by including the photon-initiated process, and we derive a new lower limit of 748 GeV (570 GeV), assuming that Δ±± decays into e±e± 100% of the time. We have also shown that the 5 σ discovery reach for ΔL±± (ΔR±±) is 846 GeV (783 GeV) with 100 fb-1 luminosity at the 13 TeV LHC. We derive a somewhat more stringent limit on the mass when the doubly charged scalar arises from higher-dimensional representations of S U (2 )L.

  9. Efficient entropy estimation based on doubly stochastic models for quantized wavelet image data.

    PubMed

    Gaubatz, Matthew D; Hemami, Sheila S

    2007-04-01

    Under a rate constraint, wavelet-based image coding involves strategic discarding of information such that the remaining data can be described with a given amount of rate. In a practical coding system, this task requires knowledge of the relationship between quantization step size and compressed rate for each group of wavelet coefficients, the R-Q curve. A common approach to this problem is to fit each subband with a scalar probability distribution and compute entropy estimates based on the model. This approach is not effective at rates below 1.0 bits-per-pixel because the distributions of quantized data do not reflect the dependencies in coefficient magnitudes. These dependencies can be addressed with doubly stochastic models, which have been previously proposed to characterize more localized behavior, though there are tradeoffs between storage, computation time, and accuracy. Using a doubly stochastic generalized Gaussian model, it is demonstrated that the relationship between step size and rate is accurately described by a low degree polynomial in the logarithm of the step size. Based on this observation, an entropy estimation scheme is presented which offers an excellent tradeoff between speed and accuracy; after a simple data-gathering step, estimates are computed instantaneously by evaluating a single polynomial for each group of wavelet coefficients quantized with the same step size. These estimates are on average within 3% of a desired target rate for several of state-of-the-art coders.

  10. Spectroscopy of doubly and triply-charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael

    2013-11-01

    We present the ground and excited state spectra of doubly and triply-charmed baryons by using lattice QCD with dynamical clover fermions. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice and are obtained after subduction from their continuum analogues are utilized. Using novel computational techniques correlation functions of these operators are generated and the variational method is exploited to extract excited states. The lattice spectra that we obtain have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the low lying states remarkably resemble the expectations of quantum numbers from SU(6) Ⓧ O(3) symmetry. Various energy splittings between the extracted states, including splittings due to hyperfine as well as spin-orbit coupling, are considered and those are also compared against similar energy splittings at other quark masses. Using those splittings for doubly-charmed baryons, and taking input of experimental Bc meson mass, we predict the mass splittings of B*c-Bc to be about 80 ± 8 MeV and mΩccb=8050±10 MeV.

  11. Doubly chloro bridged dimeric copper(II) complex: magneto-structural correlation and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Yeasin; Modak, Ritwik; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Saswati; Bieńko, Dariusz; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Bieńko, Alina; Das Saha, Krishna; Goswami, Sanchita

    2015-05-21

    We have synthesized and structurally characterized a new doubly chloro bridged dimeric copper(II) complex, [Cu2(μ-Cl)2(HL)2Cl2] (1) based on a Schiff base ligand, 5-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)-amino]-pentan-1-ol). Single crystal X-ray diffraction shows the presence of dinuclear copper(II) centres in a square pyramidal geometry linked by obtuse double chloro bridge. The magnetic study illustrated that weak antiferromagnetic interactions (J = -0.47 cm(-1)) prevail in complex 1 which is well supported by magneto-structural correlation. This compound adds to the library of doubly chloro bridged copper(ii) complexes in the regime of spin state cross over. DFT calculations have been conducted within a broken-symmetry (BS) framework to investigate the exchange interaction further which depicts that the approximate spin projection technique yields the best corroboration of the experimental J value. Spin density plots show the presence of an ∼0.52e charge residing on the copper atom along with a substantial charge on bridging and peripheral chlorine atoms. The potential of complex1 to act as an anticancer agent is thoroughly examined on a series of liver cancer cell lines and screening shows the HepG2 cell line exhibits maximum cytotoxicity by phosphatidyl serine exposure in the outer cell membrane associated with ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization with increasing time in the in vitro model system.

  12. New Atomic Data for Doubly Ionized Iron Group Atoms by High Resolution UV Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Thorne, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    Currently available laboratory spectroscopic data of doubly ionized iron-group element were obtained about 50 years ago using spectrographs of modest dispersion, photographic plates, and eye estimates of intensities. The accuracy of the older wavelength data is about 10 mAngstroms at best, whereas wavelengths are now needed to an accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) (0.2 to 2 mAngstroms at 2000 Angstroms). The Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy group at Imperial College, London, and collaborators at the Harvard College Observatory have used a unique VUV FT spectrometer in a program focussed on improving knowledge of spectra of many neutral and singly and doubly ionized, astrophysically important, iron group elements. Spectra of Fe II and Fe III have been recorded at UV and VUV wavelengths with signal-to-noise ratios of several hundred for the stronger lines. Wavelengths and energy levels for Fe III are an order of magnitude more accurate than previous work; analysis is close to completion. f-values for Fe II have been published.

  13. Maximum-LikelihoodSemiblind Equalization of Doubly Selective Channels Using the EM Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Gideon; Raphaeli, Dan

    2010-12-01

    Maximum-likelihood semi-blind joint channel estimation and equalization for doubly selective channels and single-carrier systems is proposed. We model the doubly selective channel as an FIR filter where each filter tap is modeled as a linear combination of basis functions. This channel description is then integrated in an iterative scheme based on the expectation-maximization (EM) principle that converges to the channel description vector estimation. We discuss the selection of the basis functions and compare various functions sets. To alleviate the problem of convergence to a local maximum, we propose an initialization scheme to the EM iterations based on a small number of pilot symbols. We further derive a pilot positioning scheme targeted to reduce the probability of convergence to a local maximum. Our pilot positioning analysis reveals that for high Doppler rates it is better to spread the pilots evenly throughout the data block (and not to group them) even for frequency-selective channels. The resulting equalization algorithm is shown to be superior over previously proposed equalization schemes and to perform in many cases close to the maximum-likelihood equalizer with perfect channel knowledge. Our proposed method is also suitable for coded systems and as a building block for Turbo equalization algorithms.

  14. Overlapping photo-ionized doubly excited resonance series for Li+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T. K.; Gao, X.; Chang, T. N.

    2017-06-01

    Based on two different approaches, the B-spline-based K-matrix method and the eigenchannel R-matrix method, we present a detailed theoretical study on the photoionization from the ground and bound excited 1s2s{}1S and 1s2p{}1P states of an Li+ ion to continua between the N = 2 and N = 3 thresholds, dominated by overlapping doubly excited resonance series embedded in multiple singly ionized channels. The nearly identical theoretical spectra from these two different calculations, together with the excellent agreement between the length and velocity results, suggests that our study has successfully led to a reliable estimate of the Li+ photoionization spectra. In addition to identifying all overlapping doubly excited autoionization series, our calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the only observed data for two broad resonances. Our study has also shown that the strong interaction between neighboring resonances from different resonance series, which is responsible for the level crossing for in the He atom, is substantially smaller due to a stronger nuclear attraction to atomic electrons for the two-electron ions.

  15. Abundance and Impact of Doubly Charged Polyatomic Argon Interferences in ICPMS Spectra.

    PubMed

    Hattendorf, Bodo; Gusmini, Bianca; Dorta, Ladina; Houk, Robert S; Günther, Detlef

    2016-07-19

    Doubly charged molecular ions of alkaline earth metals and argon could be identified as spectral interferences in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. These molecular ions were found to occur at abundances reaching about 10(-4) relative to the alkaline earth atomic ion abundances. They can thus substantially affect ultratrace analyses and, when present at similar concentration as the analyte elements, also isotope ratio measurements. For the case of Cu and Zn isotope ratio analyses, the same mass concentration of Sr was found to alter the measured (63)Cu/(65)Cu and (64)Zn/(66)Zn isotope ratios by -0.036‰ to -0.95‰ due to SrAr(2+), appearing at m/Q 63 and 64. BaAr(2+) can affect Sr isotope analyses, MgAr(2+) may impair S isotope ratio measurements, while CaAr(2+) may cause interference to Ca(+) isotopes. The abundances of the doubly charged molecular ions were higher than those of the corresponding singly charged species, which is in accordance with their generally higher bond dissociation energies. The relative abundances were found to depend significantly on the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) operating conditions and generally increase with increasing carrier gas flow rates or lower gas temperature of the ICP. They also increase by about an order of magnitude when a desolvated aerosol is introduced to the ICP.

  16. State-dependent doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm for automatic characterization of stochastic biochemical rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Min K.; Daigle, Bernie J.; Gillespie, Dan T.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years there has been substantial growth in the development of algorithms for characterizing rare events in stochastic biochemical systems. Two such algorithms, the state-dependent weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (swSSA) and the doubly weighted SSA (dwSSA) are extensions of the weighted SSA (wSSA) by H. Kuwahara and I. Mura [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 165101 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2987701. The swSSA substantially reduces estimator variance by implementing system state-dependent importance sampling (IS) parameters, but lacks an automatic parameter identification strategy. In contrast, the dwSSA provides for the automatic determination of state-independent IS parameters, thus it is inefficient for systems whose states vary widely in time. We present a novel modification of the dwSSA—the state-dependent doubly weighted SSA (sdwSSA)—that combines the strengths of the swSSA and the dwSSA without inheriting their weaknesses. The sdwSSA automatically computes state-dependent IS parameters via the multilevel cross-entropy method. We apply the method to three examples: a reversible isomerization process, a yeast polarization model, and a lac operon model. Our results demonstrate that the sdwSSA offers substantial improvements over previous methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

  17. Lensless coded-aperture imaging with separable Doubly-Toeplitz masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeert, Michael J.; Farm, Brian P.

    2015-02-01

    In certain imaging applications, conventional lens technology is constrained by the lack of materials which can effectively focus the radiation within a reasonable weight and volume. One solution is to use coded apertures-opaque plates perforated with multiple pinhole-like openings. If the openings are arranged in an appropriate pattern, then the images can be decoded and a clear image computed. Recently, computational imaging and the search for a means of producing programmable software-defined optics have revived interest in coded apertures. The former state-of-the-art masks, modified uniformly redundant arrays (MURAs), are effective for compact objects against uniform backgrounds, but have substantial drawbacks for extended scenes: (1) MURAs present an inherently ill-posed inversion problem that is unmanageable for large images, and (2) they are susceptible to diffraction: a diffracted MURA is no longer a MURA. We present a new class of coded apertures, separable Doubly-Toeplitz masks, which are efficiently decodable even for very large images-orders of magnitude faster than MURAs, and which remain decodable when diffracted. We implemented the masks using programmable spatial-light-modulators. Imaging experiments confirmed the effectiveness of separable Doubly-Toeplitz masks-images collected in natural light of extended outdoor scenes are rendered clearly.

  18. State-dependent doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm for automatic characterization of stochastic biochemical rare events.

    PubMed

    Roh, Min K; Daigle, Bernie J; Gillespie, Dan T; Petzold, Linda R

    2011-12-21

    In recent years there has been substantial growth in the development of algorithms for characterizing rare events in stochastic biochemical systems. Two such algorithms, the state-dependent weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (swSSA) and the doubly weighted SSA (dwSSA) are extensions of the weighted SSA (wSSA) by H. Kuwahara and I. Mura [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 165101 (2008)]. The swSSA substantially reduces estimator variance by implementing system state-dependent importance sampling (IS) parameters, but lacks an automatic parameter identification strategy. In contrast, the dwSSA provides for the automatic determination of state-independent IS parameters, thus it is inefficient for systems whose states vary widely in time. We present a novel modification of the dwSSA--the state-dependent doubly weighted SSA (sdwSSA)--that combines the strengths of the swSSA and the dwSSA without inheriting their weaknesses. The sdwSSA automatically computes state-dependent IS parameters via the multilevel cross-entropy method. We apply the method to three examples: a reversible isomerization process, a yeast polarization model, and a lac operon model. Our results demonstrate that the sdwSSA offers substantial improvements over previous methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

  19. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark L.; Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung

    2015-03-04

    A new methodology has been developed to treat resonance self-shielding in doubly heterogeneous very high temperature gas-cooled reactor systems in which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. This new method first homogenizes the fuel grain and matrix materials using an analytically derived disadvantage factor from a two-region problem with equivalence theory and intermediate resonance method. This disadvantage factor accounts for spatial self-shielding effects inside each grain within the framework of an infinite array of grains. Then the homogenized fuel compact is self-shielded using a Bondarenko method to account for interactions between the fuel compact regions in the fuel lattice. In the final form of the equations for actual implementations, the double-heterogeneity effects are accounted for by simply using a modified definition of a background cross section, which includes geometry parameters and cross sections for both the grain and fuel compact regions. With the new method, the doubly heterogeneous resonance self-shielding effect can be treated easily even with legacy codes programmed only for a singly heterogeneous system by simple modifications in the background cross section for resonance integral interpolations. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the new method and a sensitivity study of double-heterogeneity parameters introduced during the derivation. The implementation of the method and verification results for various test cases are presented in the companion paper.

  20. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... statements as prescribed in subpart D of this part for human and domestic animal hazards and subpart E of... least toxic chemicals known” (C) “Pollution approved” (6) Final printed labeling. (i) Except as provided... of the percentages of total and water-soluble arsenic calculated as elemental arsenic. The active...