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Sample records for douglas a-26 airplane

  1. 75 FR 68245 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas...Donnell Douglas Model MD-90-30 airplanes. This proposed AD would require installing new fire...

  2. 75 FR 80742 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas...: Data & Services Management, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, MC D800-0019, Long Beach, California 90846- 0001... stabilizer in accordance with AD 2007-10-04, Amendment 39-15045 (72 FR 25960, May 8, 2007). That airplane...

  3. 75 FR 21528 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Douglas Corporation Model MD- 90-30 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... main landing gear (MLG) during gear extension, damaging the hydraulic system on McDonnell...

  4. 75 FR 12464 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...'' (66 FR 23086, May 7, 2001). In addition to new airworthiness standards for transport airplanes and new... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD- 11 and MD-11F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...

  5. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Portion of the Horizontal Tail from a Douglas C-74 Airplane with Fabric-Covered Elevators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perone, Angelo; Berthold, Cecil L.

    1947-01-01

    A Douglas C-74 airplane, during a test dive at about 0.525 Mach number, experienced uncontrollable longitudinal oscillations sufficient to cause shedding of the outer wing panels and the subsequent crash of the airplane. Tests of a section of the horizontal tail plane from a C-74 airplane were conducted in the Ames 16-foot high-speed wind tunnel to investigate the possibility of the tail as a contributing factor to the accident. The results of the investigations of fabric-covered elevators in various conditions of surface deformation are presented in this report.

  6. 75 FR 38017 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-10 Series Airplanes, DC-9-30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...-062-AD; Amendment 39-16345; AD 2009-15-16] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas... operators of the McDonnell Douglas Corporation airplanes identified above by individual notices. This...

  7. 75 FR 60665 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Order 12866, 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas... FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: McDonnell Douglas Corporation: Docket No....

  8. 75 FR 66653 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...-200-AD; Amendment 39-16483; AD 2010-22-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas...: Data & Services Management, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, MC D800 0019, Long Beach, California 90846- 0001...) 2008-18-10, amendment 39-15667 (73 FR 52203, September 9, 2008). That AD applies to the...

  9. 75 FR 36577 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...-07-04, Amendment 39-15863 (74 FR 14460, March 31, 2009), for certain Model MD-90-30 airplanes. That... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Amendment 39-15863 (74 FR 14460, March 31, 2009) and adding the following new AD: McDonnell...

  10. 75 FR 8465 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Aircraft Certification Office, 3960 Paramount Boulevard, Lakewood, California 90712-4137; telephone (562... Model MD-90-30 airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on September 4, 2009 (74 FR... flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods,...

  11. Supplementary Investigation in the Langley Free-Spinning Tunnel of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Douglas XF4D-1 Airplane Including Spin-Recovery Parachute Tests of the Model Loaded to Simulate the Douglas F5D-1 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, Walter J.; Lee, Henry A.

    1955-01-01

    A supplementary investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of a l/20-scale model of the Douglas XF4D-1 airplane to determine the effect of only neutralizing the rudder for recovery from an inverted spin, and the effect of partial aileron deflection with the spin for recovery from an erect spin. An estimation of the size parachute required for satisfactory recovery from a spin with the model ballasted to represent the Douglas F5D-1 (formerly the Douglas XF4D-2) airplane was also made. Results of the original investigation on the XF4D-1 design are presented in NACA RM SL50K30a. The results indicated that satisfactory recoveries from inverted spins of the airplane should be obtained by rudder neutralization when the longitudinal stick position is neutral or forward. Recoveries from erect spins from the normal-spin control configuration should be satisfactory by full rudder reversal with simultaneous movement of the ailerons to two-thirds with the spin. For the parachute tests with the model loaded to represent the F5D-1 airplane, the tests indicated that a 16.7-foot-diameter hemispherical-tail parachute (drag coefficient of 1.082 based on the projected area) with a towline 20.0 feet long (full- scale values) should be satisfactory for an emergency spin-recovery device during demonstration spins of the airplane.

  12. 75 FR 47203 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes Equipped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Corporation Model MD- 11 and MD-11F Airplanes Equipped With General Electric CF6-80C2 Series Engines AGENCY..., equipped with General Electric Model CF6-80C2 or CF6-80A series engines. These airplanes have been... partially agree with the commenter's request. We agree that the General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 series...

  13. Ditching Tests with a 1/12-Scale Model of the Army A-26 Airplane in Langley Tank No. 2 and on an Outdoor Catapult

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, George A.; Hoffman, Edward L.

    1947-01-01

    Tests were conducted in calm water in Langley tank no. 2 and in calm and rough water at an outdoor catapult in order to determine the best way to make a forced landing of an Army A-26 airplane and to determine its probable ditching behavior. These tests were requested by the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces, in their letter of March 26, 1943, WEL:AW:50.

  14. Douglas RD-2 Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Douglas RD-2 Dolphin: Originally purchased with the presumed use as a Presidential aircraft, this Douglas RD-2 was turned over to the NACA in December 1939 without ever fulfilling its intended role. The Dolphin was a type familiar to the NACA, who were testing a Army version of the Douglas amphibian, an OA-4V with a nosewheel.

  15. Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer: The single-seat Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer torpedo-bomber was developed from the two-seat XSB2D-1 scout-bomber. Although not put into full production, the BTD-1 lessons learned with the Destroyer were incorporated into the Douglas Skyraider's predecessor, the BT2D-1.

  16. Effects of Inlet Modification and Rocket-Rack Extension on the Longitudinal Trim and Low-Lift Drag of the Douglas F5D-1 Airplane as Obtained with a 0.125-Scale Rocket-Boosted Model between Mach Numbers of 0.81 and 1.64, TED No. NACA AD 399

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Earl C., Jr.; Dickens, Waldo L.

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted to determine the effects of an inlet modification and rocket-rack extension on the longitudinal trim and low-lift drag of the Douglas F5D-1 airplane. The investigation was conducted with a 0.125-scale rocket-boosted model which was flight tested at the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. Results indicate that the combined effects of the modified inlet and fully extended rocket racks on the trim lift coefficient and trim angle of attack were small between Mach numbers of 0.94 and 1.57. Between Mach numbers of 1.10 and 1.57 there was an average increase in drag coefficient of about o,005 for the model with modified inlet and extended rocket racks. The change in drag coefficient due to the inlet modification alone is small between Mach numbers of 1.59 and 1.64

  17. Management Development at Douglas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    A study by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation reveals that time will erode the ranks of promotable managers unless action is taken long in advance of need of them. To meet this problem, the Douglas Management Institute was formed, a two-year middle-management developmental program. (Author/DS)

  18. Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless: The Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless torpedo bomber came to Langley in the fall of 1944 and left a little over a year later. It had been preceded by its prototype, the XBT-2, in the Langley 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel.

  19. Fort Douglas, Stilwell Field, The portion of Fort Douglas bounded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fort Douglas, Stilwell Field, The portion of Fort Douglas bounded by De Trobriand Street on the north, Fort Douglas Boulevard on the east, Potter Street on the south, and Chase Street on the west. , Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. 75 FR 2831 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas... directive (AD) for certain McDonnell Douglas Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F airplanes. This..., Attention: Data & Services Management, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, MC D800-0019, Long Beach, California...

  1. Douglas OA-4A Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Douglas OA-4A Dolphin: This twin-engine Douglas OA-4A Dolphin was unusual in comparison with other OA-4s in that it employed a nose wheel instead of a tail wheel during its NACA testing at Langley. Here is is seen in the NACA hangar in September 1938.

  2. Douglas A-20A Havoc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1941-01-01

    Douglas A-20A Havoc: The Douglas A-20A Havoc was tested, as were many American military aircraft of the wartime era, in Langley's 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel. The aircraft is shown in service condition except for sealed cowling holes and the fact that the outer-wing panels are removed. The purpose of 'clipping' the wings was to facilitate testing in the tunnel.

  3. Results of Measurements of Maximum Lift and Buffeting Intensities Obtained During Flight Investigation of the Northrop X-4 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Thomas F

    1953-01-01

    The variation of the intensity of buffeting experienced throughout the operational region of the semitailless Northrop X-4 airplane and the values of maximum and peak normal-force coefficients in the Mach number range from 0.42 to 0.92 have been determined. The results are compared with data obtained with the swept-wing Douglas D-558-II airplane.

  4. Douglas Aircraft cabin fire tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinck, D.

    1978-01-01

    Program objectives are outlined as follows: (1) examine the thermal and environmental characteristics of three types of fuels burned in two quantities contained within a metal lavatory; (2) determine the hazard experienced in opening the door of a lavatory containing a developed fire; (3) select the most severe source fuel for use in a baseline test; and (4) evaluate the effect of the most severe source upon a lavatory constructed of contemporary materials. All test were conducted in the Douglas Cabin Fire Simulator.

  5. 75 FR 80744 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas..., Attention: Data & Services Management, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, MC D800-0019, Long Beach, California 90846... (72 FR 25960, May 8, 2007). That airplane had accumulated 47,146 total flight hours and 26,490...

  6. 75 FR 51257 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD); Notice of Application Ready for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD); Notice... District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD). e. Name of Project: Wells Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The existing project is located on the Columbia River in Douglas, Okanogan, and Chelan...

  7. 75 FR 33289 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD); Notice of Application Tendered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD); Notice... Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD). e. Name of Project: Wells Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The existing project is located on the Columbia River in Douglas, Okanogan, and Chelan...

  8. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  9. Douglas Taylor School: Rooted in Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Boone, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Inspiring students to become teachers and community leaders is a goal of Douglas Taylor School's leadership team. A feeling of continuity and connection are important to the school, which opened in the 19th century. Housed in a beautiful old school building in Chicago's South Side, Douglas Taylor School contains grades preK-8. To maintain the…

  10. Measured Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senzig, David A.; Fleming, Gregg G.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2001-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Integrated Noise Model (INM) is one of the primary tools for land use planning around airports. The INM currently calculates airplane noise lateral attenuation using the methods contained in the Society of Automotive Engineer's Aerospace Information Report No. 1751 (SAE AIR 1751). Researchers have noted that improved lateral attenuation algorithms may improve airplane noise prediction. The authors of SAE AIR 1751 based existing methods on empirical data collected from flight tests using 1960s-technology airplanes with tail-mounted engines. To determine whether the SAE AIR 1751 methods are applicable for predicting the engine installation component of lateral attenuation for airplanes with wing-mounted engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a series of flight tests during September 2000 at their Wallops Flight Facility. Four airplanes, a Boeing 767-400, a Douglas DC-9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beech KingAir, were flown through a 20 microphone array. The airplanes were flown through the array at various power settings, flap settings, and altitudes to simulate take-off and arrival configurations. This paper presents the preliminary findings of this study.

  11. Kirk Douglas: "My Stroke of Luck"

    MedlinePlus

    ... writer Kirk Douglas in 1996, he thought his world was coming to an end. Now, he considers ... is an American institution and one of the world's most revered actors, writers, and philanthropists. His 60- ...

  12. The Light Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggs, Ivan H.

    1925-01-01

    This report begins with a review and analysis of the work being done to develop light airplanes in the U.S. and abroad. A technical discussion of the construction and innovations in light airplanes is then presented.

  13. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red...

  14. Existing Conditions Plan Fort Douglas, Stilwell Field, The portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Existing Conditions Plan - Fort Douglas, Stilwell Field, The portion of Fort Douglas bounded by De Trobriand Street on the north, Fort Douglas Boulevard on the east, Potter Street on the south, and Chase Street on the west. , Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  15. Advanced Configurations for Very Large Subsonic Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMasters, John H.; Paisley, David J.; Hubert, Richard J.; Kroo, Ilan; Bofah, Kwasi K.; Sullivan, John P.; Drela, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Recent aerospace industry interest in developing a subsonic commercial transport airplane with 50 percent greater passenger capacity than the largest existing aircraft in this category (the Boeing 747-400 with approximately 400-450 seats) has generated a range of proposals based largely on the configuration paradigm established nearly 50 years ago with the Boeing B-47 bomber. While this basic configuration paradigm has come to dominate subsonic commercial airplane development since the advent of the Boeing 707/Douglas DC-8 in the mid-1950's, its extrapolation to the size required to carry more than 600-700 passengers raises several questions. To explore these and a number of related issues, a team of Boeing, university, and NASA engineers was formed under the auspices of the NASA Advanced Concepts Program. The results of a Research Analysis focused on a large, unconventional transport airplane configuration for which Boeing has applied for a patent are the subject of this report. It should be noted here that this study has been conducted independently of the Boeing New Large Airplane (NLA) program, and with the exception of some generic analysis tools which may be common to this effort and the NLA (as will be described later), no explicit Boeing NLA data other than that published in the open literature has been used in the conduct of the study reported here.

  16. The Airplane Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

  17. Metal Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    It has long been thought that metal construction of airplanes would involve an increase in weight as compared with wood construction. Recent experience has shown that such is not the case. This report describes the materials used, treatment of, and characteristics of metal airplane construction.

  18. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  19. 76 FR 78180 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... AZ E2 Douglas, AZ Bisbee Douglas International Airport, AZ (Lat. 31 28'08'' N., long. 109 36'14'' W... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Bisbee Douglas International Airport, Douglas,...

  20. Lesions of the Pouch of Douglas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    The pouch of Douglas may become occupied by a variety of mass-like lesions, which may be challenging to providers who treat women. These lesions may initially be thought to arise from the uterus or adnexa. We conducted a literature review using a Medline search of the terms "Douglas' pouch," "pouch of Douglas," "cul-de-sac," and "rectouterine pouch." A review of the scope of pouch of Douglas lesions is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if a patient with such a lesion is encountered.

  1. VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE DOORS, FACING SOUTHEAST. Douglas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE DOORS, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  6. General airplane performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockfeller, W C

    1939-01-01

    Equations have been developed for the analysis of the performance of the ideal airplane, leading to an approximate physical interpretation of the performance problem. The basic sea-level airplane parameters have been generalized to altitude parameters and a new parameter has been introduced and physically interpreted. The performance analysis for actual airplanes has been obtained in terms of the equivalent ideal airplane in order that the charts developed for use in practical calculations will for the most part apply to any type of engine-propeller combination and system of control, the only additional material required consisting of the actual engine and propeller curves for propulsion unit. Finally, a more exact method for the calculation of the climb characteristics for the constant-speed controllable propeller is presented in the appendix.

  7. The Bristol "Badminton" Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.

  8. Stall-proof Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachmann, G

    1927-01-01

    My lecture has to do with the following questions. Is the danger of stalling necessarily inherent in the airplane in its present form and structure, or can it be diminished or eliminated by suitable means? Do we possess such means or devices and how must they operate? In this connection I will devote special attention to the exhibition of stall-proof airplanes by Fokker under the auspices of the English Air Ministry, which took place in Croyden last April.

  9. Reinventing Douglas: How One Library Revamped Its Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabula, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    community just outside the city of Plattsburgh in upstate New York. It is part of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. The Leroy M. Douglas Sr. Library (Douglas Library) is located in the George Moore Academic and Administrative Building (Moore Building). Prior to…

  10. Music: Part of the Basics at David Douglas and Salem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    This bulletin highlights elements of the music programs in two Oregon school districts--David Douglas School District 40 and Salem School District 24J--that have kept these programs viable in spite of financial constraints. Ingredients for success of the overall music program at David Douglas are first described. Important elements include hiring…

  11. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

  12. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

  13. 76 FR 73491 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 30, 2010 (75 FR 82333). That NPRM proposed to require... received no comments on the NPRM (75 FR 82333, December 30, 2010) or on the determination of the cost to the public. New Service Information Since publication of the NPRM (75 FR 82333, December 30,...

  14. 75 FR 63039 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... (75 FR 36577). That NPRM proposed to continue to require modifying the auxiliary hydraulic power... to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2009-07-04, amendment 39-15863 (74 FR 14460, March 31, 2009...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not...

  15. 75 FR 50878 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 21528). That NPRM proposed to require inspecting for corrosion of the retract cylinder...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3) Will not have a... subsequently damaging the hydraulic system. We are issuing this AD to prevent corrosion and damage that...

  16. 75 FR 38056 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... clearance fit fasteners in the lower row if necessary. This proposed AD results from reports of loose... proposed AD. Discussion On August 25, 2008, we issued AD 2008-18-10, Amendment 39-15667 (73 FR 52203... support fittings of the left and right engine aft mounts, and replacing all clearance fit fasteners in...

  17. The evolution of airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Charles, J. D.; Lorente, S.

    2014-07-01

    The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.

  18. Automatic Stability of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1932-01-01

    It is endeavored in this report to give a full outline of the problem of airplane stability and to classify the proposed solutions systematically. Longitudinal stability, which can be studied separately, is considered first. The combination of lateral and directional stabilities, which cannot be separated, will be dealt with later.

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE STONEMASONRY STRUCTURE FOUND UNDERNEATH THE DOUGLAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE STONEMASONRY STRUCTURE FOUND UNDERNEATH THE DOUGLAS FIR INTERPRETIVE SITE AFTER DEMOLITION, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  20. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  1. A study to determine the applicability of noise abatement approach procedures to McDonnell Douglas Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, J. A.; Shannon, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of McDonnell Douglas DC-8, DC-9, and DC-10 jet transports were conducted to investigate the applicability of two segment approach noise abatement procedures to these airplanes. All models had the required glide slope capability at the certified landing flap settings. The DC-8 models would probably be limited to an upper segment glide slope of 5.5 degrees and would probably not be suitable for the two segment procedure in icing conditions. The DC-8 would not be compatible with this procedure at a reduced landing flap setting. The feasibility of installing a two segment approach system in the Douglas-built fleet of commercial jet transports from a hardware viewpoint is discussed. The candidate system consists of a two segment computer plus the necessary peripheral equipment interfaced with the existing autopilot and associated avionics. The required modifications and additions to existing equipment are described and the attendant costs estimated. Potential problems which may be encountered are also discussed.

  2. Exploring Venus by Solar Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    A solar-powered airplane is proposed to explore the atmospheric environment of Venus. Venus has several advantages for a solar airplane. At the top of the cloud level, the solar intensity is comparable to or greater than terrestrial solar intensities. The Earthlike atmospheric pressure means that the power required for flight is lower for Venus than that of Mars, and the slow rotation of Venus allows an airplane to be designed for continuous sunlight, with no energy storage needed for night-time flight. These factors mean that Venus is perhaps the easiest planet in the solar system for flight of a long-duration solar airplane.

  3. Automated airplane surface generation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Cordero, Y.; Jones, W.

    1996-12-31

    An efficient methodology and software axe presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. A small set of engineering design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tall, horizontal tail, and canard components. Wing, canard, and tail surface grids axe manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage is described by an algebraic function with four design parameters. The computed surface grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations. Both batch and interactive software are discussed for applying the methodology.

  4. Mechanical control of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykow, H

    1929-01-01

    Before undertaking a detailed description of an automatic-control mechanism, I will state briefly the fundamental conditions for such devices. These are: 1) it must be sensitive at one or more reference values; 2) it must stop the angular motions of the airplane not produced by the pilot; and 3) it must be possible to switch it off and on by a simple hand lever.

  5. Strength calculations on airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, A

    1925-01-01

    Every strength calculation, including those on airplanes, must be preceded by a determination of the forces to be taken into account. In the following discussion, it will be assumed that the magnitudes of these forces are known and that it is only a question of how, on the basis of these known forces, to meet the prescribed conditions on the one hand and the practical requirements on the other.

  6. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  7. Flight testing a propulsion-controlled aircraft emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.

  8. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  9. 77 FR 6023 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... adequacy of existing regulations, the service history of airplanes subject to those regulations, and... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes and Model A310-203, -204, - 221, and -222 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report...

  10. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93 Airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section...

  11. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  12. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories... airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a maximum...

  13. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  14. 75 FR 38798 - Douglas County, OR; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Douglas County, OR; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., 2010, Douglas County, Oregon, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Douglas County Wave and...

  15. Absolutism and Natural Law Argument: William O. Douglas on Freedom of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Raymond S.

    Noting that United States Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas has often been characterized as an "absolutist" in terms of First Amendment policy, this paper argues that, in fact, Douglas's policy positions provided for less than absolute freedom to communicate. The paper then reveals, through an anlaysis of 18 of Douglas's opinions, an…

  16. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  17. 75 FR 77691 - Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen, Jefferson... (NEPA). TVA has prepared the Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan for the 3...). Under the plan adopted by the TVA Board, TVA-managed public land on Douglas and Nolichucky...

  18. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  19. 77 FR 10649 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Douglas, AZ (76 FR 78180). Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  20. Transforming Teacher Leadership: A Conversation with Douglas Reeves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Douglas Reeves, founder of The Leadership and Learning Center and author of a recent book, "Reframing Teacher Leadership to Improve Your School." In an interview, Reeves talks about his book and presents a compelling case that teacher leadership is key to implementing and sustaining effective school…

  1. Up through the Ranks at McDonnell Douglas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Raher than bemoan the lack of leadership potential among younger employees, McDonnell Douglas Corporation has embarked on a comprehensive strategy of on-the-job development for staff members at all levels of the organization. Three types of rotational training are being used to address corporate, functional, and intracompany needs. (Author)

  2. The Flood of History: Connection Interviews Historian Douglas Brinkley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an interview with Douglas Brinkley, an award-winning author and historian and director of Tulane University's Theodore Roosevelt Center for American Civilization. His wide-ranging portfolio includes books on John Kerry and the Vietnam War, Ronald Reagan and D-Day, Rosa Parks, Henry Ford, Dean Acheson and Jimmy Carter. He is…

  3. A Second Look at Douglas Barnes's "From Communication to Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits Douglas Barnes's book-length exploration of the implications for teachers of a constructivist epistemology, notably in relation to the importance of small-group talk in classrooms. Empirically based consideration of small-group exploratory pupil-pupil talk enabled Barnes to reveal the learning strategies such a context…

  4. The structure of airplane fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walen, E Dean

    1920-01-01

    This report prepared by the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics supplies the necessary information regarding the apparatus and methods of testing and inspecting airplane fabrics.

  5. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J. )

    1990-03-20

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes.

  6. Differential equations in airplane mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleman, M T

    1922-01-01

    In the following report, we will first draw some conclusions of purely theoretical interest, from the general equations of motion. At the end, we will consider the motion of an airplane, with the engine dead and with the assumption that the angle of attack remains constant. Thus we arrive at a simple result, which can be rendered practically utilizable for determining the trajectory of an airplane descending at a constant steering angle.

  7. Obituary: Douglas H. Sampson, 1925-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Peter; Clark, Robert E. H.; Zhang, Honglin; Fontes, Christopher J.

    2003-12-01

    Douglas H. Sampson, a renowned theoretical atomic physicist and a professor emeritus of astronomy and astrophysics at The Pennsylvania State University, passed away on 8 December 2002, in State College, Pennsylvania, of a hemorrhagic stroke. He had retired in 1997 after 32 years of service to the University and had maintained an active research program up to the day of his death. Doug, as he was universally known to his friends and colleagues, was born in Devils Lake, North Dakota on 19 May 1925. His parents, Abner and Mabel Sampson, were farmers. He was raised without running water or electricity on a farm, homesteaded by his ancestors in Edmore, North Dakota. He was one of two children in his class at a two-room rural elementary school and graduated as valedictorian from Edmore High School in 1944. No physics classes or advanced mathematics classes were offered in his small high school. In 1956, he was married to Carlyn Grutzner. During Doug Sampson's military service in the United States Army from February 1945 until December 1946, he was selected as a MP (Military Policeman) in the Philippines. His military experience provided him with the opportunity to attend college under the GI Bill. Because he had to work on the family farm, he started college a month later every fall and took exams a month earlier each spring. Nevertheless, Sampson graduated as co-salutatorian from Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota in 1951 with a BA degree with majors in physics and mathematics. Afterwards he received his MS and PhD degrees in theoretical physics from Yale University in 1953 and 1956 under the guidance of Henry Margenau. Sampson then became a staff member of the Theoretical Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory until 1961. While there he performed calculations of fundamental atomic cross sections used in the determination of opacities for radiation transport simulations. The calculation of high quality atomic data would end up being a life long pursuit

  8. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  9. Airplane design for gusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    There are two basic approaches used for the structural design of aircraft due to dust encounter. One is a discrete gust approach, the other is based on power spectral techniques. Both of these approaches are explained in this report. Tacit to the above approaches is the assumption that loading on the airplane arises primarily from vertical gusts. A study of atmospheric turbulence was made not only on the vertical component, but on the longitudinal and transverse gust components as well. An analysis was made to establish the loads that develop when explicit consideration is given to both the vertical and head-wind components. The results are reported. Also included in this report are brief comments on gust effects during approach and landing.

  10. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section: (1) Airplanes with high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that has jet engines with a bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane, after... do not have high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that does not have jet engines with...

  11. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section: (1) Airplanes with high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that has jet engines with a bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane, after... do not have high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that does not have jet engines with...

  12. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section: (1) Airplanes with high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that has jet engines with a bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane, after... do not have high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that does not have jet engines with...

  13. Obituary: Douglas H. Sampson, 1925-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Peter; Clark, Robert E. H.; Zhang, Honglin; Fontes, Christopher J.

    2003-12-01

    Douglas H. Sampson, a renowned theoretical atomic physicist and a professor emeritus of astronomy and astrophysics at The Pennsylvania State University, passed away on 8 December 2002, in State College, Pennsylvania, of a hemorrhagic stroke. He had retired in 1997 after 32 years of service to the University and had maintained an active research program up to the day of his death. Doug, as he was universally known to his friends and colleagues, was born in Devils Lake, North Dakota on 19 May 1925. His parents, Abner and Mabel Sampson, were farmers. He was raised without running water or electricity on a farm, homesteaded by his ancestors in Edmore, North Dakota. He was one of two children in his class at a two-room rural elementary school and graduated as valedictorian from Edmore High School in 1944. No physics classes or advanced mathematics classes were offered in his small high school. In 1956, he was married to Carlyn Grutzner. During Doug Sampson's military service in the United States Army from February 1945 until December 1946, he was selected as a MP (Military Policeman) in the Philippines. His military experience provided him with the opportunity to attend college under the GI Bill. Because he had to work on the family farm, he started college a month later every fall and took exams a month earlier each spring. Nevertheless, Sampson graduated as co-salutatorian from Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota in 1951 with a BA degree with majors in physics and mathematics. Afterwards he received his MS and PhD degrees in theoretical physics from Yale University in 1953 and 1956 under the guidance of Henry Margenau. Sampson then became a staff member of the Theoretical Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory until 1961. While there he performed calculations of fundamental atomic cross sections used in the determination of opacities for radiation transport simulations. The calculation of high quality atomic data would end up being a life long pursuit

  14. Measurements of the Basic SR-71 Airplane Near-Field Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    Airplane design studies have developed configuration concepts that may produce lower sonic boom annoyance levels. Since lower noise designs differ significantly from other HSCT designs, it is necessary to accurately assess their potential before HSCT final configuration decisions are made. Flight tests to demonstrate lower noise design capability by modifying an existing airframe have been proposed for the Mach 3 SR-71 reconnaissance airplane. To support the modified SR-71 proposal, baseline in-flight measurements were made of the unmodified aircraft. These measurements of SR-71 near-field sonic boom signatures were obtained by an F-16XL probe airplane at flightpath separation distances ranging from approximately 740 to 40 ft. This paper discusses the methods used to gather and analyze the flight data, and makes comparisons of these flight data with CFD results from Douglas Aircraft Corporation and NASA Langley Research Center. The CFD solutions were obtained for the near-field flow about the SR-71, and then propagated to the flight test measurement location using the program MDBOOM.

  15. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  16. Schur indices, BPS particles, and Argyres-Douglas theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Clay; Shao, Shu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a precise relationship between the Schur limit of the superconformal index of four-dimensional N=2 field theories, which counts local operators, and the spectrum of BPS particles on the Coulomb branch. We verify this conjecture for the special case of free field theories, N=2 QED, and SU(2) gauge theory coupled to fundamental matter. Assuming the validity of our proposal, we compute the Schur index of all Argyres-Douglas theories. Our answers match expectations from the connection of Schur operators with two-dimensional chiral algebras. Based on our results we propose that the chiral algebra of the generalized Argyres-Douglas theory ( A k-1, A N-1) with k and N coprime, is the vacuum sector of the ( k, k + N) W k minimal model, and that the Schur index is the associated vacuum character.

  17. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355 Airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  19. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane...

  20. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  1. 76 FR 77934 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... series airplanes. Since we issued AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005), The... certain ACT equipped airplanes, produced after AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14...-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005). Applicability (c) This AD applies to Airbus airplanes listed...

  2. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  3. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  4. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  5. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  6. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  7. Ground-water quality in Douglas County, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    A 182% increase in population within the last 10 years in Douglas County, Nevada, has raised concerns by county officials as to the possible effects land development may have on groundwater quality. Most groundwater in Douglas County meets the State of Nevada drinking water standards. Of the 333 water samples used in this analysis, 6 equaled or were greater than the drinking water standards for sulfates, 44 for fluoride, 4 for dissolved solids, 5 for nitrate as nitrate, 12 for arsenic, 33 for iron, and 18 for manganese. Groundwater in the west-central, northern, and northeastern part of Carson Valley is influenced by geothermal water. Some areas in the county may have septic-tank effluent contaminating the groundwater. Temporal changes in most municipal wells showed no overall trend for dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations spanning the years 1969-83. However, a municipal well in the Topaz Lake area has shown a general increases in the nitrate concentration from 1961 to 1984, but the concentration does not exceed the drinking-water standard. A future groundwater quality monitoring program in Douglas County would include periodic sampling of primary or heavily pumped wells, long-term trend wells, and supplemental wells. (Thacker-USGS)

  8. 29 CFR 4041A.26 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial assistance. 4041A.26 Section 4041A.26 Labor... OF MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS Plan Sponsor Duties § 4041A.26 Financial assistance. A plan sponsor that... insolvency year shall apply for financial assistance from the PBGC in accordance with § 4281.47....

  9. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  10. User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

    1994-09-01

    Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

  11. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual or... approved Airplane Flight Manual or the approved equivalent aboard each airplane it operates. A...

  12. Simulation model of a twin-tail, high performance airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Carey S.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical model and associated computer program to simulate a twin-tailed high performance fighter airplane (McDonnell Douglas F/A-18) are described. The simulation program is written in the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language. The simulation math model includes the nonlinear six degree-of-freedom rigid-body equations, an engine model, sensors, and first order actuators with rate and position limiting. A simplified form of the F/A-18 digital control laws (version 8.3.3) are implemented. The simulated control law includes only inner loop augmentation in the up and away flight mode. The aerodynamic forces and moments are calculated from a wind-tunnel-derived database using table look-ups with linear interpolation. The aerodynamic database has an angle-of-attack range of -10 to +90 and a sideslip range of -20 to +20 degrees. The effects of elastic deformation are incorporated in a quasi-static-elastic manner. Elastic degrees of freedom are not actively simulated. In the engine model, the throttle-commanded steady-state thrust level and the dynamic response characteristics of the engine are based on airflow rate as determined from a table look-up. Afterburner dynamics are switched in at a threshold based on the engine airflow and commanded thrust.

  13. Public health assessment for petitioned Phelps Dodge Corp Douglas Reduction Works, Douglas, Cochise County, Arizona, Region 9. Cerclis No. AZD008397143. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Phelps-Dodge site, a former copper-smelting operation just outside Douglas and possibly Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. This site contributed to lead-contaminated surface soils in residential areas in Douglas. Exposure to the lead-contaminated soils may have contributed and/or caused elevated blood levels in children living in both Douglas, AZ and Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. Past emissions from the smelter included arsenic, lead, sulfur dioxide, inhalable particulate matter, and other heavy metals. The levels detected by air monitoring were elevated above health guidelines.

  14. The Testing of Airplane Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schraivogel, Karl

    1932-01-01

    This report considers the determining factors in the choice of airplane fabrics, describes the customary methods of testing and reports some of the experimental results. To sum up briefly the results obtained with the different fabrics, it may be said that increasing the strength of covering fabrics by using coarser yarns ordinarily offers no difficulty, because the weight increment from doping is relatively smaller.

  15. Testing a Windmill Airplane ("autogiro")

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiferth, R

    1927-01-01

    In order to clear up the matter ( In the Spanish report it was stated that the reference surface for the calculation of the coefficients c(sub a) and c(sub w) was the area of all four wings, instead of a single wing), the model of a windwill airplane was tested in the Gottingen wind tunnel.

  16. Glues Used in Airplane Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, S W; Truax, T R

    1920-01-01

    This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and presents the results of investigations conducted by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service on the manufacture, preparation, application, testing and physical properties of the different types of glues used in wood airplane parts.

  17. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  18. Paper Airplanes: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Richard A.

    1976-01-01

    A learning experience is described for upper elementary or junior high students involving the manufacture, transportation, and marketing of a product for consumers. Steps are given and roles are assigned for students to convert raw material (paper) to a finished product (paper airplanes) and to sell it. (AV)

  19. Safeguards Against Flutter of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVries, Gerhard

    1956-01-01

    This report is a complilation of practical rules, derived at the same time from theory and from experience, intended to guide the aeronautical engineer in the design of flutter-free airplanes. Rules applicable to the wing, the ailerons, flaps, tabs,tail surfaces, and fuselage are discussed.

  20. Douglas Aircraft HSCT status and future research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert

    1992-01-01

    Current activities on the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at Douglas are focussed on baseline vehicle development at Mach 1.6 and 2.4. Parallel design activities incorporating the latest technologies in structures/materials, propulsion/noise, and aerodynamics are also being conducted and incorporated into the baseline to establish performance, economic viability, and environmental compliance. Studies are also being conducted to establish the feasibility of incorporating laminar flow control and minimized sonic boom concepts into the baseline. A decision point on these last two technologies is targeted prior to the start of the NASA HSR Phase 2 Program in 1993.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics applications at McDonnel Douglas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Representative examples are presented of applications and development of advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for aerodynamic design at the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC). Transonic potential and Euler codes, interactively coupled with boundary layer computation, and solutions of slender-layer Navier-Stokes approximation are applied to aircraft wing/body calculations. An optimization procedure using evolution theory is described in the context of transonic wing design. Euler methods are presented for analysis of hypersonic configurations, and helicopter rotors in hover and forward flight. Several of these projects were accepted for access to the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility at the NASA-Ames Research Center.

  2. Toward Mach 2: The Douglas D-558 Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunley, J. D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This monograph contains the edited transcript of a symposium marking the 50th anniversary of this aircraft's first flight in 1948. A sister aircraft to the more well-known rocket-powered X-1, the jet-powered D-558 gave NACA researchers many useful insights about the transonic speed range. Several of the original aircraft pilots present accounts of their involvement in the program. Appendices include design specifications for the Douglas D-558-1 and -2 as well as declassified documentation and memoranda (1949-1957) regarding the progress of the program.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics applications at McDonnel Douglas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkinen, R. J.

    1987-03-01

    Representative examples are presented of applications and development of advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for aerodynamic design at the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC). Transonic potential and Euler codes, interactively coupled with boundary layer computation, and solutions of slender-layer Navier-Stokes approximation are applied to aircraft wing/body calculations. An optimization procedure using evolution theory is described in the context of transonic wing design. Euler methods are presented for analysis of hypersonic configurations, and helicopter rotors in hover and forward flight. Several of these projects were accepted for access to the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility at the NASA-Ames Research Center.

  4. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  5. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  6. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  7. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  8. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrol...

  9. 77 FR 45965 - Determination of Attainment for the Paul Spur/Douglas PM10

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    .... See 77 FR 31268; (May 25, 2012). \\1\\ The Paul Spur/Douglas NA covers approximately 220 square miles... FR 31269-31271. In conjunction with and based on our proposed determination that the Paul Spur.../Douglas NA, please see 77 FR 31271-31273. Lastly, we noted that suspension of the State's SIP...

  10. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  11. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  12. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  13. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  14. 75 FR 47631 - Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., Currently Known as Lexington Road Properties, Inc., Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7036). At the request of the State... Employment and Training Administration Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., Currently Known as Lexington Road... January 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., including on-site...

  15. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  16. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    PubMed

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  17. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  18. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Spera, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. ); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  19. Annoyance caused by propeller airplane flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide information on quantifying the annoyance response of people to propeller airplane noise. The items of interest were current noise metrics, tone corrections, duration corrections, critical band corrections, and the effects of engine type, operation type, maximum takeoff weight, blade passage frequency, and blade tip speed. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of propeller and jet airplane operations presented at d-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB in a testing room which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. The first experiment examined 11 propeller airplanes with maximum takeoff weights greater than or equal to 5700 kg. The second experiment examined 14 propeller airplanes weighting 5700 kg or less. Five jet airplanes were included in each experiment. For both the heavy and light propeller airplanes, perceived noise level and perceived level (Stevens Mark VII procedure) predicted annoyance better than other current noise metrics.

  20. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  1. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  2. Analysis of Stresses in German Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1923-01-01

    This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.

  3. 75 FR 40821 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Settlement...-2149-131. c. Date Filed: May 27, 2010. d. Applicant: Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County..., Douglas, and Okanogan Counties in central Washington. The project occupies 15.15 acres of Federal...

  4. 77 FR 34033 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On May 27, 2010, the Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County, licensee... on the Columbia River in Douglas, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties, Washington. The license for...

  5. 75 FR 70150 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... was published in the Federal Register on March 16, 2010 (75 FR 12464). That NPRM proposed to require a... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... general visual inspection for correct installation of the self- adhering, high-temperature...

  6. 75 FR 30274 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... thermal switch grounding for the number 2 engine, and wire braid grounding in the empennage and number 2... certain publication listed in the AD as of July 6, 2010. On January 18, 2000 (64 FR 69389, December 13... 99-25-14, amendment 39- 11457 (64 FR 69389, December 13, 1999). The existing AD applies to...

  7. Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes: Wallops Flight Facility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gregg G.; Senzig, David A.; McCurdy, David A.; Roof, Christopher J.; Rapoza, Amanda S.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC), the Environmental Measurement and Modeling Division of the United States Department of Transportation s John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), and several other organizations (see Appendix A for a complete list of participating organizations and individuals) conducted a noise measurement study at NASA s Wallops Flight Facility (Wallops) near Chincoteague, Virginia during September 2000. This test was intended to determine engine installation effects on four civil transport airplanes: a Boeing 767-400, a McDonnell-Douglas DC9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beechcraft King Air. Wallops was chosen for this study because of the relatively low ambient noise of the site and the degree of control over airplane operating procedures enabled by operating over a runway closed to other uses during the test period. Measurements were conducted using a twenty microphone U-shaped array oriented perpendicular to the flight path; microphones were mounted such that ground effects were minimized and low elevation angles were observed.

  8. Update on Douglas' high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of high speed civil transport (HSCT) studies underway at Douglas Aircraft. A brief review is given of experience with design and development of advanced supersonic transport concepts and associated technology. A review is then presented of past NASA funded contract research studies focused on selection of appropriate concepts for high speed civil transport aircraft to be introduced in the year 2000 time frame for commercial service. Follow-on activities to those studies are then presented which were conducted under independent research studies as well as under further NASA funded efforts. Design Mach number selections and associated baseline design missions are then discussed along with forecasted passenger traffic and associated supersonic fleet sizes, and then proceeds into a discussion of individual issues related either to environmental acceptability or overall technology requirements in order to achieve the required economic viability of the program. A summary is given of current and future plans and activities.

  9. Subsonic Airplane For High-Altitude Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Alan; Reed, R. Dale

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses engineering issues considered in design of conceptual subsonic airplane intended to cruise at altitudes of 100,000 ft or higher. Airplane would carry scientific instruments for research in chemistry and physics of atmosphere, particularly, for studies of ozone hole, greenhouse gases, and climatic effects.

  10. 77 FR 34283 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... series airplanes. Comments We have considered the following comment received on the earlier NPRM (76 FR... Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus...

  11. Research on the control of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, B Melvill

    1928-01-01

    Our task is to endeavor to obtain precise experimental records of the motion of stalled airplanes, both when left to themselves and when the pilot is trying to control them. The apparatus which we use consists of a box containing tree gyroscopes which are slightly deflected against a spring control when the airplane is turning.

  12. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  13. 78 FR 46536 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... B4-600R series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of cracks found in the bottom...

  14. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  15. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  16. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes....

  18. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. Link to an..., 2010. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane...

  19. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight...

  20. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  1. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  2. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  3. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  4. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  5. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  6. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  7. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  8. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  9. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  10. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  11. Prolonging Microgravity on Parabolic Airplane Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Three techniques have been proposed to prolong the intervals of time available for microgravity experiments aboard airplanes flown along parabolic trajectories. Typically, a pilot strives to keep an airplane on such a trajectory during a nominal time interval as long as 25 seconds, and an experimental apparatus is released to float freely in the airplane cabin to take advantage of the microgravitational environment of the trajectory for as long as possible. It is usually not possible to maintain effective microgravity during the entire nominal time interval because random aerodynamic forces and fluctuations in pilot control inputs cause the airplane to deviate slightly from a perfect parabolic trajectory, such that the freely floating apparatus bumps into the ceiling, floor, or a wall of the airplane before the completion of the parabola.

  12. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    PubMed

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective. PMID:23848727

  13. 76 FR 4219 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes; Model A340-200 Series Airplanes; and Model A340-300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation...

  14. The FAA aging airplane program plan for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Dayton; Lewis, Jess

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aging Airplane Program is focused on five program areas: maintenance, transport airplanes, commuter airplanes, airplane engines, and research. These programs are complementary and concurrent, and have been in effect since 1988. The programs address the aging airplane challenge through different methods, including policies, procedures, and hardware development. Each program is carefully monitored and its progress tracked to ensure that the needs of the FAA, the industry, and the flying public are being met.

  15. MCDONNEL DOUGLAS DC9 IN ZONE 4 FOR BASIC TRANSIT CHECK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MCDONNEL DOUGLAS DC-9 IN ZONE 4 FOR BASIC TRANSIT CHECK. STATIC PORTS AND AIR INTAKES ON ENGINES ARE COVERED PRIOR TO WASHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. Delivering Value by Preserving Values: An Interview with Douglas Van Houweling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE Review, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Douglas Van Houweling, president and CEO of the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), the formal organization supporting Internet2, and recipient of the EDUCAUSE Award for Excellence in Leadership. (EV)

  17. 78 FR 73993 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer... vulnerabilities to the airplanes' systems. The proposed network architecture includes the following connectivity... architecture is novel or unusual for executive jet airplanes by allowing connection to airplane...

  18. Automated visual inspection of an airplane exterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovančević, Igor; Orteu, Jean-José; Sentenac, Thierry; Gilblas, Rémi

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the inspection of an airplane using a Pan-Tilt-Zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot moving around the airplane. We present image processing methods for detection and inspection of four different types of items on the airplane exterior. Our detection approach is focused on the regular shapes such as rounded corner rectangles and ellipses, while inspection relies on clues such as uniformity of isolated image regions, convexity of segmented shapes and periodicity of the image intensity signal. The initial results are promising and demonstrate the feasibility of the envisioned robotic system.

  19. 77 FR 15291 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 B4-603, B4-605R, and B4-622R airplanes; Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model A300 F4-600R series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that chafing was detected between the autopilot electrical wiring conduit and the wing bottom skin. This proposed AD would require modifying the wiring......

  20. Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-airplane lasercom experiment: Airplane considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, Ford

    1990-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of various airplanes for a Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-Airplane laser communications experiment. As supporting documentation, pertinent technical details are included about the potential use of airplanes located at Ames Research Center and Wallops Flight Facility. The effects and application of orbital mechanics considerations are also presented, including slant range, azimuth, elevation, and time. The pros and cons of an airplane equipped with a side port with a bubble window versus a top port with a dome are discussed.

  1. Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.

    PubMed

    Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application. PMID:18689739

  2. Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

  3. On the superconformal index of Argyres-Douglas theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a closed-form expression for the Schur limit of the superconformal index of two infinite series of Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs): the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and the ({A}1,{D}2n) theories. While these SCFTs can be realized at special points on the Coulomb branch of certain {N}=2 gauge theories, their superconformal R symmetries are emergent, and hence their indices cannot be evaluated by localization. Instead, we construct the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) indices by using a relation to two-dimensional q-deformed Yang-Mills theory and data from the class {S} construction. Our results generalize the indices derived from the torus partition functions of the two-dimensional chiral algebras associated with the ({A}1,{A}3) and ({A}1,{D}4) SCFTs. As checks of our conjectures, we study the consistency of our results with an S-duality recently discussed by us in collaboration with Giacomelli and Papageorgakis, we reproduce known Higgs branch relations, we check consistency with a series of renormalization group flows, and we verify that the small S 1 limits of our indices reproduce expected Cardy-like behavior. We will discuss the S 1 reduction of our indices in a separate paper.

  4. Argyres-Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S 1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S 3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases—with the exception of the reduction of the ({A}1,{D}4) SCFT—certain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as R symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S 1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional { N }=2 superconformal U{(1)}R symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the four-dimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general { N }=2 SCFTs.

  5. Development of light and small airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachmann, G

    1926-01-01

    The author has endeavored to select only the most important lines of development and has limited the description of individual airplanes to a few typical examples. Comparisons are presented between German and foreign accomplishments.

  6. Precision controllability of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Matheny, N. W.

    1979-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on a preproduction F-15 airplane permitted an assessment to be made of its precision controllability in the high subsonic and low transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. Precision controllability, or gunsight tracking, studies were conducted in windup turn maneuvers with the gunsight in the caged pipper mode and depressed 70 mils. This evaluation showed the F-15 airplane to experience severe buffet and mild-to-moderate wing rock at the higher angles of attack. It showed the F-15 airplane radial tracking precision to vary from approximately 6 to 20 mils over the load factor range tested. Tracking in the presence of wing rock essentially doubled the radial tracking error generated at the lower angles of attack. The stability augmentation system affected the tracking precision of the F-15 airplane more than it did that of previous aircraft studied.

  7. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    Various methods for preventing fires in airplanes are presented with most efforts centering around prevention of backfires, new engine and carburetor designs, as well as investigations on different types of fuels.

  8. 77 FR 58336 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... inclusive, 1071 through 1075 inclusive, 1077, 1080, and 1082. (2) Model A340-313 airplane, MSN 0955....

  9. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  10. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  11. Airplane-Runway-Performance Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari

    1992-01-01

    Airplane-Runway-Performance Monitoring System (ARPMS) increases safety during takeoffs and landings by providing pilots with symbolic "head-up" and "head-down" information pertinent to decisions to continue or abort takeoffs or landings. Provides graphic information concerning where airplane could be stopped. Pilot monitors ground speed and predicted stopping point while looking at actual runway. High potential for incorporation into cockpit environment for entire aerospace community.

  12. Factors of airplane engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Victor R

    1921-01-01

    This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.

  13. Canopy light transmittance in Douglas-fir--western hemlock stands.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoffrey G; Davis, Melinda M; Chapotin, Saharah Moon

    2002-02-01

    We measured vertical and horizontal variation in canopy transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation in five Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco-Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (Douglas-fir-western hemlock) stands in the central Cascades of southern Washington to determine how stand structure and age affect the forest light environment. The shape of the mean transmittance profile was related to stand height, but height of mean maximum transmittance was progressively lower than maximum tree height in older stands. The vertical rate of attenuation declined with stand age in both the overstory and understory. A classification of vertical light zones based on the mean and variance of transmittance showed a progressive widening of the bright (low variance and high mean) and transition (high variance and rapid vertical change) zones in older stands, whereas the dim zone (low variance and mean) narrowed. The zone of maximum canopy surface area in height profiles, estimated by inversion of transmittance profiles, changed from relatively high in the canopy in most young stands ("top-heavy") to lower in the canopy in older stands ("bottom-heavy"). In the understory, all stands had similar mean transmittances, but the spatial scale of variation increased with stand age and increasing crown size. The angular distribution of openness was similar in all stands, though the older stands were less open at all angles than the younger stands. Understory openness was generally unrelated to transmittance in the canopy above. Whole-canopy leaf area indices, estimated using three methods of inverting light measurements, showed little correspondence across methods. The observed patterns in light environment are consistent with structural changes occurring during stand development, particularly the diversification of crowns, the creation of openings of various sizes and the elaboration of the outer canopy surface. The ensemble of measurements has potential use in distinguishing

  14. Summary of V-G and VGH Data Collected on Lockheed Electra Airplanes During Airplane Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Fetner, Mary W.

    1961-01-01

    Data obtained by NASA VGH and V-G recorders on several Lockheed Electra airplanes operated over three domestic routes have been analyzed to determine the in-flight accelerations, airspeed practices, and landing accelerations experienced by this particular airplane. The results indicate that the accelerations caused by gusts and maneuvers are comparable to corresponding results for piston-engine transport airplanes. Oscillatory accelerations (apparently caused by the autopilot or control system) appear to occur about one-tenth as frequently as accelerations due to gusts. Airspeed operating practices in rough air generally follow the trends shown by piston-engine transports in that there is no significant difference between the average airspeed in rough or smooth air. Placard speeds were exceeded more frequently by the Electra airplane than by piston-engine transport airplanes. Generally, the landing-impact accelerations were higher than those for piston-engine transports.

  15. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  16. 78 FR 28729 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., 2012) Nord Wind Airlines reported the status of compliance of its airplanes with the NPRM (77 FR 65506... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are... series airplanes. That AD currently requires modifying the nacelle strut and wing structure,...

  17. 78 FR 27310 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... airplanes: AD 2007-16-12, Amendment 39-15151 (72 FR 44740, August 9, 2007), requires changes to existing... 767-200, -300, and -400ER series airplanes: AD 2008-23-15, Amendment 39-15736 (73 FR 70267, November..., -600, - 700, -700C, -800, and -900 series airplanes: AD 2009-12-06, Amendment 39-15929 (74 FR...

  18. A study of the factors affecting the range of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David

    1937-01-01

    A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.

  19. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  20. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  1. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General....

  2. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains a... under standard conditions in still air) of 60 minutes for a two-engine airplane or 180 minutes for...

  3. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane can be safely controlled in flight after an engine becomes inoperative) or 115 percent of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance...

  4. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  5. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  6. 78 FR 21074 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... FR 19979, April 14, 2008). For airplanes having S/Ns 7003 through 7990 inclusive: Within 14 days... effective date of this AD. (k) New Replacement of Defective Pitch Feel Simulator Unit For airplanes having S.... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  7. 77 FR 54856 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind... structural integrity of older transport category airplanes, the FAA concluded that the incidence of fatigue... for all airplanes in the transport fleet. Since the establishment of the SSI Supplemental...

  8. 78 FR 4038 - Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ..., FAA published a notice of proposed rulemaking titled ``Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers'' (76 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 35 RIN 2120-AJ88 Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers AGENCY... Administration (FAA) is amending the airworthiness standards for airplane propellers. This action would require...

  9. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  10. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  11. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  12. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  13. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  14. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  15. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Equipment Requirements § 125.205 Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR. No person may operate...

  16. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  18. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  19. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  20. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  1. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  2. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  3. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  5. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Equipment Requirements § 125.205 Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR. No person may operate...

  6. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  9. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  10. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  11. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Equipment Requirements § 125.205 Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR. No person may operate...

  12. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  13. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  14. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  15. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  16. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  17. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  18. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  19. Quantifying and scaling airplane performance in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Johnhenri R.

    This dissertation studies the effects of turbulent wind on airplane airspeed and normal load factor, determining how these effects scale with airplane size and developing envelopes to account for them. The results have applications in design and control of aircraft, especially small scale aircraft, for robustness with respect to turbulence. Using linearized airplane dynamics and the Dryden gust model, this dissertation presents analytical and numerical scaling laws for airplane performance in gusts, safety margins that guarantee, with specified probability, that steady flight can be maintained when stochastic wind gusts act upon an airplane, and envelopes to visualize these safety margins. Presented here for the first time are scaling laws for the phugoid natural frequency, phugoid damping ratio, airspeed variance in turbulence, and flight path angle variance in turbulence. The results show that small aircraft are more susceptible to high frequency gusts, that the phugoid damping ratio does not depend directly on airplane size, that the airspeed and flight path angle variances can be parameterized by the ratio of the phugoid natural frequency to a characteristic turbulence frequency, and that the coefficient of variation of the airspeed decreases with increasing airplane size. Accompanying numerical examples validate the results using eleven different airplanes models, focusing on NASA's hypothetical Boeing 757 analog the Generic Transport Model and its operational 5.5% scale model, the NASA T2. Also presented here for the first time are stationary flight, where the flight state is a stationary random process, and the stationary flight envelope, an adjusted steady flight envelope to visualize safety margins for stationary flight. The dissertation shows that driving the linearized airplane equations of motion with stationary, stochastic gusts results in stationary flight. It also shows how feedback control can enlarge the stationary flight envelope by alleviating

  20. Precision controllability of the YF-17 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Mataeny, N. W.

    1980-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on the YF-17 airplane permitted assessment of its precision controllability in the transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. The precision controllability (tailchase tracking) study was conducted in constant-g and windup turn tracking maneuvers with the command augmentation system (CAS) on, automatic maneuver flaps, and the caged pipper gunsight depressed 70 mils. This study showed that the YF-17 airplane tracks essentially as well at 7 g's to 8 g's as earlier fighters did at 4 g's to 5 g's before they encountered wing rock. The pilots considered the YF-17 airplane one of the best tracking airplanes they had flown. Wing rock at the higher angles of attack degraded tracking precision, and lack of control harmony made precision controllability more difficult. The revised automatic maneuver flap schedule incorporated in the airplane at the time of the tests did not appear to be optimum. The largest tracking errors and greatest pilot workload occurred at high normal load factors at low angles of attack. The pilots reported that the high-g maneuvers caused some tunnel vision and that they found it difficult to think clearly after repeated maneuvers.

  1. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  2. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  3. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  4. 75 FR 81264 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Intent To Prepare... of Douglas County filed an application for the continued operation of the 774.3-megawatt...

  5. 77 FR 43146 - Twin Cities & Western Railroad Company, the Estate of Douglas M. Head, and the DMH Trust fbo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Twin Cities & Western Railroad Company, the Estate of Douglas M. Head, and... & Western Railroad Company (TCW), a Class III rail carrier, and the Estate of Douglas M. Head (the...

  6. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  7. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  8. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  9. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  10. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  11. Analytic prediction of airplane equilibrium spin characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The nonlinear equations of motion are solved algebraically for conditions for which an airplane is in an equilibrium spin. Constrained minimization techniques are employed in obtaining the solution. Linear characteristics of the airplane about the equilibrium points are also presented and their significance in identifying the stability characteristics of the equilibrium points is discussed. Computer time requirements are small making the method appear potentially applicable in airplane design. Results are obtained for several configurations and are compared with other analytic-numerical methods employed in spin prediction. Correlation with experimental results is discussed for one configuration for which a rather extensive data base was available. A need is indicated for higher Reynolds number data taken under conditions which more accurately simulate a spin.

  12. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    PubMed

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  13. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    PubMed

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed.

  14. The Development of German Army Airplanes During the War

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, Hoff

    1921-01-01

    The author, who was a captain of the Reserves in the Technical Department of the Aviation Division (Board of Airplane Experts) during the war, shows what means were taken for the creation of new airplane types and what tests were employed for trying out their flying properties, capacities and structural reliability. The principal representative types of each of the classes of airplanes are described and the characteristics of the important structural parts are discussed. Data regarding the number of airplanes at the front and the flying efficiency of the various classes of airplanes are given.

  15. Expanding Post-Secondary Capacity in the North Fraser/Fraser Valley. Douglas College Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas Coll., New Westminster (British Columbia).

    This report from Douglas College, British Columbia, to the Ministry of Advanced Education addresses the rapid population growth in the Fraser Valley, and the ways in which this growth impacts Douglas College, University College of the Fraser Valley, Kwantlen University College, and Simon Fraser University. The Douglas College service area is…

  16. Noise exposure levels from model airplane engines.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, R C; Miller, M

    1985-01-01

    Previous research indicates that noise levels from unmuffled model airplane engines produce sufficient noise to cause TTS. The present study explored SPLs of smaller engines under 3.25 cc (.19 cu. in.) and the effectiveness of engine mufflers. Results showed that model airplanes can exceed a widely used damage risk criterion (DRC) but that engine mufflers can reduce levels below DRC. Handling model gasoline engines should be added to the list of recreational activities such as snow-mobile and motorcycle riding, shooting, etc. in which the participant's hearing may be in jeopardy. Suggestions are presented to the model engine enthusiast for avoiding damage to hearing.

  17. Stresses Produced in Airplane Wings by Gusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, Hans Georg

    1932-01-01

    Accurate prediction of gust stress being out of the question because of the multiplicity of the free air movements, the exploration of gust stress is restricted to static method which must be based upon: 1) stress measurements in free flight; 2) check of design specifications of approved type airplanes. With these empirical data the stress must be compared which can be computed for a gust of known intensity and structure. This "maximum gust" then must be so defined as to cover the whole ambit of empiricism and thus serve as prediction for new airplane designs.

  18. Solar-powered airplanes: A historical perspective and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Guo, Zheng; Hou, Zhongxi

    2014-11-01

    Solar-powered airplanes are studied in this research. A solar-powered airplane consumes solar energy instead of traditional fossil fuels; thus it has received a significant amount of interest from researchers and the public alike. The historical development of solar-powered airplanes is reviewed. Notable prototypes, particularly those sponsored by the government, are introduced in detail. Possible future applications of solar-powered airplanes in the civilian and military fields are proposed. Finally, the challenges being faced by solar-powered airplanes are discussed. This study proposes that the solar-powered airplanes are potential alternatives to some present technologies and that they complement current satellites, traditional airplanes, airships, and balloons. However, these planes require further development and enormous technical obstacles must be addressed.

  19. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  20. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  1. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  2. The Case Against Preferential Racial Quotas: Justice Douglas's Dissent in the DeFunis Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.

    1974-01-01

    Article considered the Supreme Court case involving Marco DeFunis, Jr., a student attempting to gain admission to law school, and the discriminatory attitudes of law school admissions officers contrasted with the legal opinion of Justice William O. Douglas. (RK)

  3. EFFECTS OF CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the effects of global climate change on the production and mortality of fine roots. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir fine ( 2 mm in diameter) roots. The study was conducted in sun-lit cont...

  4. Constructing the Path to Tomorrow: Strategic Planning and Implementation in the David Douglas School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard

    Following a brief introduction to the David Douglas School District community and schools located in a partly unincorporated area of Portland/Multnomah County, Oregon, this publication describes the district's prior annual goal-setting process and its evolving Vision 90's strategic-planning and implementation process (SPI). Strategic-planning…

  5. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  6. Foucault and Colonial Strategy in Douglas C. Jones' "Arrest Sitting Bull"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    "Arrest Sitting Bull," a novel written by Douglas C. Jones that relates the personal stories of individuals involved in the military and the political domination of the Sioux Indian during the period leading to the Sitting Bull killing is described. The incessant quest to establish and maintain control and the integral roles played by fear and…

  7. 77 FR 52264 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate Currently Held by MD Helicopters, Inc.) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT....

  8. Teaching Methods, the Herbartian Revolution and Douglas Clay Ridgley at Illinois State Normal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, E. Joan

    2003-01-01

    Teaching methods in the 1880s and 1890s were influenced by the energies and publications of the Herbartians from Illinois State Normal University. Memorization was replaced by inductive questioning, field trips and the use of visual aids. Four men and one woman were followed by Douglas Clay Ridgley who built up the geography major and made tools…

  9. Photosynthetic responses of Douglas-fir seedlings to CO{sub 2} at two soil temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, B.T.; Winner, W.E.; Perry, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    Plant responses to increasing CO{sub 2} can be modified by soil temperatures which change over the growing season and a increase with global change. We used controlled environment experiments with an economically and ecologically important species, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) to test this idea. Douglas-fir seedling were grown from seeds for 6 months in controlled-environment chambers at two levels of CO{sub 2} (350 and 700 PPM) and at two soil temperatures (13{degrees} and 17{degrees}C). Seedlings were grown in soils collected from the Andrews Experimental Forest within the native range of Douglas-fir. Steady state gas exchange equipment, matched to chamber conditions, was used to assess the response of carbon assimilation rates to intercellular CO{sub 2} concentrations, air temperatures, and photosynthetic photon flux density. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced carboxylation efficiency, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and quantum yield. In addition, trees grown at high soil temperatures and at low CO{sub 2} had higher photosynthesis across all temperatures ranging from 10{sup {degrees}} to 20{degrees} C. These results show that photosynthetic characteristics of Douglas-fir are affected by both CO{sub 2} and soil temperature, and that as soil temperatures warm seasonally or over the long-term photosynthesis will increase both at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} until constrained by other factors.

  10. Principal Succession: A View through the Lens of Mary Douglas' Grid and Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This Naturalistic Inquiry Case Study examines principal succession at two small, rural high schools through naturalistic inquiry presented through the lens of Mary Douglas' grid and group cultural typology. A grid and group cultural analysis survey was sent to all school employees then in-depth, follow-up interviews…

  11. David Douglas Duncan's Changing Views on War: An Audio-Visual Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Politowski, Richard

    This paper is the script for a slide presentation about photographer David Douglas Duncan and his view of war. It is intended to be used with slides made from pictures Duncan took during World War II, the Korean War, and the war in Viet Nam and published in various books and periodicals. It discusses a shift in emphasis to be seen both in the…

  12. BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  13. Aaron Douglas and Hale Woodruff: African American Art Education, Gallery Work, and Expanded Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Sharif

    2011-01-01

    This analysis of archival materials discovered at Fisk and Atlanta Universities examines the teaching careers of Aaron Douglas and Hale Woodruff, two African American artists who came to prominence during the New Negro Movement in the 1920s and taught at historically Black universities in the 1930s and 1940s. These artists had a profound influence…

  14. A Case of Extragonadal Teratoma in the Pouch of Douglas and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Mamoru; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Morii, Eiichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is a germ cell tumor of the ovaries and is often observed in clinical practice. However, extragonadal teratomas are rare tumors and have been reported outside the ovaries, (e.g., in the greater omentum). The mechanism underlying the development of extragonadal teratomas remains unknown. We encountered a case of extragonadal teratoma in the pouch of Douglas that appeared to be a parasitic dermoid cyst. From our experience and the literature review, we discuss the potential mechanism leading to the development of extragonadal teratomas. A 41-year-old nonpregnant woman was referred to our department due to myoma and anemia. A 4-cm asymptomatic mass in the pouch of Douglas was observed, and the patient was diagnosed with ovarian mature cystic teratoma. She underwent laparoscopic surgery, and intraoperative findings revealed that the fallopian tube was injured and torn, and a residual small ovary was observed in the left side of the ovary. A tumor measuring approximately 4 cm observed in the pouch of Douglas was extracted without rupturing. The tumor was diagnosed as a parasitic dermoid cyst by macroscopic and histopathological findings. Auto-amputation could be the underlying mechanism that leads to an isolated parasitic dermoid cyst in the pouch of Douglas.

  15. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  16. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  17. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  18. Douglas-Fir Seedlings Exhibit Metabolic Responses to Increased Temperature and Atmospheric Drought

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Kirstin; Du, Baoguo; Kayler, Zachary; Siegwolf, Rolf; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kammerer, Bernd; Jaeger, Carsten; Schaub, Marcus; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves) will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i) plant biomass, (ii) carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii) apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv) the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought). Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions. PMID:25436455

  19. 77 FR 73340 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... +33 5 61 19 76 95; fax +33 5 61 19 68 20; email retrofit.ata@fr.thalesgroup.com ; Internet http://www... products, which was published in the Federal Register on July 11, 2012 (77 FR 40823). That earlier SNPRM..., and A321 series airplanes. Since that SNPRM (77 FR 40823, July 11, 2012) was issued, we...

  20. 78 FR 17071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... been embodied in production. (2) Model A330-223F and -243F airplanes, all manufacturer serial numbers..., 2012 (77 FR 66764). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The Mandatory Continuing Airworthiness Information (MCAI) states: It was noticed in production that the...

  1. 77 FR 60331 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... any category; all manufacturer serial numbers, except airplanes on which Airbus modification 37866 has been embodied in production. (d) Subject Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 32:...

  2. 77 FR 64701 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... B2-1A and A300 B4-601 airplanes were inadvertently omitted from the Applicability of the NPRM (77 FR... in the Federal Register on February 22, 2012 (77 FR 10409). That NPRM proposed to correct ] an unsafe... requested that the time for submitting reports, proposed in the NPRM (77 FR 10409, February 22, 2012) as...

  3. 77 FR 65799 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of the ram air turbine (RAT) not deploying when tested. This AD requires identification of the supplier, part number, and serial number of the installed RAT actuator, and re-identification of the actuator and RAT, or replacement of the RAT actuator with...

  4. 78 FR 68352 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., before further flight, replace all four forward engine mount bolts and associated nuts, on the engine... inspection interval for certain pylon bolts must be reduced. This AD requires a torque check of forward... broken bolts, which could lead to engine detachment in-flight, and damage to the airplane. DATES: This...

  5. 76 FR 65419 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... identified in this proposed AD, contact SOCATA--Direction des Services--65921 Tarbes Cedex 9--France... deflection, Socata's analysis shows that the airplane is still capable of achieving its published cross wind... distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons...

  6. 77 FR 1622 - Airworthiness Directives; Socata Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... AD, contact Socata--Direction des Services--65921 Tarbes Cedex 9--France; telephone +33 (0) 62 41... in the Federal Register on October 21, 2011 (76 FR 65419). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... that the airplane is still capable of achieving its published cross wind landing limits. Comments...

  7. Two-stroke-cycle engines for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalbert, J

    1926-01-01

    Now that the two-stroke-cycle engine has begun to make its appearance in automobiles, it is important to know what services we have a right to expect of it in aeronautics, what conditions must be met by engines of this type for use on airplanes and what has been accomplished.

  8. 77 FR 65146 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... and retard mode, in case of go-around, might lead to a temporary loss of airplane longitudinal control... comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to...

  9. A Mechanical Device for Illustrating Airplane Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    An instrument is described which will illustrate completely in a qualitative sense the longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane. The instrument is primarily of use for the lecture room, but it is hoped that ultimately it will be possible to obtain quantitative results from it.

  10. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... should have been removed by repair machining was below the level of detectability of the Non Destructive... proposed AD. Discussion On March 31, 2008, we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April..., A319, A320, and A321 airplanes. Since we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975,...

  11. 78 FR 21227 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... specified products. That SNPRM was published in the Federal Register on September 7, 2012 (77 FR 55163... SNPRM (77 FR 55163, September 7, 2012) be changed from ``* * * first flight of the airplane,'' to... consistent with the intent that was proposed in the SNPRM (77 FR 55163, September 7, 2012) for correcting...

  12. 77 FR 26996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports that medium-head fasteners were installed in lieu of... demonstrated could have an affect on panel fatigue life. This proposed AD would require repetitive inspections... 35 in Airbus A320 final assembly line. Investigations revealed that medium head fasteners,...

  13. Safety and design in airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teichmann, Alfred

    1934-01-01

    The author gives a survey of the principles of stress analysis and design of airplane structures, and discusses the fundamental strength specifications and their effect on the stress analysis as compared with the safety factors used in other branches of engineering.

  14. 78 FR 8054 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...) inspection for cracking of the area around the fasteners of the landing plate of the wing bottom skin panel... the inspection of the area around the fasteners of the landing plate of the wing bottom skin panel... A310 series airplanes. The existing AD currently requires repetitive inspections for fatigue...

  15. 77 FR 51729 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221. Examining the AD Docket...

  16. 78 FR 46543 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ..., Amendment 39-14028 (70 FR 16104, March 30, 2005)]. This condition, if not detected and corrected, may lead... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of...

  17. 77 FR 59732 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and... A340-500 and -600 series airplanes. This AD requires repetitive inspections for corrosion of the drag... having corrosion protection, which terminates the repetitive inspections required by this AD. This AD...

  18. A study of airplane engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Victor R

    1920-01-01

    This report is a study of the results obtained from a large number of test of an Hispano-Suiza airplane engine in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. It was originally undertaken to determine the heat distribution in such an engine, but many other factors are also considered as bearing on this matter.

  19. 77 FR 68050 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM published in the Federal Register on May 22, 2012 (77 FR 30228... comments received on the proposal (77 FR 30228, May 22, 2012) and the FAA's response to each comment. Request To Clarify That Freighter Airplanes Are Not Affected UPS stated that the NPRM (77 FR 30228, May...

  20. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... security. Foreign air carriers conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section...

  1. 78 FR 41286 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... airplanes). (2) Airbus Service Bulletin A320-32-1346, Revision 02, dated November 4, 2009 (for Model A318... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 3, 2012 (77 FR 60331). The NPRM proposed to... issued AD 2007-0065, currently at Revision 2. For the reasons described above, this AD...

  2. 77 FR 75833 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... requires repetitive detailed inspections of the forward fitting at FR 40 without nut removal, and a one-time eddy current or liquid penetrant inspection of the forward fitting at FR 40 with nut removal, and... cracks of the forward fitting at FR 40 without nut removal on both sides of the airplane, in...

  3. 77 FR 16492 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports that some nuts installed on the wing, including on... certain nuts are installed or cracked, and replacing the affected nuts if necessary. We are proposing...

  4. 76 FR 50405 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12...: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4119; fax: (816) 329-4090; e-mail:...

  5. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25...

  6. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25...

  7. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25...

  8. 77 FR 60658 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of two fatigue cracks on the left-hand and right-hand... proposed AD would require a high frequency eddy current (HFEC) inspection for any cracking on the...

  9. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... security. Foreign air carriers conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for the climb (or, for multiengine airplanes with negative one-engine-inoperative rates of climb, the descent) stage of flight. The airplane must be flown...

  11. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.205 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  12. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.205 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  13. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.205 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  14. Weight estimation techniques for composite airplanes in general aviation industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paramasivam, T.; Horn, W. J.; Ritter, J.

    1986-01-01

    Currently available weight estimation methods for general aviation airplanes were investigated. New equations with explicit material properties were developed for the weight estimation of aircraft components such as wing, fuselage and empennage. Regression analysis was applied to the basic equations for a data base of twelve airplanes to determine the coefficients. The resulting equations can be used to predict the component weights of either metallic or composite airplanes.

  15. 13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basunia, M. S.; Hurst, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for 26O, 26F, 26Ne, 26Na, 26Mg, 26Al, 26Si, 26P, and 26S. This evaluation for A = 26 supersedes the earlier one by P. M. Endt (1998En04) and updates for some nuclides in ENSDF. Highlights of this evaluation are the following: This evaluation includes search results for 26S nuclide and its proton-decay mode (2011Fo08). An isomeric state (2.2 ms) in 26F has been discovered by 2013Le03. The state is proposed at 643.4 keV 1 from γ-ray measurements. Internal-transition and beta-decay branches for the state are also determined. New excited levels in 26Ne have been identified from 26F β- decay (2.2 ms). For some 26Si resonance states conflicting spin-parity assignments exist in the literature. These are identified by footnotes. 2015Do07 (3He,nγ) propose the first 0+ state above proton separation energy at an excitation energy of 5890 keV and suggested for additional independent measurements to confirm or refute the existence of 5946 keV 4. 2016Ch09 consider 5946 keV level as a distinct excited state in their reanalysis of the literature data with possible spin-parity assignment of 0+ or 4+ This evaluation also includes discovery of an isomeric state, at 164.1 keV 1, in 26P by 2014NiZZ.

  17. Unsupervised-learning airplane detection in remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Lv, Wu; Zhang, Yifei; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to develop an unsupervised learning approach for airplane detection in remote sensing images. This novel airplane detection method is based on circle-frequency filter and cluster-based co-saliency detection. Firstly, the CF-filter method is utilized as the coarse detection to detect target airplanes with some false alarms. Then, we collect all the detected targets and use cluster-based co-saliency detection to enhance the real airplanes and weaken the false alarms, so that most of the false alarms can be eliminated. Experimental results on real remote sensing images demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  18. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests.

    PubMed

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-08-23

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  19. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that experience distinctly different climate in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Under an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas-fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  20. Stand density index applied to timber and goshawk habitat objectives in Douglas-fir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilieholm, Robert J.; Kessler, Winifred B.; Merrill, Karren

    1993-11-01

    Silvicultural guidelines are presented for the management of intermountain Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands for sawtimber production and goshawk ( Accipiter gentilis) nesting habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Data from 14 goshawk nest stands in Douglas-fir forests on the Targhee National Forest in Idaho (Patla 1991) were used to characterize the range of stand conditions considered suitable for goshawk nesting. A density management regime is presented using Reineke's stand density index that includes a technical rotation designed to produce sawlogs with a single commercial thinning. On average timber-growing sites, stands reach goshawk habitat suitability when site height is 25 m at age 75 and provide 65 years of goshawk nesting habitat until the final harvest at age 140. Approximately 1320 m3/ha are harvested over the rotation. On higher-quality sites, rotation length declines from 140 to 85 years, of which roughly 35 years are suitable for goshawk nesting.

  1. Synthetic Biology and the Moral Significance of Artificial Life: A Reply to Douglas, Powell and Savulescu.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant'. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life' and of 'moral significance' are too narrow. Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral significance fails to take into account the possibility that creating artificial life is conditionally acceptable. Finally, I show how several important objections to synthetic biology are plausibly understood as arguing that creating artificial life in a wide sense is only conditionally acceptable.

  2. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests.

    PubMed

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-08-23

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range. PMID:27503880

  3. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company independent research and development: Preparing for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Allen C.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1970's and 80's, research has produced the technology that is seen in aircraft such as the LHX and future models. The technology is discussed that is reaching maturity and moving into the application stage of future programs. Technology is discussed in six major areas: advanced concepts, analysis techniques, structures, systems, simulation, and research and development facilities. The partnership of McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. and the government in developing these technologies is illustrated in several programs.

  4. Meeting the challenges with the Douglas Aircraft Company Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rommel, Bruce A.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP) at the Douglas Aircraft Company is given. A pilot test program involving the animation of mode shapes with solid rendering as well as wire frame displays, a complete aircraft model of a high-altitude hypersonic aircraft to test ADOP procedures, a flap model, and an aero-mesh modeler for doublet lattice aerodynamics are discussed.

  5. 5. (Credit LSU) The NcNeil Street Station from Douglas Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. (Credit LSU) The NcNeil Street Station from Douglas Island, across Cross Bayou, c1907. Note the enlarged wood-framed filter wing on the left; the coal shed on the right; and the low service auxiliary pump house on tracks on the incline on the bank leading down to Cross Bayou. From: Louisiana State University, Shreveport Archives post card collection) - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  6. Competitive relations between Douglas-fir and Pacific madrone on shallow soils in a Mediterranean climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Zheng Q.; Newton, M.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    A large area of Pacific Coast forests is characterized by shallow soil, with negligible rainfall in the growing season. This study explores water-seeking strategy on such a site. We studied availability of bedrock water and its effects on growth and ecophysiology of 11-yr-old planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) and sprouting Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh). The study was carried out at three regulated densities of madrone sprouts on shallow ( 0.05) among three densities of madrone. However, cover in plots with the highest density of madrone (1322 sprout clumps/ha) depleted 50 mm of water from the 1.5 m layer by June, whereas vegetation on lower density treatments withdrew 15-28 mm by June, with later withdrawal distributed more uniformly through the growing season. Madrone density significantly affected basal diameter (P a?? 0.0001) and height growth (P a?? 0.002) of Douglas-fir. Madrone was consistently taller than Douglas-fir in all plots. The height of 11-yr-old madrone sprout clumps (424-465 cm) did not differ significantly among densities. Madrone leaf area index and biomass were higher at the high density of madrone than at medium density (P a?? 0.045, LAI; P a?? 0.001, biomass). Physiological advantages and rooting habits of madrone give it a competitive advantage over Douglas-fir in this area that it might not have if bedrock did not provide the principal water reservoir for summer growth.

  7. Dynamic Breaking Tests of Airplane Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertel, Heinrich

    1933-01-01

    The static stresses of airplane parts, the magnitude of which can be determined with the aid of static load assumptions, are mostly superposed by dynamic stresses, the magnitude of which has been but little explored. The object of the present investigation is to show how the strength of airplane parts can best be tested with respect to dynamic stresses with and without superposed static loading, and to what extent the dynamic strength of the parts depends on their structural design. Experimental apparatus and evaluation methods were developed and tried for the execution of vibration-strength tests with entire structural parts both with and without superposed static loading. Altogether ten metal spars and spar pieces and two wooden spars were subjected to vibration breaking tests.

  8. Burn injuries from small airplane crashes.

    PubMed

    Moye, S J; Cruse, C W; Watkins, G M

    1991-11-01

    Because a large amount of general aviation activity occurs in Central Florida, we reviewed our admissions for victims of small airplane crashes. We identified 13 burn victims of small aircraft accidents over a 7-year period. Of the 13, 12 survived their burn injuries, an overall survival rate of 92%. The extent of burn injury, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), complications, other injuries and rehabilitation potential are reviewed. Burn injury resulting from small airplane crashes is usually survivable if the patient arrives at the Burn Center alive. These burn victims generally are highly motivated individuals, are easily rehabilitated, and continue productive lives. Small airports and local hospitals should be aware of burn center availability because of the usual major extent of the burn injury.

  9. Static test of an ultralight airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes all of the work necessary to perform the static test of an ultralight airplane. A steel reaction gantry was designed first, then all of the loading whiffletrees, the hydraulic actuation system, and instrumentation systems were designed. Loads and stress analyses were performed on the airplane and the gantry and whiffletrees. Components tested to date are: tubing samples, cables, and two-by-four whiffletrees. A hydraulic system consisting of a 3000-psi hand pump, 10,000-pound actuator, pressure gage and lines, and a Barksdale valve are described. Load cell calibration and pressure indicator calibration procedures are also described. A description of the strain and deflection measurement system is included. Preliminary data obtained to date are compared to the analytical predictions.

  10. Status of an inlet configuration trade study for the Douglas HSCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jay R.; Welge, H. Robert

    1992-01-01

    An inlet concept integration trade study for an HSCT is being conducted under contract to NASA LeRC. The HSCT mission has a supersonic cruise Mach number of 2.4 and a subsonic cruise Mach number of 0.95. The engine selected for this study is the GE VCE (variable cycle engine) with FLADE (fan on blade). Six inlet configurations will be defined. Inlet configurations will be axisymmetric and rectangular mixed-compression inlets in single-engine nacelles. Airplane performance for each inlet configuration will be estimated and then compared. The most appropriate inlet configuration for this airplane/engine combination will be determined by Sep. 1991.

  11. Validity of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales; Cubbin and Jackson, Braden, and Douglas scale.

    PubMed

    Jun Seongsook, R N; Jeong Ihnsook, R N; Lee Younghee, R N

    2004-02-01

    This study was to compare the validity of three pressure ulcer risk tools: Cubbin and Jackson, Braden, and Douglas scales. Data were collected three times per week from 48 to 72 h after admission based on the three pressure ulcer risk assessment scales and skin assessment tool developed by the Panel for the Prediction and Prevention of Pressure Ulcers (1994) from 112 intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a educational hospital Ulsan, Korea during December 11, 2000 to February 10, 2001. When a patient developed a pressure ulcer at the time of assessment, the patient was classified into 'pressure ulcer group', and when patients did not have a pressure ulcer until they died, moved to other wards or were discharged from the hospital, they were classified into 'not pressure ulcer group'. Four indices of validity and area under the curves (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were calculated. Based on the cut-off point presented by the developer, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were as follows: Cubbin and Jackson scale: 89%, 61%, 51%, 92%, respectively, Braden scale: 97%, 26%, 37%, 95%, respectively, and Douglas scale: 100%, 18%, 34%, 100%, respectively. AUCs of ROC curve were 0.826 for Cubbin and Jackson, 0.707 for Braden, and 0.791 for Douglas. Overall, the Cubbin and Jackson scale showed the best validity among scales tested and we recommended it for this ICU.

  12. Winter use of douglas-fir forests by Blue Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied winter use of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests by blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) from 1981 to 1983 at 2 study areas in northcentral Colorado. Comparisons of used and available stands indicated grouse were concentrated spatially, but there were no consistent differences related to basal area of tree species, conifer stem densities, and topography that were common to both areas. Blue grouse used dense (2,000 stems/ha) second growth (40-75 yr old), open to dense (200-1,900 stems/ha) mature (100-200 yr old), and open (Abies lasiocarpa), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), limber pine (P. flexilis), Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). Grouse used stands on mesic northern and eastern aspects, on xeric southern and western aspects, at elevations of 2,530-2,960 m, and on slopes of 1-45°. Preferential use (P < 0.05) of Douglas-fir trees occurred within stands that had an abundance of limber pine (use = availability) and subalpine fir (use < availability). Large Douglas-fir (20-90 cm dbh) were preferred (P < 0.05) within stands that had an abundance of smaller (≤15 cm dbh) trees. Both sexes used similar trees.

  13. Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: a retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam G; Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2014-08-01

    We evaluate genetic test plantations of North American Douglas-fir provenances in Europe to quantify how tree populations respond when subjected to climate regime shifts, and we examined whether bioclimate envelope models developed for North America to guide assisted migration under climate change can retrospectively predict the success of these provenance transfers to Europe. The meta-analysis is based on long-term growth data of 2800 provenances transferred to 120 European test sites. The model was generally well suited to predict the best performing provenances along north-south gradients in Western Europe, but failed to predict superior performance of coastal North American populations under continental climate conditions in Eastern Europe. However, model projections appear appropriate when considering additional information regarding adaptation of Douglas-fir provenances to withstand frost and drought, even though the model partially fails in a validation against growth traits alone. We conclude by applying the partially validated model to climate change scenarios for Europe, demonstrating that climate trends observed over the last three decades warrant changes to current use of Douglas-fir provenances in plantation forestry throughout Western and Central Europe.

  14. 78 FR 64156 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... ADs for Model A340 airplanes. AD 2003-14-11, Amendment 39-13230 (68 FR 41521, July 14, 2003). AD 2004-11-08, Amendment 39-13654 (69 FR 31874, June 8, 2004). AD 2004-13-25, Amendment 39-13707 (69 FR 41394, July 9, 2004). AD 2004-18-14, Amendment 39-13793 (69 FR 55326, September 14, 2004). AD...

  15. Optico-photographic measurements of airplane deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, Hans Georg

    1931-01-01

    The deformation of aircraft wings is measured by photographically recording a series of bright shots on a moving paper band sensitive to light. Alternating deformations, especially vibrations, can thus be measured in operation, unaffected by inertia. A handy recording camera, the optograph, was developed by the static division of the D.V.L. (German Experimental Institute for Aeronautics) for the employment of this method of measurement on airplanes in flight.

  16. Theory of automatic control of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Herbert K

    1939-01-01

    Methods of automatically controlling the airplane are reviewed. Equations for the controlled motion including inertia effects of the control are developed and methods of investigating the stability of the resulting fifth and higher order equations are presented. The equations for longitudinal and lateral motion with both ideal and non-ideal controls are developed in dimensionless form in terms of control parameters based on simple dynamic tests of the isolated control unit.

  17. 78 FR 25666 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On December 27, 2012, we issued AD 2012-26-51, Amendment 39-17312 (78 FR 1723... A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. Since we issued AD 2012-26-51, Amendment 39-17312 (78 FR... [which corresponds to FAA AD 2012-26-51, Amendment 39-17312 (78 FR 1723, January 9, 2013)] to...

  18. 78 FR 48286 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... issued AD 2011-0069 (currently at R1) [which corresponds to FAA AD 2011-13-11, Amendment 39-16734 (76 FR... AD 2011-13-11, Amendment 39-16734 (76 FR 37241, June 27, 2011), for that airplane. You may obtain.... Since the issuance of FAA AD 2011-13-11, Amendment 39-16734 (76 FR 37241, June 27, 2011), we...

  19. Autonomous Deicing System For Airplane Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.

  20. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity, as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.

  1. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    DOE PAGES

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity,more » as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.« less

  2. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  3. Flatulence on airplanes: just let it go.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans C; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders; Thomas, William E G; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-02-15

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases, due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should be embedded in the seat cushion, since this material is able to neutralise the odour. Moreover active charcoal may be used in trousers and blankets to emphasise this effect. Other less practical or politically correct solutions to overcome this problem may be to restrict access of flatus-prone persons from airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers.

  4. The Ad Hoc Mars Airplane science working group. [remotely piloted airplane as a Mars exploration vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, V. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The capability of a remotely piloted airplane as a Mars exploration vehicle in the aerial survey mode is assessed. Specific experiment areas covered include: visual imaging; gamma ray and infrared reflectance spectroscopy; gravity field; magnetic field and electromagnetic sounding; and atmospheric composition and dynamics. It is concluded that (1) the most important use of a plane in the aerial survey mode would be in topical studies and returned sample site characterization; (2) the airplane offers the unique capability to do high resolution, oblique imaging, and repeated profile measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer; and (3) it offers the best platform from which to do electromagnetic sounding.

  5. Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars. Results These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented. Conclusions While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD

  6. Variable-Structure Control of a Model Glider Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    A variable-structure control system designed to enable a fuselage-heavy airplane to recover from spin has been demonstrated in a hand-launched, instrumented model glider airplane. Variable-structure control is a high-speed switching feedback control technique that has been developed for control of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  7. 76 FR 64851 - Airworthiness Directives; Learjet Inc. Model 45 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... 45 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington. For information on the... resulted from the design holder's analysis, testing, and in-service history of certain components. We...

  8. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... presentation of performance data from the applicable flight manual if the revised operating procedures and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight...

  9. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... presentation of performance data from the applicable flight manual if the revised operating procedures and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight...

  10. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... presentation of performance data from the applicable flight manual if the revised operating procedures and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight...

  11. Summary of Information Relating to Gust Loads on Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donely, Philip

    1950-01-01

    Available information on gust structure, airplane reactions, and pertinent operating statistics has been examined. This report attempts to coordinate this information with reference to the prediction of gust loads on airplanes. The material covered represents research up to October 1947. (author)

  12. 78 FR 49221 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On December 16, 1999, we issued AD 99-26-19, Amendment 39-11479 (64 FR 72524... airplanes were inadvertently omitted from the applicability of AD 99-01-05, Amendment 39-10972 (63 FR 72132... FR 29965, May 25, 1993), which previously included J-2 series airplanes in the Applicability...

  13. 78 FR 73457 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... issued AD 84-19-01, the upper deck tension ties have been identified as structure that is susceptible to... data that support the established structural maintenance program. For certain airplanes, this proposed... Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, WA...

  14. 78 FR 14469 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... in depressurization of the airplane in flight. Actions Since Existing AD (75 FR 61337, October 5... inspections to find cracking of the web, strap, inner chords, inner chord angle of the forward edge frame of... the adjacent body structure and could result in depressurization of the airplane in flight. DATES:...

  15. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71 Section 23.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  16. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Instrument...

  17. 14 CFR 91.805 - Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. 91... § 91.805 Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in §§ 91.809 and 91.811, on and after January 1, 1985, no person may operate to or from an airport in the United States any subsonic...

  18. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles... with the engine inoperative, its propeller in the minimum drag position, and landing gear and...

  19. 75 FR 69745 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... airplanes to establish a limit of validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance... validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance program (LOV); 2. Demonstrate... 17, 2006. \\3\\ 71 FR 19928 The FAA proposed that design approval holders for those airplanes...

  20. 78 FR 14722 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... 777 airplanes. That NPRM published in the Federal Register on June 6, 2008 (73 FR 32253). That NPRM... revealed on the Model 737-400 airplanes. Actions Since Previous NPRM (73 FR 32253, June 6, 2008) Was Issued Since we issued the previous NPRM (73 FR 32253, June 6, 2008), we have received comments from...

  1. 77 FR 16488 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not...-100, DHC-8-200, and DHC-8-300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of hydraulic... caps, which could result in loss of the number 2 hydraulic system and damage to airplane...

  2. 77 FR 3187 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-3189] [FR Doc No: 2012-1202] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part... certain Model 767-200 and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of fatigue... identified in this proposed AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management,...

  3. 78 FR 15658 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of spanwise cracks and corrosion in the wing center box... skin and rear spar upper chord of the wing center box, which could result in loss of the airplane wing... proposed AD. Discussion We have received reports of spanwise cracks and corrosion in the wing center...

  4. 77 FR 49396 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...-20, Amendment 39-15583 (73 FR 37786, July 2, 2008), for certain Model 757 airplanes equipped with... Since we issued AD 2008-13-20, Amendment 39-15583 (73 FR 37786, July 2, 2008), we have received reports... of AD 2008-13-20, Amendment 39-15583 (73 FR 37786, July 2, 2008). For certain airplanes,...

  5. 78 FR 45054 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... involving a Honeywell fixed ELT. We are issuing this AD to prevent a fire in the aft crown of the airplane, or to detect and correct discrepancies within the ELT that could cause such a fire. DATES: This AD is.... Discrepancies within the ELT, if not corrected, could cause a fire in the aft crown of the airplane....

  6. Airplane Takeoff-and-Landing Performance Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari

    1988-01-01

    Airplane Takeoff-and-Landing Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) designed to increase safety during takeoffs and landings of aircraft. Provides pilots with graphic information crucial to decision to continue or reject takeoff. If rejected or landing in progress, provides crucial information relative to where airplane can be brought to stop.

  7. 78 FR 42727 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... electrical power to the IFE systems and certain circuit breakers through a utility bus switch, and doing... airplanes, doing an inspection of the electrical power control panel for a certain part number, and corrective action if necessary; and for certain other airplanes, installing a new electrical power...

  8. 78 FR 12991 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...-17-05, Amendment 39-11879 (65 FR 51754, August 25, 2000), for certain The Boeing Company Model 767...-08, Amendment 39-15274 (72 FR 67236, November 28, 2007), was issued for Model 767 airplanes. That AD...-11879 (65 FR 51754, August 25, 2000). For Model 767-200, -300, and -300F series airplanes, line...

  9. 77 FR 10403 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Planning Data (MPD) Document For Model 767-200, -300, -300F, and -400ER series airplanes having line... Boeing Company Model 767 airplanes. The existing AD currently requires revising the Airworthiness Limitations Section of the maintenance planning data (MPD) document. Since we issued that AD, a...

  10. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nontransport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than the weight that would allow... during the takeoff before reaching 105 percent of minimum control speed (the minimum speed at which an... power off stalling speed in the takeoff configuration, whichever is greater. (b) For the purposes...

  11. 77 FR 6692 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska...-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500 series airplanes equipped with analog transient suppression... Transient Suppression Device Installation Applicable to Boeing 737-100 through -500 Airplanes...

  12. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71 Section 23.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  13. 78 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... 39-16544 (75 FR 79952, December 21, 2010), for Dassault Aviation Model FALCON 2000EX Airplanes. (i...-05, Amendment 39-16544 (75 FR 79952, December 21, 2010), for the airplanes identified in paragraph...

  14. 78 FR 41882 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... 2002-23-19, Amendment 39-12963 (67 FR 71452, December 2, 2002), for all Dassault Aviation Model Falcon 2000 airplanes. (That AD superseded AD 99-14-07, Amendment 39-11218 (64 FR 36561, July 7, 1999)). AD... (75 FR 79952, December 21, 2010), for all Dassault Aviation Model FALCON 2000 airplanes. (l)...

  15. 77 FR 25647 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... pitching motion during normal airplane operations. Heat damage or cracking in the MLG center axle and shock... Model 777 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by heat damage and cracks at the pivot joint location... cracking in the MLG center axle and shock strut inner cylinder lugs (pivot joint), which could result...

  16. 76 FR 59590 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... FR 10917, March 9, 2004), for certain Model 767-200 and -300 series airplanes. That AD requires..., 2005, we issued AD 2005-03-11, Amendment 39-13967 (70 FR 7174, February 11, 2005), corrected on February 28, 2005 (70 FR 12119, March 11, 2005), for certain Model 767 airplanes. That AD...

  17. 78 FR 6254 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... feed manifold air pressure leak check procedure specified in airplane maintenance manual (AMM) 28- 22... 737-400 airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of... Federal Register on June 6, 2008 (73 FR 32258). That NPRM proposed to require repetitive operational...

  18. 78 FR 3363 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 engines. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of failure of the electro... airplanes, certificated in any category, powered by General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 engines, as identified in...-13269 (68 FR 51439, August 27, 2003), for Model 747-400 series airplanes equipped with GE Model...

  19. 78 FR 24689 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... airworthiness directive (AD) for all PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 airplanes. This proposed AD results...

  20. 76 FR 82205 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will... Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Company Model 560XL airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of jammed or stiff...

  1. 77 FR 41937 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Company Model 750 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of loss of...

  2. 24. EXTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING AIRPLANES IN VERY DEEP SNOW. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. EXTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING AIRPLANES IN VERY DEEP SNOW. Photographic copy of historic photograph. July-Dec. 1948 OAMA (original print located at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah). Photographer unknown. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  3. 14 CFR 91.805 - Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. 91... § 91.805 Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in §§ 91.809 and 91.811, on and after January 1, 1985, no person may operate to or from an airport in the United States any subsonic...

  4. 14 CFR 91.805 - Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. 91... § 91.805 Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in §§ 91.809 and 91.811, on and after January 1, 1985, no person may operate to or from an airport in the United States any subsonic...

  5. 14 CFR 91.805 - Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. 91... § 91.805 Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in §§ 91.809 and 91.811, on and after January 1, 1985, no person may operate to or from an airport in the United States any subsonic...

  6. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  7. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.371 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  8. 14 CFR 135.375 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.375 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight...

  9. 14 CFR 135.375 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.375 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight...

  10. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead... conditions for the Boeing Model 787-8 airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features... for other novel or unusual design features of the Boeing Model 787-8 airplanes. DATES: We must...

  11. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (2) A... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator) are those instructors who perform the functions described...

  12. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). Link to an amendment... an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (2... only in a flight simulator or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (3)...

  13. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  14. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  15. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  16. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  17. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  18. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  19. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  20. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  1. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  2. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  3. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  5. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  6. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  7. 14 CFR 91.863 - Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base... Noise Limits § 91.863 Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level. (a) Stage 2 airplanes may be... the corresponding number of Stage 2 airplanes. (b) No portion of a U.S. operator's base...

  8. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for the climb (or, for multiengine airplanes...

  10. 14 CFR 91.863 - Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base... Noise Limits § 91.863 Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level. (a) Stage 2 airplanes may be... the corresponding number of Stage 2 airplanes. (b) No portion of a U.S. operator's base...

  11. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  12. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for the climb (or, for multiengine airplanes...

  14. It's time to reinvent the general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Current designs for general aviation airplanes have become obsolete, and avenues for major redesign must be considered. New designs should incorporate recent advances in electronics, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and propulsion. Future airplanes should be optimized to operate satisfactorily in a positive air traffic control environment, to afford safety and comfort for point-to-point transportation, and to take advantage of automated manufacturing techniques and high production rates. These requirements have broad implications for airplane design and flying qualities, leading to a concept for the Modern Equipment General Aviation (MEGA) airplane. Synergistic improvements in design, production, and operation can provide a much needed fresh start for the general aviation industry and the traveling public. In this investigation a small four place airplane is taken as the reference, although the proposed philosophy applies across the entire spectrum of general aviation.

  15. Class 2 design update for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creighton, Thomas R.; Hendrich, Louis J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the final report of seven on the design of a family of commuter airplanes. This design effort was performed in fulfillment of NASA/USRA grant NGT-8001. Its contents are as follows: (1) the class 1 baseline designs for the commuter airplane family; (2) a study of takeoff weight penalties imposed on the commuter family due to implementing commonality objectives; (3) component structural designs common to the commuter family; (4) details of the acquisition and operating economics of the commuter family, i.e., savings due to production commonality and handling qualities commonality are determined; (5) discussion of the selection of an advanced turboprop propulsion system for the family of commuter airplanes, and (6) a proposed design for an SSSA controller design to achieve similar handling for all airplanes. Final class 2 commuter airplane designs are also presented.

  16. 75 FR 46868 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747 Airplanes and Model 767 Airplanes Equipped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ..., June 6, 2007), to require a much earlier compliance time for the software update required by that AD... to update the software, as required by that AD, before the required compliance date specified in that... airplanes. That original NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 7, 2008 (73 FR 18721)....

  17. 75 FR 39804 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 757 Airplanes, Model 767 Airplanes, and Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 13, 2008 (73 FR 13483). That NPRM... the following: AAL contends that material design choices contribute to unintended cross threading and... failures. DAL notes that poor design/manufacture of the flightdeck window 1 terminal contributes to...

  18. Detection of a poorly resolved airplane using SWIR polarization imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Laura M.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Chenault, David B.

    2016-05-01

    Polarization can be used to detect manmade objects on the ground and in the air, as it provides additional information beyond intensity and color. Skylight can be strongly polarized, so the detection of airplanes in flight requires careful consideration of the skylight degree and angle of polarization (DoLP, AoP). In this study, we detect poorly resolved airplanes (>= 4 pixels on target) in flight during daytime partly cloudy and smoky conditions in Bozeman, Montana. We used a Polaris Sensor Technologies SWIR-MWIR rotating imaging polarimeter to measure the polarization signatures of airplanes and the surrounding skylight from 1.5 to 1.8 μm in the short-wave infrared (SWIR). An airplane flying in a clear region of partly cloudy sky was found to be 69% polarized at an elevation angle of 13° with respect to the horizon and the surrounding skylight was 4-8% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was found to be 7-14% at an elevation angle of 50°). As the airplane increased in altitude, the DoLP for both airplane and surrounding sky pixels increased as the airplane neared the band of maximum sky polarization. We also observed that an airplane can be less polarized than its surrounding skylight when there is heavy smoke present. In such a case, the airplane was 30-38% polarized at an elevation angle of 17°, while the surrounding skylight was approximately 40% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was 40-55% at an elevation angle of 34°). In both situations the airplane was most consistently observed in DoLP images rather than S0 or AoP images. In this paper, we describe the results in detail and discuss how this phenomenology could detect barely resolved aircrafts.

  19. 75 FR 47199 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-10 Series Airplanes, DC-9-30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ..., 2010. On July 6, 2010 (75 FR 38017, July 1, 2010), the Director of the Federal Register approved the... AD 2009-15-16, Amendment 39-16345 (75 FR 38017, July 1, 2010). That AD applies to all McDonnell... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....

  20. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppel, B. V.; Eysink, H.; Hammer, J.; Hawley, K.; Meredith, P.; Roskam, J.

    1978-01-01

    The usability of the general aviation synthesis program (GASP) was enhanced by the development of separate computer subroutines which can be added as a package to this assembly of computerized design methods or used as a separate subroutine program to compute the dynamic longitudinal, lateral-directional stability characteristics for a given airplane. Currently available analysis methods were evaluated to ascertain those most appropriate for the design functions which the GASP computerized design program performs. Methods for providing proper constraint and/or analysis functions for GASP were developed as well as the appropriate subroutines.

  1. Airplane wing vibrations due to atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastel, R. L.; Caruthers, J. E.; Frost, W.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitude of error introduced due to wing vibration when measuring atmospheric turbulence with a wind probe mounted at the wing tip was studied. It was also determined whether accelerometers mounted on the wing tip are needed to correct this error. A spectrum analysis approach is used to determine the error. Estimates of the B-57 wing characteristics are used to simulate the airplane wing, and von Karman's cross spectrum function is used to simulate atmospheric turbulence. It was found that wing vibration introduces large error in measured spectra of turbulence in the frequency's range close to the natural frequencies of the wing.

  2. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  3. Availability and quality of ground water in the Winston area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Collins, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A map of the Winston area, Douglas County, Oreg., shows areal geology and locations and chemical diagrams of wells with water analyses. Another map of the area has diagrams showing the depth to water, pumping level, total depth, and yields of selected wells. Reported yields of wells range from less than 1 to as much as 70 gallons per minute; the average is less than 10. A table listing chemical analyses of water shows that, although most ground water is of adequate quality for domestic use, some wells yield water with dissolved constituents in excess of recommended limits. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. An overview of the Douglas Aircraft Company Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    From a program manager's viewpoint, the history, scope and architecture of a major structural design program at Douglas Aircraft Company called Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP) are described. ADOP was originally intended for the rapid, accurate, cost-effective evaluation of relatively small structural models at the advanced design level, resulting in improved proposal competitiveness and avoiding many costly changes later in the design cycle. Before release of the initial version in November 1987, however, the program was expanded to handle very large production-type analyses.

  5. Bibliography for Hayes, Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Douglas, and Aniakchak volcanoes, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemke, K.J.; May, B.A.; Vanderpool, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alaska has more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which are close to the major population centers of south-central Alaska. This bibliography was compiled to assist in the preparation of volcano hazard evaluations at Cook Inlet volcanoes. It lists articles, reports, and maps about the geology and hydrology of Hayes, Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, and Douglas volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region as well as Aniakchak Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. References on the biology and archaeology of areas surrounding each volcano also are included because they may provide useful background information.

  6. Comprehensive health care reform in Vermont: a conversation with Governor Jim Douglas. Interview by James Maxwell.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In this conversation, Vermont's Republican governor, Jim Douglas, discusses his role in and views on the state's comprehensive health reforms adopted in 2006. The reforms are designed to provide universal access to coverage, improve the quality and performance of the health care system, and promote health and wellness across the lifespan. He describes the specific features of the reforms, the plan for their financing, and the difficult compromises that had to be reached with the Democratically controlled legislature. He talks about his need, as governor, to balance the goals of health reform against other state priorities such as education and economic development.

  7. Statistical analysis of mission profile parameters of civil transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, O.

    1972-01-01

    The statistical analysis of flight times as well as airplane gross weights and fuel weights of jet-powered civil transport airplanes has shown that the distributions of their frequency of occurrence per flight can be presented approximately in general form. Before, however, these results may be used during the project stage of an airplane for defining a typical mission profile (the parameters of which are assumed to occur, for example, with a probability of 50 percent), the following points have to be taken into account. Because the individual airplanes were rotated during service, the scatter between the distributions of mission profile parameters for airplanes of the same type, which were flown with similar payload, has proven to be very small. Significant deviations from the generalized distributions may occur if an operator uses one airplane preferably on one or two specific routes. Another reason for larger deviations could be that the maintenance services of the operators of the observed airplanes are not representative of other airlines. Although there are indications that this is unlikely, similar information should be obtained from other operators. Such information would improve the reliability of the data.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  9. Simulation of Dynamics of a Flexible Miniature Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    A short report discusses selected aspects of the development of the University of Florida micro-aerial vehicle (UFMAV) basically, a miniature airplane that has a flexible wing and is representative of a new class of airplanes that would operate autonomously or under remote control and be used for surveillance and/or scientific observation. The flexibility of the wing is to be optimized such that passive deformation of the wing in the presence of aerodynamic disturbances would reduce the overall response of the airplane to disturbances, thereby rendering the airplane more stable as an observation platform. The aspect of the development emphasized in the report is that of computational simulation of dynamics of the UFMAV in flight, for the purpose of generating mathematical models for use in designing control systems for the airplane. The simulations are performed by use of data from a wind-tunnel test of the airplane in combination with commercial software, in which are codified a standard set of equations of motion of an airplane, and a set of mathematical routines to compute trim conditions and extract linear state space models.

  10. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  11. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  12. Electric airplane environmental control systems energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, L.B.

    1984-05-01

    The electric airplane environmental control system (ECS) design drivers is discussed for an electric airplane from two aspects. The first aspect considered is the type of aircraft. The three examples selected are the 150-passenger commercial airline transport, the military on-station electronic-surveillance patrol aircraft, and the air-defense interceptor fighter. These vehicle examples illustrate the effect of both mission and mission profile on the design requirements of the ECS and the differences that the requirements make on the resulting advantages and disadvantages of electrification. For the commercial transport, the selection of the air source for ventilation will be featured. For the patrol aircraft, the cooling unit will be evaluated. For the fighter, emphasis will be placed on the need for systems integration. The second and more important consideration is the definition of the environmental control system requirements for both energy supply and heat sink thermal management integration from the power plant (engine) that make an electric ECS viable for each type of vehicle.

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  14. Analysis of Multiengine Transport Airplane Fire Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesman, Gerard J.

    1950-01-01

    An analysis has been made of Civil Aeronautics Administration and Civil Aeronautics Board commercial airplane fire records collected during the 10-year period ending July 1, 1948. The results of the analysis show that: 1. Gasoline was most frequently the initial combustible ignited in flight and ground fires and is considered to be the most hazardous of the combustibles carried. 2. Although electrical-ignition sources are the most frequent flight-fire ignition source by a small margin, the exhaust system is concluded to be the most hazardous ignition source because it is necessarily located near the lubricating-oil and gasoline-plumbing systems and the resulting fires are relatively severe. The electrical-ignition sources usually involve only the electrical insulation and result in small-volume fires. The exhaust system was found to be the most frequent ground-fire ignition source. 3. Engine failures were the most frequent cause of the union of combustible and ignition source that resulted in flight fires. 4. Fuel-plumbing-system failures were the most frequent cause of fires occurring during ground operation. 5. The evidence concerning crash fires was not sufficiently extensive to provide information concerning the factors that affect the start and the spread of fire. In order that future records may be more useful, all crash accidents should be studied to determine why fire does or does not occur and to establish data that relate the occurrence and the spread of fire to airplane design and operation.

  15. Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, H

    1931-01-01

    A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

  16. Effect of Various Essential Oils Isolated from Douglas Fir Needles upon Sheep and Deer Rumen Microbial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hi Kon; Sakai, T.; Jones, M. B.; Longhurst, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    The effects of essential oils isolated from Douglas fir needles on sheep and deer rumen microbial activity were tested by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Rumen microorganisms were obtained from a sheep which had been fed mainly on alfalfa hay and dried range grass. One deer used in this study had access to Douglas fir trees the year around, whereas the other deer had no access to Douglas fir. All of the monoterpene hydrocarbons isolated from Douglas fir needles—α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, myrcene, camphene, Δ3-carene, and terpinolene—promoted only slightly or had no effect on deer rumen microbial activity, whereas all of them promoted activity in sheep rumen microbes, except Δ3-carene and terpinolene, which inhibited activity. Of the oxygenated monoterpenes, all monoterpene alcohols—α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalool, citronellol, and fenchyl alcohol—strongly inhibited the rumen microbial activity of both sheep and deer. Monoterpene esters (bornyl acetate) produced mild inhibition for both sheep and deer microbes, and citronellyl acetate inhibited rumen microbial activity in sheep, whereas it promoted activity in both deer. Monoterpene aldehyde (citronellal) inhibited the activity of rumen microbes from both sheep and deer having no access to Douglas fir from the Hopland Field Station, whereas they produced no effect upon the deer having access to Douglas fir from the Masonite forest. Rumen microbial activity for sheep and deer was promoted slightly with aliphatic ester (ethyl-n-caproate). There was a marked difference between sheep and deer rumen microbes as affected by addition of the various essential oils. The monoterpene hydrocarbons promoted activity more on sheep rumen microbes than on deer, and the monoterpene alcohols inhibited sheep rumen microbial activity more than that of deer. Furthermore, the deer rumen microbes from Hopland Field Station were affected more than the deer from Masonite forest. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6049303

  17. 75 FR 6162 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain McDonnell Douglas...

  18. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible...

  19. Hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic capacity as constraints on release from suppression in Douglas-fir and western hemlock.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Heidi J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Gartner, Barbara L

    2007-01-01

    We compared hydraulic architecture, photosynthesis and growth in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), a shade-intolerant species, and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), a shade-tolerant species, to study the temporal pattern of release from suppressive shade. In particular, we sought to determine whether hydraulic architecture or photosynthetic capacity is most important in constraining release. The study was conducted at two sites with mixed stands of 10- to 20-year-old Douglas-fir and western hemlock. At one site, the stand had been thinned allowing release of the understory trees, whereas at the other site, the stand remained unthinned. Douglas-fir had lower height growth (from 1998-2003) and lower relative height growth (height growth from 1998 to 2003/height in 1998) than western hemlock. However, relative height growth of released versus suppressed trees was higher in Douglas-fir (130%) than in western hemlock (65%), indicating that, although absolute height growth was less, Douglas-fir did release from suppression. Release seemed to be constrained initially by a limited photosynthetic capacity in both species. Five years after release, Douglas-fir trees had 14 times the leaf area and 1.5 times the leaf nitrogen concentration (N (area)) of suppressed trees. Needles of released western hemlock trees had about twice the maximum assimilation rate (A (max)) at ambient [CO(2)] as needles of suppressed trees and exhibited no photoinhibition at the highest irradiances. After release, trees increased in leaf area, leaf N concentration and overall photosynthetic capacity. Subsequently, hydraulic architecture appeared to constrain release in Douglas-fir and, to a lesser extent, in western hemlock. Released trees had significantly less negative foliar delta(13)C values than suppressed trees and showed a positive relationship between leaf area:sapwood area ratio (A (L)/A (S)) and delta(13)C, suggesting that trees with more leaf area for a

  20. Alteration of Cell-Wall Water Content and Elasticity in Douglas-Fir during Periods of Water Deficit 1

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Robert J.; Zaerr, Joe B.

    1987-01-01

    Three populations of seedlings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) were subjected to recurrent drought cycles. Pressure-volume curves were developed to derive the osmotic and pressure potentials as functions of the symplastic water over a wide range of relative water content. The drought cycles induced large reversible changes in the relative water content of the apoplasm and in the bulk modulus of elasticity. These responses have not been reported previously in any species of higher plant. Our data suggest that turgor regulation in Douglas-fir is mediated by structural and biochemical factors associated with the cell wall, rather than by osmotic adjustment. PMID:16665260

  1. Boron and magnesium fertilization of a coastal Douglas-fir plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.N. ); Carter, R.E. )

    1993-04-01

    This study examines the role of boron and magnesium nutrition in the occurrence of severe growth distortion symptoms in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) in the Skwawka River valley of south coastal British Columbia. Four fertilizer treatments including boron, magnesium, boron plus magnesium, and a control, were applied in conjunction with planting on a site believed to be deficient in these nutrients. After 5 growing seasons, only treatments containing boron (B and B+Mg) showed improved height growth over the control trees. The incidence of leader dieback, swollen leading shoots, and foliage distortion was significantly related to treatment with virtually no occurrence in plots treated with boron. Seedling uptake of applied boron was high, with foliar concentrations of 45 ppm found after the second growth season. Foliar B levels declined to 13-15 ppm after 5 growing seasons. No significant increase in foliar magnesium levels was detected for either of the magnesium treatments. The reduction in the incidence of leader dieback and shoot and foliar symptoms in seedlings treated with B indicate that these symptoms were the result of boron deficiencies. This is the first study to verify boron deficiency in coastal Douglas-fir through fertilizer trials.

  2. Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenesis in Douglas-fir embryonal initials in an artificial sporangium.

    PubMed

    Durzan, Don J

    2011-12-01

    Control of female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenesis of Douglas-fir embryonal initials was studied using an experimental culture system in which changes in growth condition can mediate changes in cell identity and outcomes. This culture system constitutes an artificial sporangium in which myriad culture conditions can be simulated and should be applicable for research on a variety of gymnosperms. In this study, embryonal initials from developing seeds from two Douglas-fir trees were rescued and became reprogrammed for female parthenogenetic apomixis (fPA) and parthenogenetic androsporogenesis (mPA). Female PA was initiated by endomitosis forming a binucleate cell with a diploid egg-equivalent and an apoptotic ventral canal nucleus in an archegonial tube. Egg-equivalent nuclei formed cells (parthenotes) that were discharged into an aqueous culture medium. Parthenotes developed axial tiers atypical of early embryogenesis in seeds. Earlier in the year, androsporangial tubes were parthenogenetically differentiated and released monads, dyads, triads, and tetrads into the culture medium. Spores showed chromosomal aberrations. PA demonstrated a temporal separation in gender expression (dichogamy). Embryonal initials brought forward and by-passed the long juvenile phases normally needed for cells to develop into trees and express reproductive maturity. Expressions of fPA and mPA indicated that the specialized culture flasks served as an artificial sporangium (AS). Awareness is raised for the value of an AS for research in gymnosperm life cycles and as a teaching and research laboratory.

  3. Drying characteristics and equilibrium moisture content of steam-treated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.).

    PubMed

    Lam, Pak Sui; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Larsson, Sylvia H

    2012-07-01

    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.) particles were exposed to high pressure saturated steam (200 and 220 °C for 5 and 10 min) to improve the durability and hydrophobicity of pellets produced from them. Depending on treatment severity, the moisture content of the particles increased from 10% to 36% (wet basis). Douglas fir particles steam-treated at 220 °C for 10 min had the fastest drying rate of 0.014 min(-1). The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of steam-treated samples decreased with increasing steam temperature and treatment time. The Giggnheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) equilibrium model gave a good fit with the equilibrium data with R(2) = 0.99. The adsorption rate of untreated pellets exposed to humid air (30 °C, 90% RH) for 72 h was 0.0152 min(-1) while that of steam-treated pellets ranged from 0.0125 to 0.0135 min(-1) without a clear trend with steam treatment severity. These findings are critical to develop durable and less hygroscopic pellets.

  4. Fermentability of the hemicellulose-derived sugars from steam-exploded softwood (Douglas fir)

    SciTech Connect

    Boussaid, A.; Robinson, J.; Cai, Y.J.; Gregg, D.J.; Saddler, J.N. . Faculty of Forestry)

    1999-08-05

    Steam explosion of Douglas fir wood chips under low-severity conditions resulted in the recovery of around 87% of the original hemicellulose component in the water-soluble stream. More than 80% of the recovered hemicellulose was in a monomeric form. As the pretreatment severity increased from 3.08 to 3.76, hemicellulose recovery dropped to 43% of the original hemicellulose found in Douglas fir chips while the concentration of glucose originating from cellulose hydrolysis increased along with the concentration of sugar degradation products such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. Despite containing a higher concentration of hexose monomers (mainly glucose originating from cellulose degradation), the water-soluble fraction prepared under high-severity conditions was not readily fermented. Only the two hydrolyzates obtained at low and medium severities were fermented to ethanol using a spent sulfur liquor adapted strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High ethanol yields were obtained for these two hydrolyzates with 0.44 g of ethanol produced per gram of hexose utilized (86% of theoretical). However, the best results of hemicellulose recovery and fermentability were obtained for the low-severity water-soluble fraction which was fermented significantly faster than the fraction obtained after medium-severity treatment probably because it contained higher amounts of fermentation inhibitors.

  5. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  6. Architecture of the wood-wide web: Rhizopogon spp. genets link multiple Douglas-fir cohorts.

    PubMed

    Beiler, Kevin J; Durall, Daniel M; Simard, Suzanne W; Maxwell, Sheri A; Kretzer, Annette M

    2010-01-01

    *The role of mycorrhizal networks in forest dynamics is poorly understood because of the elusiveness of their spatial structure. We mapped the belowground distribution of the fungi Rhizopogon vesiculosus and Rhizopogon vinicolor and interior Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) to determine the architecture of a mycorrhizal network in a multi-aged old-growth forest. *Rhizopogon spp. mycorrhizas were collected within a 30 x 30 m plot. Trees and fungal genets were identified using multi-locus microsatellite DNA analysis. Tree genotypes from mycorrhizas were matched to reference trees aboveground. Two trees were considered linked if they shared the same fungal genet(s). *The two Rhizopogon species each formed 13-14 genets, each colonizing up to 19 trees in the plot. Rhizopogon vesiculosus genets were larger, occurred at greater depths, and linked more trees than genets of R. vinicolor. Multiple tree cohorts were linked, with young saplings established within the mycorrhizal network of Douglas-fir veterans. A strong positive relationship was found between tree size and connectivity, resulting in a scale-free network architecture with small-world properties. *This mycorrhizal network architecture suggests an efficient and robust network, where large trees play a foundational role in facilitating conspecific regeneration and stabilizing the ecosystem. PMID:19878460

  7. Sub-tidal Circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles; Foreman, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in Kitimat fjord system that opens to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. The fjord is separated from the open shelf by a broad sill that is about 150 m deep, and there is another sill (200 m) that separates the fjord into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected from three moorings deployed during 2013-2015, and the water property observations collected during six cruises (2014 and 2015). Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill-depth. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from early June to September, and this dense water renews both basins in the form of gravity currents at 0.1 - 0.2 m/s with a thickness of 100 m. At other times of the year, the deep flow structures and water properties suggest horizontal and vertical processes and support the re-circulation idea in the inner and the outer basins. The near surface current velocity fluctuations are dominated by the along-channel wind. Overall, the circulation in the meteorological band is a mix of the estuarine flow, direct wind driven flow, and the baroclinic response to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind driven currents.

  8. Role of O-methyltransferase in the lignification of Douglas-fir cultured tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    O-methyltransferase (OMT) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin. This enzyme was isolated and characterized in an effort to understand why Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) callus tissue does not form appreciable amounts of lignin yet does form large amounts of the related flavonoids and tannins. It was shown that the OMT in the callus tissue is a cell wall associated, membrane-bound enzyme, in contrast to that of all reported plant species and to Douglas-fir seedlings, which have either a microsomal or soluble OMT. The effect this had on the OMT kinetic constants was studied. It was found that the callus OMT had much higher K/sub m/ constants for caffeic acid in both the membrane-bound and free forms compared with seedlings. The callus membrane-bound K/sub m/ for caffeic acid is 333 ..mu..M. The callus membrane-free K/sub m/ for caffeic acid is 250 ..mu..M. The seedling K/sub m/ for caffeic acid is 90 ..mu..M.

  9. Airplane Wings For Faster Climbing And Slower Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff-Hovey, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Reshaped airfoils improve performance. Performances of general-aviation airplanes improved by modifying airfoil shapes. Equation used to determine new contour for each type of wing. Calculations straightforward enough to be done on hand calculator.

  10. F-16XL Basic Airplane Model in the BART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    4% F-16XL model in BART. Model configuration is the basic airplane, with air dams and missiles. Tests in the tunnel included surface pressures, 5 hole probe, and on and off surface flow visualization.

  11. Development of fire test methods for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests were conducted in a 737 airplane fuselage at NASA-JSC to characterize jet fuel fires in open steel pans (simulating post-crash fire sources and a ruptured airplane fuselage) and to characterize fires in some common combustibles (simulating in-flight fire sources). Design post-crash and in-flight fire source selections were based on these data. Large panels of airplane interior materials were exposed to closely-controlled large scale heating simulations of the two design fire sources in a Boeing fire test facility utilizing a surplused 707 fuselage section. Small samples of the same airplane materials were tested by several laboratory fire test methods. Large scale and laboratory scale data were examined for correlative factors. Published data for dangerous hazard levels in a fire environment were used as the basis for developing a method to select the most desirable material where trade-offs in heat, smoke and gaseous toxicant evolution must be considered.

  12. 78 FR 57104 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Model DA 40 airplanes, serial numbers 40.006 through 40.009, 40.011 through 40.1071, and 40.1073...

  13. Buffet characteristics of the F-8 supercritical wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deangelis, V. M.; Monaghan, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The buffet characteristics of the F-8 supercritical wing airplane were investigated. Wing structural response was used to determine the buffet characteristics of the wing and these characteristics are compared with wind tunnel model data and the wing flow characteristics at transonic speeds. The wingtip accelerometer was used to determine the buffet onset boundary and to measure the buffet intensity characteristics of the airplane. The effects of moderate trailing edge flap deflections on the buffet onset boundary are presented. The supercritical wing flow characteristics were determined from wind tunnel and flight static pressure measurements and from a dynamic pressure sensor mounted on the flight test airplane in the vicinity of the shock wave that formed on the upper surface of the wing at transonic speeds. The comparison of the airplane's structural response data to the supercritical flow characteristics includes the effects of a leading edge vortex generator.

  14. Development of tailless and all-wing gliders and airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lademann, Robert W E

    1932-01-01

    Tailless airplanes are characterized by having all their control surfaces, especially the elevator, incorporated in the wings. This paper provides a discussion of the history of their development and current state of development.

  15. Noise abatement technology options for conventional turboprop airplanes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, W.J.; Wilby, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    The practical application of noise control technology to new and derivative conventional turboprop airplanes likely to come into service in the 1980's has been analyzed with a view to determining noise control cost/benefits. The analysis identifies feasible noise control methods, applies them to four study airplanes, and presents the noise reductions in terms of the equivalent perceived noise level at takeoff, sideline and approach locations, and the effect on the area within selected EPNL contours. Noise reductions of up to 8.3 dB for takeoff and 10.7 dB for approach are calculated for the study airplanes but, for most cases, the changes are less than 5 dB. Weight and cost increases associated with the noise control treatments are determined under the assumption there they are no changes to airplane performance or fuel consumption.

  16. 18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING EAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  17. 17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING WEST. - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  18. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flame retardant chemicals are used in materials on airplanes to slow the propagation of fire. These chemicals migrate from their source products and can be found in the dust of airplanes, creating the potential for exposure. Methods To characterize exposure to flame retardant chemicals in airplane dust, we collected dust samples from locations inside 19 commercial airplanes parked overnight at airport gates. In addition, hand-wipe samples were also collected from 9 flight attendants and 1 passenger who had just taken a cross-country (USA) flight. The samples were analyzed for a suite of flame retardant chemicals. To identify the possible sources for the brominated flame retardants, we used a portable XRF analyzer to quantify bromine concentrations in materials inside the airplanes. Results A wide range of flame retardant compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples collected from airplanes, including BDEs 47, 99, 153, 183 and 209, tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH). Airplane dust contained elevated concentrations of BDE 209 (GM: 500 ug/g; range: 2,600 ug/g) relative to other indoor environments, such as residential and commercial buildings, and the hands of participants after a cross-country flight contained elevated BDE 209 concentrations relative to the general population. TDCPP, a known carcinogen that was removed from use in children’s pajamas in the 1970’s although still used today in other consumer products, was detected on 100% of airplanes in concentrations similar to those found in residential and commercial locations. Conclusion This study adds to the limited body of knowledge regarding exposure to flame retardants on commercial aircraft, an environment long hypothesized to be at risk for maximum exposures due to strict flame retardant standards for aircraft materials. Our findings indicate that flame retardants are widely used in many

  20. Mathematical model of induced flow on the airplane vertical tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Edu, Raluca Ioana

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is presented a mathematical model of the flow around the vertical tail of an airplane, based on the general elements of the aerodynamic design, with details leading to the separate formulation of the Fourier coefficients in the series solution of the Prandtl's lifting-line equation. Numerical results are obtained in Maple soft environment, for a standard configuration of an airplane geometry. The results include the discussion of the vortex model for the sidewash gradient on the vertical stabilizer.

  1. An evaluation of aerodynamics modeling of spinning light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, B. N.; Taylor, L. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper extends the application of the modified strip theory for wing body combination of a spinning light airplane reported earlier. In addition, to account for the contribution of the tail plane, the shielding effect on vertical tail under steady state spin condition is modeled from basic aerodynamic considerations. The results of this combined analysis, presented for some light airplane configurations, are shown to be in good agreement with spin tunnel rotary balance test data.

  2. 77 FR 50411 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... the ECS. AD 2008-02-16, Amendment 39-15346 (73 FR 4061, January 24, 2008), applicable to certain Model 767-200 and 767-300 series airplanes. AD 2010-14-01, Amendment 39-16344 (75 FR 38007, July 1, 2010..., 747-400F, 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes. AD 2012-02-09, Amendment 39-16932 (77 FR 5996, February...

  3. Definition and application of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, W. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A set of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes is defined from fundamental principles allowing perturbations in forward speed. Application of these derivatives to longitudinal stability analysis by use of approximate expressions for static stability and control parameters as well as the dynamic equations of motion is illustrated. One commonly used alternative formulation for elastic airplanes is shown to yield significant inaccuracies because of inappropriate interpretation of inertial effects.

  4. Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

  5. A family of supersonic airplanes: Technical and economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, F. D.; Whitten, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    To improve the prospects for success in the market place, the family approach is essential to the design of future supersonic airplanes. The evolution from a basic supersonic airplane to a family could follow historic patterns, with one exception: substantial changes in passenger carrying capacity will be difficult by the conventional fuselage "doughnut" approach so successfully used on the cylindrical fuselage of subsonic airplanes. The primary reasons for this difference include the requirement for highly integrated "area ruled" configurations, to give the desired high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, and other physical limitations such as takeoff and landing rotation. A concept for a supersonic airplane family that could effectively solve the variable range and passenger capacity problem provides for modification of the fuselage cross section that makes it possible to build a family of three airplanes with four, five, and six abreast passenger seating. This is done by replacing or modifying portions of the fuselage. All airplanes share the same wing, engines, and major subsystems. Only small sections of the fuselage would be different, and aerodynamic efficiency need not be compromised.

  6. The Choice of Wing Sections for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1921-01-01

    The subject of the choice of an airfoil section is by no means a closed one, and despite the impossibility of making a single rule serve, it is quite practicable to deduce in a strictly rational manner a series of rules and formulas which are capable of being of the greatest use if we but confine ourselves to the consideration of one element of performance at a time. There are seven such elements of performance which are here taken up in turn. The seven are of different relative importance in different types of airplanes. The seven elements are: maximum speed regardless of minimum; maximum speed for given minimum; maximum speed range ratio; maximum rate of climb; maximum absolute ceiling; maximum distance non-stop; and maximum duration non-stop.

  7. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  8. The importance of seasonal temperature and moisture patterns on growth of Douglas-fir in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir growth in the Pacific Northwest is thought to be water limited. However, discerning the relative influence of air temperature and plant available soil water (W) on growth is difficult because they interact with each other, with other climate factors and with the inher...

  9. Measuring Absolutists: Justices Hugo L. Black and William O. Douglas and Their Differences of Opinion on Freedom of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Thomas A.

    The absolutist approach to the First Amendment of the United States Constitution--argued for many years by Supreme Court Justices Hugo L. Black and William O. Douglas--is regarded as the most libertarian interpretation by most mass communication law students. However, the two justices found agreement difficult in some First Amendment cases,…

  10. MORPHOGENESIS OF DOUGLAS-FIR BUDS IN ALTERED AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BUT NOT AT ELEVATED CO21

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climatic change as expressed by increased CO2 and temperature has the potential for dramatic effects on trees. To determine what its effects may be on Pacific Northwest forests, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment cham...

  11. Migration of an abandoned pacemaker generator into the pouch of Douglas in a child with complex congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    May, Joseph W; Shmorhun, Daniel P

    2007-07-01

    A young girl with complex congenital heart disease underwent Fontan procedure and multiple pacemaker revisions, including abandonment of an intraabdominal pacemaker generator at age eight. She presented two years later with constipation and abdominal twitching. Radiographs, pacemaker interrogation, and laparoscopy confirmed dislocation of the abandoned generator and intraperitoneal migration into the pouch of Douglas. The device was removed surgically without incident.

  12. δ15N patterns of Douglas-fir and red alder riparian forests in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, E.E.; Perakis, S.S.; Hibbs, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    We used naturally occurring stable isotopes of N to compare N dynamics in near-stream and upslope environments along riparian catenas in N-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Coast Range of western Oregon. Based on the existing literature, we expected soil δ15N to be enriched closer to streams owing to inputs of isotopically heavy, marine-derived N by spawning salmon, higher rates of denitrification near the stream, or both. However, it has been unclear what effect red alder might have on soil δ15N patterns near streams. We found a consistent −1‰ δ15N signature in red alder foliage, and δ15N of total N in soils under red alder averaged 2.2‰ along sampling transects extending 20 m upslope from the stream. Surprisingly, δ15N of total N in soil under Douglas-fir was progressively depleted nearer to streams, opposite from the pattern expected from N losses by denitrification or N inputs from anadromous salmon. Instead, δ15N of total N in soil under Douglas-fir converged toward soil δ15N values typical of red alder sites. We consider that the historic presence of red alder may have contributed a legacy of lower soil δ15N nearer to streams on sites that are currently dominated by young Douglas-fir forest.

  13. Application of the Cobb-Douglas Model to the Use of Information Resources by Industry in Croatia, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarc, J.; Svarc, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Cobb-Douglas model applied to value added as a function of labor, capital, purchases of information services, and purchases of other input is used to investigate the use of information by the industrial sector of Croatia, Yugoslavia. It is concluded that less than an optimal amount of information resources is being used. (13 references)…

  14. 77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas... a proposal to authorize the release of 0.32 acres of airport property (Parcel No. 18) at the J... received on or before December 14, 2012. ADDRESSES: Mr. Daniel J. Millenacker, Program Manager,...

  15. The analytic solution of the firm's cost-minimization problem with box constraints and the Cobb-Douglas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayón, L.; Grau, J. M.; Ruiz, M. M.; Suárez, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most well-known problems in the field of Microeconomics is the Firm's Cost-Minimization Problem. In this paper we establish the analytical expression for the cost function using the Cobb-Douglas model and considering maximum constraints for the inputs. Moreover we prove that it belongs to the class C1.

  16. Effect of Peat Moss and Pumice on Douglas Fir Bark based Soilless Substrate Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.(Franco)] bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss, and pumice are the most common substrate components used in the Oregon nursery industry. The objective of this study was to document the effect of peat and pumice addition on the physical and hydrological properties o...

  17. Water Use and Growth of Two Woody Taxa Produced in Varying Indigenous Douglas-Fir Based Soilless Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) container crops are grown in soilless substrates that contain different percentages of Douglas-fir bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss and pumice. Previous research conducted by Gabriel et al. found varying combinations and ratios of these components result in differing phy...

  18. Regional effects of Swiss needle cast disease and climate on growth of Douglas-fir in western Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited to the Coast Range and is of no concern outside this region (Shaw et al., 2011). However, knowledge remains limited on the spatial distribution of Sw...

  19. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER THE ECOSYSTEM C EXCHANGE IN A YOUNG DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (EC) [ambient CO2 (AC) + 190 ppm] and elevated temperature (ET) [ambient temperature (AT) + 3.6 °C] on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of seedling Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mesocosms. As the study utilized seedlings in reconstruc...

  20. South Douglas County Early Childhood Education Project, First Year Evaluation Report, July 1, 1971 to June 30, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Umpqua School District, Myrtle Creek, OR.

    The South Douglas County Early Childhood Education Project serves preschool children from 3 to 5 years old and handicapped children from birth to age 5. The program, designed to establish a parent-school partnership, brings teaching ideas and materials to the homes of participating families. Parents control the educational process, aided by…

  1. Elevated temperature differently affects foliar nitrogen partitioning in seedlings of diverse Douglas fir provenances.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Junker, Laura Verena; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change causes an increase in ambient air temperature, a major environmental factor influencing plant physiology and growth that already has been perceived at the regional scale and is expected to become even more severe in the future. In the present study, we investigated the effect of elevated ambient air temperature on the nitrogen metabolism of two interior provenances of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) originating from contrasting habitats, namely the provenances Monte Creek (MC) from a drier environment and Pend Oreille (PO) from a more humid environment. Three- to four-year-old seedlings of the two provenances were grown for 3 months in controlled environments under either control temperature (day 20 °C, night 15 °C) or high temperature (HT, 30/25 °C) conditions. Total nitrogen (N), soluble protein, chlorophyll and total amino acid (TAA) contents as well as individual amino acid concentrations were determined in both current-year and previous-year needles. Our results show that the foliar total N contents of the two provenances were unaffected by HT. Arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate and glutamine were the most abundant amino acids, which together contributed ∼88% to the TAA pool of current- and previous-year needles. High temperature decreased the contents of most amino acids of the glutamate family (i.e., arginine, proline, ornithine and glutamine) in current-year needles. However, HT did not affect the concentrations of metabolites related to the photorespiratory pathway, such as [Formula: see text], glycine and serine. In general, current-year needles were considerably more sensitive to HT than previous-year needles. Moreover, provenance PO originating from a mesic environment showed stronger responses to HT than provenance MC. Our results indicate provenance-specific plasticity in the response of Douglas fir to growth temperature. Provenance-specific effects of elevated temperature on N-use efficiency suggest

  2. Elevated temperature differently affects foliar nitrogen partitioning in seedlings of diverse Douglas fir provenances.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Junker, Laura Verena; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change causes an increase in ambient air temperature, a major environmental factor influencing plant physiology and growth that already has been perceived at the regional scale and is expected to become even more severe in the future. In the present study, we investigated the effect of elevated ambient air temperature on the nitrogen metabolism of two interior provenances of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) originating from contrasting habitats, namely the provenances Monte Creek (MC) from a drier environment and Pend Oreille (PO) from a more humid environment. Three- to four-year-old seedlings of the two provenances were grown for 3 months in controlled environments under either control temperature (day 20 °C, night 15 °C) or high temperature (HT, 30/25 °C) conditions. Total nitrogen (N), soluble protein, chlorophyll and total amino acid (TAA) contents as well as individual amino acid concentrations were determined in both current-year and previous-year needles. Our results show that the foliar total N contents of the two provenances were unaffected by HT. Arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate and glutamine were the most abundant amino acids, which together contributed ∼88% to the TAA pool of current- and previous-year needles. High temperature decreased the contents of most amino acids of the glutamate family (i.e., arginine, proline, ornithine and glutamine) in current-year needles. However, HT did not affect the concentrations of metabolites related to the photorespiratory pathway, such as [Formula: see text], glycine and serine. In general, current-year needles were considerably more sensitive to HT than previous-year needles. Moreover, provenance PO originating from a mesic environment showed stronger responses to HT than provenance MC. Our results indicate provenance-specific plasticity in the response of Douglas fir to growth temperature. Provenance-specific effects of elevated temperature on N-use efficiency suggest

  3. The right wing of the LEFT airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Arthur G.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Leading-Edge Flight Test (LEFT) program addressed the environmental issues which were potential problems in the application of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) to transport aircraft. These included contamination of the LFC surface due to dirt, rain, insect remains, snow, and ice, in the critical leading-edge region. Douglas Aircraft Company designed and built a test article which was mounted on the right wing of the C-140 JetStar aircraft. The test article featured a retractable leading-edge high-lift shield for contamination protection and suction through perforations on the upper surface for LFC. Following a period of developmental flight testing, the aircraft entered simulated airline service, which included exposure to airborne insects, heavy rain, snow, and icing conditions both in the air and on the ground. During the roughly 3 years of flight testing, the test article has consistently demonstrated laminar flow in cruising flight. The experience with the LEFT experiment was summarized with emphasis on significant test findings. The following items were discussed: test article design and features; suction distribution; instrumentation and transition point reckoning; problems and fixes; system performance and maintenance requirements.

  4. Pioneer exotic tree search for the douglas-fir region. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Silen, R.R.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-03-01

    After three-quarters of a century of introduction of 152 conifer and broadleaf species, no promising candidate exotic was found for the Douglas-fir region. Growth curves spanning 50 years or longer are figured for many species. Firs, pines, larches, spruces, hemlocks, and cedars orginating in northwestern North America had superior growth rates to those from other forest regions. The probable basis for these differences is discussed. The record highlights a general failure of introduced hardwoods, the slow decline of most introduced conifers, the long time needed to express failures, dramatic effects of climatic extremes or introduced pests, failure of native species of continental origin at Wind River, striking similarities of growth rate for the species originating in each country, and many important contrasts between results from early reports and long-term conclusions.

  5. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed. PMID:23765005

  6. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Douglas Basin area, Cochise County, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Larry J.; English, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Douglas basin area includes about 1,200 square miles in southeastern Arizona. The main use of ground water is for irrigation. For 1955-77, the estimated ground-water pumpage equaled or exceeded 50,000 acre-feet per year, and for 1966-77, the ground-water pumpage averaged about 109,000 acre-feet per year. Ground-water withdrawals have resulted in water-level declines in most of the area. Information shown on the maps includes change in water level (1966-78) and irrigated area; depth to water and altitude of the water level; and chemical quality of the water and well depth. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. Scale 1:125,000. (USGS)

  7. Ecological controls over monoterpene emissions from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerdau, M.; Matson, P.; Fall, R.

    1995-12-01

    The roles of nitrogen availability and seasonality in controlling monoterpene concentration in and emission from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were examined in a greenhouse study. Plants were maintained at three nitrogen levels, and foliar nitrogen concentration, photosynthetic rate, monoterpene concentration, and monoterpene emission rate were measured over an entire phenological cycle, from before bud break in the spring through winter dormancy. Both nitrogen fertilization level and phenological stage affected the concentration of monoterpenes in the foliage. There was also a consistent linear relationship between monoterpene concentration and monoterpene emission. Out of the nitrogen-phenology-concentration and the concentration-emission relationships comes a predictable relationship between nitrogen, phenology and monoterpene emission. This relationship allows linkage between atmospheric chemical processes, such as ozone production, and ecological ones, such as leaf expansion. The results also demonstrate that theories on allocation to defense need to consider the phenological stage of the plant as well as the availability of resources.

  8. Influence of Light Intensity at Different Temperatures on Rate of Respiration of Douglas-Fir Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Brix, Holger

    1968-01-01

    The rate of photorespiration of Douglas-fir seedlings was measured under different light intensities by: (1) extrapolating the curve for CO2 uptake in relation to atmospheric CO2 content to zero CO2 content, and (2) measuring CO2 evolution of the plants into a CO2-free airstream. Different results, obtained from these techniques, were believed to be caused by a severe restriction of the photosynthetic activity when the latter was used. With the first method, CO2 evolution was lower than the dark respiration rate at low light intensity. For all temperatures studied (6°, 20°, 28°) a further increase in light intensity raised the CO2 evolution above dark respiration before it leveled off. The rate of CO2 evolution was stimulated by increase in temperature at all light intensities. With the CO2-free air method, CO2 evolution in the light was less than dark respiration at all light intensities. PMID:16656775

  9. Estimation of the density of Buccinum undatum (Gastropoda) off Douglas, Isle of Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kideys, A. E.

    1993-02-01

    The density of the common whelk ( Buccinum undatum L.) off Douglas, Isle of Man, was determined by four methods: (1) pot sampling, (2) diving, (3) mark-recapture experiment, and (4) underwater television. Although the values obtained by these methods were comparable, the last two methods yielded overestimations of Buccinum density. The results from diving survey and from pot sampling showed a good agreement, indicating that pot sampling can be used to determine the density of the common whelk, provided a good estimate of the pot attraction area is available. The range of whelk density between February 1989 and August 1990 resulting from pot sampling was between 0.08 and 0.38 individuals m-2. The temporal fluctuations of the whelk densities are discussed in detail.

  10. Computation of Loads on the McDonnell Douglas Advanced Bearingless Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Lauzon, Dan; Anand, Vaidyanathan

    1994-01-01

    Computed results from UMARC and DART analyses are compared with the blade bending moments and vibratory hub loads data obtained from a full-scale wind tunnel test of the McDonnell Douglas five-bladed advanced bearingless rotor. The 5 per-rev vibratory hub loads data are corrected using results from a dynamic calibration of the rotor balance. The comparison between UMARC computed blade bending moments at different flight conditions are poor to fair, while DART results are fair to good. Using the free wake module, UMARC adequately computes the 5P vibratory hub loads for this rotor, capturing both magnitude and variations with forward speed. DART employs a uniform inflow wake model and does not adequately compute the 5P vibratory hub loads for this rotor.

  11. Superconformal indices of generalized Argyres-Douglas theories from 2d TQFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaewon

    2016-02-01

    We study superconformal indices of 4d {N}=2 class S theories with certain irregular punctures called type I k,N . This class of theories include generalized Argyres-Douglas theories of type ( A k-1 , A N -1) and more. We conjecture the superconformal indices in certain simplified limits based on the TQFT structure of the class S theories by writing an expression for the wave function corresponding to the puncture I k,N . We write the Schur limit of the wave function when k and N are coprime. When k = 2, we also conjecture a closed-form expression for the Hall-Littlewood index and the Macdonald index for odd N. Fromtheindex,wearguethatcertainshort-multipletwhichcanappearintheOPEof the stress-energy tensor is absent in the ( A 1 , A 2 n ) theory. We also discuss the mixed Schur indices for the {N}=1 class {S} theories with irregular punctures.

  12. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.

  13. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO(2) assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir.

    PubMed

    Saffell, Brandy J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Shaw, David C; Brooks, J Renée; Lachenbruch, Barbara; McKay, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible reference species (western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla) to evaluate their use as proxies for variation in past SNC infection, particularly in relation to potential explanatory climate factors. We sampled trees from an Oregon site where a fungicide trial took place from 1996 to 2000, which enabled the comparison of stable isotope values between trees with and without disease. Carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) of treated Douglas-fir tree-rings was greater than that of untreated Douglas-fir tree-rings during the fungicide treatment period. Both annual growth and tree-ring Δ(13)C increased with treatment such that treated Douglas-fir had values similar to co-occurring western hemlock during the treatment period. There was no difference in the tree-ring oxygen stable isotope ratio between treated and untreated Douglas-fir. Tree-ring Δ(13)C of diseased Douglas-fir was negatively correlated with relative humidity during the two previous summers, consistent with increased leaf colonization by SNC under high humidity conditions that leads to greater disease severity in following years.

  14. Climate-related genetic variation in drought-resistance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; Gould, Peter J; St Clair, J Bradley

    2015-02-01

    There is a general assumption that intraspecific populations originating from relatively arid climates will be better adapted to cope with the expected increase in drought from climate change. For ecologically and economically important species, more comprehensive, genecological studies that utilize large distributions of populations and direct measures of traits associated with drought-resistance are needed to empirically support this assumption because of the implications for the natural or assisted regeneration of species. We conducted a space-for-time substitution, common garden experiment with 35 populations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) growing at three test sites with distinct summer temperature and precipitation (referred to as 'cool/moist', 'moderate', or 'warm/dry') to test the hypotheses that (i) there is large genetic variation among populations and regions in traits associated with drought-resistance, (ii) the patterns of genetic variation are related to the native source-climate of each population, in particular with summer temperature and precipitation, (iii) the differences among populations and relationships with climate are stronger at the warm/dry test site owing to greater expression of drought-resistance traits (i.e., a genotype × environment interaction). During midsummer 2012, we measured the rate of water loss after stomatal closure (transpiration(min)), water deficit (% below turgid saturation), and specific leaf area (SLA, cm(2) g(-1)) on new growth of sapling branches. There was significant genetic variation in all plant traits, with populations originating from warmer and drier climates having greater drought-resistance (i.e., lower transpiration(min), water deficit and SLA), but these trends were most clearly expressed only at the warm/dry test site. Contrary to expectations, populations from cooler climates also had greater drought-resistance across all test sites. Multiple regression analysis indicated

  15. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments.

    PubMed

    Gould, Peter J; Harrington, Constance A; St Clair, J Bradley

    2012-12-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources that were planted in four diverse environments as part of the Douglas-fir Seed-Source Movement Trial. Stem diameters and heights were measured periodically during the 2010 growing season on 16 open-pollinated families at each study installation. Stem diameters were measured on a subset of trees with electronic dendrometers during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Trees from the four seed sources differed in phenology metrics that described the timing of basal-area and height-growth initiation, growth cessation and growth rates. Differences in the height-growth metrics were generally larger than differences in the basal-area growth metrics and differences among installations were larger than differences among seed sources, highlighting the importance of environmental signals on growth phenology. Variations in the height- and basal-area growth metrics were correlated with different aspects of the seed-source environments: precipitation in the case of height growth and minimum temperature in the case of basal-area growth. The detailed dendrometer measurements revealed differences in growth patterns between seed sources during distinct periods in the growing season. Our results indicate that multiple aspects of growth phenology should be considered along with other traits when evaluating adaptation of populations to future climates. PMID:23135739

  16. Role of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) carbohydrates in resistance to budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Zou, J; Cates, R G

    1994-02-01

    The current year's growth of Douglas fir contains galactose, unusual in that this carbohydrate makes up 78.7% of the total carbohydrate fraction. An agar diet study was undertaken to determine the effects of galactose, other carbohydrates, and terpenes on western spruce budworm larval mortality, growth rate, and adult biomas production. All concentrations of the carbohydrates and terpenes tested, as well as other mineral elements not tested, were typical of the current year's foliage of Douglas fir. In experiment I, the diet containing 5.61% total carbohydrate did not significantly affect larval mortality when compared to the control diet. However, diets containing 9.45% and 15% total carbohydrate concentrations significantly increased larval mortality 64% and 96.1%, respectively, when compared to the control. Also in experiment I, terpenes alone (78.9% morality) and terpenes in combination with 9.45% and 15% total carbohydrates significantly increased larval mortality (97.2% and 100%, respectively) when compared to mortality on the control diet (44%). To determine which carbohydrate was causing the adverse effect, 6% glucose, 6% fructose, and 6% galactose were placed individually and in combination with terpenes in diets in experiment II. The 6% galactose diet significantly increased larval mortality and reduced growth rate when compared to the control, glucose, and fructose diets. Glucose resulted in 16% less larval mortality, significantly enhanced female larval growth rate and pupal weight, but did not affect male larval growth rate and pupal weight, when compared to the control. Fructose resulted in a significant decrease in larval mortality and a general trend of enhanced female and male larval growth rate and pupal weight. Larval mortality on terpenes alone was not significantly different from the control, but terpenes with 6% galactose increased larval mortality and decreased female and male growth rate and pupal weight significantly when compared to

  17. Understory vegetation in old and young Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, J.D.; Mayrsohn, C.; Doescher, P.S.; St., Pierre; Tappeiner, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    We studied understory composition in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)/western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylIa (Raf.) Sarg.) stands on 28 sites in western Oregon. These stands had regenerated naturally after timber harvest, 40-70 years before thinning. Commercial thinning had occurred 10-24 years previously, with 8-60% of the volume removed from below with the intent to homogenize spacing among trees. Undisturbed old-growth Douglas-fir stands were present for comparison on 18 of these sites. Total herbaceous cover was greater in thinned 1125% cover) stands than in unthinned (13% cover) or old-growth (15% cover) stands. Species richness was also greater in thinned (137) than in unthinned (114) and old-growth (91) stands (P=0.05). Part of the increased richness was caused by the presence of exotic species in thinned stands, but there were also more native grass and nitrogen-fixing species in thinned stands than in unthinned or oldgrowth stands. Groups of species differed among stand-types. For example, the frequency of tall cordate-leaved species was greater in old-growth stands (P=O.009), but their relative cover was different only between old-growth and unthinned stands (P=0.08). Both the cover and frequency of grasses and sedges in thinned stands were greater than in unthinned or old-growth stands (P<0.002). Ordination of shrub cover showed differences among old-growth and unthinned stands compared to thinned stands, mainly because of the amount of Gaultheria shallon Pursh and Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl in heavily thinned stands. Ordination of herbaceous community data showed that there were much stronger differences among sites than among stand-types. The lack of difference among stand-types demonstrates the resiliency of herbaceous communities to disturbance associated with past and current forest management.

  18. Problems Involved in the Choice and Use of Materials in Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Paul

    1932-01-01

    The present state of the problem of materials in airplane construction is studied on the basis of data giving the principal characteristics of different materials and showing how they affect the form of airplane parts.

  19. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). Link to... may any person serve as a flight instructor unless— (1) That person has satisfactorily...

  20. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical...