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Sample records for down-regulates nr2b expression

  1. Inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on zebrafish methamphetamine dependence are associated with amelioration of neurotransmitters content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingjin; Chen, Yifei; Li, Chan; Peng, Qiuxian; Fang, Miao; Liu, Wei; Kang, Qunzhao; Lin, Yingbo; Yung, Ken Kin Lam; Mo, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Others and we have reported that rhynchophylline reverses amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) effect which may be partly mediated by amelioration of central neurotransmitters and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) levels in the rat brains. The current study investigated the inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-induced (METH-induced) CPP in adult zebrafish and METH-induced locomotor activity in tyrosine hydroxylase-green fluorescent protein (TH-GFP) transgenic zebrafish larvae and attempted to confirm the hypothesis that these effects were mediated via regulation of neurotransmitters and dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. After baseline preference test (on days 1-3), zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally METH (on days 4, 6 and 8) or the same volume of fish physiological saline (on days 5 and 7) and were immediately conditioned. Rhynchophylline was administered at 12h after injection of METH. On day 9, zebrafish were tested for METH-induced CPP. Results revealed that rhynchophylline (100mg/kg) significantly inhibited the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, reduced the content of dopamine and glutamate and down-regulated the expression of TH and NR2B in the CPP zebrafish brains. Furthermore, the influence of rhynchophylline on METH-induced locomotor activity was also observed in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Results showed that rhynchophylline (50mg/L) treatment led to a significant reduction on the locomotor activity and TH expression in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of the formation of METH dependence by rhynchophylline in zebrafish is associated with amelioration of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression. PMID:27009763

  2. Down-regulation of NR2B receptors partially contributes to analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside in persistent inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Xiao-nan; Guo, Yan-yan; Xu, Zhao-hui; Cao, Wei; Sun, Xiao-li; Sun, Wen-ji; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2008-06-01

    Gentiopicroside is one of the secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea. It exhibits analgesic activities in the mice. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Painful stimuli potentiate the prefrontal synaptic transmission and induce glutamate NMDA NR2B receptor expression in the ACC. But little is known about Gentiopicroside on the persistent inflammatory pain and chronic pain-induced synaptic transmission changes in the ACC. The present study was undertaken to investigate its analgesic activities and central synaptic modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Gentiopicroside produced significant analgesic effects against persistent inflammatory pain stimuli in mice. Systemic administration of Gentiopicroside significantly reversed NR2B over-expression during the chronic phases of persistent inflammation caused by hind-paw administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) in mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that Gentiopicroside significantly reduced NR2B receptors mediated postsynaptic currents in the ACC. Our findings provide strong evidence that analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside involve down-regulation of NR2B receptors in the ACC to persistent inflammatory pain.

  3. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  4. SETDB1 HISTONE METHYLTRANSFERASE REGULATES MOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS AND EXPRESSION OF THE NMDA RECEPTOR SUBUNIT NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Connor, Caroline; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Lin, Cong L.; Straubhaar, Juerg; Martin, Gilles; Akbarian, Schahram

    2010-01-01

    Histone methyltransferases specific for the histone H3-lysine 9 (H3K9) residue, including Setdb1 (Set domain, bifurcated 1)/Eset/Kmt1e are associated with repressive chromatin remodeling and expressed in adult brain, but potential effects on neuronal function and behavior remain unexplored. Here, we report that transgenic mice with increased Setdb1 expression in adult forebrain neurons show antidepressant-like phenotypes in behavioral paradigms for anhedonia, despair and learned helplessness. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with DNA tiling arrays (ChIP-chip) revealed that genomic occupancies of neuronal Setdb1 are limited to less than 1% of annotated genes, which include the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B/Grin2B and other ionotropic glutamate receptor genes. Chromatin conformation capture (“3C”) and Setdb1-ChIP revealed a loop formation tethering the NR2B/Grin2b promoter to the Setdb1 target site positioned 30Kb downstream of the transcription start site. In hippocampus and ventral striatum, two key structures in the neuronal circuitry regulating mood-related behaviors, Setdb1-mediated repressive histone methylation at NR2B/Grin2b was associated with decreased NR2B expression and EPSP insensitivity to pharmacological blockade of NR2B, and accelerated NMDA receptor desensitization consistent with a shift in NR2A/B subunit ratios. In wildtype mice, systemic treatment with the NR2B antagonist, Ro-256981, and hippocampal siRNA-mediated NR2B/Grin2b knockdown, resulted in behavioral changes similar to those elicited by the Setdb1 transgene. Together, these findings point to a role for neuronal Setdb1 in the regulation of affective and motivational behaviors through repressive chromatin remodeling at a select set of target genes, resulting in altered NMDA receptor subunit composition and other molecular adaptations. PMID:20505083

  5. NR2B Expression in Rat DRG Is Differentially Regulated Following Peripheral Nerve Injuries That Lead to Transient or Sustained Stimuli-Evoked Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Norcini, Monica; Sideris, Alexandra; Adler, Samantha M.; Hernandez, Lourdes A. M.; Zhang, Jin; Blanck, Thomas J. J.; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Following injury, primary sensory neurons undergo changes that drive central sensitization and contribute to the maintenance of persistent hypersensitivity. NR2B expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has not been previously examined in neuropathic pain models. Here, we investigated if changes in NR2B expression within the DRG are associated with hypersensitivities that result from peripheral nerve injuries. This was done by comparing the NR2B expression in the DRG derived from two modalities of the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, since each variant produces different neuropathic pain phenotypes. Using the electronic von Frey to stimulate the spared and non-spared regions of the hindpaws, we demonstrated that sural-SNI animals develop sustained neuropathic pain in both regions while the tibial-SNI animals recover. NR2B expression was measured at Day 23 and Day 86 post-injury. At Day 23 and 86 post-injury, sural-SNI animals display strong hypersensitivity, whereas tibial-SNI animals display 50 and 100% recovery from post-injury-induced hypersensitivity, respectively. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23 the perinuclear region of the neuronal somata displayed an increase in NR2B protein. This retention of NR2B protein within the perinuclear region, which will render them non-functional, correlates with the recovery observed in tibial-SNI. In sural-SNI at Day 86, DRG displayed an increase in NR2B mRNA which correlates with the development of sustained hypersensitivity in this model. The increase in NR2B mRNA was not associated with an increase in NR2B protein within the neuronal somata. The latter may result from a decrease in kinesin Kif17, since Kif17 mediates NR2B transport to the soma’s plasma membrane. In both SNIs, microglia/macrophages showed a transient increase in NR2B protein detected at Day 23 but not at Day 86, which correlates with the initial post-injury induced hypersensitivity in both SNIs. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23

  6. Isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia induces increases in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Lana J; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Alonso, Ofelia F; Jimenez, Christopher A; Furones, Concepción; Moreno, W Javier; Lewis, Michael C; Dietrich, W Dalton; Bramlett, Helen M

    2012-01-11

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, POCD, afflicts a large number of elderly surgical patients following surgery with general anesthesia. Mechanisms of POCD remain unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, critical in learning and memory, that display protein expression changes with age are modulated by inhalation anesthetics. The aim of this study was to identify protein expression changes in NMDA receptor subunits and downstream signaling pathways in aged rats that demonstrated anesthesia-induced spatial learning impairments. Three-month-old and 18-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to receive 1.8% isoflurane/70% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) anesthesia for 4h or no anesthesia. Spatial learning was assessed at 2weeks and 3months post-anesthesia in Morris water maze. Hippocampal and cortical protein lysates of 18-month-old rats were immunoblotted for activated caspase 3, NMDA receptor subunits, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. In a separate experiment, Ro 25-6981 (0.5mg/kg dose) was administered by I.P. injection before anesthesia to 18-month-old rats. Immunoblotting of NR2B was performed on hippocampal protein lysates. At 3months post-anesthesia, rats treated with anesthesia at 18-months-old demonstrated spatial learning impairment corresponding to acute and long-term increases in NR2B protein expression and a reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus and cortex. Ro 25-6981 pretreatment attenuated the increase in acute NR2B protein expression. Our findings suggest a role for disruption of NMDA receptor mediated signaling pathways in the hippocampus and cortex of rats treated with isoflurane/ N(2)O anesthesia at 18-months-old, leading to spatial learning deficits in these animals. A potential therapeutic intervention for anesthesia associated cognitive deficits is discussed. PMID:22137658

  7. Mas-Related Gene (Mrg) C Activation Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain via Modulating Gi and NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cui’e; Lei, Yishan; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is to investigate the role of Mas-related gene (Mrg) C in the pathogenesis and treatment of bone cancer pain (BCP). Methods BCP mouse model was established by osteosarcoma cell inoculation. Pain-related behaviors were assessed with the spontaneous lifting behavior test and mechanical allodynia test. Expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord were detected with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results Pain-related behavior tests showed significantly increased spontaneous flinches (NSF) and decreased paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) in mouse models of BCP. Western blot analysis showed that, compared with the control group and before modeling, all the expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord of BCP mice were dramatically elevated, which were especially increased at day 7 after operation and thereafter, in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the treatment of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly up-regulated Gi and down-regulated NR2B expression levels, in the spinal cord of BCP mice, in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, anti-MrgC significantly down-regulated Gi expression, while dramatically up-regulated NR2B expression, in the BCP mice. Similar results were obtained from the immunohistochemical detection. Importantly, BAM8-22 significantly attenuated the nociceptive behaviors in the BCP mice. Conclusion Our results indicated the MrgC-mediated Gi and NR2B expression alterations in the BCP mice, which might contribute to the pain hypersensitivity. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of BCP in clinic. PMID:27152740

  8. Amygdala Infusions of an NR2B-Selective or an NR2A-Preferring NMDA Receptor Antagonist Differentially Influence Fear Conditioning and Expression in the Fear-Potentiated Startle Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David L.; Davis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Within the amygdala, most N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors consist of NR1 subunits in combination with either NR2A or NR2B subunits. Because the particular subunit composition greatly influences the receptors' properties, we investigated the contribution of both subtypes to fear conditioning and expression. To do so, we infused the…

  9. Intrahippocampal Administration of Ibotenic Acid Induced Cholinergic Dysfunction via NR2A/NR2B Expression: Implications of Resveratrol against Alzheimer Disease Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Karthick, Chennakesavan; Periyasamy, Sabapathy; Jayachandran, Kesavan S.; Anusuyadevi, Muthuswamy

    2016-01-01

    Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression toward Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO) in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5 μg/μl) lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility, and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the hippocampal

  10. Chronic Administration of Benzo(a)pyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenping; Tian, Fengjie; Zheng, Jinping; Li, Senlin; Qiang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance. Methods C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg) or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B) was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Results Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg) showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions. Conclusions Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain. PMID:26901155

  11. Improving solubility of NR2B amino-terminal domain of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expressed in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, F.-M.; Soh Wanqin; Geballe, Matthew T.; Low, C.-M.

    2007-10-12

    The amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contain binding sites for modulators and may serve as potential drug targets in neurological diseases. Here, three fusion tags (6xHis-, GST-, and MBP-) were fused to the ATD of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit (ATD2B) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Each tag's ability to confer enhanced solubility to ATD2B was assessed. Soluble ATD2B was successfully obtained as a MBP fusion protein. Dynamic light scattering revealed the protein (1 mg/ml) exists as monodispersed species at 25 {sup o}C. Functional studies using circular dichroism showed that the soluble MBP-ATD2B bound ifenprodil in a dose-dependent manner. The dissociation constants obtained for ifenprodil were similar in the absence (64 nM) and presence (116 nM) of saturating concentration of maltose. Moreover, the yield of soluble MBP-ATD2B is 18 times higher than the refolded 6xHis-ATD2B. We have reported a systematic comparison of three different affinity tagging strategies and identified a rapid and efficient method to obtain large amount of ATD2B recombinant protein for biochemical and structural studies.

  12. Dopamine receptor D5 deficiency results in a selective reduction of hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit NR2B expression and impaired memory.

    PubMed

    Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; González, Hugo; Ugalde, Valentina; Donoso-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Lara, Marcelo; Morales, Bernardo; Rojas, Patricio; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacological evidence associates type I dopamine receptors, including subtypes D1 and D5, with learning and memory. Analyses using genetic approaches have determined the relative contribution of dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) in cognitive tasks. However, the lack of drugs that can discriminate between D1R and D5R has made the pharmacological distinction between the two receptors difficult. Here, we aimed to determine the role of D5R in learning and memory. In this study we tested D5R knockout mice and wild-type littermates in a battery of behavioral tests, including memory, attention, locomotion, anxiety and motivational evaluations. Our results show that genetic deficiency of D5R significantly impairs performance in the Morris water maze paradigm, object location and object recognition memory, indicating a relevant role for D5R in spatial memory and recognition memory. Moreover, the lack of D5R resulted in decreased exploration and locomotion. In contrast, D5R deficiency had no impact on working memory, anxiety and depressive-like behavior, measured using the spontaneous alternation, open-field, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. Electrophysiological analyses performed on hippocampal slices showed impairment in long-term-potentiation in mice lacking D5R. Further analyses at the molecular level showed that genetic deficiency of D5R results in a strong and selective reduction in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate the relevant contribution of D5R in memory and suggest a functional interaction of D5R with hippocampal glutamatergic pathways.

  13. The NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, corrects the l-DOPA-induced deficit of bilateral movement and reduces c-Fos expression in the subthalamic nucleus of hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Masakazu; Habata, Toshiya; Akita, Hisanao; Noda, Kazuko; Ogata, Masanori; Saji, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The use of NR2B antagonists in Parkinsonism is still controversial. To examine their anti-parkinsonian effects, the NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, and L-DOPA were administered together and separately in hemiparkinsonian rats (hemi-PD) that were subjected to a cylinder test. Recovery from hypoactivity was achieved by single administration of 3-7 mg/kg of L-DOPA; however, improvement in the deficit of bilateral forelimb use was not observed. When administered alone, ifenprodil had no anti-parkinsonian effects; however, combined administration of ifenprodil and 7 mg/kg of L-DOPA significantly reversed the deficit of bilateral forelimb use without adversely affecting the L-DOPA-induced improvement in motor activity. Next, in order to identify the brain area influenced by L-DOPA and ifenprodil, quantitative analysis of L-DOPA-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity was performed in various brain areas of hemi-PD following administration of L-dopa with and without ifenprodil. Among brain areas with robust c-Fos expression within the motor loop circuit in dopamine-depleted hemispheres, co-administered ifenprodil markedly attenuated L-DOPA-induced c-Fos expression in only the subthalamic nucleus (STN), suggesting that the STN is the primary target for the anti-parkinsonian action of NR2B antagonists.

  14. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Maowen; Kong, Min; Ma, Guozhao

    2015-01-01

    Context Abnormality in interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and its signaling molecules occurs in the lesioned striatum in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). It was reported that Fyn-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation, can enhance NMDA receptor function. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), one of the synapse-associated proteins, regulates interactions between receptor and downstream-signaling molecules. In light of the relationship between PSD-95, NR2B, and Fyn kinases, does PSD-95 contribute to the overactivity of NMDA receptor function induced by dopaminergic treatment? To further prove the possibility, the effects of regulating the PSD-95 expression on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and on the interactions of Fyn and NR2B in LID rat models were evaluated. Methods In the present study, parkinsonian rat models were established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, valid PD rats were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg/day with benserazide 12.5 mg/kg/day, twice daily) intraperitoneally for 22 days to create LID rat models. Then, the effect of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of the PSD-95mRNA antisense oligonucleotides (PSD-95 ASO) on the rotational response to levodopa challenge was assessed. The effects of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of PSD-95 ASO on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in the LID rat models were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results Levodopa administration twice daily for 22 days to parkinsonian rats shortened the rotational duration and increased the peak turning responses. The altered rotational responses were attenuated by PSD-95 ASO pretreatment. Meanwhile, PSD-95 ASO pretreatment decreased the level of PSD-95 protein expression and reduced both the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B triggered during the levodopa administration in the

  15. An NR2B-Dependent Decrease in the Expression of trkB Receptors Precedes the Disappearance of Dopaminergic Cells in Substantia Nigra in a Rat Model of Presymptomatic Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Eduardo; Abarca, Jorge; Campusano, Jorge M.; Bustos, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Compensatory changes occurring during presymptomatic stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) would explain that the clinical symptoms of the disease appear late, when the degenerative process is quite advanced. Several data support the proposition that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could play a role in these plastic changes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of the specific BDNF receptor, trkB, in a rat model of presymptomatic PD generated by intrastriatal injection of the neurotoxin 6-OHDA. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a decrease in trkB expression in SN pars compacta (SNc) seven days after 6-OHDA injection. At this time point, no change in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (TH-IR) cells is detected, although a decrease is evident 14 days after neurotoxin injection. The decrease in TH-positive cells and trkB expression in SNc was significantly prevented by systemic administration of Ifenprodil, a specific antagonist of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. Therefore, an NR2B-NMDA receptor-dependent decrease in trkB expression precedes the disappearance of TH-IR cells in SNc in response to 6-OHDA injection. These results support the idea that a functional coupling between NMDA receptors and BDNF/trkB signalling may be important for the maintenance of the dopaminergic phenotype in SNc during presymptomatic stages of PD. PMID:22720191

  16. Activation of spinal MrgC-Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway by Mas oncogene-related gene C receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 attenuates bone cancer pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu’e; Zhang, Juan; Lei, Yishan; Lu, Cui’e; Hou, Bailing; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the present study, we investigate the effects of Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) C receptors (MrgC) on the expression and activation of spinal Gi protein, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in mouse model of bone cancer pain. Methods: The number of spontaneous foot lift (NSF) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) were measured after inoculation of tumor cells and intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) or MrgC antagonist anti-MrgC for 14 days after operation. Expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS and their phosphorylated forms after inoculation was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Double labeling was used to identify the co-localization of NR2B or nNOS with MrgC in spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) neurons. The effects of intrathecal injection of BAM8-22 or anti-MrgC on nociceptive behaviors and the corresponding expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS were also investigated. Results: The expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B, and nNOS was higher in tumor-bearing mice in comparison to sham mice or normal mice. Intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly alleviated bone cancer pain, up-regulated MrgC and Gi protein expression, and down-regulated the expression of spinal p-NR2B, t-nNOS and p-nNOS in SCDH on day 14 after operation, whereas administration of anti-MrgC produced the opposite effect. Meanwhile, MrgC-like immunoreactivity (IR) co-localizes with NR2B-IR or nNOS-IR in SCDH neurons. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that MrgC-activated spinal Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway plays important roles in the development of bone cancer pain. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:27158400

  17. Perinatal exposure to PTU delays switching from NR2B to NR2A subunits of the NMDA receptor in the rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kumiko; Tsuji, Ryozo; Yoshioka, Takafumi; Mino, Terumasa; Seki, Takaki

    2006-03-01

    Certain kinds of developmental neurotoxicants are considered to act by affecting the levels of thyroid hormones, which are essential for the brain development of both humans and experimental animals. Hypothyroidism experimentally induced in rats with propylthiouracil (PTU) offers a useful animal model for developmental neurotoxicity. The purpose of the present study was to clarify developmental alterations in gene expression caused by PTU in this model, with the focus on eight genes implicated in neural network formation or synaptic functions, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NMDA receptors 2A/2B. First, we measured the developmental profile of gene expression in vehicle-dosed rat cerebellum by quantitative RT-PCR and then examined the effects of PTU on mRNA levels on postnatal day (PND) 22, when most of the cerebellar structures in mature animals are already formed. PTU induced up-regulation of NR2B mRNA and down-regulation of NR2A and BDNF mRNAs in the cerebellum on PND 22, but there were no changes in the other genes (growth associated protein-43, L1, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, synaptophysin, post synaptic density-95). Examination of the effects of PTU on maturation of NMDAR subunits (NR2A/NR2B) demonstrated changes in relative expression on PND 14, but not on PND 4, with recovery after maturation. The profile of NMDAR subunits in vehicle-dosed rats showed a shift from NR2B to NR2A during development. These results suggest PTU can delay this switching from NR2B to NR2A subunits in the maturation of NMDA receptors.

  18. Effects of sex and chronic neonatal nicotine treatment on NKCC1, KCC2, BDNF, NR2A and NR2B mRNA expression in the postnatal rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exposure to nicotine during the first postnatal week in rats, a developmental period that corresponds to the third trimester of human gestation, results in sexually dimorphic long-term functional defects in the adult hippocampus. One potential cause could be the sex-specific differences in the maturation of GABAA receptor-mediated responses from excitatory to inhibitory, which depends on the expression of the Na2+/K+/Cl−-co-transporter NKCC1 and the K+/Cl− co-transporter KCC2. In the rat hippocampus, this switch occurs during the first and second postnatal week in females and males, respectively, and is regulated by nicotinic receptor activation. Excitatory GABAergic signaling can increase BDNF expression, which might exacerbate sex differences by impacting synaptogenesis. We hypothesized that chronic neonatal nicotine (CNN) exposure differentially regulates the expression of these co-transporters and BDNF in males and females. We use quantitative isotopic in situ hybridization to examine the expression of mRNAs for NKCC1, KCC2, BDNF, and NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B in the postnatal day (P) 5 and 8 rat hippocampus in both sexes that were either control-treated or with 6 mg/kg/day nicotine in milk formula (CNN) via gastric intubation starting at P1. In line with prolonged GABAergic excitation, we found that at P5 males had significantly higher mRNA expression of NKCC1 and BDNF than females. CNN treatment resulted in a significant increase in KCC2 and BDNF mRNA expression in male but not female hippocampus (p<0.05). Males also had higher expression of NR2A and lower expression of NR2B at P5 compared to females (p<0.05). At P8, there were neither sex nor treatment effects on mRNA expression, indicating the end of a critical period for sensitivity to nicotine. These results suggest that differential maturation of GABAAR-mediated responses result in sex-specific sensitivity to nicotine during early postnatal development, potentially explaining the

  19. Repeated treatment with electroconvulsive seizures induces HDAC2 expression and down-regulation of NMDA receptor-related genes through histone deacetylation in the rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong Geun; Yu, Hyun Sook; Park, Soyoung; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Se Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The enzymatic activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) leads to a histone deacetylation-mediated condensed chromatic structure, resulting in transcriptional repression, which has been implicated in the modifications of neural circuits and behaviors. Repeated treatment with electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) induces changes in histone acetylation, expression of various genes, and intrabrain cellular changes, including neurogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of repeated ECS on the expression of class I HDACs and related changes in histone modifications and gene expression in the rat frontal cortex. Ten days of repeated ECS treatments (E10X) up-regulated HDAC2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the rat frontal cortex compared with sham-treated controls; this was evident in the nuclei of neuronal cells in the prefrontal, cingulate, orbital, and insular cortices. Among the known HDAC2 target genes, mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling-related genes, including early growth response-1 (Egr1), c-Fos, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl d-aspartate 2A (Nr2a), Nr2b, neuritin1 (Nrn1), and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (Camk2α), were decreased, and the histone acetylation of H3 and/or H4 proteins was also reduced by E10X. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that HDAC2 occupancy in the promoters of down-regulated genes was increased significantly. Moreover, administration of sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor, during the course of E10X ameliorated the ECS-induced down-regulation of genes in the rat frontal cortex. These findings suggest that induction of HDAC2 by repeated ECS treatment could play an important role in the down-regulation of NMDA receptor signaling-related genes in the rat frontal cortex through histone modification. PMID:24606669

  20. Effects of prenatal chronic mild stress exposure on hippocampal cell proliferation, expression of GSK-3α, β and NR2B in adult offspring during fear extinction in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Li, Xiaobai; Zhang, Xinxin; Ren, Jintao; Jiang, Han; Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Cheng, Wenwen

    2014-06-01

    Stress during pregnancy has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of many mental disorders; however, the influence of prenatal stress on the fear or anxiety-related behaviors, especially the fear extinction in adult offspring has been little investigated. In order to investigate how prenatal stress affects fear extinction, which is regarded as a form of new learning that counteracts the expression of Pavlovian's conditioned fear, a rat model of prenatal chronic mild stress (PNS) was used to evaluate the effects of PNS on fear extinction in adult offspring. The expression of hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3s (GSK-3α, β), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs)-2B and the hippocampal cell proliferation in dentate gyrus in the adult offspring during fear extinction were studied. Our results showed that PNS significantly reduced body weight of pups, indicating PNS might induce growth retardation in offspring. Moreover, PNS significantly enhanced the freezing behavior of offspring at the phase of extinction, suggesting PNS impaired the abilities of fear extinction learning. In addition, PNS significantly increased the levels of GSK-3α, β and NR2B, but reduced hippocampal cell proliferation during fear extinction. Taken together, our findings suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy can impair the fear extinction of adult offspring, probably by affecting the neural plasticity of brain.

  1. Effects of chronic NMDA-NR2b inhibition in the median eminence of the reproductive senescent female rat.

    PubMed

    Kermath, B A; Riha, P D; Sajjad, A; Gore, A C

    2013-10-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis drive reproductive function and undergo age-related decreases in activation during the transition to reproductive senescence. Decreased GnRH secretion from the median eminence (ME) partially arises from attenuated glutamatergic signalling via the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and may be a result of changing NMDAR stoichiometry to favour NR2b over NR2a subunit expression with ageing. We have previously shown that the systemic inhibition of NR2b-containing receptors with ifenprodil, an NR2b-specific antagonist, stimulates parameters of luteinising hormone (used as a proxy for GnRH) release in both young and middle-aged females. In the present study, we chronically administered ifenprodil, an NR2b-specific antagonist, at the site of GnRH terminals in the ME or at GnRH perikarya in the preoptic area, in reproductively senescent middle-aged female rats, aiming to determine whether NR2b antagonism could restore aspects of reproductive functionality. Effects on oestrous cyclicity, serum hormones, and protein expression of GnRH, NR2b and phosphorylated NR2b (Tyr-1472) in the ME were measured. Chronic ifenprodil treatment in the ME (but not the preoptic area) altered oestrous cyclicity by increasing the percentage of days spent in pro-oestrus. This was accompanied by increased GnRH fluorescence intensity in the external ME zone and a greater proportion of GnRH terminals that co-labelled with pNR2b with treatment. We also observed changes in the relationships between protein immunofluorescence, serum hormone levels and other aspects of reproductive physiology in acyclic females, as revealed by bionetwork analysis. Together, these data support the hypothesis that NMDAR-NR2b expression and phosphorylation state play a role in reproductive senescence and highlight the ME as a major player in reproductive ageing.

  2. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation through CaMKIV/CREB pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Zhen; Xu, Tie-Jun

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The NR2B component of the NMDARs is important for the NSPC proliferation. {yields} pCaMKIV and pCREB exist in NSPCs. {yields} The CaMKIV/CREB pathway mediates NSPC proliferation. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation. Functional properties of NMDARs can be markedly influenced by incorporating the regulatory subunit NR2B. Here, we aim to analyze the effect of NR2B-containing NMDARs on the proliferation of hippocampal NSPCs and to explore the mechanism responsible for this effect. NSPCs were shown to express NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B. The NR2B selective antagonist, Ro 25-6981, prevented the NMDA-induced increase in cell proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were increased by NMDA treatment, whereas Ro 25-6981 decreased them. The role that NR2B-containing NMDARs plays in NSPC proliferation was abolished when CREB phosphorylation was attenuated by CaMKIV silencing. These results suggest that NR2B-containing NMDARs have a positive role in regulating NSPC proliferation, which may be mediated through CaMKIV phosphorylation and subsequent induction of CREB activation.

  3. CDK14 expression is down-regulated by cigarette smoke in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Daniel; Xiao, Yuxuan; Shrivasatava, Vibha; Levy, Avi; Andrusier, Miriam; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Holz, Marina K.; Vigodner, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this study, DNA arrays have been employed to monitor gene expression patterns in testis of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 24 weeks and compared to control animals. The results of the analysis revealed significant changes in expression of several genes that may have a role in spermatogenesis. Cdk14 was chosen for further characterization because of a suggested role in the testis and in regulation of Wnt signaling. RT-PCR analysis confirmed down regulation of Cdk14 in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Cdk14 is expressed in all testicular cells; spermatogonia- and Sertoli-derived cell lines treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro showed down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels as well as down-regulation of β-catenin levels. CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels was also observed in several lung epithelium-derived cell lines including primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), suggesting that the effect is not restricted to the testis. Similar to testicular cells, CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 in lung cells correlated with decreased levels of β-catenin, a finding suggesting impaired Wnt signaling. In the lungs, CDK14 was localized to the alveolar and bronchial epithelium. PMID:25680692

  4. NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dong, Jingde; Shen, Kai; Bai, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Lv, Xuan; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

    2015-05-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including epilepsy. The present study investigated the effect of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced pathological and biochemical events in mice. Our results showed that PTZ-kindling up-regulates the expression of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the hippocampus and that kindled mice were characterized by significant astrocytosis and neuron loss in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress, including excessive malondialdehyde (MDA) production and decreased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), were detected in the hippocampus after the mice were fully kindled. Additionally, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was found to be up-regulated in PTZ-kindled mice. However, selectively blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits by ifenprodil significantly suppressed PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss. Furthermore, blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits also abolished PTZ-kindling-induced BDNF expression. These results indicate that NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to epilepsy-associated pathological and biochemical events, including hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss, and these events might be correlated with up-regulation of BDNF expression.

  5. Modulation of NR2B-regulated contextual fear in the hippocampus by the tissue plasminogen activator system.

    PubMed

    Norris, Erin H; Strickland, Sidney

    2007-08-14

    Contextual fear conditioning is regulated by the hippocampus, and NR2B, a subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR), is involved in this process. We show that acute stress modulates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in the hippocampus by inducing expression of its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Acute stress increases NR2B expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a classical marker of postsynaptic plasticity, in the hippocampus. tPA forms a complex with NR2B and is necessary for binding NR2B to postsynaptic density-95, allowing for NR activation and membrane anchoring. Acute stress increases the interaction between NR2B and RACK-1, which is also dependent on tPA, further suggesting that tPA is an important factor in NMDA signaling and plasticity in the hippocampus. Finally, acutely stressed tPA(-/-) mice show a decrease in contextual fear conditioning compared with stressed WT mice. These results indicate that tPA is a key modulator in stabilizing the NR complex during stress and participates in changes in behavior and synaptic plasticity.

  6. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Shin, Incheol

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  7. Neuritin is expressed in Schwann cells and down-regulated in apoptotic Schwann cells under hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Min, Shi; Jian-bo, Li; Hong-man, Zhang; Ling-fei, Yan; Min, Xie; Jia-wei, Chen

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to explore neuritin expression in Schwann cells under different glucose conditions. Expression of neuritin at the levels of transcription and translation in purified Schwann cells was detected and measured using reverse transcriptase (RT) (quantitative) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Apoptosis of Schwann cells was measured by flow cytometry using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) analysis and caspase fluorometric assay. Neuritin mRNA and protein were detected in cultured primary Schwann cells. Neuritin was identified as cell membrane form of protein and predominately as secreted or solube form of protein. Neuritin was significantly lower in 150 mM glucose condition, and more significantly lower in 300 mM glucose, than 5.6 mM glucose condition at 36 hours and especially at 48 hours of the culture, respectively (P < 0.05-0.01). In contrast to 5.6 mM glucose, obvious apoptosis of Schwann cells was demonstrated at 42 hours in 300 mM glucose condition and at 48 hours in 150 mM glucose, respectively (P < 0.05-0.01). Neuritin and apoptosis were correlated in a power regression (P < 0.01). 5.6 mM glucose cultured cells did not show these obvious changes during the experiment. It is concluded that neuritin mRNA and protein were expressed and down-regulated in Schwann cells under high-glucose concentration and the down-regulation may contribute to apopotosis of Schwann cells. PMID:22782233

  8. GROWTH OF HUMAN PANCREATIC CANCER IS INHIBITED BY DOWN-REGULATION OF GASTRIN GENE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Matters, Gail L.; Harms, John F.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Crepin, Keisha; Smith, Zachary P.; Nelson, Melissa C.; Stock, Heather; Fenn, Craig W.; Kaiser, James; Kester, Mark; Smith, Jill P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of gastrin mRNA down-regulation on growth of human pancreatic cancer. Methods Gastrin expression was examined in human pancreatic cancer cell lines by RT-PCR and peptide expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Gastrin was down-regulated using either stable transfection of an antisense gastrin cDNA or one of three shRNA (short hairpin RNA) constructs. Tumor formation was evaluated following either subcutaneous or orthotopic injections into nude mice. The effect of nanoliposomes loaded with gastrin siRNA was tested in mice bearing pancreatic tumors. Results Stable transfection of gastrin antisense or shRNAs into BxPC-3 cells resulted in clones with >90% reduction in gastrin mRNA. Tumor growth rate and incidence of metastases in both wild type and transfected pancreatic cancer cells was directly proportional to the degrees of gastrin mRNA expression. Immunofluoresence analysis confirmed that gastrin peptide levels were decreased in antisense and shRNA tumors. Gastrin knockdown clones had lower Ki-67 and increased cleaved caspase-3 staining, consistent with known effects of gastrin on proliferation and apoptosis. Tumors in mice treated with gastrin siRNA were smaller than controls. Conclusions These results suggest that RNAi targeting of gastrin could serve as an effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:19465883

  9. Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor expression by pentoxifylline in cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dezube, B J; Sherman, M L; Fridovich-Keil, J L; Allen-Ryan, J; Pardee, A B

    1993-01-01

    The wasting syndrome (cachexia) characterized by anorexia, malaise, and weight loss is observed in many patients with cancer or chronic infection. The excessive levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)/cachectin reported in 50% of cancer patients exhibiting clinically active disease may therefore mediate, at least in part, the cachexia associated with malignancy. Pentoxifylline, a substituted methylxanthine approved for treatment of intermittent claudication, has been shown in preclinical studies to down-regulate TNF RNA expression as well as TNF activity. We report that pentoxifylline suppressed TNF RNA levels on all three occasions in patients with initially elevated levels of TNF RNA. Pentoxifylline did not suppress TNF RNA to subnormal levels in all five patients with initially normal TNF RNA levels. Four patients reported an increased sense of well-being, improved appetite and ability to perform the activities of daily living. Two of these five patients with normal TNF levels each had a weight gain of more than 5% after 3 weeks of pentoxifylline therapy suggesting that, although TNF may be important in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia, other anorexia-producing cytokines that are potentially affected by pentoxifylline may also be involved. No severe adverse effects were observed. Taken together these findings suggest that pentoxifylline can down-regulate TNF expression and improve the sense of well-being in cancer patients. A larger study with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and more sophisticated estimates of quality of life will be needed to confirm these observations.

  10. Curcumin down-regulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiichiro; Yasunaga, Yutaka; Segawa, Takehiko; Ko, Daejin; Moul, Judd W; Srivastava, Shiv; Rhim, Johng S

    2002-10-01

    Curcumin, traditionally used as a seasoning spice in Indian cuisine, has been reported to decrease the proliferation potential of prostate cancer cells, by a mechanism that is not fully understood. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of curcumin in cell growth, activation of signal transduction, and transforming activities of both androgen-dependent and independent cell lines. Prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, were treated with curcumin and its effects were further analyzed on signal transduction and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and AR-related cofactors using transient transfection assay and Western blotting. Our results show that curcumin down-regulates transactivation and expression of AR, activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP). Curcumin also inhibited the transforming activities of both cell lines as evidenced by the reduced colony forming ability in soft agar. The results obtained here demonstrate that curcumin has a potential therapeutic effect on prostate cancer cells through down-regulation of AR and AR-related cofactors (AP-1, NF-kappaB and CBP). PMID:12239622

  11. Paeoniflorin ameliorates symptoms of experimental Sjogren's syndrome associated with down-regulating Cyr61 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Huidan; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yue; Huo, Rongfen; Li, Haichuan; Zhai, Tianhang; Shen, Baihua; Zhang, Miaojia; Li, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), an active compound extracted from Paeony root, has been used in therapy of autoimmune diseases with effective clinical efficiency and higher safety. Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic, systemic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease. In this study, we demonstrated that novel pro-inflammatory factor Cyr61/CCN1 was up-regulated in epithelial cells of salivary glands of primary SS patients and submandibular gland autoantigen-induced experimental SS mice. Blocking Cyr61 expression with special monoclonal antibody improved saliva secretion by ameliorating inflammatory infiltration and cytokines production in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that PF could alleviate inflammation by down-regulating Cyr61 expression in experimental SS mice. In conclusion, our new findings revealed for the first time that Cyr61 involves the pathogenesis of primary SS and PF alleviates SS-like symptoms associated with inhibiting Cyr61 expression, providing new insights into the potential molecular mechanism of PF in primary SS treatment. PMID:26630293

  12. Hyperinsulinemia Down-Regulates TLR4 Expression in the Mammalian Heart.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Melody A; Gruntmeir, Kaylynn J; Pollitt, Christopher C; McGowan, Catherine M; Sillence, Martin N; Lacombe, Véronique A

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are key regulators of innate immune and inflammatory responses and their activation is linked to impaired glucose metabolism during metabolic disease. Determination of whether TLR4 signaling can be activated in the heart by insulin may shed light on the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a process that is often complicated by obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of the current study was to determine if supraphysiological insulin concentrations alter the expression of TLR4, markers of TLR4 signaling and glucose transporters (GLUTs) in the heart. Firstly, the effect of insulin on TLR4 protein expression was investigated in vitro in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Secondly, protein expression of TLR4, the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and GLUTs (1, 4, 8, 12) were examined in the equine ventricular myocardium following a prolonged, euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp. Down-regulation of TLR4 protein content in rat cardiac myocytes was observed after incubation with a supraphysiologic concentration of insulin as well as in the equine myocardium after prolonged insulin infusion. Further, cardiac TLR4 expression was negatively correlated with serum insulin concentration. Markers of cardiac TLR4 signaling and GLUT expression were not affected by hyperinsulinemia and concomitant TLR4 down-regulation. Since TLRs are major determinants of the inflammatory response, our findings suggest that insulin infusion exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in the hearts of non-obese individuals. Understanding the regulation of cardiac TLR4 signaling during metabolic dysfunction will facilitate improved management of cardiac sequela to metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PMID:25101057

  13. Down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression as a novel biomarker for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are down-regulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to analyze osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to investigate the underlying mechanism for changes in the expression of OPG. OPG expression was assessed in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined, and the effects of demethylation on OPG expression were analyzed. The effects of recombinant OPG (rOPG) administration on cellular functions were also investigated. Clinical and prognostic implications of OPG protein expression in CRC patients were analyzed. The CRC tissues and cells showed significantly lower OPG expression. Pyrosequencing of OPG-silenced CRC cells revealed that the OPG gene promoter was highly methylated. Treatment with demethylating agent significantly elevated OPG mRNA and protein expression. rOPG significantly decreased cell viability and MMP-2 and VEGF-A production in CRC cells. Reduced OPG immunoreactivity was associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior in CRC. Also, OPG expression was found to be an independent predictor of recurrent hepatic metastasis and independent prognostic factor for worse survival rates. We demonstrated that OPG silencing in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, and is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Our data suggest that OPG is a novel prognostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with CRC. PMID:26942563

  14. Tanshinone IIA attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice through down-regulation of scavenger receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fu-Tian; Cao, Yuan; Wang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Li-Jing; Guo, Jiao; Zhou, Xiao-Shi; Xu, Suo-Wen; Liu, Wei-Hua; Liu, Pei-Qing; Huang, He-Qing

    2011-01-10

    This study is designed to investigate the protection of tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice and to explore the mechanisms by focusing on the expressions of scavenger receptors, scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) and CD36. The in vivo study demonstrated that TSIIA (10-90mg/kg) inhibited the atherosclerotic lesions, down-regulated the CD68 protein expression in lesion and decreased the contents of cholesterol in aortas of ApoE(-/-) mice. In addition, TSIIA reduced the serum levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and down-regulated the mRNA expression of CD36, SR-A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in aortas. The in vitro study showed that TSIIA (0.1-10μM) decreased cholesterol level and DiI-oxLDL uptake in mouse peritoneal macrophages treated with oxLDL (50μg/ml). In addition, TSIIA down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 but not that of SR-A in oxLDL treated macrophages. TSIIA also down-regulated the mRNA expression of PPARγ in oxLDL treated macrophages. Furthermore, TSIIA reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 in macrophages treated with PPARγ agonist 15d-PGJ(2) (2μM) or troglitazone (50μM), whereas both 15d-PGJ(2) (0.5-1.5μM) and troglitazone (5-20μM) dose-dependently abolished the down-regulation of CD36 expression by TSIIA in oxLDL treated macrophages. These results suggest that TSIIA attenuates the atherosclerotic lesion in ApoE(-/-) mice, which might be attributed to the properties of both anti-oxidation and down-regulation of scavenger receptors. Furthermore, antagonism of PPARγ might be involved in the down-regulation of CD36 by TSIIA.

  15. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Wen-Zhu; Miao, Yu-Liang; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Wei; Li, Bao-Wei; An, Li-Na; Fang, Wei-Wu; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  16. Down-regulation of the beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Belloni, Anna Sandra; Nowak, Magdalena; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2006-12-01

    Beacon, a hypothalamic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake, has been recently shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex, and to inhibit its secretion and growth. To further characterize the role of beacon in the control of adrenal growth, we investigated the level of beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the adrenals at both days 5 and 8 of regeneration after enucleation and contralateral adrenalectomy. Semiquantitative real time-PCR revealed a net down-regulation of beacon mRNA in the regenerating glands, as compared to the intact adrenal cortex of sham-operated animals. Beacon gene expression was higher at day 8 than at day 5 of regeneration. Mitotic index, as assayed by the stachmokinetic method with vincristin, was negligible in the intact adrenal, but greatly elevated in regenerating gland, with a higher index found at day 5 than at day 8 after surgery. Taken together our findings indicate that the level of beacon gene expression is inversely correlated with the proliferative activity of adrenocortical cells, and suggest that beacon might act as an endogenous inhibitor of adrenocortical growth in the rat.

  17. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Erica M.; Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann; Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  18. Mutant IDH1 expression is associated with down-regulation of monocarboxylate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Pavithra; Najac, Chloe; Izquierdo, Jose L.; Pankov, Aleksandr; Hong, Chibo; Eriksson, Pia; Costello, Joseph F.; Pieper, Russell O.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are characteristic of low-grade gliomas. We recently showed that mutant IDH1 cells reprogram cellular metabolism by down-regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Reduced pyruvate metabolism via PDH could lead to increased pyruvate conversion to lactate. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate the impact of the IDH1 mutation on the pyruvate-to-lactate flux. We used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate to [1-13C]-lactate in immortalized normal human astrocytes expressing mutant or wild-type IDH1 (NHAIDHmut and NHAIDHwt). Our results indicate that hyperpolarized lactate production is reduced in NHAIDHmut cells compared to NHAIDHwt. This reduction was associated with lower expression of the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 in NHAIDHmut cells. Furthermore, hyperpolarized lactate production was comparable in lysates of NHAIDHmut and NHAIDHwt cells, wherein MCTs do not impact hyperpolarized pyruvate delivery and lactate production. Collectively, our findings indicated that lower MCT expression was a key contributor to lower hyperpolarized lactate production in NHAIDHmut cells. The SLC16A3 (MCT4) promoter but not SLC16A1 (MCT1) promoter was hypermethylated in NHAIDHmut cells, pointing to possibly different mechanisms mediating reduced MCT expression. Finally analysis of low-grade glioma patient biopsy data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that MCT1 and MCT4 expression was significantly reduced in mutant IDH1 tumors compared to wild-type. Taken together, our study shows that reduced MCT expression is part of the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH1 gliomas. This finding could impact treatment and has important implications for metabolic imaging of mutant IDH1 gliomas. PMID:27144334

  19. Leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer-1 gene expression in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Nunziata; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A.; Recupero, Domenico; Galia, Antonio; Fraggetta, Filippo; Aiello, Anna Maria; Pepe, Pietro; Castiglione, Roberto; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). DNA and protein microarrays have enabled the identification of genes associated with apoptosis, which is important in PCa development. Despite the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood, inhibition of apoptosis is a critical pathophysiological factor that contributes to the onset and progression of PCa. Leucine zipper, down-regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) is a known regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-mediated pathway of apoptosis through the inhibition of NF-κB. The present study investigated the expression of the LDOC-1 gene in LNCaP, PC-3, PNT1A and PNT2 prostate cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition LDOC-1 protein expression in normal prostate tissues and PCa was studied by immunohistochemistry. LDOC-1 messenger RNA resulted overexpressed in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines compared with the two normal prostate cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive cytoplasmic LDOC-1 staining in all PCa and normal prostate samples, whereas no nuclear staining was observed in any sample. Furthermore, a more intense signal was evidenced in PCa samples. LDOC-1 gene overexpression in PCa suggests an activity of LDOC-1 in PCa cell lines. PMID:27698860

  20. Leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer-1 gene expression in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Nunziata; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A.; Recupero, Domenico; Galia, Antonio; Fraggetta, Filippo; Aiello, Anna Maria; Pepe, Pietro; Castiglione, Roberto; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). DNA and protein microarrays have enabled the identification of genes associated with apoptosis, which is important in PCa development. Despite the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood, inhibition of apoptosis is a critical pathophysiological factor that contributes to the onset and progression of PCa. Leucine zipper, down-regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) is a known regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-mediated pathway of apoptosis through the inhibition of NF-κB. The present study investigated the expression of the LDOC-1 gene in LNCaP, PC-3, PNT1A and PNT2 prostate cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition LDOC-1 protein expression in normal prostate tissues and PCa was studied by immunohistochemistry. LDOC-1 messenger RNA resulted overexpressed in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines compared with the two normal prostate cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive cytoplasmic LDOC-1 staining in all PCa and normal prostate samples, whereas no nuclear staining was observed in any sample. Furthermore, a more intense signal was evidenced in PCa samples. LDOC-1 gene overexpression in PCa suggests an activity of LDOC-1 in PCa cell lines.

  1. MicroRNA-21 Down-regulates Rb1 Expression by Targeting PDCD4 in Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fengmei; Mo, Meng-Hsuan; Chen, Liang; An, Shejuan; Tan, Xiaohui; Fu, Yebo; Rezaei, Katayoon; Wang, Zuoren; Zhang, Lin; Fu, Sidney W.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a children's ocular cancer caused by mutated retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) gene on both alleles. Rb1 and other related genes could be regulated by microRNAs (miRNA) via complementarily pairing with their target sites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) possesses the oncogenic potential to target several tumor suppressor genes, including PDCD4, and regulates tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanism of how miR-21 regulates PDCD4 is poorly understood in RB. We investigated the expression of miRNAs in RB cell lines and identified that miR-21 is one of the most deregulated miRNAs in RB. Using qRT-PCR, we verified the expression level of several miRNAs identified by independent microarray assays, and analyzed miRNA expression patterns in three RB cell lines, including Weri-Rb1, Y79 and RB355. We found that miR-19b, -21, -26a, -195 and -222 were highly expressed in all three cell lines, suggesting their potential role in RB tumorigenesis. Using the TargetScan program, we identified a list of potential target genes of these miRNAs, of which PDCD4 is one the targets of miR-21. In this study, we focused on the regulatory mechanism of miR-21 on PDCD4 in RB. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-21 and PDCD4 expression in Weri-Rb1 and Y79 cells. These data suggest that miR-21 down-regulates Rb1 by targeting PDCD4 tumor suppressor. Therefore, miR-21 could serve as a therapeutic target for retinoblastoma. PMID:25520758

  2. Down-regulation of Zac1 gene expression in rat white adipose tissue by androgens.

    PubMed

    Mirowska, Agnieszka; Sledzinski, Tomasz; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Swierczynski, Julian

    2014-03-01

    ZAC1 is a zinc-finger protein transcription factor, a transcriptional cofactor for nuclear receptors, and a co-activator of nuclear receptors, which interacts with multiple signaling pathways affecting apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and metabolism. Some data suggest that ZAC1 regulates the expression of genes associated with function of adipose tissue. Since there is no information about the levels of Zac1 gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT), and the expression of several genes associated with metabolic function of WAT is significantly lower in male than female animals, we have examined: (a) the relative ZAC1 mRNA levels in some organs/tissues, including three main depots of WAT, in 3-month-old male rats; (b) the relative ZAC1 mRNA levels in WAT of male and female rats; (c) the effect of orchidectomy and orchidectomy with concomitant testosterone treatment on ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels; (d) the effect of ovariectomy and ovariectomy with concomitant 17β-estradiol treatment on ZAC1 mRNA levels; (e) the effect of dihydrotestosterone on ZAC1 mRNA levels in isolated adipocytes. Our results indicate that: (a) ZAC1 mRNA levels are relatively high in WAT in comparison with other organs/tissues; (b) ZAC1 mRNA levels in subcutaneous WAT are approximately 2-fold lower than in epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue; (c) ZAC1 mRNA levels in WAT of adult female rats are approximately 2-fold higher than in male rats; (d) testosterone is inversely related to ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels in WAT of male rats; and (e) dihydrotestosterone decreases the ZAC1 mRNA levels in adipocytes in dose dependent manner. In conclusion, Zac1 gene is highly expressed in white adipose tissue of adult rats. Androgens could play an important role in down-regulation of the ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels in rats.

  3. The down-regulation of galectin-1 expression is a specific biomarker of arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ying; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Kuo, Tai-Chih; Chi, Li-Ling; Kao, Yung-Hsi; Huang, Rong-Nan

    2011-08-10

    Galectin-1 (GAL1) is known as a β-galactoside-binding protein that also can bind with arsenic to regulate cell functions. Using RNA interference technique, we investigated the possible mechanism involved in GAL1 modulation of arsenite-inhibited cell survival in 3T3 fibroblast and KB oral cancer cells. GAL1 gene knockdown significantly attenuated sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)) and arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) inhibition of cell survival. However, GAL1 gene knockdown did not alter the inhibition of cell survival by antimony chloride, cadmium chloride or nickel sulfate. These results suggested the GAL1 selectively affects particular types of heavy metal elements. Flow cytometric analysis indicated GAL1 gene knockdown also suppressed As(III)-stimulated levels of sub-G1 and G2/M growth arrest in both cells. Moreover, atomic absorption spectrophotometric results showed that GAL1 gene knockdown reduced the total arsenic accumulation of both cells after the NaAsO(2) and As(2)O(3) treatment. These results suggested that GAL1 gene knockdown mediates the apoptotic effects of arsenic in 3T3 and KB cells via regulation of the cellular arsenic levels. We propose that down-regulation of GAL1 expression may be a useful and specific biomarker in assessing the toxicity of arsenic exposure.

  4. Let-7a inhibits migration of melanoma cells via down-regulation of HMGA2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaocan; Wan, Wencui; Wang, Jing; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Yiwen; Yao, Yaobing; Feng, Lihong; Jing, Lijun; Lu, Hong; Jia, Yanjie; Peng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of exosomes derived from BM-MSCs transduced with let-7a on B16f10 cells and BM-MSCs. BM-MSCs were transduced with let-7a and the exosomes of them were isolated for further culture of B16f10 cells and BM-MSCs. The migration of B16f10 cells were detected by transwell, proliferation of B16f10 cells and BM-MSCs was examined by MTT method, HMGA2 expression was measured by western blot. In addition, the let-7a secreted level in exosomes and IGF level were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Our results showed that the level of let-7a in exosomes derived from Let-7a-transducted BM-MSCs was increased after treated by exosomes. HMGA2 in B16f10 cells was down-regulated and cell survival rate of BM-MSCs was decreased. However, neither cell survival rate of B16f10 cells nor IGF-1 secreted by B16f10 cells in different groups had significant differences. In conclusion, Let-7a contained in exosomes can inhibit the migration of Melanoma cells and inhibit the proliferation of BM-MSCs. PMID:27725848

  5. Expression of neurexin and neuroligin in the enteric nervous system and their down-regulated expression levels in Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangye; Wang, Jian; Li, Aiwu; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Wentong; Cui, Xinhai; Wang, Kelai

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the expression levels of neurexins and neuroligins in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR). Longitudinal muscles with adherent mesenteric plexus were obtained by dissection of the fresh gut wall of mice, guinea pigs, and humans. Double labeling of neurexin I and Hu (a neuron marker), neuroligin 1 and Hu, neurexin I and synaptophysin (a presynaptic marker), and neuroligin 1 and PSD95 (a postsynaptic marker) was performed by immunofluorescence staining. Images were merged to determine the relative localizations of the proteins. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in different segments of the ENS in HSCR were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Neurexin and neuroligin were detected in the mesenteric plexus of mice, guinea pigs, and humans with HSCR. Neurexin was located in the presynapse, whereas neuroligin was located in the postsynapse. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin were significant in the ganglionic colonic segment of HSCR, moderate in the transitional segment, and negative in the aganglionic colonic segment. The expressions of neurexin and neuroligin in the transitional segments were significantly down-regulated compared with the levels in the normal segments (P < 0.05). Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in ENS are significantly down-regulated in HSCR, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  6. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit involved in depression-like behaviours in lithium chloride-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Feng; Ding, Jing; Li, Xin; Fan, Fan; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbidity in patients with epilepsy with unclear mechanisms. This study is to explore the role of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits in epilepsy-associated depression. Lithium chloride (Licl)-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model was established and rats were divided into epilepsy with depression (EWD) and epilepsy without depression (EWND) subgroups based on forced swim test. Expression of NMDA receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits was measured by western blot and immunofluorescence methods. The immobility time (IMT) was significantly greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, which was also greater in EWD group than in EWND group. No differences of spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) counts over two weeks and latency were found between EWD and EWND groups. The number of NeuN positive cells was significantly less in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, but had no difference between EWD and EWND groups. The ratios of phosphorylated NR1 (p-NR1)/NR1 and p-NR2B/NR2B were significantly greater in the hippocampus in EWD group than in EWND group. Moreover, the expression of p-NR1 and p-NR2B in the CA1 subfield of hippocampus were both greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than Control group. Selective blockage of NR2B subunit with ifenprodil could alleviate depression-like behaviours of Licl-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. In conclusion, glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit was involved in promoting depression-like behaviours in the Licl-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model and might be a target for treating epilepsy-associated depression.

  7. FOXL2 down-regulates vitellogenin expression at mature stage in Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Xie, Jing; He, Lin; Wang, Yuanli; Yang, Hongdan; Duan, Zelin; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian development in crustaceans is characterized by rapid production of egg yolk protein in a process called vitellogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of a DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box RNA helicase 20 (DDX20), forkhead transcription factor (FOXL)2 and fushi tarazu factor (FTZ-F)1 in the regulation of vitellogenesis. Based on ESTs from the testis and accessory gland of Eriocheir sinensis, we cloned the full-length cDNAs of foxl2 and fushitarazu factor 1 (ftz-f1), which include the conserved structural features of the forkhead family and nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family respectively. The expression of foxl2 mRNA surged at the mature stage of the ovary, when vtg mRNA swooped, suggesting that foxl2 negatively affects the vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis at this developmental stage. Etoposide (inducing germ cell apoptosis) treatment up-regulated FOXL2 and DDX20 at both the mRNA and the protein levels, primarily in the follicular cells as shown by immunofluorescence analysis. Furthermore, foxl2, ddx20 and ftz-f1 mRNA levels increased significantly with right-eyestalk ablation. Interactions between FOXL2 and DDX20 or FTZ-F1 were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and the forkhead domain of FOXL2 was identified as the specific structure interacting with FTZ-F1. In conclusion, FOXL2 down-regulates VTG expression by binding with DDX20 in regulation of follicular cell apoptosis and with FTZ-F1 to repress the synthesis of VTG at the mature stage. This report is the first to describe the molecular mechanism of VTG synthesis in E. sinensis and may shed new light on the regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme by FOXL2 and FTZ-F1 in vitellogenesis. PMID:26430246

  8. NR2B antagonist CP-101,606 inhibits NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 and its interactions with Fyn in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat model.

    PubMed

    Kong, Min; Ba, Maowen; Liu, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yanxiang; Zhang, Hongli; Qiu, Haiyan

    2015-04-01

    The augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) dependent on Fyn kinase has been associated with levodopa (l-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID). CP-101,606, one selective NR2B subunit antagonist, can improve dyskinesia. Yet, the accurate action mechanism is less well understood. In the present study, the evidences were investigated. Valid 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats were treated with l-dopa intraperitoneally for 22 days to induce LID rat model. On day 23, rats received either CP-101,606 (0.5mg/kg) or vehicle with each l-dopa dose. On the day of 1, 8, 15, 22, and 23 during l-dopa treatment, we determined abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in rats. The levels of NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 (pNR2B-Tyr1472) and interactions of NR2B with Fyn in LID rat model were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results showed that CP-101,606 attenuated l-dopa-induced AIMs. In agreement with behavioral analysis, CP-101,606 reduced the augmented pNR2B-Tyr1472 and its interactions with Fyn triggered during the l-dopa administration in the lesioned striatum of parkinsonian rats. Moreover, CP-101,606 also decreased the level of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at threonine-286 hyperphosphorylation (pCaMKII-Thr286), which was the downstream signaling amplification molecule of NMDAR overactivation and closely associated with LID. However, the protein level of NR2B and Fyn had no difference under the above conditions. These data indicate that the inhibition of the interactions of NR2B with Fyn and NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to the CP-101,606-induced downregulation of NMDAR function and provide benefit for the therapy of LID.

  9. Down-regulation of dendritic spine and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expressions in the reelin haploinsufficient heterozygous reeler mouse.

    PubMed

    Liu, W S; Pesold, C; Rodriguez, M A; Carboni, G; Auta, J; Lacor, P; Larson, J; Condie, B G; Guidotti, A; Costa, E

    2001-03-13

    Heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) haploinsufficient for reelin express approximately 50% of the brain reelin content of wild-type mice, but are phenotypically different from both wild-type mice and homozygous reeler mice. They exhibit, (i) a down-regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD(67))-positive neurons in some but not every cortical layer of frontoparietal cortex (FPC), (ii) an increase of neuronal packing density and a decrease of cortical thickness because of neuropil hypoplasia, (iii) a decrease of dendritic spine expression density on basal and apical dendritic branches of motor FPC layer III pyramidal neurons, and (iv) a similar decrease in dendritic spines expressed on the basal dendrite branches of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. To establish whether the defect of GAD(67) down-regulation observed in HRM is responsible for neuropil hypoplasia and decreased dendritic spine density, we studied heterozygous GAD(67) knockout mice (HG(67)M). These mice exhibited a down-regulation of GAD(67) mRNA expression in FPC (about 50%), but they expressed normal amounts of reelin and had no neuropil hypoplasia or down-regulation of dendritic spine expression. These findings, coupled with electron-microscopic observations that reelin colocalizes with integrin receptors on dendritic spines, suggest that reelin may be a factor in the dynamic expression of cortical dendritic spines perhaps by promoting integrin receptor clustering. These findings are interesting because the brain neurochemical and neuroanatomical phenotypic traits exhibited by the HRM are in several ways similar to those found in postmortem brains of psychotic patients.

  10. Down-regulation of dendritic spine and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expressions in the reelin haploinsufficient heterozygous reeler mouse

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Sheng; Pesold, Christine; Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Carboni, Giovanni; Auta, James; Lacor, Pascal; Larson, John; Condie, Brian G.; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2001-01-01

    Heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) haploinsufficient for reelin express ≈50% of the brain reelin content of wild-type mice, but are phenotypically different from both wild-type mice and homozygous reeler mice. They exhibit, (i) a down-regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-positive neurons in some but not every cortical layer of frontoparietal cortex (FPC), (ii) an increase of neuronal packing density and a decrease of cortical thickness because of neuropil hypoplasia, (iii) a decrease of dendritic spine expression density on basal and apical dendritic branches of motor FPC layer III pyramidal neurons, and (iv) a similar decrease in dendritic spines expressed on the basal dendrite branches of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. To establish whether the defect of GAD67 down-regulation observed in HRM is responsible for neuropil hypoplasia and decreased dendritic spine density, we studied heterozygous GAD67 knockout mice (HG67M). These mice exhibited a down-regulation of GAD67 mRNA expression in FPC (about 50%), but they expressed normal amounts of reelin and had no neuropil hypoplasia or down-regulation of dendritic spine expression. These findings, coupled with electron-microscopic observations that reelin colocalizes with integrin receptors on dendritic spines, suggest that reelin may be a factor in the dynamic expression of cortical dendritic spines perhaps by promoting integrin receptor clustering. These findings are interesting because the brain neurochemical and neuroanatomical phenotypic traits exhibited by the HRM are in several ways similar to those found in postmortem brains of psychotic patients. PMID:11248103

  11. Phosphorylation of NR2B NMDA subunits by protein kinase C in arcuate nucleus contributes to inflammatory pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Fan; Tian, Huiyu; Gong, Shan; Zhu, Qi; Xu, Guang-Yin; Tao, Jin; Jiang, Xinghong

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in pain processing. Although it is well known that inhibition of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) in ARC attenuates hyperalgesia induced by peripheral inflammation, the underlying mechanism of NMDAR activation in ARC remains unclear. Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in several signalling cascades activated in physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, we hypothesised that upregulation of PKC activates NMDARs in the ARC, thus contributing to inflammatory hyperalgesia. Intra-ARC injection of chelerythrine (CC), a specific PKC inhibitor, attenuated complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo extracellular recordings showed that microelectrophoresis of CC or MK-801 (a NMDAR antagonist) significantly reduced the enhancement of spontaneous discharges and pain-evoked discharges of ARC neurons. In addition, CFA injection greatly enhanced the expression of total and phosphorylated PKCγ in the ARC. Interestingly, CFA injection also remarkably elevated the level of phosphorylated NR2B (Tyr1472) without affecting the expression of total NR2B. Importantly, intra-ARC injection of CC reversed the upregulation of phosphorylated NR2B subunits in the ARC. Taken together, peripheral inflammation leads to an activation of NMDARs mediated by PKC activation in the ARC, thus producing thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. PMID:26515544

  12. Cryptotanshinone targets tumor-initiating cells through down-regulation of stemness genes expression

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; CABARCAS, STEPHANIE M.; ZHENG, JI; SUN, LEI; MATHEWS, LESLEY A.; ZHANG, XIAOHU; LIN, HONGSHENG; FARRAR, WILLIAM L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumor initiation and progression, therefore representing an important cell population that may be used as a target for the development of future anticancer therapies. In the present study, Cryptotanshinone (CT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was demonstrated to regulate the behaviors of LNCaP prostate cells and prostate LNCaP TICs. The results demonstrate that treatment with CT alters cellular proliferation, cell cycle status, migration, viability, colony formation and notably, sphere formation and down-regulation of stemness genes (Nanog, OCT4, SOX2, β-catenin, CXCR4) in TICs. The present study demonstrates that CT targets the LNCaP CD44+CD24- population that is representative of prostate TICs and also affects total LNCaP cells as well via down-regulation of stemness genes. The strong effect with which CT has on prostate TICs suggests that CT may potentially function as a novel natural anticancer agent that specifically targets TICs. PMID:27313698

  13. Mifepristone Suppresses Basal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Down-regulating KLF5 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Shi, Peiguo; Nie, Zhi; Liang, Huichun; Zhou, Zhongmei; Chen, Wenlin; Chen, Haijun; Dong, Chao; Yang, Runxiang; Liu, Suling; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the most malignant subtype of breast cancers without effective targeted therapies. Mifepristone (MIF), a drug regularly used for abortion, has been reported to have anti-tumor activity in multiple hormone-dependent cancers, including luminal type breast cancers. In this study, we showed that MIF suppressed tumor growth of the TNBC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. Furthermore, MIF reduced the TNBC cancer stem cell (CSC) population through down-regulating KLF5 expression, a stem cell transcription factor over-expressed in basal type TNBC and promoting cell proliferation, survival and stemness. Interestingly, MIF suppresses the expression of KLF5 through inducing the expression of miR-153. Consistently, miR-153 decreases CSC and miR-153 inhibitor rescued MIF-induced down-regulation of the KLF5 protein level and CSC ratio. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIF inhibits basal TNBC via the miR-153/KLF5 axis and MIF may be used for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:26941846

  14. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, WWP1, Interacts with AMPKα2 and Down-regulates Its Expression in Skeletal Muscle C2C12 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Soo Kyung; Kim, Nami; Kim, Ji Hae; You, Ga Young; Moon, Ji Wook; Jie, Sha; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Yong Woo; Kang, Ho Jin; Lim, Yongchul; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα2) was depressed under high glucose conditions. However, whether protein expression of AMPKα2 is also down-regulated or not remains unclear. In this study, we showed that the expression of AMPKα2 was down-regulated in cells cultured under high glucose conditions. Treatment of proteasome inhibitor, MG132, blocked high glucose-induced AMPKα2 down-regulation. Endogenous AMPKα2 ubiquitination was detected by immunoprecipitation of AMPKα2 followed by immunoblotting detection of ubiquitin. The yeast-two hybrid (YTH) approach identified WWP1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as the AMPKα2-interacting protein in skeletal muscle cells. Interaction between AMPKα2 and WWP1 was validated by co-immunoprecipitation. Knockdown of WWP1 blocked high glucose-induced AMPKα2 down-regulation. The overexpression of WWP1 down-regulated AMPKα2. In addition, the expression of WWP1 is increased under high glucose culture conditions in both mRNA and protein levels. The level of AMPKα2 was down-regulated in the quadriceps muscle of diabetic animal model db/db mice. Expression of WWP1 blocked metformin-induced glucose uptake. Taken together, our results demonstrated that WWP1 down-regulated AMPKα2 under high glucose culture conditions via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:23293026

  15. The liver X receptor ligand T0901317 down-regulates APOA5 gene expression through activation of SREBP-1c.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Heidelinde; Nowak, Maxime; Moitrot, Emanuelle; Dehondt, Hélène; Hum, Dean W; Pennacchio, Len A; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-10-29

    Alterations in the expression of the recently discovered apolipoprotein A5 gene strongly affect plasma triglyceride levels. In this study, we investigated the contribution of APOA5 to the liver X receptor (LXR) ligand-mediated effect on plasma triglyceride levels. Following treatment with the LXR ligand T0901317, we found that APOA5 mRNA levels were decreased in hepatoma cell lines. The observation that no down-regulation of APOA5 promoter activity was obtained by LXR-retinoid X receptor (RXR) co-transfection prompted us to explore the possible involvement of the known LXR target gene SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c). In fact, we found that co-transfection with the active form of SREBP-1c down-regulated APOA5 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. We then scanned the human APOA5 promoter sequence and identified two putative E-box elements that were able to bind specifically SREBP-1c in gel-shift assays and were shown to be functional by mutation analysis. Subsequent suppression of SREBP-1 mRNA through small interfering RNA interference abolished the decrease of APOA5 mRNA in response to T0901317. Finally, administration of T0901317 to hAPOA5 transgenic mice revealed a significant decrease of APOA5 mRNA in liver tissue and circulating apolipoprotein AV protein in plasma, confirming that the described down-regulation also occurs in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that APOA5 gene expression is regulated by the LXR ligand T0901317 in a negative manner through SREBP-1c. These findings may provide a new mechanism responsible for the elevation of plasma triglyceride levels by LXR ligands and support the development of selective LXR agonists, not affecting SREBP-1c, as beneficial modulators of lipid metabolism.

  16. Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin {alpha}, karyopherin {beta}, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

  17. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression.

  18. Majority of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated during malignant transformation in a four-stage model

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Frida; Skogs, Marie; Huss, Mikael; Rexhepaj, Elton; O’Hurley, Gillian; Klevebring, Daniel; Pontén, Fredrik; Gad, Annica K. B.; Uhlén, Mathias; Lundberg, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of normal cells to malignant, metastatic tumor cells is a multistep process caused by the sequential acquirement of genetic changes. To identify these changes, we compared the transcriptomes and levels and distribution of proteins in a four-stage cell model of isogenically matched normal, immortalized, transformed, and metastatic human cells, using deep transcriptome sequencing and immunofluorescence microscopy. The data show that ∼6% (n = 1,357) of the human protein-coding genes are differentially expressed across the stages in the model. Interestingly, the majority of these genes are down-regulated, linking malignant transformation to dedifferentiation. The up-regulated genes are mainly components that control cellular proliferation, whereas the down-regulated genes consist of proteins exposed on or secreted from the cell surface. As many of the identified gene products control basic cellular functions that are defective in cancers, the data provide candidates for follow-up studies to investigate their functional roles in tumor formation. When we further compared the expression levels of four of the identified proteins in clinical cancer cohorts, similar differences were observed between benign and cancer cells, as in the cell model. This shows that this comprehensive demonstration of the molecular changes underlying malignant transformation is a relevant model to study the process of tumor formation. PMID:23569271

  19. Expression of SPARC like protein 1 (SPARCL1), extracellular matrix-associated protein is down regulated in gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background SPARC-like protein 1 (SPARCL1/Hevin), a member of the SPARC family is defined by the presence of a highly acidic domain-I, a follistatin-like domain, and an extracellular calcium (EC) binding domain. SPARCL1 has been shown to be down-regulated in many types of cancer and may serve as a negative regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Methods Both tumor and adjacent normal tissue were collected from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Monoclonal antibody developed against recombinant SPARCL1 was used to analyze the expression of SPARCL1 by immunohisto chemical and western blotting (WB) analysis. Results The expression of SPARCL1 was found to be significantly lower or negligible in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues in nearly all of the cases in comparison with adjacent normal tissue. This comparison was found to be independent of the patient’s age, sex, and stage of cancer. Conclusions We postulate that down regulation of SPARCL1 may be related to inactivation of its tumor suppressor functions and might play an important role in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:27034797

  20. Majority of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated during malignant transformation in a four-stage model.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Frida; Skogs, Marie; Huss, Mikael; Rexhepaj, Elton; O'Hurley, Gillian; Klevebring, Daniel; Pontén, Fredrik; Gad, Annica K B; Uhlén, Mathias; Lundberg, Emma

    2013-04-23

    The transformation of normal cells to malignant, metastatic tumor cells is a multistep process caused by the sequential acquirement of genetic changes. To identify these changes, we compared the transcriptomes and levels and distribution of proteins in a four-stage cell model of isogenically matched normal, immortalized, transformed, and metastatic human cells, using deep transcriptome sequencing and immunofluorescence microscopy. The data show that ∼6% (n = 1,357) of the human protein-coding genes are differentially expressed across the stages in the model. Interestingly, the majority of these genes are down-regulated, linking malignant transformation to dedifferentiation. The up-regulated genes are mainly components that control cellular proliferation, whereas the down-regulated genes consist of proteins exposed on or secreted from the cell surface. As many of the identified gene products control basic cellular functions that are defective in cancers, the data provide candidates for follow-up studies to investigate their functional roles in tumor formation. When we further compared the expression levels of four of the identified proteins in clinical cancer cohorts, similar differences were observed between benign and cancer cells, as in the cell model. This shows that this comprehensive demonstration of the molecular changes underlying malignant transformation is a relevant model to study the process of tumor formation.

  1. Tat-NR2B9c prevents excitotoxic neuronal superoxide production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanting; Brennan-Minnella, Angela M; Sheth, Sunil; El-Benna, Jamel; Swanson, Raymond A

    2015-01-01

    The Tat-NR2B9c peptide has shown clinical efficacy as a neuroprotective agent in acute stroke. Tat-NR2B9c is designed to prevent nitric oxide (NO) production by preventing postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase; however, PSD-95 is a scaffolding protein that also couples NMDA receptors to other downstream effects. Here, using neuronal cultures, we show that Tat-NR2B9c also prevents NMDA-induced activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase, thereby blocking superoxide production. Given that both superoxide and NO are required for excitotoxic injury, the neuroprotective effect of Tat-NR2B9c may alternatively be attributable to uncoupling neuronal NADPH oxidase from NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25669908

  2. Differential effects of enrichment on learning and memory function in NR2B transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y P; Wang, H; Feng, R; Kyin, M; Tsien, J Z

    2001-11-01

    It has been known that environmental enrichment leads to better learning and memory in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms are not known. In this study, we used the 10th-12th of the NR2B transgenic (Tg) lines, in which the NMDA receptor function is enhanced via the NR2B subunit transgene in neurons of the forebrain, to test the hypothesis of the involvement of NMDA receptor function in enrichment-induced better learning and memory. Consistent with our previous results, both larger long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and superior learning and memory were observed in naive NR2B Tg mice even after the 10th-12th generation of breeding. After enrichment, wild-type mice exhibited overall improvement in their performances in contextual and cued conditioning, fear extinctions, and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, the same enrichment procedures could not further increase the performance of NR2B Tg mice in contextual conditioning, cued conditioning, or fear extinction, thereby indicating that enhanced NMDA receptor function can occlude these enrichment effects. However, we found that in the novel object recognition task enriched NR2B Tg mice exhibited much longer recognition memory (up to 1 week), compared to that (up to 3 days) in naive NR2B Tg mice. Furthermore, our biochemical experiments showed that enrichment significantly increased protein levels of GluR1, NR2B, and NR2A subunits of glutamate receptors in both wild-type and NR2B Tg mice. Therefore, our results suggest an interactive nature of molecular pathways involved in both environmental and genetic NMDA receptor manipulations for enhancing learning and memory.

  3. Bisphenol-A rapidly promotes dynamic changes in hippocampal dendritic morphology through estrogen receptor-mediated pathway by concomitant phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaohong Ye Yinping; Li Tao; Chen Lei; Tian Dong; Luo Qingqing; Lu Mei

    2010-12-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is known to be a potent endocrine disrupter. Evidence is emerging that estrogen exerts a rapid influence on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the dendritic spine density, which requires activation of NMDA receptors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BPA (ranging from 1 to 1000 nM), focusing on the rapid dynamic changes in dendritic filopodia and the expressions of estrogen receptor (ER) {beta} and NMDA receptor, as well as the phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the cultured hippocampal neurons. A specific ER antagonist ICI 182,780 was used to examine the potential involvement of ERs. The results demonstrated that exposure to BPA (ranging from 10 to 1000 nM) for 30 min rapidly enhanced the motility and the density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons, as well as the phosphorylation of NR2B (pNR2B), though the expressions of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2B, and ER{beta} were not changed. The antagonist of ERs completely inhibited the BPA-induced increases in the filopodial motility and the number of filopodia extending from dendrites. The increased pNR2B induced by BPA (100 nM) was also completely eliminated. Furthermore, BPA attenuated the effects of 17{beta}-estradiol (17{beta}-E{sub 2}) on the dendritic filopodia outgrowth and the expression of pNR2B when BPA was co-treated with 17{beta}-E{sub 2}. The present results suggest that BPA, like 17{beta}-E{sub 2}, rapidly results in the enhanced motility and density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons with the concomitant activation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B via an ER-mediated signaling pathway. Meanwhile, BPA suppressed the enhancement effects of 17{beta}-E{sub 2} when it coexists with 17{beta}-E{sub 2}. These results provided important evidence suggesting the neurotoxicity of the low levels of BPA during the early postnatal development of the brain.

  4. Synergistic Combination of Gemcitabine and Dietary Molecule Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Down Regulates PKM2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Archana; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Singh, Shashank K.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Gemcitabine, an effective agent in treatment of cancer of pancreas, has undergone failures in many instances after multiple cycles of therapy due to emergence of drug resistance. Combination of dietary compounds with clinically validated drugs has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach to treat pancreatic tumors, refractory to gemcitabine therapy. In order to optimize a possible synergistic combination of Gemcitabine (GCB) with dietary molecules, Betuilnic acid (BA) and Thymoquinone (TQ), stand-alone IC50 dose of GCB, BA and TQ was calculated for pancreatic cancer cell lines. Fixed IC50 dose ratio of the dietary molecules in combination with reduced IC50 dose of GCB was tested on GCB resistant PANC-1 and sensitive MIA PaCa-2 cells for synergism, additive response and antagonism, using calcusyn. Combination index (CI) revealed that pre-treatment of BA and TQ along with GCB synergistically inhibited the cancer cell proliferation in in-vitro experiments. Pyruvate kinase (PK) M2 isoform, a promising target involved in cancer cell metabolism, showed down-regulation in presence of TQ or BA in combination with GCB. GCB with BA acted preferentially on tumor mitochondria and triggered mitochondrial permeability transition. Pre-exposure of the cell lines, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, to TQ in combination with GCB induced apoptosis. Thus, the effectiveness of BA or TQ in combination with GCB to inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and down-regulate the expression of PKM2, reflects promise in pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:25197966

  5. Pamidronate Down-regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Mi; Hong, Seong-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. Methods Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10-12, 10-10, 10-8, and 10-6 M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. Results Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. Conclusions Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression.

  6. Pamidronate Down-regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Mi; Hong, Seong-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. Methods Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10-12, 10-10, 10-8, and 10-6 M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. Results Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. Conclusions Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression. PMID:27622181

  7. Down-Regulated Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 Expression Is Associated With Poor Prognosis in Patients With Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Gao, Jian; Yang, Jingyun; Cao, Yang; Jiang, Lin; Li, Maolan; Zhang, Yijian; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Yingbin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate prognostic significance of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) protein expression in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC).Ninety-five patients who underwent surgical resection for GBC between January 2004 and December 2010 were enrolled. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated over a 10-year follow-up. PGK1 expression was assessed by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Prognostic significance was analyzed using multivariate Cox regression.PGK1 was highly expressed in all gallbladder mucosa. Decreased PGK1 expression was detected in 54.7% (52/95) of patients with GBC. It was significantly down-regulated in GBC samples compared with that in gallbladder mucosa (P < 0.0001), and was associated with multiple clinicopathological factors. Multivariate survival analysis showed that low PGK1 expression was associated with shorter OS (median 12.8 vs 45.4 months; hazard ratio [HR] = 3.077; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.373-6.897; P = 0.006) and DFS (median 8.3 vs 37.9 months; HR = 2.988; 95% CI, 1.315-6.790; P = 0.009), indicating that PGK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with GBC.Low PGK1 expression was associated with progression in patients with GBC. PGK1 expression could be a useful prognostic biomarker for GBC.

  8. [Ox-LDL down-regulates expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Yao, Shu-Tong; Zhai, Lei; Feng, Yue-Long; Song, Guo-Hua; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ping; Qin, Shu-Cun

    2014-08-25

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional protein with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antithrombotic properties and plays a protective role against atherosclerosis (AS). The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on the expression of PEDF in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were cultured and incubated with ox-LDL at different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/L) for 24 h. Apoptosis of endothelial cells were assayed by morphological staining and flow cytometry. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured by flow cytometry. Cell viability was assayed by MTT assay. PEDF protein and mRNA expressions in HUVECs were analyzed by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that ox-LDL significantly induced apoptosis, reduced cell viability, increased intracellular ROS levels and decreased the PEDF expression in HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Ox-LDL at 50 mg/L obviously decreased the PEDF protein expression compared with control group (P < 0.05), whereas 25 mg/L ox-LDL already markedly reduced the PEDF mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that ox-LDL down-regulates the PEDF expression through an increased ox-LDL-induced intracellular production of ROS. PMID:25131792

  9. Galectin-4 expression is down-regulated in response to autophagy during differentiation of rat trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Tomohiro; Liao, Shengjun; Shimada, Hiroki; Inoue, Tomoki; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Nakamura, Takanori; Hatta, Toshihisa; Shoji, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Placental development and trophoblast invasion of the maternal endometrium establish the maternal-fetal interface, which is critical for the developing embryo and fetus. Herein we show that overexpression of Galectin-4 (Gal-4) during trophoblast differentiation inhibited the enlargement of Rcho-1 cells (a model for rat trophoblast differentiation) and promoted cell-cell adhesion, whereas trophoblast specific markers and MMP-9 activity were not affected. In the rat placenta, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) protein, an autophagy marker, is highly expressed on the maternal side of the decidua where Gal-4 expression is weak. In vitro assays showed that the expression of trophoblast-specific differentiation markers was reduced by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and Bafilomycin A1, known as autophagy inhibitors, compared to control cells. Furthermore, Gal-4 expression in Rcho-1 cells, which is normally down-regulated during differentiation, was not attenuated in the presence of autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that autophagy is upstream of Gal-4 expression. We herein describe a possible mechanism by which autophagy regulates trophoblast differentiation via regulation of Gal-4 expression in order to establish the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:27572741

  10. Galectin-4 expression is down-regulated in response to autophagy during differentiation of rat trophoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa, Tomohiro; Liao, Shengjun; Shimada, Hiroki; Inoue, Tomoki; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Nakamura, Takanori; Hatta, Toshihisa; Shoji, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Placental development and trophoblast invasion of the maternal endometrium establish the maternal-fetal interface, which is critical for the developing embryo and fetus. Herein we show that overexpression of Galectin-4 (Gal-4) during trophoblast differentiation inhibited the enlargement of Rcho-1 cells (a model for rat trophoblast differentiation) and promoted cell-cell adhesion, whereas trophoblast specific markers and MMP-9 activity were not affected. In the rat placenta, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) protein, an autophagy marker, is highly expressed on the maternal side of the decidua where Gal-4 expression is weak. In vitro assays showed that the expression of trophoblast-specific differentiation markers was reduced by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and Bafilomycin A1, known as autophagy inhibitors, compared to control cells. Furthermore, Gal-4 expression in Rcho-1 cells, which is normally down-regulated during differentiation, was not attenuated in the presence of autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that autophagy is upstream of Gal-4 expression. We herein describe a possible mechanism by which autophagy regulates trophoblast differentiation via regulation of Gal-4 expression in order to establish the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:27572741

  11. Pioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPAR{gamma} expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pelzer, Theo . E-mail: pelzer_t@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Segerer, Stephan; Lichtenwald, Margit; Law, Marilyn P.; Schaefers, Michael; Ertl, Georg; Neyses, Ludwig

    2005-04-08

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPAR{gamma} in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPAR{gamma}, glucose transporter-4 and {alpha}-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPAR{gamma}, glut-4, and {alpha}-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPAR{gamma} agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPAR{gamma} expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin.

  12. Rapamycin down-regulates LDL-receptor expression independently of SREBP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Laura J.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2008-09-05

    As a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) up-regulates expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (e.g., 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase) and uptake (the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor). Previously, we showed that Akt, a critical kinase in cell growth and proliferation, contributes to SREBP-2 activation. However, the specific Akt target involved is unknown. A potential candidate is the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. Rapamycin can cause hyperlipidaemia clinically, and we hypothesised that this may be mediated via an effect of mTOR on SREBP-2. Herein, we found that SREBP-2 activation and HMG-CoA Reductase gene expression were unaffected by rapamycin treatment. However, LDL-receptor gene expression was decreased by rapamycin, suggesting that this may contribute to the hyperlipidaemia observed in rapamycin-treated patients. Rapamycin did not affect mRNA stability, so the decrease in LDL-receptor gene expression is likely to be occurring at the transcriptional level, although independently of SREBP-2.

  13. VEGF-mediated STAT3 activation inhibits retinal vascularization by down-regulating local erythropoietin expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Byfield, Grace; Jiang, Yanchao; Smith, George Wesley; McCloskey, Manabu; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2012-03-01

    Avascular, hypoxic retina has been postulated to be a source of angiogenic factors that cause aberrant angiogenesis and intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV) in retinopathy of prematurity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important factor involved. However, VEGF is also required for normal retinal vascular development, which raises concerns about inhibiting its activity to treat IVNV in retinopathy of prematurity. Therefore, understanding the effects that VEGF has on other factors in the development of avascular retina is important to prevent aberrant angiogenesis and IVNV. Here, we show that STAT3 was activated by increased retinal VEGF in the rat 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model. Phospho-STAT3 colocalized with glutamine synthetase-labeled Müller cells. Inhibition of STAT3 reduced avascular retina and increased retinal erythropoietin (Epo) expression. Epo administered exogenously also reduced avascular retina in the model. In an in vitro study, hypoxia-induced VEGF inhibited Epo gene expression by STAT3 activation in rat Müller cells. The mechanism by which activated STAT3 regulated Epo was by inhibition of Epo promoter activity. Together, these findings show that increased retinal VEGF contributes to avascular retina by regulating retinal Epo expression through Janus kinase/STAT signaling. Our results suggest that rescuing Epo expression in the retina before the development of IVNV may promote normal developmental angiogenesis and, therefore, reduce the stimulus for later pathologic IVNV.

  14. Allele-specific down-regulation of RPTOR expression induced by retinoids contributes to climate adaptations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang; Southard, Catherine; Witonsky, David B; Kittler, Ralf; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2010-10-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway regulates cell growth, energy homeostasis, apoptosis, and immune response. The regulatory associated protein of MTOR encoded by the RPTOR gene is a key component of this pathway. A previous survey of candidate genes found that RPTOR contains multiple SNPs with strong correlations between allele frequencies and climate variables, consistent with the action of selective pressures that vary across environments. Using data from a recent genome scan for selection signals, we honed in on a SNP (rs11868112) 26 kb upstream to the transcription start site of RPTOR that exhibits the strongest association with temperature variables. Transcription factor motif scanning and mining of recently mapped transcription factor binding sites identified a binding site for POU class 2 homeobox 1 (POU2F1) spanning the SNP and an adjacent retinoid acid receptor (RAR) binding site. Using expression quantification, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and reporter gene assays, we demonstrate that POU2F1 and RARA do bind upstream of the RPTOR gene to regulate its expression in response to retinoids; this regulation is affected by the allele status at rs11868112 with the derived allele resulting in lower expression levels. We propose a model in which the derived allele influences thermogenesis or immune response by altering MTOR pathway activity and thereby increasing fitness in colder climates. Our results show that signatures of genetic adaptations can identify variants with functional effects, consistent with the idea that selection signals may be used for SNP annotation.

  15. Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA increased K-ras expression in lung damage induced by radon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Gu, Chao; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2015-09-01

    Radon has long been recognized as a human carcinogen leading to lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies have shown that the let-7 microRNA and K-ras play an important role in the development of various cancers. However, the exact role between let-7 and K-ras in radon induced lung damage has not been explored so far. In the present study, wistar rats and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were long-term exposed to radon, and then alterations in histological pathology of rat lung tissue, ROS, antioxidant enzymes activities and clonogenic formation in HBE cells, as well as changes in let-7 and K-ras expression were determined to observe the adverse effects induced by radon. The results showed that long-term exposure to radon produced severe lung damage in rats, significantly increased ROS production and clonogenic formation ratios and decreased SOD activities in HBE cells. In addition, an obvious down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of K-ras were also revealed both in mRNA and in protein level in lung tissue of rats and HBE cells exposed to radon. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of K-ras was then confirmed in both let-7b-3p and let-7a-2-3p transfected HBE cells. Taken together, the present results propose an involvement of let-7 microRNA and K-ras in radon induced lung damage both in vivo and in vitro, which may thus be of potential value in early diagnosis and therapy of radon-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  16. Cathepsin B expression and down-regulation by gene silencing and antisense DNA in human chondrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zwicky, Roman; Müntener, Kathrin; Goldring, Mary B; Baici, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Cathepsin B, a marker of the dedifferentiated chondrocyte phenotype, contributes to cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis and pathological proteolysis in rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. In search of possible means for neutralizing the action of this enzyme, we compared its expression, biosynthesis and distribution in articular chondrocytes and two lines of immortalized human chondrocytes. Native articular chondrocytes in primary culture and the polyclonal T/C-28a2 chondrocyte cell line were similar with respect to the number of endosomes and lysosomes, the distribution of three alternatively spliced cathepsin B mRNA forms, and the cathepsin B activity. In contrast, the clonal C-28/I2 cell line contained four times higher levels of intracellular cathepsin B activity, slightly higher numbers of endosomes and lysosomes, and uniform distribution of all three cathepsin B transcripts and thus resembled subcultured chondrocytes at an early stage of dedifferentiation. Transfection of T/C-28a2 chondrocytes with double-stranded cathepsin B mRNA resulted in inhibition of cathepsin B biosynthesis by up to 70% due to RNA interference, and single-stranded antisense DNAs of various sizes decreased cathepsin B biosynthesis by up to 78%. An antisense oligonucleotide designed to hybridize to the end of cathepsin B's exons 1 and the beginning of exon 3 was successful in specifically inhibiting the mRNA splice variant lacking exon 2. These results indicate that cathepsin B expression and activity may be targeted for gene silencing by RNA interference and antisense DNA in chondrocytes. Furthermore, the differential expression and distribution of cathepsin B and presence of the necessary molecular apparatus for gene silencing in the immortalized human chondrocyte cell lines indicate that they may serve as a useful model for studying the function of relevant enzymes in cartilage pathologies. PMID:12086583

  17. Metformin down-regulates endometrial carcinoma cell secretion of IGF-1 and expression of IGF-1R.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Meng-Xiong; Wang, Huan; Zeng, Zheng; Li, Xiao-Mao

    2015-01-01

    As metformin can inhibit endometrial carcinoma (EC) cell growth and the insulin growth factor (IGF) system is active in EC, the question of whether t can regulate endometrial carcinoma cell secretion of IGF-1 or expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is of interest. In this study, serum IGF-1 levels in EC patients were found to be comparable with that in the non EC patients (p>0.05). However, the IGF-1 level in the medium of cultured cells after treatment with metformin was decreased (p<0.05). IGF-1R was highly expressed in human endometrial carcinoma paraffin sections, but IGF-1R and phosphor-protein kinase B/protein kinase B (p-Akt/ Akt) expression was down-regulated after metformin treatment (p<0.05). In summary, metformin can reduce the secretion of IGF-1 by Ishikawa and JEC EC cell lines and their expression of IGF-1R to deactivate downstream signaling involving the PI-3K/Akt pathway to inhibit endometrial carcinoma cell growth.

  18. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  19. Induction and down-regulation of PLK, a human serine/threonine kinase expressed in proliferating cells and tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Holtrich, U; Wolf, G; Bräuninger, A; Karn, T; Böhme, B; Rübsamen-Waigmann, H; Strebhardt, K

    1994-01-01

    We have identified the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the human counterpart of the mouse gene Plk (polo-like kinase). The sequence of the human gene, PLK, predicts a serine/threonine kinase of 603 aa. Expression of PLK mRNA appeared to be strongly correlated with the mitotic activity of cells. Resting peripheral lymphocytes did not express the gene at all. When primary T cells were activated by phytohemagglutinin, a high level of PLK transcripts resulted within 2-3 days. In some cases, addition of interleukin 2 to these cells increased the expression of PLK mRNA further. In contrast, primary cultures of human peripheral macrophages, which were not dividing under the culture conditions applied, showed very little or no PLK mRNA. Stimulation of these cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide, an inducer of several cytokines in macrophages, totally abrogated the expression of PLK mRNA. In line with a function of PLK mRNA expression in mitotically active cells is our finding that six immortalized cell lines examined expressed the gene. In A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells this expression was down-regulated by serum starvation and enhanced after serum was added again. Tumors of various origin (lung, colon, stomach, smooth muscle, and esophagus as well as non-Hodgkin lymphomas) expressed high levels of PLK transcripts in about 80% of the samples studied, whereas PLK mRNA was absent in surrounding tissue, except for colon. The only normal tissues where PLK mRNA expression was observed were colon and placenta, both known to be mitotically active. No PLK transcripts were found in normal adult lung, brain, heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. In Northern blot experiments with RNA from lymphocytes which were treated with phytohemagglutinin and cycloheximide, PLK transcripts were not detectable, suggesting that PLK is not an early growth-response gene. Images PMID:8127874

  20. Sodium butyrate down-regulates tristetraprolin-mediated cyclin B1 expression independent of the formation of processing bodies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang-Tao; Xiao, Xiao-Qiang; Dai, Ju-Ji

    2015-12-01

    Butyrate regulates multiple host cellular events including the cell cycle; however, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which butyrate induces a global down-regulation of the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate that treating HEK293T cells and the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 with a high concentration of sodium butyrate reduces cyclin B1 expression. The underlying mechanism is related to the destabilization of its mRNA by tristetraprolin, which is up-regulated in response to sodium butyrate. Specifically, the sodium butyrate stimulation reduces the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1 and, conversely, upregulates tristetraprolin expression. Importantly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin in HEK293T decreases the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1; in contrast, knockdown of tristetraprolin mediated by small interfering RNA increases its expression in response to sodium butyrate treatment for both HEK293T and A549 cells. Furthermore, results from luciferase reporter assays and RNA immunoprecipitation indicate that sodium butyrate accelerates 3' UTR-dependent cyclin B1 decay by enhancing the binding of tristetraprolin to the 3' untranslated region of cyclin B1. Surprisingly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin prevents the formation of processing bodies, and the siRNA-mediated silencing of EDC4 does not restore the sodium butyrate-induced reduction of cyclin B1 expression. Thus, we confirm that NaBu regulates ZFP36-mediated cyclin B1 expression in a manner that is independent of the formation of P-bodies. The above findings disclose a novel mechanism of sodium butyrate-mediated gene expression regulation and might benefit its application in tumor treatment.

  1. Activation of defense against Phytophthora infestans in potato by down-regulation of syntaxin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Landgraf, Ramona; Smolka, Ulrike; Schulze, Sebastian; Heilmann, Mareike; Heilmann, Ingo; Hause, Gerd; Rosahl, Sabine

    2012-03-01

    The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight, the most devastating disease of potato. The importance of vesicle fusion processes and callose deposition for defense of potato against Phytophthora infestans was analyzed. Transgenic plants were generated, which express RNA interference constructs targeted against plasma membrane-localized SYNTAXIN-RELATED 1 (StSYR1) and SOLUBLE N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTOR ADAPTOR PROTEIN 33 (StSNAP33), the potato homologs of Arabidopsis AtSYP121 and AtSNAP33, respectively. Phenotypically, transgenic plants grew normally, but showed spontaneous necrosis and chlorosis formation at later stages. In response to infection with Phytophthora infestans, increased resistance of StSYR1-RNAi plants, but not StSNAP33-RNAi plants, was observed. This increased resistance correlated with the constitutive accumulation of salicylic acid and PR1 transcripts. Aberrant callose deposition in Phytophthora infestans-infected StSYR1-RNAi plants coincided with decreased papilla formation at penetration sites. Resistance against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea was not significantly altered. Infiltration experiments with bacterial solutions of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Escherichia coli revealed a hypersensitive phenotype of both types of RNAi lines. The enhanced defense status and the reduced growth of Phytophthora infestans on StSYR1-RNAi plants suggest an involvement of syntaxins in secretory defense responses of potato and, in particular, in the formation of callose-containing papillae. PMID:22243492

  2. An anti-inflammatory oligopeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica down-regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines.

    PubMed

    Utrera-Barillas, Dolores; Velazquez, Juan R; Enciso, Antonio; Cruz, Samira Muñoz; Rico, Guadalupe; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo; Teran, Luis M; Kretschmer, Roberto R

    2003-10-01

    Axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica produces a pentapeptide (Met-Gln-Cys-Asn-Ser) with anti-inflammatory properties that, among others, inhibits the in vitro and in vivo locomotion of human monocytes, sparing polymorphonuclear leucocytes from this effect [hence the name originally given. Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor (MLIF)]. A synthetic construct of this peptide displays the same effects as the native material. We now added MLIF to resting and PMA-stimulated cells of a human monocyte cell line and measured the effect upon mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines (RANTES, IP-10, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MCP-1, IL-8, I-309 and lymphotactin) and the shared CC receptor repertoire. The constitutive expression of these chemokines and the CC receptors was unaffected, whereas induced expression of MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and I-309, and that of the CCR1 receptor--all involved in monocyte chemotaxis--was significantly inhibited by MLIF. This suggests that the inhibition of monocyte functions by MLIF may not only be exerted directly on these cells, but also--and perhaps foremost--through a conglomerate down-regulation of endogenous pro-inflammatory chemokines.

  3. Down-regulation of CD53 expression in Epinephelus coioides under LPS, poly (I:C), and cytokine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chia-Yi; Lin, John Han-You; Lin, Shih-Jie; Kuo, Wan-Ching; Lin, Han-Tso

    2016-04-01

    Tetraspanins are a group of cell surface molecules involved in cell adhesion, motility, metastasis, signal transduction, and immune cell activation. Members of the tetraspanin family include CD9, CD37, CD63, CD53, and others. However, few tetraspanins have been investigated in teleosts. In this study, we obtained the open reading frame of CD53 cDNA from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioices), an economically important fish. The predicted amino acid structure contains four membrane-spanning domains and a conserved CCG motif. The amino acid identity between human and grouper CD53 was only 38%; however, both CD53 proteins share the same structure. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA is abundant in immune organs, including the head and trunk kidneys, spleen, thymus, gill, and blood. Immunochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses further revealed that CD53 was majorly expressed in the leukocytes of various organs. Finally, mRNA and protein expression for CD53 was down-regulated in fish treated with immune stimulators, including LPS, Poly (I:C), Vibrio, recombinant grouper IL-6, and CCL4. Our results indicate that the expression of CD53 may play important roles in pathogen invasion and inflammation reaction. PMID:26631805

  4. Metformin reduces the endotoxin-induced down-regulation of apolipoprotein E gene expression in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Stavri, Simona; Trusca, Violeta G.; Simionescu, Maya; Gafencu, Anca V.

    2015-05-29

    The atheroprotective role of macrophage-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known. Our previous reports demonstrated that inflammatory stress down-regulates apoE expression in macrophages, aggravating atherogenesis. Metformin, extensively used as an anti-diabetic drug, has also anti-inflammatory properties, and thus confers vascular protection. In this study, we questioned whether metformin could have an effect on apoE expression in macrophages in normal conditions or under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The results showed that metformin slightly increases the apoE expression only at high doses (5–10 mM). Low doses of metformin (1–3 mM) significantly reduce the LPS down-regulatory effect on apoE expression in macrophages. Our experiments demonstrated that LPS-induced NF-κB binds to the macrophage-specific distal regulatory element of apoE gene, namely to the multienhancer 2 (ME.2) and its 5′-deletion fragments. The NF-κB binding on ME.2 and apoE promoter has a down-regulatory effect. In addition, data revealed that metformin impairs NF-κB nuclear translocation, and thus, improves the apoE levels in macrophages under inflammatory stress. The positive effect of metformin in the inflammatory states, its clinical safety and low cost, make this drug a potential adjuvant in the therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • High doses of metformin slightly increase apoE expression in macrophages. • Low doses of metformin up-regulate apoE gene in endotoxin-stressed macrophages. • Metformin reduces the negative effect of LPS on apoE expression by NF-κB inhibition.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Increases Free Fatty Acids Absorption and Promotes its Replication Via Down-Regulating GADD45α Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, An-ling; Yang, Gui; Hu, Han-ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as a major cause of chronic hepatic diseases, is always accompanied with an abnormality of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of free fatty acids (FFA) in human HCV infection. Material/Methods Peripheral blood lipid indexes among HCV patients with different viral loads (199 samples) and healthy donors (80 samples) were detected by clinical biochemistry tests. HCV replication and the expression of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 45-α (GADD45α) in Huh7 cells and clinical samples were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Lipid accumulation in Huh7 cells was detected by immunofluorescence. Results In this study, we found that FFA showed a significant positive correlation with viral load in peripheral blood of HCV patients, but not total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). GADD45α expression in HCV patients dramatically decreased with the increase of viral load. In Huh7 cells, FFA treatment significantly enhanced HCV replication. HCV infection inhibited GADD45α expression, and this effect was further enhanced with the presence of FFA treatment. Ectopic expression of GADD45α in HCV-infected Huh7 cells markedly inhibited the absorption of FFA and HCV replication. However, FFA significantly elevated GADD45α expression without HCV infection. Conclusions These results demonstrated that HCV down-regulates GADD45α expression to enhance FFA absorption and thus facilitate its replication. GADD45α is an essential mediator for the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Thus, our study provides potential clues in the search for novel therapeutics and fatty lipid control options for HCV patients. PMID:27381636

  6. Melittin induces PTCH1 expression by down-regulating MeCP2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Bin; Cheng, Yahui; Yang, Yang; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high mortality rate worldwide and still remains to be a noticeable public health problem. Therefore, new remedies are urgently needed. Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to suppress cell growth in various cancers including HCC. However, the mechanism of the anticancer effect of melittin on HCC has not been fully elucidated. It has been reported that Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) plays a key role in tumor proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. In the present study, we found the high expression of MeCP2 in human HCC tissues and in the SMMC-7721 cell line. MeCP2 silencing inhibited cell proliferation, while over-expression of MeCP2 promoted cell growth in SMMC-7721 cells. It indicates that MeCP2 may be an attractive target for human HCC. We further found that melittin could inhibit cell proliferation by reducing MeCP2 expression in vitro. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melittin on cell proliferation was due to a delay in G0/G1 cell cycle progression, without influencing cell apoptosis. Next, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms and found that MeCP2 could modulate Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. Further study indicates that melittin may induce the demethylation of PTCH1 promoter, resulting in the increased expression of PTCH1. Furthermore, the expression of Shh and GLI1 was significantly lowered upon treatment of melittin. These results suggest that melittin can block Shh signaling in vitro. In short, these results indicate that melittin inhibits cell proliferation by down-regulating MeCP2 through Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. PMID:26189965

  7. NDRG2 Expression Decreases Tumor-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation by Down-regulating ICAM1 in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bomi; Nam, Sorim; Lim, Ji Hyun; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Bone matrix is properly maintained by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In the tumor microenvironment, osteoclasts are increasingly differentiated by the various ligands and cytokines secreted from the metastasized cancer cells at the bone metastasis niche. The activated osteoclasts generate osteolytic lesions. For this reason, studies focusing on the differentiation of osteoclasts are important to reduce bone destruction by tumor metastasis. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been known to contribute to the suppression of tumor growth and metastasis, but the precise role of NDRG2 in osteoclast differentiation induced by cancer cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that NDRG2 expression in breast cancer cells has an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation. RAW 264.7 cells, which are monocytic preosteoclast cells, treated with the conditioned media (CM) of murine breast cancer cells (4T1) expressing NDRG2 are less differentiated into the multinucleated osteoclast-like cells than those treated with the CM of 4T1-WT or 4T1-mock cells. Interestingly, 4T1 cells stably expressing NDRG2 showed a decreased mRNA and protein level of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), which is known to enhance osteoclast maturation. Osteoclast differentiation was also reduced by ICAM1 knockdown in 4T1 cells. In addition, blocking the interaction between soluble ICAM1 and ICAM1 receptors significantly decreased osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells in the tumor environment. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduction of ICAM1 expression by NDRG2 in breast cancer cells decreases osteoclast differentiation, and demonstrate that excessive bone resorption could be inhibited via ICAM1 down-regulation by NDRG2 expression.

  8. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis via Mitochondrial-Dependent Pathway and Down-Regulating Cellular Bcl-2 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhihui; Wang, Lingyan; Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Xiangdong; Zhu, Bijun; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been reported as a promising agent that might contribute to tumor cell apoptosis and death, yet little is known on its mechanisms. In current study, the effect of PQQ on cell proliferation and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis were examined in 3 solid tumor cell lines (A549, Neuro-2A and HCC-LM3). PQQ treatment at low to medium dosage exhibited potent anti-tumor activity on A549 and Neuro-2A cells, while had comparably minimal impact on the viabilities of 2 human normal cell lines (HRPTEpiC and HUVEC). The apoptosis of the 3 tumor cell lines induced by PQQ were increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which might be attributed to the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decline in ATP levels and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), in conjunction with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression, up-regulation of activated caspase-3, and disturbed phosphorylated MAPK protein levels. PQQ induced tumor cells apoptosis was significantly alleviated by pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. The present work highlights the potential capability of PQQ as an anti-tumor agent with low toxicity towards normal cells through activating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathways, and warrants its development for cancer therapy.

  9. Acacetin inhibits in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis and down-regulates Stat signaling and VEGF expression

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Tariq A.; Nambiar, Dhanya; Tailor, Dhanir; Pal, Arttatrana; Agarwal, Rajesh; Singh, Rana P.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an effective target in cancer control. The anti-angiogenic efficacy and associated mechanisms of acacetin, a plant flavone, is poorly known. In the present study, acacetin inhibited growth and survival (upto 92%, p<0.001), and capillary-like tube formation on matrigel (upto 98%, p<0.001) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in regular condition, as well as VEGF-induced and tumor cells conditioned medium-stimulated growth conditions. It caused retraction and disintegration of preformed capillary networks (upto 91%, p<0.001). HUVEC migration and invasion were suppressed by 68-100% (p<0.001). Acacetin inhibited Stat-1 (Tyr701) and Stat-3 (Tyr705) phosphorylation, and down-regulated pro-angiogenic factors including VEGF, eNOS, iNOS, MMP-2 and bFGF in HUVEC. It also suppressed nuclear localization of pStat-3 (Tyr705). Acacetin strongly inhibited capillary sprouting and networking from rat aortic rings and fertilized chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) (~71%, p<0.001). Furthermore, it suppressed angiogenesis in matrigel plugs implanted in Swiss albino mice. Acacetin also inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat-1 and Stat-3, and expression of VEGF in cancer cells. Overall, acacetin inhibits Stat signaling and suppresses angiogenesis in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo, and therefore, it could be a potential agent to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:23943785

  10. Cytotoxic Activity of Rearranged Drimane Meroterpenoids against Colon Cancer Cells via Down-Regulation of β-Catenin Expression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has emerged as a major cause of death in Western countries. Down-regulation of β-catenin expression has been considered a promising approach for cytotoxic drug formulation. Eight 4,9-friedodrimane-type sesquiterpenoids (1–8) were acquired using the oxidative potential of Verongula rigida on bioactive metabolites from two Smenospongia sponges. Compounds 3 and 4 contain a 2,2-dimethylbenzo[d]oxazol-6(2H)-one moiety as their substituted heterocyclic residues, which is unprecedented in such types of meroterpenoids. Gauge-invariant atomic orbital NMR chemical shift calculations were employed to investigate stereochemical details with support of the application of advanced statistics such as CP3 and DP4. Compounds 2 and 8 and the mixture of 3 and 4 suppressed β-catenin response transcription (CRT) via degrading β-catenin and exhibited cytotoxic activity on colon cancer cells, implying that their anti-CRT potential is, at least in part, one of their underlying antineoplastic mechanisms. PMID:25590830

  11. Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 gene expression is down-regulated by LXR activators in the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, Caroline; Touche, Veronique; Tailleux, Anne; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Fievet, Catherine; Clavey, Veronique; Staels, Bart . E-mail: Bart.Staels@pasteur-lille.fr; Lestavel, Sophie

    2006-02-24

    Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) is a protein critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) and liver X receptors (LXR{alpha} and LXR{beta}) are major regulators of cholesterol homeostasis and their activation results in a reduced absorption of intestinal cholesterol. The goal of this study was to define the role of PPAR{alpha} and LXR nuclear receptors in the regulation of NPC1L1 gene expression. We show that LXR activators down-regulate NPC1L1 mRNA levels in the human enterocyte cell line Caco-2/TC7, whereas PPAR{alpha} ligands have no effect. Furthermore, NPC1L1 mRNA levels are decreased in vivo, in duodenum of mice treated with the LXR agonist T0901317. In conclusion, the present study identifies NPC1L1 as a novel LXR target gene further supporting a crucial role of LXR in intestinal cholesterol homeostasis.

  12. Melatonin down-regulates MDM2 gene expression and enhances p53 acetylation in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Sara; Cucina, Alessandra; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Dinicola, Simona; Masiello, Maria Grazia; Pasqualato, Alessia; Palombo, Alessandro; Morini, Veronica; Reiter, Russel J; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2014-08-01

    Compelling evidence demonstrated that melatonin increases p53 activity in cancer cells. p53 undergoes acetylation to be stabilized and activated for driving cells destined for apoptosis/growth inhibition. Over-expression of p300 induces p53 acetylation, leading to cell growth arrest by increasing p21 expression. In turn, p53 activation is mainly regulated in the nucleus by MDM2. MDM2 also acts as E3 ubiquitin ligase, promoting the proteasome-dependent p53 degradation. MDM2 entry into the nucleus is finely tuned by two different modulations: the ribosomal protein L11, acts by sequestering MDM2 in the cytosol, whereas the PI3K-AkT-dependent MDM2 phosphorylation is mandatory for MDM2 translocation across the nuclear membrane. In addition, MDM2-dependent targeting of p53 is regulated in a nonlinear fashion by MDM2/MDMX interplay. Melatonin induces both cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in MCF7 breast cancer cells. We previously reported that this effect is associated with reduced MDM2 levels and increased p53 activity. Herein, we demonstrated that melatonin drastically down-regulates MDM2 gene expression and inhibits MDM2 shuttling into the nucleus, given that melatonin increases L11 and inhibits Akt-PI3K-dependent MDM2 phosphorylation. Melatonin induces a 3-fold increase in both MDMX and p300 levels, decreasing simultaneously Sirt1, a specific inhibitor of p300 activity. Consequently, melatonin-treated cells display significantly higher values of both p53 and acetylated p53. Thus, a 15-fold increase in p21 levels was observed in melatonin-treated cancer cells. Our results provide evidence that melatonin enhances p53 acetylation by modulating the MDM2/MDMX/p300 pathway, disclosing new insights for understanding its anticancer effect. PMID:24920214

  13. The non-structural protein Nsp2TF of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus down-regulates the expression of Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian M; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Ni, Yan-Yan; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is arguably the most economically-important global swine pathogen. Here we demonstrated that PRRSV down-regulates Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I (SLA-I) expression in porcine alveolar macrophages, PK15-CD163 cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. To identify the viral protein(s) involved in SLA-I down-regulation, we tested all 22 PRRSV structural and non-structural proteins and identified that Nsp1α and Nsp2TF, and GP3 significantly down-regulated SLA-I expression with Nsp2TF showing the greatest effect. We further generated a panel of mutant viruses in which the Nsp2TF protein synthesis was abolished, and found that the two mutants with disrupted -2 ribosomal frameshifting elements and additional stop codons in the TF domain were unable to down-regulate SLA-I expression. Additionally we demonstrated that the last 68 amino acids of TF domain in Nsp2TF are critical for this function. Collectively, the results indicate a novel function of Nsp2TF in negative modulation of SLA-I expression.

  14. Chronic Kappa opioid receptor activation modulates NR2B: Implication in treatment resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shalini; Kumar, Ajeet; Umrao, Deepmala; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Yadav, Prem N

    2016-01-01

    Psychotomimetic and prodepressive effect by kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in rodents and human is widely known. Significantly, recent clinical investigations demonstrated the salutary effects of KOR antagonists in patients with treatment resistant depression, indicating essential role of KOR signaling in refractory depression. This study was undertaken to reveal the molecular determinant of KOR mediated depression and antidepressant response of KOR antagonist. We observed that chronic KOR activation by U50488, a selective KOR agonist, significantly increased depression like symptoms (behavioral despair, anhedonia and sociability) in C57BL/6J mice, which were blocked by KOR antagonist norBNI and antidepressant imipramine, but not by fluoxetine or citalopram. Further, chronic KOR activation increased phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of NMDA at tyrosine 1472 (pNR2B NMDA) in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex. Similar to behavioral effects norBNI and imipramine, but not SSRIs, blocked NR2B phosphorylation. Moreover, KOR induced depression like behaviors were reversed by NR2B selective inhibitor Ro 25-6981. Mechanistic studies in primary cultured neurons and brain tissues using genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that stimulation of KOR modulates several molecular correlates of depression. Thus, these findings elucidate molecular mechanism of KOR signaling in treatment resistant depression like behaviors in mice. PMID:27634008

  15. Chronic Kappa opioid receptor activation modulates NR2B: Implication in treatment resistant depression

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Shalini; Kumar, Ajeet; Umrao, Deepmala; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A.; Yadav, Prem N.

    2016-01-01

    Psychotomimetic and prodepressive effect by kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in rodents and human is widely known. Significantly, recent clinical investigations demonstrated the salutary effects of KOR antagonists in patients with treatment resistant depression, indicating essential role of KOR signaling in refractory depression. This study was undertaken to reveal the molecular determinant of KOR mediated depression and antidepressant response of KOR antagonist. We observed that chronic KOR activation by U50488, a selective KOR agonist, significantly increased depression like symptoms (behavioral despair, anhedonia and sociability) in C57BL/6J mice, which were blocked by KOR antagonist norBNI and antidepressant imipramine, but not by fluoxetine or citalopram. Further, chronic KOR activation increased phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of NMDA at tyrosine 1472 (pNR2B NMDA) in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex. Similar to behavioral effects norBNI and imipramine, but not SSRIs, blocked NR2B phosphorylation. Moreover, KOR induced depression like behaviors were reversed by NR2B selective inhibitor Ro 25-6981. Mechanistic studies in primary cultured neurons and brain tissues using genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that stimulation of KOR modulates several molecular correlates of depression. Thus, these findings elucidate molecular mechanism of KOR signaling in treatment resistant depression like behaviors in mice. PMID:27634008

  16. Identification of a novel NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonist using a virtual screening approach.

    PubMed

    Mony, Laetitia; Triballeau, Nicolas; Paoletti, Pierre; Acher, Francine C; Bertrand, Hugues-Olivier

    2010-09-15

    We report the identification of a novel NR2B-selective NMDAR antagonist with an original scaffold, LSP10-0500. This compound was identified by a virtual high-throughput screening approach on the basis of a quantitative pharmacophore model of NR2B-specific NMDAR antagonists. A SAR study around LSP10-0500 is also described.

  17. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  18. Down-regulation of rat mitochondrial branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase kinase gene expression by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y S; Chuang, D T

    1999-01-01

    The mammalian mitochondrial branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCOD) complex is regulated by a reversible phosphorylation (inactivation)/dephosphorylation (activation) cycle. In the present study, the effects of glucocorticoids on the level of BCOD kinase mRNA were investigated in rat hepatoma cell lines (H4IIE and FTO-2B), as well as in the rat. In H4IIE cells, dexamethasone was found to significantly reduce steady-state concentrations of BCOD kinase mRNA after a 48 h culture, and this was correlated with a 2-fold increase in the dephosphorylated form of the BCOD complex. The half-life of the kinase mRNA in H4IIE cells was not affected by dexamethasone treatment. Therefore, the decrease in the steady-state kinase mRNA level resulting from dexamethasone treatment was not caused by changes in mRNA stability, which raised the possibility of regulation at the level of gene transcription. To identify the negative glucocorticoid-responsive element in the kinase promoter, nested deletion constucts in the 3.0 kb promoter region were examined in H4IIE cells cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone. No significant differences in promoter activity were observed on either transient or stable transfection. The data showed that the glucocorticoid-responsive element was located outside the 3. 0 kb promoter region. At the physiological level, hepatic BCOD kinase mRNA levels were reduced in rats injected intraperitoneally with dexamethasone. This effect was liver-specific, and was not detected in other tissues. These results suggest that the down-regulation of kinase gene expression by glucocorticoids is mediated through a liver-specific or -enriched transcription factor(s). PMID:10215586

  19. Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Angiogenesis by Down-Regulating VEGF Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Kuen; Park, Sae-Ra; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Yoon-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Shin; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Goo; Jang, Ji-Young; Kim, Chul-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by a variety of cell types. Exosomes contain genetic materials, such as mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), implying that they may play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which potentially differentiate into multiple cell types, can migrate to the tumor sites and have been reported to exert complex effects on tumor progression. To elucidate the role of MSCs within the tumor microenvironment, previous studies have suggested various mechanisms such as immune modulation and secreted factors of MSCs. However, the paracrine effects of MSC-derived exosomes on the tumor microenvironment remain to be explored. The hypothesis of this study was that MSC-derived exosomes might reprogram tumor behavior by transferring their molecular contents. To test this hypothesis, exosomes from MSCs were isolated and characterized. MSC-derived exosomes exhibited different protein and RNA profiles compared with their donor cells and these vesicles could be internalized by breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that MSC-derived exosomes significantly down-regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells, which lead to inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, miR-16, a miRNA known to target VEGF, was enriched in MSC-derived exosomes and it was partially responsible for the anti-angiogenic effect of MSC-derived exosomes. The collective results suggest that MSC-derived exosomes may serve as a significant mediator of cell-to-cell communication within the tumor microenvironment and suppress angiogenesis by transferring anti-angiogenic molecules. PMID:24391924

  20. Down Regulation of Gene Expression Between the Diapause Initiation and Maintenance Phases of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diapause initiation and maintenance phases of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata were screened. Eight transcripts were found to be down regulated as the beetles enter the diapause maintenance phase of diapause development after day 15 postemergence. These transcripts were also...

  1. Cyclic mechanical stretch down-regulates cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression and activates a pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Karadottir, Harpa; Kulkarni, Nikhil Nitin; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Karason, Sigurbergur; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Hrafn

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative stress in the VA10 cells. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR5 and TLR8 was reduced, while the gene expression of TLR2 was increased in VA10 cells after cyclic stretch. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and increase in pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:26664810

  2. Down-regulated expression of monocyte/macrophage major histocompatibility complex receptors in human and mouse monocytes by expression of their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Yamana, H; Tashiro-Yamaji, J; Hayashi, M; Maeda, S; Shimizu, T; Tanigawa, N; Uchiyama, K; Kubota, T; Yoshida, R

    2014-01-01

    Mouse monocyte/macrophage major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptor 1 (MMR1; or MMR2) specific for H-2Dd (or H-2Kd) molecules is expressed on monocytes from non-H-2Dd (or non-H-2Kd), but not those from H-2Dd (or H-2Kd), inbred mice. The MMR1 and/or MMR2 is essential for the rejection of H-2Dd- and/or H-2Kd-transgenic mouse skin onto C57BL/6 (H-2DbKb) mice. Recently, we found that human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B44 was the sole ligand of human MMR1 using microbeads that had been conjugated with 80 types of HLA class I molecules covering 94·2% (or 99·4%) and 92·4% (or 96·2%) of HLA-A and B molecules of Native Americans (or Japanese), respectively. In the present study, we also explored the ligand specificity of human MMR2 using microbeads. Microbeads coated with HLA-A32, HLA-B13 or HLA-B62 antigens bound specifically to human embryonic kidney (HEK)293T or EL-4 cells expressing human MMR2 and to the solubilized MMR2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein; and MMR2+ monocytes from a volunteer bound HLA-B62 molecules with a Kd of 8·7 × 10−9 M, implying a three times down-regulation of MMR2 expression by the ligand expression. H-2Kd (or H-2Dd) transgene into C57BL/6 mice down-regulated not only MMR2 (or MMR1) but also MMR1 (or MMR2) expression, leading to further down-regulation of MMR expression. In fact, monocytes from two (i.e. MMR1+/MMR2+ and MMR1–/MMR2–) volunteers bound seven to nine types of microbeads among 80, indicating ≤ 10 types of MMR expression on monocytes. The physiological role of constitutive MMRs on monocytes possibly towards allogeneic (e.g. fetal) cells in the blood appears to be distinct from that of inducible MMRs on macrophages toward allografts in tissue. PMID:24842626

  3. An early pseudorabies virus protein down-regulates porcine MHC class I expression by inhibition of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP).

    PubMed

    Ambagala, A P; Hinkley, S; Srikumaran, S

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the mechanism(s) of pseudorabies virus (PrV)-induced down-regulation of porcine class I molecules and the viral protein(s) responsible for the effect. The ability of PrV to interfere with the peptide transport activity of TAP was determined by an in vitro transport assay. In this assay, porcine kidney (PK-15) cells were permeabilized with streptolysin-O and incubated with a library of 125I-labeled peptides having consensus motifs for glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The efficiency of transport of peptides from the cytosol into the ER was determined by adsorbing the ER-glycosylated peptides onto Con A-coupled Sepharose beads. Dose-dependent inhibition of TAP activity was observed in PrV-infected PK-15 cells. This inhibition, which occurred as early as 2 h postinfection (h.p.i.), reached the maximum level by 6 h.p.i., indicating that TAP inhibition is one of the mechanisms by which PrV down-regulates porcine class I molecules. Infection of cells with PrV in the presence of metabolic inhibitors revealed that cycloheximide a protein synthesis inhibitor, but not phosphonoacetic acid a herpesvirus DNA synthesis inhibitor, could restore the cell surface expression of class I molecules, indicating that late proteins are not responsible for the down-regulation. Infection in the presence of cycloheximide followed by actinomycin-D, which results in accumulation of the immediate-early protein, failed to down-regulate class I, indicating that one or more early proteins are responsible for the down-regulation of class I molecules.

  4. ER stress upregulated PGE2/IFNγ-induced IL-6 expression and down-regulated iNOS expression in glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Toru; Honda, Miya; Oba, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2013-12-01

    The disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function can lead to neurodegenerative disorders, in which inflammation has also been implicated. We investigated the possible correlation between ER stress and immune function using glial cells. We demonstrated that ER stress synergistically enhanced prostaglandin (PG) E2 + interferon (IFN) γ-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production. This effect was mediated through cAMP. Immune-activated glial cells produced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interestingly, ER stress inhibited PGE2 + IFNγ-induced iNOS expression. Similar results were obtained when cells were treated with dbcAMP + IFNγ. Thus, cAMP has a dual effect on immune reactions; cAMP up-regulated IL-6 expression, but down-regulated iNOS expression under ER stress. Therefore, our results suggest a link between ER stress and immune reactions in neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline prevents remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits MnSOD nitration via regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Shu, R; Wang, H; Yu, Y; Wang, C; Yang, M; Wang, M; Wang, G

    2014-11-01

    Remifentanil administration may subsequently cause paradoxical hyperalgesia in animals and humans, but mechanisms remain unclear. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) nitration and inactivation caused by generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in the induction and maintenance of central neuropathic pain. Hydrogen which selectively removes superoxide has gained much attention in recent years. In this study, we investigated antinociceptive effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on remifentanil-induced postsurgical hyperalgesia in a rat model of incisional pain. HRS was injected intraperitoneally 10 min before remifentanil infusion (1 μg kg(-1) min(-1) for 60 min). A selective NR2B antagonist Ro25-6981 was used to investigate whether antihypernociception of HRS is associated with NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Nociception was evaluated by the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold and thermal latency respectively. Then we assessed MnSOD, NR2A and NR2B in spinal cord dorsal horn via Western blot and immunohistochemistry after nociceptive tests. Here, we found that the analgesic effect of remifentanil was followed by long-term hyperalgesia lasting at least postoperative 7 days, which was accompanied with increase in NR2B expression and trafficking from cytoplasm to surface and MnSOD nitration in dorsal horn. Pretreatment with HRS (10 ml/kg) significantly attenuated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, blocked NR2B trafficking and MnSOD nitration in dorsal horn after remifentanil infusion. Ro25-6981 not 5 μg but 10 and 50 μg dosage-dependently attenuated hyperalgesia, and inhibited MnSOD nitration. Hyperalgesia and MnSOD nitration were attenuated after the combination of HRS (2.5 ml/kg) and Ro25-6981 (5 μg). In conclusion, HRS (10 ml/kg) might reverse remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia, through regulating NR2B-containing NMDAR trafficking to control MnSOD nitration and enhance MnSOD activity.

  6. Allosteric modulators of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Mony, Laetitia; Kew, James N C; Gunthorpe, Martin J; Paoletti, Pierre

    2009-08-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels gated by glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are widespread in the CNS and are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes including synaptic plasticity, chronic pain and psychosis. Aberrant NMDAR activity also plays an important role in the neuronal loss associated with ischaemic insults and major degenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Agents that target and alter NMDAR function may, thus, have therapeutic benefit. Interestingly, NMDARs are endowed with multiple extracellular regulatory sites that recognize ions or small molecule ligands, some of which are likely to regulate receptor function in vivo. These allosteric sites, which differ from agonist-binding and channel-permeation sites, provide means to modulate, either positively or negatively, NMDAR activity. The present review focuses on allosteric modulation of NMDARs containing the NR2B subunit. Indeed, the NR2B subunit confers a particularly rich pharmacology with distinct recognition sites for exogenous and endogenous allosteric ligands. Moreover, NR2B-containing receptors, compared with other NMDAR subtypes, appear to contribute preferentially to pathological processes linked to overexcitation of glutamatergic pathways. The actions of extracellular H+, Mg2+, Zn2+, of polyamines and neurosteroids, and of the synthetic compounds ifenprodil and derivatives ('prodils') are presented. Particular emphasis is put upon the structural determinants and molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects exerted by these agents. A better understanding of how NR2B-containing NMDARs (and NMDARs in general) operate and how they can be modulated should help define new strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of dysregulated NMDAR activity.

  7. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other type of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:23743303

  8. Discovery of 3-Substituted Aminocyclopentanes as Potent and Orally Bioavailable NR2B Subtype-Selective NMDA Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A series of 3-substituted aminocyclopentanes has been identified as highly potent and selective NR2B receptor antagonists. Incorporation of a 1,2,4-oxadiazole linker and substitution of the pendant phenyl ring led to the discovery of orally bioavailable analogues that showed efficient NR2B receptor occupancy in rats. Unlike nonselective NMDA antagonists, the NR2B-selective antagonist 22 showed no adverse affects on motor coordination in the rotarod assay at high dose. Compound 22 was efficacious following oral administration in a spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain and in an acute model of Parkinson’s disease in a dose dependent manner. PMID:22816022

  9. Down-regulation of single immunoglobulin interleukin-1R-related molecule (SIGIRR)/TIR8 expression in intestinal epithelial cells during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, C; Ishihara, S; Aziz, M M; Rumi, M A; Oshima, N; Mishima, Y; Moriyama, I; Yuki, T; Amano, Y; Kinoshita, Y

    2010-01-01

    Single immunoglobulin (Ig) interleukin-1R-related molecule (SIGIRR) is an Ig-like membrane protein critical for negative regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-mediated signalling. We investigated SIGIRR expression and its regulation mechanism in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) during inflammation. Endoscopic biopsy specimens were obtained from active and inactive colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, then SIGIRR expression was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IH). Mice experimental colitis models were established by administrations of sulphonic acid (TNBS) and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and epithelial expression of SIGIRR was examined using real-time PCR, IH and flow cytometry. The effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α on SIGIRR expression were evaluated in vitro using cultured IECs. To elucidate SIGIRR expression regulation in IECs, binding ability of the transcription factor SP1 at the responsive element of the SIGIRR promoter was examined using gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In human colonic samples, SIGIRR was expressed mainly in IECs at levels significantly higher in inactive compared to active mucosa. In the mice, SIGIRR colonic expression decreased rapidly after colitis development and returned gradually to basal levels. Experimental colitis-mediated down-regulation of SIGIRR in IECs was also confirmed by IH and flow cytometry results. Further, inflammatory conditions induced by TLR ligands and TNF-α caused significant down-regulation of SIGIRR expression in IECs, which was dependent upon decreased SP1 binding at the responsive element of the SIGIRR promoter. We found that SIGIRR is expressed in IECs and serves as a negative regulator to maintain gut innate immunity, which is down-regulated during inflammation by inhibition of an SP1-mediated pathway. PMID:21077278

  10. Ectopic Expression of a Maize Hybrid Down-Regulated Gene ZmARF25 Decreases Organ Size by Affecting Cellular Proliferation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingxue; Xing, Jiewen; Wang, Tianya; Yang, Hua; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis is associated with differential gene expression between hybrids and their parental lines, and the genes involved in cell proliferation played important roles. AtARF2 is a general cell proliferation repressor in Arabidopsis. In our previous study, two homologues (ZmARF10 and ZmARF25) of AtARF2 were identified in maize, but their relationship with heterosis was not elucidated. Here, the expression patterns of ZmARF10 and ZmARF25 in seedling leaves of maize hybrids and their parental lines were analyzed. The results of qRT-PCR exhibited that ZmARF25 was down-regulated in leaf basal region of hybrids. Moreover, overexpression of ZmARF25 led to reduced organ size in Arabidopsis, which was mainly due to the decrease in cell number, not cell size. In addition, the cell proliferation related genes AtANT, AtGIF1 and AtGRF5 were down-regulated in 35S::ZmARF25 transgenic lines. Collectively, we proposed that the down-regulation of ZmARF25 in maize hybrid may accelerate cell proliferation and promote leaf development, which, in turn, contributes to the observed leaf size heterosis in maize. PMID:24756087

  11. DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, H.-W.

    2007-12-15

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

  12. Retinoic acid down-regulates the expression of EmH-3 homeobox-containing gene in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri.

    PubMed

    Nikko, E; Van de Vyver, G; Richelle-Maurer, E

    2001-06-01

    The effects of retinoic acid (RA), a common morphogen and gene expression regulator in vertebrates, were studied in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri, both on morphogenesis and on the expression of EmH-3 homeobox-containing gene. At 0.3 microM, RA had no noticeable influence on sponge development, slightly up-regulating EmH-3 expression. In contrast, in sponges reared in 10, 8 microM and to a lesser extent 2 microM RA, there was a strong down-regulation of EmH-3 expression after hatching. This induced modifications in cell composition and morphology, greatly disturbing normal development. Archaeocytes kept the features found in newly hatched sponges while choanocytes and a functional aquiferous system were completely absent. The inhibition of morphogenesis and down-regulation of EmH-3 expression were reversible when sponges were no longer subjected to RA. After RA removal, EmH-3 expression returned to the high values found in untreated sponges, archaeocytes differentiated into choanocytes and sponges achieved a normal development. These results clearly show that, in freshwater sponges, the most primitive metazoan, RA may also act as a morphogen, regulating the expression of a homeobox-containing gene. They demonstrate that the expression of EmH-3 is necessary for the differentiation of archaeocytes into choanocytes and hence for the formation of a complete functional aquiferous system.

  13. Allicin inhibits SDF-1alpha-induced T cell interactions with fibronectin and endothelial cells by down-regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement, Pyk-2 phosphorylation and VLA-4 expression.

    PubMed

    Sela, Uri; Ganor, Sharon; Hecht, Iris; Brill, Alexander; Miron, Talia; Rabinkov, Aharon; Wilchek, Meir; Mirelman, David; Lider, Ofer; Hershkoviz, Rami

    2004-04-01

    Allicin, a major ingredient of fresh garlic extract that is produced during the crushing of garlic cloves, exerts various beneficial biological effects, including a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, antihyperlipidaemic and antihypertensive effects. However, how allicin affects the immune system is less well known, and its effect on human T cells has never been studied. Here, we examined the in-vitro effects of allicin on the functioning of T cells related to their entry to inflamed extravascular sites. We found that allicin (20-100 microm) inhibits the SDF-1alpha (CXCL12)-induced T cell migration through fibronectin (FN), and that this inhibition is mediated by the down-regulation of (i) the reorganization of cortical actin and the subsequent T cell polarization, and (ii) T cell adhesion to FN. Moreover, allicin also inhibited T cell adhesion to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration. The mechanisms underlying these inhibitory effects of allicin are associated with its ability to down-regulate the phosphorylation of Pyk2, an intracellular member of the focal adhesion kinases, and to reduce the expression of the VCAM-1- and FN-specific alpha4beta1-integrin (VLA-4). The ability of allicin to down-regulate these chemokine-induced and VLA-4-mediated T cell functions explains its beneficial biological effects in processes where T cells play an important role and suggests that allicin may be used therapeutically with chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:15056375

  14. Role for the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor in Mediating Light Input to the Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, LM; Schroeder, A; Loh, D; Smith, D; Lin, K; Han, JH; Michel, S; Hummer, DL; Ehlen, JC; Albers, HE; Colwell, CS

    2008-01-01

    Light information reaches the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) through a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells that utilize glutamate as a neurotransmitter. A variety of evidence suggests that the release of glutamate then activates N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptors within the SCN and triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to phase shifts in the circadian system. In this study, we first sought to explore the role of the NR2B subunit in mediating the effects of light on the circadian system. We found that localized microinjection of the NR2B subunit antagonist ifenprodil into the SCN region inhibits the magnitude of light-induced phase shifts of the circadian rhythm in wheel-running activity. Next, we found that the NR2B message and levels of phospho-NR2B levels vary with time of day in SCN tissue using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Functionally, we found that blocking the NR2B subunit with ifenprodil significantly reduced the magnitude of NMDA currents recorded in SCN neurons. Ifenprodil also significantly reduced the magnitude of NMDA-induced calcium changes in SCN cells. Together, these results demonstrate that the NR2B subunit is an important component of NMDA receptor mediated responses within SCN neurons and that this subunit contributes to light-induced phase shifts of the mammalian circadian system. PMID:18380671

  15. Down-Regulation of EBV-LMP1 Radio-Sensitizes Nasal Pharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via NF-κB Regulated ATM Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lanbo; Tang, Min; Liu, Liyu; Li, Zijian; Deng, Mengyao; Sun, Lunquan; Cao, Ya

    2011-01-01

    Background The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) encoded by EBV is expressed in the majority of EBV-associated human malignancies and has been suggested to be one of the major oncogenic factors in EBV-mediated carcinogenesis. In previous studies we experimentally demonstrated that down-regulation of LMP1 expression by DNAzymes could increase radiosensitivity both in cells and in a xenograft NPC model in mice. Results In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiosensitization caused by the down-regulation of LMP1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. It was confirmed that LMP1 could up-regulate ATM expression in NPCs. Bioinformatic analysis of the ATM ptomoter region revealed three tentative binding sites for NF-κB. By using a specific inhibitor of NF-κB signaling and the dominant negative mutant of IkappaB, it was shown that the ATM expression in CNE1-LMP1 cells could be efficiently suppressed. Inhibition of LMP1 expression by the DNAzyme led to attenuation of the NF-κB DNA binding activity. We further showed that the silence of ATM expression by ATM-targeted siRNA could enhance the radiosensitivity in LMP1 positive NPC cells. Conclusions Together, our results indicate that ATM expression can be regulated by LMP1 via the NF-κB pathways through direct promoter binding, which resulted in the change of radiosensitivity in NPCs. PMID:22096476

  16. Down-regulation of IKKβ expression in glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages is associated with defective inflammatory/immune gene responses in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowski, Jakub; Kocyk, Marta; Nauman, Pawel; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Sielska, Małgorzata; Przanowski, Piotr; Maleszewska, Marta; Rajan, Wenson D; Pszczolkowska, Dominika; Tykocki, Tomasz; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Roszkowski, Marcin; Kostkiewicz, Boguslaw; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-10-20

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with profound host immunosuppression. Microglia and macrophages infiltrating GBM acquire the pro-tumorigenic, M2 phenotype and support tumor invasion, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and block immune responses both locally and systematically. Mechanisms responsible for immunological deficits in GBM patients are poorly understood. We analyzed immune/inflammatory gene expression in five datasets of low and high grade gliomas, and performed Gene Ontology and signaling pathway analyses to identify defective transcriptional responses. The expression of many immune/inflammatory response and TLR signaling pathway genes was reduced in high grade gliomas compared to low grade gliomas. In particular, we found the reduced expression of the IKBKB, a gene coding for IKKβ, which phosphorylates IκB proteins and represents a convergence point for most signal transduction pathways leading to NFκB activation. The reduced IKBKB expression and IKKβ levels in GBM tissues were demonstrated by qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IKKβ expression was down-regulated in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma. NFκB activation, prominent in microglia/macrophages infiltrating low grade gliomas, was reduced in microglia/macrophages in glioblastoma tissues. Down-regulation of IKBKB expression and NFκB signaling in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma correlates with defective expression of immune/inflammatory genes and M2 polarization that may result in the global impairment of anti-tumor immune responses in glioblastoma.

  17. Expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain is down regulated on the surface of CD4 T-cells by the HIV-1 Tat protein.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Denny; Faller, Elliott; Sugden, Scott; MacPherson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection elicits defects in CD4 T-cell homeostasis in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is essential to T-cell homeostasis and several groups have shown reduced levels of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) on both CD4 and CD8 T-cells in viremic HIV+ patients. We have shown previously that soluble HIV Tat protein specifically down regulates cell surface expression of CD127 on human CD8 T-cells in a paracrine fashion. The effects of Tat on CD127 expression in CD4 T-cells has yet to be described. To explore this effect, CD4 T-cells were isolated from healthy individuals and expression levels of CD127 were examined on cells incubated in media alone or treated with Tat protein. We show here that, similar to CD8 T-cells, the HIV-1 Tat protein specifically down regulates CD127 on primary human CD4 T-cells and directs the receptor to the proteasome for degradation. Down regulation of CD127 in response to Tat was seen on both memory and naive CD4 T-cell subsets and was blocked using either heparin or anti-Tat antibodies. Tat did not induce apoptosis in cultured primary CD4 T-cells over 72 hours as determined by Annexin V and PI staining. Pre-incubation of CD4 T-cells with HIV-1 Tat protein did however reduce the ability of IL-7 to up regulate Bcl-2 expression. Similar to exogenous Tat, endogenously expressed HIV Tat protein also suppressed CD127 expression on primary CD4 T-cells. In view of the important role IL-7 plays in lymphocyte proliferation, homeostasis and survival, down regulation of CD127 by Tat likely plays a central role in immune dysregulation and CD4 T-cell decline. Understanding this effect could lead to new approaches to mitigate the CD4 T-cell loss evident in HIV infection. PMID:25333710

  18. The candidate tumor suppressor CST6 alters the gene expression profile of human breast carcinoma cells: Down-regulation of the potent mitogenic, motogenic, and angiogenic factor autotaxin

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin; Jie Chunfa; Polk, Paula; Shridhar, Ravi; Clair, Timothy; Zhang, Jun; Yin, Lijia; Keppler, Daniel . E-mail: dkeppl@lsuhsc.edu

    2006-02-03

    We recently coined CST6 as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer. CST6 indeed is expressed in the normal human breast epithelium, but little or not at all in breast carcinomas and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic expression of CST6 in human breast cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and orthotopic tumor growth. To obtain insights into the molecular mechanism by which CST6 exhibits its pleiotropic effects on tumor cells, we compared global gene expression profiles in mock- and CST6-transfected human MDA-MB-435S cells. Out of 12,625 transcript species, 61 showed altered expression. These included genes for extracellular matrix components, cytokines, kinases, and phosphatases, as well as several key transcription factors. TaqMan PCR assays were used to confirm the microarray data for 7 out of 11 genes. One down-regulated gene product, secreted autotaxin/lyso-phospholipase D, was of particular interest because its down-regulation by CST6 could explain most of CST6's effect on the breast cancer cells. This study thus provides First evidence that CST6 plays a role in the modulation of genes, particularly, genes that are highly relevant to breast cancer progression.

  19. The Liver X Receptor Ligand T0901317 Down-regulates APOA5 GeneExpression through Activation of SREBP-1c

    SciTech Connect

    Jakel, Heidelinde; Nowak, Maxime; Moitrot, Emanuelle; Dehondt, Helene; Hum, Dean W.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart,Jean-Charles

    2004-07-23

    Alterations in the expression of the recently discovered apolipoprotein A5 gene strongly affect plasma triglyceride levels. In this study, we investigated the contribution of APOA5 to the liver X-receptor (LXR) ligand mediated effect on plasma triglyceride levels.Following treatment with the LXR ligand T0901317, we found that APOA5mRNA levels were decreased in hepatoma cell lines. The observation that no down-regulation of APOA5 promoter activity was obtained by LXR-retinoid X receptor (RXR) co-transfection prompted us to explore the possible involvement of the known LXR target gene SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c). In fact, we found that co-transfection with the active form of SREBP-1c down-regulated APOA5promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. We then scanned the human APOA5 promoter sequence and identified two putative E-box elements that were able to bind specifically SREBP-1c in gel-shift assays and were shown to be functional by mutation analysis. Subsequent suppression of SREBP-1 mRNA through small interfering RNA interference abolished the decrease of APOA5 mRNA in response to T0901317. Finally, administration of T0901317 to hAPOA5 transgenic mice revealed a significant decrease OF APOA5 mRNA in liver tissue and circulating apolipoprotein AV protein in plasma, confirming that the described down-regulation also occurs in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that APOA5 gene expression is regulated by the LXR ligand T0901317 in a negative manner through SREBP-1c. These findings may provide a new mechanism responsible for the elevation of plasma triglyceride levels by LXR ligands and support the development of selective LXR agonists, not affecting SREBP-1c, as beneficial modulators of lipid metabolism.

  20. Down-regulation of CBP80 gene expression as a strategy to engineer a drought-tolerant potato.

    PubMed

    Pieczynski, Marcin; Marczewski, Waldemar; Hennig, Jacek; Dolata, Jakub; Bielewicz, Dawid; Piontek, Paulina; Wyrzykowska, Anna; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota; Krzeslowska, Magdalena; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2013-05-01

    Developing new strategies for crop plants to respond to drought is crucial for their innovative breeding. The down-regulation of nuclear cap-binding proteins in Arabidopsis renders plants drought tolerant. The CBP80 gene in the potato cultivar Desiree was silenced using artificial microRNAs. Transgenic plants displayed a higher tolerance to drought, ABA-hypersensitive stomatal closing, an increase in leaf stomata and trichome density, and compact cuticle structures with a lower number of microchannels. These findings were correlated with a higher tolerance to water stress. The level of miR159 was decreased, and the levels of its target mRNAs MYB33 and MYB101 increased in the transgenic plants subjected to drought. Similar trends were observed in an Arabidopsis cbp80 mutant. The evolutionary conservation of CBP80, a gene that plays a role in the response to drought, suggests that it is a candidate for genetic manipulations that aim to obtain improved water-deficit tolerance of crop plants. PMID:23231480

  1. Berberine-induced morphologic differentiation and down-regulation of c-Ki-ras2 protooncogene expression in human teratocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, K S; Gao, C; Wang, L C

    1990-12-01

    A pluripotent human teratocarcinoma cell clone, NT2/D1, which was derived from the Tera-2 cell line, was induced to differentiate into cells with neuronal cell morphology by treatment with berberine. As early as 1 day after a 24-h treatment of cells with berberine at a non-toxic dose of 0.1 mg/ml in culture medium, the cells started to show morphologic changes, developing into terminally differentiated neuronal cells with long, inter-connecting network-like cellular structures. This process is much faster as compared with that induced by treatment with retinoic acid (RA), which took at least several days to develop. Unlike RA, berberine could not induce murine teratocarcinoma cell line, F9, to differentiate into endodermal cells. It was also found that, although the NT2/D1 cell clone exhibited amplification and enhanced mRNA expression of c-Ki-ras2 gene as did the parent cell line, a marked down-regulation of c-Ki-ras2 mRNA expression was observed. However, there was no change in actin mRNA expression even after differentiation had occurred. Thus, morphologic differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells into neuronal cells is found to be associated with down-regulation of a protooncogene which plays some definite role in oncogenesis. The mechanism by which berberine induces differentiation in these cells needs further investigation.

  2. PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and IC87114 reduce inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw oedema and down-regulate inflammatory gene expression in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eräsalo, Heikki; Laavola, Mirka; Hämäläinen, Mari; Leppänen, Tiina; Nieminen, Riina; Moilanen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    PI3K/Akt pathway is a well-characterized pathway controlling cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and survival, and its role in cancer is vastly studied. There is also evidence to suggest the involvement of this pathway in the regulation of inflammatory responses. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the role of PI3Ks in acute inflammation in vivo using pharmacological inhibitors against PI3Ks in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. A non-selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and a PI3Kδ-selective inhibitor IC87114 were used. Both of these inhibitors reduced inflammatory oedema upon carrageenan challenge in the mouse paw. To explain this result, the effects of the two inhibitors on inflammatory gene expression were investigated in activated macrophages. LY294002 and IC87114 prevented Akt phosphorylation as expected and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory factors IL-6, MCP-1,TNFα and iNOS. These findings suggest that PI3K inhibitors could be used to attenuate inflammatory responses and that the mechanism of action behind this effect is the down-regulation of inflammatory gene expression.

  3. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhui; Xu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-04-26

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

  4. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression. PMID:27008697

  5. Antinociceptive activity of CP-101,606, an NMDA receptor NR2B subunit antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Kana; Shinjo, Katsuhiro; Mizutani, Mayumi; Shimada, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Menniti, Frank S; Nagahisa, Atsushi

    1997-01-01

    The analgesic activity of CP-101,606, an NR2B subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, was examined in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, capsaicin- and 4β-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced nociceptive tests in the rat. CP-101,606 30 mg kg−1, s.c., at 0.5 and 2.5 h after carrageenan challenge suppressed mechanical hyperalgesia without any apparant alternations in motor coordination or behaviour in the rat. CP-101,606 also inhibited capsaicin- and PMA-induced nociceptive responses (licking behaviour) with ED50 values of 7.5 and 5.7 mg kg−1, s.c., respectively. These results suggest that inhibition of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor is effective in vivo at modulating nociception and hyperalgesia responses without causing the behavioural side effects often observed with currently available NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:9384494

  6. MiR-29b inhibits collagen maturation in hepatic stellate cells through down-regulating the expression of HSP47 and lysyl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yifei; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Li, Jiang; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B.; He, Fengtian; Fan, Jie; Xie, Wen; Li, Song

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Enhanced HSP47 and LOX expression is associated with decreased miR-29b level in liver fibrosis. • miR-29b down-regulates HSP47 and LOX expression. • The suppression of HSP47 and LOX by miR-29b is mediated by putative sites at their 3′-UTRs. • miR-29b inhibits extracellular LOX activity and collagen maturation. - Abstract: Altered expression of miR-29b is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of liver fibrosis. We and others previously demonstrated that miR-29b down-regulates the expression of several extracellular-matrix (ECM) genes including Col 1A1, Col 3A1 and Elastin via directly targeting their 3′-UTRs. However, whether or not miR-29b plays a role in the post-translational regulation of ECM biosynthesis has not been reported. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) are known to be essential for ECM maturation. In this study we have demonstrated that expression of HSP47 and LOX was significantly up-regulated in culture-activated primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), TGF-β stimulated LX-2 cells and liver tissue of CCl{sub 4}-treated mice, which was accompanied by a decrease of miR-29b level. In addition, over-expression of miR-29b in LX-2 cells resulted in significant inhibition on HSP47 and LOX expression. Mechanistically, miR-29b inhibited the expression of a reporter gene that contains the respective full-length 3′-UTR from HSP47 and LOX gene, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by the deletion of a putative miR-29b targeting sequence from the 3′-UTRs. Transfection of LX-2 cells with miR-29b led to abnormal collagen structure as shown by electron-microscopy, presumably through down-regulation of the expression of molecules involved in ECM maturation including HSP47 and LOX. These results demonstrated that miR-29b is involved in regulating the post-translational processing of ECM and fibril formation.

  7. AduoLa Fuzhenglin down-regulates microwave-induced expression of β1-adrenergic receptor and muscarinic type 2 acetylcholine receptor in myocardial cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Peng, Rui Yun; Gao, Ya Bing; Wang, Shui Ming; Yang, Lei Lei; Zhao, Li; Dong, Ji; Yao, Bin Wei; Chang, Gong Min; Xiong, Lu

    2014-03-01

    This paper is aimed to study the effect of ADL on expression of β1-AR and M2-AchR in myocardial cells of rats exposed to microwave radiation. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and image analysis were used to detect the expression of β1-AR and M2-AchR in myocardial cells at 7 and 14 d after microwave exposure. The results show that the expression level was higher in microwave exposure group and 0.75 g/(kg•d) ADL group than in sham operation group and significantly lower in 1.5 and 3.0 g/(kg•d) ADL groups than in microwave group. So we have a conclusion that the expression of β1-AR and M2-AchR is down-regulated in myocardial cells of rats exposed to microwave radiation. ADL can protect rats against microwave-induced heart tissue injury.

  8. Harmine combined with paclitaxel inhibits tumor proliferation and induces apoptosis through down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Kun; Tang, Xiao-He; Zhou, Cun-Jin; Sun, Hui; Yan, Zhe; Fang, Ling; Wu, Hong-Wen; Xie, Yi-Kui; Gu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) serves an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. Harmine (HM) and paclitaxel (PTX) are reported as promising drug candidates for cancer therapy, but whether a synergistic anti-tumor effect of HM combined with PTX exists in human gastric cancer remains unknown. The present study evaluated the effects of HM and/or PTX on cell proliferation and apoptosis in a gastric cancer cell line, SGC-7901. HM and PTX inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Both HM and PTX alone induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. The combination of HM and PTX exerted synergistic effects on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in SGC-7901 cells, with down-regulation of COX-2, PCNA and Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The results indicated that combination chemotherapy using HM with PTX exerts an anti-tumor effect for treating gastric cancer. The combination of the two drugs inhibits gastric cancer development more effectively than each drug alone through down-regulation of COX-2 expression. PMID:27446381

  9. The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress. PMID:24379822

  10. Thrombomodulin reduces tumorigenic and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of N-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nana; Huo, Zihe; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Mei; Cao, Zhifei; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein and plays critical roles in anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, vascular endothelial protection, and is traditionally regarded as a "vascular protection god". In recent years, although TM has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors including lung cancer, the role and mechanism of TM in lung cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we found that induction of TM overexpression by cholesterol-reducing drug atorvastatin significantly diminished the tumorigenic capability of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that TM overexpression caused G0/G1 phase arrest and markedly reduced the colony forming capability of the cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TM inhibited cell migration and invasion. Consistently, depletion of TM promoted cell growth, reduced the cell population at the G0/G1 phase, and enhanced cell migratory ability. Mechanistic study revealed that TM up-regulated E-cadherin but down-regulated N-cadherin expression, resulting in reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung cancer cells. Moreover, silencing TM expression led to decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that TM functions as a tumor suppressive protein, providing a conceptual framework for inducing TM overexpression as a sensible strategy and approach for novel anti-lung cancer drug discovery. PMID:27223053

  11. Down-regulation of FoxO-dependent c-FLIP expression mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jung; Sohn, Hee-Young; Yoon, Jeongsook; Park, Sang Ick

    2009-10-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells which contribute to liver fibrosis have represented an important target for antifibrotic therapy. In this study, we found that TRAIL inhibited PI3K/Akt-dependent FoxO phosphorylation and relocated FoxO proteins into the nucleus from the cytosol in activated human hepatic stellate LX-2 cells. The accumulated FoxO proteins in the nucleus led to down-regulation of c-FLIP(L/S) expression, resulting in the activation of apoptosis-related signaling molecules including the activation of caspase-8, -3, and Bid, as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c release. These results were supported by showing that siRNA-mediated knockdown of FoxO led to restoration of c-FLIP(L/S) expression and resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis after treatment of LX-2 cells with TRAIL. Furthermore, c-FLIP(L/S)-transfected LX-2 cells showed the decreased sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggest that sequential activation of FoxO proteins under conditions of suppressed PI3K/Akt signaling by TRAIL can down-regulate c-FLIP(L/S), consequently promoting TRAIL-induced apoptosis in LX-2 cells. Therefore, the present study suggests TRAIL may be an effective strategy for antifibrotic therapy in liver fibrosis. PMID:19470406

  12. Negative Allosteric Modulators Selective for The NR2B Subtype of The NMDA Receptor Impair Cognition in Multiple Domains.

    PubMed

    Weed, Michael R; Bookbinder, Mark; Polino, Joseph; Keavy, Deborah; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Simmermacher-Mayer, Jean; Cometa, Fu-ni L; King, Dalton; Thangathirupathy, Srinivasan; Macor, John E; Bristow, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressant activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has led to increased investigation of their behavioral pharmacology. NMDA antagonists, such as ketamine, impair cognition in multiple species and in multiple cognitive domains. However, studies with NR2B subtype-selective NAMs have reported mixed results in rodents including increased impulsivity, no effect on cognition, impairment or even improvement of some cognitive tasks. To date, the effects of NR2B-selective NAMs on cognitive tests have not been reported in nonhuman primates. The current study evaluated two selective NR2B NAMs, CP101,606 and BMT-108908, along with the nonselective NMDA antagonists, ketamine and AZD6765, in the nonhuman primate Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) list-based delayed match to sample (list-DMS) task. Ketamine and the two NMDA NR2B NAMs produced selective impairments in memory in the list-DMS task. AZD6765 impaired performance in a non-specific manner. In a separate cohort, CP101,606 impaired performance of the nonhuman primate CANTAB visuo-spatial Paired Associates Learning (vsPAL) task with a selective impairment at more difficult conditions. The results of these studies clearly show that systemic administration of a selective NR2B NAM can cause transient cognitive impairment in multiple cognitive domains.

  13. Protective effect of rutin on LPS-induced acute lung injury via down-regulation of MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Huang, Yi-Chun; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Chien-Ying; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Pan, Pin-Ho; Horng, Chi-Ting; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2014-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin, is the important pathogen of acute lung injury (ALI), which is a clinical syndrome that still lacks effective therapeutic medicine. Rutin belongs to vitamin P and possesses various beneficial effects. In this study, we investigate the potential protective effects and the mechanisms of rutin on LPS-induced ALI. Pre-administration with rutin inhibited LPS-induced arterial blood gas exchange and neutrophils infiltration in the lungs. LPS-induced expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were suppressed by rutin. In addition, the inhibitory concentration of rutin on phosphorylation of Akt was similar as MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation. In conclusion, rutin is a potential protective agent for ALI via suppressing the blood gas exchange and neutrophil infiltration. The mechanism of rutin is down-regulation of MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

  14. Low-dose irradiation promotes Rad51 expression by down-regulating miR-193b-3p in hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eon-Seok; Won, Yeo Jin; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Daeui; Bae, Jin-Han; Park, Seong-Joon; Noh, Sung Jin; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Choi, Si Ho; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Heo, Kyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Son, Tae Gen

    2016-05-01

    Current evidence indicates that there is a relationship between microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene silencing and low-dose irradiation (LDIR) responses. Here, alterations of miRNA expression in response to LDIR exposure in male BALB/c mice and three different types of hepatocytes were investigated. The miRNome of the LDIR-exposed mouse spleens (0.01 Gy, 6.5 mGy/h) was analyzed, and the expression of miRNA and mRNA was validated by qRT-PCR. Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and luciferase assays were also performed to evaluate the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes and to gain insight into the regulation of miRNA expression. The expression of miRNA-193b-3p was down-regulated in the mouse spleen and liver and in various hepatocytes (NCTC, Hepa, and HepG2 cell lines) in response to LDIR. The down-regulation of miR-193b-3p expression was caused by histone deacetylation on the miR-193b-3p promoter in the HepG2 cells irradiated with 0.01 Gy. However, the alteration of histone deacetylation and miR-193b-3p and Rad51 expression in response to LDIR was restored by pretreatment with N-acetyl-cyctein. In conclusion, we provide evidence that miRNA responses to LDIR include the modulation of cellular stress responses and repair mechanisms.

  15. Low-dose irradiation promotes Rad51 expression by down-regulating miR-193b-3p in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eon-Seok; Won, Yeo Jin; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Daeui; Bae, Jin-Han; Park, Seong-Joon; Noh, Sung Jin; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Choi, Si Ho; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Heo, Kyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Son, Tae Gen

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that there is a relationship between microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene silencing and low-dose irradiation (LDIR) responses. Here, alterations of miRNA expression in response to LDIR exposure in male BALB/c mice and three different types of hepatocytes were investigated. The miRNome of the LDIR-exposed mouse spleens (0.01 Gy, 6.5 mGy/h) was analyzed, and the expression of miRNA and mRNA was validated by qRT-PCR. Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and luciferase assays were also performed to evaluate the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes and to gain insight into the regulation of miRNA expression. The expression of miRNA-193b-3p was down-regulated in the mouse spleen and liver and in various hepatocytes (NCTC, Hepa, and HepG2 cell lines) in response to LDIR. The down-regulation of miR-193b-3p expression was caused by histone deacetylation on the miR-193b-3p promoter in the HepG2 cells irradiated with 0.01 Gy. However, the alteration of histone deacetylation and miR-193b-3p and Rad51 expression in response to LDIR was restored by pretreatment with N-acetyl-cyctein. In conclusion, we provide evidence that miRNA responses to LDIR include the modulation of cellular stress responses and repair mechanisms. PMID:27225532

  16. Oocyte-derived BMP15 but not GDF9 down-regulates connexin43 expression and decreases gap junction intercellular communication activity in immortalized human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Taylor, Elizabeth; Leung, Peter C K

    2014-05-01

    In the ovary, connexin-coupled gap junctions in granulosa cells play crucial roles in follicular and oocyte development as well as in corpus luteum formation. Our previous work has shown that theca cell-derived bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP7 decrease gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity via the down-regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) expression in immortalized human granulosa cells. However, the effects of oocyte-derived growth factors on Cx43 expression remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and BMP15 on the expression of Cx43 in a human granulosa cell line, SVOG. We also examined the effect relative to GJIC activity and investigated the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, treatment with BMP15 but not GDF9 significantly decreased Cx43 mRNA and protein levels and GJIC activity. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, were attenuated by co-treatment with a BMP type I receptor inhibitor, dorsomorphin. Furthermore, knockdown of the central component of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway, Smad4, using small interfering RNA reversed the suppressive effects of BMP15 on Cx43 expression and GJIC activity. The suppressive effects of BMP15 on Cx43 expression were further confirmed in primary human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from infertile patients undergoing an in vitro fertilization procedure. These findings suggest that oocyte-derived BMP15 decreases GJIC activity between human granulosa cells by down-regulating Cx43 expression, most likely via a Smad-dependent signaling pathway.

  17. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-05-24

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants.

  18. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants. PMID:27129170

  19. Low long non-coding RNA HOTAIR expression is associated with down-regulation of Nrf2 in the spermatozoa of patients with asthenozoospermia or oligoasthenozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Zhineng; Li, Xiaokang; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Jia; Zhu, Dandan; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    HOTAIR, a long noncoding RNA, regulates development and progression of tumor cells and function of normal stem cells. However, the role and the molecular mechanism of HOTAIR in the spermatozoa of patients with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia are still unclear. Herein, 45 healthy control, 45 asthenozoospermic patients and 45 oligoasthenozoospermic patients were enrolled. Initially, through analyzing HOTAIR expression, we observed a decreased level of HOTAIR expression in patients. Subsequently, we found that there was a positive correlation between HOTAIR expression and Nrf2 expression in patients. The low expression of HOTAIR was also observed to be associated with specific sperm function parameters, including motility and vitality. In the ejaculated spermatozoa from patients, low level of histone H4 acetylation of the Nrf2 gene promoter was observed. Finally, we found that downregulation of HOTAIR expression reduced histone H4 acetylation in Nrf2 promoter and Nrf2 expression. Therefore, this study demonstrated that HOTAIR expression was low in the spermatozoa of patients with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia, which resulted in down-regulation of Nrf2 expression. Our data suggested the decrease of HOTAIR expression led to ROS related defects in sperm function. PMID:26823733

  20. BAFF induces spleen CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing; Liu, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Han, Junli; Wang, Haining; Shen, Gang; Tao, Jiang

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4{sup +} T cell's role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member 'B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4{sup +} T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation.

  1. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy.

  2. The Tau/A152T mutation, a risk factor for frontotemporal-spectrum disorders, leads to NR2B receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Decker, Jochen Martin; Krüger, Lars; Sydow, Astrid; Dennissen, Frank Ja; Siskova, Zuzana; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    We report on a novel transgenic mouse model expressing human full-length Tau with the Tau mutation A152T (hTau(AT)), a risk factor for FTD-spectrum disorders including PSP and CBD Brain neurons reveal pathological Tau conformation, hyperphosphorylation, mis-sorting, aggregation, neuronal degeneration, and progressive loss, most prominently in area CA3 of the hippocampus. The mossy fiber pathway shows enhanced basal synaptic transmission without changes in short- or long-term plasticity. In organotypic hippocampal slices, extracellular glutamate increases early above control levels, followed by a rise in neurotoxicity. These changes are normalized by inhibiting neurotransmitter release or by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels. CA3 neurons show elevated intracellular calcium during rest and after activity induction which is sensitive to NR2B antagonizing drugs, demonstrating a pivotal role of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Slices show pronounced epileptiform activity and axonal sprouting of mossy fibers. Excitotoxic neuronal death is ameliorated by ceftriaxone, which stimulates astrocytic glutamate uptake via the transporter EAAT2/GLT1. In summary, hTau(AT) causes excitotoxicity mediated by NR2B-containing NMDA receptors due to enhanced extracellular glutamate. PMID:26931569

  3. cRGD inhibits vasculogenic mimicry formation by down-regulating uPA expression and reducing EMT in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Li, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Na; Luo, Wanxian; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Yifeng; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Vasculogenic minicry (VM), an alternative blood supply modality except to endothelial cells-mediated vascular network, is a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer due to VM correlated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. Accelerated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is prerequisite for VM formation induced by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previous reports demonstrate uPA has ability to degrade ECM thereby promoting tumor angiogenesis. Also, exogenous cRGD sequence enables to modulate uPA expression, attenuate EMT and suppress endothelial-lined channels. Till now, the correlation of uPA and VM formation and the effect of exogenous cRGD on VM formation remain unknown. Herein, we validate uPA expression is positively correlated with VM formation in ovarian cancer tissues (90 cases) and ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3, OVCAR-3 and A2780 cells). In particular, silencing uPA experiments show that down-regulated uPA causes notable decrease for the complete channels formed by SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. Mechanism study discloses uPA promotes VM formation by regulating AKT/mTOR/MMP-2/Laminin5γ2 signal pathway. The result demonstrates uPA may serve as therapeutic target of VM for ovarian cancer. Also, it is found exogenous cRGD enables to inhibit VM formation in ovarian cancer via not only down-regulating uPA expression but also reducing EMT. Exogenous cRGD may be a promising angiogenic inhibitor for ovarian cancer therapy due to its inhibiting effect on VM formation as well as endothelial cells-mediated vascular network. PMID:26992227

  4. Insulin-Mediated Down-Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway: Role of Upstream Stimulatory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Martin, Geneviève; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2005-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been repeatedly implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 is regulated by insulin. Here, we show that cell lines and mice treated with insulin down-regulate APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that insulin decreases human APOA5 promoter activity, and subsequent deletion and mutation analyses uncovered a functional E box in the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this APOA5 E box binds upstream stimulatory factors (USFs). Moreover, in transfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity, and the treatment with insulin reduced the binding of USF1/USF2 to the APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway abolished insulin's effect on APOA5 gene expression, while the inhibition of the P70 S6 kinase pathway with rapamycin reversed its effect and increased APOA5 gene expression. Using an oligonucleotide precipitation assay for USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrate that phosphorylated USF1 fails to bind to the APOA5 promoter. Taken together, these data indicate that insulin-mediated APOA5 gene transrepression could involve a phosphorylation of USFs through the PI3K and P70 S6 kinase pathways that modulate their binding to the APOA5 E box and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in men showed a decrease in the plasma ApoAV level. These results suggest a potential contribution of the APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia. PMID:15684402

  5. Immune complexes (IC) down-regulate the basal and interferon-γ-induced expression of MHC Class II on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, P; Beigier-Bompadre, M; De La Barrera, S; Alves-Rosa, M F; Fernandez, G; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) on monocytes/macrophages with immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Previous studies have shown that FcγR–IC interactions inhibit the IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these effects have not been elucidated. In addition, whether this IC-dependent effect also occurs in human cells is not known. Taking into account the fact that IC and IFN-γ are frequently found in infections and autoimmune disorders, together with the crucial role MHC class II molecules play in the regulation of immune response, we explored the effect and mechanism of IC-induced MHC class II down-regulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This effect was studied either in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We demonstrate that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. This effect was mediated through the interaction of IC with both FcγRI and FcγRII. Moreover, similar results were obtained using supernatants from IC-treated PBMC. The IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is abrogated by pepstatin and phosphoramidon, supporting the role of aspartic protease(s) and metalloprotease(s) in this process. In parallel with MHC class II expression, antigen presentation was markedly inhibited in the presence of IC. PMID:11529917

  6. Tanshinone IIA Modulates Low Density Lipoprotein Uptake via Down-Regulation of PCSK9 Gene Expression in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA, one of the most pharmacologically bioactive phytochemicals isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, neuroprotection and hypolipidemic activities. In this study, we aim to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of tanshinone IIA in hepatic cells. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly increased the amount of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDL uptake activity in HepG2 cells at the post-transcriptional regulation. We further demonstrated that tanshinone IIA inhibited the expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA and mature protein, which may lead to an increase the cell-surface LDLR in hepatic cells. We further identified a regulatory DNA element involved in the tanshinone IIA-mediated PCSK9 down-regulation, which is located between the -411 and -336 positions of the PCSK9 promoter. Moreover, we found that tanshinone IIA markedly increased the nuclear forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) level, enhanced FoxO3a/PCSK9 promoter complexes formation and decreased the PCSK9 promoter binding capacity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α), resulting in suppression of PCSK9 gene expression. Finally, we found that the statin-induced PCSK9 overexpression was attenuated and the LDLR activity was elevated in a synergic manner by combination of tanshinone IIA treatment in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results reveal that the tanshinone IIA modulates LDLR level and activity via down-regulation of PCSK9 expression in hepatic cells. Our current findings provide a molecular basis of tanshinone IIA to develop PCSK9 inhibitors for cholesterol management. PMID:27617748

  7. Targeting HCCR expression resensitizes gastric cancer cells to chemotherapy via down-regulating the activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-Ling; Liu, Xiang-Zheng; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Chen, Guo-Wei; Jiang, Yong; Qiao, Shu-Kai; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yi-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Cun

    2016-01-01

    The human cervical cancer oncogene (HCCR) has been found to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. However, the level of expression of HCCR and its biological function in gastric cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated HCCR expression in several gastric cancer cell lines and in one normal gastric mucosal cell line. We established a 5-FU-resistant gastric cancer cell subline, and we evaluated its HCCR expression. HCCR expression levels were high in gastric cancer lines, and expression was significantly increased in the 5-FU-resistant cancer cell subline. HCCR expression affected cell growth by regulating apoptosis in the cancer cells, and it had a positive correlation with p-STAT3 expression. Western blot and luciferase reporter assays showed that the activation of STAT3 upregulated HCCR expression in a positive feedback loop model. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that HCCR plays an important role in the apoptosis induced by 5-FU. Our data demonstrate that HCCR is probably involved in apoptosis and cancer growth and that it functions as a p-STAT3 stimulator in a positive feedback loop model. In gastric cancer cells, HCCR confers a more aggressive phenotype and resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:27052330

  8. CB1 Blockade Potentiates Down-Regulation of Lipogenic Gene Expression in Perirenal Adipose Tissue in High Carbohydrate Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Arrabal, Sergio; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Bautista, Dolores; Martínez, Ana; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Serrano, Antonia; Baixeras, Elena

    2014-01-01

    De novo lipogenesis and hypercaloric diets are thought to contribute to increased fat mass, particularly in abdominal fat depots. CB1 is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and CB1-mediated signalling is associated with stimulation of lipogenesis and diet-induced obesity, though its contribution to increasing fat deposition in adipose tissue is controversial. Lipogenesis is regulated by transcription factors such as liver X receptor (LXR), sterol-response element binding protein (SREBP) and carbohydrate-responsive-element-binding protein (ChREBP). We evaluated the role of CB1 in the gene expression of these factors and their target genes in relation to lipogenesis in the perirenal adipose tissue (PrAT) of rats fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCHD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Both obesity models showed an up-regulated gene expression of CB1 and Lxrα in this adipose pad. The Srebf-1 and ChREBP gene expressions were down-regulated in HFD but not in HCHD. The expression of their target genes encoding for lipogenic enzymes showed a decrease in diet-induced obesity and was particularly dramatic in HFD. In HCHD, CB1 blockade by AM251 reduced the Srebf-1 and ChREBP expression and totally abrogated the remnant gene expression of their target lipogenic enzymes. The phosphorylated form of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-p), which participates in the CB1-mediated signalling pathway, was markedly present in the PrAT of obese rats. ERK-p was drastically repressed by AM251 indicating that CB1 is actually functional in PrAT of obese animals, though its activation loses the ability to stimulate lipogenesis in PrAT of obese rats. Even so, the remnant expression levels of lipogenic transcription factors found in HCHD-fed rats are still dependent on CB1 activity. Hence, in HCHD-induced obesity, CB1 blockade may help to further potentiate the reduction of lipogenesis in PrAT by means of inducing down-regulation of the ChREBP and Srebf-1 gene expression, and consequently in

  9. The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-α but retain the ER-β expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-α and ER-β). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-α and ER-β in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-α mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-α is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-α in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-α could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-β was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-α. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-β was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-β expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-α but maintain the ER-β actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-α in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-β in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-β in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

  10. Oxidative stress and ROS metabolism via down-regulation of sirtuin 3 expression in Cmah-null mice affect hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (Cmah) disruption caused several abnormalities and diseases including hearing loss in old age. However, underling molecular mechanisms that give rise to age-related hearing loss (AHL) in Cmah-null mouse are still obscure. In this study, Cmah-null mice showed age-related decline of hearing associated with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and/or stria vascularis degeneration in the cochlea. To identify differential gene expression profiles and pathway associated with AHL, we performed microarray analysis using Illumina MouseRef-8 v2 Expression BeadChip and pathway-focused PCR array in the cochlear tissues of Cmah-null mouse. Pathway and molecular mechanism analysis using differentially expressed genes provided evidences that altered biological pathway due to oxidative damage by low expressed antioxidants and dysregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Especially, low sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) gene expressions in Cmah-null mice decreased both of downstream regulator (Foxo1 and MnSod) and regulatory transcription factor (Hif1α and Foxo3a) gene expression. Taken together, we suggest that down-regulation of Sirt3 expression leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction by regulation of ROS and that it could alter various signaling pathways in Cmah-null mice with AHL. PMID:26319214

  11. Osteoblast-derived WNT-induced secreted protein 1 increases VCAM-1 expression and enhances prostate cancer metastasis by down-regulating miR-126.

    PubMed

    Tai, Huai-Ching; Chang, An-Chen; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Lai, Yu-Wei; Sun, Hui-Lung; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Wei

    2014-09-15

    Bone metastases of prostate cancer (PCa) may cause intractable pain. Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP-1) belongs to the CCN family (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) that plays a key role in bone formation. We found that osteoblast-conditioned medium (OBCM) stimulates migration and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM)-1 expression in human PCa (PC3 and DU145) cells. Osteoblast transfection with WISP-1 shRNA reduced OBCM-mediated PCa migration and VCAM-1 expression. Stimulation of PCa with OBCM or WISP-1 elevated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p38 phosphorylation. Either FAK and p38 inhibitors or siRNA abolished osteoblast-derived WISP-1-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression. Osteoblast-derived WISP-1 inhibited miR-126 expression. Moreover, miR-216 mimic reversed the WISP-1-enhanced migration and VCAM-1 expression. This study suggests that osteoblast-derived WISP-1 promotes migration and VCAM-1 expression in human PCa cells by down-regulating miR-126 expression via αvβ1 integrin, FAK, and p38 signaling pathways. Thus, WISP-1 may be a new molecular therapeutic target in PCa bone metastasis.

  12. Osteoblast-derived WISP-1 increases VCAM-1 expression and enhances prostate cancer metastasis by down-regulating miR-126

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Huai-Ching; Chang, An-Chen; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Lai, Yu-Wei; Sun, Hui-Lung; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases of prostate cancer (PCa) may cause intractable pain. Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) belongs to the CCN family (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) that plays a key role in bone formation. We found that osteoblast-conditioned medium (OBCM) stimulates migration and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in human PCa (PC3 and DU145) cells. Osteoblast transfection with WISP-1 shRNA reduced OBCM-mediated PCa migration and VCAM-1 expression. Stimulation of PCa with OBCM or WISP-1 elevated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p38 phosphorylation. Either FAK and p38 inhibitors or siRNA abolished osteoblast-derived WISP-1-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression. Osteoblast-derived WISP-1 inhibited miR-126 expression. Moreover, miR-216 mimic reversed the WISP-1-enhanced migration and VCAM-1 expression. This study suggests that osteoblast-derived WISP-1 promotes migration and VCAM-1 expression in human PCa cells by down-regulating miR-126 expression via αvβ1 integrin, FAK, and p38 signaling pathways. Thus, WISP-1 may be a new molecular therapeutic target in PCa bone metastasis. PMID:25277191

  13. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA by down-regulation of deoxyguanosine kinase expression in non-proliferating HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Maribel; Johansson, Magnus . E-mail: magnus.johansson@ki.se; Karlsson, Anna

    2007-07-15

    Purine deoxyribonucleotides required for mitochondrial DNA replication are either imported from the cytosol or derived from phosphorylation of deoxyadenosine or deoxyguanosine catalyzed by mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK). DGUOK deficiency has been linked to mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes suggesting an important role for this enzyme in dNTP supply. We have generated HeLa cell lines with 20-30% decreased levels of DGUOK mRNA by the expression of small interfering RNAs directed towards the DGUOK mRNA. The cells with decreased expression of the enzyme showed similar levels of mtDNA as control cells when grown exponentially in culture. However, mtDNA levels rapidly decreased in the cells when cell cycle arrest was induced by serum starvation. DNA incorporation of 9-{beta}-D-arabino-furanosylguanine (araG) was lower in the cells with decreased deoxyguanosine kinase expression, but the total rate of araG phosphorylation was increased in the cells. The increase in araG phosphorylation was shown to be due to increased expression of deoxycytidine kinase. In summary, our findings show that DGUOK is required for mitochondrial DNA replication in resting cells and that small changes in expression of this enzyme may cause mitochondrial DNA depletion. Our data also suggest that alterations in the expression level of DGUOK may induce compensatory changes in the expression of other nucleoside kinases.

  14. Celecoxib Inhibits the Lytic Activation of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus through Down-Regulation of RTA Expression by Inhibiting the Activation of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jungang; Jiang, Liangyu; Lan, Ke; Chen, Xulin

    2015-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV's lytic replication cycle is critical for the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases. Despite recent progress in the development of treatments for KSHV associated malignancies, these therapies are not completely efficacious and cause side effects. Therefore, more effective therapies with antiviral agents against KSHV are urgently needed. In this study, we identified celecoxib as an antiviral agent against KSHV. Our data suggest that celecoxib inhibits the lytic activation of KSHV through the down-regulation of the expression of the lytic switch protein, replication and transcription activator (RTA), by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK. Therefore, celecoxib may provide a candidate inhibitor for the therapeutic research of KSHV-related malignancies.

  15. Lentiviral vector platform for improved erythropoietin expression concomitant with shRNA mediated host cell elastase down regulation.

    PubMed

    Dhamne, Hemant; Chande, Ajit G; Mukhopadhyaya, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Lentiviral vector (LV) mediated gene transfer holds great promise to develop stable cell lines for sustained transgene expression providing a valuable alternative to the conventional plasmid transfection based recombinant protein production methods. We report here making a third generation HIV-2 derived LV containing erythropoietin (EPO) gene expression cassette to generate a stable HEK293 cell line secreting EPO constitutively. A high producer cell clone was obtained by limiting dilution and was adapted to serum free medium. The suspension adapted cell clone stably produced milligram per liter quantities of EPO. Subsequent host metabolic engineering using lentiviral RNAi targeted to block an endogenous candidate protease elastase, identified through an in silico approach, resulted in appreciable augmentation of EPO expression above the original level. This study of LV based improved glycoprotein expression with host cell metabolic engineering for stable production of protein therapeutics thus exemplifies the versatility of LV and is of significant future biopharmaceutical importance.

  16. Lentiviral vector platform for improved erythropoietin expression concomitant with shRNA mediated host cell elastase down regulation.

    PubMed

    Dhamne, Hemant; Chande, Ajit G; Mukhopadhyaya, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Lentiviral vector (LV) mediated gene transfer holds great promise to develop stable cell lines for sustained transgene expression providing a valuable alternative to the conventional plasmid transfection based recombinant protein production methods. We report here making a third generation HIV-2 derived LV containing erythropoietin (EPO) gene expression cassette to generate a stable HEK293 cell line secreting EPO constitutively. A high producer cell clone was obtained by limiting dilution and was adapted to serum free medium. The suspension adapted cell clone stably produced milligram per liter quantities of EPO. Subsequent host metabolic engineering using lentiviral RNAi targeted to block an endogenous candidate protease elastase, identified through an in silico approach, resulted in appreciable augmentation of EPO expression above the original level. This study of LV based improved glycoprotein expression with host cell metabolic engineering for stable production of protein therapeutics thus exemplifies the versatility of LV and is of significant future biopharmaceutical importance. PMID:24325878

  17. Down-regulation of MHC class I expression in human neuronal stem cells using viral stealth mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Jae Young; Cho, Bum Rae; Chung, Woo Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Kim, Seung U; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk; Moon, Shin-Yong; Lee, Jung Sang; Ahn, Curie

    2005-01-28

    Due to their unique capacity for self-renewal in addition to their ability to differentiate into cells of all neuronal lineages, neuronal stem cells (NSCs) are promising candidates for cell replacement therapy in neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are few studies on immune rejection, which is one of the main problems facing successful stem cell therapy. In order to determine if human NSC might be rejected after transplantation the MHC expression level was examined in the HB1.F3 cell line, which has previously been shown to exhibit NSC properties. The results showed low expression levels of the MHC class I molecules on the surfaces of these cells. A dramatic increase in the MHC class I expression level was observed when the cells were treated with IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta, alone or in combination. The maximum induction of MHC class I protein expression was observed at above 20ng/ml IFN-gamma 48h after the treatment. The apparent additive effects of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in combination on the maximum induction of MHC class I expression exerted by IFN-gamma treatment were not observed. The MHC class I levels elevated by IFN-gamma were sustained for 72h after withdrawing the IFN-gamma. Therefore, this study introduced human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) US genes, which are known to be able to reduce the MHC class I expression level on the cell surface after infection, into HB1.F3 cells. The cells transfected with the hCMV US2, US3, US6 or US11 genes showed 20-50% reduction in the MHC class I expression level compared with the mock-transfected cells. These results suggest that NSC expresses high levels of the MHC class I proteins, and unless they are modified, might be rejected upon transplantation. In addition, the various viral stealth mechanisms can be exploited for stem cell transplantation.

  18. FK506 ameliorates podocyte injury in type 2 diabetic nephropathy by down-regulating TRPC6 and NFAT expression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruixia; Liu, Liqiu; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Yanjuan; Song, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure, and podocyte injury plays a major role in the development of DN. In this study, we investigated whether tacrolimus (FK506), an immunosuppressor, can attenuate podocyte injury in a type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rat model with DN. Transmission electron microcopy was used to morphologically evaluate renal injury. The urinary albumin (UAL), creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) and major biochemical parameters, including glucose, insulin, serum creatinine (Scr), urea nitrogen, total cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG), were examined 12 weeks after the administration of FK506. The expressions of the canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and nephrin were detected by Western blotting and qPCR. In the rat model of DN, the expressions of TRPC6 and NFAT were significantly elevated compared with the normal rat group; however, the treatment with FK506 normalized the increased expression of TRPC6 and NFAT and attenuated podocyte ultrastructure injury. UAL, Ccr and the biochemical parameters were also improved by the use of FK506. In cell experiments, FK506 improved the decreased expression of nephrin and suppressed the elevated expression of both TRPC6 and NFAT caused by high glucose in accordance with TRPC6 blocker U73122. Our results demonstrated that FK506 could ameliorate podocyte injury in T2DM, which may be related to suppressed expressions of TRPC6 and NFAT.

  19. Induced ICER I{gamma} down-regulates cyclin A expression and cell proliferation in insulin-producing {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Akari; Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan . E-mail: susan.bonner-weir@joslin.harvard.edu

    2005-04-15

    We have previously found that cyclin A expression is markedly reduced in pancreatic {beta}-cells by cell-specific overexpression of repressor inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER I{gamma}) in transgenic mice. Here we further examined regulatory effects of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A gene expression using Min6 cells, an insulin-producing cell line. The cyclin A promoter luciferase assay showed that ICER I{gamma} directly repressed cyclin A gene transcription. In addition, upon ICER I{gamma} overexpression, cyclin A mRNA levels markedly decreased, thereby confirming an inhibitory effect of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A expression. Suppression of cyclin A results in inhibition of BrdU incorporation. Under normal culture conditions endogenous cyclin A is abundant in these cells, whereas ICER is hardly detectable. However, serum starvation of Min6 cells induces ICER I{gamma} expression with a concomitant very low expression level of cyclin A. Cyclin A protein is not expressed unless the cells are in active DNA replication. These results indicate a potentially important anti-proliferative effect of ICER I{gamma} in pancreatic {beta} cells. Since ICER I{gamma} is greatly increased in diabetes as well as in FFA- or high glucose-treated islets, this effect may in part exacerbate diabetes by limiting {beta}-cell proliferation.

  20. Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-06-27

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (Δsur4, Δfen1, Δipt1, Δskn1, Δcsg1, Δcsg2, Δorm1, and Δorm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A Δcdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest.

  1. The Ayurvedic drug Ksheerabala (101) ameliorates alcohol-induced neurotoxicity by down-regulating the expression of transcription factor (NFkB) in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Rejitha, S.; Prathibha, P.; Madambath, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Most of the pharmaceutical effects of alcohol are due to its accumulation in the brain. Ksheerabala (101) an Ayurvedic formulation mainly used against central nervous system disorders. Aim: To determine the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ksheerabala (101) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four; control, alcohol (4 g/kg), Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) and Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) + alcohol (4 g/kg). After the experimental period (90 days), the animals were sacrificed and the effect of Ksheerabala (101) was studied on oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and induction of transcription factor in brain. Results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione which were decreased in alcohol-treated rats, increased significantly in co-administered groups. The lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls which were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats decreased significantly in co-administered groups. The expression of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthase decreased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and increased significantly in co-administered groups. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) which was up-regulated in alcohol-treated rats was down-regulated in co-administered rats. The histopathology reinforced these results. Conclusion: Ksheerabala (101) attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress and down-regulates the expression of NFκB in rat brain. PMID:27313421

  2. δEF1 down-regulates ER-α expression and confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaocong; Li, Yaqing; Tong, Qi; Gu, Feng; Zhu, Tianhui; Fu, Li; Yang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to tamoxifen therapy represents a major barrier to the successful treatment of breast cancer, where a loss of or reduced ER-α level is considered a primary mechanism. Understanding how ER-α expression is regulated would provide insights into new intervention points to overcome tamoxifen resistance. In this study, we report that the expression of δEF1 is up-regulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in MCF-7 cells in an ER-α-dependent manner, through either PI3K or NF-κB pathway. Ectopic expression of δEF1 in turn repressed ER-α transcription by binding to the E(2)-box on the ER-α promoter. At the tissue level of breast cancer, there is a strong and inverse correlation between the expression levels of δEF1 and ER-α. In MCF-7 cells, an elevated expression of δEF1 made the cells less sensitive to tamoxifen treatment, whereas overexpression of ER-α compromised the effects of δEF1 and restored the sensitivity. Also, depletion of δEF1 by RNA interference in MDA-MB-231 cells restored the expression of ER-α and tamoxifen sensitivity. In conclusion, we have identified an important role of δEF1 in the development of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Inhibiting δEF1 to restore ER-α expression might represent a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming endocrine resistance in breast cancer.

  3. Hairless Up-Regulates Tgf-β2 Expression via Down-Regulation of miR-31 in the Skin of "Hairpoor" (HrHp) Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Hairless (HR) has been shown to regulate hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and hair cycling. The Hr mutant hair loss mouse referred to as "hairpoor" (Hr(Hp)) displays overexpression of the HR protein through translational derepression. In this study, we found that 64 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the skin of Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) and wild type mice at P7 using miRNA-microarray analysis and miR-31 displayed the most reduced expression in Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) skin. In vivo observation and investigation using an in vitro reporter expression system revealed that miR-31 and pri-miR-31 were consistently down-regulated in the HR over-expressed condition. In addition, we found that the transforming growth factor β2 (Tgf-β2), a known catagen inducer, is the putative target of miR-31. Furthermore, Tgf-β2 level was also increased in HR over-expressed keratinocyte and Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) mice. These study results suggest that HR controls Tgf-β2 expression via regulation of miR-31, thus causing abnormal hair cycle in Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) mice.

  4. Melittin Restores PTEN Expression by Down-Regulating HDAC2 in Human Hepatocelluar Carcinoma HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Bian, Er-Bao; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Melittin is a water-soluble toxic peptide derived from the venom of the bee. Although many studies show the anti-tumor activity of melittin in human cancer including glioma cells, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here the effect of melittin on human hepatocelluar carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation in vitro and further mechanisms was investigated. We found melittin could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro using Flow cytometry and MTT method. Besides, we discovered that melittin significantly downregulated the expressions of CyclinD1 and CDK4. Results of western Blot and Real-time PCR analysis indicated that melittin was capable to upregulate the expression of PTEN and attenuate histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression. Further studies demonstrated that knockdown of HDAC2 completely mimicked the effects of melittin on PTEN gene expression. Conversely, it was that the potential utility of melittin on PTEN expression was reversed in cells treated with a recombinant pEGFP-C2-HDAC2 plasmid. In addition, treatment with melittin caused a downregulation of Akt phosphorylation, while overexpression of HDAC2 promoted Akt phosphorylation. These findings suggested that the inhibitory of cell growth by melittin might be led by HDAC2-mediated PTEN upregulation, Akt inactivation, and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. PMID:24788349

  5. Urban particulate matter down-regulates filaggrin via COX2 expression/PGE2 production leading to skin barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lin, Zih-Chan; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lee, I-Ta; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-01-01

    We explored the regulation of filaggrin, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression induced by urban particulate matter (PM) in human keratinocytes. In addition, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in PM-induced effects on COX2/PGE2 and filaggrin. PMs induced increases in COX2 expression and PGE2 production, and decreased filaggrin expression. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with COX2 inhibitor and PGE2 receptor antagonist, or after transfection with siRNAs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), gp91phox and p47phox. Furthermore, PM-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase activity was attenuated by pretreatment with an AhR antagonist (AhRI) or antioxidants. Moreover, Nox-dependent ROS generation led to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, which then activated the downstream molecules NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In vivo studies in PMs-treated mice showed that AhRI and apocynin (a Nox2 inhibitor) had anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing COX2 and increasing filaggrin expression. Our results reveal for the first time that PMs-induced ROS generation is mediated through the AhR/p47 phox/NADPH oxidase pathway, which in turn activates ERK1/2, p38/NF-κB and JNK/AP-1, and which ultimately induces COX2 expression and filaggrin downregulation. Up-regulated expression of COX2 and production of PGE2 may lead to impairment of skin barrier function. PMID:27313009

  6. Urban particulate matter down-regulates filaggrin via COX2 expression/PGE2 production leading to skin barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lin, Zih-Chan; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lee, I-Ta; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-01-01

    We explored the regulation of filaggrin, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression induced by urban particulate matter (PM) in human keratinocytes. In addition, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in PM-induced effects on COX2/PGE2 and filaggrin. PMs induced increases in COX2 expression and PGE2 production, and decreased filaggrin expression. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with COX2 inhibitor and PGE2 receptor antagonist, or after transfection with siRNAs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), gp91phox and p47phox. Furthermore, PM-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase activity was attenuated by pretreatment with an AhR antagonist (AhRI) or antioxidants. Moreover, Nox-dependent ROS generation led to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, which then activated the downstream molecules NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In vivo studies in PMs-treated mice showed that AhRI and apocynin (a Nox2 inhibitor) had anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing COX2 and increasing filaggrin expression. Our results reveal for the first time that PMs-induced ROS generation is mediated through the AhR/p47 phox/NADPH oxidase pathway, which in turn activates ERK1/2, p38/NF-κB and JNK/AP-1, and which ultimately induces COX2 expression and filaggrin downregulation. Up-regulated expression of COX2 and production of PGE2 may lead to impairment of skin barrier function. PMID:27313009

  7. Down-regulation of miR-503 expression predicate advanced mythological features and poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Weiqing; Zhong, Zhaokun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore what impact miR-503 has on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Cancer and matched non-malignant lung tissue specimens were collected from 109 patients who underwent surgery in Tanisha Hospital from Jun 2006 to July 2013. Overall survival (OS) curves were analyzed using the Lapland-Meier method, and the differences were examined using log-rank tests. Cox proportional- hazards regression analysis was applied in order to estimate univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for OS. Results: The relative expression of miR-503 in NSCLC tissues (0.366 ± 0.130) was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous lung tissues (1.667 ± 1.047, P < 0.01). Statistically significant association was observed between miR-503 expression and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), TNM stage (P = 0.008), and tumor grade (P = 0.043). Lapland Meier analysis clearly illustrated that the patients with the lower expression of miR-503 had a worse outcome compared to patients with higher miR-503 expression (P = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that miR-503 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.992, 95% CI: 2.276-9.872; P = 0.018) in NSCLC. Conclusion: In patients with NSCLC, low miR-503 expression is an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26191272

  8. A preliminary analysis of association between the down-regulation of microRNA-181b expression and symptomatology improvement in schizophrenia patients before and after antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-tao; Sun, Xin-yang; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Lin; Guo, Zhong-min; Fan, Hui-min; Zhong, Ai-fang; Niu, Wei; Dai, Yun-hua; Zhang, Li-yi; Shi, Zheng; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Jim

    2014-07-01

    Despite the growing evidences on the relation of altered expression of miRNAs and schizophrenia, most schizophrenia subjects have an extensive antipsychotic treatment history and the pharmacological effects on miRNA expression are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the change of plasma microRNA-181b level and improvement of symptomatology before and after six-week antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia patients, and explore their association. A total of 20 schizophrenia patients absent of antipsychotics and 20 age-and gender-matched normal controls were enrolled, and tested for 9 schizophrenia-associated microRNA (miR-30e, miR-34a, miR-181b, miR-195, miR-346, miR-432, miR-7, miR-132 and miR-212) expression levels in plasma using quantitative RT-PCR and for symptomatology improvement using Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after treatment (olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone) for the patients only. Compared with the normal control group, the expression levels of miRNA-181b, miRNA-30e, miRNA-34a and miRNA-7 of the patients group were significantly higher (p < 0.05). Compared with those before treatment in the patient group, the symptomatology scores were significantly lower (p < 0.001), and the expression level of microRNA-181b was significantly down-regulated after treatment (p < 0.05). The change of miRNA-181b expression was positively correlated with the improvement of negative symptoms and lack of response symptoms (r = 0.502 and 0.557, P < 0.05, accounting for 20.2% and 26.4% respectively), and their therapeutic effects with OR being 11.283 and 5.119 respectively. We conclude that miRNA-181b, miRNA-30e, miRNA-34a and miRNA-7 are probably involved in pathogenesis of SZ, and the significant down-regulation of miRNA-181b expression predicts improvement of negative symptoms to treatment, and thus can serve as a potential plasmamolecular marker for antipsychotic responses.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonist-induced down-regulation of hepatic glucocorticoid receptor expression in SD rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiang; Li Ming; Sun Weiping; Bi Yan; Cai Mengyin; Liang Hua; Yu Qiuqiong; He Xiaoying; Weng Jianping

    2008-04-18

    It was reported that glucocorticoid production was inhibited by fenofibrate through suppression of type-1 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression in liver. The inhibition might be a negative-feedback regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}), which is quickly induced by glucocorticoid in the liver. However, it is not clear if GR expression is changed by fenofibrate-induced PPAR{alpha} activation. In this study, we tested this possibility in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. GR expression was reduced by fenofibrate in a time- and does-dependent manner. The inhibition was observed in liver, but not in fat and muscle. The corticosterone level in the blood was increased significantly by fenofibrate. These effects of fenofibrate were abolished by PPAR{alpha} inhibitor MK886, suggesting that fenofibrate activated through PPAR{alpha}. In conclusion, inhibition of GR expression may represent a new molecular mechanism for the negative feedback regulation of GR activity by PPAR{alpha}.

  10. Transgenic down-regulation of ARGONAUTE2 expression in Nicotiana benthamiana interferes with several layers of antiviral defenses.

    PubMed

    Odokonyero, Denis; Mendoza, Maria R; Alvarado, Veria Y; Zhang, Jiantao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Scholthof, Herman B

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the contribution of Nicotiana benthamiana ARGONAUTE2 (NbAGO2) to its antiviral response against different viruses. For this purpose, dsRNA hairpin technology was used to reduce NbAGO2 expression in transgenic plants as verified with RT-PCR. This reduction was specific because the expression of other NbAGOs was not affected, and did not cause obvious developmental defects under normal growth conditions. Inoculation of transgenic plants with an otherwise silencing-sensitive GFP-expressing Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) variant resulted in high GFP accumulation because antiviral silencing was compromised. These transgenic plants also exhibited accelerated spread and/or enhanced susceptibility and symptoms for TBSV mutants defective for P19 or coat protein expression, other tombusviruses, Tobacco mosaic virus, and Potato virus X; but not noticeably for Foxtail mosaic virus. These findings support the notion that NbAGO2 in N. benthamiana can contribute to antiviral defense at different levels. PMID:26454664

  11. Anti-cancer effect of snake venom toxin through down regulation of AP-1 mediated PRDX6 expression

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Song, Ho Sub; Kim, Jung Hyun; Ko, Seong Cheol; Song, Min Jong; Lee, Won Hyoung; Yoon, Joo Hee; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom toxin (SVT) from Vipera lebetina turanica contains a mixture of different enzymes and proteins. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is known to be a stimulator of lung cancer cell growth. PRDX6 is a member of peroxidases, and has calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. PRDX6 has an AP-1 binding site in its promoter region of the gene. Since AP-1 is implicated in tumor growth and PRDX6 expression, in the present study, we investigated whether SVT inhibits PRDX6, thereby preventing human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and NCI-H460) through inactivation of AP-1. A docking model study and pull down assay showed that SVT completely fits on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) region of c-Fos of AP-1. SVT (0–10 μg/ml) inhibited lung cancer cell growth in a concentration dependent manner through induction of apoptotic cell death accompanied by induction of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53, but decreased cIAP and Bcl2 expression via inactivation of AP-1. In an xenograft in vivo model, SVT (0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) also inhibited tumor growth accompanied with the reduction of PRDX6 expression, but increased expression of proapoptotic proteins. These data indicate that SVT inhibits tumor growth via inhibition of PRDX6 activity through interaction with its transcription factor AP-1. PMID:26061816

  12. Allogeneic Articular Chondrocyte Transplantation Down Regulates IL-8 Gene Expression in the Degenerating Rabbit Intervertebral Disc in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yejia; Chee, Ana; Shi, Peng; Wang, Rui; Moss, Isaac; Chen, Er-Yun; He, Tong-Chuan; An, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate if repopulating the degenerating intervertebral disc (IVD) with articular chondrocytes (ACs) will decrease inflammation and restore disc structure. In this study, we aimed to determine if well-differentiated AC alone or transduced with adenovirus overexpressing BMP-7 gene may survive and inhibit inflammation or repair disc structure in the degenerating rabbit IVD. Design This was a biological study in a rabbit IVD-injury model in vivo. Dual cell tracking methods (IR dye-labeling and adenovirus transduction) were used to demonstrate the viability of allogeneic AC injected into degenerating rabbit IVDs. Interleukin (IL)-8 gene expression was determined via real-time PCR. Infiltrating inflammatory cells (macrophages, T-cells or neutrophils) were examined with immunohistochemistry. The IVDs were also examined by routine histology. Results ACs labeled with infrared (IR) dye were detected in the degenerating IVDs at both 2 and 8 weeks after injection. At the 2-week time point, IL-8 gene expression was comparable in IVDs injected with chondrocytes and in intact discs as control (P=0.647), while its expression in IVDs injected with saline increased 50fold (p=0.028). Transgene expression of red fluorescent protein, β-galactosidase, and BMP-7 diminished at 8 weeks post injection. IVDs injected with chondrocytes overexpressing hBMP-7 did not show lower IL-8 gene expression or improved histology. Macrophages were consistently detected by immunohistochemistry in the cartilage formation around the needle insertion sites in both the saline and chondrocyte groups, while neither T cells nor neutrophils were detected. Conclusions Allogeneic rabbit AC survived in the degenerating rabbit IVDs for at least 8 weeks. Cell treatment resulted in reduced IVD inflammation, but did not significantly improve IVD structure. PMID:25133623

  13. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Zhou, Dong-Xun; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zou, Da-Jin

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear {beta}-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  14. Prenatal Stress Down-Regulates Reelin Expression by Methylation of Its Promoter and Induces Adult Behavioral Impairments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-García, Ismael; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Montiel, Juan F.; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela F.; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Utreras, Elías; Montecino, Martín; González-Billault, Christian; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS) upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that can yield new

  15. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Palacios-García, Ismael; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Montiel, Juan F; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela F; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Utreras, Elías; Montecino, Martín; González-Billault, Christian; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS) upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that can yield new

  16. Sphingosine Kinase 1 Protects Hepatocytes from Lipotoxicity via Down-regulation of IRE1α Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanfei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jinbiao; Dai, Lan; Kaczorowski, Dominik; Gao, Xin; Xia, Pu

    2015-09-18

    Aberrant deposition of fat including free fatty acids in the liver often causes damage to hepatocytes, namely lipotoxicity, which is a key pathogenic event in the development and progression of fatty liver diseases. This study demonstrates a pivotal role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) in protecting hepatocytes from lipotoxicity. Exposure of primary murine hepatocytes to palmitate resulted in dose-dependent cell death, which was enhanced significantly in Sphk1-deficient cells. In keeping with this, expression of dominant-negative mutant SphK1 also markedly promoted palmitate-induced cell death. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type SphK1 profoundly protected hepatocytes from lipotoxicity. Mechanistically, the protective effect of SphK1 is attributable to suppression of ER stress-mediated pro-apoptotic pathways, as reflected in the inhibition of IRE1α activation, XBP1 splicing, JNK phosphorylation, and CHOP induction. Of note, SphK1 inhibited the IRE1α pathway by reducing IRE1α expression at the transcriptional level. Moreover, S1P mimicked the effect of SphK1, suppressing IRE1α expression in a receptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, enforced overexpression of IRE1α significantly blocked the protective effect of SphK1 against lipotoxicity. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the role of SphK1 in hepatocyte survival and uncovers a novel mechanism for protection against ER stress-mediated cell death. PMID:26240153

  17. Sphingosine Kinase 1 Protects Hepatocytes from Lipotoxicity via Down-regulation of IRE1α Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanfei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jinbiao; Dai, Lan; Kaczorowski, Dominik; Gao, Xin; Xia, Pu

    2015-09-18

    Aberrant deposition of fat including free fatty acids in the liver often causes damage to hepatocytes, namely lipotoxicity, which is a key pathogenic event in the development and progression of fatty liver diseases. This study demonstrates a pivotal role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) in protecting hepatocytes from lipotoxicity. Exposure of primary murine hepatocytes to palmitate resulted in dose-dependent cell death, which was enhanced significantly in Sphk1-deficient cells. In keeping with this, expression of dominant-negative mutant SphK1 also markedly promoted palmitate-induced cell death. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type SphK1 profoundly protected hepatocytes from lipotoxicity. Mechanistically, the protective effect of SphK1 is attributable to suppression of ER stress-mediated pro-apoptotic pathways, as reflected in the inhibition of IRE1α activation, XBP1 splicing, JNK phosphorylation, and CHOP induction. Of note, SphK1 inhibited the IRE1α pathway by reducing IRE1α expression at the transcriptional level. Moreover, S1P mimicked the effect of SphK1, suppressing IRE1α expression in a receptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, enforced overexpression of IRE1α significantly blocked the protective effect of SphK1 against lipotoxicity. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the role of SphK1 in hepatocyte survival and uncovers a novel mechanism for protection against ER stress-mediated cell death.

  18. Down regulation by p60v-src of genes specifically expressed and developmentally regulated in postmitotic quail neuroretina cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guermah, M; Gillet, G; Michel, D; Laugier, D; Brun, G; Calothy, G

    1990-01-01

    The avian neuroretina (NR) is composed of photoreceptors and different neurons that are derived from proliferating precursor cells. Neuronal differentiation takes place after terminal mitosis. We have previously shown that differentiating NR cells can be induced to proliferate by infection with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and that cell multiplication requires expression of a functional v-src gene. We speculated that the quiescence of NR cells could be determined by specific genes. Cell proliferation could then result from the negative regulation of these genes by the v-src protein. By differential hybridization of a cDNA library, we isolated eight clones corresponding to genes expressed in postmitotic NR cells from 13-day-old quail embryos, transcriptional levels of which are significantly reduced in NR cells induced to proliferate by tsNY68, an RSV mutant with temperature-sensitive mitogenic activity. Partial sequencing analysis indicated that one RNA encoded the calmodulin gene, whereas the other seven showed no similarity to known sequences. By using v-src mutants that induce NR cell proliferation in the absence of transformation, we showed that transcription of six genes was negatively regulated by the v-src protein and that of four genes was correlated with NR cell quiescence. We also report that a subset of genes are specifically transcribed in neural cells and developmentally regulated in the NR. These results indicate that the v-src protein regulates expression of genes likely to play a role in the control of neural cell growth or differentiation. Images PMID:2162475

  19. Thymosin From Bombyx mori Is Down-Regulated in Expression by BmNPV Exhibiting Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Yongdi; Fang, Qiang; Xu, Minlin; Lv, Mengyuan; Liao, Jinxu; Li, Si; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Thymosins have been highly conserved during evolution. These hormones exist in many animal species and play an essential role in many biological events. However, little is known regarding the physiological function of silkworm Bombyx mori thymosin (BmTHY). In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of BmTHY in a Bombyx mori larval ovarian cell line (BmN) challenged with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhydrosis virus (BmNPV) and the antiviral effect of recombinant BmTHY (rBmTHY) for Bombyx mori against BmNPV. Western-blot assay and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the level of BmTHY protein expression and transcription decreased over time when BmN cells were infected by BmNPV. Treatment with endotoxin-free rBmTHY led to a significant reduction in viral titer in the supernatant of BmN cells challenged with BmNPV. The results from antiviral tests performed in vitro and in vivo showed that endotoxin-free rBmTHY improved the survival rate of Bombyx mori infected with BmNPV. These findings suggest that BmTHY exerts immunomodulatory effects on Bombyx mori, rendering them resistant to viral infection. PMID:27432352

  20. Thymosin From Bombyx mori Is Down-Regulated in Expression by BmNPV Exhibiting Antiviral Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Yongdi; Fang, Qiang; Xu, Minlin; Lv, Mengyuan; Liao, Jinxu; Li, Si; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Thymosins have been highly conserved during evolution. These hormones exist in many animal species and play an essential role in many biological events. However, little is known regarding the physiological function of silkworm Bombyx mori thymosin (BmTHY). In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of BmTHY in a Bombyx mori larval ovarian cell line (BmN) challenged with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhydrosis virus (BmNPV) and the antiviral effect of recombinant BmTHY (rBmTHY) for Bombyx mori against BmNPV. Western-blot assay and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the level of BmTHY protein expression and transcription decreased over time when BmN cells were infected by BmNPV. Treatment with endotoxin-free rBmTHY led to a significant reduction in viral titer in the supernatant of BmN cells challenged with BmNPV. The results from antiviral tests performed in vitro and in vivo showed that endotoxin-free rBmTHY improved the survival rate of Bombyx mori infected with BmNPV. These findings suggest that BmTHY exerts immunomodulatory effects on Bombyx mori, rendering them resistant to viral infection. PMID:27432352

  1. Sodium butyrate enhances complement-mediated cell injury via down-regulation of decay-accelerating factor expression in colonic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Akira; Shimada, Mitsue; Araki, Yoshio; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Bamba, Tadao

    2002-02-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) expressed on the surface of colonic cancer cells presents a barrier to complement-mediated clearance by contributing to the ineffectiveness of the humoral immune response. In this study, to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor effects of butyrate, we evaluated how butyrate modulates DAF expression in colonic cancer cells. Three colonic cancer cell lines (HT-29, Caco-2, and T84 cells) were studied. DAF protein expression was assessed by western blot, and DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by northern blot. Complement C3 deposition on the surface of colonic cancer cells was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The promoter activity of the DAF gene was assessed by a reporter gene-luciferase assay. Butyrate reduced the basal and interleukin-4 (IL-4)- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced expression of DAF protein and mRNA in HT-29 cells. It increased the susceptibility to complement attack and enhanced C3 deposition on HT-29 cells. The inhibitory effect of butyrate on DAF mRNA expression was also observed in T84 and Caco-2 cells. Butyrate decreased basal DAF expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The inhibitory effect of butyrate on IL-4-induced DAF expression was closely associated with a blockade of IL-4-induced DAF mRNA stability. TNF-alpha-induced transcriptional activation and the increased stability of the DAF gene were also blocked by butyrate. Similar but weak effects were induced by trichostatin A, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that histone acetylation might participate in butyrate activity. These observations indicate that both a down-regulation of DAF expression and the induction of susceptibility to complement attack contribute to the anti-tumor effects of butyrate in colonic cancer.

  2. GM-CSF Down-Regulates TLR Expression via the Transcription Factor PU.1 in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Kambis; Wisgrill, Lukas; Wessely, Isabelle; Diesner, Susanne C.; Schüller, Simone; Dürr, Celia; Heinle, Armando; Sachet, Monika; Pollak, Arnold; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Spittler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are crucial sensors of microbial agents such as bacterial or viral compounds. These receptors constitute key players in the induction of inflammation, e.g. in septic or chronic inflammatory diseases. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) such as granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF) or granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) have been extensively investigated in their capacity to promote myelopoiesis in febrile neutropenia or to overcome immunosuppression in patients suffering from sepsis-associated neutropenia or from monocytic immunoincompetence. We report here that GM-CSF, downregulates TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in human monocytes. Diminished pathogen recognition receptor expression was accompanied by reduced downstream p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling upon lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding—and accordingly led to impaired proinflammatory cytokine production. Knockdown experiments of the transcription factors PU.1 and VentX showed that GM-CSF driven effects on TLR regulation is entirely PU.1 but not VentX dependent. We further analysed monocyte TLR and CD14 expression upon exposure to the IMID® immunomodulatory drug Pomalidomide (CC-4047), a Thalidomide analogue known to downregulate PU.1. Indeed, Pomalidomide in part reversed the GM-CSF-mediated effects. Our data indicate a critical role of PU.1 in the regulation of TLR1, 2, 4 and of CD14, thus targeting PU.1 ultimately results in TLR modulation. The PU.1 mediated immunomodulatory properties of GM-CSF should be taken into consideration upon usage of GM-CSF in inflammatory or infection-related conditions. PMID:27695085

  3. Matrine promotes G0/G1 arrest and down-regulates cyclin D1 expression in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Xue, T Y; Xu, W; Gao, J Z

    2013-09-01

    Matrine has a broad-spectrum of anti-cancer effects and is efficient in the inhibition of proliferation of hepatoma cells, leukemia cells and neuroblastoma cell. However, its efficacy and tentative mechanisms in rhabdomyosarcoma have not been addressed before. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Matrine on cell cycle and expression of cyclin D1 in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cell line). RD cell line was treated with different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL) of Matrine, and cell proliferation and cell cycle were evaluated using, respectively, MTT assay and flow cytometry. The effect of Matrine on cyclin D1 mRNA levels was measured by RT-PCR. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in the matrine-treated group (inhibition of proliferation rate in control cells 12.70 ± 0.35%; Matrine-treated cells [0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL]: 31.16 ± 0.11%, 42.96 ± 0.9%, and 57.26 ± 0.8%). The G0 / G1 ratio in study groups were, respectively, 58.44 ± 3.57%, 64.79 ± 2.03%, 69.97 ± 2.89% and 75.03 ± 1.23%.Cyclin D1 mRNA levels progressively diminished (control group ratio of cyclin D1 / β-actin: 0.59 ± 0.06; Matrine: 0.35 ± 0.05, 0.27 ± 0.02 and 0.04 ± 0.03). All aforementioned changes were significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, Matrine markedly suppresses cell proliferation in RD cells by decreasing expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and blocking the cell cycle at the G0 / G1 stage.

  4. Hexamethylene bisacetamide induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) and down-regulates BCL-2 expression in human myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D S; Zhang, X; Feinman, R; Teitz, T; Zelenetz, A; Richon, V M; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A; Michaeli, J

    1998-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy characterized by the expansion of monoclonal Ig-secreting plasma cells with low proliferative activity. It is postulated that inhibition of physiologic cell death is an underlying factor in the pathophysiology of MM. The development of chemoresistance is a common feature in patients with MM. In the present studies, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), a hybrid polar compound that is a potent inducer of terminal differentiation of various transformed cells, is shown to inhibit the growth of several human myeloma cell lines (ARP-1, U266, and RPMI 8226), including doxorubicin-resistant RPMI 8226 variants that overexpress the multidrug-resistance gene, MDR-1, and its product, p-glycoprotein. In addition to growth arrest and suppression of clonogenicity, HMBA induces apoptosis both in freshly isolated human myeloma cells and in cell lines, as determined by morphologic alterations, cell cycle distribution and endonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Further, HMBA decreases BCL-2 protein expression in myeloma cells within 12-48 hr. Overexpression of BCL-2 protein in ARP-1 cells confers resistance to HMBA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that HMBA is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human myeloma cells, which may act through suppressing the anti-apoptotic function of the bcl-2 gene. HMBA, and related hybrid polar compounds, may prove useful in the management of this presently incurable disease.

  5. Antisense Down-Regulation of 4CL Expression Alters Lignification, Tree Growth, and Saccharification Potential of Field-Grown Poplar1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Steven L.; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Jourdes, Michael; Ki, Chanyoung; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Gunter, Lee; Decker, Stephen R.; Selig, Michael J.; Sykes, Robert; Himmel, Michael E.; Kitin, Peter; Shevchenko, Olga; Strauss, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been reported as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls and increasing overall growth rates, thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), we applied this strategy and examined field-grown transformants for both effects on wood biochemistry and tree productivity. The reductions in lignin contents obtained correlated well with 4CL RNA expression, with a sharp decrease in lignin amount being observed for RNA expression below approximately 50% of the nontransgenic control. Relatively small lignin reductions of approximately 10% were associated with reduced productivity, decreased wood syringyl/guaiacyl lignin monomer ratios, and a small increase in the level of incorporation of H-monomers (p-hydroxyphenyl) into cell walls. Transgenic events with less than approximately 50% 4CL RNA expression were characterized by patches of reddish-brown discolored wood that had approximately twice the extractive content of controls (largely complex polyphenolics). There was no evidence that substantially reduced lignin contents increased growth rates or saccharification potential. Our results suggest that the capacity for lignin reduction is limited; below a threshold, large changes in wood chemistry and plant metabolism were observed that adversely affected productivity and potential ethanol yield. They also underline the importance of field studies to obtain physiologically meaningful results and to support technology development with transgenic trees. PMID:20729393

  6. Over-expression of microRNA-223 inhibited the proinflammatory responses in Helicobacter pylori-infection macrophages by down-regulating IRAK-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Jianhong; Cheng, Yang; Jiang, Yibiao; Li, Guangxin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-223 plays an important role in the inflammatory response of macrophages. Recent studies have identified that miR-223 was highly expressed in H. pylori infection macrophages, the significance of the elevation, however, has not yet been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the impact of elevated miR-233 to macrophage inflammatory response and possible mechanisms. We found that miR-223 not only could inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-α, but also was able to decrease the expression of CD40, CD68, CD80, and CD163. Furthermore, proteins relating to inflammatory signal pathways, such as IRAK-1, NF-κB and MAPK, in H. pylori infected macrophages were down-regulated. Taken together, these results indicated that miR-223 may act as an inflammatory inhibitory factor in H. pylori infected macrophages by IRAK-1, NF-κB or MAPK signal pathways. These findings contribute to the understanding of miR-223 in macrophages inflammatory responses induced by H. pylori. PMID:27158353

  7. Tangeritin inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 fat cells.

    PubMed

    He, Y F; Liu, F Y; Zhang, W X

    2015-10-29

    The treatment of obese patients is a topic investigated by an increasing number of researchers. This study aimed to elucidate the possible inhibitory effect of tangeritin on the development and function of fat cells. 3T3-L1 fat cells were grown to confluence and subjected to different concentrations of tangeritin. The most effective tangeritin inhibition concentration was determined by the MTT assay. The treated cells were subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase PCR and western blot analysis, to detect changes in the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ expression levels. The MTT assay revealed that the fat cell growth was inhibited at a 20 ng/mL concentration of tangeritin. The results of real-time PCR revealed a significant decrease in the expression of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PPARγ mRNA, following the treatment with tangeritin. Western blot analysis also presented similar results at a protein level. Therefore, we concluded that tangeritin inhibits adipogenesis via the down-regulation of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PPARγ mRNA and protein expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

  8. Enriched environment inhibits mouse pancreatic cancer growth and down-regulates the expression of mitochondria-related genes in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Gan, Yu; Fan, Yingchao; Wu, Yufeng; Lin, Hechun; Song, Yanfang; Cai, Xiaojin; Yu, Xiang; Pan, Weihong; Yao, Ming; Gu, Jianren; Tu, Hong

    2015-01-19

    Psycho-social stress has been suggested to influence the development of cancer, but it remains poorly defined with regard to pancreatic cancer, a lethal malignancy with few effective treatment modalities. In this study, we sought to investigate the impacts of enriched environment (EE) housing, a rodent model of "eustress", on the growth of mouse pancreatic cancer, and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms through gene expression profiling. The EE mice showed significantly reduced tumor weights in both subcutaneous (53%) and orthotopic (41%) models, while each single component of EE (inanimate stimulation, social stimulation or physical exercise) was not profound enough to achieve comparative anti-tumor effects as EE. The integrative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed that in response to EE, a total of 129 genes in the tumors showed differential expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The differentially expressed genes were mostly localized to the mitochondria and enriched in the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Interestingly, nearly all of the mitochondria-related genes were down-regulated by EE. Our data have provided experimental evidence in favor of the application of positive stress or of benign environmental stimulation in pancreatic cancer therapy.

  9. Enriched Environment Inhibits Mouse Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Down-regulates the Expression of Mitochondria-related Genes in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Gan, Yu; Fan, Yingchao; Wu, Yufeng; Lin, Hechun; Song, Yanfang; Cai, Xiaojin; Yu, Xiang; Pan, Weihong; Yao, Ming; Gu, Jianren; Tu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Psycho-social stress has been suggested to influence the development of cancer, but it remains poorly defined with regard to pancreatic cancer, a lethal malignancy with few effective treatment modalities. In this study, we sought to investigate the impacts of enriched environment (EE) housing, a rodent model of “eustress”, on the growth of mouse pancreatic cancer, and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms through gene expression profiling. The EE mice showed significantly reduced tumor weights in both subcutaneous (53%) and orthotopic (41%) models, while each single component of EE (inanimate stimulation, social stimulation or physical exercise) was not profound enough to achieve comparative anti-tumor effects as EE. The integrative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed that in response to EE, a total of 129 genes in the tumors showed differential expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The differentially expressed genes were mostly localized to the mitochondria and enriched in the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Interestingly, nearly all of the mitochondria-related genes were down-regulated by EE. Our data have provided experimental evidence in favor of the application of positive stress or of benign environmental stimulation in pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:25598223

  10. Dexmedetomidine protects against learning and memory impairments caused by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats: Involvement of the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B)-ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zhuang, Fu-Zhi; Qin, Shou-Jun; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun; Shen, Qing-Feng; Li, Mei; Villarreal, Michelle; Benefield, Lauren; Gu, Shu-Ling; Ma, Teng-Fei

    2016-09-30

    Cognitive impairment is a common adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) during treatment for severe depression. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a sedative-anesthetic drug, is used to treat post-ECT agitation. However, it is not known if DEX can protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairments. To address this, we used chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to establish a model of depression for ECT treatment. Our Morris water maze and sucrose preference test results suggest that DEX alleviates ECT-induced learning and memory impairments without altering the antidepressant efficacy of ECT. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of DEX, hippocampal expression of NR2B, p-ERK/ERK, p-CREB/CREB, and BDNF were quantified by western blotting. These results show that DEX suppresses over-activation of NR2B and enhances phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of ECT-treated depressed rats. Furthermore, DEX had no significant effect on ECT-induced increases in p-CREB and BDNF. Overall, our findings suggest that DEX ameliorates ECT-induced learning and memory impairments in depressed rats via the NR2B-ERK signaling cascade. Moreover, CREB/BDNF seems not appear to participate in the cognitive protective mechanisms of DEX during ECT treatment. PMID:27455425

  11. Kava components down-regulate expression of AR and AR splice variants and reduce growth in patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuesen; Liu, Zhongbo; Xu, Xia; Blair, Christopher A; Sun, Zheng; Xie, Jun; Lilly, Michael B; Zi, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Men living in Fiji and drinking kava have low incidence of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the PCa incidence among Fijian men who had migrated to Australia, increased by 5.1-fold. We therefore examined the potential effects of kava root extracts and its active components (kavalactones and flavokawains) on PCa growth and androgen receptor (AR) expression. PCa cell lines (LNCaP, LAPC-4, 22Rv1, C4-2B, DU145 and PC-3) with different AR expression, and a transformed prostate myofibroblast cell line (WPMY-1), were treated with a commercial kava extract, kavalactones (kawain, 5'6'-dehydrokawain, yangonin, methysticin) and flavokawain B. Expression of AR and its target genes (PSA and TMPRSS2) was examined. Two novel patient-derived PCa xenograft models from high grade PCa specimens were established by implanting the specimens into nude mice and passing tumor pieces through subcutaneous injection in nude mice, and then treated with kava extract and flavokawain B to examine their effects on tumor growth, AR expression and serum PSA levels. The kava extract and flavokawain B effectively down-regulated the expression of both the full-length AR and AR splice variants. The kava extract and kavalactones accelerated AR protein degradation, while flavokawain B inhibited AR mRNA transcription via decreasing Sp1 expression and the binding of Sp1 to the AR promoter. The kava root extract and flavokawain B reduce tumor growth, AR expression in tumor tissues and levels of serum PSA in the patient-derived PCa xenograft models. These results suggest a potential usefulness of a safe kava product or its active components for prevention and treatment of advanced PCa by targeting AR. PMID:22347450

  12. Effects of Hypoxia Exposure on Hepatic Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) Expression in Atlantic Croaker: Molecular Mechanisms of CYP1A Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) are biomarkers of environmental exposure to hypoxia and organic xenobiotic chemicals that act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, respectively. Many aquatic environments heavily contaminated with organic chemicals, such as harbors, are also hypoxic. Recently, we and other scientists reported HIF-α genes are upregulated by hypoxia exposure in aquatic organisms, but the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia regulation of CYP1A expression have not been investigated in teleost fishes. As a first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia modulation of CYP1A expression in fish, we characterized CYP1A cDNA from croaker liver. Hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen, DO: 1.7 mg/L for 2 to 4 weeks) caused significant decreases in hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein levels compared to CYP1A levels in fish held in normoxic conditions. In vivo studies showed that the nitric oxide (NO)-donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine, significantly decreased CYP1A expression in croaker livers, whereas the competitive inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, restored CYP1A mRNA and protein levels in hypoxia-exposed (1.7 mg DO/L for 4 weeks) fish. In vivo hypoxia exposure also markedly increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β, a cytokine), HIF-2α mRNA and endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein levels in croaker livers. Pharmacological treatment with vitamin E, an antioxidant, lowered the IL-1β, HIF-2α mRNA and eNOS protein levels in hypoxia-exposed fish and completely reversed the down-regulation of hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein levels in response to hypoxia exposure. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced down-regulation of CYP1A is due to alterations of NO and oxidant status, and cellular IL-1β and HIF-α levels. Moreover, the present study provides the first evidence of a role for antioxidants in hepatic eNOS and IL-1β regulation in aquatic vertebrates during hypoxic stress. PMID:22815834

  13. The change of spatial cognition ability in depression rat model and the possible association with down-regulated protein expression of TRPC6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of researches have focused on the cognitive changes in depression patients. Here, we observed impaired cognitive ability in a rat depression model along with down-regulated expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) protein. The cognitive defect could be rescued by treatment with hyperforin, which can invoke TRPC6 activation. This study was designed as following: rats were randomly divided into control, stressed and stressed+hyperforin groups. Chronic unpredictable stress combined with isolation rearing was applied on rats for three weeks, except for control group. Morris water maze was applied to evaluate spatial cognitive ability while long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded to test the synaptic plasticity. Results showed that both spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity were impaired in stress group while improved after hyperforin treatment in stressed+hyperforin group, meanwhile, Western blot assay showed that TRPC6 expression was decreased in stressed group. The histological data also presented the decline of dendritic length, dendritic spine density and the number of excitatory synapses in stress group while they were increased in stressed+hyperforin group. These results suggest that there is a well potential of TRPC6 to become a new target for selecting promising new candidates as antidepressants with therapeutically effect on impaired cognition.

  14. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Vasculogenesis in Transgenic Zebrafish Through Down-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jie; Ichihara, Gaku; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Kuroyanagi, Junya; Zhang, Beibei; Suzuki, Yuka; Sehsah, Radwa; Kato, Masashi; Tanaka, Toshio; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the effects of exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles on vasculogenesis/angiogenesis using transgenic zebrafish. The study also examined the potential mechanisms involved in those effects using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TG (nacre/fli1:EGFP) zebrafish were exposed to nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica dioxide (SiO2), and copper oxide (CuO) particles at 0.01, 1 and 100 µg/ml concentrations from 1 to 5 dpf (day-post-fertilization). Angiogenesis was evaluated morphologically at the end of exposure. Exposure to CuO nanoparticles reduced the number of transversely-running subintestinal vessels in TG zebrafish. Exposure to CuO nanoparticles down-regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor in endothelial cells sorted by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). Exposure of HUVEC to CuO nanoparticles reduced cell viability and increased apoptotic index in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that CuO nanoparticles inhibit vasculogenesis through reduction of VEGF expression and induction of apoptosis.

  15. Expression profile of a Caenorhabditis elegans model of adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis reveals down regulation of ubiquitin E3 ligase components

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Hannah V.; Chen, Xi; Barclay, Jeff W.; Morgan, Alan; Burgoyne, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine string protein (CSP) is a chaperone of the Dnaj/Hsp40 family of proteins and is essential for synaptic maintenance. Mutations in the human gene encoding CSP, DNAJC5, cause adult neuronal ceroid lipofucinosis (ANCL) which is characterised by progressive dementia, movement disorders, seizures and premature death. CSP null models in mice, flies and worms have been shown to also exhibit similar neurodegenerative phenotypes. Here we have explored the mechanisms underlying ANCL disease progression using Caenorhaditis elegans mutant strains of dnj-14, the worm orthologue of DNAJC5. Transcriptional profiling of these mutants compared to control strains revealed a broad down-regulation of ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-related genes, in particular, components of multimeric RING E3 ubiquitin ligases including F-Box, SKR and BTB proteins. These data were supported by the observation that dnj-14 mutant worm strains expressing a GFP-tagged ubiquitin fusion degradation substrate exhibited decreased ubiquitylated protein degradation. The results indicate that disruption of an essential synaptic chaperone leads to changes in expression levels of UPS-related proteins which has a knock-on effect on overall protein degradation in C. elegans. The specific over-representation of E3 ubiquitin ligase components revealed in our study, suggests that proteins and complexes upstream of the proteasome itself may be beneficial therapeutic targets. PMID:26395859

  16. Anti-obesity activity of Allium fistulosum L. extract by down-regulation of the expression of lipogenic genes in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Kim, Seung Ju; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-obesity activity and underlying mechanism of a 70% ethanol extract from Allium fistulosum L. (AFE) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. AFE was orally administered to mice with the high-fat diet at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day for 6.5 weeks. AFE treatment significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (subcutaneous, epididymal and retroperitoneal) weight as well as adipocyte size compared to high-fat diet-induced control mice. AFE also significantly decreased triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and leptin concentrations in the serum of the mice, whereas it increased adiponectin levels. Furthermore, AFE suppressed the mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ, as well as fatty acid synthase in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. These results suggest that AFE inhibited the adipose size, fat accumulation and serum lipid concentrations by down-regulation of the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis in the adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obese mice. PMID:21468588

  17. Honokiol inhibits HepG2 migration via down-regulation of IQGAP1 expression discovered by a quantitative pharmaceutical proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shufang; Fu, Afu; Zhang, Qiang; Tang, Minghai; Zhou, Jin; Wei, Yuquan; Chen, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Honokiol (HNK), a natural small molecular product, inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells and exhibited anti-tumor activity in nude mice. In this article, we applied a novel sensitive stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative proteomic method and a model of nude mice to investigate the correlation between HNK and the hotspot migration molecule Ras GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP1). The quantitative proteomic analysis showed that IQGAP1 was 0.53-fold down-regulated under 10 microg/mL HNK exposure for 24 h on HepG2 cells. Migration ability of HepG2 cells under HNK treatment was correlated with its expression level of IQGAP1. In addition, the biochemical validation on HepG2 cells and the tumor xenograft model further demonstrated that HNK decreased the expression level of IQGAP1 and its upstream proteins Cdc42/Rac1. These data supported that HNK can modulate cell adhesion and cell migration by acting on Cdc42/Rac1 signaling via IQGAP1 interactions with its upstream Cdc42/Rac1 proteins, which is a new molecular mechanism of HNK to exert its anti-tumor activity.

  18. Juglone, isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, induces apoptosis via down-regulation of AR expression in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huali; Yu, Xiaofeng; Qu, Shaochun; Sui, Dayun

    2013-06-15

    Juglone is a natural compound which has been isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. Recent studies have shown that juglone had various pharmacological effects such as anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer. However, its anti-cancer activity on human prostate cancer LNCaP cell has not been examined. Thus, the current study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by juglone in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer LNCaP cells. MTT assay was performed to examine the anti-proliferative effect of juglone. Occurrence of apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry in LNCaP cells treated with juglone for 24h. The result shown that juglone inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological changes of apoptotic body formation after juglone treatment were observed by Hoechst 33342 staining. This apoptotic induction was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-3, -9 activation. Moreover, we found that juglone significantly inhibited the expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a dose-dependent manner, as well as abrogated up-regulation of AR and PSA genes with and/or without dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Take together, our results demonstrated that juglone might induce the apoptosis in LNCaP cell via down-regulation of AR expression. Therefore, our results indicated that juglone may be a potential candidate of drug for androgen-sensitive prostate cancer.

  19. The change of spatial cognition ability in depression rat model and the possible association with down-regulated protein expression of TRPC6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of researches have focused on the cognitive changes in depression patients. Here, we observed impaired cognitive ability in a rat depression model along with down-regulated expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) protein. The cognitive defect could be rescued by treatment with hyperforin, which can invoke TRPC6 activation. This study was designed as following: rats were randomly divided into control, stressed and stressed+hyperforin groups. Chronic unpredictable stress combined with isolation rearing was applied on rats for three weeks, except for control group. Morris water maze was applied to evaluate spatial cognitive ability while long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded to test the synaptic plasticity. Results showed that both spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity were impaired in stress group while improved after hyperforin treatment in stressed+hyperforin group, meanwhile, Western blot assay showed that TRPC6 expression was decreased in stressed group. The histological data also presented the decline of dendritic length, dendritic spine density and the number of excitatory synapses in stress group while they were increased in stressed+hyperforin group. These results suggest that there is a well potential of TRPC6 to become a new target for selecting promising new candidates as antidepressants with therapeutically effect on impaired cognition. PMID:26248296

  20. Up-regulation of miR-138 inhibits hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via down-regulating lipocalin-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haowei; Luo, Tiantian; He, Wenshuai; Xi, Dan; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Liu, Jichen

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes significantly to the development of numerous cardiac diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, etc. Promoting cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis is one of the available strategies to attenuate cardiac dysfunction caused by cardiomyocyte loss. Previous studies have been demonstrated that miR-138 and lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) play important roles in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and survival. We presently determined whether Lcn2 is a target gene of miR-138 involved in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Firstly, mimics of miR-138 were transfected into HL-1 cells to investigate its effect on cell apoptosis. Using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-y1) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometer assays, over-expression of miR-138 significantly enhanced the cell growth and significantly attenuated the cell apoptosis in hypoxic conditions. Dual-luciferase reporter gene and western blot results confirmed Lcn2 was a direct target of miR-138. Then, the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3.1/Lcn2 was transfected into the HL-1 cells that over-expressed miR-138. We further observed that the over-expression of Lcn2 diminished the protection of miR-138 over-expression from hypoxia-induced cell survival and apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-138 inhibits the hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via down-regulating the pro-apoptotic gene expression of Lcn2. PMID:26129883

  1. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q

    2009-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  2. Tetrandrine down-regulates expression of miRNA-155 to inhibit signal-induced NF-κB activation in a rat model of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunhui; Ji, Yunxi; Zou, Guohui; Wan, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study is to investigate expression of miRNA-155 and the related signaling pathway in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Thirty-six SD rats were divided into control, DM, and tetrandrine groups. A rat model of DM was constructed by tail vein injection with alloxan. Levels of related cytokines in serum samples were detected. The mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α in pancreatic islet tissues were detected by real-time PCR. Protein expression of IκBα and TNF-α was detected by western blotting. Expression of miRNA-155 in pancreatic islet tissues and serum samples was detected by real-time PCR. Results: Compared with those in the control and the tetrandrine groups, activities of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde and reactive oxygen species in serum samples and pancreatic islet mitochondria tissues in the DM group were increased (P < 0.05), while activity of superoxide dismutase in the DM group was decreased (P < 0.05). Activities of haemoglobin A1c and glucose in serum samples in the DM group were increased, while insulin in the DM group was decreased (P < 0.05). The mRNA and protein levels of IκBα in pancreatic islet tissues in the DM group were decreased (P < 0.05), while the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α in the DM group were increased (P < 0.05). Expression of miRNA-155 in pancreatic islet tissues and serum samples in the DM group was increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Tetrandrine prevented injury in rat pancreatic islet caused by alloxan, which was related with decreased oxidative stress, down-regulated miRNA-155 and decreased TNF-α in the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results indicate that tetrandrine plays an important role in DM by regulating expression of miRNA-155. PMID:26064305

  3. Sodium arsenite down-regulates the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein via translational and post-translational mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong; Hao, Yuqing; Wang, Lijing; Jia, Dongwei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite down-regulates the protein expression level of XIAP in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite inhibits the de novo XIAP synthesis and its IRES activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite decreases XIAP stability and promotes its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of XIAP attenuates the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite. -- Abstract: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, and has been reported to exhibit elevated expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote cell survival, metastasis and tumor recurrence. Targeting XIAP has proven effective for the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and restoration of cancer cell chemosensitivity. Arsenic (or sodium arsenite) is a potent anti-tumor agent used to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Additionally, arsenic induces cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human HCC cells. In this study, we identified XIAP as a target for sodium arsenite-induced cytotoxicity in HCC. The exposure of HCC cell lines to sodium arsenite resulted in inhibition of XIAP expression in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sodium arsenite blocked the de novo XIAP synthesis and the activity of its internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. Moreover, treatment with sodium arsenite decreased the protein stability of XIAP and induced its ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Overexpression of XIAP attenuated the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite in HCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that sodium arsenite suppresses XIAP expression via translational and post-translational mechanisms in HCC.

  4. Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Show Increased Expression of DVL1, DVL3 and Beta-Catenin and Down-Regulation of E-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p = 0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p = 0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain. PMID:24933634

  5. Brain metastases from lung cancer show increased expression of DVL1, DVL3 and beta-catenin and down-regulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-06-13

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p=0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p=0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain.

  6. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Heng; Guo, Wei; Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao; Sun, Xiaoping

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  7. Wild-type and mutated presenilins 2 trigger p53-dependent apoptosis and down-regulate presenilin 1 expression in HEK293 human cells and in murine neurons.

    PubMed

    Alves da Costa, Cristine; Paitel, Erwan; Mattson, Mark P; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam; Ancolio, Karine; Checler, Frédéric; Mattson, Marc P

    2002-03-19

    Presenilins 1 and 2 are two homologous proteins that, when mutated, account for most early onset Alzheimer's disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that, among various functions, presenilins could modulate cell apoptotic responses. Here we establish that the overexpression of presenilin 2 (PS2) and its mutated form Asn-141-Ile-PS2 alters the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells as established by combined trypan blue exclusion, sodium 3'-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate assay, and propidium iodide incorporation FACS analyses. The two parent proteins increase the acetyl-DEVD-al-sensitive caspase-3-like activity in both HEK293 cells and Telencephalon specific murine neurons, modulate Bax and bcl-2 expressions, and enhance cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol. We show that overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 increases p53-like immunoreactivity and transcriptional activity. We also establish that wild-type- and mutated PS2-induced caspase activation is reduced by p53 antisense approach and by pifithrin-alpha, a chemical inhibitor of p53. Furthermore, mouse fibroblasts in which the PS2 gene has been knocked out exhibited strongly reduced p53-transcriptional activity. Finally, we establish that the overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 is accompanied by a drastic reduction of endogenous presenilin 1 (PS1) expression. Interestingly, pifithrin-alpha diminished endogenous PS2 immunoreactivity, whereas the inhibitor increases PS1 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-linked PS2 trigger apoptosis and down-regulate PS1 expression through p53-dependent mechanisms. PMID:11904448

  8. DZNep, inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, down-regulates expression of SETDB1 H3K9me3 HMTase in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Kyung; Kim, Keun-Cheol

    2013-09-01

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an epigenetic anticancer drug, leads to the indirect suppression of S-adenosyl methionine-dependent cellular methylations by inhibiting S-adenosyl homocystein (AdoHcy) hydrolase. Although it is well known that DZNep targets the degradation of EZH2 protein, H3K27me3 HMTase, there are still uncertainties about the regulation of other types of HMTases during cell death. In this study, we describe that SETDB1 gene expression was regulated by DZNep treatment in human lung cancer cells. We confirm that DZNep induced growth inhibition and increased the dead cell population of lung cancer cells. DZNep treatment affected histone methylations, including H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, but not H3K4me3. Reduced levels of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 were related with the decreased EZH2 and SETDB1 proteins. Real time PCR analysis showed that SETDB1 gene expression was decreased by DZNep treatment, but no effect was observed for EZH2 gene expression. We cloned the promoter region of SETDB1 and SUV39H1 genes, and performed luciferase assays. The promoter activity of SETDB1 gene was down regulated by DZNep treatment, whereas no effect on SUV39H1 promoter activity was observed. In conclusion, we suggest that DZNep regulates not only on H3K27me3 HMTase EZH2, but also H3K9 HMTase SETDB1 gene expression at the transcription level, implicating that the mechanism of action of DZNep targets multiple HMTases during the death of lung cancer cells. PMID:23933322

  9. A single dose of oral DNA immunization delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium down-regulates transgene expression in HBsAg transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo Jian; Ng, Mun Hon; Chan, Kwok Wah; Tam, Sidney; Woo, Patrick C Y; Ng, Sze Park; Yuen, Kwok Yung

    2002-11-01

    The efficacy of immunization with Salmonella typhimurium aroA to deliver the plasmid pRc/CMV-HBsAg (i.e. an oral DNA vaccine) was compared with that of intramuscular immunization with the same plasmid DNA, and with recombinant HBsAg protein, in a HBsAg transgenic mouse model. A single dose of oral DNA vaccine evoked vigorous Th1 cell and CTL responses and production of IgG2 subclass of anti-HBs after 2 weeks, and this was accompanied by a transient hepatitic flare with elevated alanine aminotransferase in the first 3 weeks. Concomitantly, the level of HBsAg-mRNA in liver tissues decreased by more than fourfold and viral-antigen expression was curtailed markedly in hepatocytes compared with controls. Hepatitic flare subsided after 3 weeks, but suppression of the transgene expression was continued in the absence of overt liver pathology for the remaining duration of the experiment (i.e. 12 weeks), and possibly beyond. The other vaccines could also break immune tolerance, but this was achieved only after repeated booster doses of the respective vaccines, and they did not affect transgene expression, or induce hepatic flare. We previously showed in non-transgenic mice that immunization by the oral DNA vaccine is achieved by an active intestinal infection with a bacterial carrier that is an adept intracellular parasite, and the immune response to the vaccination is orchestrated by phagocytic APC. Our present findings further implicated that the combined effects of an innate and a specific immune response induced by oral DNA vaccination are crucial in down-regulating HBsAg-transgene expression in hepatocytes.

  10. Cytoplasmic localization of Lrh-1 down-regulates ovarian follicular cyp19a1a expression in a teleost, the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-08-01

    Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is a conserved member of the NR5A subfamily in vertebrates and a potential regulator of estrogen synthesis in the ovarian granulosa cells. An Lrh-1 homologue was obtained from the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides that contains the conserved structural features of NR5A and is phylogenetically closely related to NR5A2. The expression of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 is tissue-specific with relatively higher levels in the liver and ovary. The immunoreactive signals for Lrh-1 and Cyp19a1a were present in the ovarian follicular cells and germ cells. In the ovarian follicular cells, Lrh-1 was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and colocalized with Cyp19a1a. The expression levels of both increased during vitellogenesis whereas only Cyp19a1a dramatically decreased toward maturation when Lrh-1 was localized almost exclusively to the cytoplasm of the follicular cells. The orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could up-regulate cyp19a1a transcription in vitro via the two conserved Ftz-f1 sites in cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could bind cyp19a1a promoter in vivo with a higher abundance in the vitellogenic ovary, whereas the binding was dramatically decreased in the mature ovary. Taken together, the results of present study demonstrate that Lrh-1 plays an important role in up-regulating cyp19a1a gene in the ovarian follicular cells during vitellogenesis, and the sequestration of Lrh-1 to the cytoplasm may down-regulate cyp19a1a expression in the mature ovary. This mechanism for modifying transcriptional roles of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 may shed new light on the regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in other vertebrates as well.

  11. A role for nuclear factor interleukin-3 (NFIL3), a critical transcriptional repressor, in down-regulation of periovulatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing; Jo, Misung; Curry, Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    The LH surge triggers dramatic transcriptional changes in genes associated with ovulation and luteinization. The present study investigated the spatiotemporal expression of nuclear factor IL-3 (NFIL3), a transcriptional regulator of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor superfamily, and its potential role in the ovary during the periovulatory period. Immature female rats were injected with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and ovaries or granulosa cells were collected at various times after hCG. Nfil3 mRNA was highly induced both in intact ovaries and granulosa cells after hCG treatment. In situ hybridization demonstrated that Nfil3 mRNA was highly induced in theca-interstitial cells at 4-8 h after hCG, localized to granulosa cells at 12 h, and decreased at 24 h. Overexpression of NFIL3 in granulosa cells inhibited the induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2), progesterone receptor (Pgr), epiregulin (Ereg), and amphiregulin (Areg) and down-regulated levels of prostaglandin E2. The inhibitory effect on Ptgs2 induction was reversed by NFIL3 small interfering RNA treatment. In theca-interstitial cells the expression of hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) (Hpgd) was also inhibited by NFIL3 overexpression. Data from luciferase assays demonstrated that NFIL3 overexpression decreased the induction of the Ptgs2 and Areg promoter activity. EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that NFIL3 binds to the promoter region containing the DNA-binding sites of cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-β. In summary, hCG induction of NFIL3 expression may modulate the process of ovulation and theca-interstitial and granulosa cell differentiation by regulating expression of PTGS2, PGR, AREG, EREG, and HPGD, potentially through interactions with cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-β on

  12. DZNep, inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, down-regulates expression of SETDB1 H3K9me3 HMTase in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Kyung; Kim, Keun-Cheol

    2013-09-01

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an epigenetic anticancer drug, leads to the indirect suppression of S-adenosyl methionine-dependent cellular methylations by inhibiting S-adenosyl homocystein (AdoHcy) hydrolase. Although it is well known that DZNep targets the degradation of EZH2 protein, H3K27me3 HMTase, there are still uncertainties about the regulation of other types of HMTases during cell death. In this study, we describe that SETDB1 gene expression was regulated by DZNep treatment in human lung cancer cells. We confirm that DZNep induced growth inhibition and increased the dead cell population of lung cancer cells. DZNep treatment affected histone methylations, including H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, but not H3K4me3. Reduced levels of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 were related with the decreased EZH2 and SETDB1 proteins. Real time PCR analysis showed that SETDB1 gene expression was decreased by DZNep treatment, but no effect was observed for EZH2 gene expression. We cloned the promoter region of SETDB1 and SUV39H1 genes, and performed luciferase assays. The promoter activity of SETDB1 gene was down regulated by DZNep treatment, whereas no effect on SUV39H1 promoter activity was observed. In conclusion, we suggest that DZNep regulates not only on H3K27me3 HMTase EZH2, but also H3K9 HMTase SETDB1 gene expression at the transcription level, implicating that the mechanism of action of DZNep targets multiple HMTases during the death of lung cancer cells.

  13. Longitudinal epigenetic and gene expression profiles analyzed by three-component analysis reveal down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation in human aging

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Marc; Jin, Seung-Gi; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xiong, Wenying; Gogoshin, Grigoriy; Rodin, Andrei S.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Data on biological mechanisms of aging are mostly obtained from cross-sectional study designs. An inherent disadvantage of this design is that inter-individual differences can mask small but biologically significant age-dependent changes. A serially sampled design (same individual at different time points) would overcome this problem but is often limited by the relatively small numbers of available paired samples and the statistics being used. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new vector-based approach, termed three-component analysis, which incorporates temporal distance, signal intensity and variance into one single score for gene ranking and is combined with gene set enrichment analysis. We tested our method on a unique age-based sample set of human skin fibroblasts and combined genome-wide transcription, DNA methylation and histone methylation (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) data. Importantly, our method can now for the first time demonstrate a clear age-dependent decrease in expression of genes coding for proteins involved in translation and ribosome function. Using analogies with data from lower organisms, we propose a model where age-dependent down-regulation of protein translation-related components contributes to extend human lifespan. PMID:25977295

  14. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Min-Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Byung Kok; Kim, Kwang Sik; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Suk Man; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:23905018

  15. Angiotensin II receptor blockade promotes repair of skeletal muscle through down-regulation of aging-promoting C1q expression

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Chizuru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Rie; Yano, Masamichi; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Sumida, Tomokazu; Kamo, Takehiro; Yagi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yu; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uejima, Etsuko; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor prolonged life span in mice. Since aging-related decline in skeletal muscle function was retarded in Atgr1a−/− mice, we examined the role of AT1 receptor in muscle regeneration after injury. Administration of AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan increased the size of regenerating myofibers, decreased fibrosis, and enhanced functional muscle recovery after cryoinjury. We recently reported that complement C1q, secreted by macrophages, activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoted aging-related decline in regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Notably, irbesartan induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but reduced C1q expression in cryoinjured muscles and in cultured macrophage cells. Irbesartan inhibited up-regulation of Axin2, a downstream gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in cryoinjured muscles. In addition, topical administration of C1q reversed beneficial effects of irbesartan on skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. These results suggest that AT1 receptor blockade improves muscle repair and regeneration through down-regulation of the aging-promoting C1q-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26571361

  16. Polyphenon-60 displays a therapeutic effect on acne by suppression of TLR2 and IL-8 expression via down-regulating the ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min Kyung; Ha, Soogyeong; Son, Ju-Ah; Song, Ji Hye; Houh, Younkyung; Cho, Eujin; Chun, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Ran; Yang, Yoolhee; Bang, Sa Ik; Kim, Minjung; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Daeho

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a well-known acne-inducing factor which causes inflammatory skin lesions by enhancing cytokine production through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Green tea extract catechin has been documented to possess anti-inflammatory effects. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved or any direct effect of green tea catechin on acne. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanism of polyphenon-60, also known as green tea catechin compound, on acne in vitro and in vivo. In a clinical study using topical polyphenon-60 treatment, acne patients showed symptomatic improvement with decrease in the number of comedos and pustules. To investigate the mechanism underlying the activity of polyphenon-60 in acne therapy, an in vitro study was performed. We found that polyphenon-60 reduced the levels of P. acnes-enhanced TLR2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in THP-1 cells, human monocyte cell line and human primary monocytes. Taken together, these data demonstrate that polyphenon-60 has a therapeutic effect on acne by suppressing inflammation, specifically by inhibiting TLR2 expression and IL-8 secretion via down-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway and activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway.

  17. Acute kidney injury induced by protein-overload nephropathy down-regulates gene expression of hepatic cerebroside sulfotransferase in mice, resulting in reduction of liver and serum sulfatides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Nakajima, Takero; Kamijo, Yuji; Li, Gang; Hu, Rui; Kannagi, Reiji; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Hara, Atsushi

    2009-12-25

    Sulfatides, possible antithrombotic factors belonging to sphingoglycolipids, are widely distributed in mammalian tissues and serum. We recently found that the level of serum sulfatides was significantly lower in hemodialysis patients than that in normal subjects, and that the serum level closely correlated to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest a relationship between the level of serum sulfatides and kidney function; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. In the present study, the influence of kidney dysfunction on the metabolism of sulfatides was examined using an established murine model of acute kidney injury, protein-overload nephropathy in mice. Protein-overload treatment caused severe proximal tubular injuries within 4days, and this treatment obviously decreased both serum and hepatic sulfatide levels. The sphingoid composition of serum sulfatides was very similar to that of hepatic ones at each time point, suggesting that the serum sulfatide level is dependent on the hepatic secretory ability of sulfatides. The treatment also decreased hepatic expression of cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST), a key enzyme in sulfatide metabolism, while it scarcely influenced the expression of the other sulfatide-metabolizing enzymes, including arylsulfatase A, ceramide galactosyltransferase, and galactosylceramidase. Pro-inflammatory responses were not detected in the liver of these mice; however, potential oxidative stress was increased. These results suggest that down-regulation of hepatic CST expression, probably affected by oxidative stress from kidney injury, causes reduction in liver and serum sulfatide levels. This novel mechanism, indicating the crosstalk between kidney injury and specific liver function, may prove useful for helping to understand the situation where human hemodialysis patients have low levels of serum sulfatides.

  18. Bradykinin increases blood-tumor barrier permeability by down-regulating the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and rearranging actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Bo; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Yi-Bao

    2008-04-01

    Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to open blood-tumor barrier (BTB) selectively and to increase permeability of the BTB transiently, but the mechanism is unclear. This study was performed to determine whether BK opens the BTB by affecting the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and caludin-5 and cytoskeleton protein filamentous actin (F-actin). In rat brain glioma model and BTB model in vitro, we find that the protein expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 are attenuated by BK induction. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays show that the attenuated expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and F-actin is most obvious in the smaller tumor capillaries (<20 microm) after BK infusion, and there is no change in the larger tumor capillaries (>20 microm). The redistribution of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and rearrangement of F-actin in brain microvascular endothelial cells are observed at the same time. Meanwhile, Evans blue assay shows that the permeability of BTB increases after BK infusion. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that TJ is opened and that pinocytotic vesicular density is increased. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxidase flux assays also reveal that TJ is opened by BK induction. In addition, radioimmunity and Western blot assay reveal a significant decrease in expression levels of cAMP and catalytic subunit of protien kinase A (PKAcs) of tumor tissue. This study demonstrates that the increase of BK-mediated BTB permeability is associated with the down-regulation of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and the rearrangement of F-actin and that cAMP/PKA signal transduction system might be involved in the modulating process.

  19. Down-regulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Vine, Donna F; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-03-14

    We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats. We compared, in independent cohorts, free-feeding obese-prone (Obese-FF) and lean-prone (Lean-FF) rats at pre-weaning (10 d old), weaning (21-25 d old) and early adulthood (8-12 weeks). A group of Obese-pair-feeding (PF) rats pair-fed to the Lean-FF rats was included in the adult cohort. The body weights of 10-d-old Obese-FF and Lean-FF pups were not significantly different. However, when the pups were shifted from dams' milk to solid food (weaning), the obese-prone rats exhibited more energy intake over the days than the lean-prone rats and higher body and fat pad weights and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, insulin and lipid levels. These differences were consistent with higher energy consumption and lower energy expenditure. In the young adult cohort, the differences between the Obese-FF and Lean-FF rats became more pronounced, yielding significant age effects on most of the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, which were reduced in the Obese-PF rats. The obese-prone rats displayed higher NPY expression than the lean-prone rats at pre-weaning and weaning, and the expression levels did not differ by age. In contrast, POMC expression exhibited significant age-by-genotype differences. At pre-weaning, there was no genotype difference in POMC expression, but in the weanling cohort, obese-prone pups exhibited lower POMC expression than the lean-prone rats. This genotype difference became more pronounced at adulthood. Overall, the development of hyperphagia-induced obesity in obese-prone JCR rats is related to POMC expression down-regulation in the presence of established NPY overexpression.

  20. 6-Shogaol enhances renal carcinoma Caki cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated cytochrome c release and down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Min Ae; Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-jin; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kim, Dong Eun; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-02-25

    6-Shogaol, a potent bioactive compound in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has been reported for anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of 6-shogaol to enhance tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. The combined treatment with 6-shogaol and TRAIL markedly induces apoptosis in various cancer cells (renal carcinoma Caki cells, breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and glioma U118MG cells), but not in normal mesangial cells and normal mouse kidney cells. 6-Shogaol reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and released cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol via Bax activation. Furthermore, we found that 6-shogaol induced down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression at the post-translational levels and the overexpression of c-FLIP(L) markedly inhibited 6-shogaol plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, 6-shogaol increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Caki cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavengers attenuated 6-shogaol plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis through inhibition of MMP reduction and down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression. In addition, 6-gingerol, another phenolic alkanone isolated from ginger, did not enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and down-regulate c-FLIP(L) expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that 6-shogaol enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in renal carcinoma Caki cells via ROS-mediated cytochrome c release and down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression. PMID:25619640

  1. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  2. Calorie Restriction Down-Regulates Expression of the Iron Regulatory Hormone Hepcidin in Normal and d-Galactose–Induced Aging Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wenli; Li, Man; Gao, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It has been shown that iron progressively accumulates in the brain with age. Calorie restriction (CR) may allay many of the adverse effects of aging on the brain, yet the underlying mechanisms, in particular in relation to brain iron metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of CR in the regulation of cerebral cellular iron homeostasis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight. The control group was fed a conventional diet ad libitum; the CR group received 70% of the calories of the control mouse intake per day; the d-galactose (d-gal) group received subcutaneous injection of d-gal at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily to produce mouse model of aging; the d-gal plus CR group received both of the two interventions for 14 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to test the cognitive performance of all animals, and the expression of iron regulatory genes, ferroportin and hepcidin, in the cortex and hippocampus were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the controls, the d-gal group mice showed significant spatial reference memory deficits in the MWM test, whereas the d-gal-CR group mice exhibited almost normal cognitive function, indicating that CR protects against d-gal–induced learning and memory impairment. Hepcidin mRNA expression was increased in the d-gal group, decreased in the CR group, and was basically unchanged in the d-gal-CR group. There was no statistical difference in the transmembrane iron exporter ferroportin expression between control and any of the experimental groups. The results suggest that the anti-aging effects of CR might partially lie in its capacity to reduce or avoid age-related iron accumulation in the brain through down-regulating expression of brain hepcidin—the key negative regulator for intracellular iron efflux—and that facilitating the balance of brain iron metabolism may be a promising anti-aging measure. PMID:24044515

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Scutellarin on Ischemic Cerebral Injury by Down-Regulating the Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and AT1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jichun; Zhou, Mingjie; Ren, Huanhuan; Pan, Qunwen; Zheng, Chunli; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in brain ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated whether Scutellarin (Scu) exerts neuroprotective effects by down-regulating the Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and AT1 receptor in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Methods Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were administrated with different dosages of Scu by oral gavage for 7 days and underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Blood pressure was measured 7 days after Scu administration and 24 h after pMCAO surgery by using a noninvasive tail cuff method. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by Laser Doppler perfusion monitor and the neuronal dysfunction was evaluated by analysis of neurological deficits before being sacrificed at 24 h after pMCAO. Histopathological change, cell apoptosis and infarct area were respectively determined by hematoxylin–eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Tissue angiotensin II (Ang II) and ACE activity were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression levels of ACE, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by Western blot and real-time PCR. ACE inhibitory activity of Scu in vitro was detected by the photometric determination. Results Scu treatment dose-dependently decreased neurological deficit score, infarct area, cell apoptosis and morphological changes induced by pMCAO, which were associated with reductions of ACE and AT1R expression and the levels of Ang II, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in ischemic brains. Scu has a potent ACE inhibiting activity. Conclusion Scu protects brain from acute ischemic injury probably through its inhibitory effect on the ACE/Ang II/AT1 axis, CBF preservation and

  4. The qEEG Signature of Selective NMDA NR2B Negative Allosteric Modulators; A Potential Translational Biomarker for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Keavy, Deborah; Bristow, Linda J.; Sivarao, Digavalli V.; Batchelder, Margaret; King, Dalton; Thangathirupathy, Srinivasan; Macor, John E.; Weed, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The antidepressant activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel blocker, ketamine, has led to the investigation of negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) selective for the NR2B receptor subtype. The clinical development of NR2B NAMs would benefit from a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker that demonstrates brain penetration and functional inhibition of NR2B receptors in preclinical species and humans. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is a translational measure that can be used to demonstrate pharmacodynamic effects across species. NMDA receptor channel blockers, such as ketamine and phencyclidine, increase the EEG gamma power band, which has been used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in the development of NMDA receptor antagonists. However, detailed qEEG studies with ketamine or NR2B NAMs are lacking in nonhuman primates. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects on the qEEG power spectra of the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil (CP-101,606) and BMT-108908 in nonhuman primates, and to compare them to the NMDA receptor channel blockers, ketamine and lanicemine. Cynomolgus monkeys were surgically implanted with EEG radio-telemetry transmitters, and qEEG was measured after vehicle or drug administration. The relative power for a number of frequency bands was determined. Ketamine and lanicemine increased relative gamma power, whereas the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil and BMT-108908 had no effect. Robust decreases in beta power were elicited by ketamine, traxoprodil and BMT-108908; and these agents also produced decreases in alpha power and increases in delta power at the doses tested. These results suggest that measurement of power spectra in the beta and delta bands may represent a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker to demonstrate functional effects of NR2B NAMs. The results of these studies may help guide the selection of qEEG measures that can be incorporated into early clinical evaluation of NR2B NAMs in healthy humans. PMID:27035340

  5. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti

  6. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1) down-regulates hepatic transcription factor 1 alpha (HNF1α) expression during reprogramming of human hepatic cells into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Donelan, William; Li, Shiwu; Wang, Hai; Lu, Shun; Xie, Chao; Tang, Dongqi; Chang, Lung-Ji; Yang, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic expression of Pdx1 triggers rapid hepatocyte dedifferentiation by down-regulating liver-enriched transcription factors and liver-specific functional genes such as hepatic nuclear factor-1α (HNF1α), albumin, and AAT. However, the links between Pdx1 over-expression and hepatic gene down-regulation are incompletely understood. HNF1α and HNF4α are important transcription factors that establish and maintain the hepatocyte phenotype. The human HNF4α gene contains two promoters (P1 and P2) that drive expression of P1-(HNF4α 1-6) or P2-(HNF4α 7-9)-derived isoforms, which are used in different tissues and at different times during development. We hypothesized that the relative expression of HNF1α and HNF4α following ectopic Pdx1 expression may promote hepatic cell dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation toward pancreatic beta-cells. We produced lentiviruses expressing Pdx1, Pdx1-VP16, and Ngn3, along with dual-color reporter genes to indicate hepatic and pancreatic beta-cell phenotype changes. Using these PTF alone or in combinations, we demonstrated that Pdx1 not only activates specific beta-cell genes but down-regulates HNF1α. Pdx1-mediated reduction of HNF1α is accompanied by altered expression of its major activator, HNF4α isoforms, down-regulating hepatic genes ALB and AAT. Pdx1 up-regulates HNF4α via the P2 promoter. These P2-driven isoforms compete with P1-driven isoforms to suppress target gene transcription. In Huh7 cells, the AF-1 activation domain is more important for transactivation, whereas in INS1 cells, the F inhibitory domain is more important. The loss and gain of functional activity strongly suggests that Pdx1 plays a central role in reprogramming hepatocytes into beta-cells by suppressing the hepatic phenotype. PMID:26279745

  7. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  8. The effect of (+/-)-CP-101,606, an NMDA receptor NR2B subunit selective antagonist, in the Morris watermaze.

    PubMed

    Guscott, Martin R; Clarke, Hannah F; Murray, Fraser; Grimwood, Sarah; Bristow, Linda J; Hutson, Peter H

    2003-08-29

    It is well established that the NMDA receptor antagonists block hippocampal long-term potentiation and impair acquisition in the Morris watermaze task, although the role of individual NMDA receptor subtypes is largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the effects of (+/-)-CP-101,606, an antagonist selective for NMDA receptor NR1/NR2B subunit-containing receptors and the nonselective NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, on acquisition in the Morris watermaze. Male hooded Lister rats were given 4 trials/day to find a fixed hidden platform submerged beneath the opaque water of the Morris watermaze. Twenty-four hours after the last acquisition trial, a 'probe trial' was conducted to assess the rat's spatial memory for the location of the hidden platform. Those rats treated with MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min prior to the acquisition and probe trials took significantly longer to find the hidden platform during training and spent significantly less time searching the platform's location during the probe trial than vehicle-treated rats. In contrast, 60-min pretreatment with (+/-)-CP-101,606 (60 mg/kg, p.o.), a dose that fully occupied hippocampal NR1/NR2B subunit-containing receptors, as determined by ex vivo NMDA receptor-specific [3H]ifenprodil binding immediately following watermaze experiments, had no effect on acquisition or the probe trial. These results suggest that antagonists selective for NR1/NR2B subunit-containing receptors may not impair spatial memory in rats in the Morris watermaze.

  9. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Changchien, Jung-Jung; Chen, Ying-Jung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-04-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression.

  10. Down-Regulation of TLR and JAK/STAT Pathway Genes Is Associated with Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Gene Expression Analysis in NK Cells from Patients Infected with Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Fernández, Juan E.; Miranda-Ortíz, Haydee; Fernández-López, Juan C.; Becker, Ingeborg; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    An important NK-cell inhibition with reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ and TLR2 expression had previously been identified in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) infected with Leishmania mexicana. In an attempt to pinpoint alterations in the signaling pathways responsible for the NK-cell dysfunction in patients with DCL, this study aimed at identifying differences in the NK-cell response towards Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan (LPG) between patients with localized and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis through gene expression profiling. Our results indicate that important genes involved in the innate immune response to Leishmania are down-regulated in NK cells from DCL patients, particularly TLR and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. This down-regulation showed to be independent of LPG stimulation. The study sheds new light for understanding the mechanisms that undermine the correct effector functions of NK cells in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis contributing to a better understanding of the pathobiology of leishmaniasis. PMID:27031998

  11. Gene expression profiles in rice gametes and zygotes: identification of gamete-enriched genes and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Mafumi; Maeda, Hiroki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation.

  12. Afatinib down-regulates MCL-1 expression through the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis and leads to apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianfang; Lv, Zhenghua; Zou, Jidong; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ma, Juke; Wang, Jinhua; Sa, Na; Jing, Peihang; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is the second generation of irreversible inhibitor of EGFR, HER2 and HER4, which has shown encouraging phase II and III clinical outcomes in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the molecular mechanism of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC is poorly understood. In the present investigation, we discovered that down-regulation of MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of BCL-2 family, was responsible for afatinib-triggered apoptosis. And the inactivation of AKT-mTOR signaling caused by afatinib lead to translational inhibition of MCL-1 expression. As a crucial branch of ER stress, PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis was also stimulated in HNSCC cells after afatinib incubation. Silencing either eIF2α or ATF4 by siRNA transfection relieved afatinib-caused suppression of AKT-mTOR activity, attenuating MCL-1 down-regulation as well as subsequent apoptosis. Collectively, the results show that afatinib hampers AKT-mTOR activation by stimulating PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway, giving rise to MCL-1 down-regulation mediated apoptosis in HNSCC cells. Therefore, our findings reveal the elaborate molecular network of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC, which would provide substantial theoretical underpinnings for afatinib clinical application and highlight its promising prospect in HNSCC treatment.

  13. Afatinib down-regulates MCL-1 expression through the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis and leads to apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianfang; Lv, Zhenghua; Zou, Jidong; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ma, Juke; Wang, Jinhua; Sa, Na; Jing, Peihang; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is the second generation of irreversible inhibitor of EGFR, HER2 and HER4, which has shown encouraging phase II and III clinical outcomes in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the molecular mechanism of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC is poorly understood. In the present investigation, we discovered that down-regulation of MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of BCL-2 family, was responsible for afatinib-triggered apoptosis. And the inactivation of AKT-mTOR signaling caused by afatinib lead to translational inhibition of MCL-1 expression. As a crucial branch of ER stress, PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis was also stimulated in HNSCC cells after afatinib incubation. Silencing either eIF2α or ATF4 by siRNA transfection relieved afatinib-caused suppression of AKT-mTOR activity, attenuating MCL-1 down-regulation as well as subsequent apoptosis. Collectively, the results show that afatinib hampers AKT-mTOR activation by stimulating PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway, giving rise to MCL-1 down-regulation mediated apoptosis in HNSCC cells. Therefore, our findings reveal the elaborate molecular network of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC, which would provide substantial theoretical underpinnings for afatinib clinical application and highlight its promising prospect in HNSCC treatment. PMID:27648360

  14. Afatinib down-regulates MCL-1 expression through the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis and leads to apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianfang; Lv, Zhenghua; Zou, Jidong; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ma, Juke; Wang, Jinhua; Sa, Na; Jing, Peihang; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is the second generation of irreversible inhibitor of EGFR, HER2 and HER4, which has shown encouraging phase II and III clinical outcomes in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the molecular mechanism of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC is poorly understood. In the present investigation, we discovered that down-regulation of MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of BCL-2 family, was responsible for afatinib-triggered apoptosis. And the inactivation of AKT-mTOR signaling caused by afatinib lead to translational inhibition of MCL-1 expression. As a crucial branch of ER stress, PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis was also stimulated in HNSCC cells after afatinib incubation. Silencing either eIF2α or ATF4 by siRNA transfection relieved afatinib-caused suppression of AKT-mTOR activity, attenuating MCL-1 down-regulation as well as subsequent apoptosis. Collectively, the results show that afatinib hampers AKT-mTOR activation by stimulating PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway, giving rise to MCL-1 down-regulation mediated apoptosis in HNSCC cells. Therefore, our findings reveal the elaborate molecular network of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC, which would provide substantial theoretical underpinnings for afatinib clinical application and highlight its promising prospect in HNSCC treatment. PMID:27648360

  15. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Interactions with a G quadruplex structure in the 3′-Untranslated Region of NR2B mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Snezana; DeMarco, Brett A.; Underwood, Ayana; Williams, Kathryn R.; Bassell, Gary J.; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion in the 5′-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which leads to the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of specific mRNAs, has been shown to bind a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing G quadruplex structures. It has been suggested that FMRP controls the local protein synthesis of several protein components of the Post Synaptic Density (PSD) in response to specific cellular needs. We have previously shown that the interactions between FMRP and mRNAs of the PSD scaffold proteins PSD-95 and Shank1 are mediated via stable G-quadruplex structures formed within the 3′-untranslated regions of these mRNAs. In this study we used biophysical methods to show that a comparable G quadruplex structure forms in the 3′-untranslated region of the glutamate receptor subunit NR2B mRNA encoding for a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is recognized specifically by FMRP, suggesting a common theme for FMRP recognition of its dendritic mRNA targets. PMID:26412477

  16. Sorafenib overcomes the chemoresistance in HBx-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HBx protein stability and suppresses HBV gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Jung, Hye Uk; Yoo, Seung Hee; Yoo, Ki Soo; Cheong, JaeHun; Park, Bong Soo; Yun, Il; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that HBx expression has anti-apoptotic effects, resulting in increased drug resistance in HCC cells. Thus, we examined if sorafenib efficiently induces apoptosis in HBx-overexpressing HCC cells. Noticeably, sorafenib efficiently induced apoptosis, even in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells, indicating that the HBx protein does not attenuate sorafenib-induced apoptosis. We next investigated if sorafenib modulates autophagy, allowing HCC cells to overcome the chemoresistance conferred by the HBx protein. Although autophagy plays a cytoprotective role against sorafenib-induced lethality, sorafenib was effective irrespective of HBx protein overexpression. We next examined if sorafenib exerts its cytotoxic effect via direct effects on the HBx protein. Importantly, sorafenib decreased HBx protein stability through a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Moreover, sorafenib decreased HBV gene expression and viral promoter activity. Taken together, sorafenib efficiently induces apoptotic cell death in HBx-expressing HCC cells via the downregulation of the HBx protein, a key factor in the anti-cancer drug resistance observed in HBV-induced HCC.

  17. Down-Regulation of GRIM-19 Expression Is Associated With Hyperactivation of STAT3-Induced Gene Expression and Tumor Growth in Human Cervical Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Min; Wei, Ying; Feng, Dingqing; Peng, Cheng; Weng, Haiyan; Ma, Yang; Bao, Liang; Nallar, Shreeram; Kalakonda, Sudhakar; Xiao, Weihua

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant disease responsible for the deaths of a large number of women in the developing world. Although certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been identified as the cause of this disease, events that lead to formation of malignant tumors are not fully clear. STAT3 is a major oncogenic transcription factor involved in the development and progression of a number of human tumors. However, the mechanisms that result in loss of control over STAT3 activity are not understood. Gene associated with Retinoid-Interferon-induced Mortality-19 (GRIM-19) is a tumor-suppressive protein identified using a genetic technique in the interferon/retinoid-induced cell death pathway. Here, we show that reduction in GRIM-19 protein levels occur in a number of primary human cervical cancers. Consequently, these tumors tend to express a high basal level of STAT3 and its downstream target genes. More importantly, using a surrogate model, we show that restoration of GRIM-19 levels reestablishes the control over STAT3-dependent gene expression and tumor growth in vivo. GRIM-19 suppressed the expression of tumor invasion- and angiogenesis-associated factors to limit tumor growth. This study identifies another major novel molecular pathway inactivated during the development of human cervical cancer. PMID:19642906

  18. NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex differentially mediate trace, delay, and contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Marieke R; Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2013-05-15

    Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL mPFC) is necessary for the acquisition of both trace and contextual fear memories, but it is not known how specific NR2 subunits support each association. The NR2B subunit confers unique properties to the NMDAR and may differentially regulate these two fear memories. Here we show that NR2A-containing NMDARs mediate trace, delay, and contextual fear memories, but NR2B-containing NMDARs are required only for trace conditioning, consistent with a role for PL mPFC in working memory.

  19. Structure of the Zinc-Bound Amino-Terminal Domain of the NMDA Receptor NR2B Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, E.; Simorowski, N; Furukawa, H

    2009-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors belong to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. One of the hallmarks for the function of NMDA receptors is that their ion channel activity is allosterically regulated by binding of modulator compounds to the extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) distinct from the L-glutamate-binding domain. The molecular basis for the ATD-mediated allosteric regulation has been enigmatic because of a complete lack of structural information on NMDA receptor ATDs. Here, we report the crystal structures of ATD from the NR2B NMDA receptor subunit in the zinc-free and zinc-bound states. The structures reveal the overall clamshell-like architecture distinct from the non-NMDA receptor ATDs and molecular determinants for the zinc-binding site, ion-binding sites, and the architecture of the putative phenylethanolamine-binding site.

  20. IL-10-produced by human transitional B-cells down-regulates CD86 expression on B-cells leading to inhibition of CD4+T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Nova-Lamperti, Estefania; Fanelli, Giorgia; Becker, Pablo D.; Chana, Prabhjoat; Elgueta, Raul; Dodd, Philippa C.; Lord, Graham M.; Lombardi, Giovanna; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel subset of human regulatory B-cells has recently been described. They arise from within the transitional B-cell subpopulation and are characterised by the production of IL-10. They appear to be of significant importance in regulating T-cell immunity in vivo. Despite this important function, the molecular mechanisms by which they control T-cell activation are incompletely defined. Here we show that transitional B-cells produced more IL-10 and expressed higher levels of IL-10 receptor after CD40 engagement compared to other B-cell subsets. Furthermore, under this stimulatory condition, CD86 expressed by transitional B-cells was down regulated and T-cell proliferation was reduced. We provide evidence to demonstrate that the down-regulation of CD86 expression by transitional B-cells was due to the autocrine effect of IL-10, which in turn leads to decreased T-cell proliferation and TNF-α production. This analysis was further extended to peripheral B-cells in kidney transplant recipients. We observed that B-cells from patients tolerant to the graft maintained higher IL-10 production after CD40 ligation, which correlates with lower CD86 expression compared to patients with chronic rejection. Hence, the results obtained in this study shed light on a new alternative mechanism by which transitional B-cells inhibit T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. PMID:26795594

  1. Down regulation of sodium channel Na(v)1.1 expression by veratridine and its reversal by a novel sodium channel blocker, RS100642, in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jitendra R; Yao, Changping; Moffett, John R; Berti, Rossana; Koenig, Michael; Tortella, Frank C

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of veratridine-induced neuronal toxicity on sodium channel gene (NaCh) expression in primary forebrain cultures enriched in neurons, and its reversal by a novel sodium channel blocker, RS100642. Using quantitative RT-PCR, our findings demonstrated the expression ratio of NaCh genes in normal fetal rat forebrain neurons to be Na(v)1.2 > Na(v)1.3 > Na(v)1.8 > Na(v)1.1 > Na(v)1.7 (rBII > rBIII > PN3 > rBI > PN1). Veratridine treatment of neuronal cells produced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner (0.25-20 micro M). Neuronal injury caused by a dose of veratridine producing 80% cell death (2.5 micro M) significantly, and exclusively down-regulated the Na(v)1.1 gene. However, treatment of neurons with RS100642 (200 micro M) reversed the down-regulation of the Na(v)1.1 gene expression caused by veratridine. Our findings document for the first time quantitative and relative changes in the expression of various NaCh genes in neurons following injury produced by selective activation of voltage-gated sodium channels, and suggest that the Na(v)1.1 sodium channel gene may play a key role in the neuronal injury/recovery process.

  2. Varicella-zoster virus-induced apoptosis in MeWo cells is accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Elizabeth; Mahalingam, Ravi; Gilden, Don; Wellish, Mary; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah

    2010-03-01

    Varicella-zoster virus infects multiple human and monkey cells in culture. The mode of cell death appears to be autophagy or apoptosis. Analysis of VZV-infected human melanoma (MeWo) cells revealed that Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels were decreased significantly 64 and 72 hpi (hours post infection), accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Western blot analysis of virus-infected cells revealed activation of caspase-8, a marker for the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, and caspase-9, a marker for the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis at 64 and 72 hpi. Significant increases in the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) were also seen at the height of cytopathic effect. Thus VZV induces apoptosis in MeWo cells in which Bcl-2 is down-regulated. Future studies will determine differences in the cascade of apoptotic events in non-neuronal cells compared to neurons that allow VZV to become latent. PMID:20345323

  3. Down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibits the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cell through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest via up-regulating p53 and p21waf1/cip1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Zhewei; Gao, Yong; Qiu, Mingke; Qi, Xianqin; Dai, Yuxin; Wang, Shuqing; Quan, Zhiwei; Liu, Yingbin; Ou, Jingmin

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation may meliorate cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular endothelial structure and function. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lack of a global understanding. To be used, folic acid must be converted to 7,8-dihydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase to generate one-carbon derivatives serving as important cellular cofactors in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids required for cell growth. Therefore, this study explored the effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on endothelial EA.hy926 cell growth and the mechanism involved. We found that down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibited EA.hy926 cell proliferation, and induced G1 phase arrest. Meanwhile, the expression of regulators necessary for G1/S phase transition, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6, were remarkably down-regulated; by contrast, the cell cycle inhibitors p21waf/cip1, p27Kip1 and p53 were significantly up-regulated after dihydrofolate reductase knockdown. Furthermore, supplementation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the dihydrofolate reductase knockdown cells could weaken the inhibitory effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on cell proliferation, simultaneously, inducing the expression of p53 and p21waf/cip1 falling back moderately. Our findings suggest that attenuating dihydrofolate reductase may cause imbalanced expression of cell cycle regulators, especially up-regulation of p53-p21waf/cip1 pathway, leading to G1 cell cycle arrest, thereby inhibiting the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cells. PMID:27013776

  4. Autocrine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress to the Membrane Death Receptor Pathway through IRE1α-Mediated NF-κB Activation and Down-Regulation of TRAF2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Han, Zhang; Couvillon, Anthony D.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Exton, John H.

    2006-01-01

    NF-κB is critical for determining cellular sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli by regulating both mitochondrial and death receptor apoptotic pathways. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) emerges as a new apoptotic signaling initiator. However, the mechanism by which ER stress activates NF-κB and its role in regulation of ER stress-induced cell death are largely unclear. Here, we report that, in response to ER stress, IKK forms a complex with IRE1α through the adapter protein TRAF2. ER stress-induced NF-κB activation is impaired in IRE1α knockdown cells and IRE1α−/− MEFs. We found, however, that inhibiting NF-κB significantly decreased ER stress-induced cell death in a caspase-8-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis revealed that ER stress-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was IRE1α and NF-κB dependent. Blocking TNF receptor 1 signaling significantly inhibited ER stress-induced cell death. Further studies suggest that ER stress induces down-regulation of TRAF2 expression, which impairs TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and turns TNF-α from a weak to a powerful apoptosis inducer. Thus, ER stress induces two signals, namely TNF-α induction and TRAF2 down-regulation. They work in concert to amplify ER-initiated apoptotic signaling through the membrane death receptor. PMID:16581782

  5. NR2A- and NR2B-Containing NMDA Receptors in the Prelimbic Medial Prefrontal Cortex Differentially Mediate Trace, Delay, and Contextual Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of "N"-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL mPFC) is necessary for the acquisition of both trace and contextual fear memories, but it is not known how specific NR2 subunits support each association. The NR2B subunit confers unique properties to the NMDAR and may differentially…

  6. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Expression of PPARγ2 and Leptin Genes in High Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6J Mice and Retards in Vitro 3T3L1 Pre-Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Ramani, Umed V.; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.; Ramachandran, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity. PMID:21845103

  7. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPARγ2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  8. A history of corticosterone exposure regulates fear extinction and cortical NR2B, GluR2/3, and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Gourley, Shannon L; Kedves, Alexia T; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R

    2009-02-01

    A history of exposure to stressors may be a predisposing factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Extinction of conditioned fear appears to be impaired in PTSD, but the consequences of prior stress or excess glucocorticoid exposure for extinction learning are not known. We report that prior chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), decreases endogenous CORT secretion upon context reexposure and impairs extinction after contextual fear conditioning in rats, while leaving fear memory acquisition and expression intact. Posttraining administration of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, RU38486, partially mimicked prior CORT exposure effects on freezing during fear extinction training. Extinction of conditioned fear is an active learning process thought to involve glutamatergic targets--including specific NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits--in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which includes the prelimbic, infralimbic, and medial orbitofrontal cortices. After CORT exposure, decreases in the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit and AMPA receptor subunits, GluR2/3, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, were detected in cortical regions, but not dorsal hippocampus (CA1). Receptor subunit expression levels in the vmPFC correlated with freezing during training. In addition, prior CORT selectively decreased sucrose preference, consistent with established models of anhedonia and with blunted affect in PTSD. Together, these data suggest a cellular mechanism by which chronically elevated glucocorticoid exposure--as may be experienced during repeated exposure to stressors--interferes with the neural systems that modulate behavioral flexibility and may thereby contribute to psychopathological fear states.

  9. miR-27a-3p suppresses tumor metastasis and VM by down-regulating VE-cadherin expression and inhibiting EMT: an essential role for Twist-1 in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Sun, Huizhi; Sun, Baocun; Zhu, Dongwang; Zhao, Xiulan; Wang, Yong; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yanhui; Li, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Twist-1 and miRNAs have been reported to be associated with tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the relationship between Twist-1 and miRNAs and the function of miRNAs remain largely undefined. We aimed to reveal the Twist-1-related miRNA expression profile and to determine whether Twist-1 functions in tumor metastasis and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) by regulating miRNA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results showed that the expression of miR-27a-3p was consistently down-regulated in HCC cell lines and tissue samples displaying high expression of Twist-1. Both loss- and gain-of-function assays revealed suppressive effects of miR-27a-3p. Low miR-27a-3p expression was significantly associated with early metastasis in HCC. Subsequent investigations revealed that miR-27a-3p mediated the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additional experiments showed that VE-cadherin is a direct target of miR-27a-3p and further demonstrated the critical role of miR-27a-3p in suppressing tumor metastasis and VM. Conclusions: Twist-1 up-regulation in HepG2 cells resulted in the differential expression of 18 miRNAs. Among them, miR-27a-3p deregulation contributed to VM and metastasis. The miR-27a-3p-mediated down-regulation of VE-cadherin and inhibition of EMT may be essential for Twist-1 to induce tumor metastasis and VM. Our findings highlight the importance of miR-27a-3p and suggest a promising new strategy for anti-HCC therapy. PMID:26980408

  10. Contusive spinal cord injury up regulates mu-opioid receptor (mor) gene expression in the brain and down regulates its expression in the spinal cord: possible implications in spinal cord injury research.

    PubMed

    Michael, Felicia Mary; Mohapatra, Alok Nath; Venkitasamy, Lavanya; Chandrasekar, Kirubhanand; Seldon, Tenzin; Venkatachalam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the dreaded neurological conditions and finding a cure for it has been a hot area of research. Naloxone - a mu-opiate receptor (mor) antagonist was considered for SCI treatment based on its positive effects under shock conditions. In contrary to animal studies based reports about the potential benefits of naloxone in treating SCI, a large scale clinical trial [National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study II (NASCIS II)] conducted in USA failed to witness any effectiveness. The inconsistency noticed was intriguing. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to re-examine the role of naloxone in treating SCI using a highly standardised Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study (MASCIS) animal model of contusive SCI. Results indicated that naloxone produced negligible and insignificant neuroprotection. In an attempt to understand the cause for the failure, it was found that mu-opioid receptor (mor) gene expression was upregulated in the brain but was down regulated in the spinal cord after contusive SCI. Given that the beneficial effects of naloxone are through its action on the mor, the results indicate that unlike the brain, spinal cord might not be bracing to utilise the opiate system in the repair process. This could possibly explain the failure of naloxone treatment in NASCIS II. To conclude, opiate antagonists like naloxone may be neuroprotective for treating traumatic brain injuries, but not for traumatic/contusive spinal cord injuries. PMID:26039701

  11. Selective Regulation of NR2B by Protein Phosphatase-1 for the Control of the NMDA Receptor in Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Benjamin F.; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Mansuy, Isabelle M.

    2012-01-01

    An imbalance between pro-survival and pro-death pathways in brain cells can lead to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration. While such imbalance is known to be associated with alterations in glutamatergic and Ca2+ signaling, the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We identified the protein Ser/Thr phosphatase protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), an enzyme associated with glutamate receptors, as a key trigger of survival pathways that can prevent neuronal death and neurodegeneration in the adult hippocampus. We show that PP1α overexpression in hippocampal neurons limits NMDA receptor overactivation and Ca2+ overload during an excitotoxic event, while PP1 inhibition favors Ca2+ overload and cell death. The protective effect of PP1 is associated with a selective dephosphorylation on a residue phosphorylated by CaMKIIα on the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, which promotes pro-survival pathways and associated transcriptional programs. These results reveal a novel contributor to the mechanisms of neuroprotection and underscore the importance of PP1-dependent dephosphorylation in these mechanisms. They provide a new target for the development of potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegeneration. PMID:22479519

  12. Expression of background potassium channels in rat DRG is cell-specific and down-regulated in a neuropathic pain model

    PubMed Central

    Pollema-Mays, Sarah L.; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Ashford, Crystle J.; Apkarian, A Vania; Martina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is associated with hyperexcitability of DRG neurons. Despite the importance of leakage potassium channels for neuronal excitability, little is known about their cell-specific expression in DRGs and possible modulation in neuropathic pain. Multiple leakage channels are expressed in DRG neurons, including TASK1, TASK3, TRESK, TRAAK, TWIK1, TREK1 and TREK2 but little is known about their distribution among different cell types. Our immunohistochemical studies show robust TWIK1 expression in large and medium size neurons, without overlap with TRPV1 or IB4 staining. TASK1 and TASK3, on the contrary, are selectively expressed in small cells; TASK1 expression closely overlaps TRPV1-positive cells, while TASK3 is expressed in TRPV1- and IB4-negative cells. We also studied mRNA expression of these channels in L4-L5 DRGs in control conditions and up to 4 weeks after spared nerve injury lesion. We found that TWIK1 expression is much higher than TASK1 and TASK3 and is strongly decreased 1, 2 and 4 weeks after neuropathic injury. TASK3 expression, on the other hand, decreases 1 week after surgery but reverts to baseline by 2 weeks; TASK1 shows no significant change at any time point. These data suggest an involvement of TWIK1 in the maintenance of the pain condition. PMID:23994814

  13. Lipoic acid and pentoxifylline mitigate nandrolone decanoate-induced neurobehavioral perturbations in rats via re-balance of brain neurotransmitters, up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and down-regulation of TNFR1 expression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maha A E; El-Awdan, Sally A

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral perturbations associated with nandrolone decanoate abuse by athletes and adolescents may be attributed to oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully explored. On the other hand, the natural antioxidant lipoic acid can pass the blood brain barrier and enhance Nrf2/HO-1 (nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1) pathway. In addition, the phosphodiesterase-IV inhibitor xanthine derivative pentoxifylline has a remarkable inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Therefore, this study aimed at investigation of the possible protective effects of lipoic acid and/or pentoxifylline against nandrolone-induced neurobehavioral alterations in rats. Accordingly, male albino rats were randomly distributed into seven groups and treated with either vehicle, nandrolone (15mg/kg, every third day, s.c.), lipoic acid (100mg/kg/day, p.o.), pentoxifylline (200mg/kg/day, i.p.), or nandrolone with lipoic acid and/or pentoxifylline. Rats were challenged in the open field, rewarded T-maze, Morris water maze, and resident-intruder aggression behavioral tests. The present findings showed that nandrolone induced hyperlocomotion, anxiety, memory impairment, and aggression in rats. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by several biochemical changes, including altered levels of brain monoamines, GABA, and acetylcholine, enhanced levels of malondialdehyde and TNF-α, elevated activity of acetylcholinesterase, and up-regulated expression of TNF-α receptor-1 (TNFR1). In addition, inhibited catalase activity, down-regulated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and suppressed acetylcholine receptor expression were observed. Lipoic acid and pentoxifylline combination significantly mitigated all the previously mentioned deleterious effects mainly via up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inhibition of TNF-α and down-regulation of TNFR1 expression. In conclusion, the biochemical and histopathological findings of this

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates IL-1β mediated iNOS expression in hepatocytes by down-regulating c-Jun.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Zhang, Baochun; Nweze, Ikenna C; Du, Yibo; Harbrecht, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Excessive nitric oxide from the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increases shock-induced hepatic injury, hepatic dysfunction, inflammation, and mortality in animal models. Cytokines increase the expression of iNOS in hepatocytes, but the signaling mechanisms involved are not completely understood. We have previously demonstrated that Akt mediates the inhibitory effect of cAMP and insulin on cytokine-induced hepatocyte iNOS expression. We hypothesized that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a target of Akt phosphorylation, would regulate hepatocyte iNOS expression. In cultured rat hepatocytes, GSK3 inhibitors decreased IL-1β mediated nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS protein expression, while the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 increased the cytokine-mediated NO production and iNOS expression. Over-expression of the constitutively active form of GSK3β enhanced IL-1β-mediated iNOS expression. GSK3 catalyzes the phosphorylation of c-Jun at the c-terminal Thr239 that facilitates c-Jun degradation. Inhibition of GSK3 with SB216763 and lithium chloride significantly reduced, whereas blocking PI3K/Akt increased phosphorylation of c-Jun at Thr239. The levels of total-c-Jun and c-Jun phosphorylated at Ser63 inversely correlated with c-Jun phosphorylated at Thr239, GSK3 activation and iNOS expression. Over-expression of a dominant negative c-Jun not only caused an increase in IL-1β-mediated iNOS promoter activity and iNOS protein expression but was also able to reverse the SB216763-mediated suppression of iNOS. These results demonstrate that GSK3, a downstream target of Akt, regulates IL-1β-stimulated iNOS expression in hepatocytes by directly phosphorylating c-Jun in an inhibitory manner. PMID:25160751

  15. Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) mediates the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of FLIP expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqiang; Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Hongbin; Sun, Yonggang; Peng, Zhihong; Zhou, Gang; Fan, Lilin; Wang, Xingwei; Yang, Shiming; Wang, Rongquan; Fang, Dianchun

    2010-09-10

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis induced ligand (TRAIL) is an important apoptosis inducer in a variety of tumor cells. In the present study, we determined the underlying molecular mechanisms by which certain gastric cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL. We first detected expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in three gastric cancer cell lines and identified its association with the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL. We then stably transfected PDCD4 cDNA or shRNA into these gastric cell lines. Our data showed that restoration of PDCD4 expression induced TRAIL sensitivity, whereas knockdown of PDCD4 expression reduced the sensitivity of these tumor cells to TRAIL treatment. PDCD4 was able to suppress expression of FLICE-inhibiting protein (FLIP), a negative regulator of apoptosis. Knockdown of FLIP expression using FLIP shRNA had similar effects as those of restored PDCD4 expression. Furthermore, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was able to inhibit expression of FLIP mRNA and protein and upregulate the sensitivity of these cells to TRAIL treatment. Taken together, the results from the current study demonstrated that PDCD4 plays an important role in mediating the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through FLIP suppression. Therefore, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 should be further evaluated for combination therapy with TRAIL. PMID:20595005

  16. Pigment epithelium-derived factor expression is down-regulated in bladder tumors and correlates with vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chen-Chen; Ding, Qiang; Zhang, Yuan-Fang; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Wen, Hui; Wang, Pao-Hsun; Wu, Zhong

    2011-06-01

    Growth of solid tumor depends on angiogenesis, a process regulated by the balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. We investigated the expression of anti-angiogenic factor pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and proangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) with immunohistochemistry in 64 bladder tumor samples and 23 normal controls. Compared with normal urothelium, we identified decreased PEDF expression (P = 0.000) whereas increased expression of VEGF (P = 0.000) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000) in tumorous tissue as well as in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) (P = 0.009 and P = 0.000 accordingly) but MMP-9 (P = 0.704). Decreased PEDF expression was revealed with higher tumor grade (P = 0.014) but stage (P = 0.687). There was no age or gender preference in PEDF, VEGF or MMP-9 expression. Negative correlation of expression in tumorous and cancerous tissue regarding PEDF and VEGF (P = 0.000, r = -0.56, and P = 0.000, r = -0.50, respectively), PEDF and MMP-9 (P = 0.002, r = -0.39, and P = 0.032, r = -0.30, respectively) was identified. There was a negative correlation of expression between PEDF and VEGF (P = 0.016, r = -0.677) and no correlation between PEDF and MMP-9 (P = 0.147, r = -0.45) in PUNLMP. Decreased PEDF and increased VEGF and MMP-9 expression may play considerable roles in differentiation and invasion of bladder tumor.

  17. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

  18. Down-regulation of Thanatos-associated protein 11 by BCR-ABL promotes CML cell proliferation through c-Myc expression.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Satoki; Yokota, Daisuke; Tan, Lin; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Takemura, Tomonari; Hirano, Isao; Shigeno, Kazuyuki; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Shinya; Ohnishi, Kazunori

    2012-03-01

    Bcr-Abl activates various signaling pathways in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. The proliferation of Bcr-Abl transformed cells is promoted by c-Myc through the activation of Akt, JAK2 and NF-κB. However, the mechanism by which c-Myc regulates CML cell proliferation is unclear. In our study, we investigated the role of Thanatos-associated protein 11 (THAP11), which inhibits c-Myc transcription, in CML cell lines and in hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from CML patients. The induction of THAP11 expression by Abl kinase inhibitors in CML cell lines and in CML-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells resulted in the suppression of c-Myc. In addition, over-expression of THAP11 inhibited CML cell proliferation. In colony forming cells derived from CML-aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)(hi) /CD34(+) cells, treatment with Abl kinase inhibitors and siRNA depletion of Bcr-Abl induced THAP11 expression and reduced c-Myc expression, resulting in inhibited colony formation. Moreover, overexpression of THAP11 significantly decreased the colony numbers, and also inhibited the expression of c-myc target genes such as Cyclin D1, ODC and induced the expression of p21(Cip1) . The depletion of THAP11 inhibited JAK2 or STAT5 inactivation-mediated c-Myc reduction in ALDH(hi) /CD34(+) CML cells. Thus, the induced THAP11 might be one of transcriptional regulators of c-Myc expression in CML cell. Therefore, the induction of THAP11 has a potential possibility as a target for the inhibition of CML cell proliferation. PMID:21400515

  19. Effects of penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose on human neutrophil function: significant down-regulation of L-selectin expression.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Anna K; Filipek, Agnieszka; Zyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2013-07-01

    Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) occurrs in high concentrations in medicinal herbs such as Rhus chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Acer truncatum and Terminalia chebula, which demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effect of PGG on stimulated and non-stimulated neutrophils in processes which included reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-8 secretion (IL-8), β₂ integrin (CD11b) and L-selectin (CD62L) expression and apoptosis. In concentrations of 5 μM-20 μM, PGG demonstrated statistically significant inhibition of ROS generation, IL-8 secretion and β₂ integrin expression in stimulated neutrophils. The inhibition of L-selectin expression by PGG resulted in prevention in neutrophils' endothelial attachment. The result obtained may explain the anti-inflammatory activity of this compound and underline the contribution of PGG in the activity of PGG rich plant extracts.

  20. Identification of new SOX2OT transcript variants highly expressed in human cancer cell lines and down regulated in stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saghaeian Jazi, Marie; Samaei, Nader Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2016-02-01

    Long non-coding RNAs are manifested as a new paradigm of molecular effectors in a wide range of human diseases. Human SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT) gene can generate six lncRNA transcript variants which are functionally assumed to be correlated with cellular differentiation and carcinogenesis. However, the circumstances determining expressional and functional differences between SOX2OT transcript variants remain to be explored. Here, we studied the expression of all SOX2OT transcript variants specifically in five human cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR. Changes of the new SOX2OT transcript variants expression were measured during the NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line neuronal-like differentiation and were compared to pluripotency regulators, SOX2 and OCT4A gene expressions. Surprisingly, we identified two new SOX2OT transcripts, named SOX2OT-7, SOX2OT-8 which lack exon 8. We discovered that beside active proximal and distal SOX2OT promoters, different cancer cell lines express high levels of some SOX2OT transcript variants differentially by alternative splicing. Significantly, both SOX2OT-7 and SOX2OT-8 are highly expressed in human cancer cell lines coinciding with SOX2, one of the pluripotency regulators. Our results revealed that SOX2OT-7 is almost the most abundant form of SOX2OT transcript variants in the examined cancer cell lines particularly in NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line where its expression falls upon neuronal-like differentiation similar to SOX2 and OCT4A. We suggest that at least some of SOX2OT transcripts are significantly associated with cancer and stem cell related pathways.

  1. MiR-302c-3p suppresses invasion and proliferation of glioma cells via down-regulating metadherin (MTDH) expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghong; Wei, Yujun; Tong, Haibo; Chen, Laizhao; Fan, Yimin; Ji, Yuchen; Jia, Wenqing; Liu, Dongkang; Wang, Guihuai

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumors with poor prognosis. The molecular events involved in the development and progression of glioma remain unclear. In this study, the expression levels of miR-302c-3p were examined in glioma tissues by qRT-PCR. The in vitro and in vivo functional effects of miR-302c-3p were examined further. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the targeting associations. Results showed that the expression level of miR-302c-3p in glioma tissues was significantly lower than those in normal brain tissues (P < 0.001). The decreased expression of mi-302c-3p in glioma was positively associated with WHO grade (P < 0.001). Up-regulation of MTDH was also detected in glioma tumors compared with normal brain tissues (P = 0.0027) and is inversely correlated with miR-302c-3p expression (P = 0.003, R2 = 0.4065). MTDH mRNA is a direct target of miR-302c-3p, whose ectopic expression decreases MTDH expression through binding to its 3′-untranslated region. Overexpression of miR-302c-3p results in a dramatic inhibition of glioma cells proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that miR-302c-3p play a pivotal role in the progression of glioma by targeting MTDH and is a potential inhibitor in glioma treatment. PMID:26176806

  2. MiR-302c-3p suppresses invasion and proliferation of glioma cells via down-regulating metadherin (MTDH) expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonghong; Wei, Yujun; Tong, Haibo; Chen, Laizhao; Fan, Yimin; Ji, Yuchen; Jia, Wenqing; Liu, Dongkang; Wang, Guihuai

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumors with poor prognosis. The molecular events involved in the development and progression of glioma remain unclear. In this study, the expression levels of miR-302c-3p were examined in glioma tissues by qRT-PCR. The in vitro and in vivo functional effects of miR-302c-3p were examined further. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the targeting associations. Results showed that the expression level of miR-302c-3p in glioma tissues was significantly lower than those in normal brain tissues (P < 0.001). The decreased expression of mi-302c-3p in glioma was positively associated with WHO grade (P < 0.001). Up-regulation of MTDH was also detected in glioma tumors compared with normal brain tissues (P = 0.0027) and is inversely correlated with miR-302c-3p expression (P = 0.003, R(2) = 0.4065). MTDH mRNA is a direct target of miR-302c-3p, whose ectopic expression decreases MTDH expression through binding to its 3'-untranslated region. Overexpression of miR-302c-3p results in a dramatic inhibition of glioma cells proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that miR-302c-3p play a pivotal role in the progression of glioma by targeting MTDH and is a potential inhibitor in glioma treatment. PMID:26176806

  3. Regulation of fear extinction versus other affective behaviors by discrete cortical scaffolding complexes associated with NR2B and PKA signaling.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, K A; Leaderbrand, K; Jovasevic, V; Guedea, A L; Kassam, F; Radulovic, J

    2015-01-01

    In patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear evoked by trauma-related memories lasts long past the traumatic event and it is often complicated by general anxiety and depressed mood. This poses a treatment challenge, as drugs beneficial for some symptoms might exacerbate others. For example, in preclinical studies, antagonists of the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and activators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) act as potent antidepressants and anxiolytics, but they block fear extinction. Using mice, we attempted to overcome this problem by interfering with individual NR2B and PKA signaling complexes organized by scaffolding proteins. We infused cell-permeable Tat peptides that displaced either NR2B from receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), or PKA from A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) or microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The infusions were targeted to the retrosplenial cortex, an area involved in both fear extinction of remotely acquired memories and in mood regulation. Tat-RACK1 and Tat-AKAP enhanced fear extinction, all peptides reduced anxiety and none affected baseline depression-like behavior. However, disruption of PKA complexes distinctively interfered with the rapid antidepressant actions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors antagonist MK-801 in that Tat-MAP2 blocked, whereas Tat-AKAP completely inverted the effect of MK-801 from antidepressant to depressant. These effects were unrelated to the MK-801-induced changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA levels. Together, the findings suggest that NR2B-RACK1 complexes specifically contribute to fear extinction, and may provide a target for the treatment of PTSD. AKAP-PKA, on the other hand, appears to modulate fear extinction and antidepressant responses in opposite directions. PMID:26460481

  4. Regulation of fear extinction versus other affective behaviors by discrete cortical scaffolding complexes associated with NR2B and PKA signaling.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, K A; Leaderbrand, K; Jovasevic, V; Guedea, A L; Kassam, F; Radulovic, J

    2015-10-13

    In patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear evoked by trauma-related memories lasts long past the traumatic event and it is often complicated by general anxiety and depressed mood. This poses a treatment challenge, as drugs beneficial for some symptoms might exacerbate others. For example, in preclinical studies, antagonists of the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and activators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) act as potent antidepressants and anxiolytics, but they block fear extinction. Using mice, we attempted to overcome this problem by interfering with individual NR2B and PKA signaling complexes organized by scaffolding proteins. We infused cell-permeable Tat peptides that displaced either NR2B from receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), or PKA from A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) or microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The infusions were targeted to the retrosplenial cortex, an area involved in both fear extinction of remotely acquired memories and in mood regulation. Tat-RACK1 and Tat-AKAP enhanced fear extinction, all peptides reduced anxiety and none affected baseline depression-like behavior. However, disruption of PKA complexes distinctively interfered with the rapid antidepressant actions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors antagonist MK-801 in that Tat-MAP2 blocked, whereas Tat-AKAP completely inverted the effect of MK-801 from antidepressant to depressant. These effects were unrelated to the MK-801-induced changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA levels. Together, the findings suggest that NR2B-RACK1 complexes specifically contribute to fear extinction, and may provide a target for the treatment of PTSD. AKAP-PKA, on the other hand, appears to modulate fear extinction and antidepressant responses in opposite directions.

  5. Down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in the liver by expression of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 induces a tumor-promoter metabolic state

    PubMed Central

    Mobasher, Maysa A.; Casas, Estela; Rueda, Carlos B.; Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; de Arenas, Cristina Núñez; García-Bermúdez, Javier; Zapata, Juan M.; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Valverde, Ángela M.; Cuezva, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) is an inhibitor of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase that regulates the activity of both oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and cell death. Here, we have developed transgenic Tet-On and Tet-Off mice that express a mutant active form of hIF1 in the hepatocytes to restrain OXPHOS in the liver to investigate the relevance of mitochondrial activity in hepatocarcinogenesis. The expression of hIF1 promotes the inhibition of OXPHOS in both Tet-On and Tet-Off mouse models and induces a state of metabolic preconditioning guided by the activation of the stress kinases AMPK and p38 MAPK. Expression of the transgene significantly augmented proliferation and apoptotic resistance of carcinoma cells, which contributed to an enhanced diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis. Moreover, the expression of hIF1 also diminished acetaminophen-induced apoptosis, which is unrelated to differences in permeability transition pore opening. Mechanistically, cell survival in hIF1-preconditioned hepatocytes results from a nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)-guided antioxidant response. The results emphasize in vivo that a metabolic phenotype with a restrained OXPHOS in the liver is prone to the development of cancer. PMID:26595676

  6. Fenofibrate down-regulates the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes and induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hu; Zhu, Chen; Qin, Chao; Tao, Tao; Li, Jie; Cheng, Gong; Li, Pu; Cao, Qiang; Meng, Xiaoxin; Ju, Xiaobing; Shao, Pengfei; Hua, Lixin; Gu, Min; Yin, Changjun

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate reduces the expressions of androgen receptor in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-androgen receptor-alpha agonist, is widely used in treating different forms of hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. Recent reports have indicated that fenofibrate exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of fenofibrate on the prostate cancer (PCa) cell line LNCaP. The effects of fenofibrate on LNCaP cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blot analysis, and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells, reduces the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes (prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2), and inhibits Akt phosphorylation. Fenofibrate can induce the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and decrease the activities of total anti-oxidant and superoxide dismutase in LNCaP cells. Fenofibrate exerts an anti-proliferative property by inhibiting the expression of AR and induces apoptosis by causing oxidative stress. Therefore, our data suggest fenofibrate may have beneficial effects in fenofibrate users by preventing prostate cancer growth through inhibition of androgen activation and expression.

  7. Heat shock protein-27 attenuates foam cell formation and atherogenesis by down-regulating scavenger receptor-A expression via NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Seibert, Tara; Hibbert, Benjamin; Cuerrier, Charles M; Salari, Samira; Zhao, Xiaoling; Hu, Tieqiang; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Simard, Trevor; Caravaggio, Justin; Rayner, Katey; Bowdish, Dawn; Moore, Kathryn; O'Brien, Edward R

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we showed an inverse correlation between HSP27 serum levels and experimental atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice that over-express HSP27 and speculated that the apparent binding of HSP27 to scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) was of mechanistic importance in attenuating foam cell formation. However, the nature and importance of the interplay between HSP27 and SR-A in atheroprotection remained unclear. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) inhibited acLDL binding (-34%; p<0.005) and uptake (-38%, p<0.05). rHSP27 reduced SR-A mRNA (-39%, p=0.02), total protein (-56%, p=0.01) and cell surface (-53%, p<0.001) expression. The reduction in SR-A expression by rHSP27 was associated with a 4-fold increase in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling (p<0.001 versus control), while an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, BAY11-7082, attenuated the negative effects of rHSP27 on both SR-A expression and lipid uptake. To determine if SR-A is required for HSP27 mediated atheroprotection in vivo, ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) SR-A(-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet were treated for 3weeks with rHSP25. Compared to controls, rHSP25 therapy reduced aortic en face and aortic sinus atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE(-/-) mice by 39% and 36% (p<0.05), respectively, but not in ApoE(-/-)SR-A(-/-) mice. In conclusion, rHSP27 diminishes SR-A expression, resulting in attenuated foam cell formation in vitro. Regulation of SR-A by HSP27 may involve the participation of NF-κB signaling. Lastly, SR-A is required for HSP27-mediated atheroprotection in vivo. PMID:23939398

  8. Heat shock protein-27 attenuates foam cell formation and atherogenesis by down-regulating scavenger receptor-A expression via NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Seibert, Tara; Hibbert, Benjamin; Cuerrier, Charles M; Salari, Samira; Zhao, Xiaoling; Hu, Tieqiang; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Simard, Trevor; Caravaggio, Justin; Rayner, Katey; Bowdish, Dawn; Moore, Kathryn; O'Brien, Edward R

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we showed an inverse correlation between HSP27 serum levels and experimental atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice that over-express HSP27 and speculated that the apparent binding of HSP27 to scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) was of mechanistic importance in attenuating foam cell formation. However, the nature and importance of the interplay between HSP27 and SR-A in atheroprotection remained unclear. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) inhibited acLDL binding (-34%; p<0.005) and uptake (-38%, p<0.05). rHSP27 reduced SR-A mRNA (-39%, p=0.02), total protein (-56%, p=0.01) and cell surface (-53%, p<0.001) expression. The reduction in SR-A expression by rHSP27 was associated with a 4-fold increase in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling (p<0.001 versus control), while an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, BAY11-7082, attenuated the negative effects of rHSP27 on both SR-A expression and lipid uptake. To determine if SR-A is required for HSP27 mediated atheroprotection in vivo, ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) SR-A(-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet were treated for 3weeks with rHSP25. Compared to controls, rHSP25 therapy reduced aortic en face and aortic sinus atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE(-/-) mice by 39% and 36% (p<0.05), respectively, but not in ApoE(-/-)SR-A(-/-) mice. In conclusion, rHSP27 diminishes SR-A expression, resulting in attenuated foam cell formation in vitro. Regulation of SR-A by HSP27 may involve the participation of NF-κB signaling. Lastly, SR-A is required for HSP27-mediated atheroprotection in vivo.

  9. Achillea Millefolium L. Hydro- Alcoholic Extract Protects Pancreatic Cells by Down Regulating IL- 1β and iNOS Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Yalda; Fazeli, Mehdi; Kooshki, Marzieh; Shomali, Tahoora; Karimaghayee, Negar; Dehghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has a role in β- cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes by stimulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that generates the free radical nitric oxide. We aimed to investigate the effect of Achillea millefolium L, as a traditional hypoglycemic agent, on IL-1β and iNOS gene expression of pancreatic tissue in the STZ- induced diabetic rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. diabetic control; 2. diabetic rats treated with Achillea millefolium L. extract; 3. normal rats received only extract and 4. negative control (n= 10 each). Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of 45 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with i.p. injection of Achillea millefolium L. extract (100 mg/ kg/ day) for 14 days. Body weight, serum glucose and insulin levels were assayed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Finally, the quantity of pancreatic IL-1β and iNOS mRNA was determined by real- time PCR. The mRNA expression level of IL-1β and iNOS genes, was significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic rats of group 1. Treatment with Achillea millefolium L. caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in both IL-1β and iNOS genes expression. Moreover, rats in group 2 had higher insulin level associated with lower glucose level and higher body weight compared to control diabetic group. It seems that beneficial effect of Achillea millefolium L. on STZ- induced diabetes is at least partly due to amelioration of IL-1β and iNOS gene over expression which can have a β-cell protective effect. PMID:25635252

  10. Baicalin down regulates the expression of TLR4 and NFkB-p65 in colon tissue in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinshan; Guo, Cancan; Zhu, Yuzhen; Pang, Liping; Yang, Zheng; Zou, Ying; Zheng, Xuebao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has several functions including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, antitumor and et al. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory of baicalin in ulcerative colitis is not clear. Methods: Mice colitis models were established by dextran sodium sulfate, Mice administrated with baicalin (100 mg/kg) and mesalazine (100 mg/kg) twice daily by intragastric injection for 7 days after colitis induced were defined as treated group. Then the mice were sacrificed and the colon samples were collected. Toll-like receptor-2, 4, 9 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Signaling proteins such as TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Cytokine’s mRNA include TNF-α, IL-6 IL-10 and IL-13 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Modified disease activity index were used to analyse the severity of the disease by assessed of diarrhea, stool (occult) blood and body weight loss of the mice. Results: Compared with control and model groups, modified disease activity index in baicalin and mesalazine treated, mice decreased gradually. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the expression of TLR4, but not TLR2 and TLR9, in the mucosa of mice colon were decreased. Western blot analysis showed that in colitis model, the expression of NF-κB p65 and TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05), while the expression of MyD88 increased significantly compared to control group, and MyD88 expression can not be repressed by baicalin (P < 0.05). Baicalin and mesalazine treatment suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 mRNA (P < 0.05), yet up-regulated the expression of IL-10 mRNA (P < 0.05), compared to the DDS and control groups. Conclusions: Baicalin administration by intragastric injection ameliorates the severity of colon inflammation. The possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by baicalin may involve in the blocking of the TLR4/NF-κB-p65/IL-6 signaling pathway

  11. Down-regulation of HSP60 expression by RNAi increases lipopolysaccharide- and cerulein-induced damages on isolated rat pancreatic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuai; Li, Kun; Feng, Jia-Yan; Li, Yan-Na; Gao, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Chang-Jie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) on pancreatic tissues by applying HSP60 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce HSP60 expression. Rat pancreas was isolated and pancreatic tissue snips were prepared, cultured, and stimulated with low and high concentrations of cerulein (10−11 and 10−5 mol/L) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 and 20 μg/mL). Before the stimulation and 1 and 4 h after the stimulation, the viability and the level of trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) in the tissue fragments were determined and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the culture supernatants were measured. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the HSP60 mRNA and protein expression. After the administration of siRNA to inhibit HSP60 expression in the isolated tissues, these injury parameters were measured and compared. The pancreatic tissues in the control (mock-interfering) group showed a decreased viability to varying degrees after being stimulated with cerulein or LPS, and the levels of TAP, TNF-α, and IL-6 increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the tissues and/or in the culture supernatant. The expressions of HSP60 mRNA and protein were raised moderately after stimulating 1 h with low concentrations of cerulein or LPS, but decreased with high concentrations of the toxicants. In particular, the expression of HSP60 protein was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) when the tissues were stimulated by the two toxicants for 4 h. In contrast, the tissue fragments in which HSP60 siRNA was applied showed much lower tissue viability (p < 0.01) and higher levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and TAP (p < 0.01) in the tissues or culture supernatant after stimulating with the toxicants at the same dose and for the same time duration as compared with those of the control groups (p < 0.05). The results indicated that both cerulein and LPS can induce injuries on isolated

  12. Effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate NR2B subunit antagonist ifenprodil on precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bunk, E C; König, H-G; Prehn, J H M; Kirby, B P

    2014-06-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, one of the ionotropic glutamate receptor, plays important physiological and pathological roles in learning and memory, neuronal development, acute and chronic neurological diseases, and neurogenesis. This work examines the contribution of the NR2B NMDA receptor subunit to adult neurogenesis/cell proliferation under physiological conditions and following an excitotoxic insult. We have previously shown in vitro that a discrete NMDA-induced, excitotoxic injury to the hippocampus results in an increase in neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus. Here we have characterized adult neurogenesis or proliferation, using BrdU, in an in vivo model of excitotoxic injury to the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. We demonstrate a peak in neural stem cell proliferation/neurogenesis between 6 and 9 days after the excitotoxic insult. Treatment with ifenprodil, an NR2B subunit-specific NMDA receptor antagonist, without prior injury induction, also increased the number of BrdU-positive cells within the DG and posterior periventricle, indicating that ifenprodil itself could modulate the rate of proliferation. Interestingly, though, the increased level of cell proliferation did not change significantly when ifenprodil was administered following an excitotoxic insult. In conclusion, our results suggest and add to the growing evidence that NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors play a role in neural stem cell proliferation.

  13. Protein phosphatase complex PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylates P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and down-regulates the expression and function.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Miho; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 is a key molecule of multidrug resistance in cancer. Protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, regulatory subunit B, gamma (PPP2R3C), which is a regulatory subunit of PP2A and PP5, was identified as a binding candidate to P-gp. Immunoprecipitation-western blotting revealed that PP5 and PPP2R3C were coprecipitated with P-gp, while PP2A was not. PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylated protein kinase A/protein kinase C-phosphorylation of P-gp. Knockdown of PP5 and/or PPP2R3C increased P-gp expression and lowered the sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. Consequently, our results indicate that PP5/PPP2R3C negatively regulates P-gp expression and function.

  14. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  15. NiCl2-down-regulated antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression causes oxidative damage in the broiler(')s kidney.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongrui; Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Deng, Jie; Yin, Shuang; Li, Jian; Tang, Kun

    2014-12-01

    The kidney serves as a major organ of nickel (Ni) excretion and is a target organ for acute Ni toxicity due to Ni accumulation. There are no studies on the Ni or Ni compound-regulated antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in animals and human beings at present. This study was conducted to investigate the pathway of nickel chloride (NiCl2)-caused renal oxidative damage by the methods of biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hundred and eighty one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Dietary NiCl2 elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents, and reduced the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical in the NiCl2-treated groups. Also, the renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and mRNA expression levels were increased. The total antioxidant (T-AOC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were decreased, and the glutathione (GSH) contents as well were decreased in the kidney. Concurrently, the renal CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST, and GR mRNA expression levels were decreased. The above-mentioned results showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused renal oxidative damage by reducing mRNA expression levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, and then enhancing free radicals generation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation. PMID:25253428

  16. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Choe, Joonho; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-08-01

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P<0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5-6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P<0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. This information will be helpful in understanding the molting and metamorphosis delay mechanism in response to BDE-47 exposure. PMID:27337698

  17. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Choe, Joonho; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-08-01

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P<0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5-6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P<0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. This information will be helpful in understanding the molting and metamorphosis delay mechanism in response to BDE-47 exposure.

  18. The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome associated protein interacts with HsNip7 and its down-regulation affects gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hesling, Cedric; Oliveira, Carla C.; Castilho, Beatriz A.; Zanchin, Nilson I.T.

    2007-12-10

    The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal disorder with pleiotropic phenotypes including pancreatic, skeletal and bone marrow deficiencies and predisposition to hematological dysfunctions. SDS has been associated to mutations in the SBDS gene, encoding a highly conserved protein that was shown to function in ribosome biogenesis in yeast. In this work, we show that SBDS is found in complexes containing the human Nip7 ortholog. Analysis of pre-rRNA processing in a stable SBDS knock-down HEK293-derivative cell line revealed accumulation of a small RNA which is a further indication of SBDS involvement in rRNA biosynthesis. Global transcription and polysome-bound mRNA profiling revealed that SBDS knock-down affects expression of critical genes involved in brain development and function, bone morphogenesis, blood cell proliferation and differentiation, and cell adhesion. Expression of a group of growth and signal transduction factors and of DNA damage response genes is also affected. In SBDS knock-down cells, 34 mRNAs showed decreased and 55 mRNAs showed increased association to polysomes, among which is a group encoding proteins involved in alternative splicing and RNA modification. These results indicate that SBDS is required for accurate expression of genes important for proper brain, skeletal, and blood cell development.

  19. Capsaicin suppresses the migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via the AMPK-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gong-Rak; Jang, Soo Hwa; Kim, Chang Jae; Kim, Ah-Ram; Yoon, Dong-Joon; Park, Neung-Hwa; Han, In-Seob

    2014-12-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to cure. An important prognostic factor is metastasis, which precludes curative surgical resection. Recent evidence shows that capsaicin has an inhibitory effect on cancer cell migration and invasion. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the capsaicin-induced anti-migration and anti-invasion effects on HuCCT1 cholangiocarcinoma cells. Migration and invasion were significantly reduced in response to capsaicin. Capsaicin also inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In capsaicin-treated cells, levels of phosphorylated AMPK increased, and this effect was abolished by treatment with the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. Capsaicin enhanced the expression of SIRT1, which can activate the transcription factor NF-κB by deacetylation. This suggests that NF-κB is activated by capsaicin via the SIRT1 pathway. In addition, capsaicin-activated AMPK induced the phosphorylation of IκBα and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that capsaicin reduced MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting NF-κB p65 translocation and deacetylation via SIRT1. These findings provide evidence that capsaicin suppresses the migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by inhibiting NF-κB p65 via the AMPK-SIRT1 and the AMPK-IκBα signaling pathways, leading to subsequent suppression of MMP-9 expression.

  20. Impaired NFKBIE gene function decreases cellular uptake of methotrexate by down-regulating SLC19A1 expression in a human rheumatoid arthritis cell line

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Hitoshi; Yoshina, Sawako; Ikari, Katsunori; Miyazawa, Keiji; Momohara, Shigeki; Mitani, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP, rs2233434, Val194Ala) in the NFKBIE (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, epsilon) gene is known to be a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility polymorphism in the Japanese RA population and could be closely associated with nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity. Inflammation caused by RA is sometimes associated with changes in expression levels of MTX (methotrexate) pathway-related genes. It is of interest to examine whether the NFKBIE gene had any influences on the mode of MTX action. Methods: Both knockdown of NFKBIE gene expression and overexpression of wild-type NFKBIE and Val194Ala mutation were performed. A transfected human RA synovial cell line was cultured and then gene expressions in the MTX pathway were measured. In addition, we measured the uptake and efflux of MTX derivatives under the NFKBIE knockdown condition. Results: Knockdown of NFKBIE reduced the mRNA for SLC19A1, a main MTX membrane transporter, and the intracellular accumulations of MTX derivatives. Moreover, our experiments also confirmed that overexpression of Val194Ala mutant NFKBIE decreased the SLC19A1 mRNA when compared to that of wild-type NFKBIE. Conclusions: We suggest that the impairment of NFKBIE gene function can reduce the uptake of MTX into cells, suggesting that the gene is an important factor for the RA outcome. PMID:26587663

  1. Eugenol ameliorates hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by down-regulating SREBP1 gene expression via AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Go Woon; Jeong, Kyung Ju; Kim, Do Yeon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effect of eugenol on fatty liver was examined in hepatocytes and liver tissue of high fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. To induce a fatty liver, palmitic acid or isolated hepatocytes from HFD-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in vitro studies, and C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 10 weeks. Lipid contents were markedly decreased when hepatocytes were treated with eugenol for up to 24 h. Gene expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and its target enzymes were suppressed but those of lipolysis-related proteins were increased. As a regulatory kinase for lipogenic transcriptional factors, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was examined. Protein expressions of phosphorylated Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CAMKK), AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were significantly increased and those of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6K were suppressed when the hepatocytes were treated with eugenol at up to 100 µM. These effects were all reversed in the presence of specific inhibitors of CAMKK, AMPK or mTOR. In vivo studies, hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and steatosis score were decreased by 45% and 72%, respectively, in eugenol-treated mice. Gene expressions of fibrosis marker protein such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type I (Col-I) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were also significantly reduced by 36%, 63% and 40% in eugenol-treated mice. In summary, eugenol may represent a potential intervention in populations at high risk for fatty liver.

  2. Colostrum whey down-regulates the expression of early and late inflammatory response genes induced by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium components in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blais, M; Fortier, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S F; Boutin, Y; Asselin, C; Lessard, M

    2015-01-28

    Pathogenic invasion by Escherichia coli and Salmonellae remains a constant threat to the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and can rapidly induce inflammatory responses. At birth, colostrum consumption exerts numerous beneficial effects on the properties of intestinal epithelial cells and protects the gastrointestinal tract of newborns from pathogenic invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of colostrum on the early and late inflammatory responses induced by pathogens. The short-term (2 h) and long-term (24 h) effects of exposure to heat-killed (HK) E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on gene expression in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model were first evaluated by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Luciferase assays were performed using a NF-κB-luc reporter construct to investigate the effect of colostrum whey treatment on the activation of NF-κB induced by HK bacteria. Luciferase assays were also performed using NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc reporter constructs in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2/15 cells exposed to dose-response stimulations with HK bacteria and colostrum whey. Bovine colostrum whey treatment decreased the expression of early and late inflammatory genes induced by HK bacteria in IPEC-J2, as well as the transcriptional activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Unlike that with colostrum whey, treatment with other milk fractions failed to decrease the activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Lastly, the reduction of the HK bacteria-induced activation of NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc by colostrum whey was dose dependent. The results of the present study indicate that bovine colostrum may protect and preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier in the host by controlling the expression levels of early and late inflammatory genes following invasion by enteric pathogens. PMID:25471114

  3. Down-Regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 Expression Alleviates Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Glial TLR4 Activation in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Zai-Li; Tan, Wen-Fei; Sun, Xi-Jia; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion. The effects of CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and TLR4 activation on inflammatory hyperalgesia were investigated by pretreatments with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody, CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) and TLR4 antagonist (TAK-242) for 5 consecutive days before surgery. The results indicated that IR induced significant and sustained inflammatory pain, observed as decreases in paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL), throughout the post-injury period. The increased levels of TLR4 and proinflammatory chemokine CXCL12, as well as its receptor, CXCR4, were closely correlated with the PWT and PWL trends. Double immunostaining further suggested that TLR4, which is mainly expressed on astrocytes and microglia, was closely co-localized with CXCL12 and CXCR4 in spinal dorsal horn. As expected, intrathecal pretreatment with the TLR4 antagonist, TAK-242 markedly ameliorated pain by inhibiting astrocytic and microglial activation, as shown by decreases in TLR4 immunoreactivity and the percentage of double-labeled cells. These protective effects were likely due in part to the reduced production of the downstream cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as for the recruitment of CXCL12 and CXCR4. Additionally, intrathecal pretreatment with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody and AMD3100 resulted in similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects as those receiving TAK-242 pretreatment. These results suggest that

  4. High density lipoproteins down-regulate transcriptional expression of pro-inflammatory factors and oxidative burst in head kidney leukocytes from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Franz; Casado, Alin; Amthauer, Rodolfo; Concha, Margarita I

    2013-07-01

    Teleosts are the first group of vertebrates possessing an acquired immune system; however, it is less developed than in mammals and is highly influenced by environmental changes. Therefore, innate immunity effectors play a more critical role in survival of pathogen-challenged fish. In a previous study we showed that trout high density lipoprotein (HDL), and its major apolipoprotein (ApoA-I) are widely expressed in primary defense barriers and other immune-relevant tissues, displaying important antibacterial activity in vitro. Here we show that trout HDL inhibits both basal and LPS-induced transcript expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, and the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA), in head kidney leukocytes (HLK) from rainbow trout. In addition, trout HDL was able to block the respiratory burst of PMA-stimulated HKL, at physiological concentrations and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, this effect was only partially mimicked by supra-physiologic concentrations of the HDL-transported carotenoid, astaxanthin. These results constitute the first data suggesting that in addition to its antimicrobial activity, HDL would have a relevant immunomodulatory role in salmonid fish. PMID:23597873

  5. Fluoxetine ameliorates cognitive impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via down-regulation of HCN2 surface expression in the hippocampal CA1 area in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Lu, Yun; Chen, Cheng; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), could play a neuroprotective role against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion injury and to clarify underlying mechanisms of its efficacy. Rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO). Two weeks later, rats were treated with 30 mg/kg fluoxetine (intragastric injection, i.g.) for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) and novel objects recognition (NOR) test. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein levels. Our results showed that fluoxetine treatment significantly improved the cognitive impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced inhibitory of LTP. Furthermore, 2VO caused an up-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2) surface expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area and fluoxetine also effectively recovered the disorder of HCN2 surface expressions, which may be a possible mechanism that fluoxetine treatment ameliorates cognitive impairments in rats with CCH. PMID:26549214

  6. NaN, a novel voltage-gated Na channel, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and down-regulated after axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Dib-Hajj, S. D.; Tyrrell, L.; Black, J. A.; Waxman, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Although physiological and pharmacological evidence suggests the presence of multiple tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na channels in neurons of peripheral nervous system ganglia, only one, SNS/PN3, has been identified in these cells to date. We have identified and sequenced a novel Na channel α-subunit (NaN), predicted to be TTX-R and voltage-gated, that is expressed preferentially in sensory neurons within dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia. The predicted amino acid sequence of NaN can be aligned with the predicted structure of known Na channel α-subunits; all relevant landmark sequences, including positively charged S4 and pore-lining SS1–SS2 segments, and the inactivation tripeptide IFM, are present at predicted positions. However, NaN exhibits only 42–53% similarity to other mammalian Na channels, including SNS/PN3, indicating that it is a novel channel, and suggesting that it may represent a third subfamily of Na channels. NaN transcript levels are reduced significantly 7 days post axotomy in DRG neurons, consistent with previous findings of a reduction in TTX-R Na currents. The preferential expression of NaN in DRG and trigeminal ganglia and the reduction of NaN mRNA levels in DRG after axonal injury suggest that NaN, together with SNS/PN3, may produce TTX-R currents in peripheral sensory neurons and may influence the generation of electrical activity in these cells. PMID:9671787

  7. The Fission Yeast GATA Factor, Gaf1, Modulates Sexual Development via Direct Down-Regulation of ste11+ Expression in Response to Nitrogen Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yeong Man; Yeon, Ji-Hyun; Maeng, Pil Jae

    2012-01-01

    Gaf1 is the first GATA family zinc-finger transcription factor identified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we report that Gaf1 functions as a negatively acting transcription factor of ste11+, delaying the entrance of cells exposed to transient nitrogen starvation into the meiotic cycle. gaf1Δ strains exhibited accelerated G1-arrest upon nitrogen starvation. Moreover, gaf1Δ mutation caused increased mating and sporulation frequency under both nitrogen-starved and unstarved conditions, while overexpression of gaf1+ led to a significant impairment of sporulation. By microarray analysis, we found that approximately 63% (116 genes) of the 183 genes up-regulated in unstarved gaf1Δ cells were nitrogen starvation-responsive genes, and furthermore that 25 genes among the genes up-regulated by gaf1Δ mutation are Ste11 targets (e.g., gpa1+, ste4+, spk1+, ste11+, and mei2+). The phenotype caused by gaf1Δ mutation was masked by ste11Δ mutation, indicating that ste11+ is epistatic to gaf1+ with respect to sporulation efficiency, and accordingly that gaf1+ functions upstream of ste11+ in the signaling pathway governing sexual development. gaf1Δ strains showed accelerated ste11+ expression under nitrogen starvation and increased ste11+ expression even under normal conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis demonstrated that Gaf1 specifically binds to the canonical GATA motif (5′-HGATAR-3′) spanning from −371 to −366 in ste11+ promoter. Consequently, Gaf1 provides the prime example for negative regulation of ste11+ transcription through direct binding to a cis-acting motif of its promoter. PMID:22900017

  8. Efficient down-regulation of PKC-α gene expression in A549 lung cancer cells mediated by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in dendrosomes.

    PubMed

    Movassaghian, Sara; Moghimi, Hamid R; Shirazi, Farshad H; Koshkaryev, Alexander; Trivedi, Malav S; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-01-30

    The completion of human genome project has increased our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of many diseases, including cancer, thus providing new opportunities for gene therapy. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AsODN) possess great potential as sequence-specific therapeutic agents, which in contrast to classic treatments provide more efficient and target-specific approach to modulate disease-related genes. To be therapeutically effective, sufficient concentrations of intact AsODN must bypass membrane barriers and access the site of action. In this study, a dendrosome delivery strategy was designed to improve the encapsulation of AsODN in non-cationic liposomes to target PKC-α in lung cancer cells in vitro. Subcellular trafficking of fluorescently labeled AsODN was visualized using confocal microscopy. Uptake and expression of mRNA and target protein after AsODN delivery was measured by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Dendrosomes showed favorable physicochemical parameters: high encapsulation efficiency and uptake in serum-containing medium with no apparent cytotoxicity. AsODN encapsulated in dendrosome efficiently and specifically suppress the target gene at both mRNA and protein levels. Additional in vivo studies on the application of dendrosome as a delivery system for nucleic acid molecules may lead to improvement of this technology and facilitate the development of therapeutic antisense techniques. PMID:23262426

  9. Polyamine depletion down-regulates expression of the Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxic CP65, a 65-kDa cysteine proteinase involved in cellular damage.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth; Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Solano-González, Eduardo; Martínez-Benitez, Máximo; Garcia, Ana F; Alderete, John F; Arroyo, Rossana

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we found that inhibition of putrescine synthesis by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) significantly increased Trichomonas vaginalis adherence mediated by protein adhesins. Surprisingly and unexpectedly, trichomonal contact-dependent cytotoxicity was absent. Therefore, a role for polyamine depletion on regulation of T. vaginalis cytotoxicity mediated by the cysteine proteinase (CP) of 65-kDa, CP65, was investigated. We performed cytotoxicity and cell-binding assays followed by zymograms, as well as Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays using specific anti-CP65 antibodies to detect CP65. Trichomonads grown in the presence of the ODC inhibitor, 1-4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) had lower levels of cytotoxicity that corresponded with diminished CP65 proteolytic activity when compared to untreated organisms handled identically. Likewise, semiquantitative and qRT-PCR as well as Western blot and immunofluorescence assays showed decreased amounts of tvcp65 mRNA and CP65 protein in DAB-treated parasites. These effects were reversed by addition of exogenous putrescine. These data show a direct link between polyamine metabolism and expression of the cytotoxic CP65 proteinase involved in trichomonal host cellular damage.

  10. RIP-V improves murine survival in a sepsis model by down-regulating RNAIII expression and α-hemolysin release of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Zhou, Ying; Li, Mingkai; Yu, Qian; Xue, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhi; Da, Fei; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is associated with serious invasive infections and high mortality rates due to a large number of toxins released. The persistent increasing resistance of S. aureus has driven the need for new anti-infection agents and innovative therapeutic strategies. RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP) has been reported to reduce bacterial virulence by interfering with S. aureus quorum sensing system. The present study aimed to investigate whether two new RIP derivatives (RIP-V and RIP-L) could improve the survival rate of mice in a MRSA sepsis model. We found that neither anti-bacterial nor cell toxicity were displayed by all RIPs in vitro. In vivo protective effects were observed using a MRSA-induced mice sepsis model. Among RIPs, RIP-V exhibited the strongest protection function on mice survival and inhibition of pathological damages. Our studies firstly verified that RIPs could inhibited the RNAIII expression of S. aurues isolated from liver tissue of BALB/c mice. Moreover, RIP-V exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on RNAIII and can decrease markedly the secretion of o-hemolysin in liver. These findings indicate that RIP-V might be considered as a potential and specific drug candidate for treating S. aureus infections, especially for MRSA.

  11. α-Solanine inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression by down-regulating the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhengde; Huang, Chaohao; Xu, Yaya; Xiao, Yuwu; Tang, Lili; Dai, Juji; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Bicheng; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-15

    In tumors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and tumorigenesis. In our previous study, we found that α-solanine, which is widespread in solanaceae, has a strong anti-cancer effect under normoxia. However, it is unknown whether α-solanine has a similar effect under hypoxia. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimic hypoxia in vitro. HIF-1α, which is almost undetectable under normoxia, was significantly increased. Simultaneously, another regulator of VEGF, STAT3, was also significantly activated by CoCl2. We utilized α-solanine in co-culture with CoCl2. α-solanine decreased the expression of VEGF and loss of E-cadherin. α-solanine also suppressed the activation of phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), HIF-1α, and STAT3 signaling. The results provide new evidence that α-solanine has a strong anti-cancer effect via the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways and suggest that it may be a potential new drug.

  12. CD44 standard and variant isoform expression in human epidermal skin tumors is not correlated with tumor aggressiveness but down-regulated during proliferation and tumor de-differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seelentag, W K; Günthert, U; Saremaslani, P; Futo, E; Pfaltz, M; Heitz, P U; Roth, J

    1996-06-21

    CD44 isoforms have been reported to be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis formation. Normal human skin expresses high levels of CD44 isoforms, but little is known about their expression in epidermal skin tumors. Expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and variant exon (CD44v3, -v4, -v5, -v6, -v9)-encoded gene products has been studied in 74 benign, semi-malignant and malignant human epithelial skin tumors using a panel of well-characterized, variant exon-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Sensitivity and resolution of the immunohistochemical staining in paraffin sections was substantially improved by using microwave-based antigen retrieval and an optimized streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. Immunostaining was evaluated semi-quantitatively and correlated with tumor type and degree of histological differentiation by non-parametric statistical tests. Furthermore, the relationship between CD44 expression and cellular proliferation rate as defined by the Ki-67 antigen was analyzed in basal cell carcinomas. We found a significant correlation between tumor type and CD44 isoform expression. Basal cell carcinomas exhibited the weakest staining and keratoacanthomas the strongest. Squamous cell carcinomas ranged in between, with a tendency to down-regulate CD44 expression upon de-differentiation. In basal cell carcinomas, an inverse relationship between CD44 expression and proliferation rate was directly demonstrated at the cellular level using double immunolabelling. Our data indicate that qualitative and quantitative changes in CD44 splicevariant expression in human skin tumors do not correlate with invasive and metastatic potential but are rather related to the degree of tumor differentiation. PMID:8682591

  13. Suppressive effects of quercetin-3-O-(6″-Feruloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Fan; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Ou; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic, costly disease, and flavonoids such as quercetin have been proven to play protective roles against it. This study investigated the suppressive effect of quercetin-3-O-(6″-feruloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QFG) on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Quercetin-3-O-(6″-feruloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside and quercetin were both extracted from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae, commonly known as guava) leaves and were evaluated for their suppressive effect on adipogenesis by means of oil red O staining and triglyceride assay. It was shown that QFG inhibited adipogenesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it exerted a stronger effect than did quercetin at the same concentration. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were conducted to further examine the differentiation expression of marker genes and transcriptional factors. Both mRNA and protein expression of the key adipogenic transcriptional factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT (cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine)/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), were inhibited by QFG. Moreover, the mRNA expression patterns of key participants in the Wnt-β-catenin pathway were not altered during the QFG-induced adipogenesis inhibition. These results suggest that QFG effectively suppresses adipogenesis and that it exerts its role mainly through the significant down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα and, probably, via a Wnt-β-catenin independent pathway.

  14. Murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 expresses all subtypes of muscarinic receptors and multiple nicotinic receptor subunits: Down-regulation of α4- and β4-subunits during early differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kaltwasser, Susanne; Schmitz, Luise; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Anspach, Laura; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Wessler, Ignaz

    2015-11-01

    Non-neuronal acetylcholine mediates its cellular effects via stimulation of the G-protein-coupled muscarinic receptors and the ligand-gated ion channel nicotinic receptors. The murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 synthesizes and releases non-neuronal acetylcholine. In the present study a systematic investigation of the expression of nicotinic receptor subunits and muscarinic receptors was performed, when the stem cells were grown in the presence or absence of LIF, as the latter condition induces early differentiation. CGR8 cells expressed multiple nicotinic receptor subtypes (α3, α4, α7, α9, α10, β1, β2, β3, β4, γ, δ, ε) and muscarinic receptors (M1, M3, M4, M5); M2 was detected only in 2 out of 8 cultures. LIF removal caused a down-regulation only of the α4- and β4-subunit. In conclusion, more or less the whole repertoire of cholinergic receptors is expressed on the murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 for mediating cellular signaling of non-neuronal acetylcholine which acts via auto- and paracrine pathways. During early differentiation of the murine CGR8 stem cell signaling via nicotinic receptors containing α4- or β4 subunits is reduced. Thus, the so-called neuronal α4 nicotine receptor composed of these subunits may be involved in the regulation of pluripotency in this murine stem cell line.

  15. Carnosic acid sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression at the post translational levels and CHOP-dependent up-regulation of DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression in human carcinoma caki cells

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jae Hoon; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene from rosmarinus officinalis, and has multiple functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined whether carnosic acid could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that carnosic acid markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-HEP-1), and human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells, but not normal cells (TMCK-1 and HSF). Carnosic acid induced down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression at the post-translational levels, and the over-expression of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 markedly blocked carnosic acid-induced TRAIL sensitization. Furthermore, carnosic acid induced death receptor (DR)5, Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression at the transcriptional levels via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). Down-regulation of CHOP expression by siRNA inhibited DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression, and attenuated carnosic acid plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that carnosic acid enhances sensitization against TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through the down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulation of ER stress-mediated DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression at the transcriptional levels. PMID:25596735

  16. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  17. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumie, Sabine; Goffner, Deborah; Barbier, Odile; Martinant, Jean-Pierre; Pichon, Magalie; Barrière, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3) mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225), and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying) and ear (younger lignifying) internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the different events leading

  18. Long-term arsenic exposure induces histone H3 Lys9 dimethylation without altering DNA methylation in the promoter region of p16(INK4a) and down-regulates its expression in the liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Nohara, Keiko

    2013-09-01

    Long-term exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Previous studies have suggested that arsenic exposure promotes tumorigenesis by inducing changes in the expression of tumor-related genes by dysregulating DNA methylation at tumor-related gene loci. However, the causal relationships between epigenetic changes and both arsenic exposure and tumorigenesis are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether arsenic can change the expression of tumor-related genes by inducing epigenetic modifications before tumorigenesis. We did so by investigating the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on representative epigenetic modifications, DNA methylation and histone modifications, in the tumor-free normal liver of C57Bl/6 mice. We focused on the tumor-related genes, p16(INK4a) , RASSF1A, Ha-ras and ER-α as target genes, because their expression and promoter methylation status in mice have been reported to be affected by long-term arsenic exposure. The results showed that long-term arsenic exposure induced a significant decrease in expression of p16(INK4a) associated with an increase in level of dimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), a transcription-suppressive histone modification, in the promoter region, but that DNA methylation of the promoter region was unaffected. The results also showed a significant increase in recruitment of H3K9 histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoter after arsenic exposure. These findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may induce down-regulation of p16(INK4a) by targeting recruitment of G9a and H3K9 dimethylation without altering DNA methylation before tumorigenesis in the liver.

  19. Artemisolide is a typical inhibitor of I{kappa}B kinase {beta} targeting cysteine-179 residue and down-regulates NF-{kappa}B-dependent TNF-{alpha} expression in LPS-activated macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byung Hak; Lee, Jun-Young; Seo, Jee Hee; Lee, Hwa Young; Ryu, Shi Yong; Ahn, Byung Woo; Lee, Chong-Kil; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2007-09-28

    Nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B regulates a central common signaling for immunity and cell survival. Artemisolide (ATM) was previously isolated as a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor from a plant of Artemisia asiatica. However, molecular basis of ATM on NF-{kappa}B activation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that ATM is a typical inhibitor of I{kappa}B kinase {beta} (IKK{beta}), resulting in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-{kappa}B activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. ATM inhibited the kinase activity of highly purified IKK{beta} and also LPS-induced IKK activity in the cells. Moreover, the effect of ATM on IKK{beta} activity was completely abolished by substitution of Cys-179 residue of IKK{beta} to Ala residue, indicating direct targeting site of ATM. ATM could inhibit I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and subsequently prevent NF-{kappa}B activation. Further, we demonstrate that ATM down-regulates NF-{kappa}B-dependent TNF-{alpha} expression. Taken together, this study provides a pharmacological potential of ATM in NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory disorders.

  20. BME, a novel compound of anthraquinone, down regulated P-glycoprotein expression in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhong; Liu, Lu; Cen, Juan; Ji, Biansheng

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is still a main obstacle for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers. Thus, development of effective MDR reversing agents is an important approach in the clinic. The present study revealed that BME, a novel compound of anthraquinone, elevated intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates and reduced concentration resulting in 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) values for doxorubicin (DOX) in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells. Further more, BME was also reported to down regulated P-gp expression accompanying with generation of nontoxic low level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 as well as c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), U0216 and SP600125 almost abolished actions of the BME mentioned above. These results indicated that the effect of the BME on the P-gp may be involved in generation of nontoxic low level of iROS and activation of ERK1/2 or JNK, which suggested valuable clues to screen and develop P-gp reversing agents.

  1. Neuromodulatory propensity of Bacopa monniera against scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells via down-regulation of AChE and up-regulation of BDNF and muscarnic-1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2013-10-01

    Scopolamine is a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and thus classified as an anti-muscarinic and anti-cholinergic drug. PC12 cell lines possess muscarinic receptors and mimic the neuronal cells. These cells were treated with different concentrations of scopolamine for 24 h and were protected from the cellular damage by pretreatment with Bacopa monniera extract (BME). In current study, we have explored the molecular mechanism of neuromodulatory and antioxidant propensity of (BME) to attenuate scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity using PC12 cells. Our results elucidate that pretreatment of PC12 cells with BME ameliorates the mitochondrial and plasma membrane damage induced by 3 μg/ml scopolamine to 54.83 and 30.30 % as evidenced by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays respectively. BME (100 μg/ml) ameliorated scopolamine effect by down-regulating acetylcholine esterase and up-regulating brain-derived neurotropic factor and muscarinic muscarinic-1 receptor expression. BME pretreated cells also showed significant protection against scopolamine-induced toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. This result indicates that the scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity and neuromodulatory changes were restored with the pretreatment of BME.

  2. Regulation of fear extinction versus other affective behaviors by discrete cortical scaffolding complexes associated with NR2B and PKA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, K A; Leaderbrand, K; Jovasevic, V; Guedea, A L; Kassam, F; Radulovic, J

    2015-01-01

    In patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear evoked by trauma-related memories lasts long past the traumatic event and it is often complicated by general anxiety and depressed mood. This poses a treatment challenge, as drugs beneficial for some symptoms might exacerbate others. For example, in preclinical studies, antagonists of the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and activators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) act as potent antidepressants and anxiolytics, but they block fear extinction. Using mice, we attempted to overcome this problem by interfering with individual NR2B and PKA signaling complexes organized by scaffolding proteins. We infused cell-permeable Tat peptides that displaced either NR2B from receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), or PKA from A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) or microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The infusions were targeted to the retrosplenial cortex, an area involved in both fear extinction of remotely acquired memories and in mood regulation. Tat-RACK1 and Tat-AKAP enhanced fear extinction, all peptides reduced anxiety and none affected baseline depression-like behavior. However, disruption of PKA complexes distinctively interfered with the rapid antidepressant actions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors antagonist MK-801 in that Tat-MAP2 blocked, whereas Tat-AKAP completely inverted the effect of MK-801 from antidepressant to depressant. These effects were unrelated to the MK-801-induced changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA levels. Together, the findings suggest that NR2B–RACK1 complexes specifically contribute to fear extinction, and may provide a target for the treatment of PTSD. AKAP-PKA, on the other hand, appears to modulate fear extinction and antidepressant responses in opposite directions. PMID:26460481

  3. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa(R), ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. PMID:25662161

  4. Eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol suppress LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulating NF-kappaB AND AP-1 through inhibition of MAPKS and AKT/IkappaBalpha signaling pathways in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J L; Hsu, J H; Hong, Y S; Wu, J R; Liang, J C; Wu, B N; Chen, I J; Liou, S F

    2011-01-01

    Eugenol and isoeugenol, two components of clover oil, have been reported to possess several biomedical properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol, isoeugenol and four of their derivatives on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7), and to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We found that two derivatives, eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol, had potent inhibitory effects on LPS-induced upregulation of nitrite levels, iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA. In addition, they both suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induced by LPS. Moreover, they both attenuated the DNA binding of NF-kB and AP-1, phosphorylation of inhibitory kB-alpha (IkB-alpha), and nuclear translocation of p65 protein induced by LPS. Finally, we demonstrated that glyceryl-isoeugenol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, whereas eugenolol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results suggest that that eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol suppress LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulating NF-kB and AP-1 through inhibition of MAPKs and Akt/IkB-alpha signaling pathways. Thus, this study implies that eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol may provide therapeutic benefits for inflammatory diseases.

  5. High Brain Ammonia Tolerance and Down-Regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and Protein Expression in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Exposed to Environmental Ammonia or Terrestrial Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

  6. NMDA-induced ERK signalling is mediated by NR2B subunit in rat cortical neurons and switches from positive to negative depending on stage of development.

    PubMed

    Sava, Anna; Formaggio, Elena; Carignani, Corrado; Andreetta, Filippo; Bettini, Ezio; Griffante, Cristiana

    2012-02-01

    It is known that NMDA receptor stimulation can activate or inhibit the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling cascade, a key pathway involved in neuronal plasticity and survival. However, the specific subtype(s) of NMDA receptor that exert bi-directional regulation of ERK signalling is under debate. Here we show that in young neurons (7-9 days in vitro, DIV), NMDA activated ERK signalling. In mature neurons (14-16 DIV), NMDA-evoked, in coincidence with a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), an increase in ERK phosphorylation at low concentrations (1-30 μM) while an inhibition at high concentrations (30 μM-250 μM). In more mature neurons (21-23 DIV) NMDA inhibited ERK signalling. Both activation and inhibition of ERK signalling were fully reversed by the selective NR2B receptor antagonists Ro 25-6981 and ifenprodil. Thus, the NR2B subunit can be both negatively or positively coupled to ERK signalling in rat cortical neurons, depending on their stage of development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  7. Down-regulation of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene expression by virus-induced gene silencing in soybean reveals the presence of a threshold mRNA level associated with pigmentation in pubescence.

    PubMed

    Nagamatsu, Atsushi; Masuta, Chikara; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Kitamura, Keisuke; Abe, Jun; Kanazawa, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Changes in flavonoid content are often manifested as altered pigmentation in plant tissues. Two loci have been identified as controlling pigmentation in soybean pubescence. Of these, the T locus appears to encode flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) protein: the T and t alleles are associated with tawny and gray colors, respectively, in pubescence. We previously down-regulated F3'H gene expression by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in soybean. Despite this successful VIGS, the tawny pubescence pigmentation proved to be unchanged in greenhouse-grown plants. We hypothesized that the reduced mRNA level of the F3'H gene resulting from VIGS remained high enough to induce pigmentation. To verify this hypothesis, in the present study, we performed F3'H VIGS on plants grown under controlled conditions, in which the steady-state mRNA level of the F3'H gene was reduced to approximately 5% of that of greenhouse-grown plants. This VIGS treatment resulted in the loss of tawny pigmentation in pubescence, suggesting that the sf3'h1 gene is involved in the control of pigmentation in pubescence. We detected a marked decrease in target mRNA, an accumulation of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and a decrease in quercetin content relative to kaempferol in leaf tissues, indicating that sequence-specific mRNA degradation of the F3'H gene was induced. These results suggest that leaf tissues have a threshold mRNA level of the F3'H gene, which is associated with the occurrence of tawny pigmentation in pubescence. The estimated threshold mRNA level for pigmentation in pubescence was approximately 3% of the steady-state mRNA level of the F3'H gene in greenhouse-grown plants.

  8. Cell density and growth-dependent down-regulation of both intracellular calcium responses to agonist stimuli and expression of smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Hikiji, Hisako; Shin, Wee Soo; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Satoru; Abe, Takahiro; Koshikiya, Noboru; Iwasawa, Kuniaki; Toyo-oka, Teruhiko

    2003-02-21

    A two-dimensional intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) imaging system was used to examine the relationship between [Ca(2+)](i) handling and the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. The resting [Ca(2+)](i) level in densely cultured cells was 1.5 times higher than the [Ca(2+)](i) level in sparsely cultured cells or in other cell types (mouse fibroblasts, rat vascular smooth muscle cells, and bovine endothelial cells). A high resting [Ca(2+)](i) level may be specific for MC3T3-E1 cells. MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated with ATP (10 microM), caffeine (10 mM), thapsigargin (1 microM), or ionomycin (10 microM), and the effect on the [Ca(2+)](i) level of MC3T3-E1 cells was studied. The percentage of responding cells and the degree of [Ca(2+)](i) elevation were high in the sparsely cultured cells and low in densely cultured cells. The rank order for the percentage of responding cells and magnitude of the Ca(2+) response to the stimuli was ionomycin > thapsigargin = ATP > caffeine and suggests the existence of differences among the various [Ca(2+)](i) channels. All Ca(2+) responses in the sparsely cultured MC3T3-E1 cells, unlike in other cell types, disappeared after the cells reached confluence. Heptanol treatment of densely cultured cells restored the Ca(2+) response, suggesting that cell-cell contact is involved with the confluence-dependent disappearance of the Ca(2+) response. Immunohistological analysis of type 1 inositol trisphosphate receptors and electron microscopy showed distinct expression of inositol trisphosphate receptor proteins and smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in sparsely cultured cells but reduced levels in densely cultured cells. These results indicate that the underlying basis of confluence-dependent [Ca(2+)](i) regulation is down-regulation of smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum by cell-cell contacts.

  9. Gibberellin Application at Pre-Bloom in Grapevines Down-Regulates the Expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, Negative Regulators of Fruit Set Initiation, during Parthenocarpic Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid ‘Tamnara’ grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  10. Gibberellin application at pre-bloom in grapevines down-regulates the expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, negative regulators of fruit set initiation, during parthenocarpic fruit development.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid 'Tamnara' grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  11. Down-regulation of hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor, Kiss1r, mRNA expression is associated with stress-induced suppression of luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Kinsey-Jones, J S; Li, X F; Knox, A M I; Wilkinson, E S; Zhu, X L; Chaudhary, A A; Milligan, S R; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2009-01-01

    Identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor 54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of stress-induced suppression of reproduction. We examined the effects of: (i) three different stressors, known to suppress pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion; (ii) corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF); and (iii) corticosterone on Kiss1 and Kiss1r expression in key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion: the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with i.v., subcutaneous or i.c.v. cannulae. Blood samples were collected at 5-min intervals for 5-6 h for detection of LH. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the mPOA and ARC collected 6 h after restraint, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia or lipopolysaccharide stress, or after i.c.v. administration of CRF, or acute or chronic subcutaneous administration of corticosterone. We observed down-regulation of at least one component of the kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling system by each of the stress paradigms within the mPOA and ARC. CRF decreased Kiss1 and Kiss1r expression in both the mPOA and ARC. Both acute and chronic stress levels of corticosterone resulted in a concomitant decrease in Kiss1 and an increase in kiss1r mRNA expression in the mPOA and ARC. This differential regulation of Kiss1 and Kiss1r might account for the lack of effect corticosterone has on pulsatile LH secretion. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling in the control of the HPG axis, these results suggest that the reduced Kiss1-Kiss1r expression may be a contributing factor in stress-related suppression of LH secretion.

  12. The R18 Polyarginine Peptide Is More Effective Than the TAT-NR2B9c (NA-1) Peptide When Administered 60 Minutes after Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Milani, D.; Knuckey, N. W.; Anderton, R. S.; Cross, J. L.; Meloni, B. P.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dose responsiveness of polyarginine R18 (100, 300, and 1000 nmol/kg) when administered 60 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The TAT-NR2B9c peptide, which is known to be neuroprotective in rodent and nonhuman primate stroke models, served as a positive control. At 24 hours after MCAO, there was reduced total infarct volume in R18 treated animals at all doses, but this reduction only reached statistical significance at doses of 100 and 1000 nmol/kg. The TAT-NR2B9c peptide reduced infarct volume at doses of 300 and 1000 nmol/kg, but not to a statistically significant extent, while the 100 nmol/kg dose was ineffective. The reduction in infarct volume with R18 and TAT-NR2B9c peptide treatments was mirrored by improvements in one or more functional outcomes (namely, neurological score, adhesive tape removal, and rota-rod), but not to a statistically significant extent. These findings further confirm the neuroprotective properties of polyarginine peptides and for R18 extend its therapeutic time window and dose range, as well as demonstrating its greater efficacy compared to TAT-NR2B9c in a severe stroke model. The superior neuroprotective efficacy of R18 over TAT-NR2B9c highlights the potential of this polyarginine peptide as a lead candidate for studies in human stroke. PMID:27247825

  13. Down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changcheng; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Yang, Cuixia; Du, Yan; Zhou, Muqing; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guoliang; Wu, Man; Gao, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the CEA family, which has been found to exist as either soluble forms in body fluids or membrane-bound forms on the cell surface. Aberrant CEACAM1 expression is associated with tumor progression and has been found in a variety of human malignancies. Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression of CEACAM1 in breast cancer, but most of these findings are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate CEACAM1 expression in breast cancer in greater detail. Using immunohistochemical staining, we found that CEACAM1 expression was reduced or lost in breast cancer tissues compared with noncancerous breast tissues. In addition, soluble CEACAM1 levels in the culture medium of breast cancer cell lines were significantly lower than those in a nontumorigenic breast epithelial cell line. Immunofluorescence analysis consistently showed that breast cancer cell lines have relatively low expression of membrane-bound CEACAM1. Furthermore, CEACAM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines as measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Taken together, our results demonstrate a systematic down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer and suggest that a strategy to restore CEACAM1 expression may be helpful for the treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Hyperbaric environment up-regulates CD15s expression on leukocytes, down-regulates CD77 expression on renal cells and up-regulates CD34 expression on pulmonary and cardiac cells in rat

    PubMed Central

    Đevenica, Danka; Markotić, Anita; Režić-Mužinić, Nikolina; Jelaska, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Delić, Hrvoje; Čulić, Vedrana Čikeš

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to estimate effects of hyperbaric (HB) treatment by determination of CD15s and CD11b leukocyte proinflammatory markers expression. In addition, this study describes changes in CD77 and CD34 expression on rat endothelial cells in renal, pulmonary and cardiac tissue following exposure to hyperbaric pressure. Materials and Methods: Expression of CD11b and CD15s on leukocytes, as well as CD77 and CD34 expression on endothelial cells in cell suspensions of renal, pulmonary and cardiac tissue in rats after hyperbaric treatment and in control rats were determined by flow cytometry. Results: Hyperbaric treatment significantly increased percentage of leukocytes expressing CD15s+CD11b- (from 1.71±1.11 to 23.42±2.85, P<0.05). Hyperbaric treatment significantly decreased sum percentage of CD77+CD34- and CD77+CD34+ renal cells (from 16.35±5.5 to 4.48 ±1.28, P<0.05). Hyperbaric treatment significantly increased percentage of CD34+ pulmonary cells (from 3.27±2.01 to 11.92±6.22, P<0.05). Our study is the first reporting the hyperbaric environment influence on CD34+ heart cells in rats. Conclusion: The current findings of increased percentage of leukocytes expressing endothelial selectin ligand CD15s after hyperbaric treatment, point its role in endothelial damage prevention. We found out a significantly increase in percentage of CD34+ cardiac cells as well as CD34+ pulmonary cells in rats after HB treatment which could be a part of repair mechanism of injured endothelium caused by hyperoxia. PMID:27746862

  15. Both NR2A and NR2B Subunits of the NMDA Receptor Are Critical for Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in the Lateral Amygdala of Horizontal Slices of Adult Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tobias; Albrecht, Doris; Gebhardt, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is implicated in emotional and social behaviors. We recently showed that in horizontal brain slices, activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations in the LA, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In the LA, NR2A- and NR2B-type NMDRs…

  16. A role for hippocampal PSA-NCAM and NMDA-NR2B receptor function in flavonoid-induced spatial memory improvements in young rats.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Foley, Andrew; Lau, Vera C; Ring, Rebecca; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Vauzour, David; Williams, Claire M; Regan, Ciaran; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-04-01

    The increase in incidence and prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of how food components may affect neural systems. In particular, flavonoids have been recognized as promising agents capable of influencing different aspects of synaptic plasticity resulting in improvements in memory and learning in both animals and humans. Our previous studies highlight the efficacy of flavonoids in reversing memory impairments in aged rats, yet little is known about the effects of these compounds in healthy animals, particularly with respect to the molecular mechanisms by which flavonoids might alter the underlying synaptic modifications responsible for behavioral changes. We demonstrate that a 3-week intervention with two dietary doses of flavonoids (Dose I: 8.7 mg/day and Dose II: 17.4 mg/day) facilitates spatial memory acquisition and consolidation (24 recall) (p < 0.05) in young healthy rats. We show for the first time that these behavioral improvements are linked to increased levels in the polysialylated form of the neural adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which is known to be required for the establishment of durable memories. We observed parallel increases in hippocampal NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit for both 8.7 mg/day (p < 0.05) and 17.4 mg/day (p < 0.001) doses, suggesting an enhancement of glutamate signaling following flavonoid intervention. This is further strengthened by the simultaneous modulation of hippocampal ERK/CREB/BDNF signaling and the activation of the Akt/mTOR/Arc pathway, which are crucial in inducing changes in the strength of hippocampal synaptic connections that underlie learning. Collectively, the present data supports a new role for PSA-NCAM and NMDA-NR2B receptor on flavonoid-induced improvements in learning and memory, contributing further to the growing body of evidence suggesting beneficial effects of flavonoids in

  17. Down-Regulation of the Expression of the FIH-1 and ARD-1 Genes at the Transcriptional Level by Nickel and Cobalt in the Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Qingdong; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max

    2005-01-01

    Although nickel and cobalt compounds have been known to cause induction of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and activation of a battery of hypoxia-inducible genes in the cell, the molecular mechanisms of this induction remain unclear. The post-translational modification of HIF-1a, the oxygen-sensitive subunit of HIF-1, regulates stabilization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding activity, and transcriptional activity of the protein. Among the enzymes regulating the post-translational modification of HIF-1a, the factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) hydroxylates the protein at asparagine 803, suppressing the interaction of HIF-1a with transcription coactivators p300/CBP and reducing the transcriptional activity of the protein. ARD-1, the acetyltransferase, acetylates HIF-1a at lysine 532, which enhances the interaction of HIF-1a with pVHL. Therefore, FIH-1 and ARD-1 negatively regulate the transcriptional activity and the stability of HIF-1a. We examined the mRNA levels of FIH-1 and ARD-1 genes after exposure nickel (II) or cobalt (II) to the cell and found that both genes were down-regulated by the chemical treatment, which may lead to reduced levels of both proteins and result in increased level of HIF-1a and its transcriptional activity. PMID:16705796

  18. Hypoxic stress-enhanced expression and release of adrenomedullin (AM) and up-regulated AM receptors, while glucose starvation reduced AM expression and release and down-regulated AM receptors in monkey renal cells.

    PubMed

    Drímal, J; Drímal, J; Drímal, D

    2006-01-01

    The proliferative peptide adrenomedullin (AM) has a wide distribution in a variety of tissues and cells. The mechanism how the AM gene is regulated in cells is not yet known. The renal cortex, renal vascular smooth muscles, glomeruli and tubular epithelial cells are very sensitive to hypoxia. Renal hypoxia produces acute renal tubular necrosis and markedly induces AM expression in damaged cells. However, little information is available regarding the possible pathophysiological production and release of renal tubular AM. Regulation of membrane-bound AM receptors in renal cells has not yet been systematically studied. To elucidate the potential pathological role of human AM we examined the production and release of AM, as well as the characteristics of surface membrane AM receptors in cultured monkey renal tubular epithelial cells (RC) exposed to hypoxia, induced with endothelin-1, and subjected to glucose deprivation. Exposure of RC to hypoxia (1 % O(2), 5 % CO(2) in N(2)), and to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased production and secretion of AM and increased specific [(125)I]AM binding on RC. Metabolic stress (1 % glucose in the cultivation medium) and preincubation of RC with rival peptide endothelin-1 significantly reduced immunoreactive-AM in a conditioned medium and whole cell surface membrane AM binding on RC. Altogether, our data suggest that the AM is involved in the adaptation of renal tubular cells to hypoxia. Increased expression of AM mRNA and regulation of AM receptors in metabolic stress may function as an important autocrine/paracrine regulator(s) of renal tubular epithelial cells.

  19. An 8-gene signature, including methylated and down-regulated glutathione peroxidase 3, of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianglan; Yang, Jung-Jin; Kim, Yoon Sun; Kim, Ki-Yeol; Ahn, Woong Shick; Yang, Sanghwa

    2010-02-01

    We have identified an 8-gene signature with significant expression differences between gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues. This 8-gene set can predict the normal and cancer status of gastric tissues with more than 96% accuracy in a totally independent microarray dataset. The 8 genes are composed of down-regulated KLF4, GPX3, SST and LIPF, together with up-regulated SERPINH1, THY1 and INHBA in gastric cancer. To corroborate the differential gene expression pattern, we chose GPX3 and examined its expression pattern in detail. A comparison of GPX3 expression pattern shows a broader down-regulated pattern in multiple types of cancers, including cervical, thyroid, head and neck, lung cancers and melanoma than in healthy controls. An immuno-histostaining analysis in tissue microarrays confirms GPX3 down-regulation in gastric cancer. Mechanism-wise GPX3 down-regulation in gastric cancer is due to promoter hypermethylation. Collectively, these results show a correct identification of 8 genes as gastric cancer biomarkers. PMID:20043075

  20. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK.

  1. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK. PMID:26614458

  2. Insulin-like growth factor 1 blocks collagen release and down regulates matrix metalloproteinase-1, -3, -8, and -13 mRNA expression in bovine nasal cartilage stimulated with oncostatin M in combination with interleukin 1α

    PubMed Central

    Hui, W; Rowan, A; Cawston, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on the release of collagen, and the production and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1α (IL1α) in combination with oncostatin M (OSM) from bovine nasal cartilage and primary human articular chondrocytes.
METHODS—Human articular chondrocytes and bovine nasal cartilage were cultured with and without IGF1 in the presence of IL1α or IL1α + OSM. The release of collagen was measured by an assay for hydroxyproline. Collagenase activity was determined with the diffuse fibril assay using 3H acetylated collagen. The expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-13, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) mRNA was analysed by northern blot.
RESULTS—IGF1 can partially inhibit the release of collagen induced by IL1α or IL1α + OSM from bovine nasal cartilage. This was accompanied by a reduced secretion and activation of collagenase by bovine nasal cartilage. IGF1 can also down regulate IL1α or IL1α + OSM induced MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-13 mRNA expression in human articular chondrocytes and bovine chondrocytes. It had no significant effect on the production and expression of TIMP-1 mRNA in chondrocytes.
CONCLUSION—This study shows for the first time that IGF1 can partially block the release of collagen from cartilage and suggests that down regulation of collagenases by IGF1 may be an important mechanism in preventing cartilage resorption initiated by proinflammatory cytokines.

 PMID:11171688

  3. Down regulation of ribosomal protein mRNAs during neuronal differentiation of human NTERA2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bévort, M; Leffers, H

    2000-10-01

    We have analysed the expression of 32 ribosomal protein (RP) mRNAs during retinoic acid induced neuronal differentiation of human NTERA2 cells. Except for a new S27 variant (S27v), all were down regulated both in selectively replated differentiated neurons and the most differentiated continuous cultures, i.e., non-replated cultures. However, the expression profiles of the individual RP mRNAs were different, most (L3, L7, L8, L10, L13, L23a, L27a, L36a, L39, P0, S2, S3, S3a, S4X, S6, S9, S12, S13, S16, S19, S20, S23, and S27a) exhibited a constant down regulation, whereas a few were either initially constant (L11, L32, S8, and S11) or up regulated (L6, L15, L17, L31, and S27y) and then down regulated. The expression of S27v remained elevated in the most differentiated continuous cultures but was down regulated in replated differentiated neurons. The down regulation of RP mRNAs was variable: the expression levels in differentiated replated neurons were between 10% (S3) and 90% (S11) of the levels in undifferentiated cells. The ratio between rRNA and RP mRNA changed during the differentiation; in differentiated neurons there were, on average, about half the number of RP mRNAs per rRNA as compared to undifferentiated cells. The expression profiles of a few translation-related proteins were also determined. EF1alpha1, EF1beta1, and EF1delta were down regulated, whereas the expression of the neuron and muscle specific EF1alpha2 increased. The reduction in the expression of RP mRNAs was coordinated with a reduction in the expression level of the proliferation marker PCNA. The expression levels of most RP mRNAs were lower in purified differentiated post-mitotic neurons than in the most differentiated continuous cultures, despite similar levels of PCNA, suggesting that both the differentiation state and the proliferative status of the cells affect the expression of RP mRNAs.

  4. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jia-lei; Lu, Fan-zhen; Shen, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Li-ting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells.

  5. Slug inhibits the proliferation and tumor formation of human cervical cancer cells by up-regulating the p21/p27 proteins and down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via the trans-suppression Akt1/p-Akt1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Nan; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Slug (Snai2) has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in different human cancers, but the function of Slug in cervical cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Slug could suppress the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Further experiments found that Slug could trans-suppress the expression of Akt1/p-Akt1 by binding to E-box motifs in the promoter of the Akt1 gene and then inhibit the cell proliferation and tumor formation of cervical cancer cells by up-regulating p21/p27 and/or down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, Slug acts as a tumor suppressor during cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27036045

  6. Behavioural Assessment of the A2a/NR2B Combination in the Unilateral 6-OHDA-Lesioned Rat Model: A New Method to Examine the Therapeutic Potential of Non-Dopaminergic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anne; Downey, Patrick; Van Damme, Xavier; De Wolf, Catherine; Schwarting, Rainer; Scheller, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), dopaminergic therapies are often associated with the development of motor complications. Attention has therefore been focused on the use of non-dopaminergic drugs. This study developed a new behavioural method capable of demonstrating the added value of combining adenosinergic and glutamatergic receptor antagonists in unilateral 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Rats were dosed orally with Tozadenant, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, and three different doses of Radiprodil, an NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonist. The drugs were given alone or in combination and rats were placed in an open-field for behavioural monitoring. Video recordings were automatically analysed. Five different behaviours were scored: distance traveled, ipsi- and contraversive turns, body position, and space occupancy. The results show that A2A or NR2B receptor antagonists given alone or in combination did not produce enhanced turning as observed with an active dose of L-Dopa/benserazide. Instead the treated rats maintained a straight body position, were able to shift from one direction to the other and occupied a significantly larger space in the arena. The highest “Tozadenant/Radiprodil” dose combination significantly increased all five behavioural parameters recorded compared to rats treated with vehicle or the same doses of the drugs alone. Our data suggest that the A2A/NR2B antagonist combination may be able to stimulate motor activity to a similar level as that achieved by L-Dopa but in the absence of the side-effects that are associated with dopaminergic hyperstimulation. If these results translate into the clinic, this combination could represent an alternative symptomatic treatment option for PD. PMID:26322641

  7. Transient up- and down-regulation of expression of myosin light chain 2 and myostatin mRNA mark the changes from stratified hyperplasia to muscle fiber hypertrophy in larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Stella; Alami-Durante, Hélène; Power, Deborah M; Sarropoulou, Elena; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the two mechanisms by which muscle develops and grows. We study these two mechanisms, during the early development of white muscle in Sparus aurata, by means of histology and the expression of structural and regulatory genes. A clear stage of stratified hyperplasia was identified early in the development of gilthead sea bream but ceased by 35 dph when hypertrophy took over. Mosaic recruitment of new white fibers began as soon as 60 dph. The genes mlc2a and mlc2b were expressed at various levels during the main phases of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The genes myog and mlc2a were significantly up-regulated during the intensive stratified formation of new fibers and their expression was significantly correlated. Expression of mstn1 and igf1 increased at 35 dph, appeared to regulate the hyperplasia-to-hypertrophy transition, and may have stimulated the expression of mlc2a, mlc2b and col1a1 at the onset of mosaic hyperplasia. The up-regulation of mstn1 at transitional phases in muscle development indicates a dual regulatory role of myostatin in fish larval muscle growth.

  8. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2009-02-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In the adult the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA is controlled by the sympathetic neural pathway that controls pineal function acting via an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland.

  9. Impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NR2A/2B expression ratio in remifentanil withdrawal rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Yi; Liu, Shichang; Zhang, Nan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yinguo

    2016-03-01

    Remifentanil is a kind of synthetic opioid which has gained wide clinical acceptance by anesthesiologists. In this study, we attempted to test whether withdrawal effects on learning mechanisms can be triggered by repeated low-dose remifentanil treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to remifentanil (50μg/kgs.c.) twice per day at 12h intervals for 15 days. When the animals of remifentanil group were withdrawn from remifentanil at 10h after the last injection, changes in open field test, Morris water maze test (MWM) and synaptic efficacy were examined in each group. We demonstrated that repeated exposure to 50μg/kg remifentanil produced enhanced locomotor activity indicating that a remifentanil addiction animal model in rats was established. MWM results showed that exposure to remifentanil had no influence on the spatial cognition. After withdrawal of remifentanil rats showed impaired spatial cognition. In electrophysiology test, remifentanil group rats showed a trend for a rightward shift of input/output relationship and significant deficits in maintenance of STP and LTP. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated increased NR2A/NR2B ratio that should be included depression of LTP. In the whole-cell patch-clamp recording, after elimination from remifentanil incubation, mEPSC frequency was down regulated in hippocampal CA1 neurons, indicating that basal synaptic transmission were affected by remifentanil withdrawal. Taken together, the current findings demonstrate that the remifentanil withdrawn rats exhibit obvious impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity. Increased hippocampal NR2A/NR2B expression ratio and the changes of basal synaptic transmission may participate in the impairment of LTP. PMID:26777139

  10. Anti-hypertensive effect of Lycium barbarum L. with down-regulated expression of renal endothelial lncRNA sONE in a rat model of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Yang, Xinping; Lin, Yahui; Suo, Miaomiao; Gong, Ling; Chen, Jingzhou; Hui, Rutai

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to test whether Lycium barbarum L. has anti-hypertensive effect through regulating expression of lncRNA sONE in a rat model of salt-sensitive hypertension. Nine weeks old borderline hypertensive rats (BHRs) were divided into 4 groups receiving high (8% NaCl), medium (0.25% NaCl, as control group), and low salt diet (0.015% NaCl) for 16 weeks, respectively, while the fourth group (high salt + L. barbarum group) fed with high salt diet for 12 weeks, then followed by 8% NaCl and L. barbarum treatment for 4 weeks. Body weight and blood pressure were recorded biweekly. Salt-sensitive hypertension was successfully induced by 12-week high salt diet in BHR model. Blood pressure was significantly increased in the model (P < 0.05), and L. barbarum treatment reversed the elevated blood pressure to normal level. Expression of lncRNA sONE was significantly reduced and eNOS expression level was dramatically improved in the hypertension model rats with the L. barbarum compared with that receiving high salt diet. Our results indicated that L. barbarum L. had anti-hypertensive effect and might lower blood pressure by suppressing the expression of lncRNA sONE in BHR model. PMID:26261587

  11. Simvastatin induces NFκB/p65 down-regulation and JNK1/c-Jun/ATF-2 activation, leading to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) but not MMP-2 down-regulation in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Chang, Long-Sen

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the signaling pathways associated with the effect of simvastatin on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)/MMP-9 expression in human leukemia K562 cells. In sharp contrast to its insignificant effect on MMP-2, simvastatin down-regulated MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA levels in K562 cells. Simvastatin-induced Pin1 down-regulation evoked NFκB/p65 degradation. Meanwhile, simvastatin induced JNK-mediated c-Jun and ATF-2 activation. Over-expression of Pin1 suppressed simvastatin-induced MMP-9 down-regulation. Treatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) or knock-down of JNK1 reduced MMP-2 expression in simvastatin-treated cells. Simvastatin enhanced the binding of c-Jun/ATF-2 with the MMP-2 promoter. Down-regulation of c-Jun or ATF-2 by siRNA revealed that c-Jun/ATF-2 activation was crucial for MMP-2 expression. Suppression of p65 activation or knock-down of Pin1 by shRNA reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in K562 cells. Over-expression of constitutively active JNK1 rescued MMP-2 expression in Pin1 shRNA-transfected cells. Simvastatin treatment also suppressed MMP-9 but not MMP-2 expression in human leukemia U937 and KU812 cells. Taken together, our data indicate that simvastatin-induced p65 instability leads to MMP-9 down-regulation in leukemia cells, while simvastatin-induced JNK1/c-Jun/ATF-2 activation maintains the MMP-2 expression underlying p65 down-regulation.

  12. Tannic Acid Down-Regulates the Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Through a MAPK-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yesudas, Rekha; Gumaste, Upendra; Snyder, Russell

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of tannic acid (TA), a hydrolysable polyphenol, on angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression in continuously passaged rat liver epithelial cells. Under normal conditions, exposure of cells to TA resulted in the down-regulation of AT1R-specific binding in concentrations ranging from 12.5–100 μg/ml (7.34–58.78 μm) over a time period of 2–24 h with no change in receptor affinity to angiotensin II (AngII). The inhibitory effect of TA on AT1R was specific and reversible. In TA-treated cells, we observed a significant reduction in AngII-mediated intracellular calcium signaling, a finding consistent with receptor down-regulation. Under similar conditions, TA down-regulated AT1R mRNA expression without changing the rate of mRNA degradation, suggesting that TA's effect is mediated through transcriptional inhibition. Cells expressing recombinant AT1R without the native promoter show no change in receptor expression, whereas a pCAT reporter construct possessing the rat AT1R promoter was significantly reduced in activity. Furthermore, TA induced the phosphorylation of MAPK p42/p44. Pretreatment of the cells with a MAPK kinase (MEK)-specific inhibitor PD98059 prevented TA-induced MAPK phosphorylation and down-regulation of the AT1R. Moreover, there was no reduction in AngII-mediated intracellular calcium release upon MEK inhibition, suggesting that TA's observed inhibitory effect is mediated through MEK/MAPK signaling. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TA inhibits AT1R gene expression and cellular response, suggesting the observed protective effects of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular conditions may be, in part, through inhibition of AT1R expression. PMID:22322600

  13. Soybean isoflavone alleviates β-amyloid 1-42 induced inflammatory response to improve learning and memory ability by down regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and nuclear factor-κB activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, B J; Ma, W W; He, L L; Zhou, X; Yuan, L H; Yu, H L; Feng, J F; Xiao, R

    2011-08-01

    β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42)-induced learning and memory impairment in rats is believed to be associated with inflammation. Cytokine production is a key pathologic event in the progression of inflammatory processes. In this rat study, soybean isoflavones (SIF) was used to investigate it's protective effects on inflammation caused by β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42), which is associated with learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer disease. We characterized the learning and memory ability. cytokine profiles of circulating interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum and the expression of Toll like receptor4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA and protein in the brain tissue following intracerebroventricular administration of Aβ1-42 by miniosmotic pump for 14 days. The results showed that functional deficits of learning and memory in SIF treatment groups were significantly improved compared to the control group without SIF treatment in water maze test. The serum IL-1β and TNF-α level were significantly increased, and the expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein in the brain were up-regulated, indicating inflammation response was initiated following administration of Aβ1-42. After intragastric pre-treatment with SIF, inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and also SIF reversed the Aβ1-42 induced up-regulation of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein expression in the brain and expression of NF-κB p65 in nuclei. These results suggested that SIF reduced the cytokine cascade and inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42 which could result in the improvement of spatial learning and memory ability impairment in the rats.

  14. Amelioration of Diabetic Mouse Nephropathy by Catalpol Correlates with Down-Regulation of Grb10 Expression and Activation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shasha; Deng, Huacong; Zhang, Qunzhou; Xie, Jing; Zeng, Hui; Jin, Xiaolong; Ling, Zixi; Shan, Qiaoyun; Liu, Momo; Ma, Yuefei; Tang, Juan; Wei, Qianping

    2016-01-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) is an adaptor protein that can negatively regulate the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). The IGF1-1R pathway is critical for cell growth and apoptosis and has been implicated in kidney diseases; however, it is still unknown whether Grb10 expression is up-regulated and plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Catalpol, a major active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicine, Rehmannia, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activities and then used to treat diabetes. Herein, we aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of catalpol on a mouse model diabetic nephropathy and the potential role of Grb10 in the pathogenesis of this diabetes-associated complication. Our results showed that catalpol treatment improved diabetes-associated impaired renal functions and ameliorated pathological changes in kidneys of diabetic mice. We also found that Grb10 expression was significantly elevated in kidneys of diabetic mice as compared with that in non-diabetic mice, while treatment with catalpol significantly abrogated the elevated Grb10 expression in diabetic kidneys. On the contrary, IGF-1 mRNA levels and IGF-1R phosphorylation were significantly higher in kidneys of catalpol-treated diabetic mice than those in non-treated diabetic mice. Our results suggest that elevated Grb10 expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through suppressing IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling pathway, which might be a potential molecular target of catalpol for the treatment of this diabetic complication. PMID:26986757

  15. MucoRice-cholera toxin B-subunit, a rice-based oral cholera vaccine, down-regulates the expression of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family as major rice allergens.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Shiho; Nakamura, Rika; Mejima, Mio; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Oyama, Masaaki; Satoh, Shigeru; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Masumura, Takehiro; Teshima, Reiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    To develop a cold chain- and needle/syringe-free rice-based cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) for human use, we previously advanced the MucoRice system by introducing antisense genes specific for endogenous rice storage proteins and produced a molecularly uniform, human-applicable, high-yield MucoRice-CTB devoid of plant-associated sugar. To maintain the cold chain-free property of this vaccine for clinical application, we wanted to use a polished rice powder preparation of MucoRice-CTB without further purification but wondered whether this might cause an unexpected increase in rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and prompt safety concerns. Therefore, we used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and shotgun MS/MS proteomics to compare rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and wild-type (WT) rice. Both proteomics analyses showed that the only notable change in the expression levels of rice allergen protein in MucoRice-CTB, compared with those in WT rice, was a decrease in the expression levels of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family such as the seed allergen protein RAG2. Real-time PCR analysis showed mRNA of RAG2 reduced in MucoRice-CTB seed. These results demonstrate that no known rice allergens appear to be up-reregulated by genetic modification of MucoRice-CTB, suggesting that MucoRice-CTB has potential as a safe oral cholera vaccine for clinical application.

  16. Down-regulation of PERK enhances resistance to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oommen, Deepu Prise, Kevin M.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •PERK enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to ionizing radiation. •Down-regulation of PERK results in enhanced DNA repair. •Ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis is inhibited in PERK-down regulated cancer cells. -- Abstract: Although, ionizing radiation (IR) has been implicated to cause stress in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), how ER stress signaling and major ER stress sensors modulate cellular response to IR is unclear. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER transmembrane protein which initiates unfolded protein response (UPR) or ER stress signaling when ER homeostasis is disturbed. Here, we report that down-regulation of PERK resulted in increased clonogenic survival, enhanced DNA repair and reduced apoptosis in irradiated cancer cells. Our study demonstrated that PERK has a role in sensitizing cancer cells to IR.

  17. Down-regulation of α-L-fucosidase 1 expression confers inferior survival for triple-negative breast cancer patients by modulating the glycosylation status of the tumor cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tzu-Chun; Chen, Li-Ching; Chen, Ming-Yao; Chen, Wen-Ye; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Ho, Yuan-Soon

    2015-01-01

    α-L-fucosidase 1 (FUCA1) is a lysosomal enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of the terminal fucose residue in breast cancer cells. FUCA1 mRNA levels were detected by real-time PCR, and there was a greater than 139-fold increase in FUCA1 mRNA expression in breast tumor samples compared with normal breast tissue samples (*P = 0.005, n = 236). Higher FUCA1 mRNA expression was preferentially detected in early-stage tumors (stage 0 to 2) compared with advanced-stage tumors (stage 3 to 4) (stage 0-1 versus stage 3, *P = 0.015; stage 0-1 versus stage 4, *P = 0.024). FUCA1 protein levels were higher in advanced-stage tumors concomitant with decreased fucosylated Lewis-x antigen expression, as evidenced using the immunohistochemical staining H-score method (*P < 0.001). Statistical analysis revealed that lower FUCA1 levels significantly predicted an inferior overall survival rate among triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients compared with non-TNBC patients (*P = 0.009). Two stable FUCA1 siRNA knock-down MDA-MB-231 cell lines were established, and the results suggest that transient FUCA inhibition creates a selective pressure that triggers the metastasis of primary tumor cells, as detected by wound healing and invasion assays (*P < 0.01). The results suggest that FUCA1 may be a potential prognostic molecular target for clinical use, especially in TNBC patients. PMID:26204487

  18. Ghrelin inhibits oxLDL-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages through down-regulation of LOX-1 expression via NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, N; Wang, H; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is one of the many causes of the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, which can subsequently promote the uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and lead to inflammation in the blood vessels. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of ghrelin on oxLDL-induced RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Ghrelin was able to inhibit the release of several pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. In addition, ghrelin also inhibited the expression of Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in oxLDL treated macrophages. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ghrelin could inhibit the expression of p-IκBα, and the inhibitory effects could be blocked by BAY 117082. Taken together, ghrelin possesses anti-inflammatory effects on oxLDL-induced inflammation in macrophages, suggesting that it can prevent or treat atherosclerosis, and deserves to be further studied and developed to be potent drug for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:26950452

  19. The up-regulation of elongation factors in the barley leaf and the down-regulation of nucleosome assembly genes in the crown are both associated with the expression of frost tolerance.

    PubMed

    Janská, Anna; Aprile, Alessio; Cattivelli, Luigi; Zámečník, Jiří; de Bellis, Luigi; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2014-09-01

    We report a series of microarray-based leaf and crown transcriptome comparisons involving three barley cultivars (cvs. Luxor, Igri and Atlas 68) which express differing degrees of frost tolerance. The transcripts were obtained following the exposure of seedlings to low (above and below zero) temperatures, aiming to identify those genes and signalling/metabolic pathways which are associated with frost tolerance. Both the leaves and the crowns responded to low temperature by the up-regulation of a suite of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, most of which have already been recognized as components of the plant low temperature response. The inter-cultivar comparison indicated that genes involved in maintaining the leaf's capacity to synthesize protein and to retain chloroplast activity were important for the expression of frost tolerance. In the crown, the repression of genes associated with nucleosome assembly and transposon regulation were the most relevant transcriptional changes associated with frost tolerance, highlighting the role of gene repression in the cold acclimation response.

  20. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb aqueous extract down-regulates in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in atherogenic rats and inhibits in vitro macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Salunke, Sunita P; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluates efficacy of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) leaves extract in ameliorating experimental atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Atherogenic (ATH) diet fed rats recorded significant increment in the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), autoantibody against oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), markers of LDL oxidation and decrement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) along with increment in aortic TC and TG. The ex vivo LDL oxidation assay revealed an increased susceptibility of LDL isolated from ATH rats to undergo copper mediated oxidation. These set of changes were minimized by simultaneous co-supplementation of SR extract to ATH diet fed rats. Histopathology of aorta and immunolocalization studies recorded pronounced atheromatous plaque formation, vascular calcification, significant elastin derangements and higher expression of macrophage surface marker (F4/80), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-selectin in ATH rats. Whereas, ATH+SR rats depicted minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, calcium deposition, distortion/defragmentation of elastin and accumulation of macrophages along with lowered expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin compared to ATH rats. Further, monocyte to macrophage differentiation and in vitro foam cell formation were significantly attenuated in presence of SR extract. In conclusion, SR extract has the potency of controlling experimental atherosclerosis and can be used as promising herbal supplement in combating atherosclerosis.

  1. Down-regulation of T-STAR, a growth inhibitory protein, after SV40-mediated immortalization.

    PubMed

    Kool, J; van Zaane, W; van der Eb, A J; Terleth, C

    2001-11-01

    Normal human cells can undergo a limited number of divisions, whereas transformed cells may have an extended life span and can give rise to immortal cells. To isolate genes involved in the immortalization process, gene expression in SV40-transformed preimmortal human fibroblasts was compared with expression in SV40-transformed immortalized fibroblasts using an mRNA differential display. We found that the growth-inhibitory protein testis-signal transduction and activation of RNA (T-STAR) a homologue of cell-cycle regulator Sam68, is strongly down-regulated in immortalized cells. Overexpression of T-STAR in the SV40-transformed immortalized cells resulted in a strong reduction of colony formation, whereas deletion of the RNA-binding domain of T-STAR abrogated this effect. Down-regulation of testis-signal transduction and activation of RNA (T-STAR) expression is found only in immortal cells isolated after a proliferative crisis accompanied with massive cell death. The strict correlation of down-regulation of T-STAR expression only in those immortal cells that arose after a clear proliferative crisis suggests that the loss of T-STAR might be necessary to bypass crisis. PMID:11714634

  2. Human cytomegalovirus miR-UL112-1 promotes the down-regulation of viral immediate early-gene expression during latency to prevent T-cell recognition of latently infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lau, Betty; Poole, Emma; Van Damme, Ellen; Bunkens, Lieve; Sowash, Madeleine; King, Harry; Murphy, Eain; Wills, Mark; Van Loock, Marnix; Sinclair, John

    2016-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus, a member of the herpesvirus family, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immune compromised patients resulting from either primary lytic infection or reactivation from latency. Latent infection is associated with a restricted viral transcription programme compared to lytic infection which consists of defined protein coding RNAs but also includes a number of virally encoded microRNAs (miRNAs). One of these, miR-UL112-1, is known to target the major lytic IE72 transcript but, to date, a functional role for miR-UL112-1 during latent infection has not been shown. To address this, we have analysed latent infection in myeloid cells using a virus in which the target site for miR-UL112-1 in the 3' UTR of IE72 was removed such that any IE72 RNA present during latent infection would no longer be subject to regulation by miR-UL112-1 through the RNAi pathway. Our data show that removal of the miR-UL112-1 target site in IE72 results in increased levels of IE72 RNA in experimentally latent primary monocytes. Furthermore, this resulted in induction of immediate early (IE) gene expression that is detectable by IE-specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs); no such CTL recognition of monocytes latently infected with wild-type virus was observed. We also recapitulated these findings in the more tractable THP-1 cell line model of latency. These observations argue that an important role for miR-UL112-1 during latency is to ensure tight control of lytic viral immediate early (IE) gene expression thereby preventing recognition of latently infected cells by the host's potent pre-existing anti-viral CTL response.

  3. Fisetin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Down-Regulating Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Expression through Suppressing the p38 MAPK-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Yu, Yung-Luen; Huang, Min-Hsien; Huang, Yi-Chang; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Fisetin (3,3’,4’,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer types. However, its effect on the anti-metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that fisetin inhibits the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. The expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was significantly suppressed by fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that fisetin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or AKT. Addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, further enhanced the inhibitory effect of fisetin on the expression and activity of uPA and the invasion and motility in cervical cancer cells. Fisetin suppressed the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced activation of p38 MAPK and uPA, and inhibited the TPA-enhanced migratory and invasive abilities. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the uPA gene was dramatically repressed by fisetin, which disrupted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding amount on the promoter of the uPA gene, and these suppressive effects could be further enhanced by SB203580. This study provides strong evidence for the molecular mechanism of fisetin in inhibiting the aggressive phenotypes by repression of uPA via interruption of p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and thus contributes insight to the potential of using fisetin as a therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer by inhibiting migration and invasion. PMID:23940799

  4. Fisetin inhibits migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells by down-regulating urokinase plasminogen activator expression through suppressing the p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Yu, Yung-Luen; Huang, Min-Hsien; Huang, Yi-Chang; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer types. However, its effect on the anti-metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that fisetin inhibits the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. The expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was significantly suppressed by fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that fisetin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or AKT. Addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, further enhanced the inhibitory effect of fisetin on the expression and activity of uPA and the invasion and motility in cervical cancer cells. Fisetin suppressed the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced activation of p38 MAPK and uPA, and inhibited the TPA-enhanced migratory and invasive abilities. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the uPA gene was dramatically repressed by fisetin, which disrupted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding amount on the promoter of the uPA gene, and these suppressive effects could be further enhanced by SB203580. This study provides strong evidence for the molecular mechanism of fisetin in inhibiting the aggressive phenotypes by repression of uPA via interruption of p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and thus contributes insight to the potential of using fisetin as a therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer by inhibiting migration and invasion.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin induces efficient tumor cell lysis via selective down-regulation of LMP1 and c-myc expression in EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Areumnuri; Kang, Hye Jin; Park, Sunhoo; Kim, Dong Wan; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2015-08-10

    We investigated the role of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, romidepsin, in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor clinical outcomes. We used EBV-positive and EBV-negative DLBCL cell lines and generated two EBV-transfected cell lines, LY7/EBV and U2932/EBV. Romidepsin was cytotoxic to cultured EBV-positive cells via the activation of the caspase cascade. Moreover, in vivo mice xenograft models demonstrated the cytotoxicity of romidepsin to EBV-positive DLBCL cells. Romidepsin induced cytotoxicity via the reduction of LMP1 and c-myc expression in EBV-positive cells. Inhibiting either LMP1 or c-myc using small inhibitory RNAs caused partial cytotoxicity in EBV-positive Farage and U2932/EBV lines. The dual inhibition of LMP1 and c-myc showed a synergistic cytotoxic effect in EBV-positive cells similar in magnitude to that of romidepsin alone. In addition, either double blockade of LMP1 and c-myc activity or romidepsin single treatment activated EBV lytic cycle in EBV-positive cells. In conclusion, romidepsin exerts strong anti-tumor activity in EBV-positive DLBCL via the inhibition of both LMP1 and c-myc. Our findings indicate that romidepsin might be a promising treatment for EBV-positive DLBCL.

  6. Methylglyoxal suppresses human colon cancer cell lines and tumor growth in a mouse model by impairing glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells associated with down-regulation of c-Myc expression.

    PubMed

    He, Tiantian; Zhou, Huaibin; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Xiaowan; Li, Chenli; Mao, Jiating; Lyu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H

    2016-09-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound exhibiting anti-tumor activity. The anti-tumor effects of MG have been demonstrated in some types of cancer, but its role in colon cancer and the mechanisms underlying this activity remain largely unknown. We investigated its role in human colon cancer and the underlying mechanism using human colon cancer cells and animal model. Viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were quantified in DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cells by using the Cell Counting Kit-8, plate colony formation assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were assessed by wound healing and transwell assays. Glucose consumption, lactate production, and intracellular ATP production also were assayed. The levels of c-Myc protein and mRNA were quantitated by western blot and qRT-PCR. The anti-tumor role of MG in vivo was investigated in a DLD-1 xenograft tumor model in nude mice. We demonstrated that MG inhibited viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis of DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cells. Treatment with MG reduced glucose consumption, lactate production, and ATP production and decreased c-Myc protein levels in these cells. Moreover, MG significantly suppressed tumor growth and c-Myc expression in vivo. Our findings suggest that MG plays an anti-tumor role in colon cancer. It inhibits cancer cell growth by altering the glycolytic pathway associated with downregulation of c-Myc protein. MG has therapeutic potential in colon cancer by interrupting cancer metabolism. PMID:27455418

  7. Regulation of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by 2''-hydroxy-3''-en-anhydroicaritin involves down-regulation of NF-kappaB and MAPK expression.

    PubMed

    Ci, Xinxin; Liang, Xiaoying; Luo, Guojun; Yu, Qinlei; Li, Hongyu; Wang, Dacheng; Li, Rongtao; Deng, Xuming

    2010-09-01

    2''-hydroxy-3''-en-anhydroicaritin, a flavone, was isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Epimedium brevicornum for the first time. In our previous study, we have carried out a screening program to identify the anti-inflammatory potentials of 2''-hydroxy-3''-en-anhydroicaritin. In the present study, we further found that this compound regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced levels of nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) (**p<0.01 or *p<0.05), and reduced levels of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. We further investigated signal transduction mechanisms to determine how 2''-hydroxy-3''-en-anhydroicaritin affects RAW264.7 macrophages pretreated with 0.5, 2.5, or 12.5mg/L of 2''-hydroxy-3''-en-anhydroicaritin 1h prior to treatment with 1mg/L of LPS. Thirty minutes later, cells were harvested and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation and I kappaB alpha were measured by western blotting. Alternatively, the macrophages were fixed and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation was measured by immunocytochemical analysis. Signal transduction studies showed that the flavone significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation protein expression. The flavone also inhibited p65-NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus by I kappaB alpha degradation. Therefore, 2''-hydroxy-3''-en-anhydroicaritin may inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by blocking NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling in RAW264.7 cells.

  8. Omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids down-regulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) gene and blood cell adhesion molecule expression in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Daak, Ahmed A; Elderdery, Abozer Y; Elbashir, Leana M; Mariniello, Katia; Mills, Jeremy; Scarlett, Garry; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and reduced blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) are known characteristics of sickle cell disease (SCD).The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 fatty acids are well recognized. Omega-3 treated (n = 24), hydroxyurea (HU) treated (n = 18), and n-3 untreated (n=21) homozygous SCD patients (HbSS) and healthy (HbAA) controls (n = 25) matched for age (5-16 years), gender and socioeconomic status were studied. According to age (5-10) or (11-16) years, two or three capsules containing 277.8 mg docosahexaenoic (DHA) and 39.0mg eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or high oleic acid placebo (41%) were assigned to n-3 treated and n-3 untreated groups, respectively. Hydroxyurea treated group was on dosage more than 20 mg/kg/day. The effect of supplementation on systemic and blood cell markers of inflammation was investigated. The n-3 treated group had higher levels of DHA and EPA (p < 0.001) and lower white blood cell count and monocyte integrin (p < 0.05) compared with the n-3 untreated. No difference was detected between the two groups regarding C-reactive protein, granulocytes integrin and selectin, plasma tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10. The n-3 treated group had lowered nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) gene expression compared to n-3 untreated and HU treated groups (p < 0.05). This study provides evidence that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate inflammation and blood cell adhesion in patients with SCD.

  9. CHIP mediates down-regulation of nucleobindin-1 in preosteoblast cell line models.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fuying; Wu, Yanping; Zhao, Xinghui; Zhao, Taoran; Meng, Ying; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Guo, Junwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1), also known as Calnuc, is a highly conserved, multifunctional protein widely expressed in tissues and cells. It contains two EF-hand motifs which have been shown to play a crucial role in binding Ca(2+) ions. In this study, we applied comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to characterize differentially expressed proteins in HA-CHIP over-expressed and endogenous CHIP depleted MC3T3-E1 stable cell lines, identifying NUCB1 as a novel CHIP/Stub1 targeted protein. NUCB1 interacts with and is down-regulated by CHIP by both proteasomal dependent and independent pathways, suggesting that CHIP-mediated down-regulation of nucleobindin-1 might play a role in osteoblast differentiation. The chaperone protein Hsp70 was found to be important for CHIP and NUCB1 interaction as well as CHIP-mediated NUCB1 down-regulation. Our findings provide new insights into understanding the stability regulation of NUCB1.

  10. Down-regulation of SOSTDC1 promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via regulating cyclin A2 and cyclin E2

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoying; Ke, Weijian; Xu, Lijuan; Liu, Liehua; Xiao, Haipeng; Li, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    Sclerostin domain containing protein 1 (SOSTDC1) is down-regulated and acts as a tumor suppressor in some kinds of cancers. However, the expression pattern and biological significance of SOSTDC1 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. We demonstrated that SOSTDC1 was significantly down-regulated in thyroid cancer. Ectopic over-expression of SOSTDC1 inhibited proliferation and induced G1/S arrest in thyroid cancer cells. Moreover, SOSTDC1 over-expression suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. We also found that elevated SOSTDC1 led to inhibition of cyclin A2 and cyclin E2. Together, our results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is down-regulated in thyroid cancer and might be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26378658

  11. Down-regulation of cellulose synthase inhibits the formation of endocysts in Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Yeonchul; Chung, Dong-Il; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Acanthamoeba cysts are resistant to unfavorable physiological conditions and various disinfectants. Acanthamoeba cysts have 2 walls containing various sugar moieties, and in particular, one third of the inner wall is composed of cellulose. In this study, it has been shown that down-regulation of cellulose synthase by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibits the formation of mature Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts. Calcofluor white staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that siRNA transfected amoeba failed to form an inner wall during encystation and thus are likely to be more vulnerable. In addition, the expression of xylose isomerase, which is involved in cyst wall formation, was not altered in cellulose synthase down-regulated amoeba, indicating that cellulose synthase is a crucial factor for inner wall formation by Acanthamoeba during encystation.

  12. Down-regulation of lipoprotein lipase increases glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Veronica; Saraff, Kumuda; Medh, Jheem D.

    2009-11-06

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic hypoglycemic agents used to treat type 2 diabetes. TZDs target the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) and improve systemic insulin sensitivity. The contributions of specific tissues to TZD action, or the downstream effects of PPAR-{gamma} activation, are not very clear. We have used a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6 cells) to demonstrate that TZDs directly target PPAR-{gamma} in muscle cells. TZD treatment resulted in a significant repression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression in L6 cells. This repression correlated with an increase in glucose uptake. Down-regulation of LPL message and protein levels using siRNA resulted in a similar increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Thus, LPL down-regulation improved insulin sensitivity independent of TZDs. This finding provides a novel method for the management of insulin resistance.

  13. DNA methylation down-regulates EGFR expression in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a growth-factor-receptor tyrosine kinase, was found up-regulated in numerous tumors, which provides a good target for cancer therapy. Although it was documented that oncoviruses are responsible for the activation of EGFR in tumors, the impact of Marek’s d...

  14. Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Li; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-09-23

    Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal miRNAs critical for air pollution-related tumourigenesis, we performed microRNA microarray analysis in 6 Xuanwei non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 4 NSCLCs from control regions where smoky coal was not used. We found 13 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRNAs in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Among them, miR-144 was one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs. The expanded experiments showed that miR-144 was down-regulated in 45/51 (88.2%) Xuanwei NSCLCs and 34/54 (63%) control region NSCLCs (p = 0.016). MiR-144 interacted with the oncogene Zeb1 at 2 sites in its 3' untranslated region, and a decrease in miR-144 resulted in increased Zeb1 expression and an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype. Ectopic expression of miR-144 suppressed NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo by targeting Zeb1. These results indicate that down-regulation of miR-144 is critical for air pollution-related lung cancer, and the miR-144-Zeb1 signalling pathway could represent a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Photosynthesis down-regulation precedes carbohydrate accumulation under sink limitation in Citrus.

    PubMed

    Nebauer, Sergio G; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Guardiola, José Luis; Molina, Rosa-Victoria

    2011-02-01

    Photosynthesis down-regulation due to an imbalance between sources and sinks in Citrus leaves could be mediated by excessive accumulation of carbohydrates. However, there is limited understanding of the physiological role of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in photosynthesis regulation and the elements triggering the down-regulation process. In this work, the role of non-structural carbohydrates in the regulation of photosynthesis under a broad spectrum of source-sink relationships has been investigated in the Salustiana sweet orange. Soluble sugar and starch accumulation in leaves, induced by girdling experiments, did not induce down-regulation of the photosynthetic rate in the presence of sinks (fruits). The leaf-to-fruit ratio did not modulate photosynthesis but allocation of photoassimilates to the fruits. The lack of strong sink activity led to a decrease in the photosynthetic rate and starch accumulation in leaves. However, photosynthesis down-regulation due to an excess of total soluble sugars or starch was discarded because photosynthesis and stomatal conductance reduction occurred prior to any significant accumulation of these carbohydrates. Gas exchange and fluorescence parameters suggested biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. In addition, the expression of carbon metabolism-related genes was altered within 24 h when strong sinks were removed. Sucrose synthesis and export genes were inhibited, whereas the expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was increased to cope with the excess of assimilates. In conclusion, changes in starch and soluble sugar turnover, but not sugar content per se, could provide the signal for photosynthesis regulation. In these conditions, non-stomatal limitations strongly inhibited the photosynthetic rate prior to any significant increase in carbohydrate levels. PMID:21367744

  16. Prodigiosin down-regulates survivin to facilitate paclitaxel sensitization in human breast carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsing-Fen; Peng, Yu-Ta; Chuang, Show-Mei; Lin, Shin-Chang; Feng, Bo-Lin; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Yu, Wan-Ju; Chang, Jo-Shu; Chang, Chia-Che

    2009-03-01

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial metabolite with potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to its proapoptotic effect selectively active in malignant cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby prodigiosin induces apoptosis remain largely unknown. In particular, the role of survivin, a vital inhibitor of apoptosis, in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis has never been addressed before and hence was the primary goal of this study. Our results showed that prodigiosin dose-dependently induced down-regulation of survivin in multiple breast carcinoma cell lines, including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. This down-regulation is mainly regulated at the level of transcription, as prodigiosin reduced the levels of both survivin mRNA and survivin promoter activity but failed to rescue survivin expression when proteasome-mediated degradation is abolished. Importantly, overexpression of survivin rendered cells more resistant to prodigiosin, indicating an essential role of survivin down-regulation in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that prodigiosin synergistically enhanced cell death induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug known to up-regulate survivin that in turn confers its own resistance. This paclitaxel sensitization effect of prodigiosin is ascribed to the lowering of survivin expression, because prodigiosin was shown to counteract survivin induction by paclitaxel and, notably, the sensitization effect was severely abrogated in cells that overexpress survivin. Taken together, our results argue that down-regulation of survivin is an integral component mediating prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and further suggest the potential of prodigiosin to sensitize anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, in the treatment of breast cancer.

  17. Prodigiosin down-regulates survivin to facilitate paclitaxel sensitization in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.-F.; Peng, Y.-T.; Chuang, S.-M.; Lin, S.-C.; Feng, B.-L.; Lu, C.-H.; Yu, W.-J.; Chang, J.-S. Chang, C.-C.

    2009-03-01

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial metabolite with potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to its proapoptotic effect selectively active in malignant cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby prodigiosin induces apoptosis remain largely unknown. In particular, the role of survivin, a vital inhibitor of apoptosis, in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis has never been addressed before and hence was the primary goal of this study. Our results showed that prodigiosin dose-dependently induced down-regulation of survivin in multiple breast carcinoma cell lines, including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. This down-regulation is mainly regulated at the level of transcription, as prodigiosin reduced the levels of both survivin mRNA and survivin promoter activity but failed to rescue survivin expression when proteasome-mediated degradation is abolished. Importantly, overexpression of survivin rendered cells more resistant to prodigiosin, indicating an essential role of survivin down-regulation in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that prodigiosin synergistically enhanced cell death induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug known to up-regulate survivin that in turn confers its own resistance. This paclitaxel sensitization effect of prodigiosin is ascribed to the lowering of survivin expression, because prodigiosin was shown to counteract survivin induction by paclitaxel and, notably, the sensitization effect was severely abrogated in cells that overexpress survivin. Taken together, our results argue that down-regulation of survivin is an integral component mediating prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and further suggest the potential of prodigiosin to sensitize anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, in the treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Pseudomonas syringae Effector Avirulence Protein E Localizes to the Host Plasma Membrane and Down-Regulates the Expression of the NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1/HARPIN-INDUCED1-LIKE13 Gene Required for Antibacterial Immunity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiu-Fang; Nomura, Kinya; Ding, Xinhua; Chen, Xujun; Wang, Kun; Aung, Kyaw; Uribe, Francisco; Rosa, Bruce; Yao, Jian; Chen, Jin; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals deliver effector proteins into host cells to promote infection. Elucidation of how pathogen effector proteins function not only is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis but also provides a useful tool in discovering the functions of host genes. In this study, we characterized the Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 effector protein Avirulence Protein E (AvrE), the founding member of a widely distributed, yet functionally enigmatic, bacterial effector family. We show that AvrE is localized in the plasma membrane (PM) and PM-associated vesicle-like structures in the plant cell. AvrE contains two physically interacting domains, and the amino-terminal portion contains a PM-localization signal. Genome-wide microarray analysis indicates that AvrE, as well as the functionally redundant effector Hypersensitive response and pathogenicity-dependent Outer Protein M1, down-regulates the expression of the NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1/HARPIN-INDUCED1-LIKE13 (NHL13) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutational analysis shows that NHL13 is required for plant immunity, as the nhl13 mutant plant displayed enhanced disease susceptibility. Our results defined the action site of one of the most important bacterial virulence proteins in plants and the antibacterial immunity function of the NHL13 gene. PMID:26206852

  19. Adipose Genes Down-Regulated During Experimental Endotoxemia Are Also Suppressed in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hinkle, Christine C.; Haris, Lalarukh; Shah, Rhia; Mehta, Nehal N.; Putt, Mary E.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Adipose inflammation is a crucial link between obesity and its metabolic complications. Human experimental endotoxemia is a controlled model for the study of inflammatory cardiometabolic responses in vivo. Objective: We hypothesized that adipose genes down-regulated during endotoxemia would approximate changes observed with obesity-related inflammation and reveal novel candidates in cardiometabolic disease. Design, Subjects, and Intervention: Healthy volunteers (n = 14) underwent a 3 ng/kg endotoxin challenge; adipose biopsies were taken at 0, 4, 12, and 24 h for mRNA microarray. A priority list of highly down-regulated and biologically relevant genes was validated by RT-PCR in an independent sample of adipose from healthy subjects (n = 7) undergoing a subclinical 0.6 ng/kg endotoxemia protocol. Expression of validated genes was screened in adipose of lean and severely obese individuals (n = 11 per group), and cellular source was probed in cultured adipocytes and macrophages. Results: Endotoxemia (3 ng/kg) suppressed expression of 353 genes (to <67% of baseline; P < 1 × 10−5) of which 68 candidates were prioritized for validation. In low-dose (0.6 ng/kg) endotoxin validation, 22 (32%) of these 68 genes were confirmed. Functional classification revealed that many of these genes are involved in cell development and differentiation. Of validated genes, 59% (13 of 22) were down-regulated more than 1.5-fold in primary human adipocytes after treatment with endotoxin. In human macrophages, 59% (13 of 22) were up-regulated during differentiation to inflammatory M1 macrophages whereas 64% (14 of 22) were down-regulated during transition to homeostatic M2 macrophages. Finally, in obese vs. lean adipose, 91% (20 of 22) tended to have reduced expression (χ2 = 10.72, P < 0.01) with 50% (11 of 22) reaching P < 0.05 (χ2 = 9.28, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Exploration of down-regulated mRNA in adipose during human endotoxemia revealed suppression of genes involved in

  20. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rossing, Maria; Borup, Rehannah; Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole; Vikesaa, Jonas; Niazi, Omid; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Glud, Martin; Hjort-Sørensen, Christian; Kiss, Katalin; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2012-02-01

    The molecular determinants of thyroid follicular nodules are incompletely understood and assessment of malignancy is a diagnostic challenge. Since microRNA (miRNA) analyses could provide new leads to malignant progression, we characterised the global miRNA expression in follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC). Comparison of carcinoma and adenoma with normal thyroid revealed 150 and 107 differentially expressed miRNAs respectively. Most miRNAs were down-regulated and especially miR-199b-5p and miR-144 which were essentially lost in the carcinomas. Integration of the changed miRNAs with differentially expressed mRNAs demonstrated an enrichment of seed sites among up-regulated transcripts encoding proteins implicated in thyroid tumourigenesis. This was substantiated by the demonstration that pre-miR-199b reduced proliferation when added to cultured follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. The down-regulated miRNAs in FC exhibited a substantial similarity with down-regulated miRNAs in anaplastic carcinoma (AC) and by gene set enrichment analysis, we observed a significant identity between target mRNAs in FC and transcripts up-regulated in AC. To examine the diagnostic potential of miRNA expression pattern in distinguishing malignant from benign nodules we employed a supervised learning algorithm and leave-one-out-cross-validation. By this procedure, FA and FC were identified with a negative predicted value of 83% (data generated by microarray platform) and of 92% (data generated by qRT-PCR platform). We conclude that follicular neoplasia is associated with major changes in miRNA expression that may promote malignant transformation by increasing the expression of transcripts encoding tumourigenic factors. Moreover, miRNA profiling may facilitate the diagnosis of carcinoma vs adenoma. PMID:22049245

  1. [Down-regulation of TIPE2 promotes the proliferation and immune activity of T lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihong; Chen, Jiangyong; Hong, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Objective To utilize specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the expression of tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 8 like-2 (TIPE2) gene of T lymphocytes and investigate the effect of TIPE2 targeting siRNA on T lymphocyte proliferation and immune function. Methods Mouse spleen T lymphocytes were sorted by magnetic beads. Western blotting was used to screen and validate an effective siRNA to silence the TIPE2 gene expression of T lymphocytes. Twenty-four hours after transfection with the siRNA into T lymphocytes, the expression of CD69 in each group was detected by flow cytometry. Seventy-two hours after transfection, the proliferation of the T lymphocytes was measured with CCK-8 assay; meanwhile, the secretion levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in each group were measured by ELISA. Results We obtained TIPE2 targeting siRNA sequences and effectively silenced the expression of TIPE2 gene. After TIPE2 gene expression was down-regulated, the expression of the CD69 on T lymphocytes increased, and the proliferation of T lymphocytes and the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ were enhanced. Conclusion Down-regulation of TIPE2 gene expression can promote the T lymphocyte proliferation and immune activity. PMID:27363266

  2. Involvement of the MEK/ERK pathway in EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Etsu; Henmi, Shizuka; Odake, Hiroyuki; Ino, Seitaro; Imoto, Masaya

    2016-09-01

    E-cadherin is a major component of the epithelial adherens junction. However, the regulatory mechanism of E-cadherin expression is still poorly understood. In this study, we found that EGF decreased E-cadherin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells. Since E-cadherin down-regulation is a well-known hallmark of the EMT (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition), we investigated whether EGF induced E-cadherin down-regulation during the EMT. EGF was unable to affect the expression of mesenchymal markers (such as N-cadherin, vimentin or fibronectin) or EMT-regulating transcription factors (such as SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1, ZEB2 or TWIST), suggesting that EGF induced E-cadherin down-regulation via an EMT-independent mechanism. On the other hand, the MEK inhibitor U0126 was found to suppress EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation at the transcriptional level, suggesting that the MEK/ERK pathway is involved in EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. Moreover, we also found that EGF disrupted cell-cell contact, stimulated cells to form an elongated shape with filamentous protrusions, and induced cell migration in LoVo cells. These effects were suppressed by U0126. Therefore, EGF is suggested to induce E-cadherin down-regulation at the transcriptional level through the MEK/ERK pathway, which might result in, at least in part, the induction of cellular morphological changes and cell migration in LoVo cells.

  3. Down-regulation of beta 1C integrin, an inhibitor of cell proliferation, in prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, M.; Tallini, G.; Bofetiado, C. J.; Bosari, S.; Languino, L. R.

    1996-01-01

    The beta 1C integrin, a member of the cell adhesion receptor superfamily, is an alternatively spliced variant of the beta 1A subunit and, in contrast to its wild-type counterpart, inhibits cell proliferation in vitro. The expression of beta 1C integrin in tumor cell growth was investigated. In benign and neoplastic human prostate tissues, immunohistochemical analysis performed using affinity-purified antibodies specific for beta 1C demonstrated a predominant epithelial expression of beta 1C in benign prostate glands with marked staining of the apical, basal, and lateral surfaces. In the adjacent prostate adenocarcinoma glands, the beta 1C variant was dramatically down-regulated in 27 of 34 (79%) analyzed cases, whereas the expression and distribution of its wild-type counterpart, beta 1A, remained unchanged. Tumors exhibiting different Gleason's patterns showed that beta 1C was down-regulated in comparison with the benign tissue regardless of the histological grade. Immunoblotting analysis, using affinity-purified antibodies specific for beta 1C, was performed, in a quantitative manner, to compare beta 1C expression in benign and tumor prostate tissue. The results showed that beta 1C was expressed in benign prostate tissue whereas it was undetectable in prostate adenocarcinoma. Taken together, these data show that beta 1C integrin down-regulation in prostate tissues correlates with a neoplastic phenotype consistent with its in vitro growth-inhibitory properties. These findings indicate a novel pathophysiological role for this integrin variant in tumorigenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8780381

  4. Ciliary Genes Are Down-Regulated in Bronchial Tissue of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Geremek, Maciej; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; Pogorzelski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, bronchiectasis and male infertility. The pulmonary phenotype in PCD is caused by the impaired motility of cilia in the respiratory epithelium, due to ultrastructural defects of these organelles. We hypothesized that defects of multi-protein ciliary complexes should be reflected by gene expression changes in the respiratory epithelium. We have previously found that large group of genes functionally related to cilia share highly correlated expression pattern in PCD bronchial tissue. Here we performed an explorative analysis of differential gene expression in the bronchial tissue from six PCD patients and nine non-PCD controls, using Illumina HumanRef-12 Whole Genome BeadChips. We observed 1323 genes with at least 2-fold difference in the mean expression level between the two groups (t-test p-value <0.05). Annotation analysis showed that the genes down-regulated in PCD biopsies (602) were significantly enriched for terms related to cilia, whereas the up-regulated genes (721) were significantly enriched for terms related to cell cycle and mitosis. We assembled a list of human genes predicted to encode ciliary proteins, components of outer dynein arms, inner dynein arms, radial spokes, and intraflagellar transport proteins. A significant down-regulation of the expression of genes from all the four groups was observed in PCD, compared to non-PCD biopsies. Our data suggest that a coordinated down-regulation of the ciliome genes plays an important role in the molecular pathomechanism of PCD. PMID:24516614

  5. [BMMSC from blastic phase CML down-regulate leukemia cell apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Han, Yu-Xiang; Niu, Zhi-Yun; Wang, Xing-Zhe; Hua, Huan; Shang, Yin-Tao; Wang, Fu-Xu; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Luo, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blastic phase (Bp) on K562 cells and the primary CML-Bp cells, and to explore its potential mechanisms. K562 cells and primary CML-Bp cells were co-cultured with BMMSC of different groups; the cell proliferation was detected by MTT method, the cell apoptosis rate and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by flow cytometry, the expression levels of Caspase-8, Caspase-9, and activated Caspase-3 in cells were measured by Western blot. The results showed that the CML-Bp BMMSC could enhance the survival rate of K562 cells treated with adviamycin (ADM) and display protective effect on K562 cells and primary CML-Bp mononuctear cells, inhibited ADM-induced leukimia cell apoptosis (P < 0.05); as compared with CML-chronic phase (CML-Cp) BMMSC and normal BMMSC, the CML-Bp BMMSC showed the highest protective effect on leukemic cells, the mitochondrial membrane potential of co-cultured cells slightly droped (P < 0.05). In the CML-Bp BMMSC cultured with K562 cells, the expression level of caspase-3 was more down-regulated than that in K562 alone plus ADM group, while the expression of caspase-9 significantly increased (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the CML-Bp BMMSC down-regulates ADM-induced leukemia cell appoptosis, its mechanism may relate with the inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential drop, the stabilization of unactive expression of caspase-9 and down-regulation of caspase-3 expression. PMID:25338597

  6. Protein Kinase C-{delta} mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng-Hou; Wu, Ying-Li; Zhao, Meng; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2009-11-15

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta ({Delta}PKC-{delta}). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the {Delta}PKC-{delta}, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that {Delta}PKC-{delta} mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-{delta} inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-{delta}-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of {Delta}PKC-{delta} in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of {Delta}PKC-{delta}. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-{delta} down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  7. Effects of Lon protease down-regulation on the mitochondrial function and proteome.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Marie-Paule; Bayot, Aurélien; Gareil, Monique; Chavatte, Laurent; Lombès, Anne; Friguet, Bertrand; Bulteau, Anne-Laure

    2014-10-01

    The Lon protease is an ATP-dependent protease of the mitochondrial matrix that contributes to the degradation of abnormal and oxidized proteins in this compartment. It is also involved in the stability and regulation of the mitochondrial genome. The effects of a depletion of this protease on the mitochondrial function and the identification of oxidized target proteins of Lon have been performed using as cellular model HeLa cells in which Lon level expression can be down-regulated. The expression level of proteins playing a role in the stress response was first determined. The amount of ClpP, another protease in charge of protein degradation of the mitochondrial matrix, and the amount of several chaperones have been evaluated. The expression level of respiratory chain subunits was also measured with or without Lon depletion. The mitochondrial compartment morphology was monitored in different stress conditions, and measured using a parameter devoted to the evaluation of the mitochondrial dynamics. None of these investigations showed a significant phenotype resulting from Lon down-regulation A possible impact of Lon depletion on oxidized mitochondrial proteins level was then sought. 1D gel electrophoresis after the derivatization of protein carbonyl groups with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) revealed an increase in carbonylated proteins more important in mitochondrial extracts than in total cellular extracts. 2D difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) experiments provide results consistent with these observations with some enlightenments. Performed with fluorescent dyes labelling either proteins or their carbonyl groups, these experiments indicated proteome modifications in cells with Lon down-regulation both at the level of protein expression and at the level of protein oxidation. These variations are noted in proteins acting in different cellular activities, i.e. metabolism, protein quality control and cytoskeleton organization.

  8. Effects of WT1 down-regulation on oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Guan, Jiyu; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Sheng; An, Peipei; Fan, Anran; Song, Guangqi; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Tianchuang; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Li, Ziyi

    2014-10-01

    The Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) gene originally identified as a tumour suppressor associated with WTs encodes a zinc finger-containing transcription factor that is expressed in multiple tissues and is an important regulator of cellular and organ growth, proliferation, development, migration and survival. However, there is a deficiency of data regarding the expression and function of WT1 during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development. Herein, we sought to define the expression characteristics and functions of WT1 during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development in pigs. We show that WT1 is expressed in porcine oocytes and at all preimplantation stages in embryos generated by ICSI. We then evaluated the effects of down-regulating WT1 expression at germinal vesicle and early ICSI stages using a recombinant plasmid (pGLV3-WT1-shRNA). Down-regulation of WT1 did not affect oocyte maturation but significantly decreased preimplantation embryonic development and increased apoptosis in blastocysts. These results indicate that WT1 plays important roles in the development of porcine preimplantation embryos. PMID:25030893

  9. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang Han, Dong Wang, Lei Feng, Hailan

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Down-regulation of Wnt10a in dental mesenchymal cells impairs odontogenesis of reassociated tooth germs. •Dspp is down- and up-regulated after Wnt10a-knockdown and overexpression in dental mesenchymal cells. •Down-regulation of Wnt10a inhibits proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells. -- Abstract: The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation.

  10. Dysregulation of Ack1 inhibits down-regulation of the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Grovdal, Lene Melsaether; Johannessen, Lene E.; Rodland, Marianne Skeie; Madshus, Inger Helene; Stang, Espen

    2008-04-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Ack1 has been linked to cancer when over-expressed. Ack1 has also been suggested to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and in down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). We have studied the intracellular localization of over-expressed Ack1 and found that Ack1 co-localizes with the EGFR upon EGF-induced endocytosis in cells with moderate over-expression of Ack. This co-localization is mainly observed in early endosomes. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of Ack1 retained the EGFR at the limiting membrane of early endosomes, inhibiting sorting to inner vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Down-regulation of Ack1 in HeLa cells resulted in reduced rate of {sup 125}I-EGF internalization, whereas internalization of {sup 125}I-transferrin was not affected. In cells where Ack1 had been knocked down by siRNA, recycling of internalized {sup 125}I-EGF was increased, while degradation of {sup 125}I-EGF was inhibited. Together, these data suggest that Ack1 is involved in an early step of EGFR desensitization.

  11. Selective down-regulation of the alpha6-integrin subunit in melanocytes by UVB light.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Sven; Stark, Imke; Geuchen, Christian; Knoppe, Bettina; Scheel, Gabriele; Schlenke, Peter; Gebert, Andreas; Wünsch, Lutz; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Tronnier, Michael

    2005-06-01

    In vivo, melanocytes bind to laminin (LM) molecules of the basement membrane (BM) via the integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1, and they adhere to neighbouring keratinocytes via E-cadherin. Only few studies have addressed the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on the interaction of melanocytes with their microenvironment. In this report, we examined the influence of UVB irradiation on the expression of the most important melanocyte-adhesion molecules (E-, N-cadherin, alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha5-, alpha6-, alphaV-, beta1-, beta3-integrins and ICAM-1) in vitro by flow cytometry. We were able to demonstrate that the alpha6-integrin subunit is selectively and reversibly down-regulated by UVB in a dwzm 150ose-dependent manner. In comparison, keratinocytes lacked UVB-inducible alterations in the expression of alpha6-integrin. In the presence of LM-1, the UVB-induced down-regulation of alpha6-integrin in melanocytes was significantly reduced. Moreover, LM-1 increased the resistance of melanocytes to UVB-induced cell death, as measured by annexinV-binding analysis. This effect was reversed by preincubation with an alpha6-integrin-blocking antibody. By immunofluorescence, we could demonstrate that UVB leads to a dose-dependent internalization of alpha6-integrin, providing an obvious explanation for the down-regulation on the outer cell surface observed by flow cytometry. We suggest that adhesion to LM-1 through alpha6-integrin represents a protective mechanism for melanocytes to withstand UVB damage. Through alpha6-integrin internalization, sunburns might alter the interaction between melanocytes and the BM, resulting in apoptosis induced by loss of anchorage (anoikis). Repeated sunburns may then lead to the selection of a population of melanocytes which are capable of anchorage-independent survival, culminating in solar nevogenesis and melanoma development.

  12. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás; Díaz, Jorge; Mendoza, Pablo; Díaz, Natalia; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  13. Cyclin D1 down-regulation is essential for DBC2's tumor suppressor function

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihara, Takashi; Collado, Denise; Hamaguchi, Masaaki . E-mail: hamaguchi@fordham.edu

    2007-07-13

    The expression of tumor suppressor gene DBC2 causes certain breast cancer cells to stop growing [M. Hamaguchi, J.L. Meth, C. Von Klitzing, W. Wei, D. Esposito, L. Rodgers, T. Walsh, P. Welcsh, M.C. King, M.H. Wigler, DBC2, a candidate for a tumor suppressor gene involved in breast cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 13647-13652]. Recently, DBC2 was found to participate in diverse cellular functions such as protein transport, cytoskeleton regulation, apoptosis, and cell cycle control [V. Siripurapu, J.L. Meth, N. Kobayashi, M. Hamaguchi, DBC2 significantly influences cell cycle, apoptosis, cytoskeleton, and membrane trafficking pathways. J. Mol. Biol. 346 (2005) 83-89]. Its tumor suppression mechanism, however, remains unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that DBC2 suppresses breast cancer proliferation through down-regulation of Cyclin D1 (CCND1). Additionally, the constitutional overexpression of CCND1 prevented the negative impact of DBC2 expression on their growth. Under a CCND1 promoter, the expression of CCNE1 exhibited the same protective effect. Our results indicate that the down-regulation of CCND1 is an essential step for DBC2's growth suppression of cancer cells. We believe that this discovery contributes to a better understanding of DBC2's tumor suppressor function.

  14. Betacellulin induces Slug-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell migration in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianfang; Klausen, Christian; Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands can induce ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin. Betacellulin is a unique member of the EGF family. It is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is associated with reduced survival. However, the biological functions and clinical significance of betacellulin in ovarian cancer remain unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer cell migration by suppressing E-cadherin expression. Treatment of SKOV3 and OVCAR5 ovarian cancer cell lines with betacellulin down-regulated E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin. In addition, betacellulin treatment increased the expression of Snail and Slug, and these effects were completely blocked by pre-treatment with EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Interestingly, only knockdown of Slug reversed the down-regulation of E-cadherin by betacellulin. Betacellulin treatment induced the activation of both the MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, and it also significantly increased ovarian cancer cell migration. Importantly, the effects of betacellulin on E-cadherin, Slug and cell migration were attenuated by pre-treatment with either U0126 or LY294002. Our results suggest that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer migration and Slug-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation via EGFR-mediated MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling. PMID:27129169

  15. Down-regulation of MALAT1 inhibits cervical cancer cell invasion and metastasis by inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruili; Qin, Changfei; Jiang, Binyuan; Fang, Shujuan; Pan, Xi; Peng, Li; Liu, Zhaoyang; Li, Wenling; Li, Yuehui; Li, Guancheng

    2016-03-01

    The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1(MALAT1), a member of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) family, has been reported to be highly enriched in many kinds of cancers and to be a metastasis marker and a prognostic factor. In this study, we found that MALAT1 expression levels were significantly increased in cervical cancer (CC) cells and tissues. The down-regulation of MALAT1 by shRNA in CC cells inhibited the invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed that the knockdown of MALAT1 up-regulated the epithelial markers E-cadherin and ZO-1, and down-regulated the mesenchymal markers β-catenin and Vimentin. This regulation was further confirmed by subsequent observation from RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence results. Meanwhile, the transcription factor snail, which functions to modulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was also down-regulated at both transcript and protein levels by MALAT1 down-regulation. In addition, we found that MALAT1 expression levels were positively related to HPV infection in cervical epithelial tissues by microarray analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that MALAT1 functions to promote cervical cancer invasion and metastasis via induction of EMT, and it may be a target for the prevention and therapy of cervical cancers.

  16. Down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase activity in wheat endosperm increases vegetative biomass and yield.

    PubMed

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Bowerman, Andrew F; Li, Zhongyi; Sirault, Xavier; Furbank, Robert; Pritchard, Jenifer R; Bloemsma, Marianne; Cavanagh, Colin R; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K

    2012-09-01

    A novel mechanism for increasing vegetative biomass and grain yield has been identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum). RNAi-mediated down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase (GWD), the primary enzyme required for starch phosphorylation, under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, resulted in a decrease in starch phosphate content and an increase in grain size. Unexpectedly, consistent increases in vegetative biomass and grain yield were observed in subsequent generations. In lines where GWD expression was decreased, germination rate was slightly reduced. However, significant increases in vegetative growth from the two leaf stage were observed. In glasshouse pot trials, down-regulation of GWD led to a 29% increase in grain yield while in glasshouse tub trials simulating field row spacing and canopy development, GWD down-regulation resulted in a grain yield increase of 26%. The enhanced yield resulted from a combination of increases in seed weight, tiller number, spikelets per head and seed number per spike. In field trials, all vegetative phenotypes were reproduced with the exception of increased tiller number. The expression of the transgene and suppression of endogenous GWD RNA levels were demonstrated to be grain specific. In addition to the direct effects of GWD down-regulation, an increased level of α-amylase activity was present in the aleurone layer during grain maturation. These findings provide a potentially important novel mechanism to increase biomass and grain yield in crop improvement programmes.

  17. Down-regulation of TRPS1 stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis through repression of FOXA1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Zhou; Chen, Min; Zeng, Ming; Xu, Song-Hui; Zou, Fei-Yan; Chen, De; Yan, Guang-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome 1 gene (TRPS1), which was initially found to be associated with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, is critical for the development and differentiation of bone, hair follicles and kidney. However, its role in cancer progression is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that down-regulation of TRPS1 correlated with distant metastasis, tumour recurrence and poor survival rate in cancer patients. TRPS1 was frequently down-regulated in high-metastatic cancer cell lines from the breast, colon and nasopharynx. Silencing of TRPS1 stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, while TRPS1 over-expression exhibited the opposite effects. Using quantitative proteomics, FOXA1, a negative regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was shown to be down-regulated by TRPS1 knockdown. Ectopic expression of FOXA1 blocked the enhancement of EMT, migration and invasion induced by TRPS1 silencing. Mechanistically, TRPS1, acting as a transcription activator, directly induced FOXA1 transcription by binding to the FOXA1 promoter. We further showed that down-regulation of TRPS1 was induced by miR-373 binding to the 3' UTR of TRPS1. Over-expression of TRPS1, but not TRPS1 3' UTR, blocked the enhancement of migration and invasion induced by miR-373. Taken together, we consider that down-regulation of TRPS1 by miR-373, acting as a transcriptional activator, promotes EMT and metastasis by repressing FOXA1 transcription, expanding upon its previously reported role as a transcription repressor. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mild Hypothermia Combined with Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment During Resuscitation Reduces Hippocampal Neuron Apoptosis Via NR2A, NR2B, and PI3K-Akt Signaling in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hai-Bin; Xu, Miao-Miao; Lv, Jia; Ji, Xiang-Jun; Zhu, Si-Hai; Ma, Ru-Meng; Miao, Xiao-Lei; Duan, Man-Lin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether mild hypothermia combined with sodium hydrosulfide treatment during resuscitation improves neuron survival following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury beyond that observed for the individual treatments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 20 for each group). All rats underwent Pulsinelli 4-vessel occlusion. Ischemia was induced for 15 min using ligatures around the common carotid arteries, except for the sham group. Immediately after initiating reperfusion, the mild hypothermia (MH), sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine (HA), MH + NaHS, MH + HA, and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) control groups received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, sodium hydrosulfide, hydroxylamine, sodium hydrosulfide, hydroxylamine, and saline, respectively, and mild hypothermia (32 to 33 °C) was induced in the MH, MH + NaHS, and MH + HA groups for 6 h. The levels of NR2A, NR2B, p-Akt, and p-Gsk-3β in the hippocampus of the MH, NaHS, and MH + NaHS groups were higher than those in the I/R control group, with the highest levels observed in the MH + NaHS group (P < 0.05). Treatment with hydroxylamine reduced the levels of these proteins in the HA and MH + HA groups, compared with the I/R control and MH groups, respectively. The apoptotic index of the CA1 region of the hippocampus was 45.2, 66.5, 63.5, and 84.8 % in the MH + NaHS, MH, NaHS, and I/R control groups, respectively (P < 0.05), indicating that the combination treatment shifted the NR2A/NR2B balance in favor of synaptic neuron stimulation and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The combination of mild hypothermia and sodium hydrosulfide treatment for resuscitation following ischemia-reperfusion injury was more beneficial for reducing hippocampal apoptosis and pathology than that of mild hypothermia or hydrogen sulfide treatment alone. PMID:26350917

  19. Mild Hypothermia Combined with Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment During Resuscitation Reduces Hippocampal Neuron Apoptosis Via NR2A, NR2B, and PI3K-Akt Signaling in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hai-Bin; Xu, Miao-Miao; Lv, Jia; Ji, Xiang-Jun; Zhu, Si-Hai; Ma, Ru-Meng; Miao, Xiao-Lei; Duan, Man-Lin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether mild hypothermia combined with sodium hydrosulfide treatment during resuscitation improves neuron survival following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury beyond that observed for the individual treatments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 20 for each group). All rats underwent Pulsinelli 4-vessel occlusion. Ischemia was induced for 15 min using ligatures around the common carotid arteries, except for the sham group. Immediately after initiating reperfusion, the mild hypothermia (MH), sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine (HA), MH + NaHS, MH + HA, and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) control groups received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, sodium hydrosulfide, hydroxylamine, sodium hydrosulfide, hydroxylamine, and saline, respectively, and mild hypothermia (32 to 33 °C) was induced in the MH, MH + NaHS, and MH + HA groups for 6 h. The levels of NR2A, NR2B, p-Akt, and p-Gsk-3β in the hippocampus of the MH, NaHS, and MH + NaHS groups were higher than those in the I/R control group, with the highest levels observed in the MH + NaHS group (P < 0.05). Treatment with hydroxylamine reduced the levels of these proteins in the HA and MH + HA groups, compared with the I/R control and MH groups, respectively. The apoptotic index of the CA1 region of the hippocampus was 45.2, 66.5, 63.5, and 84.8 % in the MH + NaHS, MH, NaHS, and I/R control groups, respectively (P < 0.05), indicating that the combination treatment shifted the NR2A/NR2B balance in favor of synaptic neuron stimulation and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The combination of mild hypothermia and sodium hydrosulfide treatment for resuscitation following ischemia-reperfusion injury was more beneficial for reducing hippocampal apoptosis and pathology than that of mild hypothermia or hydrogen sulfide treatment alone.

  20. Targeting γ-herpesvirus 68 Bcl-2-mediated down-regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Su, Minfei; Mei, Yang; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Levine, Beth; Colbert, Christopher L; Sinha, Sangita

    2014-03-21

    γ-herpesviruses (γHVs) are common human pathogens that encode homologs of the anti-apoptotic cellular Bcl-2 proteins, which are critical to viral reactivation and oncogenic transformation. The murine γHV68 provides a tractable in vivo model for understanding general features of these important human pathogens. Bcl-XL, a cellular Bcl-2 homolog, and the murine γHV68 Bcl-2 homolog, M11, both bind to a BH3 domain within the key autophagy effector Beclin 1 with comparable affinities, resulting in the down-regulation of Beclin 1-mediated autophagy. Despite this similarity, differences in residues lining the binding site of M11 and Bcl-XL dictate varying affinities for the different BH3 domain-containing proteins. Here we delineate Beclin 1 differential specificity determinants for binding to M11 or Bcl-XL by quantifying autophagy levels in cells expressing different Beclin 1 mutants and either M11 or Bcl-XL, and we show that a G120E/D121A Beclin 1 mutant selectively prevents down-regulation of Beclin 1-mediated autophagy by Bcl-XL, but not by M11. We use isothermal titration calorimetry to identify a Beclin 1 BH3 domain-derived peptide that selectively binds to M11, but not to Bcl-XL. The x-ray crystal structure of this peptide bound to M11 reveals the mechanism by which the M11 BH3 domain-binding groove accommodates this M11-specific peptide. This information was used to develop a cell-permeable peptide inhibitor that selectively inhibits M11-mediated, but not Bcl-XL-mediated, down-regulation of autophagy.

  1. DNA Methylation mediated down-regulating of MicroRNA-33b and its role in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haixin; Song, Peng; Su, Rui; Yang, Guihua; Dong, Lei; Luo, Min; Wang, Bin; Gong, Bei; Liu, Changzheng; Song, Wei; Wang, Fang; Ma, Yanni; Zhang, Junwu; Wang, Weibin; Yu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) provides a new and powerful tool for studying the mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Currently, down-regulation of tumor suppressive miRNAs by CpG island hypermethylation is emerging as a common hallmark of cancer. Here, we reported that the down-regulation of miR-33b was associated with pM stage of gastric cancer (GC) patients. Ectopic expression of miR-33b in HGC-27 and MGC-803 cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, which might be due to miR-33b targeting oncogene c-Myc. Moreover, enhanced methylation level of the CpG island upstream of miR-33b in GC patients with down-regulated miR-33b was confirmed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) amplification. Furthermore, re-introduction of miR-33b significantly suppressed tumorigenesis of GC cells in the nude mice. In conclusion, miR-33b acts as a tumor suppressor and hypermethylation of the CpG island upstream of miR-33b is responsible for its down-regulation in gastric cancer. PMID:26729612

  2. Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of apolipoprotein A5 by insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Maxine; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Rommens, Corinne; Martin, Genevieve; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-02-15

    The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene has been shown to be important in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 gene is regulated by insulin. We show here that cell and mouse treatments with insulin down-regulated APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that insulin decreases APOA5 promoter activity and subsequent deletion analyses revealed an E-box-containing fragment. We showed that Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1/USF2, bind to the identified E-box in the APOA5 promoter. Moreover, in cotransfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity. The treatment with insulin reduces the binding of USF1/USF2 to APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the insulin s effect on APOA5 gene transcription. Using oligoprecipitation method of USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrated that phosphorylated USF1 failed to bind to APOA5 promoter. This indicates that the APOA5 gene transrepression by insulin involves a phosphorylation of USF through PI3K, that modulate their binding to APOA5 promoter and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in healthy men shows a decrease of the plasma ApoAV level. These data suggest a potential mechanism involving APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  3. Terpene down-regulation triggers defense responses in transgenic orange leading to resistance against fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Alquézar, Berta; Gadea, José; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; De Ollas, Carlos José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are isoprene compounds that are emitted by plants to communicate with the environment. In addition to their function in repelling herbivores and attracting carnivorous predators in green tissues, the presumed primary function of terpenoid volatiles released from mature fruits is the attraction of seed-dispersing animals. Mature oranges (Citrus sinensis) primarily accumulate terpenes in peel oil glands, with d-limonene accounting for approximately 97% of the total volatile terpenes. In a previous report, we showed that down-regulation of a d-limonene synthase gene alters monoterpene levels in orange antisense (AS) fruits, leading to resistance against Penicillium digitatum infection. A global gene expression analysis of AS versus empty vector (EV) transgenic fruits revealed that the down-regulation of d-limonene up-regulated genes involved in the innate immune response. Basal levels of jasmonic acid were substantially higher in the EV compared with AS oranges. Upon fungal challenge, salicylic acid levels were triggered in EV samples, while jasmonic acid metabolism and signaling were drastically increased in AS orange peels. In nature, d-limonene levels increase in orange fruit once the seeds are fully viable. The inverse correlation between the increase in d-limonene content and the decrease in the defense response suggests that d-limonene promotes infection by microorganisms that are likely involved in facilitating access to the pulp for seed-dispersing frugivores. PMID:24192451

  4. Amino acid limitation induces down-regulation of WNT5a at transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zuguang; Chen Hong

    2009-01-23

    An aberrant WNT signaling contributes to the development and progression of multiple cancers. WNT5a is one of the WNT signaling molecules. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that amino acid deprivation induces changes in the WNT signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Results showed that targets of the amino acid response pathway, ATF3 and p21, were induced in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 during amino acid limitation. There was a significant decrease in the WNT5a mRNA level following amino acid deprivation. The down-regulation of WNT5a mRNA by amino acid deprivation is not due to mRNA destabilization. There is a reduction of nuclear {beta}-catenin protein level by amino acid limitation. Under amino acid limitation, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased and the blockage of ERK1/2 by the inhibitor U0126 partially restored WNT5a mRNA level. In conclusion, amino acid limitation in colon cancer cells induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which then down-regulates WNT5a expression.

  5. Cell wall modifications triggered by the down-regulation of Coumarate 3-hydroxylase-1 in maize.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Silvia; Rencoret, Jorge; Garcia-Calvo, Laura; Capellades, Montserrat; Encina, Antonio; Santiago, Rogelio; Rigau, Joan; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José-Carlos; Caparros-Ruiz, David

    2015-07-01

    Coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) catalyzes a key step of the synthesis of the two main lignin subunits, guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) in dicotyledonous species. As no functional data are available in regards to this enzyme in monocotyledonous species, we generated C3H1 knock-down maize plants. The results obtained indicate that C3H1 participates in lignin biosynthesis as its down-regulation redirects the phenylpropanoid flux: as a result, increased amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units, lignin-associated ferulates and the flavone tricin were detected in transgenic stems cell walls. Altogether, these changes make stem cell walls more degradable in the most C3H1-repressed plants, despite their unaltered polysaccharide content. The increase in H monomers is moderate compared to C3H deficient Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants. This could be due to the existence of a second maize C3H protein (C3H2) that can compensate the reduced levels of C3H1 in these C3H1-RNAi maize plants. The reduced expression of C3H1 alters the macroscopic phenotype of the plants, whose growth is inhibited proportionally to the extent of C3H1 repression. Finally, the down-regulation of C3H1 also increases the synthesis of flavonoids, leading to the accumulation of anthocyanins in transgenic leaves.

  6. Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qianqian; Wang, Datao; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs), via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained.

  7. Potent anti-prostate cancer agents derived from a novel androgen receptor down-regulating agent.

    PubMed

    Purushottamachar, Puranik; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Vasaitis, Tadas S; Bruno, Robert D; Gediya, Lalji K; Njar, Vincent C O

    2008-04-01

    The search for novel androgen receptor (AR) down-regulating agents by catalyst HipHop pharmacophore modeling led to the discovery of some lead molecules. Unexpectedly, the effect of these leads on human prostate cancer LNCaP cell viability did not correlate with the ability of the compounds to cause down-regulation of AR protein expression. Through rational synthetic optimization of the lead compound (BTB01434), we have discovered a series of novel substituted diaryl molecules as potent anti-prostate cancer agents. Some compounds (1-6) were shown to be extremely potent inhibitors of LNCaP cell viability with GI(50) values in the nanomolar range (1.45-83 nM). The most potent compound (4-methylphenyl)[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amine (5) with a GI(50) value of 1.45 nM is 27,000 times more potent than our lead compound BTB01434 (GI(50)=39.8 microM). In addition, some of the compounds exhibited modest anti-androgenic activities and one was also a potent inhibitor (GI(50)=850 nM) of PC-3 (AR-null) cell growth. A clear structure-activity relationship (SAR) has been established for activity against LNCaP cells, where potent molecules possess two substituted/unsubstituted aromatic rings connected through a sulfonamide linker. These novel compounds are strong candidates for development for the treatment of hormone-sensitive and importantly hormone-refractory prostate cancers in humans. PMID:18316193

  8. Cell wall modifications triggered by the down-regulation of Coumarate 3-hydroxylase-1 in maize.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Silvia; Rencoret, Jorge; Garcia-Calvo, Laura; Capellades, Montserrat; Encina, Antonio; Santiago, Rogelio; Rigau, Joan; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José-Carlos; Caparros-Ruiz, David

    2015-07-01

    Coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) catalyzes a key step of the synthesis of the two main lignin subunits, guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) in dicotyledonous species. As no functional data are available in regards to this enzyme in monocotyledonous species, we generated C3H1 knock-down maize plants. The results obtained indicate that C3H1 participates in lignin biosynthesis as its down-regulation redirects the phenylpropanoid flux: as a result, increased amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units, lignin-associated ferulates and the flavone tricin were detected in transgenic stems cell walls. Altogether, these changes make stem cell walls more degradable in the most C3H1-repressed plants, despite their unaltered polysaccharide content. The increase in H monomers is moderate compared to C3H deficient Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants. This could be due to the existence of a second maize C3H protein (C3H2) that can compensate the reduced levels of C3H1 in these C3H1-RNAi maize plants. The reduced expression of C3H1 alters the macroscopic phenotype of the plants, whose growth is inhibited proportionally to the extent of C3H1 repression. Finally, the down-regulation of C3H1 also increases the synthesis of flavonoids, leading to the accumulation of anthocyanins in transgenic leaves. PMID:26025540

  9. Potent anti-prostate cancer agents derived from a novel androgen receptor down-regulating agent.

    PubMed

    Purushottamachar, Puranik; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Vasaitis, Tadas S; Bruno, Robert D; Gediya, Lalji K; Njar, Vincent C O

    2008-04-01

    The search for novel androgen receptor (AR) down-regulating agents by catalyst HipHop pharmacophore modeling led to the discovery of some lead molecules. Unexpectedly, the effect of these leads on human prostate cancer LNCaP cell viability did not correlate with the ability of the compounds to cause down-regulation of AR protein expression. Through rational synthetic optimization of the lead compound (BTB01434), we have discovered a series of novel substituted diaryl molecules as potent anti-prostate cancer agents. Some compounds (1-6) were shown to be extremely potent inhibitors of LNCaP cell viability with GI(50) values in the nanomolar range (1.45-83 nM). The most potent compound (4-methylphenyl)[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amine (5) with a GI(50) value of 1.45 nM is 27,000 times more potent than our lead compound BTB01434 (GI(50)=39.8 microM). In addition, some of the compounds exhibited modest anti-androgenic activities and one was also a potent inhibitor (GI(50)=850 nM) of PC-3 (AR-null) cell growth. A clear structure-activity relationship (SAR) has been established for activity against LNCaP cells, where potent molecules possess two substituted/unsubstituted aromatic rings connected through a sulfonamide linker. These novel compounds are strong candidates for development for the treatment of hormone-sensitive and importantly hormone-refractory prostate cancers in humans.

  10. Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qianqian; Wang, Datao; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs), via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained. PMID:26308075

  11. Down-regulation of otospiralin mRNA in response to acoustic stress in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, Antonella; Pianese, Luigi; Saulino, Claudio; Di Leva, Francesca; Sequino, Luigi; Cocozza, Sergio; Marciano, Elio; Franzé, Annamaria

    2004-12-01

    Noise over-stimulation will induce or influence molecular pathways in the cochlea; one approach to the identification of the components of these pathways in the cochlea is to examine genes and proteins that change following different types and levels of stress. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction provides a method to look at differential expression of genes in the acoustic stress response. By using this technique we have revealed a down-regulation of the level of otospiralin mRNA in the cochlea of guinea pigs after white noise over-stimulation for 2 h at 108 dB SPL. Otospiralin represents an inner ear specific protein found in fibrocytes of spiral limbus and spiral ligament in the cochlea, and some regions of the vestibule as the stroma underlying the utricle and crista sensory epithelia and the subepithelial layer of the walls of semicircular canals and maculae. It has been recently reported that transient down-regulation of otospiralin in guinea pigs causes vestibular syndrome and deafness. Our results suggest a possible role of this gene in response to acoustical stress, although the exact mechanism remains to be resolved. PMID:15567600

  12. Nucleolin down-regulation is involved in ADP-induced cell cycle arrest in S phase and cell apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenmeng; Luo, Junqing; Xiang, Fang; Liu, Xueting; Jiang, Manli; Liao, Lingjuan; Hu, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    High concentration of extracellular ADP has been reported to induce cell apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. In this study, we found by serendipity that ADP treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) down-regulated the protein level of nucleolin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ADP treatment did not decrease the transcript level of nucloelin, suggesting that ADP might induce nucleolin protein degradation. HUVEC and HAEC expressed ADP receptor P2Y13 receptor, but did not express P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors. However, P2Y1, 12, 13 receptor antagonists MRS2179, PSB0739, MRS2211 did not inhibit ADP-induced down-regulation of nucleolin. Moreover, MRS2211 itself down-regulated nucleolin protein level. In addition, 2-MeSADP, an agonist for P2Y1, 12 and 13 receptors, did not down-regulate nucleolin protein. These results suggested that ADP-induced nucleolin down-regulation was not due to the activation of P2Y1, 12, or 13 receptors. We also found that ADP treatment induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition via nucleolin down-regulation. The over-expression of nucleolin by gene transfer partly reversed ADP-induced cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, ADP sensitized HUVEC to cisplatin-induced cell death by the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, we found, for the first time to our knowledge, a novel mechanism by which ADP regulates cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis via targeting nucelolin. PMID:25290311

  13. Mutations and Down-Regulation of CDX1 in Children with Anorectal Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Tang, Xiao Bing; Wang, Li Li; Bai, Yu Zuo; Qiu, Guang Rong; Yuan, Zheng Wei; Wang, Wei Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anorectal malformations (ARMs) represent a variety of congenital disorders that involve abnormal termination of the anorectum. This study was to reveal relation between CDX1 and human ARMs phenotypes. Methods: 108 Chinese patients and 120 Chinese controls were included in this study. We analyzed the relation between two by PCR, qRT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. Results: Four heterozygous mutations in CDX1 gene were identified in ARMs patients (3.7%, 4/108), no found in controls. CDX1 protein expression was significantly decreased in the ARMs compared with the control anorectum. All samples analyzed in ARMs group exhibited down-regulated CDX1 mRNA expression in comparison to matched normal group, demonstrated significant differences statistically. Conclusion: The findings represented the relation between CDX1 mutations and CDX1 genotype. Furthermore, it was suggested that the downregulation of CDX1 might be related to the development of ARMs. PMID:23329892

  14. The herpes simplex virus receptor nectin-1 is down-regulated after trans-interaction with glycoprotein D

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, Katie M.; Milne, Richard S.B.; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Krummenacher, Claude

    2008-03-30

    During herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry, membrane fusion occurs either on the cell surface or after virus endocytosis. In both cases, binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to a receptor such as nectin-1 or HVEM is required. In this study, we co-cultured cells expressing gD with nectin-1 expressing cells to investigate the effects of gD on nectin-1 at cell contacts. After overnight co-cultures with gD expressing cells, there was a down-regulation of nectin-1 in B78H1-C10, SY5Y, A431 and HeLa cells, which HSV enters by endocytosis. In contrast, on Vero cells, which HSV enters at the plasma membrane, nectin-1 was not down-regulated. Further analysis of B78H1-derived cells showed that nectin-1 down-regulation corresponds to the ability of gD to bind nectin-1 and is achieved by internalization and low-pH-dependent degradation of nectin-1. Moreover, gD is necessary for virion internalization in B78H1 cells expressing nectin-1. These data suggest that the determinants of gD-mediated internalization of nectin-1 may direct HSV to an endocytic pathway during entry.

  15. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα.

  16. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα. PMID:25533124

  17. Immunosuppressive factor from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans down regulates cytokine production.

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, T; Ochiai, K

    1996-01-01

    A cytoplasmic soluble fraction of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 was isolated and characterized as suppressing mitogen-stimulated proliferation of and cytokine production by C3H/HeN mouse splenic T cells. This factor, designated suppressive factor 1 (SF1), was isolated from the supernatant of sonicated whole bacteria and purified by Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, hydroxyapatite high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Protein Pack 300 & 125 gel filtration HPLC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the purified SF1 migrated as a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 14 kDa. This molecule was protease labile, heat resistant, and noncytotoxic. N'-terminal sequence analysis revealed no homology with any known peptides of periodontopathic bacteria or with any host-derived growth factors. Purified SF1 suppressed the proliferation of mouse splenic T cells which had been stimulated with concanavalin A, as well as suppressing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-4, and IL-5 from CD4+ T cells as 0.1 microgram/ml or more. These data suggest that SF1 produced by the periodontal pathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans functions as a virulence factor by down regulating T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at local defense sites. PMID:8557373

  18. miR-340 predicts glioblastoma survival and modulates key cancer hallmarks through down-regulation of NRAS

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Danilo; Donnarumma, Elvira; Roscigno, Giuseppina; Iaboni, Margherita; Russo, Valentina; Affinito, Alessandra; Adamo, Assunta; De Martino, Fabio; Quintavalle, Cristina; Romano, Giulia; Greco, Adelaide; Soini, Ylermi; Brunetti, Arturo; Croce, Carlo M.; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults; with a survival rate of 12 months from diagnosis. However, a small subgroup of patients, termed long-term survivors (LTS), has a survival rate longer then 12–14 months. There is thus increasing interest in the identification of molecular signatures predicting glioblastoma prognosis and in how to improve the therapeutic approach. Here, we report miR-340 as prognostic tumor-suppressor microRNA for glioblastoma. We analyzed microRNA expression in > 500 glioblastoma patients and found that although miR-340 is strongly down-regulated in glioblastoma overall, it is up-regulated in LTS patients compared to short-term survivors (STS). Indeed, miR-340 expression predicted better prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Coherently, overexpression of miR-340 in glioblastoma cells was found to produce a tumor-suppressive activity. We identified NRAS mRNA as a critical, direct target of miR-340: in fact, miR-340 negatively influenced multiple aspects of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by down-regulating NRAS and downstream AKT and ERK pathways. Thus, we demonstrate that expression of miR-340 in glioblastoma is responsible for a strong tumor-suppressive effect in LTS patients by down-regulating NRAS. miR-340 may thus represent a novel marker for glioblastoma diagnosis and prognosis, and may be developed into a tool to improve treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26799668

  19. Extracellular 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 mediates T-cell receptor CD3-ζ chain down-regulation via caspase-3 activation in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Dar, Asif A; Pradhan, Trupti N; Kulkarni, Dakshayni P; Shah, Sagar U; Rao, Kanury V; Chaukar, Devendra A; D'Cruz, Anil K; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2016-02-01

    Decreased expression of CD3-ζ chain, an adaptor protein associated with T-cell signalling, is well documented in patients with oral cancer, but the mechanistic justifications are fragmentary. Previous studies in patients with oral cancer have shown that decreased expression of CD3-ζ chain was associated with decreased responsiveness of T cells. Tumours are known to induce localized as well as systemic immune suppression. This study provides evidence that oral tumour-derived factors promote immune suppression by down-regulating CD3-ζ chain expression. 2'5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2) was identified by the proteomic approach and our results established a causative link between CD3-ζ chain down-regulation and OAS2 stimulation. The surrogate situation was established by over-expressing OAS2 in a HEK293 cell line and cell-free supernatant was collected. These supernatants when incubated with T cells resulted in down-regulation of CD3-ζ chain, which shows that the secreted OAS2 is capable of regulating CD3-ζ chain expression. Incubation of T cells with cell-free supernatants of oral tumours or recombinant human OAS2 (rh-OAS2) induced caspase-3 activation, which resulted in CD3-ζ chain down-regulation. Caspase-3 inhibition/down-regulation using pharmacological inhibitor or small interfering RNA restored down-regulated CD3-ζ chain expression in T cells induced by cell-free tumour supernatant or rh-OAS2. Collectively these results show that OAS2 leads to impairment in CD3-ζ chain expression, so offering an explanation that might be applicable to the CD3-ζ chain deficiency observed in cancer and diverse disease conditions. PMID:26595239

  20. Extracellular 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 mediates T-cell receptor CD3-ζ chain down-regulation via caspase-3 activation in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Dar, Asif A; Pradhan, Trupti N; Kulkarni, Dakshayni P; Shah, Sagar U; Rao, Kanury V; Chaukar, Devendra A; D'Cruz, Anil K; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2016-02-01

    Decreased expression of CD3-ζ chain, an adaptor protein associated with T-cell signalling, is well documented in patients with oral cancer, but the mechanistic justifications are fragmentary. Previous studies in patients with oral cancer have shown that decreased expression of CD3-ζ chain was associated with decreased responsiveness of T cells. Tumours are known to induce localized as well as systemic immune suppression. This study provides evidence that oral tumour-derived factors promote immune suppression by down-regulating CD3-ζ chain expression. 2'5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2) was identified by the proteomic approach and our results established a causative link between CD3-ζ chain down-regulation and OAS2 stimulation. The surrogate situation was established by over-expressing OAS2 in a HEK293 cell line and cell-free supernatant was collected. These supernatants when incubated with T cells resulted in down-regulation of CD3-ζ chain, which shows that the secreted OAS2 is capable of regulating CD3-ζ chain expression. Incubation of T cells with cell-free supernatants of oral tumours or recombinant human OAS2 (rh-OAS2) induced caspase-3 activation, which resulted in CD3-ζ chain down-regulation. Caspase-3 inhibition/down-regulation using pharmacological inhibitor or small interfering RNA restored down-regulated CD3-ζ chain expression in T cells induced by cell-free tumour supernatant or rh-OAS2. Collectively these results show that OAS2 leads to impairment in CD3-ζ chain expression, so offering an explanation that might be applicable to the CD3-ζ chain deficiency observed in cancer and diverse disease conditions.

  1. Traxoprodil, a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, potentiates the antidepressant-like effects of certain antidepressant drugs in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Stasiuk, Weronika; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wyska, Elżbieta; Serefko, Anna; Oniszczuk, Anna; Wośko, Sylwia; Świąder, Katarzyna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    One of the newest substances, whose antidepressant activity was shown is traxoprodil, which is a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of traxoprodil on animals' behavior using the forced swim test (FST), as well as the effect of traxoprodil (10 mg/kg) on the activity of antidepressants, such as imipramine (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), escitalopram (2 mg/kg) and reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg). Serotonergic lesion and experiment using the selective agonists of serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 was conducted to evaluate the role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant action of traxoprodil. Brain concentrations of tested agents were determined using HPLC. The results showed that traxoprodil at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity in the FST and it was not related to changes in animals' locomotor activity. Co-administration of traxoprodil with imipramine, fluoxetine or escitalopram, each in subtherapeutic doses, significantly affected the animals' behavior in the FST and, what is important, these changes were not due to the severity of locomotor activity. The observed effect of traxoprodil is only partially associated with serotonergic system and is independent of the effect on the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. The results of an attempt to assess the nature of the interaction between traxoprodil and the tested drugs show that in the case of joint administration of traxoprodil and fluoxetine, imipramine or escitalopram, there were interactions in the pharmacokinetic phase.

  2. Traxoprodil, a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, potentiates the antidepressant-like effects of certain antidepressant drugs in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Stasiuk, Weronika; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wyska, Elżbieta; Serefko, Anna; Oniszczuk, Anna; Wośko, Sylwia; Świąder, Katarzyna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    One of the newest substances, whose antidepressant activity was shown is traxoprodil, which is a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of traxoprodil on animals' behavior using the forced swim test (FST), as well as the effect of traxoprodil (10 mg/kg) on the activity of antidepressants, such as imipramine (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), escitalopram (2 mg/kg) and reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg). Serotonergic lesion and experiment using the selective agonists of serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 was conducted to evaluate the role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant action of traxoprodil. Brain concentrations of tested agents were determined using HPLC. The results showed that traxoprodil at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity in the FST and it was not related to changes in animals' locomotor activity. Co-administration of traxoprodil with imipramine, fluoxetine or escitalopram, each in subtherapeutic doses, significantly affected the animals' behavior in the FST and, what is important, these changes were not due to the severity of locomotor activity. The observed effect of traxoprodil is only partially associated with serotonergic system and is independent of the effect on the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. The results of an attempt to assess the nature of the interaction between traxoprodil and the tested drugs show that in the case of joint administration of traxoprodil and fluoxetine, imipramine or escitalopram, there were interactions in the pharmacokinetic phase. PMID:26924124

  3. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    SciTech Connect

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo . E-mail: miyazawa@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with {delta}-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol.

  4. Matrix Rigidity Activates Wnt Signaling through Down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Liu, Yiuying; Gurler, Hilal; Kim, Mijung; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A.; Rooper, Lisa; Shepard, Jaclyn; Weiss, Michael; Shea, Lonnie D.; Penzes, Peter; Ravosa, Matthew J.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in the physical properties of the extracellular matrix with altered behavior and gene expression, highlighting the important role of the microenvironment in the regulation of cell function. In the current study, culture of epithelial ovarian cancer cells on three-dimensional collagen I gels led to a dramatic down-regulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 with a concomitant increase in nuclear β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin/Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Increased three-dimensional collagen gel invasion was accompanied by transcriptional up-regulation of the membrane-tethered collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and an inverse relationship between dickkopf-1 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed in human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Similar results were obtained in other tissue-invasive cells such as vascular endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for functional coupling of matrix adhesion with Wnt signaling. PMID:23152495

  5. Genes down-regulated in spaceflight are involved in the control of longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yoko; Higashibata, Akira; Matsunaga, Yohei; Yonezawa, Yukiko; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Higashitani, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Kana; Shimazu, Toru; Tanaka, Masashi; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Ishioka, Noriaki; Honda, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    How microgravitational space environments affect aging is not well understood. We observed that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, spaceflight suppressed the formation of transgenically expressed polyglutamine aggregates, which normally accumulate with increasing age. Moreover, the inactivation of each of seven genes that were down-regulated in space extended lifespan on the ground. These genes encode proteins that are likely related to neuronal or endocrine signaling: acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholine transporter, choline acetyltransferase, rhodopsin-like receptor, glutamate-gated chloride channel, shaker family of potassium channel, and insulin-like peptide. Most of them mediated lifespan control through the key longevity-regulating transcription factors DAF-16 or SKN-1 or through dietary-restriction signaling, singly or in combination. These results suggest that aging in C. elegans is slowed through neuronal and endocrine response to space environmental cues. PMID:22768380

  6. Interleukin-10 down-regulates voltage gated sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Feng; Zhu, He-Quan; Wei, Xu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Li, Yong-Yong; Pang, Rui-Ping; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2013-09-01

    The over-expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following peripheral nerve injury contributes to neuropathic pain by generation of the ectopic discharges of action potentials. However, mechanisms underlying the change in VGSCs' expression are poorly understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α up-regulates VGSCs. In the present work we tested if anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which had been proven to be effective for treating neuropathic pain, had the opposite effect. Western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that IL-10 receptor was localized in DRG neurons. Recombinant rat IL-10 (200 pg/ml) not only reduced the densities of TTX-sensitive and Nav1.8 currents in control DRG neurons, but also reversed the increase of the sodium currents induced by rat recombinant TNF-α (100 pg/ml), as revealed by patch-clamp recordings. Consistent with the electrophysiological results, real-time PCR and western blot revealed that IL-10 (200 pg/ml) down-regulated VGSCs in both mRNA and protein levels and reversed the up-regulation of VGSCs by TNF-α. Moreover, repetitive intrathecal administration of rrIL-10 for 3 days (4 times per day) attenuated mechanical allodynia in L5 spinal nerve ligation model and profoundly inhibited the excitability of DRG neurons. These results suggested that the down-regulation of the sodium channels in DRG neurons might contribute to the therapeutic effect of IL-10 on neuropathic pain. PMID:23357618

  7. Microbial Symbionts in Insects Influence Down-Regulation of Defense Genes in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Kelli L.; Hearne, Leonard B.; Briesacher, Sandra; Clark, Thomas L.; Davis, Georgia E.

    2010-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae are root-feeding insects and significant pests to maize in North America and Europe. Little is known regarding how plants respond to insect attack of roots, thus complicating the selection for plant defense targets. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera is the most successful species in its genus and is the only Diabrotica beetle harboring an almost species-wide Wolbachia infection. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera are infected with Wolbachia and the typical gut flora found in soil-living, phytophagous insects. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae cannot be reared aseptically and thus, it is not possible to observe the response of maize to effects of insect gut flora or other transient microbes. Because Wolbachia are heritable, it is possible to investigate whether Wolbachia infection affects the regulation of maize defenses. To answer if the success of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera is the result of microbial infection, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera were treated with antibiotics to eliminate Wolbachia and a microarray experiment was performed. Direct comparisons made between the response of maize root tissue to the feeding of antibiotic treated and untreated Diabrotica virgifera virgifera show down-regulation of plant defenses in the untreated insects compared to the antibiotic treated and control treatments. Results were confirmed via QRT-PCR. Biological and behavioral assays indicate that microbes have integrated into Diabrotica virgifera virgifera physiology without inducing negative effects and that antibiotic treatment did not affect the behavior or biology of the insect. The expression data and suggest that the pressure of microbes, which are most likely Wolbachia, mediate the down-regulation of many maize defenses via their insect hosts. This is the first report of a potential link between a microbial symbiont of an insect and a silencing effect in the insect host plant. This is also the first expression profile for a plant

  8. MeCP2 regulation of cardiac fibroblast proliferation and fibrosis by down-regulation of DUSP5.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Yang, Jing-Jing; Hu, Wei; Shi, Kai-Hu; Deng, Zi-Yu; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a complex pathological process that includes the abnormal proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and collagens. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a multifunctional nuclear protein, and plays a key role in the fibrotic diseases. However, the potential role of MeCP2 in cardiac fibrosis remains unclear. We report that MeCP2 modulates cardiac fibrosis via down-regulation of dual-specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5), a nuclear phosphatase that negatively regulates prohypertrophic signaling by ERK1/2. MeCP2 is a critical participant in the epigenetic silencing of regulatory genes. Here, we found that down-regulation of DUSP5 in cardiac fibrosis is associated with MeCP2 over-expression. Treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with MeCP2-siRNA blocked proliferation. Knockdown of MeCP2 elevated DUSP5 expression in activated cardiac fibroblasts. Moreover, we investigated the effect of DUSP5 on the ERK1/2 activation. Our results demonstrated that MeCP2 modulates DUSP5 mediated activation of ERK1/2 in cardiac fibrosis. Taken together, these results indicated that MeCP2 acts as a key regulator of pathological cardiac fibrosis, promotes cardiac fibroblasts proliferation and fibrosis by down-regulation of DUSP5.

  9. Capsaicin inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by down-regulating PP2A.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Seok; Yoon, Gang-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Sun-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Xenopus embryo serves as an ideal model for teratogenesis assays to examine the effects of any substances on the cellular processes critical for early development and adult tissue homeostasis. In our chemical library screening with frog embryo, capsaicin was found to repress the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Depending on the stages at which embryos became exposed to capsaicin, it could disrupt formation of dorsal or posterior body axis of embryo, which is associated with inhibition of maternal or zygotic Wnt signal in early development. In agreement with these phenotypes, capsaicin suppressed the expression of Wnt target genes such as Siamois and Chordin in the organizer region of embryo and in Wnt signals-stimulated tissue explants. In addition, the cellular level of β-catenin, a key component of Wnt pathway, was down-regulated in capsaicin-treated embryonic cells. Unlike wild-type β-catenin, its non-phosphorylatable mutant in which serine and threonine residues phosphorylated by GSK3 are substituted with alanine was not destabilized by capsaicin, indicative of the effect of this chemical on the phosphorylation status of β-catenin. In support of this, capsaicin up-regulated the level of GSK3- or CK1-phosphorylated β-catenin, concomitantly lowering that of its de-phosphorylated version. Notably, capsaicin augmented the phosphorylation of a phosphatase, PP2A at tyrosine 307, suggesting its repression of the enzymatic activity of the phosphatase. Furthermore, capsaicin still enhanced β-catenin phosphorylation in cells treated with a GSK3 inhibitor, LiCl but not in those treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid. Together, these results indicate that capsaicin inhibits the patterning of the dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior body axes of embryo by repressing PP2A and thereby down-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:27318088

  10. Estrogen-mediated down-regulation of CD24 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham; Malik, Simeen; Konduri, Santhi D.; Liu, Wensheng; Rokavec, Matjaž; van der Kuip, Heiko; Hoppe, Reiner; Hammerich-Hille, Stephanie; Fritz, Peter; Schroth, Werner; Abele, Ina; Das, Gokul M.; Oesterreich, Steffi; Brauch, Hiltrud

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported on the relevance of the prevalence of CD44+/CD24−/low cells in primary breast tumors. To study regulation of CD24, we queried a number of publicly available expression array studies in breast cancer cells, and found that CD24 was down-regulated upon estrogen treatment. We confirmed this estrogen-mediated repression of CD24 mRNA by qPCR in MCF7, T47D, and ZR75-1 cells. Repression was also seen at the protein level as measured by flow cytometry. CD24 was not down-regulated in the ERα negative MDA-MB-231 cells suggesting that ERα was necessary. This was further confirmed by ERα silencing in MCF7 cells resulting in increased CD24 levels, and by reintroduction of ERα into C4-12 cells resulting in decreased CD24 levels. Estrogen treatment did not alter half-life of CD24 mRNA, and new protein synthesis was not essential for repression, suggesting a primary transcriptional effect. HDAC inhibition by Trichostatin A completely abolished the repression, but decrease of the ERα corepressors NCoR, LCoR, RIP140, SMRT, SAFB1, and SAFB2 by siRNA or overexpression of SAFB2, NCoR, and SMRT had no effect. In silico promoter analyses led to the identification of two EREs in the CD24 promoter, one of which was able to bind ERα as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Together, our results show that CD24 is repressed by estrogen, and that this repression is a direct transcriptional effect depending on ERα and HDACs. PMID:18404683

  11. Water deficit down-regulates miR398 and miR408 in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Živko; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Mikić, Aleksandar; Radović, Svetlana; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), recently recognized as important regulator of gene expression at posttranscriptional level, have been found to be involved in plant stress responses. The observation that some miRNAs are up- or down regulated by stress implies that they could play vital roles in plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. We investigated the effect of water stress treatment during 10 days on expression of conserved miRNAs-miR398a/b and miR408 in pea plants. This time frame reflects the changes as close as possible to the changes where water stress causes visible effects under field condition. It was observed that dehydration strongly down regulates the expression of both miR398a/b and miR408 in pea roots and shoots. The down-regulation of miR398a/b and the up-regulation of potential target genes - copper superoxide dismutase, CSD1, highlight the involvement of this miRNA in pea stress response. To the contrary, the mRNA level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 (COX5b) did not change in roots and shoots of water-stressed plants, compared to control (well) hydrated plants. This suggests that COX5b is not the target of miR398, or that its expression is regulated by some other mechanism. P1B-ATPase expression increased during water deficit only in the shoots of pea; in the roots there were no changes in expression. Our results help to understand the possible role of investigated miRNAs and their contribution to pea capacity to cope with water deficit.

  12. Down-regulating overexpressed human Lon in cervical cancer suppresses cell proliferation and bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaobo; Li, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Yuxin; Lan, Linhua; Chen, Lin; Lu, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The human mitochondrial ATP-dependent Lon protease functions in regulating the metabolism and quality control of proteins and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, the role of Lon in cancer is not well understood. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the importance of Lon in cervical cancer cells from patients and in established cell lines. Microarray analysis from 30 cancer and 10 normal cervical tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for Lon protein levels. The expression of Lon was also examined by immunoblotting 16 fresh cervical cancer tissues and their respective non-tumor cervical tissues. In all cases, Lon expression was significantly elevated in cervical carcinomas as compared to normal tissues. Augmented Lon expression in tissue microarrays did not vary between age, tumor-node-metastasis grades, or lymph node metastasis. Knocking down Lon in HeLa cervical cancer cells by lentivrial transduction resulted in a substantial decrease in both mRNA and protein levels. Such down-regulation of Lon expression significantly blocked HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, knocking down Lon resulted in decreased cellular bioenergetics as determined by measuring aerobic respiration and glycolysis using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer. Together, these data demonstrate that Lon plays a potential role in the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, and may be a useful biomarker and target in the treatment of cervical cancer. Lon; immunohistochemistry; cervical cancer; cell proliferation; cellular bioenergetics.

  13. CUEDC2 down-regulation is associated with tumor growth and poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Liu, Yangli; Cai, Jinghuang; Guo, Yubiao; Zhu, Zhiwen; Xie, Canmao

    2015-01-01

    CUE domain-containing 2 (CUEDC2) is a multi-functional protein, which regulates cell cycle, growth factor signaling and inflammation. We found that CUEDC2 was low in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and lung adenocarcinoma tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Low levels of CUEDC2 were correlated with a shorter survival time in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.004). CUEDC2 expression was correlated with tumor T classification (P = 0.001) at clinical stage (P = 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.033). Multivariate analysis suggested that CUEDC2 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Ectopic expression of CUEDC2 decreased cell proliferation in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous CUEDC2 by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) increased tumor growth. Inhibition of proliferation by CUEDC2 was associated with inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, induction of p21 and down-regulation of cyclin D1. Our results suggest that decreased expression of CUEDC2 contributes to tumor growth in lung adenocarcinoma, leading to a poor clinical outcome. PMID:26023733

  14. CUEDC2 down-regulation is associated with tumor growth and poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Longhua; Bai, Lihong; Lin, Gengpeng; Wang, Ran; Liu, Yangli; Cai, Jinghuang; Guo, Yubiao; Zhu, Zhiwen; Xie, Canmao

    2015-08-21

    CUE domain-containing 2 (CUEDC2) is a multi-functional protein, which regulates cell cycle, growth factor signaling and inflammation. We found that CUEDC2 was low in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and lung adenocarcinoma tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Low levels of CUEDC2 were correlated with a shorter survival time in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.004). CUEDC2 expression was correlated with tumor T classification (P = 0.001) at clinical stage (P = 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.033). Multivariate analysis suggested that CUEDC2 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Ectopic expression of CUEDC2 decreased cell proliferation in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous CUEDC2 by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) increased tumor growth. Inhibition of proliferation by CUEDC2 was associated with inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, induction of p21 and down-regulation of cyclin D1. Our results suggest that decreased expression of CUEDC2 contributes to tumor growth in lung adenocarcinoma, leading to a poor clinical outcome.

  15. Editor's Highlight: Neonatal Activation of the Xenobiotic-Sensors PXR and CAR Results in Acute and Persistent Down-regulation of PPARα-Signaling in Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Li, Cindy Yanfei; Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Bammler, Theo K; Cui, Julia Yue

    2016-10-01

    Safety concerns have emerged regarding the potential long-lasting effects due to developmental exposure to xenobiotics. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are critical xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors that are highly expressed in liver. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that neonatal exposure to PXR- or CAR-activators not only acutely but also persistently regulates the expression of drug-processing genes (DPGs). A single dose of the PXR-ligand PCN (75 mg/kg), CAR-ligand TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg), or vehicle (corn oil) was administered intraperitoneally to 3-day-old neonatal wild-type mice. Livers were collected 24 h post-dose or from adult mice at 60 days of age, and global gene expression of these mice was determined using Affymetrix Mouse Transcriptome Assay 1.0. In neonatal liver, PCN up-regulated 464 and down-regulated 449 genes, whereas TCPOBOP up-regulated 308 and down-regulated 112 genes. In adult liver, there were 15 persistently up-regulated and 22 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to PCN, as well as 130 persistently up-regulated and 18 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to TCPOBOP. Neonatal exposure to both PCN and TCPOBOP persistently down-regulated multiple Cyp4a members, which are prototypical-target genes of the lipid-sensor PPARα, and this correlated with decreased PPARα-binding to the Cyp4a gene loci. RT-qPCR, western blotting, and enzyme activity assays in livers of wild-type, PXR-null, and CAR-null mice confirmed that the persistent down-regulation of Cyp4a was PXR and CAR dependent. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to PXR- and CAR-activators both acutely and persistently regulates critical genes involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism in liver. PMID:27413110

  16. Editor's Highlight: Neonatal Activation of the Xenobiotic-Sensors PXR and CAR Results in Acute and Persistent Down-regulation of PPARα-Signaling in Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Li, Cindy Yanfei; Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Bammler, Theo K; Cui, Julia Yue

    2016-10-01

    Safety concerns have emerged regarding the potential long-lasting effects due to developmental exposure to xenobiotics. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are critical xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors that are highly expressed in liver. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that neonatal exposure to PXR- or CAR-activators not only acutely but also persistently regulates the expression of drug-processing genes (DPGs). A single dose of the PXR-ligand PCN (75 mg/kg), CAR-ligand TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg), or vehicle (corn oil) was administered intraperitoneally to 3-day-old neonatal wild-type mice. Livers were collected 24 h post-dose or from adult mice at 60 days of age, and global gene expression of these mice was determined using Affymetrix Mouse Transcriptome Assay 1.0. In neonatal liver, PCN up-regulated 464 and down-regulated 449 genes, whereas TCPOBOP up-regulated 308 and down-regulated 112 genes. In adult liver, there were 15 persistently up-regulated and 22 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to PCN, as well as 130 persistently up-regulated and 18 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to TCPOBOP. Neonatal exposure to both PCN and TCPOBOP persistently down-regulated multiple Cyp4a members, which are prototypical-target genes of the lipid-sensor PPARα, and this correlated with decreased PPARα-binding to the Cyp4a gene loci. RT-qPCR, western blotting, and enzyme activity assays in livers of wild-type, PXR-null, and CAR-null mice confirmed that the persistent down-regulation of Cyp4a was PXR and CAR dependent. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to PXR- and CAR-activators both acutely and persistently regulates critical genes involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism in liver.

  17. Rat hepatocyte aquaporin-8 water channels are down-regulated in extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Flavia I; Gradilone, Sergio A; Mazzone, Amelia; García, Fabiana; Huang, Bing Q; Ochoa, J Elena; Tietz, Pamela S; Larusso, Nicholas F; Calamita, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2003-05-01

    Hepatocytes express the water channel aquaporin-8 (AQP8), which is mainly localized in intracellular vesicles, and its adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-induced translocation to the plasma membrane facilitates osmotic water movement during canalicular bile secretion. Thus, defective expression of AQP8 may be associated with secretory dysfunction of hepatocytes caused by extrahepatic cholestasis. We studied the effect of 1, 3, and 7 days of bile duct ligation (BDL) on protein expression, subcellular localization, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of AQP8; this was determined in rat livers by immunoblotting in subcellular membranes, light immunohistochemistry, immunogold electron microscopy, and Northern blotting. One day of BDL did not affect expression or subcellular localization of AQP8. Three days of BDL reduced the amount of intracellular AQP8 (75%; P <.001) without affecting its plasma membrane expression. Seven days after BDL, AQP8 was markedly decreased in intracellular (67%; P <.05) and plasma (56%; P <.05) membranes. Dibutyryl cAMP failed to increase AQP8 in plasma membranes from liver slices, suggesting a defective translocation of AQP8 in 7-day BDL rats. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy in liver sections confirmed the BDL-induced decreased expression of hepatocyte AQP8 in intracellular vesicles and canalicular membranes. AQP8 mRNA expression was unaffected by 1-day BDL but was significantly increased by about 200% in 3- and 7-day BDL rats, indicating a posttranscriptional mechanism for protein level reduction. In conclusion, BDL-induced extrahepatic cholestasis caused posttranscriptional down-regulation of hepatocyte AQP8 protein expression. Defective expression of AQP8 water channels may contribute to bile secretory dysfunction of cholestatic hepatocytes. PMID:12717383

  18. Chronic exposure to hexachlorobenzene results in down-regulation of connexin43 in the breast.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Ariane; Ferraris, Emanuelle; Plante, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Decreased expression of connexins has been associated with cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously shown that a 5 day exposure to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) resulted in decreased connexins expression in hepatocytes 45 days later, and that this down-regulation was linked to activation of Akt through the ILK pathway. Because HCB promotes cancer in both the liver and breast, the present study aimed to determine if the mechanisms are similar in both tissues. MCF-12A breast cells were thus transfected with vectors coding for either Akt or a constitutively active form of Akt. In those cells, activation of Akt was correlated with decreased Cx43 levels. Female rats were then exposed to HCB by gavage either following the same protocol used previously for the liver or through a chronic exposure. While no changes were observed after the 5 days exposure protocol, chronic exposure to HCB resulted in increased Akt levels and decreased Cx43 levels in breast cells. In vitro, Akt was activated in MCF-12A cells exposed to HCB either for 7 days or chronically, but no changes were observed in junctional proteins. Together, these results suggested that, while activation of Akt can decrease Cx43 expression in breast cells in vitro, other mechanisms are involved during HCB exposure, leading to a decrease in Cx43 levels in a model- and duration-dependent manner. Finally, we showed that HCB effects are tissue specific, as we did not observe the same results in breast and liver tissues.

  19. Down regulated lncRNA MEG3 eliminates mycobacteria in macrophages via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kamlesh; Hanisch, Carlos; Palma Vera, Sergio Eliseo; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNA play a major part in host response to bacterial agents. However, the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in this context remains unknown. LncRNA regulate gene expression by acting e.g. as transcriptional coactivators, RNA decoys or microRNA sponges. They control development, differentiation and cellular processes such as autophagy in disease conditions. Here, we provide an insight into the role of lncRNA in mycobacterial infections. Human macrophages were infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and lncRNA expression was studied early post infection. For this purpose, lncRNA with known immune related functions were preselected and a lncRNA specific RT-qPCR protocol was established. In addition to expression-based prediction of lncRNA function, we assessed strategies for thorough normalisation of lncRNA. Arrayed quantification showed infection-dependent repression of several lncRNA including MEG3. Pathway analysis linked MEG3 to mTOR and PI3K-AKT signalling pointing to regulation of autophagy. Accordingly, IFN-γ induced autophagy in infected macrophages resulted in sustained MEG3 down regulation and lack of IFN-γ allowed for counter regulation of MEG3 by viable M. bovis BCG. Knockdown of MEG3 in macrophages resulted in induction of autophagy and enhanced eradication of intracellular M. bovis BCG. PMID:26757825

  20. Down-regulation of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in diabetic mouse atria.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fu; Ling, Tian-You; Lu, Tong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Li, Jingchao; Claycomb, William C; Shen, Win-Kuang; Lee, Hon-Chi

    2015-03-13

    The small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels have recently been found to be expressed in the heart, and genome-wide association studies have shown that they are implicated in atrial fibrillation. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor of atrial fibrillation, but the ionic mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. We hypothesized that SK channel function is abnormal in diabetes mellitus, leading to altered cardiac electrophysiology. We found that in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the expression of SK2 and SK3 isoforms was down-regulated by 85 and 92%, respectively, whereas that of SK1 was not changed. SK currents from isolated diabetic mouse atrial myocytes were significantly reduced compared with controls. The resting potentials of isolated atrial preparations were similar between control and diabetic mice, but action potential durations were significantly prolonged in the diabetic atria. Exposure to apamin significantly prolonged action potential durations in control but not in diabetic atria. Production of reactive oxygen species was significantly increased in diabetic atria and in high glucose-cultured HL-1 cells, whereas exposure of HL-1 cells in normal glucose culture to H2O2 reduced the expression of SK2 and SK3. Tyrosine nitration in SK2 and SK3 was significantly increased by high glucose culture, leading to accelerated channel turnover. Treatment with Tiron prevented these changes. Our results suggest that increased oxidative stress in diabetes results in SK channel-associated electrical remodeling in diabetic atria and may promote arrhythmogenesis. PMID:25605734

  1. Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 13 through down-regulating Notch signaling pathway in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zeng, Li; Wang, Ze-ming; Zhang, Sihan; Rong, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that an excess of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in osteoarthritis (OA). Here, the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) on the expression of MMP-13 in IL-1β-induced SW 1353 chondrosarcoma cells and an experimental rat model of OA induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) were investigated. SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells were pretreated with or without GRb1 and Notch signaling pathway inhibitor, DAPT, then were stimulated with IL-1β. In rats, experimental OA was induced by ACLT. These rats then received intra-articular injections of vehicle, an inhibitor of γ-secretase, DAPT, and/or GRb1. Expression of MMP-13, collagen type II (CII), Notch1, and jagged 1 (JAG1) were verified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, levels of MMP-13 mRNA were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. In histological analyses, treatment with DAPT reduced the number of cartilage lesions present and the expressions of MMP-13, CII, Notch1, and JAG1. In addition, treatment with GRb1 was associated with lower levels of Notch1 and JAG1 in both IL-1β-induced SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells and in the rat OA model. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of GRb1 on MMP-13 was greater than that exhibited by the signaling pathway inhibitor. In conclusion, GRb1 inhibits MMP-13 through down-regulating Notch signaling pathway in OA. PMID:26062798

  2. DNA repair/replication transcripts are down regulated in patients with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and its associated disorders are caused by the expansion of the CGG repeat in the 5’ untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, with disease classification based on the number of CGG repeats. The mechanisms of repeat expansion are dependent on the presence of cis elements and the absence of trans factors both of which are not mutually exclusive and contribute to repeat instability. Expansions associated with trans factors are due to the haploinsuffient or reduced expression of several DNA repair/metabolizing proteins. The reduction of expression in trans factors has been primarily conducted in animal models without substantial examination of many of these expansion mechanisms and trans factors in humans. Results To understand the trans factors and pathways associated with trinucleotide repeat expansion we have analyzed two microarray datasets which characterized the transcript expression in patients with FXS and in controls. Conclusion We observed significant down regulation of DNA damage/repair pathway transcripts. This observation was consistent in both datasets, which used different populations. Within these datasets, several transcripts overlapped in the direction of association and fold change. Further characterization of these genes will be critical to understand their role in trinucleotide repeat instability in FXS. PMID:23497562

  3. Dioscin enhances methotrexate absorption by down-regulating MDR1 in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Sun, Huijun; Huo, Xiaokui; and others

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dioscin on the absorption of methotrexate (MTX) and clarify the molecular mechanism involved in vivo and in vitro. Dioscin increased MTX chemosensitivity and transepithelial flux in the absorptive direction, significantly inhibiting multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activities in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Dioscin enhanced the intracellular concentration of MTX by down-regulating MDR1 expression through a mechanism that involves NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition in Caco-2 cells. Dioscin strengthened MTX absorption by inhibiting MDR1 expression in rat intestine. In addition, even though MTX is absorbed into the enterocytes, there was no increase in toxicity observed, and that, in fact, decreased toxicity was seen. - Highlights: • Dioscin raised MTX concentration by inhibiting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin suppresses MDR1 by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin can enhance MTX absorption via inhibiting MDR1 in vivo and in vitro. • Dioscin did not increase MTX-induced gastrointestinal mucosal toxicity.

  4. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Han, Dong; Wang, Lei; Feng, Hailan

    2013-05-17

    The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation.

  5. Treatment of CIA Mice with FGF21 Down-regulates TH17-IL-17 Axis.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-ming; Yu, Yin-hang; Li, Lu; Wang, Wen-fei; Li, De-shan

    2016-02-01

    Recently, FGF21 was reported to play an important role in anti-inflammation. The aim of the study is to explore the mechanism for FGF21 alleviating inflammation of CIA. CIA mice were injected with FGF21 once a day for 28 days after first booster immunization. The results showed that FGF21 alleviates arthritis severity and decreases serum anti-CII antibodies levels in CIA mice. Compared with CIA model, the number of the splenic TH17 cells was significantly decreased in FGF21-treated mice. FGF21 treatment reduced the mRNA expression of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP3 and increased level of IL-10 in the spleen tissue. The expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 was suppressed in FGF21-treated group. The mRNA expression of RORγt and IL-23 also decreased. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the beneficial effects of FGF21 on CIA mice were achieved by down-regulating Th17-IL-17 axis through STAT3/RORγt pathway. Modulating of Th17-mediated inflammatory response may be one of the mechanisms for FGF21 attenuating inflammation in CIA.

  6. The antidepressant desipramine is an arrestin-biased ligand at the α(2A)-adrenergic receptor driving receptor down-regulation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Christopher; Chen, Yunjia; Jiao, Kai; Wang, Qin

    2011-10-14

    The neurobiological mechanisms of action underlying antidepressant drugs remain poorly understood. Desipramine (DMI) is an antidepressant classically characterized as an inhibitor of norepinephrine reuptake. Available evidence, however, suggests a mechanism more complex than simple reuptake inhibition. In the present study, we have characterized the direct interaction between DMI and the α(2A)-adrenergic receptor (α(2A)AR), a key regulator of noradrenergic neurotransmission with altered expression and function in depression. DMI alone was found to be sufficient to drive receptor internalization acutely and a robust down-regulation of α(2A)AR expression and signaling following prolonged stimulation in vitro. These effects are achieved through arrestin-biased regulation of the receptor, as DMI selectively induces recruitment of arrestin but not activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Meanwhile, a physiologically relevant concentration of endogenous agonist (norepinephrine) was unable to sustain a down-regulation response. Prolonged in vivo administration of DMI resulted in significant down-regulation of synaptic α(2A)AR expression, a response that was lost in arrestin3-null animals. We contend that direct DMI-driven arrestin-mediated α(2A)AR down-regulation accounts for the therapeutically desirable but mechanistically unexplained adaptive alterations in receptor expression associated with this antidepressant. Our results provide novel insight into both the pharmacology of this antidepressant drug and the targeting of the α(2A)AR in depression.

  7. Characteristics of genes up-regulated and down-regulated after 24 h starvation in the head of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya; Nishimura, Azusa; Itoh, Masanobu; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2009-10-01

    Starvation is a common experience under fluctuating food conditions in nature, and response to it is vital for many organisms. Many studies have investigated the response at physiological and behavioral level, whereas the studies on starvation-induced transcriptional changes in the brain and the surrounding tissues are still limited. We here investigated global changes in transcript abundance in the head after 24 h starvation by microarray expression profiling of 2 wild-derived inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster, and identified a core set of 65 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated genes upon starvation. Among these up-regulated genes, 22 genes were circadian oscillating genes previously identified in the head of Drosophila. Interestingly, most (86%) of these circadian genes show their expression peak in a narrow time range of ZT7.0-12.0, when flies are relatively restless and less feeding in the normal condition. Among the down-regulated genes, 2 genes with highest fold-differences, fit and CG8147, are known to have female-biased expression in the head, and 1 gene, Obp99b, is known to be male-biased. Together with the realtime qPCR experiments on female and male transcripts, our data suggest that these sex-specific genes are candidate genes mediating a possible trade-off between starvation resistance and reproduction. Eleven down-regulated genes are known to be involved in the immune response. These changes in head transcriptome upon starvation reflect modulation of expression in some normally oscillating rhythmic genes and reduction in the resource allocation toward sexual activity and immunity.

  8. Slug down-regulation by RNA interference inhibits invasion growth in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. We assessed the relevance of Slug in measuring the invasive potential of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Methods We utilized RNA interference to knockdown Slug gene expression, and effects on survival and invasive carcinoma were evaluated using a Boyden chamber transwell assay in vitro. We evaluated the effect of Slug siRNA-transfection and Slug cDNA-transfection on E-cadherin and Bcl-2 expression in ESCC cells. A pseudometastatic model of ESCC in immunodeficient mice was used to assess the effects of Slug siRNA transfection on tumor metastasis development. Results The EC109 cell line was transfected with Slug-siRNA to knockdown Slug expression. The TE13 cell line was transfected with Slug-cDNA to increase Slug expression. EC109 and TE13 cell lines were tested for the expression of apoptosis-related genes bcl-2 and metastasis-related gene E-cadherin identified previously as Slug targets. Bcl-2 expression was increased and E-cadherin was decreased in Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells. Bcl-2 expression was increased and E-cadherin was decreased in Slug cDNA-transfected TE13 cells. Invasion of Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells was reduced and apoptosis was increased whereas invasion was greater in Slug cDNA-transfected cells. Animals injected with Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells exhihited fewer seeded nodes and demonstrated more apoptosis. Conclusions Slug down-regulation promotes cell apoptosis and decreases invasion capability in vitro and in vivo. Slug inhibition may represent a novel strategy for treatment of metastatic ESCC. PMID:21599940

  9. Down-regulation of β-arrestin2 promotes tumour invasion and indicates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Yi; Hu, Shan-Shan; Wu, Jing-Jing; Huang, Qiong; Ma, Yang; Wang, Qing-Tong; Chen, Jing-Yu; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    β-arrestins, including β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, are multifunctional adaptor proteins. β-arrestins have recently been found to play new roles in regulating intracellular signalling networks associated with malignant cell functions. Altered β-arrestin expression has been reported in many cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. We therefore examined the roles of β-arrestins in HCC using an animal model of progressive HCC, HCC patient samples and HCC cell lines with stepwise metastatic potential. We demonstrated that β-arrestin2 level, but not β-arrestin1 level, decreased in conjunction with liver tumourigenesis in a mouse diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumour model. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 expression was reduced in HCC tissues compared with noncancerous tissues in HCC patients. β-arrestin2 down-regulation in HCC was significantly associated with poor patient prognoses and aggressive pathologic features. In addition, our in vitro study showed that β-arrestin2 overexpression significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in cultured HCC cells. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 overexpression up-regulated E-cadherin expression and inhibited vimentin expression and Akt activation. These results suggest that β-arrestin2 down-regulation increases HCC cell migration and invasion ability. Low β-arrestin2 expression may be indicative of a poor prognosis or early cancer recurrence in patients who have undergone surgery for HCC. PMID:27759077

  10. Bax Inhibitor-1 down-regulation in the progression of chronic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is an evolutionary conserved endoplasmic reticulum protein that, when overexpressed in mammalian cells, suppresses the apoptosis induced by Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. The aims of this study were: (1) to clarify the role of intrinsic anti- and pro-apoptotic mediators, evaluating Bax and BI-1 mRNA and protein expressions in liver tissues from patients with different degrees of liver damage; (2) to determine whether HCV and HBV infections modulate said expression. Methods We examined 62 patients: 39 with chronic hepatitis (CH) (31 HCV-related and 8 HBV-related); 7 with cirrhosis (6 HCV-related and 1 HBV-related); 13 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [7 in viral cirrhosis (6 HCV- and 1 HBV-related), 6 in non-viral cirrhosis]; and 3 controls. Bax and BI-1 mRNAs were quantified by real-time PCR, and BI-1 protein expression by Western blot. Results CH tissues expressed significantly higher BI-1 mRNA levels than cirrhotic tissues surrounding HCC (P < 0.0001) or HCC (P < 0.0001). Significantly higher Bax transcripts were observed in HCV-genotype-1-related than in HCV-genotype-3-related CH (P = 0.033). A positive correlation emerged between BI-1 and Bax transcripts in CH tissues, even when HCV-related CH and HCV-genotype-1-related CH were considered alone (P = 0.0007, P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0017, respectively). Conclusions BI-1 expression is down-regulated as liver damage progresses. The hig