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Sample records for downstream akt activation

  1. Akt Regulates TNFα Synthesis Downstream of RIP1 Kinase Activation during Necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Colleen R.; Ahuja, Ruchita; Osafo-Addo, Awo D.; Barrows, Douglas; Kettenbach, Arminja; Skidan, Igor; Teng, Xin; Cuny, Gregory D.; Gerber, Scott; Degterev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Necroptosis is a regulated form of necrotic cell death that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In this work, we investigated the signaling mechanisms controlled by the necroptosis mediator receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase. We show that Akt kinase activity is critical for necroptosis in L929 cells and plays a key role in TNFα production. During necroptosis, Akt is activated in a RIP1 dependent fashion through its phosphorylation on Thr308. In L929 cells, this activation requires independent signaling inputs from both growth factors and RIP1. Akt controls necroptosis through downstream targeting of mammalian Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Akt activity, mediated in part through mTORC1, links RIP1 to JNK activation and autocrine production of TNFα. In other cell types, such as mouse lung fibroblasts and macrophages, Akt exhibited control over necroptosis-associated TNFα production without contributing to cell death. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanism of necroptosis and the role of Akt kinase in both cell death and inflammatory regulation. PMID:23469174

  2. Akt Regulates TNFα synthesis downstream of RIP1 kinase activation during necroptosis.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Colleen R; Ahuja, Ruchita; Osafo-Addo, Awo D; Barrows, Douglas; Kettenbach, Arminja; Skidan, Igor; Teng, Xin; Cuny, Gregory D; Gerber, Scott; Degterev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Necroptosis is a regulated form of necrotic cell death that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In this work, we investigated the signaling mechanisms controlled by the necroptosis mediator receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase. We show that Akt kinase activity is critical for necroptosis in L929 cells and plays a key role in TNFα production. During necroptosis, Akt is activated in a RIP1 dependent fashion through its phosphorylation on Thr308. In L929 cells, this activation requires independent signaling inputs from both growth factors and RIP1. Akt controls necroptosis through downstream targeting of mammalian Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Akt activity, mediated in part through mTORC1, links RIP1 to JNK activation and autocrine production of TNFα. In other cell types, such as mouse lung fibroblasts and macrophages, Akt exhibited control over necroptosis-associated TNFα production without contributing to cell death. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanism of necroptosis and the role of Akt kinase in both cell death and inflammatory regulation.

  3. AKT/PKB Signaling: Navigating Downstream

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Brendan D.; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2009-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a central node in cell signaling downstream of growth factors, cytokines, and other cellular stimuli. Aberrant loss or gain of Akt activation underlies the pathophysiological properties of a variety of complex diseases, including type-2 diabetes and cancer. Here, we review the molecular properties of Akt and the approaches used to characterize its true cellular targets. In addition, we discuss those Akt substrates that are most likely to contribute to the diverse cellular roles of Akt, which include cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, and migration. PMID:17604717

  4. A novel AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, inhibits phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activates phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1 dependent on the liver cancer cell type

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YUNCHENG; ZHENG, YUANWEN; FAHEEM, ALI; SUN, TIANTONG; LI, CHUNYOU; LI, ZHE; ZHAO, DIANTANG; WU, CHAO; LIU, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway dysregulation, AKT is typically accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. mTOR, in particular, represents a suitable therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma, whilst suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia family member-1 (SMG-1) is believed to serve a potential tumor suppressor role in human cancer. Despite SMG-1 and mTOR belonging to the same PI3K-related kinase family, the interactions between them are not yet fully understood. In the present study, a novel pyrrolopyrimidine-derived compound, AZD5363, was observed to suppress proliferation in liver cancer Hep-G2 and Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AZD5363 activated the phosphorylation of mTOR, dependent on the liver cancer cell type, as it may have differing effects in various liver cancer cell lines. Additionally, AZD5363 also activated SMG-1 within the same liver cancer cells types, which subsequently activated the phosphorylation of mTOR. In conclusion, the present study indicates that AZD5363 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activated phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1, dependent on the liver cancer type. PMID:26998062

  5. Anti-tumor activity of GW572016: a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor blocks EGF activation of EGFR/erbB2 and downstream Erk1/2 and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenle; Mullin, Robert J; Keith, Barry R; Liu, Lei-Hua; Ma, Hong; Rusnak, David W; Owens, Gary; Alligood, Krystal J; Spector, Neil L

    2002-09-12

    Dual EGFR/erbB2 inhibition is an attractive therapeutic strategy for epithelial tumors, as ligand-induced erbB2/EGFR heterodimerization triggers potent proliferative and survival signals. Here we show that a small molecule, GW572016, potently inhibits both EGFR and erbB2 tyrosine kinases leading to growth arrest and/or apoptosis in EGFR and erbB2-dependent tumor cell lines. GW572016 markedly reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and erbB2, and inhibited activation of Erk1/2 and AKT, downstream effectors of proliferation and cell survival, respectively. Complete inhibition of activated AKT in erbB2 overexpressing cells correlated with a 23-fold increase in apoptosis compared with vehicle controls. EGF, often elevated in cancer patients, did not reverse the inhibitory effects of GW572016. These observations were reproduced in vivo, where GW572016 treatment inhibited activation of EGFR, erbB2, Erk1/2 and AKT in human tumor xenografts. Erk1/2 and AKT represent potential biomarkers to assess the clinical activity of GW572016. Inhibition of activated AKT in EGFR or erbB2-dependent tumors by GW572016 may lead to tumor regressions when used as a monotherapy, or may enhance the anti-tumor activity of chemotherapeutics, since constitutive activation of AKT has been linked to chemo-resistance.

  6. Metastasis and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Sheng, Shijie; Pardee, Arthur B

    2008-10-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of cancer patient deaths. More information is needed about the molecular basis for its potential detection and treatment. The activated AKT kinase is necessary for many events of the metastatic pathway including escape of cells from the tumor's environment, into and then out of the circulation, activation of proliferation, blockage of apoptosis, and activation of angiogenesis. A series of steps leading to metastatic properties can be initiated upon activation of AKT by phosphorylation on Ser-473. These findings lead to the question of how this activation is connected to metastasis. Activated AKT phosphorylates GSK-3beta causing its proteolytic removal. This increases stability of the negative transcription factor SNAIL, thereby decreasing transcription of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin that forms adhesions between adjacent cells, thereby permitting their detachment. How is AKT hyperactivated in metastatic cells? Increased PI3K or TORC2 kinase activity- or decreased PHLPP phosphatase could be responsible. Furthermore, a positive feedback mechanism is that the decrease of E-cadherin lowers PTEN and thereby increases PIP3, further activating AKT and metastasis.

  7. Cyclophilin A as a downstream effector of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zuo-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Jou; Chen, Jin-An; Lin, Kuo-Chih; Hsu, Jung-Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Cyclophilin A (Cyp A), a member of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPI) family, may function as a molecular signalling switch. Comparative proteomic studies have identified Cyp A as a potential downstream target of protein kinase B (Akt). This study confirmed that Cyp A is a downstream effector of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway. Cyp A was highly phosphorylated in response to interleukin-6 treatment, which was consistent with the accumulation of phosphorylated Akt, suggesting that Cyp A is a phosphorylation target of Akt and downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Cyclosporine A (CsA), a PPI inhibitor, inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) U266 cells. Moreover, CsA treatment inhibited the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in MM U266 cells. Several Cyp A mutants were generated. Mutants with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites increased the G1 phase arrest in MM U266 cells. The other mutants that mimicked the phosphorylated state of Cyp A decreased the percentage of G1 phase. These results demonstrated that the states of phosphorylation of Cyp A by Akt can influence the progress of the cell cycle in MM U266 cells and that this effect is probably mediated through the Janus-activated kinase 2/STAT3 signalling pathway.

  8. Metastasis and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Shijie; Qiao, Meng; Pardee, Arthur B

    2009-03-01

    Metastasis, responsible for 90% of cancer patient deaths, is an inefficient process because many tumor cells die. The survival of metastatic tumor cells should be considered as a critical therapeutic target. This review provides a new perspective regarding the role of AKT in tumor survival, and the rationale to target AKT in anti-metastasis therapies.

  9. Phosphatidylserine is a critical modulator for Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bill X.; Akbar, Mohammed; Kevala, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Akt activation relies on the binding of Akt to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the membrane. Here, we demonstrate that Akt activation requires not only PIP3 but also membrane phosphatidylserine (PS). The extent of insulin-like growth factor–induced Akt activation and downstream signaling as well as cell survival under serum starvation conditions positively correlates with plasma membrane PS levels in living cells. PS promotes Akt-PIP3 binding, participates in PIP3-induced Akt interdomain conformational changes for T308 phosphorylation, and causes an open conformation that allows for S473 phosphorylation by mTORC2. PS interacts with specific residues in the pleckstrin homology (PH) and regulatory (RD) domains of Akt. Disruption of PS–Akt interaction by mutation impairs Akt signaling and increases susceptibility to cell death. These data identify a critical function of PS for Akt activation and cell survival, particularly in conditions with limited PIP3 availability. The novel molecular interaction mechanism for Akt activation suggests potential new targets for controlling Akt-dependent cell survival and proliferation. PMID:21402788

  10. MicroRNA-145 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting IRS1 and its downstream Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yelin; Hu, Chen; Cheng, Jun; Chen, Binquan; Ke, Qinghong; Lv, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • MiR-145 expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues and inversely related with IRS1 levels. • MiR-145 directly targets IRS1 in HCC cells. • Restored expression of miR-145 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and growth. • MiR-145 induced IRS1 under-expression potentially reduced downstream AKT signaling. - Abstract: Accumulating evidences have proved that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we showed that miRNA-145 level was significantly decreased in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) tissues and cell lines, and its low expression was inversely associated with the abundance of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a key mediator in oncogenic insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. We verified IRS1 as a direct target of miR-145 using Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. Further, the restoration of miR-145 in HCC cell lines suppressed cancer cell growth, owing to down-regulated IRS1 expression and its downstream Akt/FOXO1 signaling. Our results demonstrated that miR-145 could inhibit HCC through targeting IRS1 and its downstream signaling, implicating the loss of miR-145 regulation may be a potential molecular mechanism causing aberrant oncogenic signaling in HCC.

  11. AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms play distinct roles during breast cancer progression through the regulation of specific downstream proteins

    PubMed Central

    Riggio, Marina; Perrone, María C.; Polo, María L.; Rodriguez, María J.; May, María; Abba, Martín; Lanari, Claudia; Novaro, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms associated with the specific effects of AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms in breast cancer progression. We modulated the abundance of specific AKT isoforms in IBH-6 and T47D human breast cancer cell lines and showed that AKT1 promoted cell proliferation, through S6 and cyclin D1 upregulation, but it inhibited cell migration and invasion through β1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) downregulation. In contrast, AKT2 promoted cell migration and invasion through F-actin and vimentin induction. Thus, while overexpression of AKT1 promoted local tumor growth, downregulation of AKT1 or overexpression of AKT2 promoted peritumoral invasion and lung metastasis. Furthermore, we evaluated The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset for invasive breast carcinomas and found that increased AKT2 but not AKT1 mRNA levels correlated with a worse clinical outcome. We conclude that AKT isoforms play specific roles in different steps of breast cancer progression, with AKT1 involved in the local tumor growth and AKT2 involved in the distant tumor dissemination, having AKT2 a poorer prognostic value and consequently being a worthwhile target for therapy. PMID:28287129

  12. Activated AKT regulates NF-kappaB activation, p53 inhibition and cell survival in HTLV-1-transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Radonovich, Michael F; Park, Hyeon Ung; Brady, John N

    2005-10-06

    AKT activation enhances resistance to apoptosis and induces cell survival signaling through multiple downstream pathways. We now present evidence that AKT is activated in HTLV-1-transformed cells and that Tax activation of AKT is linked to NF-kappaB activation, p53 inhibition and cell survival. Overexpression of AKT wild type (WT), but not a kinase dead (KD) mutant, resulted in increased Tax-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Blocking AKT with the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 or AKT SiRNA prevented NF-kappaB activation and inhibition of p53. Treatment of C81 cells with LY294002 resulted in an increase in the p53-responsive gene MDM2, suggesting a role for AKT in the Tax-mediated regulation of p53 transcriptional activity. Further, we show that LY294002 treatment of C81 cells abrogates in vitro IKKbeta phosphorylation of p65 and causes a reduction of p65 Ser-536 phosphorylation in vivo, steps critical to p53 inhibition. Interestingly, blockage of AKT function did not affect IKKbeta phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in vitro suggesting selective activity of AKT on the IKKbeta complex. Finally, AKT prosurvival function in HTLV-1-transformed cells is linked to expression of Bcl-xL. We suggest that AKT plays a role in the activation of prosurvival pathways in HTLV-1-transformed cells, possibly through NF-kappaB activation and inhibition of p53 transcription activity.

  13. Cross Talk between the Akt and p38α Pathways in Macrophages Downstream of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Victoria A.; Gray, Alexander; Monk, Claire E.; Santos, Susana G.; Lee, Keunwook; Aubareda, Anna; Crowe, Jonathan; Ronkina, Natalia; Schwermann, Jessica; Batty, Ian H.; Leslie, Nick R.; Dean, Jonathan L. E.; O'Keefe, Stephen J.; Boothby, Mark; Gaestel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) results in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that are required for initiating a host immune response. Both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated rapidly in response to TLR activation and are required to coordinate effective host responses to pathogen invasion. In this study, we analyzed the role of the p38-dependent kinases MK2/3 in the activation of Akt and show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 and Ser473 requires p38α and MK2/3. In cells treated with p38 inhibitors or an MK2/3 inhibitor, phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and Thr308 is reduced and Akt activity is inhibited. Furthermore, BMDMs deficient in MK2/3 display greatly reduced phosphorylation of Ser473 and Thr308 following TLR stimulation. However, MK2/3 do not directly phosphorylate Akt in macrophages but act upstream of PDK1 and mTORC2 to regulate Akt phosphorylation. Akt is recruited to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the membrane, where it is activated by PDK1 and mTORC2. Analysis of lipid levels in MK2/3-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed a role for MK2/3 in regulating Akt activity by affecting availability of PIP3 at the membrane. These data describe a novel role for p38α-MK2/3 in regulating TLR-induced Akt activation in macrophages. PMID:23979601

  14. AKT-STAT3 Pathway as a Downstream Target of EGFR Signaling to Regulate PD-L1 Expression on NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamed, Sherif; Ogura, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Satoru; Saiki, Ikuo; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    While cancer development and progression can be controlled by cytotoxic T cells, it is also known that tumor-specific CD8(+)T cells become functionally impaired by acquiring a group of inhibitory receptors known as immune checkpoints. Amongst those, programmed death-1 (PD-1) is one of the most recognized negative regulators of T cell function. In non-small lung cancers (NSCLCs), the aberrant activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to induce PD-L1 expression and further the treatment with gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for EGFR, decrease the expression of PD-L1 on NSCLC. Given the acquired resistance to gefitinib treatment frequently observed by developing secondary-site mutations limiting its efficacy, it is important to understand the downstream mechanism of activated-EGFR signaling for regulating PD-L1 in NSCLC. In this study, we demonstrated that AKT-STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating the surface expression of PD-L1 on NSCLCs with aberrant EGFR activity and, further, the inhibition of AKT or STAT3 activity could down-regulate the expression of PD-L1 even in gefitinib-resistant NSCLCs. These results highlight an importance of AKT-STAT3 pathway as a promising target for potentiating anti-tumor immune responses by regulating PD-L1 expression on cancer cells with aberrant EGFR activity.

  15. Akt phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Hee; Jeong, Hyung Min; Jin, Yun-Hye; Li, Hongyan; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang-Youl

    2011-08-05

    Osterix (Osx), a zinc-finger transcription factor is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. Akt is a member of the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and plays important roles in osteoblast differentiation. The function of Osterix can be also modulated by post-translational modification. But, the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and Akt are not known. In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of Osterix function by Akt in osteoblast differentiation. We found that Akt phosphorylates Osterix and that Akt activation increases protein stability, osteogenic activity and transcriptional activity of Osterix. We also found that BMP-2 increases the protein level of Osterix in an Akt activity-dependent manner. These results suggest that Akt activity enhances the osteogenic function of Osterix, at least in part, through protein stabilization and that BMP-2 regulates the osteogenic function of Osterix, at least in part, through Akt.

  16. Akt and mTOR in B Cell Activation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Limon, Jose J; Fruman, David A

    2012-01-01

    Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for B cell proliferation and survival. PI3K signaling also controls key aspects of B cell differentiation. Upon engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR), PI3K activation promotes Ca(2+) mobilization and activation of NFκB-dependent transcription, events which are essential for B cell proliferation. PI3K also initiates a distinct signaling pathway involving the Akt and mTOR serine/threonine kinases. It has been generally assumed that activation of Akt and mTOR downstream of PI3K is essential for B cell function. However, Akt and mTOR have complex roles in B cell fate decisions and suppression of this pathway can enhance certain B cell responses while repressing others. In this review we will discuss genetic and pharmacological studies of Akt and mTOR function in normal B cells, and in malignancies of B cell origin.

  17. Turbulence decay downstream of an active grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewley, Gregory; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-11-01

    A grid in a wind tunnel stirs up turbulence that has a certain large-scale structure. The moving parts in a so-called ``active grid'' can be programmed to produce different structures. We use a special active grid in which each of 129 paddles on the grid has its own position-controlled servomotor that can move independently of the others. We observe among other things that the anisotropy in the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations and in the correlation lengths can be set and varied with an algorithm that oscillates the paddles in a specified way. The variation in the anisotropies that we observe can be explained by our earlier analysis of anisotropic ``soccer ball'' turbulence (Bewley, Chang and Bodenschatz 2012, Phys. Fluids). We define the influence of this variation in structure on the downstream evolution of the turbulence. with Eberhard Bodenschatz and others.

  18. Photoreceptor Neuroprotection: Regulation of Akt Activation Through Serine/Threonine Phosphatases, PHLPP and PHLPPL.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Raju V S; Kanan, Yogita; Anderson, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Serine/threonine kinase Akt is a downstream effector of insulin receptor/PI3K pathway that is involved in many processes, including providing neuroprotection to stressed rod photoreceptor cells. Akt signaling is known to be regulated by the serine/threonine phosphatases, PHLPP (PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase) and PHLPPL (PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase-like). We previously reported that both phosphatases are expressed in the retina, as well as in photoreceptor cells. In this study, we examined the PHLPP and PHLPPL phosphatase activities towards non-physiological and physiological substrates. Our results suggest that PHLPP was more active than PHLPPL towards non-physiological substrates, whereas both PHLPP and PHLPP dephosphorylated the physiological substrates of Akt1 and Akt3 with similar efficiencies. Our results also suggest that knockdown of PHLPPL alone does not increase Akt phosphorylation, due to a compensatory increase of PHLPP, which results in the dephosphorylation of Akt. Therefore, PHLPP and PHLPPL regulate Akt activation together when both phosphatases are expressed.

  19. CKIP-1 regulates macrophage proliferation by inhibiting TRAF6-mediated Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luo; Wang, Yiwu; Xiao, Fengjun; Wang, Shaoxia; Xing, Guichun; Li, Yang; Yin, Xiushan; Lu, Kefeng; Wei, Rongfei; Fan, Jiao; Chen, Yuhan; Li, Tao; Xie, Ping; Yuan, Lin; Song, Lei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Lujing; He, Fuchu; Zhang, Lingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play pivotal roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair and immunity. Macrophage proliferation is promoted by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced Akt signaling; yet, how this process is terminated remains unclear. Here, we identify casein kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) as a novel inhibitor of macrophage proliferation. In resting macrophages, CKIP-1 was phosphorylated at Serine 342 by constitutively active GSK3β, the downstream target of Akt. This phosphorylation triggers the polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CKIP-1. Upon M-CSF stimulation, Akt is activated by CSF-1R-PI3K and then inactivates GSK3β, leading to the stabilization of CKIP-1 and β-catenin proteins. β-catenin promotes the expression of proliferation genes including cyclin D and c-Myc. CKIP-1 interacts with TRAF6, a ubiquitin ligase required for K63-linked ubiquitination and plasma membrane recruitment of Akt, and terminates TRAF6-mediated Akt activation. By this means, CKIP-1 inhibits macrophage proliferation specifically at the late stage after M-CSF stimulation. Furthermore, CKIP-1 deficiency results in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of macrophages in vitro and CKIP-1−/− mice spontaneously develop a macrophage-dominated splenomegaly and myeloproliferation. Together, these data demonstrate that CKIP-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of macrophage homeostasis by inhibiting TRAF6-mediated Akt activation. PMID:24777252

  20. The effect to IL-3Ralpha, downstream PI3k/Akt signaling of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in NB4 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Wu, Juan-Ying; Huang, Hui-Fang; Chen, Yuan-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) are the classic drugs used for induction therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). IL-3Ralpha (CD123) is a specific marker of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML-LSCs). The over-expression of IL-3Ralpha in patients with AML is related to high white blood cells counts, high percentages of blast cells, and poor prognosis. Moreover, in some studies, IL-3Ralpha has been considered a new detection marker of minimal residual disease in the bone marrow from patients with APL. In contrast to ATRA, As2O3 reduces both mRNA and protein expression of IL-3Ralpha and inhibits the activity of PI3K/Akt after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of exposure. Furthermore, NB4 cells adhered to the human stroma cell line HS-5 cells were used as an in vitro model of APL cells in the bone marrow microenvironment. Our results demonstrate that adhesion to HS-5 cells up-regulated IL-3Ralpha protein expression and activated the downstream PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in NB4 cells. Compared with ATRA, As2O3 more potently inhibits proliferation of NB4 cells adhered to stroma cells.

  1. Progestins Activate the AKT Pathway in Leiomyoma Cells and Promote Survival

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Anna V.; Sefton, Elizabeth C.; Berry, Emily; Lu, Zhenxiao; Hardt, Jennifer; Marsh, Erica; Yin, Ping; Clardy, Jon; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar; Kim, J. Julie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Progesterone has been associated with promoting growth of uterine leiomyomas. The mechanisms involved remain unclear. Objective: In this study we investigated the activation of the AKT pathway and its downstream effectors, glycogen synthase kinase-3b and Forkhead box O (FOXO)-1 by progesterone as a mechanism of proliferation and survival of leiomyoma cells. Inhibitors of the AKT pathway were used to demonstrate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, AKT, and FOXO1 in contributing to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Results: Treatment of leiomyoma cells with R5020 over a period of 72 h resulted in higher cell numbers compared with untreated cells. When cells were treated with 100 nm R5020 for 1 and 24 h, the levels of phospho(Ser 473)-AKT increased. This increase was inhibited when cells were cotreated with RU486. Treatment of leiomyoma cells with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294 dramatically decreased levels of phospho(Ser 473)-AKT, despite R5020 treatment. In addition to increased phospho(Ser 473)-AKT levels, R5020 treatment resulted in an increase in phospho(Ser 256)-FOXO1 and phosphoglycogen synthase kinase-3b. Inhibition of AKT using API-59 decreased proliferation and cell viability even in the presence of R5020. Higher concentrations of API-59-induced apoptosis of leiomyoma cells, even in the presence of R5020. Psammaplysene A increased nuclear FOXO1 levels and did not affect cell proliferation but induced apoptosis of leiomyoma cells. Conclusions: The progestin, R5020, can rapidly activate the AKT pathway. Inhibition of the AKT pathway inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis of leiomyoma cells. PMID:19240153

  2. FANCI is a negative regulator of Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoshan; Lu, Xiaoyan; Akhter, Shamima; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Legerski, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Akt is a critical mediator of the oncogenic PI3K pathway, and its activation is regulated by kinases and phosphatases acting in opposition. We report here the existence of a novel protein complex that is composed minimally of Akt, PHLPP1, PHLPP2, FANCI, FANCD2, USP1 and UAF1. Our studies show that depletion of FANCI, but not FANCD2 or USP1, results in increased phosphorylation and activation of Akt. This activation is due to a reduction in the interaction between PHLPP1 and Akt in the absence of FANCI. In response to DNA damage or growth factor treatment, the interactions between Akt, PHLPP1 and FANCI are reduced consistent with the known phosphorylation of Akt in response to these stimuli. Furthermore, depletion of FANCI results in reduced apoptosis after DNA damage in accord with its role as a negative regular of Akt. Our findings describe an unexpected function for FANCI in the regulation of Akt and define a previously unrecognized intersection between the PI3K-Akt and FA pathways.

  3. Unique Effects of Acute Aripiprazole Treatment on the Dopamine D2 Receptor Downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β Signalling Pathways in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bo; Chen, Jiezhong; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a wide-used antipsychotic drug with therapeutic effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and reduced side-effects. Although aripiprazole was developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonist, all other D2R partial agonists that aimed to mimic aripiprazole failed to exert therapeutic effects in clinic. The present in vivo study aimed to investigate the effects of aripiprazole on the D2R downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways in comparison with a D2R antagonist--haloperidol and a D2R partial agonist--bifeprunox. Rats were injected once with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, i.p.), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Five brain regions--the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) were collected. The protein levels of PKA, Akt and GSK3β were measured by Western Blotting; the cAMP levels were examined by ELISA tests. The results showed that aripiprazole presented similar acute effects on PKA expression to haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, in the CPU and VTA. Additionally, aripiprazole was able to increase the phosphorylation of GSK3β in the PFC, NAc, CPu and SN, respectively, which cannot be achieved by bifeprunox and haloperidol. These results suggested that acute treatment of aripiprazole had differential effects on the cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways from haloperidol and bifeprunox in these brain areas. This study further indicated that, by comparison with bifeprunox, the unique pharmacological profile of aripiprazole may be attributed to the relatively lower intrinsic activity at D2R.

  4. Akt phosphorylates Tal1 oncoprotein and inhibits its repressor activity.

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, Alexey; Efanov, Alexey; Maximov, Vadim; Aqeilan, Rami I; Croce, Carlo M; Pekarsky, Yuri

    2005-06-01

    The helix-loop-helix transcription factor Tal1 is required for blood cell development and its activation is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The Akt (protein kinase B) kinase is a key player in transduction of antiapoptotic and proliferative signals in T cells. Because Tal1 has a putative Akt phosphorylation site at Thr90, we investigated whether Akt regulates Tal1. Our results show that Akt specifically phosphorylates Thr90 of the Tal1 protein within its transactivation domain in vitro and in vivo. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed the presence of Tal1 in Akt immune complexes, suggesting that Tal1 and Akt physically interact. We further showed that phosphorylation of Tal1 by Akt causes redistribution of Tal1 within the nucleus. Using luciferase assay, we showed that phosphorylation of Tal1 by Akt decreased repressor activity of Tal1 on EpB42 (P4.2) promoter. Thus, these data indicate that Akt interacts with Tal1 and regulates Tal1 by phosphorylation at Thr90 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner.

  5. Andrographolide suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis via activation of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Han; Hsiao, George; Lee, An-Rong; Wu, Chin-Chen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung

    2004-04-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), an active component isolated from the Chinese official herbal Andrographis paniculata, which has been reported to prevent oxygen radical production and thus prevent inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which Andro protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from growth factor (GF) deprivation-induced apoptosis. Results demonstrated that HUVECs undergo apoptosis after 18 hr of GF deprivation but that this cell death was suppressed by the addition of Andro in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100 microM). Andro suppresses the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and dissipation of mitochondrial potential (Deltapsi(m)), as a consequence, prevented caspase-3 and -9 activation. Treatment of endothelial cells with Andro-induced activation of the protein kinase Akt, an anti-apoptotic signal, and phosphorylation of BAD, a down-stream target of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity by wortmannin, by LY-294002 and by using a dominant negative Akt mutant abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Andro. In contrast, the ERK1/2 activities were not affected by Andro. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 failed to antagonize the protective effect of Andro. In conclusion, Andro exerts its anti-apoptotic potential via activation of the Akt-BAD pathway in HUVECs and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.

  6. Membrane Heterogeneity in Akt Activation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    construct from the top, Fig. 1), proved to be incompatible with Akt1 activity. The prenylation signal derived from K- Ras rendered Akt1 catalytically...with either cyclo- dextrin (CD) or water-soluble cholesterol ( Chol ) or with CD followed by cholesterol treatment (CD Chol ). Cells incubated in serum

  7. Membrane Heterogeneity in Akt Activation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    variant (third construct from the top, Fig. 1), proved to be incompatible with Akt1 activity. The prenylation signal derived from K- Ras rendered Akt1...water-soluble cholesterol ( Chol ) or with CD followed by cholesterol treatment (CD Chol ). Cells incubated in serum-free medium served as controls

  8. Deoxycholyltaurine Rescues Human Colon Cancer Cells From Apoptosis by Activating EGFR-Dependent PI3K/Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Shant, Jasleen; Guo, Chang Yue; Roy, Sanjit; Cheng, Kunrong

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that secondary bile acids promote colon cancer cell proliferation but their role in maintaining cell survival has not been explored. We found that deoxycholyltaurine (DCT) markedly attenuated both unstimulated and TNF-α-stimulated programmed cell death in colon cancer cells by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mechanism. To examine the role of bile acids and PI3K signaling in maintaining colon cancer cell survival, we explored the role of signaling downstream of bile acid-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in regulating both apoptosis and proliferation of HT-29 and H508 human colon cancer cells. DCT caused dose- and time-dependent Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation, a commonly used marker of activated PI3K/Akt signaling. Both EGFR kinase and PI3K inhibitors attenuated DCT-induced Akt phosphorylation and Akt activation, as demonstrated by reduced phosphorylation of a GSK-3-paramyosin substrate. Transfection of HT-29 cells with kinase-dead EGFR (K721M) reduced DCT-induced Akt phosphorylation. In HT-29 cells, EGFR and PI3K inhibitors as well as transfection with dominant negative AKT attenuated DCT-induced cell proliferation. DCT-induced PI3K/Akt activation resulted in downstream phosphorylation of GSK-3 (Ser21/9) and BAD (Ser136), and nuclear translocation (activation) of NF-κB, thereby confirming that DCT-induced activation of PI3K/Akt signaling regulates both proproliferative and prosurvival signals. Collectively, these results indicate that DCT-induced activation of post-EGFR PI3K/Akt signaling stimulates both colon cancer cell survival and proliferation. PMID:18064605

  9. Zinc induces cell death in immortalized embryonic hippocampal cells via activation of Akt-GSK-3beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Min, Young Kyu; Lee, Jong Eun; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2007-01-15

    Zinc is an essential catalytic and structural element of many proteins and a signaling messenger that is released by neuronal activity at many central excitatory synapses. Excessive synaptic release of zinc followed by entry into vulnerable neurons contributes severe neuronal cell death. We have previously observed that zinc-induced neuronal cell death is accompanied by Akt activation in embryonic hippocampal progenitor (H19-7) cells. In the present study, we examined the role of Akt activation and its downstream signaling events during extracellular zinc-induced neuronal cell death. Treatment of H19-7 cells with 10 microM of zinc plus zinc ionophore, pyrithione, led to increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473/Thr-308 and increased Akt kinase activity. Zinc-induced Akt activation was accompanied by increased Tyr-phosphorylated GSK-3beta as well as increased GSK-3beta kinase activity. Transient overexpression of a kinase-deficient Akt mutant remarkably suppressed GSK-3beta activation and cell death. Furthermore, tau phosphorylation, but not the degradation of beta-catenin, was dependent upon zinc-induced GSK-3beta activation and contributed to cell death. The current data suggest that, following exposure to zinc, the sequential activation of Akt and GSK-3beta plays an important role directing hippocampal neural precursor cell death.

  10. Multiple host kinases contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Roppenser, Bernhard; Kwon, Hyunwoo; Canadien, Veronica; Xu, Risheng; Devreotes, Peter N; Grinstein, Sergio; Brumell, John H

    2013-01-01

    SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.

  11. PKBalpha/Akt1 acts downstream of DNA-PK in the DNA double-strand break response and promotes survival.

    PubMed

    Bozulic, Lana; Surucu, Banu; Hynx, Debby; Hemmings, Brian A

    2008-04-25

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is a well-established regulator of several essential cellular processes. Here, we report a route by which activated PKB promotes survival in response to DNA insults in vivo. PKB activation following DNA damage requires 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Active PKB localizes in the nucleus of gamma-irradiated cells adjacent to DNA double-strand breaks, where it colocalizes and interacts with DNA-PK. Levels of active PKB inversely correlate with DNA damage-induced apoptosis. A significant portion of p53- and DNA damage-regulated genes are misregulated in cells lacking PKBalpha. PKBalpha knockout mice show impaired DNA damage-dependent induction of p21 and increased tissue apoptosis after single-dose whole-body irradiation. Our findings place PKB downstream of DNA-PK in the DNA damage response signaling cascade, where it provides a prosurvival signal, in particular by affecting transcriptional p21 regulation. Furthermore, this function is apparently restricted to the PKBalpha isoform.

  12. Modulation in Activation and Expression of PTEN, Akt1, and PDK1: Further Evidence Demonstrating Altered Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling in Postmortem Brain of Suicide Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Zhang, Hui; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling plays a crucial role in neuronal growth and plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that suicide brain is associated with decreased activation and expression of selective catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI 3-K. The present investigation examined the regulation and functional significance of compromised PI 3-K in suicide brain at the level of upstream phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) and downstream substrates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt. Method mRNA expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, and PDK1 by competitive RT-PCR; protein expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated-Akt1 (Ser473), phosphorylated-Akt1(Thr308), phosphorylated-PDK1, and phosphorylated-PTEN by Western blot; and catalytic activities of Akt1, Akt3, and PDK1 by enzymatic assays were determined in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus obtained from suicide subjects and nonpsychiatric controls. Results No significant changes in the expression of Akt1 or Akt3 were observed; however, catalytic activity of Akt1, but not of Akt3, was decreased in PFC and hippocampus of suicide subjects, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 and Thr308. The catalytic activity of PDK1 and the level of phosphorylated-PDK1 were also decreased in both brain areas without any change in expression levels of PDK1. On the other hand, mRNA and protein expression of PTEN was increased, whereas the level of phosphorylated-PTEN was decreased. Conclusion Our study demonstrates abnormalities in PI 3-K signaling at several levels in brain of suicide subjects and suggests the possible involvement of aberrant PI 3-K/Akt signaling in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicide. PMID:20163786

  13. Direct Regulation of Osteocytic Connexin 43 Hemichannels through AKT Kinase Activated by Mechanical Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Nidhi; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Burra, Sirisha; Kar, Rekha; Gu, Sumin; Jiang, Jean X.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin (Cx) 43 hemichannels in osteocytes are thought to play a critical role in releasing bone modulators in response to mechanical loading, a process important for bone formation and remodeling. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates the opening of mechanosensitive hemichannels is largely unknown. We have recently shown that Cx43 and integrin α5 interact directly with each other, and activation of PI3K appears to be required for Cx43 hemichannel opening by mechanical stimulation. Here, we show that mechanical loading through fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) increased the level of active AKT, a downstream effector of PI3K, which is correlated with the opening of hemichannels. Both Cx43 and integrin α5 are directly phosphorylated by AKT. Inhibition of AKT activation significantly reduced FFSS-induced opening of hemichannels and disrupted the interaction between Cx43 and integrin α5. Moreover, AKT phosphorylation on Cx43 and integrin α5 enhanced their interaction. In contrast to the C terminus of wild-type Cx43, overexpression of the C-terminal mutant containing S373A, a consensus site previously shown to be phosphorylated by AKT, failed to bind with α5 and hence could not inhibit hemichannel opening. Together, our results suggest that AKT activated by FFSS directly phosphorylates Cx43 and integrin α5, and Ser-373 of Cx43 plays a predominant role in mediating the interaction between these two proteins and Cx43 hemichannel opening, a crucial step to mediate the anabolic function of mechanical loading in the bone. PMID:24563481

  14. Akt1 signaling coordinates BMP signaling and β-catenin activity to regulate second heart field progenitor development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Hengwei; Tao, Lichan; Zhu, Jingai; Wang, Huijuan; Hemmings, Brian A; Yang, Zhongzhou

    2015-02-15

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors exhibit continued proliferation and delayed differentiation, which are modulated by FGF4/8/10, BMP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PTEN-Akt signaling regulates the stem cell/progenitor cell homeostasis in several systems, such as hematopoietic stem cells, intestinal stem cells and neural progenitor cells. To address whether PTEN-Akt signaling is involved in regulating cardiac progenitors, we deleted Pten in SHF progenitors. Deletion of Pten caused SHF expansion and increased the size of the SHF derivatives, the right ventricle and the outflow tract. Cell proliferation of cardiac progenitors was enhanced, whereas cardiac differentiation was unaffected by Pten deletion. Removal of Akt1 rescued the phenotype and early lethality of Pten deletion mice, suggesting that Akt1 was the key downstream target that was negatively regulated by PTEN in cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of FOXO by Akt1 suppressed the expression of the gene encoding the BMP ligand (BMP7), leading to dampened BMP signaling in the hearts of Pten deletion mice. Cardiac activation of Akt also increased the Ser552 phosphorylation of β-catenin, thus enhancing its activity. Reducing β-catenin levels could partially rescue heart defects of Pten deletion mice. We conclude that Akt signaling regulates the cell proliferation of SHF progenitors through coordination of BMP signaling and β-catenin activity.

  15. In vitro and in vivo activity of novel small-molecule inhibitors targeting the pleckstrin homology domain of protein kinase B/AKT.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sylvestor A; Ali, M Ahad; Zuohe, Song; Du-Cuny, Lei; Zhou, Li Li; Lemos, Robert; Ihle, Nathan; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Zhang, Shuxing; Mash, Eugene A; Powis, Garth; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J

    2009-06-15

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in activating survival and antiapoptotic pathways within cancer cells. Several studies have shown that this pathway is constitutively activated in many different cancer types. The goal of this study was to discover novel compounds that bind to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT, thereby inhibiting AKT activation. Using proprietary docking software, 22 potential PH domain inhibitors were identified. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the binding of the compounds to the expressed PH domain of AKT followed by an in vitro activity screen in Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We identified a novel chemical scaffold in several of the compounds that binds selectively to the PH domain of AKT, inducing a decrease in AKT activation and causing apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. Structural modifications of the scaffold led to compounds with enhanced inhibitory activity in cells. One compound, 4-dodecyl-N-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide, inhibited AKT and its downstream targets in cells as well as in pancreatic cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice; it also exhibited good antitumor activity. In summary, a pharmacophore for PH domain inhibitors targeting AKT function was developed. Computer-aided modeling, synthesis, and testing produced novel AKT PH domain inhibitors that exhibit promising preclinical properties.

  16. Stat5 Promotes Survival of Mammary Epithelial Cells through Transcriptional Activation of a Distinct Promoter in Akt1▿

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, Bradley A.; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Schmidt, Jeffrey W.; Triplett, Aleata A.; Moriggl, Richard; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) plays a pivotal role in the proliferation, secretory differentiation, and survival of mammary epithelial cells. However, there is little information about Stat5 target genes that facilitate these biological processes. We provide here experimental evidence that the prolactin-mediated phosphorylation of Stat5 regulates the transcriptional activation of the Akt1 gene. Stat5 binds to consensus sequences within the Akt1 locus in a growth factor-dependent manner to initiate transcription of a unique Akt1 mRNA from a distinct promoter, which is only active in the mammary gland. Elevating the levels of active Akt1 restores the expression of cyclin D1 and proliferation of Jak2-deficient mammary epithelial cells, which provides evidence that Akt1 acts downstream of Jak/Stat signaling. The ligand-inducible expression of Stat5 in transgenic females mediates a sustained upregulation of Akt1 in mammary epithelial cells during the onset of postlactational involution. Stat5-expressing mammary glands exhibit a delay in involution despite induction of proapoptotic signaling events. Collectively, the results of the present study elucidate an underlying mechanism by which active Stat5 mediates evasion from apoptosis and self-sufficiency in growth signals. PMID:20385773

  17. Activation of Akt/protein kinase B mediates the protective effects of mechanical stretching against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jia; Ahn, Hee-Yul

    2012-01-01

    Akt/protein kinase B is a well-known cell survival factor and activated by many stimuli including mechanical stretching. Therefore, we evaluated the cardioprotective effect of a brief mechanical stretching of rat hearts and determined whether activation of Akt through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is involved in stretch-induced cardioprotection (SIC). Stretch preconditioning reduced infarct size and improved post-ischemic cardiac function compared to the control group. Phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrate, GSK-3β, was increased by mechanical stretching and completely blocked by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor. Treatment with lithium or SB216763 (GSK-3β inhibitors) before ischemia induction mimicked the protective effects of SIC on rat heart. Gadolinium (Gd3+), a blocker of stretch-activated ion channels (SACs), inhibited the stretch-induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β. Furthermore, SIC was abrogated by wortmannin and Gd3+. In vivo stretching induced by an aorto-caval shunt increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced myocardial infarction; these effects were diminished by wortmannin and Gd3+ pretreatment. Our results showed that mechanical stretching can provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Additionally, the activation of Akt, which might be regulated by SACs and the PI3K pathway, plays an important role in SIC. PMID:23000580

  18. Activation of Akt/protein kinase B mediates the protective effects of mechanical stretching against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Hyung; Hao, Jia; Ahn, Hee-Yul; Kim, Si Wook

    2012-09-01

    Akt/protein kinase B is a well-known cell survival factor and activated by many stimuli including mechanical stretching. Therefore, we evaluated the cardioprotective effect of a brief mechanical stretching of rat hearts and determined whether activation of Akt through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K) is involved in stretch-induced cardioprotection (SIC). Stretch preconditioning reduced infarct size and improved postischemic cardiac function compared to the control group. Phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrate, GSK-3β, was increased by mechanical stretching and completely blocked by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor. Treatment with lithium or SB216763 (GSK-3β inhibitors) before ischemia induction mimicked the protective effects of SIC on rat heart. Gadolinium (Gd3(+)), a blocker of stretch-activated ion channels (SACs), inhibited the stretch-induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β. Furthermore, SIC was abrogated by wortmannin and Gd3(+). In vivo stretching induced by an aorto-caval shunt increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced myocardial infarction; these effects were diminished by wortmannin and Gd3(+) pretreatment. Our results showed that mechanical stretching can provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Additionally, the activation of Akt, which might be regulated by SACs and the PI3K pathway, plays an important role in SIC.

  19. Impaired translocation and activation of mitochondrial Akt1 mitigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Ying; Deng, Wu; Chen, Yumay; Fan, Weiwei; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Jope, Richard S; Wallace, Douglas C; Wang, Ping H

    2013-06-01

    Insulin can translocate Akt to mitochondria in cardiac muscle. The goals of this study were to define sub-mitochondrial localization of the translocated Akt, to dissect the effects of insulin on Akt isoform translocation, and to determine the direct effect of mitochondrial Akt activation on Complex V activity in normal and diabetic myocardium. The translocated Akt sequentially localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix. To confirm Akt translocation, in vitro import assay showed rapid entry of Akt into mitochondria. Akt isoforms were differentially regulated by insulin stimulation, only Akt1 translocated into mitochondria. In the insulin-resistant Type 2 diabetes model, Akt1 translocation was blunted. Mitochondrial activation of Akt1 increased Complex V activity by 24% in normal myocardium in vivo and restored Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium. Basal mitochondrial Complex V activity was lower by 22% in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium. Insulin-stimulated Complex V activity was not impaired in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium, due to compensatory translocation of Akt2 to mitochondria. Akt1 is the primary isoform that relayed insulin signaling to mitochondria and modulated mitochondrial Complex V activity. Activation of mitochondrial Akt1 enhanced ATP production and increased phosphocreatine in cardiac muscle cells. Dysregulation of this signal pathway might impair mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic myocardium.

  20. Protein kinase B/Akt activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by increasing NO production in response to shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, Y. M.; Boo, Y. C.; Park, H.; Maland, M. C.; Patel, R.; Pritchard, K. A. Jr; Fujio, Y.; Walsh, K.; Darley-Usmar, V.; Jo, H.

    2001-01-01

    Laminar shear stress activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by the mechanisms involving both nitric oxide (NO) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Because protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream effector of PI3K, has been shown to phosphorylate and activate endothelial NO synthase, we hypothesized that Akt regulates shear-dependent activation of JNK by stimulating NO production. Here, we examined the role of Akt in shear-dependent NO production and JNK activation by expressing a dominant negative Akt mutant (Akt(AA)) and a constitutively active mutant (Akt(Myr)) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). As expected, pretreatment of BAEC with the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) prevented shear-dependent stimulation of Akt and NO production. Transient expression of Akt(AA) in BAEC by using a recombinant adenoviral construct inhibited the shear-dependent stimulation of NO production and JNK activation. However, transient expression of Akt(Myr) by using a recombinant adenoviral construct did not induce JNK activation. This is consistent with our previous finding that NO is required, but not sufficient on its own, to activate JNK in response to shear stress. These results and our previous findings strongly suggest that shear stress triggers activation of PI3K, Akt, and endothelial NO synthase, leading to production of NO, which (along with O(2-), which is also produced by shear) activates Ras-JNK pathway. The regulation of Akt, NO, and JNK by shear stress is likely to play a critical role in its antiatherogenic effects.

  1. Electrostimulation during hindlimb unloading modulates PI3K-AKT downstream targets without preventing soleus atrophy and restores slow phenotype through ERK.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Erwan; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Bastide, Bruno; Stevens, Laurence

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to analyze the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in the regulation of muscle mass and slow-to-fast phenotype transition during hindlimb unloading (HU). For that purpose, we studied, in rat slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles, the time course of anabolic PI3K-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin, catabolic PI3K-AKT-forkhead box O (FOXO), and MAPK signaling pathway activation after 7, 14, and 28 days of HU. Moreover, we performed chronic low-frequency soleus electrostimulation during HU to maintain exclusively contractile phenotype and so to determine more precisely the role of these signaling pathways in the modulation of muscle mass. HU induced a downregulation of the anabolic AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 4E-binding protein 1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β targets, and an upregulation of the catabolic FOXO1 and muscle-specific RING finger protein-1 targets correlated with soleus muscle atrophy. Unexpectedly, soleus electrostimulation maintained 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 4E-binding protein 1, FOXO1, and muscle-specific RING finger protein-1 to control levels, but failed to reduce muscle atrophy. HU decreased ERK phosphorylation, while electrostimulation enabled the maintenance of ERK phosphorylation similar to control level. Moreover, slow-to-fast myosin heavy chain phenotype transition and upregulated glycolytic metabolism were prevented by soleus electrostimulation during HU. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the processes responsible for gradual disuse muscle plasticity in HU conditions involved both PI3-AKT and MAPK pathways. Moreover, electrostimulation during HU restored PI3K-AKT activation without counteracting soleus atrophy, suggesting the involvement of other signaling pathways. Finally, electrostimulation maintained initial contractile and metabolism properties in parallel to ERK activation, reinforcing the idea of a

  2. Endomembrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 activates the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Nirmal; Chung, Gary H C; Lete, Marta G; Alonso, Alicia; Byrne, Richard D; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé

    2015-09-15

    PKB/Akt activation is a common step in tumour growth, proliferation and survival. Akt activation is understood to occur at the plasma membrane of cells in response to growth factor stimulation and local production of the phosphoinositide lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] following phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. The metabolism and turnover of phosphoinositides is complex--they act as signalling molecules as well as structural components of biological membranes. The localisation and significance of internal pools of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 has long been speculated upon. By using transfected and recombinant protein probes for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, we show that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is enriched in the nuclear envelope and early endosomes. By exploiting an inducible dimerisation device to recruit Akt to these compartments, we demonstrate that Akt can be locally activated in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner and has the potential to phosphorylate compartmentally localised downstream substrates. This could be an important mechanism to regulate Akt isoform substrate specificity or influence the timing and duration of PI3K pathway signalling. Defects in phosphoinositide metabolism and localisation are known to contribute to cancer, suggesting that interactions at subcellular compartments might be worthwhile targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. ADP stimulates the respiratory burst without activation of ERK and AKT in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gozal, E; Forman, H J; Torres, M

    2001-09-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the first line of defense against infection in the lungs. We previously showed that the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, i.e., the respiratory burst, is stimulated by adenine nucleotides (ADP > ATP) in rat AM through signaling pathways involving calcium and protein kinase C. Here, we further show that ADP induces a rapid increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins that was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, which also inhibited the respiratory burst. Interestingly, ADP did not trigger the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2, or that of protein kinase B/AKT, a downstream target of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This is in contrast to another stimulus of the respiratory burst, zymosan-activated serum (ZAS), which activates both the ERK and PI3K pathways. Thus, this study demonstrates that the receptor for ADP in rat AM is not coupled to the ERK and AKT pathways and, that neither the ERK pathway nor AKT is essential to induce the activation of the NAPDH oxidase by ADP in rat AM while tyrosine kinases appeared to be required. The rate and amount of hydrogen peroxide released by the ADP-stimulated respiratory burst was similar to that produced by ZAS stimulation. The absence of ERK activation after ADP stimulation therefore suggests that hydrogen peroxide is not sufficient to activate the ERK pathway in rat AM. Nonetheless, as hydrogen peroxide was necessary for ERK activation by ZAS, this indicates that, in contrast to ADP, ZAS stimulates a pathway that is targeted by hydrogen peroxide and leads to ERK activation.

  4. Pharmacological Inhibition of PERK Attenuates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats Through the Activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Cao, Shenglong; Li, Jianru; Dixon, Brandon; Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyin; Gu, Chi; Lin, Wang; Chen, Gao

    2017-04-01

    Neuronal apoptosis is a central pathological process in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was reported to have a vital role in the pathophysiology of neuronal apoptosis in the brain. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effects of ER stress and its downstream signals in early brain injury after SAH. One hundred thirty-four rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH. The RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) inhibitor GSK2606414 and the Akt inhibitor MK2206 were injected intracerebroventricularly. SAH grade, neurologic scores, and brain water content were measured 72 h after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Expression of PERK and its downstream signals, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3, were examined using Western blot analysis. Specific cell types that expressed PERK were detected with double immunofluorescence staining. Neuronal cell death was demonstrated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Our results showed that the expression of p-PERK and its downstream targets, p-eIF2α and ATF4, increased after SAH and peaked at 72 h after SAH. PERK was expressed mostly in neurons. The inhibition of PERK with GSK2606414 reduced p-PERK, p-eIF2α, and ATF4 expression. Furthermore, GSK2606414 treatment increased p-Akt levels and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio as well as decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression and neuronal death, thereby improving neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. The selective Akt inhibitor MK2206 abolished the beneficial effects of GSK2606414. PERK, the major transducer of ER stress, is involved in neuronal apoptosis after SAH. The inhibition of PERK reduces early brain injury via Akt-related anti-apoptosis pathways. PERK may serve as a promising target for future therapeutic intervention.

  5. The critical role of Akt in cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Abeyrathna, Prasanna; Su, Yunchao

    2015-11-01

    Akt kinase, a member of AGC kinases, is important in many cellular functions including proliferation, migration, cell growth and metabolism. There are three known Akt isoforms which play critical and diverse roles in the cardiovascular system. Akt activity is regulated by its upstream regulatory pathways at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Beta-catenin/Tcf-4, GLI1 and Stat-3 are some of few known transcriptional regulators of AKT gene. Threonine 308 and serine 473 are the two critical phosphorylation sites of Akt1. Translocation of Akt to the cell membrane facilitates PDK1 phosphorylation of the threonine site. The serine site is phosphorylated by mTORC2. Ack1, Src, PTK6, TBK1, IKBKE and IKKε are some of the non-canonical pathways which affect the Akt activity. Protein-protein interactions of Akt to actin and Hsp90 increase the Akt activity while Akt binding to other proteins such as CTMP and TRB3 reduces the Akt activity. The action of Akt on its downstream targets determines its function in cardiovascular processes such as cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, vasorelaxation, and cell metabolism. Akt promotes cell survival via caspase-9, YAP, Bcl-2, and Bcl-x activities. Inhibition of FoxO proteins by Akt also increases cell survival by transcriptional mechanisms. Akt stimulates cell growth and proliferation through mTORC1. Akt also increases VEGF secretion and mediates eNOS phosphorylation, vasorelaxation and angiogenesis. Akt can increase cellular metabolism through its downstream targets GSK3 and GLUT4. The alterations of Akt signaling play an important role in many cardiovascular pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling. Several Akt inhibitors have been developed and tested as anti-tumor agents. They could be potential novel therapeutics for the cardiovascular diseases.

  6. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  7. DMH1 increases glucose metabolism through activating Akt in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Chun-Yan; Dong, De-Li

    2014-01-01

    DMH1(4-[6-(4-Isopropoxyphenyl)pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl] quinoline) is a compound C analogue with the structural modifications at the 3- and 6-positions in pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine backbone. Compound C was reported to inhibit both AMPK and Akt. Our preliminary work found that DMH1 activated Akt. Since Akt was involved in glucose metabolism, we aimed to identify the effects of DMH1 on glucose metabolism in L6 rat muscle cells and the potential mechanism. Results showed that DMH1 increased lactic acid release and glucose consumption in L6 rat muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. DMH1 activated Akt in L6 cells. Akt inhibitor inhibited DMH1-induced Akt activation and DMH1-induced increases of glucose uptake and consumption. DMH1 had no cytotoxicity in L6 cells, but inhibited mitochondrial function and reduced ATP production. DMH1 showed no effect on AMPK, but in the presence of Akt inhibitor, DMH1 significantly activated AMPK. Compound C inhibited DMH1-induced Akt activation in L6 cells. Compound C inhibited DMH1-induced increase of glucose uptake, consumption and lactic acid release in L6 cells. DMH1 inhibited PP2A activity, and PP2A activator forskolin reversed DMH1-induced Akt activation. We concluded that DMH1 increased glucose metabolism through activating Akt and DMH1 activated Akt through inhibiting PP2A activity in L6 rat muscle cells. In view of the analogue structure of DMH1 and compound C and the contrasting effects of DMH1 and compound C on Akt, the present study provides a novel leading chemical structure targeting Akt with potential use for regulating glucose metabolism.

  8. Modified acoustic transmission tube apparatus incorporating an active downstream termination.

    PubMed

    Machuca-Tzili, F Arturo; Orduña-Bustamante, Felipe; Pérez-López, Antonio; Pérez-Ruiz, Santiago J; Pérez-Matzumoto, Andrés E

    2017-02-01

    Current techniques for measuring normal incidence sound transmission loss with a modified impedance tube, or transmission tube, require setting up two different absorbing termination loads at the end of the downstream tube [ASTM E2611-09, Standard Test Method for Measurement of Normal Incidence Sound Transmission of Acoustical Materials Based on the Transfer Matrix Method (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, 2009)]. The process of physically handling the two required passive absorbing loads is a possible source of measurement errors, which are mainly due to changes in sample test position, or in test setup re-assembly, between measurements. In this paper, a modified transmission tube apparatus is proposed for non-intrusively changing the downstream acoustic load by means of a combined passive-active termination. It provides a controlled variable sound absorption which simplifies the setup of standard two-load techniques, without the need of physically handling the apparatus during the tests. This virtually eliminates the risk of errors associated with the physical manipulation of the two passive terminations. Transmission loss measurements in some representative test conditions are reported, showing improvements over current implementations, in reducing by approximately 50% the measurement variations associated with the setup of the two required absorbing terminations. Measurement results agree within 0.4 dB (maximum difference in high resolution broadband), and 0.04 dB (mean difference in 1/3-octave bands), with those obtained using standard passive two-load methods.

  9. Distinct roles of AKT isoforms in regulating β1-integrin activity, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Virtakoivu, Reetta; Pellinen, Teijo; Rantala, Juha K.; Perälä, Merja; Ivaska, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    AKT1 and AKT2 kinases have been shown to play opposite roles in breast cancer migration and invasion. In this study, an RNA interference screen for integrin activity inhibitors identified AKT1 as an inhibitor of β1-integrin activity in prostate cancer. Validation experiments investigating all three AKT isoforms demonstrated that, unlike in breast cancer, both AKT1 and AKT2 function as negative regulators of cell migration and invasion in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Down-regulation of AKT1 and AKT2, but not AKT3, induced activation of cell surface β1-integrins and enhanced adhesion, migration, and invasion. Silencing of AKT1 and AKT2 also resulted in increased focal adhesion size. Importantly, the mechanisms involved in integrin activity regulation were distinct for the two AKT isoforms. Silencing of AKT1 relieved feedback suppression of the expression and activity of several receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR and MET, with established cross-talk with β1-integrins. Silencing of AKT2, on the other hand, induced up-regulation of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family, and overexpression of miR-200 was sufficient to induce integrin activity and cell migration in PC3 cells. Taken together, these data define an inhibitory role for both AKT1 and AKT2 in prostate cancer migration and invasion and highlight the cell type–specific actions of AKT kinases in the regulation of cell motility. PMID:22809628

  10. BCL-3 expression promotes colorectal tumorigenesis through activation of AKT signalling

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Bettina C; Collard, Tracey J; Eagle, Catherine J; Southern, Samantha L; Greenhough, Alexander; Hamdollah-Zadeh, Maryam; Ghosh, Anil; Paraskeva, Christos; Silver, Andrew; Williams, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Here we investigate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) co-factor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL-3) in promoting colorectal tumour cell survival. Design Immunohistochemistry was carried out on 47 tumour samples and normal tissue from resection margins. The role of BCL-3/NF-κB complexes on cell growth was studied in vivo and in vitro using an siRNA approach and exogenous BCL-3 expression in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells. The question whether BCL-3 activated the AKT/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway in colorectal tumour cells was addressed by western blotting and confocal microscopy, and the ability of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to suppress BCL-3 expression was also investigated. Results We report increased BCL-3 expression in human colorectal cancers and demonstrate that BCL-3 expression promotes tumour cell survival in vitro and tumour growth in mouse xenografts in vivo, dependent on interaction with NF-κB p50 or p52 homodimers. We show that BCL-3 promotes cell survival under conditions relevant to the tumour microenvironment, protecting both colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells from apoptosis via activation of the AKT survival pathway: AKT activation is mediated via both PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, leading to phosphorylation of downstream targets GSK-3β and FoxO1/3a. Treatment with 5-ASA suppressed BCL-3 expression in colorectal cancer cells. Conclusions Our study helps to unravel the mechanism by which BCL-3 is linked to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer; we suggest that targeting BCL-3 activity represents an exciting therapeutic opportunity potentially increasing the sensitivity of tumour cells to conventional therapy. PMID:26033966

  11. Activating Akt1 mutations alter DNA double strand break repair and radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Oeck, S; Al-Refae, K; Riffkin, H; Wiel, G; Handrick, R; Klein, D; Iliakis, G; Jendrossek, V

    2017-02-17

    The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects. Interestingly, DNA-PKcs directly phosphorylated Akt1 at S473 in an in vitro kinase assay but not vice-versa. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PKcs or Akt restored radiosensitivity in tumour cells expressing Akt1-E17K or Akt1-TDSD. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated radioresistance depends on its activation state and nuclear localization and is accessible to pharmacologic inhibition.

  12. Activating Akt1 mutations alter DNA double strand break repair and radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Oeck, S.; Al-Refae, K.; Riffkin, H.; Wiel, G.; Handrick, R.; Klein, D.; Iliakis, G.; Jendrossek, V.

    2017-01-01

    The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects. Interestingly, DNA-PKcs directly phosphorylated Akt1 at S473 in an in vitro kinase assay but not vice-versa. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PKcs or Akt restored radiosensitivity in tumour cells expressing Akt1-E17K or Akt1-TDSD. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated radioresistance depends on its activation state and nuclear localization and is accessible to pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:28209968

  13. Upregulation of AKT1 protein expression in forskolin-stimulated macrophage: evidence from ChIP analysis that CREB binds to and activates the AKT1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Misra, Uma Kant; Pizzo, Salvatore Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Recently, we reported that silencing CREB gene expression by RNAi significantly attenuates forskolin-induced activation of Akt1. We now provide evidence that forskolin-treatment causes transcriptional and translational upregulation of Akt1 in macrophages. Akt synthesis was demonstrated by [(14)C]leucine or [(35)S] incorporation into newly synthesized Akt1 protein. Akt protein levels increased by approximately 1.5-fold after only a 5 min exposure of macrophages to forskolin. Akt1 levels thereafter rapidly returned to basal values (t(1/2) approximately 15 min). Maximal upregulation of Akt1 occurred in cells treated with 10 microM forskolin. Forskolin-dependent Akt1 synthesis was abolished by pretreating the cells with CREB-directed dsRNA as demonstrated at both the message and protein level, as well as by determining the synthesis of [(35)S]-labeled Akt1 protein. The PKA inhibitor H-89, greatly attenuated forskolin-induced Akt1 synthesis. Transcriptional and translational inhibitors also greatly reduced Akt1 synthesis in forskolin-stimulated [(14)C]leucine-labeled macrophages. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrate that CREB binds to a CRE binding domain of the Akt1 gene promoter. In conclusion, we show here for the first time transcriptional upregulation of Akt1 by CREB, based upon Akt1 protein synthesis and its modulation by transitional and translational inhibitors in forskolin-stimulated cells, Akt1 protein. and mRNA levels upon silencing CREB gene expression, and binding of CREB to the Akt1 gene promoter.

  14. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. - Highlights: • COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, could enhance radiosensitization. • Radiation induced PTEN inactivation (phosphorylation) and AKT activation. • COX-2 inhibitor induced PTEN expression and activation, and inactivated AKT. • COX-2 inhibitor enhanced radiosensitization through activating PTEN.

  15. Akt phosphorylates myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ), releases P-MAZ from the p53 promoter, and activates p53 transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ping; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2016-05-28

    The p53 protein is a cell cycle regulator. When the cell cycle progresses, p53 plays an important role in putting a brake on the G1 phase to prevent unwanted errors during cell division. Akt is a downstream kinase of receptor tyrosine kinase. Upon activation, Akt phorphorylates IKK that then phosphorylates IκB and releases NF-κB, leading to transcriptional activation of Dmp1. Dmp1 is a transcriptional activator of Arf. It has been known that oncogene activation stabilizes p53 through transcriptional activation of Arf, which then binds and inhibits Mdm2. In the current study, we show that myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ) is a transcriptional repressor of the p53 promoter. Akt phosphorylates MAZ at Thr385, and the phosphorylated MAZ is released from the p53 promoter, leading to transcriptional activation of p53, a new mechanism that contributes to increased p53 protein pool during oncogene activation.

  16. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tung O.; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C.; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M.; Armen, Roger S.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr308 in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr308 dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser473) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr308) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr308 phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. PMID:26201515

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for integrin-stimulated AKT and Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed Central

    King, W G; Mattaliano, M D; Chan, T O; Tsichlis, P N; Brugge, J S

    1997-01-01

    Cell attachment to fibronectin stimulates the integrin-dependent interaction of p85-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase with integrin-dependent focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. However, it is not known if this PI 3-kinase-FAK interaction increases the synthesis of the 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides (3-PPIs) or what role, if any, is played by activated PI 3-kinase in integrin signaling. We demonstrate here the integrin-dependent accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products, PI 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, as well as activation of AKT kinase, a serine/threonine kinase that can be stimulated by binding of PI(3,4)P2. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased the integrin-induced accumulation of the 3-PPIs and activation of AKT kinase, without having significant effects on the levels of PI(4,5)P2 or tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. These inhibitors also reduced cell adhesion/spreading onto fibronectin but had no effect on attachment to polylysine. Interestingly, integrin-mediated Erk-2, Mek-1, and Raf-1 activation, but not Ras-GTP loading, was inhibited at least 80% by wortmannin and LY294002. In support of the pharmacologic results, fibronectin activation of Erk-2 and AKT kinases was completely inhibited by overexpression of a dominant interfering p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. We conclude that integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin results in the accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as the PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of the kinases Raf-1, Mek-1, Erk-2, and AKT and that PI 3-kinase may function upstream of Raf-1 but downstream of Ras in integrin activation of Erk-2 MAP and AKT kinases. PMID:9234699

  18. SMYD3-mediated lysine methylation in the PH domain is critical for activation of AKT1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Matsuo, Yo; Nakakido, Makoto; Tsurita, Giichiro; Simone, Cristiano; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    AKT1 is a cytosolic serine/threonine kinase that is overexpressed in various types of cancer and has a central role in human tumorigenesis. Although it is known that AKT1 is post-translationally modified in various ways including phosphorylation and ubiquitination, methylation has not been reported so far. Here we demonstrate that the protein lysine methyltransferase SMYD3 methylates lysine 14 in the PH domain of AKT1 both in vitro and in vivo. Lysine 14-substituted AKT1 shows significantly lower levels of phosphorylation at threonine 308 than wild-type AKT1, and knockdown of SMYD3 as well as treatment with a SMYD3 inhibitor significantly attenuates this phosphorylation in cancer cells. Furthermore, substitution of lysine 14 diminishes the plasma membrane accumulation of AKT1, and cancer cells overexpressing lysine 14-substiuted AKT1 shows lower growth rate than those overexpressing wild-type AKT1. These results imply that SMYD3-mediated methylation of AKT1 at lysine 14 is essential for AKT1 activation and that SMYD3-mediated AKT1 methylation appears to be a good target for development of anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27626683

  19. PDGF inactivates forkhead family transcription factor by activation of Akt in glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam; Lenin, Mahimainathan; Calhaun, Cheresa; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Abboud, Hanna E

    2003-02-01

    Regulation of the forkhead domain transcription factors by PDGF has not been studied. In this report, we investigated the role of PDGF-induced Akt in regulating forkhead domain protein FKHRL1 in glomerular mesangial cells. PDGF increased phosphorylation of FKHRL1 in a time- and PI 3 kinase-dependent manner. Expression of dominant negative Akt by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer blocked PDGF-induced FKHRL1 phosphorylation. PDGF inhibited transcription of a forkhead DNA binding element-driven reporter gene. This inhibition was mimicked by constitutively active myristoylated Akt. Moreover, FKHR1-mediated transcription of the reporter gene was completely attenuated by both PDGF and Myr-Akt. One of the targets of forkhead transcription factors is the proapoptotic Fas ligand (FasL) gene. PDGF, as well as Myr-Akt, inhibited transcription of FasL. In contrast, inhibition of PI 3 kinase and dominant negative Akt increased FasL gene transcription, suggesting that suppression of PI 3 kinase/Akt signalling may induce apoptosis in mesangial cells via upregulation of FasL expression. However, expression of dominant negative Akt by adenovirus did not induce apoptosis in mesangial cells, suggesting that Akt-independent antiapoptotic mechanisms also exist. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that PDGF inactivates forkhead domain transcription factor by Akt-dependent phosphorylation and that suppression of Akt signalling is not sufficient to induce apoptosis in mesangial cells.

  20. Contactin-1 reduces E-cadherin expression via activating AKT in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Judy; Wong, Nicholas; Hung, Claudia; Chen, Wendy Xin-Yi; Tang, Damu

    2013-01-01

    Contactin-1 has been shown to promote cancer metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We report here that knockdown of contactin-1 in A549 lung cancer cells reduced A549 cell invasion and the cell's ability to grow in soft agar without affecting cell proliferation. Reduction of contactin-1 resulted in upregulation of E-cadherin, consistent with E-cadherin being inhibitive of cancer cell invasion. In an effort to investigate the mechanisms whereby contactin-1 reduces E-cadherin expression, we observed that contactin-1 plays a role in AKT activation, as knockdown of contactin-1 attenuated AKT activation. Additionally, inhibition of AKT activation significantly enhanced E-cadherin expression, an observation that mimics the situation observed in contactin-1 knockdown, suggesting that activation of AKT plays a role in contactin-1-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin. In addition, we were able to show that knockdown of contactin-1 did not further reduce A549 cell's invasion ability, when AKT activation was inhibited by an AKT inhibitor. To further support our findings, we overexpressed CNTN-1 in two CNTN-1 null breast cancer cell lines expressing E-cadherin. Upon overexpression, CNTN-1 reduced E-cadherin levels in one cell line and increased AKT activation in the other. Furthermore, in our study of 63 primary lung cancers, we observed 65% of primary lung cancers being contactin-1 positive and in these carcinomas, 61% were E-cadherin negative. Collectively, we provide evidence that contactin-1 plays a role in the downregulation of E-cadherin in lung cancer and that AKT activation contributes to this process. In a study of mechanisms responsible for contactin-1 to activate AKT, we demonstrated that knockdown of CNTN-1 in A549 cells did not enhance PTEN expression but upregulated PHLPP2, a phosphatase that dephosphorylates AKT. These observations thus suggest that contactin-1 enhances AKT activation in part by preventing PHLPP2-mediated AKT

  1. Activating E17K mutation in the gene encoding the protein kinase AKT1 in a subset of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; Scrima, Marianna; De Marco, Carmela; Fabiani, Fernanda; De Rosa, Nicla; De Gisi, Silvia; Malara, Natalia; Savino, Rocco; Rocco, Gaetano; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Franco, Renato; Tirino, Virginia; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2008-03-01

    Somatic mutation (E17K) that constitutively activates the protein kinase AKT1 has been found in human cancer patients. We determined the role of the E17K mutation of AKT1 in lung cancer, through sequencing of AKT1 exon 4 in 105 resected, clinically annotated non-small cell lung cancer specimens. We detected a missense mutations G-->A transition at nucleotide 49 (that results in the E17K substitution) in two squamous cell carcinoma (2/36) but not in adenocarcinoma (0/53). The activity of the endogenous kinase carrying the E17K mutation immunoprecipitated by tumour tissue was significantly higher compared with the wild-type kinase immunoprecipitated by the adjacent normal tissue as determined both by in vitro kinase assay using a consensus peptide as substrate and by in vivo analysis of the phosphorylation status of AKT1 itself (pT308, pS473) or of known downstream substrates such as GSK3 (pS9/S22) and p27 (T198). Immunostaining or immunoblot analysis on membrane-enriched extracts indicated that the enhanced membrane localization exhibited by the endogenous E17K-AKT1 may account for the observed increased activity of mutant E17K kinase in comparison with the wild-type AKT1 from adjacent normal tissue. In conclusion, this is the first report of AKT1 mutation in lung cancer. Our data provide evidence that, although AKT1 mutations are apparently rare in lung cancer (1.9%), the oncogenic properties of E17K-AKT1 may contribute to the development of a fraction of lung carcinoma with squamous histotype (5.5%).

  2. Epigenetic silencing mediated through activated PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Liu, Ta-Ming; Lan, Xun; Weng, Yu-I; Shen, Rulong; Gu, Fei; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Deatherage, Daniel E; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Taslim, Cenny; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Shapiro, Charles L; Lin, Huey-Jen L; Cheng, Alfred S L; Jin, Victor X; Huang, Tim H-M

    2011-03-01

    Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a critical epigenetic mark for the maintenance of gene silencing. Additional accumulation of DNA methylation in target loci is thought to cooperatively support this epigenetic silencing during tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between the two marks remain to be explored. Here we show that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling can be a trigger of this epigenetic processing at many downstream target genes. We also find that DNA methylation can be acquired at the same loci in cancer cells, thereby reinforcing permanent repression in those losing the H3K27me3 mark. Because of a link between PI3K/AKT signaling and epigenetic alterations, we conducted epigenetic therapies in conjunction with the signaling-targeted treatment. These combined treatments synergistically relieve gene silencing and suppress cancer cell growth in vitro and in xenografts. The new finding has important implications for improving targeted cancer therapies in the future.

  3. Epigenetic Silencing Mediated Through Activated PI3K/AKT Signaling in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Tao; Liu, Ta-Ming; Lan, Xun; Weng, Yu-I; Shen, Rulong; Gu, Fei; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Taslim, Cenny; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Shapiro, Charles L.; Lin, Huey-Jen L.; Cheng, Alfred S.L.; Jin, Victor X.; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a critical epigenetic mark for the maintenance of gene silencing. Additional accumulation of DNA methylation in target loci is thought to cooperatively support this epigenetic silencing during tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between the two marks remain to be explored. Here we demonstrate that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling can be a trigger of this epigenetic processing at many downstream target genes. We also find that DNA methylation can be acquired at the same loci in cancer cells, thereby reinforcing permanent repression in those losing the H3K27me3 mark. Because of a link between PI3K/AKT signaling and epigenetic alterations, we conducted epigenetic therapies in conjunction with the signaling-targeted treatment. These combined treatments synergistically relieve gene silencing and suppress cancer cell growth in vitro and in xenografts. The new finding has important implications for improving targeted cancer therapies in the future. PMID:21216892

  4. Gastrointestinal growth factors and hormones have divergent effects on Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Marc J.; Tapia, Jose A.; Sancho, Veronica; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Lauro; Jensen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Akt is a central regulator of apoptosis, cell growth and survival. Growth factors and some G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) regulate Akt. Whereas growth-factor activation of Akt has been extensively studied, the regulation of Akt by GPCR's, especially gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters, remains unclear. To address this area, in this study the effects of GI growth factors and hormones/neurotransmitters were investigate in rat pancreatic acinar cells which are high responsive to these agents. Pancreatic acini expressed Akt and 5 of 7 known pancreatic growth-factors stimulate Akt phosphorylation (T308, S473) and translocation. These effects are mediated by p85 phosphorylation and activation of PI3K. GI hormones increasing intracellular cAMP had similar effects. However, GI-hormones/neurotransmitters[CCK, bombesin,carbachol] activating phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited basal and growth-factor-stimulated Akt activation. Detailed studies with CCK, which has both physiological and pathophysiological effects on pancreatic acinar cells at different concentrations, demonstrated CCK has a biphasic effect: at low concentrations(pM) stimulating Akt by a Src-dependent mechanism and at higher concentrations(nM) inhibited basal and stimulated Akt translocation, phosphorylation and activation, by de-phosphorylating p85 resulting in decreasing PI3K activity. This effect required activation of both limbs of the PLC-pathway and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, but was not mediated by p44/42 MAPK, Src or activation of a serine phosphatase. Akt inhibition by CCK was also found in vivo and in Panc-1 cancer cells where it inhibited serum-mediated rescue from apoptosis. These results demonstrate that GI growth factors as well as gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters with different cellular basis of action can all regulate Akt phosphorylation in pancreatic acinar cells. This regulation is complex with phospholipase C agents such as CCK, because both stimulatory and inhibitory

  5. RAS and downstream RAF-MEK and PI3K-AKT signaling in neuronal development, function and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In postmitotic neurons, the activation of RAS family small GTPases regulates survival, growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of RAS or its major effector pathway, the cascade of RAF-, mitogen-activated and extracellular-signal regulated kinase kinases (MEK), and extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERK) causes the Rasopathies, a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose pathogenic mechanisms are the subject of intense research. I here summarize the functions of RAS – RAF – MEK – ERK signaling in neurons in vivo, and discuss perspectives for harnessing this pathway to enable novel treatments for nervous system injury, the Rasopathies, and possibly other neurological conditions. PMID:26760308

  6. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Wada, Eiji; Zammit, Peter S.; Shiozuka, Masataka; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  7. Activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the tumor stroma drives endocrine therapy-dependent breast tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Polo, María Laura; Riggio, Marina; May, María; Rodríguez, María Jimena; Perrone, María Cecilia; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Kaen, Diego; Frost, Marlene; Goetz, Matthew; Boughey, Judy; Lanari, Claudia; Radisky, Derek; Novaro, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Improved efficacy of neoadjuvant endocrine-targeting therapies in luminal breast carcinomas could be achieved with optimal use of pathway targeting agents. In a mouse model of ductal breast carcinoma we identify a tumor regressive stromal reaction that is induced by neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. This reparative reaction is characterized by tumor neovascularization accompanied by infiltration of immune cells and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts that stain for phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6), downstream the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. While tumor variants with higher PI3K/Akt/mTOR activity respond well to a combination of endocrine and PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, tumor variants with lower PI3K/Akt/mTOR activity respond more poorly to the combination therapy than to the endocrine therapy alone, associated with inhibition of stromal pS6 and the reparative reaction. In human breast cancer xenografts we confirm that such differential sensitivity to therapy is primarily determined by the level of PI3K/Akt/mTOR in tumor cells. We further show that the clinical response of breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is associated with the reparative stromal reaction. We conclude that tumor level and localization of pS6 are associated with therapeutic response in breast cancer and represent biomarkers to distinguish which tumors will benefit from the incorporation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. PMID:26098779

  8. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as “S-mercuration”, potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  9. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Tang, Yonghong

    2009-08-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) can modulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Recently, LPLI has been applied to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The protective role of LPLI against the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), a major constituent of AD plaques, has not been studied. PI3K/Akt pathway is extremely important in protecting cells from apoptosis caused by diverse stress stimuli. However, whether LPLI can inhibit Aβ-induced apoptosis through Akt activation is still unclear. In current study, using FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) technique, we investigated the activity of Akt in response to LPLI treatment. B kinase activity reporter (BKAR), a recombinant FRET probe of Akt, was utilized to dynamically detect the activation of Akt after LPLI treatment. The results show that LPLI promoted the activation of Akt. Moreover, LPLI inhibits apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 and the apoptosis inhibition can be abolished by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that LPLI can inhibit Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation.

  10. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Breast Cancer: Role of TIMP-1 in NO-mediated Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ridnour, Lisa A.; Barasch, Kimberly M.; Windhausen, Alisha N.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Lizardo, Michael M.; Yfantis, Harris G.; Lee, Dong H.; Switzer, Christopher H.; Cheng, Robert Y. S.; Heinecke, Julie L.; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hines, Harry B.; Khanna, Chand; Glynn, Sharon A.; Ambs, Stefan; Wink, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of therapeutic response and cancer patient survival can be improved by the identification of molecular markers including tumor Akt status. A direct correlation between NOS2 expression and elevated Akt phosphorylation status has been observed in breast tumors. Tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) has been proposed to exert oncogenic properties through CD63 cell surface receptor pathway initiation of pro-survival PI3k/Akt signaling. We employed immunohistochemistry to examine the influence of TIMP-1 on the functional relationship between NOS2 and phosphorylated Akt in breast tumors and found that NOS2-associated Akt phosphorylation was significantly increased in tumors expressing high TIMP-1, indicating that TIMP-1 may further enhance NO-induced Akt pathway activation. Moreover, TIMP-1 silencing by antisense technology blocked NO-induced PI3k/Akt/BAD phosphorylation in cultured MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. TIMP-1 protein nitration and TIMP-1/CD63 co-immunoprecipitation was observed at NO concentrations that induced PI3k/Akt/BAD pro-survival signaling. In the survival analysis, elevated tumor TIMP-1 predicted poor patient survival. This association appears to be mainly restricted to tumors with high NOS2 protein. In contrast, TIMP-1 did not predict poor survival in patient tumors with low NOS2 expression. In summary, our findings suggest that tumors with high TIMP-1 and NOS2 behave more aggressively by mechanisms that favor Akt pathway activation. PMID:22957045

  11. The neurotensin gene is a downstream target for Ras activation.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Zhou, Z; Celano, P; Li, J

    1995-01-01

    Ras regulates novel patterns of gene expression and the differentiation of various eukaryotic cell types. Stable transfection of Ha-ras into the human colon cancer line CaCo2 results in the morphologic differentiation to a small bowel phenotype. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the Ras regulatory pathway plays a role in the expression of the neurotensin gene (NT/N), a terminally differentiated endocrine product specifically localized in the gastrointestinal tract to the adult small bowel. We found that CaCo2-ras cells, but not parental CaCo2, express high levels of the human NT/N gene and, moreover, that this increase in gene expression is regulated at the level of transcription. Transfection experiments using NT/N-CAT mutation constructs identify the proximal 200 bp of NT/N flanking sequence as sufficient for maximal Ras-mediated NT/N reporter gene induction. Furthermore, a proximal AP-1/CRE motif is crucial for this Ras-mediated NT/N activation. Wild-type Ha-ras induces NT/N gene expression, albeit at lower levels than activated Ras; a dominant-negative Raf blocks this NT/N induction, suggesting that Raf lies down-stream of Ras in this pathway. In addition, postconfluent cultures of CaCo2 cells, which are differentiated to a small bowel phenotype, express the NT/N gene by 6 d after reaching confluency; this increase of NT/N expression is associated with concomitant increases of cellular p21ras protein. We conclude that Ras (both wild-type and activated) enhances expression of the NT/N gene in the gut-derived CaCo2 cell line, suggesting an important role for the Ras signaling pathway in NT/N gene transcription. Our results underscore the possibility that tissue-specific genes (such as NT/N) expressed in distinct subpopulations of the gut may be subject to Ras regulation. Finally, we speculate that the NT/N gene and the CaCo2 and CaCo2-ras cell systems will provide unique models to further define the cellular mechanisms leading to mammalian

  12. Prediabetes linked to excess glucagon in transgenic mice with pancreatic active AKT1.

    PubMed

    Albury-Warren, Toya M; Pandey, Veethika; Spinel, Lina P; Masternak, Michal M; Altomare, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B/AKT has three isoforms (AKT1-3) and is renowned for its central role in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, due to its constitutive activation in various cancers. AKT2, which is highly expressed in insulin-responsive tissues, has been identified as a primary regulator of glucose metabolism as Akt2 knockout mice (Akt2(-/-)) are glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant. However, the role of AKT1 in glucose metabolism is not as clearly defined. We previously showed that mice with myristoylated Akt1 (AKT1(Myr)) expressed through a bicistronic Pdx1-TetA and TetO-MyrAkt1 system were susceptible to islet cell carcinomas, and in this study we characterized an early onset, prediabetic phenotype. Beginning at weaning (3 weeks of age), the glucose-intolerant AKT1(Myr) mice exhibited non-fasted hyperglycemia, which progressed to fasted hyperglycemia by 5 months of age. The glucose intolerance was attributed to a fasted hyperglucagonemia, and hepatic insulin resistance detectable by reduced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor following insulin injection into the inferior vena cava. In contrast, treatment with doxycycline diet to turn off the transgene caused attenuation of the non-fasted and fasted hyperglycemia, thus affirming AKT1 hyperactivation as the trigger. Collectively, this model highlights a novel glucagon-mediated mechanism by which AKT1 hyperactivation affects glucose homeostasis and provides an avenue to better delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible for diabetes mellitus and the potential association with pancreatic cancer.

  13. The tumor suppressor protein menin inhibits AKT activation by regulating its cellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ozawa, Atsushi; Zaman, Shadia; Prasad, Nijaguna B.; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Agarwal, Sunita K.; Marx, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated mainly with tumors of multiple endocrine organs. Mutations in the MEN1 gene that encodes for the menin protein are the predominant cause for hereditary MEN1 syndrome. Though menin is a tumor suppressor, its molecular mechanism of action has not been defined. Here we report that menin interacts with AKT1 in vitro and in vivo. Menin downregulates the level of active AKT and its kinase activity. Through interaction with AKT1, menin suppresses both AKT1 induced proliferation and anti-apoptosis in non-endocrine and endocrine cells. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that menin regulates AKT1 in part by reducing the translocation of AKT1 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane during growth factor stimulation. Our findings may be generalizable to other cancers, insofar as we found that loss of menin expression was also associated with AKT activation in a mouse model of pancreatic islet adenoma. Together, our results suggest menin as an important novel negative regulator of AKT kinase activity. PMID:21127195

  14. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3} production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity.

  15. EGFR trans-activation mediates pleiotrophin-induced activation of Akt and Erk in cultured osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Bo; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Kun; Zhu, Xin-Hui; Xu, Da-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jia; Cui, Zhi-Ming

    2014-05-09

    Pleiotrophin (Ptn) plays an important role in bone growth through regulating osteoblasts' functions. The underlying signaling mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that Ptn induced heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) release to trans-activate EGF-receptor (EGFR) in both primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Meanwhile, Ptn activated Akt and Erk signalings in cultured osteoblasts. The EGFR inhibitor AG1478 as well as the monoclonal antibody against HB-EGF (anti-HB-EGF) significantly inhibited Ptn-induced EGFR activation and Akt and Erk phosphorylations in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts. Further, EGFR siRNA depletion or dominant negative mutation suppressed also Akt and Erk activation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Finally, we observed that Ptn increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell death in both MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts, such effects were alleviated by AG1478 or anti-HB-EGF. Together, these results suggest that Ptn-induced Akt/Erk activation and some of its pleiotropic functions are mediated by EGFR trans-activation in cultured osteoblasts.

  16. Erythropoietin alleviates hepatic insulin resistance via PPARγ-dependent AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhijuan; Zhang, Pengzi; Hong, Ting; Tang, Sunyinyan; Meng, Ran; Bi, Yan; Zhu, Dalong

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying these effects has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate how EPO affects hepatic glucose metabolism. Here, we report that EPO administration promoted phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway activation in palmitic acid (PA)-treated HepG2 cells and in the liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, whereas adenovirus-mediated silencing of the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) blocked EPO-induced AKT signalling in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist and PPARγ small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated the EPO-induced increase in p-AKT in HepG2 cells. Lentiviral vector-mediated hepatic PPARγ silencing in HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice impaired EPO-mediated increases in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic AKT activation. Furthermore, EPO activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signalling pathway, and AMPKα and SIRT1 knockdown each attenuated the EPO-induced PPARγ expression and deacetylation and PPARγ-dependent AKT activation in HepG2 cells. In summary, these findings suggest that PPARγ is involved in EPO/EPOR-induced AKT activation, and targeting the PPARγ/AKT pathway via EPO may have therapeutic implications for hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26643367

  17. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) That Signal via Protein Kinase A (PKA) Cross-talk at Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) to Activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT Pathway.

    PubMed

    Law, Nathan C; White, Morris F; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary E

    2016-12-30

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate PI3K/v-AKT thymoma viral oncoprotein (AKT) to regulate many cellular functions that promote cell survival, proliferation, and growth. However, the mechanism by which GPCRs activate PI3K/AKT remains poorly understood. We used ovarian preantral granulosa cells (GCs) to elucidate the mechanism by which the GPCR agonist FSH via PKA activates the PI3K/AKT cascade. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is secreted in an autocrine/paracrine manner by GCs and activates the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) but, in the absence of FSH, fails to stimulate YXXM phosphorylation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) required for PI3K/AKT activation. We show that PKA directly phosphorylates the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) to activate PP1 associated with the IGF1R-IRS1 complex. Activated PP1 is sufficient to dephosphorylate at least four IRS1 Ser residues, Ser(318), Ser(346), Ser(612), and Ser(789), and promotes IRS1 YXXM phosphorylation by the IGF1R to activate the PI3K/AKT cascade. Additional experiments indicate that this mechanism also occurs in breast cancer, thyroid, and preovulatory granulosa cells, suggesting that the PKA-dependent dephosphorylation of IRS1 Ser/Thr residues is a conserved mechanism by which GPCRs signal to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway downstream of the IGF1R.

  18. Akt signaling leads to stem cell activation and promotes tumor development in epidermis.

    PubMed

    Segrelles, Carmen; García-Escudero, Ramón; Garín, Maria I; Aranda, Juan F; Hernández, Pilar; Ariza, José M; Santos, Mirentxu; Paramio, Jesús M; Lorz, Corina

    2014-07-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs) alternate between periods of quiescence and proliferation, to finally differentiate into all the cell types that constitute the hair follicle. Also, they have been recently identified as cells of origin in skin cancer. HF-SCs localize in a precise region of the hair follicle, the bulge, and molecular markers for this population have been established. Thus, HF-SCs are good model to study the potential role of oncogenic activations on SC physiology. Expression of a permanently active form of Akt (myrAkt) in basal cells leads to Akt hyperactivation specifically in the CD34(+)Itga6(H) population. This activation causes bulge stem cells to exit from quiescence increasing their response to proliferative stimuli and affecting some functions such as cell migration. HF-SC identity upon Akt activation is preserved; in this sense, increased proliferation does not result in stem cell exhaustion with age suggesting that Akt activation does not affect self-renewal an important aspect for normal tissue maintenance and cancer development. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of HF-SC isolated from myrAkt and wild-type epidermis underscores changes in metabolic pathways characteristic of cancer cells. These differences manifest during a two-step carcinogenesis protocol in which Akt activation in HF-SCs results in increased tumor development and malignant transformation.

  19. Optogenetic activation reveals distinct roles of PIP3 and Akt in adipocyte insulin action.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingke; Nan, Di; Fan, Jiannan; Bogan, Jonathan S; Toomre, Derek

    2016-05-15

    Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4; also known as SLC2A4) resides on intracellular vesicles in muscle and adipose cells, and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway plays a major role in GLUT4 translocation; however, a challenge has been to unravel the potentially distinct contributions of PI3K and Akt (of which there are three isoforms, Akt1-Akt3) to overall insulin action. Here, we describe new optogenetic tools based on CRY2 and the N-terminus of CIB1 (CIBN). We used these 'Opto' modules to activate PI3K and Akt selectively in time and space in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We validated these tools using biochemical assays and performed live-cell kinetic analyses of IRAP-pHluorin translocation (IRAP is also known as LNPEP and acts as a surrogate marker for GLUT4 here). Strikingly, Opto-PIP3 largely mimicked the maximal effects of insulin stimulation, whereas Opto-Akt only partially triggered translocation. Conversely, drug-mediated inhibition of Akt only partially dampened the translocation response of Opto-PIP3 In spatial optogenetic studies, focal targeting of Akt to a region of the cell marked the sites where IRAP-pHluorin vesicles fused, supporting the idea that local Akt-mediated signaling regulates exocytosis. Taken together, these results indicate that PI3K and Akt play distinct roles, and that PI3K stimulates Akt-independent pathways that are important for GLUT4 translocation.

  20. AKT activation controls cell survival in response to HDAC6 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszczak, M; Trousil, S; Ali, T; Aboagye, E O

    2016-01-01

    HDAC6 is emerging as an important therapeutic target for cancer. We investigated mechanisms responsible for survival of tumor cells treated with a HDAC6 inhibitor. Expression of the 20 000 genes examined did not change following HDAC6 treatment in vivo. We found that HDAC6 inhibition led to an increase of AKT activation (P-AKT) in vitro, and genetic knockdown of HDAC6 phenocopied drug-induced AKT activation. The activation of AKT was not observed in PTEN null cells; otherwise, PTEN/PIK3CA expression per se did not predict HDAC6 inhibitor sensitivity. Interestingly, HDAC6 inhibitor treatment led to inactivating phosphorylation of PTEN (P-PTEN Ser380), which likely led to the increased P-AKT in cells that express PTEN. Synergy was observed with phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor treatment in vitro, accompanied by increased caspase 3/7 activity. Furthermore, combination of HDAC6 inhibitor with a PI3K inhibitor caused substantial tumor growth inhibition in vivo compared with either treatment alone, also detectable by Ki-67 immunostaining and 18F-FLT positron emission tomography (PET). In aggregate AKT activation appears to be a key survival mechanism for HDAC6 inhibitor treatment. Our findings indicate that dual inhibition of HDAC6 and P-AKT may be necessary to substantially inhibit growth of solid tumors. PMID:27362804

  1. ROS-mediated Activation of AKT Induces Apoptosis Via pVHL in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chetram, Mahandranauth A.; Bethea, Danaya A.; Jones, Kia J.; Don-Salu-Hewage, Ayesha S.; Odero-Marah, Valerie A.; Hinton, Cimona V.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in oxidative stress, which leads to the onset of diseases, such as cancer. Furthermore, ROS contributes to the delicate balance between tumor cell survival and death. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells decide to elicit survival or death signals during oxidative stress are not completely understood. We have previously reported that ROS enhanced tumorigenic functions in prostate cancer cells, such as transendothelial migration and invasion, which depended on CXCR4 and AKT signaling. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which ROS facilitated cell death through activation of AKT. We initially observed that ROS increased expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. The tumor suppressor PTEN, a negative regulator of AKT signaling, was rendered catalytically inactive through oxidation by ROS, although the expression levels remained consistent. Despite these events, cells still underwent apoptosis. Further investigation into apoptosis revealed that expression of the tumor suppressor pVHL increased, and contains a target site for p-AKT phosphorylation. pVHL and p-AKT associated in vitro, and knockdown of pVHL rescued HIF1α expression and the cells from apoptosis. Collectively, our study suggests that in the context of oxidative stress, p-AKT facilitated apoptosis by inducing pVHL function. PMID:23315288

  2. Activation of Akt protects alveoli from neonatal oxygen-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Vadivel, Arul; Coltan, Lavinia; Eaton, Farah; Barr, Amy J; Dyck, Jason R B; Thébaud, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the main complication of extreme prematurity, resulting in part from mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Currently, no specific treatment exists for BPD. BPD is characterized by an arrest in alveolar development and increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Type 2 AECs are putative distal lung progenitor cells, capable of regenerating alveolar homeostasis after injury. We hypothesized that the protection of AEC2 death via the activation of the prosurvival Akt pathway prevents arrested alveolar development in experimental BPD. We show that the pharmacologic inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt pathway with wortmannin during the critical period of alveolar development impairs alveolar development in newborn rats, resulting in larger and fewer alveoli, reminiscent of BPD. Conversely, in an experimental model of BPD induced by oxygen exposure of newborn rats, alveolar simplification is associated with a decreased activation of lung Akt. In vitro studies with rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells cultured in hyperoxia (95% O(2)) showed decreased apoptosis and improved cell survival after the forced expression of active Akt by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. In vivo, adenovirus-mediated Akt gene transfer preserves alveolar architecture in the newborn rat model of hyperoxia-induced BPD. We conclude that inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt disrupts normal lung development, whereas the expression of active Akt in experimental BPD preserves alveolar development. We speculate that the modulation of apoptosis may have therapeutic potential in lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage.

  3. Active form of AKT controls cell proliferation and response to apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KUNTER, IMGE; ERDAL, ESRA; NART, DENIZ; YILMAZ, FUNDA; KARADEMIR, SEDAT; SAGOL, OZGUL; ATABEY, NESE

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Deregulation of the AKT signaling pathway has been found in HCC. However, the effect of AKT activation on the proliferation and apoptosis in HCC is not clear. Herein, expression of phosphorylated form of AKT (Ser 473) was investigated in HCC tumor (n=73), cirrhosis (n=17), normal liver (n=22) samples and in HCC cell lines (n=8). The results showed that expression of p-AKT was higher in tumor (53%) than in cirrhotic tissues (12%) while it was absent in normal liver (p<0.0001). p-AKT expression was also associated with number of tumor nodules and differentiation status (p<0.05). LY294002 induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in SNU-449 and Mahlavu cells by decreasing expression of CDK2, CDK4, CycD1, CycD3, CycE, CycA and increasing expression of p21 and p27 as well; it also caused a decrease in the E2F1 transcriptional activity through declining phosphorylated Rb. LY294002 did not affect the basal level of apoptosis; however, it amplified cisplatin-induced apoptosis in SNU-449 cells. When the p-AKT level was decreased specifically after transfection with the DN-AKT plasmid, SNU-449 cells became more sensitive to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. HuH-7 cells with no basal p-AKT, were markedly affected by the treatment of doxorubicin. Thus, Akt signaling controls growth and chemical-induced apoptosis in HCC and p-AKT may be a potential target for therapeutic interventions in HCC patients. PMID:24337632

  4. Loss of Akt activity increases circulating soluble endoglin release in preeclampsia: identification of inter-dependency between Akt-1 and heme oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Cudmore, Melissa J.; Ahmad, Shakil; Sissaoui, Samir; Ramma, Wenda; Ma, Bin; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Al-Ani, Bahjat; Wang, Keqing; Cai, Meng; Crispi, Fatima; Hewett, Peter W.; Gratacós, Eduard; Egginton, Stuart; Ahmed, Asif

    2012-01-01

    Aims Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of preeclampsia. Desensitization of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway underlies endothelial dysfunction and haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is decreased in preeclampsia. To identify therapeutic targets, we sought to assess whether these two regulators act to suppress soluble endoglin (sEng), an antagonist of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling, which is known to be elevated in preeclampsia. Methods and results Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), and insulin, which all activate the PI3K/Akt pathway, inhibited the release of sEng from endothelial cells. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, by overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) or a dominant-negative isoform of Akt (Aktdn) induced sEng release from endothelial cells and prevented the inhibitory effect of VEGF-A. Conversely, overexpression of a constitutively active Akt (Aktmyr) inhibited PTEN and cytokine-induced sEng release. Systemic delivery of Aktmyr to mice significantly reduced circulating sEng, whereas Aktdn promoted sEng release. Phosphorylation of Akt was reduced in preeclamptic placenta and this correlated with the elevated level of circulating sEng. Knock-down of Akt using siRNA prevented HO-1-mediated inhibition of sEng release and reduced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, HO-1 null mice have reduced phosphorylated Akt in their organs and overexpression of Aktmyr failed to suppress the elevated levels of sEng detected in HO-1 null mice, indicating that HO-1 is required for the Akt-mediated inhibition of sEng. Conclusion The loss of PI3K/Akt and/or HO-1 activity promotes sEng release and positive manipulation of these pathways offers a strategy to circumvent endothelial dysfunction. PMID:21411816

  5. Prostaglandin E2 reduces radiation-induced epithelial apoptosis through a mechanism involving AKT activation and bax translocation.

    PubMed

    Tessner, Teresa G; Muhale, Filipe; Riehl, Terrence E; Anant, Shrikant; Stenson, William F

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis modulates the response to radiation injury in the mouse intestinal epithelium through effects on crypt survival and apoptosis; however, the downstream signaling events have not been elucidated. WT mice receiving 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2) had fewer apoptotic cells per crypt than untreated mice. Apoptosis in Bax(-/-) mice receiving 12 Gy was approximately 50% less than in WT mice, and the ability of dmPGE2 to attenuate apoptosis was lost in Bax(-/-) mice. Positional analysis revealed that apoptosis in the Bax(-/-) mice was diminished only in the bax-expressing cells of the lower crypts and that in WT mice, dmPGE2 decreased apoptosis only in the bax-expressing cells. The HCT-116 intestinal cell line and Bax(-/-) HCT-116 recapitulated the apoptotic response of the mouse small intestine with regard to irradiation and dmPGE2. Irradiation of HCT-116 cells resulted in phosphorylation of AKT that was enhanced by dmPGE2 through transactivation of the EGFR. Inhibition of AKT phosphorylation prevented the reduction of apoptosis by dmPGE2 following radiation. Transfection of HCT-116 cells with a constitutively active AKT reduced apoptosis in irradiated cells to the same extent as in nontransfected cells treated with dmPGE2. Treatment with dmPGE2 did not alter bax or bcl-x expression but suppressed bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane. Our in vivo studies indicate that there are bax-dependent and bax-independent radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestine but that only the bax-dependent apoptosis is reduced by dmPGE2. The in vitro studies indicate that dmPGE2, most likely by signaling through the E prostaglandin receptor EP2, reduces radiation-induced apoptosis through transactivation of the EGFR and enhanced activation of AKT and that this results in reduced bax translocation to the mitochondria.

  6. Activation of PI3Kγ/Akt pathway increases cardiomyocyte HMGB1 expression in diabetic environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia; Liu, Qian; Tang, Han; Tao, Aibin; Wang, Hao; Kao, Raymond; Rui, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein mediates the cardiomyocyte–cardiac fibroblast interaction that contributes to induction of myocardial fibrosis in diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, we aim to investigate the intracellular signaling pathway that leads to cardiomyocyte HMGB1 expression under a diabetic environment. Results HMGB1 expression is increased in high concentration of glucose (HG)-conditioned cardiomyocytes. Challenging cardiomyocytes with HG also increased PI3Kγ and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3Kγ (CRISPR/Cas9 knockout plasmid or AS605240) prevented HG-induced Akt phosphorylation and HMGB1 expression by the cardiomyocytes. In addition, inhibition of Akt (Akt1/2/3 siRNA or A6730) attenuated HG-induced HMGB1 production. Finally, challenging cardiomyocytes with HG resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with an antioxidant (Mitotempo) abolished HG-induced PI3Kγ and Akt activation, as well as HMGB1 production. Materials and Methods Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were cultured with a high concentration of glucose. Cardiomyocyte phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) and Akt activation were determined by Western blot. Cardiomyocyte HMGB1 production was evaluated with Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while cardiomyocyte oxidative stress was determined with a DCFDA fluorescence probe. Conclusions Our results suggest that the cardiomyocytes incur an oxidative stress under diabetic condition, which subsequently activates the PI3Kγ/Akt cell-signaling pathway and further increases HMGB1 expression. PMID:27821807

  7. Subthalamic, not striatal, activity correlates with basal ganglia downstream activity in normal and parkinsonian monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Deffains, Marc; Iskhakova, Liliya; Katabi, Shiran; Haber, Suzanne N; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitute the input stage of the basal ganglia (BG) network and together innervate BG downstream structures using GABA and glutamate, respectively. Comparison of the neuronal activity in BG input and downstream structures reveals that subthalamic, not striatal, activity fluctuations correlate with modulations in the increase/decrease discharge balance of BG downstream neurons during temporal discounting classical condition task. After induction of parkinsonism with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), abnormal low beta (8-15 Hz) spiking and local field potential (LFP) oscillations resonate across the BG network. Nevertheless, LFP beta oscillations entrain spiking activity of STN, striatal cholinergic interneurons and BG downstream structures, but do not entrain spiking activity of striatal projection neurons. Our results highlight the pivotal role of STN divergent projections in BG physiology and pathophysiology and may explain why STN is such an effective site for invasive treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease and other BG-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16443.001 PMID:27552049

  8. Gab3 overexpression in human glioma mediates Akt activation and tumor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weiting; Zhang, Weifeng

    2017-01-01

    This current study tested expression and potential biological functions of Gab3 in human glioma. Gab3 mRNA and protein expression was significantly elevated in human glioma tissues and glioma cells. Its level was however low in normal brain tissues and primary human astrocytes. In both established (U251MG cell line) and primary human glioma cells, Gab3 knockdown by shRNA/siRNA significantly inhibited Akt activation and cell proliferation. Reversely, forced Gab3 overexpression in U251MG cells promoted Akt activation and cell proliferation. In vivo, the growth of U251MG tumors in nude mice was inhibited following expressing Gab3 shRNA. Akt activation in cancer tissues was also suppressed by Gab3 shRNA. Together, we conclude that Gab3 overexpression in human glioma mediates Akt activation and cancer cell proliferation. PMID:28291820

  9. δ-Tocopherol inhibits receptor tyrosine kinase-induced AKT activation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2016-11-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies and supported by animal studies with vitamin E forms, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol (δ-T). Several recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-tocopherol, however, yielded disappointing results. Whether vitamin E prevents or promotes cancer is a serious concern. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of the different forms of tocopherols would enhance our understanding of this topic. In this study, we demonstrated that δ-T was the most effective tocopherol form in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. By profiling the effects of δ-T on the cell signaling using the phospho-kinase array, we found that the most inhibited target was the phosphorylation of AKT on T308. Further study on the activation of AKT by EGFR and IGFR revealed that δ-T attenuated the EGF/IGF-induced activation of AKT (via the phosphorylation of AKT on T308 induced by the activation of PIK3). Expression of dominant active PIK3 and AKT in prostate cancer cell line DU145 in which PIK3, AKT, and PTEN are wild type caused the cells to be reflectory to the inhibition of δ-T, supporting that δ-T inhibits the PIK3-mediated activation of AKT. Our data also suggest that δ-T interferes with the EGF-induced EGFR internalization, which leads to the inhibition of the receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of AKT. In summary, our results revealed a novel mechanism of δ-T in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, supporting the cancer preventive activity δ-T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Constitutively expressed COX-2 in osteoblasts positively regulates Akt signal transduction via suppression of PTEN activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Ju; Chang, Je-Ken; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2011-02-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is thought to be an inducible enzyme, but increasing reports indicate that COX-2 is constitutively expressed in several organs. The status of COX-2 expression in bone and its physiological role remains undefined. Non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors, which commonly suppress COX-2 activity, were reported to suppress osteoblast proliferation via Akt/FOXO3a/p27(Kip1) signaling, suggesting that COX-2 may be the key factor of the suppressive effects of NSAIDs on proliferation. Although Akt activation correlates with PTEN deficiency and cell viability, the role of COX-2 on PTEN/Akt regulation remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that COX-2 may be constitutively expressed in osteoblasts and regulate PTEN/Akt-related proliferation. We examined the localization and co-expression of COX-2 and p-Akt in normal mouse femurs and in cultured mouse (mOBs) and human osteoblasts (hOBs). Our results showed that osteoblasts adjacent to the trabeculae, periosteum and endosteum in mouse femurs constitutively expressed COX-2, while COX-2 co-expressed with p-Akt in osteoblasts sitting adjacent to trabeculae in vivo, and in mOBs and hOBs in vitro. We further used COX-2 siRNA to test the role of COX-2 in Akt signaling in hOBs; COX-2 silencing significantly inhibited PTEN phosphorylation, enhanced PTEN activity, and suppressed p-Akt level and proliferation. However, replenishment of the COX-2 enzymatic product, PGE2, failed to reverse COX-2-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, transfection with recombinant human COX-2 (rhCOX-2) significantly reversed COX-2 siRNA-suppressed PTEN phosphorylation, but this effect was reduced when the enzymatic activity of rhCOX-2 was blocked. This finding indicated that the effect of COX-2 on PTEN/Akt signaling is not related to PGE2 but still dependent on COX-2 enzymatic activity. Conversely, COX-1 silencing did not affect PTEN/Akt signaling. Our findings provide

  11. Molecular pharmacology and antitumor activity of PHT-427, a novel Akt/phosphatidylinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 pleckstrin homology domain inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Meuillet, Emmanuelle J; Zuohe, Song; Lemos, Robert; Ihle, Nathan; Kingston, John; Watkins, Ryan; Moses, Sylvestor A; Zhang, Shuxing; Du-Cuny, Lei; Herbst, Roy; Jacoby, Jörg J; Zhou, Li Li; Ahad, Ali M; Mash, Eugene A; Kirkpatrick, D Lynn; Powis, Garth

    2010-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/phosphatidylinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDPK1)/Akt signaling plays a critical role in activating proliferation and survival pathways within cancer cells. We report the molecular pharmacology and antitumor activity of PHT-427, a compound designed to bind to the pleckstrin homology (PH) binding domain of signaling molecules important in cancer. Although originally designed to bind the PH domain of Akt, we now report that PHT-427 also binds to the PH domain of PDPK1. A series of PHT-427 analogues with variable C-4 to C-16 alkyl chain length were synthesized and tested. PHT-427 itself (C-12 chain) bound with the highest affinity to the PH domains of both PDPK1 and Akt. PHT-427 inhibited Akt and PDPK1 signaling and their downstream targets in sensitive but not resistant cells and tumor xenografts. When given orally, PHT-427 inhibited the growth of human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, with up to 80% inhibition in the most sensitive tumors, and showed greater activity than analogues with C4, C6, or C8 alkyl chains. Inhibition of PDPK1 was more closely correlated to antitumor activity than Akt inhibition. Tumors with PIK3CA mutation were the most sensitive, and K-Ras mutant tumors were the least sensitive. Combination studies showed that PHT-427 has greater than additive antitumor activity with paclitaxel in breast cancer and with erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer. When given >5 days, PHT-427 caused no weight loss or change in blood chemistry. Thus, we report a novel PH domain binding inhibitor of PDPK1/Akt signaling with significant in vivo antitumor activity and minimal toxicity.

  12. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Duanwen; Bai, Mingfeng; Tang, Rui; Xu, Baogang; Ju, Xiaoming; Pestell, Richard G.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) dye that fluoresces at two different wavelengths (dichromic fluorescence, DCF), we discovered a new fluorescent substrate for Akt, also known as protein kinase B, and a method to quantitatively report this enzyme's activity in real time. Upon insulin activation of cellular Akt, the enzyme multi-phosphorylated a single serine residue of a diserine DCF substrate in a time-dependent manner, culminating in monophospho- to triphospho-serine products. The NIR DCF probe was highly selective for the Akt1 isoform, which was demonstrated using Akt1 knockout cells derived from MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice. The DCF mechanism provides unparalleled potential to assess the stimulation, sustainability, and reversibility of Akt activation longitudinally. Importantly, NIR fluorescence provides a pathway to translate findings from cells to living organisms, a condition that could eventually facilitate the use of these probes in humans.

  13. Exercise regulates Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activities in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kei; Arnolds, David E W; Ekberg, Ingvar; Thorell, Anders; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-06-25

    Activation of Akt and deactivation of GSK3 are critical signals regulating a number of cellular processes in multiple systems. Whether physical exercise alters Akt and GSK3 activity in human skeletal muscle is controversial. beta-Catenin, a GSK3 substrate and important Wnt signaling protein that alters gene transcription, has not been investigated in human skeletal muscle. In the present study, eight healthy human subjects performed 30min of cycling exercise at 75% of maximum workload (submaximal) followed by 6 bouts of 60s at 125% maximum workload (maximal). Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were taken at rest (basal), and within 15s following cessation of the submaximal and maximal exercise bouts. Exercise at both submaximal and maximal intensities significantly increased Akt activity (40% and 110%, respectively). Increases in Akt activity were accompanied by increases in Akt Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation, decreased GSK3alpha activity ( approximately 30% at both intensities), and increased phosphorylation of GSK3alpha Ser(21). Exercise at both intensities also decreased beta-catenin Ser(33/37)Thr(41) phosphorylation (50-60% at both intensities). These results demonstrate that Akt, GSK3, and beta-catenin signaling are regulated by exercise in human skeletal muscle, and as such identify them as possible molecular mediators of exercise's effect on metabolic and transcriptional processes in skeletal muscle.

  14. Akt activation enhances ribosomal RNA synthesis through casein kinase II and TIF-IA.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Xuan Truong; Mitchell, Beverly S

    2013-12-17

    Transcription initiation factor I (TIF-IA) plays an essential role in regulating ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis by tethering RNA polymerase I (Pol I) to the rDNA promoter. We have found that activated Akt enhances rRNA synthesis through the phosphorylation of casein kinase IIα (CK2α) on a threonine residue near its N terminus. CK2 in turn phosphorylates TIF-IA, thereby increasing rDNA transcription. Activated Akt also stabilizes TIF-IA, induces its translocation to the nucleolus, and enhances its interaction with Pol I. Treatment with AZD8055, an inhibitor of both Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, but not with rapamycin, disrupts Akt-mediated TIF-IA stability, translocation, and activity. These data support a model in which activated Akt enhances rRNA synthesis both by preventing TIF-IA degradation and phosphorylating CK2α, which in turn phosphorylates TIF-IA. This model provides an explanation for the ability of activated Akt to promote cell proliferation and, potentially, transformation.

  15. Akt activation prevents the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Bert; Mammucari, Cristina; Toniolo, Luana; Agatea, Lisa; Abraham, Reimar; Sandri, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscles of the mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, show an excessive reduction in the maximal tetanic force following eccentric contractions. This specific sign of the susceptibility of dystrophin-deficient muscles to mechanical stress can be used as a quantitative test to measure the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Using inducible transgenesis in mice, we show that when Akt activity is increased the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in mdx mice becomes similar to that of wild-type mice. This effect is not correlated with muscle hypertrophy and is not blocked by rapamycin treatment. The force drop induced by eccentric contractions is similar in skinned muscle fibers from mdx and Akt-mdx mice when stretch is applied directly to skinned fibers. However, skinned fibers isolated from mdx muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vivo develop less isometric force than wild-type fibers and this force depression is completely prevented by Akt activation. These experiments indicate that the myofibrillar-cytoskeletal system of dystrophin-deficient muscle is highly susceptible to a damage caused by eccentric contraction when elongation is applied in vivo, and this damage can be prevented by Akt activation. Microarray and PCR analyses indicate that Akt activation induces up-regulation of genes coding for proteins associated with Z-disks and costameres, and for proteins with anti-oxidant or chaperone function. The protein levels of utrophin and dysferlin are also increased by Akt activation.

  16. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 up-regulates AKT activity through the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Menges, Craig W; Baglia, Laurel A; Lapoint, Randi; McCance, Dennis J

    2006-06-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small DNA tumor viruses causally associated with cervical cancer. The early gene product E7 from high-risk HPV is considered the major transforming protein expressed by the virus. Although many functions have been described for E7 in disrupting normal cellular processes, we describe in this study a new cellular target in primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK), the serine/threonine kinase AKT. Expression of HPV type 16 E7 in HFK caused inhibition of differentiation, hyperproliferation, and up-regulation of AKT activity in organotypic raft cultures. The ability of E7 to up-regulate AKT activity is dependent on its ability to bind to and inactivate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product family of proteins. Furthermore, we show that knocking down Rb alone, with short hairpin RNAs, was sufficient to up-regulate AKT activity in differentiated keratinocytes. Up-regulation of AKT activity and loss of Rb was also observed in HPV-positive cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with normal cervical tissue. Together, these data provide evidence linking inactivation of Rb by E7 in the up-regulation of AKT activity during cervical cancer progression.

  17. CARMA1 is required for Akt-mediated NF-kappaB activation in T cells.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Preeti; Holt, Brittany; Tosti, Richard; Kane, Lawrence P

    2006-03-01

    Many details of the generic pathway for induction of NF-kappaB have been delineated, but it is still not clear how multiple, diverse receptor systems are able to converge on this evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors. Recent studies have shown that the CARMA1, Bcl10, and MALT1 proteins are critical for coupling the common elements of the NF-kappaB pathway to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28. We previously demonstrated a role for the serine/threonine kinase Akt in CD28-mediated NF-kappaB induction. Using a CARMA1-deficient T-cell line, we have now found that the CARMA complex is required for induction of NF-kappaB by Akt, in cooperation with protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, using a novel selective inhibitor of Akt, we confirm that Akt plays a modulatory role in NF-kappaB induction by the TCR and CD28. Finally, we provide evidence for a physical and functional interaction between Akt and CARMA and for Akt-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl10. Therefore, in T cells, Akt impinges upon NF-kappaB signaling through at least two separate mechanisms.

  18. Membrane Heterogeneity in Akt Activation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    prenylation signal derived from K- Ras rendered Akt1 catalytically inactive when fused to the N-terminal PH-domain (Fig. 1). Fusion of this motif to...were treated with either cyclo- dextrin (CD) or water-soluble cholesterol ( Chol ) or with CD followed by cholesterol treatment (CD Chol ). Cells

  19. SiO2@antisense molecules covered by nepetalactone, extracted from Nepeta gloeocephala, inhibits ILK phosphorylation and downstream PKB/AKT signaling in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Dehghany Ashkezary, M; Aboee-Mehrizi, F; Moradi, P

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the anticancer property of SiO2@antisense molecules (SiO2@AMs) and SiO2@AM covered by nepetalactone (SiO2@AM/CN), extracted from Nepeta gloeocephala, was investigated. Here integrin-linked kinase (ILK) phosphorylation and protein kinase B/AKT (PKB/AKT) signaling was studied when HeLa cells were exposed to SiO2@AM and SiO2@AM/CN. First, N. gloeocephala was identified at the Iranian National Herbarium. Then, its essential oil (EO) was obtained by the hydrodistillation method. In the next step, 4aα,7α,7aα-nepetalactone was extracted from the EO, based on the spectroscopic data. To obtain SiO2@AM/CN, 1 ml of SiO2@AM was mixed with extracted nepetalactone and then strongly shaken for 30 min. Finally, serial concentrations (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg ml(-1)) of SiO2@AM and SiO2@AM/CN were prepared and then exposed to HeLa cells (2 × 10(5) cells per ml) for 24 h at 37 °C. After incubation, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell-cycle analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and western blots were carried out. To find ILK phosphorylation and PKB/AKT signaling, the expression of threonine-173 (Thr-173), serine-246 (Ser-246), total ILK, AKT-Ser473, AKT-Thr308 and total AKT was investigated. HeLa cells that were treated with SiO2@AM/CN had G2/M arrest. Based on the TUNEL assay, many apoptotic cells have been shown when they were exposed to SiO2@AM/CN. Importantly, SiO2@AM/CN decreased ILK phosphorylation at Thr-173 and Ser-246 without affecting total ILK levels. Moreover, SiO2@AM/CN decreased AKT-Ser473 and AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation without affecting total PKB/AKT protein.

  20. Snail promotes cell migration through PI3K/AKT-dependent Rac1 activation as well as PI3K/AKT-independent pathways during prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Veronica; Smith, Basil; Burton, Liza J; Randle, Diandra; Morris, Marisha; Odero-Marah, Valerie A

    2015-01-01

    Snail, a zinc-finger transcription factor, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with increased cell migration and metastasis in cancer cells. Rac1 is a small G-protein which upon activation results in formation of lamellipodia, the first protrusions formed by migrating cells. We have previously shown that Snail promotes cell migration through down-regulation of maspin tumor suppressor. We hypothesized that Snail's regulation of cell migration may also involve Rac1 signaling regulated by PI3K/AKT and/or MAPK pathways. We found that Snail overexpression in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells increased Rac1 activity associated with increased cell migration, and the Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, could inhibit Snail-mediated cell migration. Conversely, Snail downregulation using shRNA in the aggressive C4–2 prostate cancer cells decreased Rac1 activity and cell migration. Moreover, Snail overexpression increased ERK and PI3K/AKT activity in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Treatment of Snail-overexpressing 22Rv1 cells with LY294002, PI3K/AKT inhibitor or U0126, MEK inhibitor, decreased cell migration significantly, but only LY294002 significantly reduced Rac1 activity, suggesting that Snail promotes Rac1 activation via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Furthermore, 22Rv1 cells overexpressing Snail displayed decreased maspin levels, while inhibition of maspin expression in 22Rv1 cells with siRNA, led to increased PI3K/AKT, Rac1 activity and cell migration, without affecting ERK activity, suggesting that maspin is upstream of PI3K/AKT. Overall, we have dissected signaling pathways by which Snail may promote cell migration through MAPK signaling or alternatively through PI3K/AKT-Rac1 signaling that involves Snail inhibition of maspin tumor suppressor. This may contribute to prostate cancer progression. PMID:26207671

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of indazole based analog sensitive Akt inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Okuzumi, Tatsuya; Ducker, Gregory S; Zhang, Chao; Aizenstein, Brian; Hoffman, Randy; Shokat, Kevan M

    2010-08-01

    The kinase Akt is a key signaling node in regulating cellular growth and survival. It is implicated in cancer by mutation and its role in the downstream transmission of aberrant PI3K signaling. For these reasons, Akt has become an increasingly important target of drug development efforts and several inhibitors are now reaching clinical trials. Paradoxically it has been observed that active site kinase inhibitors of Akt lead to hyperphosphorylation of Akt itself. To investigate this phenomenon we here describe the application of a chemical genetics strategy that replaces native Akt with a mutant version containing an active site substitution that allows for the binding of an engineered inhibitor. This analog sensitive strategy allows for the selective inhibition of a single kinase. In order to create the inhibitor selective for the analog sensitive kinase, a diversity of synthetic approaches was required, finally resulting in the compound PrINZ, a 7-substituted version of the Abbott Labs Akt inhibitor A-443654.

  2. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Céu; Pereira, Sofia; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  3. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A.; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  4. Akt Pathway Activation by Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Mathew A; Baydoun, Hicham H; Al-Saleem, Jacob; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Green, Patrick; Ratner, Lee

    2015-10-23

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1, the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, expresses the viral oncoprotein Tax1. In contrast, HTLV-2, which expresses Tax2, is non-leukemogenic. One difference between these homologous proteins is the presence of a C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, previously reported to be important for non-canonical NFκB activation. In contrast, this study finds no defect in non-canonical NFκB activity by deletion of the Tax1 PBM. Instead, Tax1 PBM was found to be important for Akt activation. Tax1 attenuates the effects of negative regulators of the PI3K-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), and PHLPP. Tax1 competes with PTEN for binding to DLG-1, unlike a PBM deletion mutant of Tax1. Forced membrane expression of PTEN or PHLPP overcame the effects of Tax1, as measured by levels of Akt phosphorylation, and rates of Akt dephosphorylation. The current findings suggest that Akt activation may explain the differences in transforming activity of HTLV-1 and -2.

  5. Impact of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway on ITAM and hemITAM receptors: haemostasis, platelet activation and antithrombotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Alyssa J; Watson, Steve P

    2015-04-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that are activated in response to various stimulants, and they regulate many processes including inflammation; the stress response; gene transcription; and cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Increasing reports have shown that the PI3Ks and their downstream effector Akt are activated by several platelet receptors that regulate platelet activation and haemostasis. Platelets express two immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM) receptors, collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and Fcγ receptor IIA (FcγRIIA), which are characterized by two YxxL sequences separated by 6-12 amino acids. Activation of an ITAM receptor initiates a reaction cascade via its YxxL sequence in which signaling molecules such as spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and phospholipase C γ2 (PLCγ2) become activated, leading to platelet activation. Platelets also express another receptor, C-type lectin 2 (CLEC-2), which has a single YxxL sequence, so it is appropriately called a hemITAM receptor. ITAM receptors and the hemITAM receptor share many signaling features. Here we will summarize our current knowledge about how the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates (hem)ITAM receptor-mediated platelet activation and haemostasis and discuss the possible benefits of targeting PI3K/Akt as an antithrombotic therapy.

  6. Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhiwei; Yu Xinyuan; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast caner cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17{beta}-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ER{alpha}, ER{beta} and GPR30, to 0.5-10 {mu}M Cd for only 2.5 min resulted in transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cd also triggered a gradual increase and sustained activation of AKT during the 60 min treatment period. In SK-BR-3 cells, that express only GPR30, Cd also caused a transient activation of ERK1/2, but not of AKT. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231 cells, that express only ER{beta}, Cd was unable to cause rapid activation of either ERK1/2 or AKT. A transient phosphorylation of ER{alpha} was also observed within 2.5 min of Cd exposure in the MCF-7 cells. While the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, did not prevent the effect of Cd on these signals, specific siRNA against hER{alpha} significantly reduced Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked the activation of AKT. It is concluded that Cd, like estradiol, can cause rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and that these signaling events are mediated by possible interaction with membrane ER{alpha} and GPR30, but not ER{beta}.

  7. TC21 mediates transformation and cell survival via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Rong; He, Qin; Liu, Yusen; Sheikh, M Saeed; Huang, Ying

    2002-02-07

    The signaling pathways of TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival are not well-established. In this study, we have investigated the role of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway in oncogenic-TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival. We found that oncogenic-TC21 stimulated the PI3-K activity. This was associated with the activation of Akt, a key component of PI3-K signaling pathway. We also found that TC21 interacted and formed complex with PI3-K. Mutations in the GTP-binding region of TC21, which enhanced GTP-binding potential of this protein, also stimulated its association with PI3-K, suggesting that PI3-K may preferentially interact with the GTP-bound form. Suppression of PI3-K and Akt by specific inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin reversed TC21-induced transformation. Likewise, inhibition of PI3-K activity by the PI3-K phosphotase PTEN reduced TC21-mediated focus formation in NIH3T3 cells. Investigation of TC21's effect on cell survival revealed that mutant-TC21 expressing cells were more resistant to etoposide- and cisplatin-induced cell death, and this was associated with the activation of anti-apoptotic protein NF-kappaB, a downstream target of Akt. Treatment of PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed TC21-mediated NF-kappaB activation. In conclusion, we have identified PI3-K as an effector of TC21 and demonstrated that the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway plays important roles in TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival.

  8. Interleukin 15 activates Akt to protect astrocytes from oxygen glucose deprivation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gilbert Aaron; Lai, Yein-Gei; Chen, Ray-Jade; Liao, Nan-Shih

    2017-04-01

    Astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal survival under the condition of post-ischemic brain inflammation, but the relevant astrocyte-derived mediators of ischemic brain injury remain to be defined. IL-15 supports survival of multiple lymphocyte lineages in the peripheral immune system, but the role of IL-15 in inflammatory disease of the central nervous system is not well defined. Recent research has shown an increase of IL-15-expressing astrocytes in the ischemic brain. Since astrocytes promote neuron survival under cerebral ischemia by buffering excess extracellular glutamate and producing growth factors, recovery of astrocyte function could be of benefit for stroke therapy. Here, we report that IL-15 is the pro-survival cytokine that prevents astrocyte death from oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced damage. Astrocytes up-regulate expression of the IL-15/IL-15Rα complex under OGD, whereas OGD down-regulates the levels of pSTAT5 and pAkt in astrocytes. IL-15 treatment ameliorates the decline of pAkt, decreases the percentage of annexin V(+) cells, inhibits the activation of caspase-3, and activates the Akt pathway to promote astrocyte survival in response to OGD. We further identified that activation of Akt, but not PKCα/βI, is essential for astrocyte survival under OGD. Taken together, this study reveals the function of IL-15 in astrocyte survival via Akt phosphorylation in response to OGD-induced damage.

  9. Antitumor Effects of Fucoidan on Human Colon Cancer Cells via Activation of Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-05-01

    We identified a novel Akt signaling mechanism that mediates fucoidan-induced suppression of human colon cancer cell (HT29) proliferation and anticancer effects. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth, induced G1-phase-associated upregulation of p21WAF1 expression, and suppressed cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Additionally, fucoidan treatment activated the Akt signaling pathway, which was inhibited by treatment with an Akt inhibitor. The inhibition of Akt activation reversed the fucoidan-induced decrease in cell proliferation, the induction of G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction in cell cycle regulatory protein expression. Intraperitoneal injection of fucoidan reduced tumor volume; this enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis. These data suggest that the activation of Akt signaling is involved in the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells treated with fucoidan. Thus, fucoidan may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  10. Germline activating AKT3 mutation associated with megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, epilepsy and hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Nellist, Mark; Schot, Rachel; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Neuteboom, Rinze F; van der Louw, Elles J T M; Lequin, Maarten H; Bindels-de Heus, Karen; Sibbles, Barbara J; de Coo, René; Brooks, Alice; Mancini, Grazia M S

    2015-03-01

    Activating germ-line and somatic mutations in AKT3 (OMIM 611223) are associated with megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH; OMIM # 615937) and megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP; OMIM # 602501). Here we report an individual with megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, refractory epilepsy, hypoglycemia and a germline AKT3 mutation. At birth, head circumference was 43 cm (5 standard deviations above the mean). No organomegaly was present, but there was generalized hypotonia, joint and skin laxity, developmental delay and failure to thrive. At 6 months of age the patient developed infantile spasms that were resistant to antiepileptic polytherapy. Recurrent hypoglycemia was noted during treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone but stabilized upon introduction of continuous, enriched feeding. The infantile spasms responded to the introduction of a ketogenic diet, but the hypoglycemia recurred until the diet was adjusted for increased resting energy expenditure. A novel, de novo AKT3 missense variant (exon 5; c.548T>A, p.(V183D)) was identified and shown to activate AKT3 by in vitro functional testing. We hypothesize that the sustained hypoglycemia in this patient is caused by increased glucose utilization due to activation of AKT3 signaling. This might explain the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in this individual.

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E. . E-mail: methompson@mmc.edu

    2007-05-15

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin {beta}1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin {beta}1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin {beta}1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function.

  12. Mechanical Stimulation and IGF-1 Enhance mRNA Translation Rate in Osteoblasts Via Activation of the AKT-mTOR Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Astrid D; Gakes, Tom; Hogervorst, Jolanda M A; de Wit, Gerard M J; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T

    2016-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is anabolic for muscle by enhancing the rate of mRNA translation via activation of AKT and subsequent activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTOR), thereby increasing cellular protein production. IGF-1 is also anabolic for bone, but whether the mTOR pathway plays a role in the rate of bone matrix protein production by osteoblasts is unknown. We hypothesized that anabolic stimuli such as mechanical loading and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in osteoblasts via activation of the AKT-mTOR pathway. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were either or not subjected for 1 h to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) or treated with or without human recombinant IGF-1 (1-100 ng/ml) for 0.5-6 h, to determine phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K (downstream of mTOR) by Western blot. After 4 days of culture with or without the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, total protein, DNA, and gene expression were quantified. IGF-1 (100 ng/ml) reduced IGF-1 gene expression, although PFF enhanced IGF-1 expression. IGF-1 did not affect collagen-I gene expression. IGF-1 dose-dependently enhanced AKT and p70S6K phosphorylation at 2 and 6 h. PFF enhanced phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K already within 1 h. Both IGF-1 and PFF enhanced total protein per cell by ∼30%, but not in the presence of rapamycin. Our results show that IGF-1 and PFF activate mTOR, thereby stimulating the rate of mRNA translation in osteoblasts. The known anabolic effect of mechanical loading and IGF-1 on bone may thus be partly explained by mTOR-mediated enhanced protein synthesis in osteoblasts.

  13. Physiological activation of Akt by PHLPP1 deletion protects against pathological hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Moc, Courtney; Taylor, Amy E.; Chesini, Gino P.; Zambrano, Cristina M.; Barlow, Melissa S.; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Gustafsson, Åsa B.; Purcell, Nicole H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the role of physiological Akt signalling in pathological hypertrophy through analysis of PHLPP1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase) knock-out (KO) mice. Methods and results To investigate the in vivo requirement for ‘physiological’ control of Akt activation in cardiac growth, we examined the effect of deleting the Akt phosphatase, PHLPP, on the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. Basal Akt phosphorylation increased nearly two-fold in the cardiomyocytes from PHLPP1 KO mice and physiological hypertrophy induced by swimming exercise was accentuated as assessed by increased heart size and myocyte cell area. In contrast, the development of pathophysiological hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and assessed by increases in heart size, myocyte cell area, and hypertrophic gene expression was attenuated. This attenuation coincided with decreased fibrosis and cell death in the KO mice. Cast moulding revealed increased capillary density basally in the KO hearts, which was further elevated relative to wild-type mouse hearts in response to pressure overload. In vitro studies with isolated myocytes in co-culture also demonstrated that PHLPP1 deletion in cardiomyocytes can enhance endothelial tube formation. Expression of the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF was also elevated basally and accentuated in response to transverse aortic constriction in hearts from KO mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that enhancing Akt activity by inhibiting its PHLPP1-mediated dephosphorylation promotes processes associated with physiological hypertrophy that may be beneficial in attenuating the development of pathological hypertrophy. PMID:25411382

  14. Inhibition of Rb Phosphorylation Leads to mTORC2-Mediated Activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Kai; Liu, Pengda; Geng, Yan; Wang, Bin; Gan, Wenjian; Guo, Jianping; Wu, Fei; Chin, Y Rebecca; Berrios, Christian; Lien, Evan C; Toker, Alex; DeCaprio, James A; Sicinski, Piotr; Wei, Wenyi

    2016-06-16

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein exerts its tumor suppressor function primarily by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors that govern cell-cycle progression. However, it remains largely elusive whether the hyper-phosphorylated, non-E2F1-interacting form of Rb has any physiological role. Here we report that hyper-phosphorylated Rb directly binds to and suppresses the function of mTORC2 but not mTORC1. Mechanistically, Rb, but not p107 or p130, interacts with Sin1 and blocks the access of Akt to mTORC2, leading to attenuated Akt activation and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. As such, inhibition of Rb phosphorylation by depleting cyclin D or using CDK4/6 inhibitors releases Rb-mediated mTORC2 suppression. This, in turn, leads to elevated Akt activation to confer resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Rb-proficient cells, which can be attenuated with Akt inhibitors. Therefore, our work provides a molecular basis for the synergistic usage of CDK4/6 and Akt inhibitors in treating Rb-proficient cancer.

  15. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.

  16. Subcutaneous Adipocytes Promote Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating the Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt. PMID:25228694

  17. The PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway activates recovery from general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun-Hui; Zhang, Jin; Song, Jian-Nan; Xu, Xue; Cai, Jin-Song; Zhou, Yang; Gao, Jin-Gui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated roles of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in recovery from general anesthesia. Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five groups: saline+artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; Group A), ketamine+ACSF (Group B), ketamine+IGF-1 (Group C), ketamine+PI3K inhibitor (Group D), and PI3K/Akt agonists (Group E). Proportion of δ waves on ECoGs was recorded. Rats were tested for duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR), ataxic period and behavior in Morris water maze. mRNA and protein expression of members of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway were measured by RT-qPCR and Western blots. Histopathologic changes in hippocampal tissues observed by HE staining. We found that the proportion of δ waves decreased in Group C, while increased in Group D compared with Group B; the durations of LORR and ataxic period were shorter in Group C, but longer in Group D. In Morris water maze, escape latency (EL) and duration and frequency of staying on platform was shorter in Group C and longer in Group D than in Group B. Group A exhibited low expression of proteins in PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, while p-AKT, p-mTOR and p-P70S6K expression increased in cerebral cortex, brain stem, and thalamus in Group C. By contrast, expression of those proteins was lower in Group D than Group B. Those proteins expressions were higher in Group E than in Group A. HE staining showed that anesthesia may induce cell apoptosis in rat hippocampal CA1 areas, and PI3K/Akt agonists could inhibit apoptosis. Our results suggest that activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway may promote recovery from general anesthesia and enhance spatial learning and memory. PMID:27340771

  18. Activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3{beta} pathway mediates hepatocyte growth factor inhibition of RANTES expression in renal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Rujun . E-mail: rgong@Brown.edu; Rifai, Abdalla; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2005-04-29

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was recently reported to ameliorate renal inflammation in a rat model of chronic renal failure. HGF exerted its action through suppression of RANTES expression in renal tubules. In the present study, we utilized an in vitro model of human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (HKC) to elucidate the mechanisms of RANTES suppression by HGF. HGF significantly suppressed basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced mRNA and protein expression of RANTES in a time and dose dependent fashion. HGF elicited PI3K-Akt activation and inhibited GSK3, a downstream transducer of PI3K-Akt, by inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-9. When the PI3K-Akt pathway was blocked by wortmannin, HGF inhibition of RANTES was abrogated, demonstrating that the PI3K-Akt pathway is necessary for HGF action. In addition, specific inhibition of GSK3 activity by lithium ion suppressed basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced RANTES expression, reminiscent of the action of HGF. To further investigate the role of GSK3 in modulating RANTES expression, we examined the effect of forced expression of wild type GSK3{beta} or an uninhibitable mutant GSK3{beta}, in which the regulatory Ser-9 residue is changed to alanine (S9A-GSK3{beta}) in HKC. Overexpression of wild type GSK3{beta} did not alter the inhibitory action of HGF on RANTES. In contrast, expression of S9A-GSK3{beta} abolished HGF inhibition of basal and TNF-{alpha} stimulated RANTES expression. These findings suggest that PI3K-Akt activation and subsequent inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} are required for HGF-induced suppression of RANTES in HKC.

  19. Protein kinase C promotes apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through activation of p38 MAPK and inhibition of the Akt survival pathway.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuichi; Gavrielides, M Veronica; Mitsuuchi, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Teruhiko; Kazanietz, Marcelo G

    2003-09-05

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol esters or diacylglycerol mimetics induces apoptosis in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, an effect that involves both the activation of the classic PKC alpha and the novel PKC delta isozymes (Fujii, T., García-Bermejo, M. L., Bernabó, J. L., Caamaño, J., Ohba, M., Kuroki, T., Li, L., Yuspa, S. H., and Kazanietz, M. G. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 7574-7582 and Garcia-Bermejo, M. L., Leskow, F. C., Fujii, T., Wang, Q., Blumberg, P. M., Ohba, M., Kuroki, T., Han, K. C., Lee, J., Marquez, V. E., and Kazanietz, M. G. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 645-655). In the present study we explored the signaling events involved in this PKC-mediated effect, using the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line as a model. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) leads to the activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK in LNCaP cells. Here we present evidence that p38 MAPK, but not JNK, mediates PKC-induced apoptosis. Because LNCaP cells have hyperactivated Akt function due to PTEN inactivation, we examined whether this survival pathway could be affected by PKC activation. Interestingly, activation of PKC leads to a rapid and reversible dephosphorylation of Akt, an effect that was prevented by the pan-PKC inhibitor GF109302X and the cPKC inhibitor Gö6976. In addition, the diacylglycerol mimetic agent HK654, which selectively stimulates PKC alpha in LNCaP cells, also induced the dephosphorylation of Akt in LNCaP cells. Inactivation of Akt function by PKC does not involve the inhibition of PI3K, and it is prevented by okadaic acid, suggesting the involvement of a phosphatase 2A in PMA-induced Akt dephosphorylation. Finally, we show that, when an activated form of Akt is delivered into LNCaP cells by either transient transfection or adenoviral infection, the apoptotic effect of PMA is significantly reduced. Our results highlight a complex array of signaling pathways regulated by PKC isozymes in LNCaP prostate cancer cells

  20. Tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 Is the Major Site of Association of p85 and Is Required for Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Christopher D.; Stauffer, Thomas P.; Yang, Wen-Pin; York, John D.; Huang, Liwen; Blanar, Michael A.; Meyer, Tobias; Peters, Kevin G.

    1998-01-01

    Tie2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for both normal embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis and is thought to play a role in vascular maintenance. However, the signaling pathways responsible for the function of Tie2 remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) associates with Tie2 and that this association confers functional lipid kinase activity. Mutation of tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 abrogated p85 association both in vitro and in vivo in yeast. Tie2 was found to activate PI3-kinase in vivo as demonstrated by direct measurement of increases in cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, by plasma membrane translocation of a green fluorescent protein-Akt pleckstrin homology domain fusion protein, and by downstream activation of the Akt kinase. Activation of PI3-kinase was abrogated in these assays by mutation of Y1101 to phenylalanine, consistent with a requirement for this residue for p85 association with Tie2. These results suggest that activation of PI3-kinase and Akt may in part account for Tie2’s role in both embryonic vascular development and pathologic angiogenesis, and they are consistent with a role for Tie2 in endothelial cell survival. PMID:9632797

  1. Tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 is the major site of association of p85 and is required for activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt.

    PubMed

    Kontos, C D; Stauffer, T P; Yang, W P; York, J D; Huang, L; Blanar, M A; Meyer, T; Peters, K G

    1998-07-01

    Tie2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for both normal embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis and is thought to play a role in vascular maintenance. However, the signaling pathways responsible for the function of Tie2 remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) associates with Tie2 and that this association confers functional lipid kinase activity. Mutation of tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 abrogated p85 association both in vitro and in vivo in yeast. Tie2 was found to activate PI3-kinase in vivo as demonstrated by direct measurement of increases in cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3, 4-bisphosphate, by plasma membrane translocation of a green fluorescent protein-Akt pleckstrin homology domain fusion protein, and by downstream activation of the Akt kinase. Activation of PI3-kinase was abrogated in these assays by mutation of Y1101 to phenylalanine, consistent with a requirement for this residue for p85 association with Tie2. These results suggest that activation of PI3-kinase and Akt may in part account for Tie2's role in both embryonic vascular development and pathologic angiogenesis, and they are consistent with a role for Tie2 in endothelial cell survival.

  2. High constitutive Akt2 activity in U937 promonocytes: effective reduction of Akt2 phosphorylation by the histamine H2-receptor and the β2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Werner, Kristin; Neumann, Detlef; Seifert, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Histamine (HA) is approved for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Its antileukemic activity is related to histamine H2-receptor (H2R)-mediated inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in myeloid cells facilitating survival of antineoplastic lymphocytes. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in cell survival and proliferation, is constitutively activated in leukemic cells of most AML patients resulting in poor survival prognosis. In a proof-of-principle experiment using a human phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) array, we found high phosphorylation levels of Akt2 in U937 promonocytes that was abrogated by HA or selective H2R agonists. The H2R and the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) are Gs-protein-coupled receptors. Stimulation results in adenylyl cyclase activation followed by generation of the second messenger adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). In our present study, we evaluated the pharmacological profile of the H2R and the β2AR regarding Akt2 phosphorylation at Ser474 via western blot analysis and ELISA and cAMP accumulation via HPLC-MS/MS in U937 promonocytes. H2R and β2AR agonists concentration-dependently decreased Akt2 phosphorylation at Ser474. Deviations of potencies and efficacies of agonists in Akt2 phosphorylation and cAMP accumulation assays indicated participation of cAMP-independent signaling in GPCR-induced reduction of Akt2 phosphorylation. Accordingly, our study supports the concept of functional selectivity of the H2R and the β2AR in U937 promonocytes. In summary, we extended the antileukemic mechanism of HA via H2R and revealed the potential of β2AR agonists, which are already approved in the treatment of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as antileukemic drugs.

  3. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Shailly; Shrivastav, Anuraag; Changela, Sheena; Khandelwal, Ramji L.

    2008-04-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-{alpha} (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity.

  4. Sustained Activation of Akt Elicits Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Block Plasmodium falciparum Infection in the Mosquito Host

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Anna L.; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Napoli, Eleonora; Wong, Sarah; Price, Mark S.; Eigenheer, Richard; Phinney, Brett S.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Pietri, Jose E.; Cheung, Kong; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS) rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d), energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3–5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial function in the

  5. Resveratrol rescues hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction via activation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-yi; Huang, Wei-qiang; Tu, Rong-hui; Zhong, Guo-qiang; Luo, Bei-bei; He, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a phytoalexin, has shown to prevent endothelial dysfunction and reduce diabetic vascular complications and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling mechanisms underlying the protecting effects of RSV against endothelial dysfunction during hyperglycemia in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with RSV, and then exposed to high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L). Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation, and PTEN protein levels in the cells were detected using Western blot. For in vivo studies, WT and Akt−/− mice were fed a normal diet containing RSV (400 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 2 weeks, then followed by injection of STZ to induce hyperglycemia (300 mg/dL). Endothelial function was evaluated using aortic rings by assessing ACh-induced vasorelaxation. RSV (5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, accompanied by increased eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation in HUVECs; these effects were more prominent under HG stimulation. Transfection with Akt siRNA abolished RSV-enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and NO release. Furthermore, RSV (5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the levels of PTEN, which was significantly increased under HG stimulation, and PTEN overexpression abolished RSV-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HG-treated HUVECs. Moreover, RSV dramatically increased 26S proteasome activity, which induced degradation of PTEN. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with RSV significantly increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation in aortic tissues and ACh-induced vasorelaxation, and improved diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction in wild-type mice but not in Akt−/− mice. RSV attenuates endothelial function during hyperglycemia via activating proteasome-dependent degradation of PTEN, which increases Akt phosphorylation, and consequentially upregulation of eNOS-derived NO production. PMID:27941804

  6. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  7. Potassium uptake supporting plant growth in the absence of AKT1 channel activity: Inhibition by ammonium and stimulation by sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalding, E. P.; Hirsch, R. E.; Lewis, D. R.; Qi, Z.; Sussman, M. R.; Lewis, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    A transferred-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks AKT1 inward-rectifying K+ channel activity in root cells was obtained previously by a reverse-genetic strategy, enabling a dissection of the K+-uptake apparatus of the root into AKT1 and non-AKT1 components. Membrane potential measurements in root cells demonstrated that the AKT1 component of the wild-type K+ permeability was between 55 and 63% when external [K+] was between 10 and 1,000 microM, and NH4+ was absent. NH4+ specifically inhibited the non-AKT1 component, apparently by competing for K+ binding sites on the transporter(s). This inhibition by NH4+ had significant consequences for akt1 plants: K+ permeability, 86Rb+ fluxes into roots, seed germination, and seedling growth rate of the mutant were each similarly inhibited by NH4+. Wild-type plants were much more resistant to NH4+. Thus, AKT1 channels conduct the K+ influx necessary for the growth of Arabidopsis embryos and seedlings in conditions that block the non-AKT1 mechanism. In contrast to the effects of NH4+, Na+ and H+ significantly stimulated the non-AKT1 portion of the K+ permeability. Stimulation of akt1 growth rate by Na+, a predicted consequence of the previous result, was observed when external [K+] was 10 microM. Collectively, these results indicate that the AKT1 channel is an important component of the K+ uptake apparatus supporting growth, even in the "high-affinity" range of K+ concentrations. In the absence of AKT1 channel activity, an NH4+-sensitive, Na+/H+-stimulated mechanism can suffice.

  8. Carbohydrate-binding motif in Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1/YKL-40) specifically activates Akt signaling pathway in colonic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chuan; Llado, Victoria; Eurich, Katrin; Tran, Hoa T.; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    Host-microbial interactions play a key role during the development of colitis. We have previously shown that chinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is an inducible molecule overexpressed in colonic epithelial cells (CECs) under inflammatory conditions. In this study, we found that chitin-binding motif (CBM) of CHI3L1 is specifically associated with the CHI3L1-mediated activation of the Akt-signaling in CEC by transfecting the CBM-mutant CHI3L1 vectors in SW480 CECs. Downstream, CHI3L1 enhanced the secretion of IL-8 and TNFα in a dose-dependent manner. We previously show that 325 through 339 amino-acids in CBM are crucial for the biological function of CHI3L1. Here we demonstrated that 325th–339th residues of CBM in CHI3L1 is a critical region for the activation of Akt, IL-8 production, and for a specific cellular localization of CHI3L1. In conclusion, CBM region of CHI3L1 is critical in activating Akt signaling in CECs, and the activation may be associated with the development of chronic colitis. PMID:21546314

  9. Ribonuclease 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Woo; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Jae Chan

    2016-01-01

    To maintain corneal transparency, corneal endothelial cells (CECs) exert a pump function against aqueous inflow. However, human CECs are arrested in the G1-phase and non-proliferative in vivo. Thus, treatment of corneal endothelial decompensation is limited to corneal transplantation, and grafts are vulnerable to immune rejection. Here, we show that ribonuclease (RNase) 5 is more highly expressed in normal human CECs compared to decompensated tissues. Furthermore, RNase 5 up-regulated survival of CECs and accelerated corneal endothelial wound healing in an in vitro wound of human CECs and an in vivo cryo-damaged rabbit model. RNase 5 treatment rapidly induced accumulation of cytoplasmic RNase 5 into the nucleus, and activated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in human CECs. Moreover, inhibition of nuclear translocation of RNase 5 using neomycin reversed RNase 5-induced Akt activation. As a potential strategy for proliferation enhancement, RNase 5 increased the population of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated proliferating CECs with concomitant PI3-kinase/Akt activation, especially in CECs deprived of contact-inhibition. Specifically, RNase 5 suppressed p27 and up-regulated cyclin D1, D3, and E by activating PI3-kinase/Akt in CECs to initiate cell cycle progression. Together, our data indicate that RNase 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing, and identify RNase 5 as a novel target for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:27526633

  10. Annexin 2 Regulates Endothelial Morphogenesis by Controlling AKT Activation and Junctional Integrity*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shih-Chi; Maxwell, Steve A.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2010-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis is a multistep process that involves endothelial cell activation, basement membrane degradation, proliferation, lumen formation, and stabilization. In this study, we identified annexin 2 as a regulator of endothelial morphogenesis using a three-dimensional in vitro model where sprouting angiogenesis was driven by sphingosine 1-phosphate and angiogenic growth factors. We observed that sphingosine 1-phosphate triggered annexin 2 translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and its association with vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. In addition, annexin 2 depletion attenuated Akt activation, which was associated with increased phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and endothelial barrier leakage. Disrupting homotypic VE-cadherin interactions with EGTA, antibodies to the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin, or gene silencing all resulted in decreased Akt (but not Erk1/2) activation. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active Akt restored reduced endothelial sprouting responses observed with annexin 2 and VE-cadherin knockdown. Collectively, we report that annexin 2 regulates endothelial morphogenesis through an adherens junction-mediated pathway upstream of Akt. PMID:20947498

  11. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  12. Notch1 receptor regulates AKT protein activation loop (Thr308) dephosphorylation through modulation of the PP2A phosphatase in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-null T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hales, Eric C; Orr, Steven M; Larson Gedman, Amanda; Taub, Jeffrey W; Matherly, Larry H

    2013-08-02

    Notch1 activating mutations occur in more than 50% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases and increase expression of Notch1 target genes, some of which activate AKT. HES1 transcriptionally silences phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), resulting in AKT activation, which is reversed by Notch1 inhibition with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs). Mutational loss of PTEN is frequent in T-ALL and promotes resistance to GSIs due to AKT activation. GSI treatments increased AKT-Thr(308) phosphorylation and signaling in PTEN-deficient, GSI-resistant T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat, CCRF-CEM, and MOLT3), suggesting that Notch1 represses AKT independent of its PTEN transcriptional effects. AKT-Thr(308) phosphorylation and downstream signaling were also increased by knocking down Notch1 in Jurkat (N1KD) cells. This was blocked by treatment with the AKT inhibitor perifosine. The PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and the protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibitor okadaic acid both impacted AKT-Thr(308) phosphorylation to a greater extent in nontargeted control than N1KD cells, suggesting decreased dephosphorylation of AKT-Thr(308) by PP2A in the latter. Phosphorylations of AMP-activated protein kinaseα (AMPKα)-Thr(172) and p70S6K-Thr(389), both PP2A substrates, were also increased in both N1KD and GSI-treated cells and responded to okadaic acid treatment. A transcriptional regulatory mechanism was implied because ectopic expression of dominant-negative mastermind-like protein 1 increased and wild-type HES1 decreased phosphorylation of these PP2A targets. This was independent of changes in PP2A subunit levels or in vitro PP2A activity, but was accompanied by decreased association of PP2A with AKT in N1KD cells. These results suggest that Notch1 can regulate PP2A dephosphorylation of critical cellular regulators including AKT, AMPKα, and p70S6K.

  13. Novel pathway in Bcr-Abl signal transduction involves Akt-independent, PLC-gamma1-driven activation of mTOR/p70S6-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Markova, B; Albers, C; Breitenbuecher, F; Melo, J V; Brümmendorf, T H; Heidel, F; Lipka, D; Duyster, J; Huber, C; Fischer, T

    2010-02-04

    In chronic myeloid leukemia, activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is crucial for survival and proliferation of leukemic cells. Essential downstream molecules involve mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6-kinase. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the molecular events involved in activation of these key signaling pathways. We provide evidence for a previously unrecognized phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1)-controlled mechanism of mTOR/p70S6-kinase activation, which operates in parallel to the classical Akt-dependent machinery. Short-term imatinib treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive cells caused dephosphorylation of p70S6-K and S6-protein without inactivation of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity alone did not affect phosphorylation of p70-S6K and S6. These results suggested the existence of an alternative mechanism for mTOR/p70S6-K activation. In Bcr-Abl-expressing cells, we detected strong PLC-gamma1 activation, which was suppressed by imatinib. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA knockdown of PLC-gamma1 blocked p70S6-K and S6 phosphorylation. By inhibiting the Ca-signaling, CaMK and PKCs we demonstrated participation of these molecules in the pathway. Suppression of PLC-gamma1 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. The novel pathway proved to be essential for survival and proliferation of leukemic cells and almost complete cell death was observed upon combined PLC-gamma1 and Bcr-Abl inhibition. The pivotal role of PLC-gamma1 was further confirmed in a mouse leukemogenesis model.

  14. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin activates the protein kinase Akt and promotes angiogenesis in normocholesterolemic animals

    PubMed Central

    Kureishi, Yasuko; Luo, Zhengyu; Shiojima, Ichiro; Bialik, Ann; Fulton, David; Lefer, David J.; Sessa, William C.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that statins can function to protect the vasculature in a manner that is independent of their lipid-lowering activity. We show here that statins rapidly activate the protein kinase Akt/PKB in endothelial cells. Accordingly, simvastatin enhanced phosphorylation of the endogenous Akt substrate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inhibited apoptosis and accelerated vascular structure formation in vitro in an Akt-dependent manner. Similar to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment, both simvastatin administration and enhanced Akt signaling in the endothelium promoted angiogenesis in ischemic limbs of normocholesterolemic rabbits. Therefore, activation of Akt represents a mechanism that can account for some of the beneficial side effects of statins, including the promotion of new blood vessel growth. PMID:10973320

  15. Src kinase integrates PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK1/2 pathways in T3-induced Na-K-ATPase activity in adult rat alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jianxun; Ingbar, David H

    2011-11-01

    We previously reported that the 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-induced increase of Na-K-ATPase activity in rat alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) required activation of Src kinase, PI3K, and MAPK/ERK1/2. In the present study, we assessed the role of Akt in Na-K-ATPase activity and the interaction between the PI3K and MAPK in response to T3 by using MP48 cells, inhibitors, and constitutively active mutants in the MP48 (alveolar type II-like) cell line. The Akt inhibitor VIII blocked T3-induced increases in Na-K-ATPase activity and amount of plasma membrane Na-K-ATPase protein. The Akt inhibitor VIII also abolished the increase in Na-K-ATPase activity induced by constitutively active mutants of either Src kinase or PI3K. Moreover, constitutively active mutants of Akt increased Na-K-ATPase activity in the absence of T3. Thus activation of Akt was required for T3-induced Na-K-ATPase activity in AECs and is sufficient in the absence of T3. Inhibitors of Src kinase (PP1), PI3K (wortmannin), and ERK1/2 (U0126) all blocked the T3-induced Na-K-ATPase activity. PP1 blocked the activation of PI3K and also ERK1/2 by T3, whereas U0126 did not prevent T3 activation of Src kinase or PI3K activity. Wortmannin did not significantly alter T3-increased MAPK/ERK1/2 activity, suggesting that T3-activated PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK1/2 pathways acted downstream of the Src kinase. Furthermore, in the absence of T3, a constitutively active mutant of Src kinase increased activities of Na-K-ATPase, PI3K, and MAPK/ERK1/2. A constitutively active mutant of PI3K enhanced Na-K-ATPase activity but did not alter the MAPK/ERK1/2 activity significantly. In summary, in adult rat AECs T3-stimulated Src kinase activity can activate both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK1/2, and activation of Akt is necessary for T3-induced Na-K-ATPase activity.

  16. Interleukin-18 directly protects cortical neurons by activating PI3K/AKT/NF-κB/CREB pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Ping, Feng-feng; Lv, Wen-ting; Feng, Jun-yi; Shang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, was initially identified as an interferon (IFN)-γ-inducing factor. IL-18 is expressed in both immune and non-immune cells and participates in the adjustment of multitude cellular functions. Nonetheless, the effects of IL-18 on cortical neurons have not been explored. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of IL-18 on rat primary cortical neurons and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We proved that rrIL-18 increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with rrIL-18 (50 ng/ml) deactivated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) by facilitating its phosphorylation, enhanced the expression of Phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) and p-Akt, standing for the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. As its pivotal downstream pathways, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)/Bcl-2 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined in further steps. Our data revealed that rrIL-18 stimulated NF-κB activation, improved p-CREB and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression levels. But rrIL-18 had little or no effect on GSK-3β pathway. Besides, rrIL-18 increased levels of BDNF and Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression to protect cortical neurons from damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). These results in vitro showed the protection of IL-18 on cortical neurons. And this direct neuroprotective effect of IL-18 is crippled by PI3K inhibitor wortmannin.

  17. Antibiotic drug tigecycline reduces neuroblastoma cells proliferation by inhibiting Akt activation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Erhu; Tang, Chunling; Zhang, Weibo; Tan, Juan; Dong, Zhen; Ding, Han-Fei; Cui, Hongjuan

    2016-06-01

    As the first member of glycylcycline bacteriostatic agents, tigecycline is approved as a novel expanded-spectrum antibiotic, which is clinically available. However, accumulating evidence indicated that tigecycline was provided with the potential application in cancer therapy. In this paper, tigecycline was shown to exert an anti-proliferative effect on neuroblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, it was found that tigecycline induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest instead of apoptosis by means of Akt pathway inhibition. In neuroblastoma cell lines, the Akt activator insulin-like growth factor-1 (hereafter referred to as IGF-1) reversed tigecycline-induced cell cycle arrest. Besides, tigecycline inhibited colony formation and suppressed neuroblastoma cells xenograft formation and growth. After tigecycline treatment in vivo, the Akt pathway inhibition was confirmed as well. Collectively, our data provided strong evidences that tigecycline inhibited neuroblastoma cells growth and proliferation through the Akt pathway inhibition in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these results were supported by previous studies concerning the application of tigecycline in human tumors treatment, suggesting that tigecycline might act as a potential candidate agent for neuroblastoma treatment.

  18. Myostatin signaling regulates Akt activity via the regulation of miR-486 expression.

    PubMed

    Hitachi, Keisuke; Nakatani, Masashi; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2014-02-01

    Myostatin, also known as growth and differentiation factor-8, is a pivotal negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and reduces muscle protein synthesis by inhibiting the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. However, the precise mechanism by which myostatin inhibits the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the global microRNA expression profile in myostatin knockout mice and identified miR-486, a positive regulator of the IGF-1/Akt pathway, as a novel target of myostatin signaling. In myostatin knockout mice, the expression level of miR-486 in skeletal muscle was significantly increased. In addition, we observed increased expression of the primary transcript of miR-486 (pri-miR-486) and Ankyrin 1.5 (Ank1.5), the host gene of miR-486, in myostatin knockout mice. In C2C12 cells, myostatin negatively regulated the expression of Ank1.5. Moreover, canonical myostatin signaling repressed the skeletal muscle-specific promoter activity of miR-486/Ank1.5. This repression was partially mediated by the E-box elements in the proximal region of the promoter. We also show that overexpression of miR-486 induced myotube hypertrophy in vitro and that miR-486 was essential to maintain skeletal muscle size both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, inhibition of miR-486 led to a decrease in Akt activity in C2C12 myotubes. Our findings indicate that miR-486 is one of the intermediary molecules connecting myostatin signaling and the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway in the regulation of skeletal muscle size.

  19. Regulation of microtubule destabilizing activity of Op18/stathmin downstream of Rac1.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Torsten; Bokoch, Gary M; Waterman-Storer, Clare M

    2004-02-13

    In the leading edge of migrating cells, a subset of microtubules exhibits net growth in a Rac1- and p21-activated kinase-dependent manner. Here, we explore the possibility of whether phosphorylation and inactivation of the microtubule-destabilizing protein Op18/stathmin could be a mechanism regulating microtubule dynamics downstream of Rac1 and p21-activated kinases. We find that, in vitro, Pak1 phosphorylates Op18/stathmin specifically at serine 16 and inactivates its catastrophe promoting activity in biochemical and time lapse microscopy microtubule assembly assays. Furthermore, phosphorylation of either serine 16 or 63 is sufficient to inhibit Op18/stathmin in vitro. In cells, the microtubule-destabilizing effect of an excess of Op18/stathmin can be partially overcome by expression of constitutively active Rac1(Q61L), which is dependent on Pak activity, suggesting that the microtubule cytoskeleton can be regulated through inactivation of Op18/stathmin downstream of Rac1 and Pak in vivo. However, in vivo, Pak1 activity alone is not sufficient to phosphorylate Op18, indicating that additional pathways downstream of Rac1 are required for Op18 regulation.

  20. SC79 protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from UV radiation via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guo-fan; Cao, Cong; Jiang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Excessive Ultra-violet (UV) radiation causes oxidative damages and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Here we tested the potential activity of SC79, a novel small molecule activator of Akt, against the process. We showed that SC79 activated Akt in primary and established (ARPE-19 line) RPE cells. It protected RPE cells from UV damages possibly via inhibiting cell apoptosis. Akt inhibition, via an Akt specific inhibitor (MK-2206) or Akt1 shRNA silence, almost abolished SC79-induced RPE cytoprotection. Further studies showed that SC79 activated Akt-dependent NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and inhibited UV-induced oxidative stress in RPE cells. Reversely, Nrf2 shRNA knockdown or S40T mutation attenuated SC79-induced anti-UV activity. For the in vivo studies, we showed that intravitreal injection of SC79 significantly protected mouse retina from light damages. Based on these results, we suggest that SC79 protects RPE cells from UV damages possibly via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling axis. PMID:27517753

  1. SC79 protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from UV radiation via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi-Qing; Huang, Wei; Li, Ke-Ran; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Guo-Fan; Cao, Cong; Jiang, Qin

    2016-09-13

    Excessive Ultra-violet (UV) radiation causes oxidative damages and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Here we tested the potential activity of SC79, a novel small molecule activator of Akt, against the process. We showed that SC79 activated Akt in primary and established (ARPE-19 line) RPE cells. It protected RPE cells from UV damages possibly via inhibiting cell apoptosis. Akt inhibition, via an Akt specific inhibitor (MK-2206) or Akt1 shRNA silence, almost abolished SC79-induced RPE cytoprotection. Further studies showed that SC79 activated Akt-dependent NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and inhibited UV-induced oxidative stress in RPE cells. Reversely, Nrf2 shRNA knockdown or S40T mutation attenuated SC79-induced anti-UV activity. For the in vivo studies, we showed that intravitreal injection of SC79 significantly protected mouse retina from light damages. Based on these results, we suggest that SC79 protects RPE cells from UV damages possibly via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling axis.

  2. Activation of Akt/FKHR in the medulla oblongata contributes to spontaneous respiratory recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Felix, M S; Bauer, S; Darlot, F; Muscatelli, F; Kastner, A; Gauthier, P; Matarazzo, V

    2014-09-01

    After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), patients and animals may exhibit some spontaneous functional recovery which can be partly attributed to remodeling of injured neural circuitry. This post-lesion plasticity implies spinal remodeling but increasing evidences suggest that supraspinal structures contribute also to the functional recovery. Here we tested the hypothesis that partial SCI may activate cell-signaling pathway(s) at the supraspinal level and that this molecular response may contribute to spontaneous recovery. With this aim, we used a rat model of partial cervical hemisection which injures the bulbospinal respiratory tract originating from the medulla oblongata of the brainstem but leads to a time-dependent spontaneous functional recovery of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm. We first demonstrate that after SCI the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is activated in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem, resulting in an inactivation of its pro-apoptotic downstream target, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/FOXO1A). Retrograde labeling of medullary premotoneurons including respiratory ones which project to phrenic motoneurons reveals an increased FKHR phosphorylation in their cell bodies together with an unchanged cell number. Medulla infusion of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, prevents the SCI-induced Akt and FKHR phosphorylations and activates one of its death-promoting downstream targets, Fas ligand. Quantitative EMG analyses of diaphragmatic contractility demonstrate that the inhibition of medulla PI3K/Akt signaling prevents spontaneous respiratory recovery normally observed after partial cervical SCI. Such inhibition does not however affect either baseline contractile frequency or the ventilatory reactivity under acute respiratory challenge. Together, these findings provide novel evidence of supraspinal cellular contribution to the spontaneous respiratory recovery after partial SCI.

  3. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong

    2014-11-04

    Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.

  4. Hepatic stellate cell is activated by microRNA-181b via PTEN/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianjian; Wu, Cunzao; Xu, Ziqiang; Xia, Peng; Dong, Peihong; Chen, Bicheng; Yu, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is an essential event in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis. MicroRNAs have been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating HSC functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recently, miR-181b has been reported to promote HSCs proliferation by targeting p27. But whether alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or collagens could be promoted by miR-181b in activated HSCs is still not clear. Therefore, the understanding of the role of miR-181b in liver fibrosis remains limited. Our results showed that miR-181b expression was increased much higher than miR-181a expression in vitro in transforming growth factor-β1-induced HSC activation as well as in vivo in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis. Of note, overexpression of miR-181b significantly increased the expressions level of α-SMA and type I collagen, and further promoted HSCs proliferation. Furthermore, phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt pathway, were confirmed as a direct target of miR-181b. We demonstrated that miR-181b could suppress PTEN expression and increase Akt phosphorylation in HSCs. Interestingly, the effects of miR-181b on the activation of HSCs were blocked down by Akt inhibitor LY294002. Our results revealed a profibrotic role of miR-181b in HSC activation and demonstrated that miR-181b could activate HSCs, at least in part, via PTEN/Akt pathway.

  5. Labdane diterpenes protect against anoxia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes: involvement of AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, I; Fernández-Velasco, M; Boscá, L; de las Heras, B

    2011-01-01

    Several labdane diterpenes exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions; therefore, we have investigated whether these molecules protect cardiomyocytes in an anoxia/reperfusion (A/R) model, establishing the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. The cardioprotective activity of three diterpenes (T1, T2 and T3) was studied in the H9c2 cell line and in isolated rat cardiomyocyte subjected to A/R injury. In both cases, treatment with diterpenes T1 and T2 protected from A/R-induced apoptosis, as deduced by a decrease in the percentage of apoptotic and caspase-3 active positive cells, a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Analysis of cell survival signaling pathways showed that diterpenes T1 and T2 added after A/R increased phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK 1/2 levels. These cardioprotective effects were lost when AKT activity was pharmacologically inhibited. Moreover, the labdane-induced cardioprotection involves activation of AMPK, suggesting a role for energy homeostasis in their mechanism of action. Labdane diterpenes (T1 and T2) also exerted cardioprotective effects against A/R-induced injury in isolated cardiomyocytes and the mechanisms involved activation of specific survival signals (PI3K/AKT pathways, ERK1/2 and AMPK) and inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:22071634

  6. Repetitive exposure to low-dose X-irradiation attenuates testicular apoptosis in type 2 diabetic rats, likely via Akt-mediated Nrf2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuguang; Kong, Chuipeng; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Wan, Zhiqiang; Jia, Lin; Liu, Qiuju; Wang, Yuehui; Li, Wei; Cui, Jiuwei; Han, Fujun; Cai, Lu

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether repetitive exposure to low-dose radiation (LDR) attenuates type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-induced testicular apoptotic cell death in a T2DM rat model, we examined the effects of LDR exposure on diabetic and age-matched control rats. We found that testicular apoptosis and oxidative stress levels were significantly higher in T2DM rats than in control rats. In addition, glucose metabolism-related Akt and GSK-3β function was downregulated and Akt negative regulators PTP1B and TRB3 were upregulated in the T2DM group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase content were also found to be decreased in T2DM rats. These effects were partially prevented or reversed by repetitive LDR exposure. Nrf2 and its downstream genes NQO1, SOD, and catalase were significantly upregulated by repetitive exposure to LDR, suggesting that the reduction of T2DM-induced testicular apoptosis due to repetitive LDR exposure likely involves enhancement of testicular Akt-mediated glucose metabolism and anti-oxidative defense mechanisms. PMID:26704079

  7. Lnk inhibits erythropoiesis and Epo-dependent JAK2 activation and downstream signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2005-06-15

    Erythropoietin (Epo), along with its receptor EpoR, is the principal regulator of red cell development. Upon Epo addition, the EpoR signaling through the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) activates multiple pathways including Stat5, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The adaptor protein Lnk is implicated in cytokine receptor signaling. Here, we showed that Lnk-deficient mice have elevated numbers of erythroid progenitors, and that splenic erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-e) progenitors are hypersensitive to Epo. Lnk(-/-) mice also exhibit superior recovery after erythropoietic stress. In addition, Lnk deficiency resulted in enhanced Epo-induced signaling pathways in splenic erythroid progenitors. Conversely, Lnk overexpression inhibits Epo-induced cell growth in 32D/EpoR cells. In primary culture of fetal liver cells, Lnk overexpression inhibits Epo-dependent erythroblast differentiation and induces apoptosis. Lnk blocks 3 major signaling pathways, Stat5, Akt, and MAPK, induced by Epo in primary erythroblasts. In addition, the Lnk Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is essential for its inhibitory function, whereas the conserved tyrosine near the C-terminus and the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Lnk are not critical. Furthermore, wild-type Lnk, but not the Lnk SH2 mutant, becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated following Epo administration and inhibits EpoR phosphorylation and JAK2 activation. Hence, Lnk, through its SH2 domain, negatively modulates EpoR signaling by attenuating JAK2 activation, and regulates Epo-mediated erythropoiesis.

  8. Activation of spinal chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates bone cancer pain through an Akt-ERK crosstalk pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xue-Hai; Fu, Qiao-Chu; Shi, Dai; Bu, Hui-Lian; Song, Zhen-Peng; Xiong, Bing-Rui; Shu, Bin; Xiang, Hong-Bing; Xu, Bing; Manyande, Anne; Cao, Fei; Tian, Yu-Ke

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that activation of the spinal CXCL9, 10/CXCR3 pathway mediated bone cancer pain (BCP) in rats. However, the cellular mechanism involved is poorly understood. Here, we found that the activated CXCR3 was co-localized with either neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the spinal cord, or non-peptidergic-, peptidergic-, and A-type neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The inoculation of Walker-256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the rat's tibia induced a time-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in the spinal cord, and CXCR3 was necessary for the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK 1/2. Meanwhile, CXCR3 was co-localized with either pAkt or pERK1/2. Blockage of either Akt or ERK1/2 prevented or reversed the mechanical allodynia in BCP rats. Furthermore, there was cross-activation between PI3K/Akt and Raf/MEK/ERK pathway under the BCP condition. Our results demonstrated that the activation of spinal chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediated BCP through Akt and ERK 1/2 kinase, and also indicated a crosstalk between PI3K/Akt and Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathways under the BCP condition.

  9. AKT activation promotes PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome–associated cataract development

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Caterina; Li, Leping; Gao, Junyuan; Robinson, Michael L.; Lin, Richard Z.; Mathias, Richard T.; White, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the human phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene cause PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), which includes cataract development among its diverse clinical pathologies. Currently, it is not known whether cataract formation in PHTS patients is secondary to other systemic problems, or the result of the loss of a critical function of PTEN within the lens. We generated a mouse line with a lens-specific deletion of Pten (PTEN KO) and identified a regulatory function for PTEN in lens ion transport. Specific loss of PTEN in the lens resulted in cataract. PTEN KO lenses exhibited a progressive age-related increase in intracellular hydrostatic pressure, along with, increased intracellular sodium concentrations, and reduced Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Collectively, these defects lead to lens swelling, opacities and ultimately organ rupture. Activation of AKT was highly elevated in PTEN KO lenses compared to WT mice. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of AKT restored normal Na+/K+-ATPase activity in primary cultured lens cells and reduced lens pressure in intact lenses from PTEN KO animals. These findings identify a direct role for PTEN in the regulation of lens ion transport through an AKT-dependent modulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and provide a new animal model to investigate cataract development in PHTS patients. PMID:24270425

  10. EGFR-AKT-mTOR activation mediates epiregulin-induced pleiotropic functions in cultured osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Bo; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Xin-Hui; Yuan, Kun; Xu, Da-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jia; Cui, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) emerges as an essential molecule for the regulating of osteoblast cellular functions. In the current study, we explored the effect of epiregulin, a new EGFR ligand, on osteoblast functions in vitro, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We found that epiregulin-induced EGFR activation in both primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Meanwhile, epiregulin activated AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalings in cultured osteoblasts, which were blocked by EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or monoclonal antibody against EGFR (anti-EGFR). Further, in primary and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, epiregulin promoted cell proliferation and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, while inhibiting dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell death. Such effects by epiregulin were largely inhibited by AG1478 or anti-EGFR. Notably, AKT-mTOR inhibitors, but not Erk inhibitors, alleviated epiregulin-induced above pleiotropic functions in osteoblasts. Meanwhile, siRNA depletion of Sin1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also suppressed epiregulin-exerted effects in MC3T3-E1 cells. Together, these results suggest that epiregulin-induced pleiotropic functions in cultured osteoblasts are mediated through EGFR-AKT-mTOR signalings.

  11. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H₂O₂. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H₂O₂ was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H₂O₂ activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H₂O₂-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  12. Rosemary extract reduces Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activation and inhibits proliferation and survival of A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jessy; Megaly, Mark; MacNeil, Adam J; Klentrou, Panagiota; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2016-10-01

    Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Rosemary extract contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6K, and the apoptotic protein poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of rosemary extract on proliferation, survival and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its influence on signaling events. Human NSCLC adenocarcinoma A549 cells were used. Cell proliferation and clonogenic survival were assessed using specific assays. Immunoblotting was used to examine total and phosphorylated levels of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, and cleavage of PARP. Rosemary extract dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation and reduced clonogenic survival of A549 cells, while PARP cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis, was enhanced. Rosemary extract significantly reduced total and phosphorylated/activated Akt, mTOR and p70S6K levels. In conclusion, rosemary extract inhibited proliferation, blocked clonogenic survival, and enhanced apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells. These effects were associated with inhibition of Akt and downstream mTOR and p70S6K activity. Our data suggest that rosemary extract may have considerable anti-tumor and chemoprevention properties in lung cancer and deserves further systematic investigation in animal models of lung cancer.

  13. Calorie restriction leads to greater Akt2 activity and glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from old rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with many common age-related diseases, but moderate calorie restriction (CR) can substantially elevate glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from both young and old rats. The current study evaluated the isolated epitrochlearis muscle from ∼24.5-mo-old rats that were either fed ad libitum (AL) or subjected to CR (consuming ∼65% of ad libitum, AL, intake beginning at ∼22.5 mo old). Some muscles were also incubated with MK-2206, a potent and selective Akt inhibitor. The most important results were that in isolated muscles, CR vs. AL resulted in 1) greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake 2) that was accompanied by significantly increased insulin-mediated activation of Akt2, as indicated by greater phosphorylation on both Thr309 and Ser474 along with greater Akt2 activity, 3) concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of several Akt substrates, including an Akt substrate of 160 kDa on Thr642 and Ser588, filamin C on Ser2213 and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa on Thr246, but not TBC1D1 on Thr596; and 4) each of the CR effects was eliminated by MK-2206. These data provide compelling new evidence linking greater Akt2 activation to the CR-induced elevation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle from old animals. PMID:26739650

  14. Effects of AFP-activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on cell proliferation of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Gong, Wei; Liang, Ping; Huang, XiaoBing; You, Nan; Han, Ke Qiang; Li, Yu Ming; Li, Jing

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway on hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. Active cirrhosis patients after hepatitis B infection (n = 20) and viral hepatitis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 20) were selected as the subjects of the present study. Another 20 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The serum AFP expression and liver tissue PI3K and Akt gene mRNA expression were detected. The hepatoma cell model HepG2 which had a stable expression of AFP gene was used. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot and other methods were used to analyze the intracellular PI3K and Akt protein levels. Compared with control group and cirrhosis group, the serum AFP levels in HCC group significantly increased, and the tissue PI3K and Akt mRNA expression also significantly increased. HepG2 cells were intervened using AFP, in which the PIK and Akt protein expression significantly increased. After intervention by use of AFP monoclonal antibodies or LY294002 inhibitor, the PIK and Akt protein expression in HepG2 cell was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). AFP can promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  15. Activation of AKT pathway by Nrf2/PDGFA feedback loop contributes to HCC progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danyang; Zhang, Yonglong; Wei, Yingze; Liu, Guoyuan; Liu, Yufeng; Gao, Qiongmei; Zou, Liping; Zeng, Wenjiao; Zhang, Nong

    2016-10-04

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor in the antioxidant response, has been found to be ubiquitously expressed in various cancer cells and in the regulation tumor proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance activities. The regulatory roles of Nrf2 in controlling Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Nrf2 was significantly elevated in HCC cells and tissues and was correlated with poor prognosis of HCCs. Consistently, Nrf2 significantly promoted HCC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation suggested a novel association of Nrf2 with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGFA). Nrf2 promoted PDGFA transcription by recruiting specificity protein 1 (Sp1) to its promoter, resulting in increased activation of the AKT/p21 pathway and cell cycle progression of HCC cells. As a feedback loop, PDGFA enhanced Nrf2 expression and activation in an AKT dependent manner. In line with these findings, expression of Nrf2 and PDGFA were positively correlated in HCC tissues. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel mechanism of the Nrf2/PDGFA regulatory loop that is crucial for AKT-dependent HCC progression, and thereby provides potential targets for HCC therapy.

  16. Activation of AKT pathway by Nrf2/PDGFA feedback loop contributes to HCC progression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yingze; Liu, Guoyuan; Liu, Yufeng; Gao, Qiongmei; Zou, Liping; Zeng, Wenjiao; Zhang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor in the antioxidant response, has been found to be ubiquitously expressed in various cancer cells and in the regulation tumor proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance activities. The regulatory roles of Nrf2 in controlling Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Nrf2 was significantly elevated in HCC cells and tissues and was correlated with poor prognosis of HCCs. Consistently, Nrf2 significantly promoted HCC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation suggested a novel association of Nrf2 with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGFA). Nrf2 promoted PDGFA transcription by recruiting specificity protein 1 (Sp1) to its promoter, resulting in increased activation of the AKT/p21 pathway and cell cycle progression of HCC cells. As a feedback loop, PDGFA enhanced Nrf2 expression and activation in an AKT dependent manner. In line with these findings, expression of Nrf2 and PDGFA were positively correlated in HCC tissues. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel mechanism of the Nrf2/PDGFA regulatory loop that is crucial for AKT-dependent HCC progression, and thereby provides potential targets for HCC therapy. PMID:27588483

  17. Activation of the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 survival signaling pathway in human cholesteatoma epithelium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Tuanfang; Ren, Jihao; Li, Lihua; Xiao, Zian; Chen, Xing; Xie, Dinghua

    2014-02-01

    Cholesteatoma is a benign keratinizing squamous epithelial lesion characterized by the hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes with abundant production of keratin debris in the middle ear. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/cyclinD1 signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways in regulating cell survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 signaling pathway may be activated and involved in the cellular hyperplasia mechanism in acquired cholesteatoma epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), activated NF-κB and cyclinD1 protein was performed in 40 cholesteatoma samples and 20 samples of normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium. Protein expression of p-EGFR, p-Akt, activated NF-κB and cyclinD1 in cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly increased when compared with normal EAC epithelium (p < 0.01). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between p-EGFR and p-Akt expression and between the expressions of p-Akt and NF-κB, NF-κB and cyclinD1, respectively (p < 0.01). No significant relationships were observed between the levels of investigated proteins and the degree of bone destruction (p > 0.05). The increased protein expression of p-EGFR, p-Akt, NF-κB and cyclinD1 and their associations in cholesteatoma epithelium suggest that the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 survival signaling pathway is active and may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms of cellular hyperplasia in cholesteatoma epithelium.

  18. Essential role of AKT in tumor cells addicted to FGFR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Lu, Huiru; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Jun; Chai, Zhifang; Zhang, Jingxin

    2014-02-01

    Tumor cells with genetic amplifications or mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family are often addicted to FGFR and heavily dependent on its signaling to survive. Although it is critical to understand which signaling pathway downstream of FGFR plays an essential role to guide the research and development of FGFR inhibitors, it has remained unclear partly because the tool compounds used in the literature also hit many other kinases, making the results difficult to interpret. With the development of a potent FGFR-specific inhibitor, BGJ398, we are now able to dissect various pathways with low drug concentrations to minimize multiple-target effects. Importantly, here, we show that inhibition of FGFR signaling by BGJ398 leads to only transient inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas the inhibitory effect on AKT phosphorylation is sustainable, indicating that AKT, not ERK as commonly believed, serves as an appropriate pharmacodynamic biomarker for BGJ398. Although AKT inhibition by a pan-PI3K inhibitor alone has almost no effect on cell growth, heterologous expression of myr-AKT, an active form of AKT, rescues BGJ398-mediated suppression of tumor cell proliferation. These results indicate that AKT is an essential component downstream of FGFR. Finally, combination of the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 with rapamycin significantly inhibits AKT phosphorylation and enhances their antiproliferative effects in FGFR-addicted cells, suggesting an effective combination strategy for clinical development of FGFR inhibitors.

  19. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-mammalian target of Rapamycin signaling pathway in the hippocampus is essential for the acquisition of morphine-induced place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Zhang, X Q; Cui, Y; Xin, W J; Jing, J; Liu, X G

    2010-11-24

    Hippocampus is a critical structure for the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is a usual learning paradigm for assessing drug reward. However, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), are critical molecules implicated in learning and memory. Here, we tested the role of PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway in morphine-induced CPP in the hippocampus. Our results showed that the acquisition of morphine CPP increased phosphorylation of Akt in the hippocampal CA3, but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the CA1. Moreover, the phosphorylated Akt exclusively expressed in the CA3 neurons. Likewise, levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p70S6K were significantly enhanced in the CA3 following morphine CPP. The alterations of these phosphorylated proteins are positively correlated with the acquisition of morphine CPP. More importantly, microinjection of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) into the CA3 prevented the acquisition of CPP and inhibited the activation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In addition, pre-infusion of β-FNA (β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride), a selective irreversible μ opioid receptor antagonist, into CA3 significantly prevented the acquisition of CPP and impaired Akt phosphorylation. All these results strongly implied that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activated by μ opioid receptor in hippocampal CA3 plays an important role in acquisition of morphine-induced CPP.

  20. AKT-phosphorylated FOXO1 suppresses ERK activation and chemoresistance by disrupting IQGAP1-MAPK interaction.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chun-Wu; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Yu; Pan, Yunqian; Yang, Jing; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Haojie

    2017-03-09

    Nuclear FOXO proteins act as tumor suppressors by transcriptionally activating genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and these anticancer functions are inhibited by AKT-induced phosphorylation and cytoplasmic sequestration of FOXOs. We found that, after AKT-mediated phosphorylation at serine 319, FOXO1 binds to IQGAP1, a hub for activation of the MAPK pathway, and impedes IQGAP1-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2). Conversely, decreased FOXO1 expression increases pERK1/2 in cancer cell lines and correlates with increased pERK1/2 levels in patient specimens and disease progression. Treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors or taxane causes FOXO1 localization in the nucleus, increased expression of pERK1/2, and drug resistance. These effects are reversed by administering a small FOXO1-derived phospho-mimicking peptide inhibitor in vitro and in mice. Our results show a tumor suppressor role of AKT-phosphorylated FOXO1 in the cytoplasm and suggest that this function of FOXO1 can be harnessed to overcome chemoresistance in cancer.

  1. Akt isoforms in vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haixiang; Littlewood, Trevor; Bennett, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian serine/threonine Akt kinases comprise three closely related isoforms: Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3. Akt activation has been implicated in both normal and disease processes, including in development and metabolism, as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Although Akt signalling has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, its role in cardiovascular disease is less clear. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that the three Akt isoforms exhibit distinct tissue expression profiles, localise to different subcellular compartments, and have unique modes of activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, genetic studies in mice show distinct effects of individual Akt isoforms on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This review summarises recent studies of individual Akt isoforms in atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and aneurysm formation, to provide a comprehensive overview of Akt function in vascular disease. PMID:25929188

  2. Editing VEGFR2 Blocks VEGF-Induced Activation of Akt and Tube Formation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xionggao; Zhou, Guohong; Wu, Wenyi; Ma, Gaoen; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Mukai, Shizuo; Lei, Hetian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) plays a key role in VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The goal of this project was to test the hypothesis that editing genomic VEGFR2 loci using the technology of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated DNA endonuclease (Cas)9 in Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) was able to block VEGF-induced activation of Akt and tube formation. Methods Four 20 nucleotides for synthesizing single-guide RNAs based on human genomic VEGFR2 exon 3 loci were selected and cloned into a lentiCRISPR v2 vector, respectively. The DNA fragments from the genomic VEGFR2 exon 3 of transduced primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) were analyzed by Sanger DNA sequencing, surveyor nuclease assay, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the transduced cells, expression of VEGFR2 and VEGF-stimulated signaling events (e.g., Akt phosphorylation) were determined by Western blot analyses; VEGF-induced cellular responses (proliferation, migration, and tube formation) were examined. Results In the VEGFR2-sgRNA/SpCas9–transduced HRECs, Sanger DNA sequencing indicated that there were mutations, and NGS demonstrated that there were 83.57% insertion and deletions in the genomic VEGFR2 locus; expression of VEGFR2 was depleted in the VEGFR2-sgRNA/SpCas9–transduced HRECs. In addition, there were lower levels of Akt phosphorylation in HRECs with VEGFR2-sgRNA/SpCas9 than those with LacZ-sgRNA/SpCas9, and there was less VEGF-stimulated Akt activation, proliferation, migration, or tube formation in the VEGFR2-depleted HRECs than those treated with aflibercept or ranibizumab. Conclusions The CRISPR-SpCas9 technology is a potential novel approach to prevention of pathologic angiogenesis. PMID:28241310

  3. PDGF-D/PDGFRβ promotes tongue squamous carcinoma cell (TSCC) progression via activating p38/AKT/ERK/EMT signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Sun, Jia-Dong; Yan, Ling-Jian; Zhao, Xiao-Peng

    2016-09-16

    Platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF-D) signaling plays significant roles during the development and progression of human malignancies via interacting with the receptor of PDGF-D (PDGFR). Meanwhile, the majority of human tumor metastasis is closely associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanism between PDGF-D/PDGFR signaling and EMT which involved in tumor metastasis remain dismal. This study aimed to investigate the role of PDGF-D signaling during EMT process of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). In our study, the expression of PDGF-D and PDGFR were examined in primary TSCC samples and the expression of PDGF-D was also determined in TSCC cell lines. In addition, the correlation between PDGF-D expression and TSCC aggressive histopathological features was analyzed. Our results implied that upregulation of PDGFRβ in UM1 cells induced with exogenous PDGF-D can remarkably promote tumor cells invasiveness; conversely, when using small interfering RNA (siRNA), the invasiveness can be severely prohibited. Furthermore, PDGF-D downstream signal molecules p38, AKT, ERK and EMT biomarkers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin and snail) were measured using Western blot. Our results showed that PDGF-D can induce p38, AKT and ERK phosphorylation; downregulate epithelial markers and upregulate mesenchymal markers. On the contrary, PDGFRβ siRNA significantly prohibited p38, AKT and ERK phosphorylation; inhibited EMT process. Function analysis revealed that PDGFRβ siRNA obviously interfered with UM1 cell migration and invasion, according to transwell and wound healing assay. In conclusion, this study suggested that EMT process can be triggered by the PDGF-D/PDGFRβ axis in TSCC, and then involved in the tumor cell invasion via activation of p38/AKT/ERK/EMT pathway.

  4. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-pil; Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chung, Sung Woon; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  5. Synthesis and SAR study of modulators inhibiting tRXRα-dependent AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Liqun; Chen, Jiebo; Zheng, Jian-Feng; Gao, Weiwei; Zeng, Zhiping; Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Xiao-kun; Huang, Pei-Qiang; Su, Ying

    2013-01-01

    RXRα represents an intriguing and unique target for pharmacologic interventions. We recently showed that Sulindac and a designed analog could bind to RXRα and modulate its biological activity, including inhibition of the interaction of an N-terminally truncated RXRα (tRXRα) with the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K). Here we report the synthesis, testing and SAR of a series of novel analogs of Sulindac as potential modulators for inhibiting tRXRα-dependent AKT activation. A new compound 30 was identified to have improved biological activity. PMID:23434637

  6. Negative Immune Regulator TIPE2 Promotes M2 Macrophage Differentiation through the Activation of PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wenwen; Chen, Youhai H.; Zhang, Cui

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Classically activated macrophages and alternatively activated macrophages are the two major forms of macrophages and have opposing functionalities. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8–2 is expressed primarily by immune cells and negatively regulates type 1 innate and adaptive immune responses to maintain immune tolerance. While previous studies indicate that TIPE2 promotes M2 but inhibits M1 macrophage differentiation, the underlying molecular mechanism by which TIPE2 promotes M2 macrophage differentiation remains unclear. Our current study shows that TIPE2-deficient bone-marrow cells are defective in IL-4 induced M2 macrophage differentiation in vitro. Mechanistic studies revealed that TIPE2 promotes phosphoinositide metabolism and the activation of the down-stream AKT signaling pathway, which in turn leads to the expression of markers specific for M2 macrophages. In addition, our results showed that Tipe2-deficiency does not affect the activation of the JAK-STAT6 signaling pathway that also plays an important role during M2 macrophage differentiation. Taken together, these results indicate that TIPE2 promotes M2 macrophage differentiation through the activation of PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, and may play an important role during the resolution of inflammation, parasite control, as well as tissue repair. PMID:28122045

  7. Agmatine Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Oxidant Response via Activating PI3K/Akt Pathway and Up-Regulating Nrf2 and HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianshen; Luo, Li; Hou, Fengyan; Fan, Xia; Yu, Jing; Ma, Wei; Tang, Wangqi; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Junyu; Kang, Wenyuan; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are key responders of inflammation and are closely related with oxidative stress. Activated macrophages can enhance oxygen depletion, which causes an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to further excessive inflammatory response and tissue damage. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects based on its antioxidant properties. However, the antioxidant effects of agmatine in peripheral tissues and cells, especially macrophages, remain unclear. In this study we explored the role of agmatine in mediating antioxidant effects in RAW 264.7 cells and studied its antioxidant mechanism. Our data demonstrate that agmatine is an activator of Nrf2 signaling that markedly enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increases nuclear Nrf2 protein level, up-regulates the expression of the Nrf2 downstream effector HO-1, and attenuates ROS generation induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We further demonstrated that the agmatine-induced activation of Nrf2 is likely through the PI3K/Akt pathway. LY294002, a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, abolished agmatine-induced HO-1 up-regulation and ROS suppression significantly. Inhibiting HO-1 pathway significantly attenuated the antioxidant effect of agmatine which the products of HO-1 enzymatic activity contributed to. Furthermore, the common membrane receptors of agmatine were evaluated, revealing that α2-adrenoceptor, I1-imidazoline receptor or I2-imidazoline receptor are not required by the antioxidant properties of agmatine. Taken together, our findings revealed that agmatine has antioxidant activity against LPS-induced ROS accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells involving HO-1 expression induced by Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt pathway activation. PMID:27685463

  8. Sea urchin akt activity is Runx-dependent and required for post-cleavage stage cell division.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Anthony J; Coluccio, Alison; Jensen, Sarah; Rydlizky, Katarina; Coffman, James A

    2013-05-15

    In animal development following the initial cleavage stage of embryogenesis, the cell cycle becomes dependent on intercellular signaling and controlled by the genomically encoded ontogenetic program. Runx transcription factors are critical regulators of metazoan developmental signaling, and we have shown that the sea urchin Runx gene runt-1, which is globally expressed during early embryogenesis, functions in support of blastula stage cell proliferation and expression of the mitogenic genes pkc1, cyclinD, and several wnts. To obtain a more comprehensive list of early runt-1 regulatory targets, we screened a Strongylocentrotus purpuratus microarray to identify genes mis-expressed in mid-blastula stage runt-1 morphants. This analysis showed that loss of Runx function perturbs the expression of multiple genes involved in cell division, including the pro-growth and survival kinase Akt (PKB), which is significantly underexpressed in runt-1 morphants. Further genomic analysis revealed that Akt is encoded by two genes in the S. purpuratus genome, akt-1 and akt-2, both of which contain numerous canonical Runx target sequences. The transcripts of both genes accumulate several fold during blastula stage, contingent on runt-1 expression. Inhibiting Akt expression or activity causes blastula stage cell cycle arrest, whereas overexpression of akt-1 mRNA rescues cell proliferation in runt-1 morphants. These results indicate that post-cleavage stage cell division requires Runx-dependent expression of akt.

  9. Restoration of Akt activity by the bisperoxovanadium compound bpV(pic) attenuates hippocampal apoptosis in experimental neonatal pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sury, Matthias D; Vorlet-Fawer, Lorianne; Agarinis, Claudia; Yousefi, Shida; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Christen, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis causes apoptosis of developing neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The death of these cells is accompanied with long-term learning and memory deficits in meningitis survivors. Here, we studied the role of the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) survival pathway in hippocampal apoptosis in a well-characterized infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Meningitis was accompanied by a significant decrease of the PI3K product phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) and of phosphorylated (i.e., activated) Akt in the hippocampus. At the cellular level, phosphorylated Akt was decreased in both the granular layer and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the region where the developing neurons undergo apoptosis. Protein levels and activity of PTEN, the major antagonist of PI3K, were unaltered by infection, suggesting that the observed decrease in PIP(3) and Akt phosphorylation is a result of decreased PI3K signaling. Treatment with the PTEN inhibitor bpV(pic) restored Akt activity and significantly attenuated hippocampal apoptosis. Co-treatment with the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed the restoration of Akt activity and attenuation of hippocampal apoptosis, while it had no significant effect on these parameters on its own. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of bpV(pic) on apoptosis was mediated by PI3K-dependent activation of Akt, strongly suggesting that bpV(pic) acted on PTEN. Treatment with bpV(pic) also partially inhibited the concentration of bacteria and cytokines in the CSF, but this effect was not reversed by LY294002, indicating that the effect of bpV(pic) on apoptosis was independent of its effect on CSF bacterial burden and cytokine levels. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an important role in the death and survival of developing hippocampal neurons during the acute phase of pneumococcal meningitis.

  10. Berberine ameliorates hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice through activation of Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi; Li, Wenyuan; Lan, Tian; Liu, Weihua; Peng, Jing; Huang, Kaipeng; Huang, Juan; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it is implicated that the abnormality of Akt signaling pathway is involved in the diabetic pathology. Previous studies have demonstrated that berberine could decrease blood glucose by elevating liver glycogen synthesis. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on fasting blood glucose, liver glycogen, Akt, Glycogen synthase kinase-3, glucokinase and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, exploring its possible hypoglycemic mechanism. We found that in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the high blood glucose was significantly lowered by berberine treatment. Liver glycogen content, the expression and activity of glucokinase and the phosphorylated Akt and IRS were all significantly reduced in diabetic mice whereas berberine blocked these changes. Berberine also depressed the increasing of phosphorylated GSK-3β in diabetic mice. Collectively, Berberine upregulates the activity of Akt possibly via insulin signaling pathway, eventually lowering high blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  11. Modulation of p47PHOX activity by site-specific phosphorylation: Akt-dependent activation of the NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal, Carolyn R.; Gutierrez, Abel; Young, Brandon M.; Catz, Sergio D.; Lin, Jun-Hsiang; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Babior, Bernard M.

    2003-01-01

    The leukocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{2}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} at the expense of NADPH. Extensive phosphorylation of the oxidase subunit p47PHOX occurs during the activation of the enzyme in intact cells. p47PHOX carrying certain serine-to-alanine mutations fails to support NADPH oxidase activity in intact cells, suggesting that the phosphorylation of specific serines on p47PHOX is required for the activation of the oxidase. Earlier studies with both intact cells and a kinase-dependent, cell-free system have suggested that protein kinase C can phosphorylate those serines of p47PHOX whose phosphorylation is necessary for its activity. Work with inhibitors suggested that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway also can activate the oxidase. Phosphorylation of p47PHOX by Akt (protein kinase B), whose activation depends on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, could be the final step in such a pathway. We now find that Akt activates the oxidase in vitro by phosphorylating serines S304 and S328 of p47PHOX. These results suggest that Akt could participate in the activation of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. PMID:12704229

  12. Testosterone and Voluntary Exercise, Alone or Together Increase Cardiac Activation of AKT and ERK1/2 in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chodari, Leila; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Mohaddes, Gisou; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanzade, Vajiheh; Dariushnejad, Hassan; Mohammadi, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired angiogenesis in cardiac tissue is a major complication of diabetes. Protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways play important role during capillary-like network formation in angiogenesis process. Objectives To determine the effects of testosterone and voluntary exercise on levels of vascularity, phosphorylated Akt (P- AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) in heart tissue of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. Methods Type I diabetes was induced by i.p injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin in animals. After 42 days of treatment with testosterone (2mg/kg/day) or voluntary exercise alone or in combination, heart tissue samples were collected and used for histological evaluation and determination of P-AKT and P-ERK levels by ELISA method. Results Our results showed that either testosterone or exercise increased capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in the heart of diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had a synergistic effect on capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in heart. Furthermore, in the castrated diabetes group, capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels significantly decreased in the heart, whereas either testosterone treatment or exercise training reversed these effects. Also, simultaneous treatment of castrated diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had an additive effect on P-AKT and P-ERK levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that testosterone and exercise alone or together can increase angiogenesis in the heart of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. The proangiogenesis effects of testosterone and exercise are associated with the enhanced activation of AKT and ERK1/2 in heart tissue.

  13. Withaferin A inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hyung; Lim, In-Hye; Sung, Eon-Gi; Kim, Joo-Young; Song, In-Hwan; Park, Yoon Ki; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Withaferin A (Wit A), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, exhibits anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory and anti-angiogenic properties and antitumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wit A on protease-mediated invasiveness of the human metastatic cancer cell lines Caski and SK-Hep1. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in marked inhibition of the TGF‑β‑induced increase in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9 in Caski cell line. These effects of Wit A were dose-dependent and showed a correlation with suppression of MMP‑9 mRNA expression levels. Treatment with Wit A resulted in an ~1.6-fold induction of MMP-9 promoter activity, which was also suppressed by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in inhibition of TGF‑β‑induced phosphorylation of Akt, which was involved in the downregulation of expression of MMP-9 at the protein level. Introduction with constitutively active (CA)‑Akt resulted in a partial increase in the secretion of TGF-β-induced MMP-9 blocked by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. According to these results, Wit A may inhibit the invasive and migratory abilities of Caski cells through a reduction in MMP-9 expression through suppression of the pAkt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that use of Wit A may be an effective strategy for control of metastasis and invasiveness of tumors.

  14. Jaceosidin, a natural flavone, promotes angiogenesis via activation of VEGFR2/FAK/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathways in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Jung, Hana; Park, Keun Hyung; Bang, Myun Ho; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Jiyoung

    2014-10-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development wound healing and revascularization of tissues after exposure to ischemia. We investigated the effects of jaceosidin, a main constituent of medicinal herbs of the genus Artemisia, on angiogenesis and signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Jaceosidin stimulated proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis of ECs as well as ex vivo sprouting from aorta rings, which are phenomena typical of angiogenesis. Jaceosidin activated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, FLk-1/KDR) and angiogenic signaling molecules such as focal adhesion kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and its downstream target, the serine-threonine kinase AKTWe also demonstrated that jaceosidin activated the NF-κB-driven expression of a luciferase reporter gene and NF-κB binding to DNA. Jaceosidin-induced proliferation and migration of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells were strongly inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082, indicating that the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in jaceosidin-induced angiogenesis. Our results suggest that jaceosidin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the VEGFR2/FAK/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway and that it may be useful in developing angiogenic agents to promote the growth of collateral blood vessels in ischemic tissues.

  15. Association of HOTAIR expression with PI3K/Akt pathway activation in adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Although the Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a vital long non-coding RNA, is known to participate in the development and progression of a wide range of carcinomas, there are still no published reports regarding its expression in adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEJ). The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of HOTAIR, and to analyze the association of its expression with PI3K/Akt pathway activation in clinical AEJ patients. Methods Nine normal epithelial tissues and 41 samples of AEJ were studied comparably. The expression of HOTAIR was detected by real-time PCR according to the different tumor grades in these AEJ tissues. Western blot was performed to reveal the Ser473-phosphorylated Akt and total Akt levels. Results: HOTAIR was found to be up-regulated in higher grades of AEJ tissues compared to low grades and/or noncancerous tissues. pAkt expression was also found to be up-regulated in tissues of higher tumor stages. We found that the overexpression of HOTAIR finely correlated with elevated Ser473-phosphorylated Akt levels. Conclusion: Upregulated HOTAIR was associated with abnormal activated PI3K/Akt pathway, which might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for AEJ treatment.

  16. A Hot-spot of In-frame Duplications Activates the Oncoprotein AKT1 in Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bessière, Laurianne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Auguste, Aurélie; Sarnacki, Sabine; Flatters, Delphine; Legois, Bérangère; Sultan, Charles; Kalfa, Nicolas; Galmiche, Louise; Veitia, Reiner A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian granulosa cell tumors are the most common sex-cord stromal tumors and have juvenile (JGCTs) and adult forms. In a previous study we reported the occurrence of activating somatic mutations of Gαs, which transduces mitogenic signals, in 30% of the analyzed JGCTs. Methods We have searched for alterations in other proteins involved in ovarian mitogenic signaling. We focused on the PI3K–AKT axis. As we found mutations in AKT1, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the mutated proteins and performed functional explorations using Western-blot and luciferase assays. Findings We detected in-frame duplications affecting the pleckstrin-homology domain of AKT1 in more than 60% of the tumors occurring in girls under 15 years of age. The somatic status of the mutations was confirmed when peritumoral DNA was available. The JGCTs without duplications carried point mutations affecting highly conserved residues. Several of these substitutions were somatic lesions. The mutated proteins carrying the duplications had a non-wild-type subcellular distribution, with a marked enrichment at the plasma membrane. This led to a striking degree of AKT1 activation demonstrated by a strong phosphorylation level and by reporter assays. Interpretation Our study incriminates somatic mutations of AKT1 as a major event in the pathogenesis of JGCTs. The existence of AKT inhibitors currently tested in clinical trials opens new perspectives for targeted therapies for these tumors, which are currently treated with standard non-specific chemotherapy protocols. PMID:26137586

  17. NEK7 is an essential mediator of NLRP3 activation downstream of potassium efflux.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Zeng, Melody Y; Yang, Dahai; Motro, Benny; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-02-18

    Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that drive the activation of inflammatory caspases. So far, four inflammasomes involving NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 have been described that recruit the common adaptor protein ASC to activate caspase-1, leading to the secretion of mature IL-1β and IL-18 proteins. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acquired inflammatory diseases as well as cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS) caused by inherited NLRP3 mutations. Potassium efflux is a common step that is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by many stimuli. Despite extensive investigation, the molecular mechanism leading to NLRP3 activation in response to potassium efflux remains unknown. Here we report the identification of NEK7, a member of the family of mammalian NIMA-related kinases (NEK proteins), as an NLRP3-binding protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to regulate NLRP3 oligomerization and activation. In the absence of NEK7, caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release were abrogated in response to signals that activate NLRP3, but not NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasomes. NLRP3-activating stimuli promoted the NLRP3-NEK7 interaction in a process that was dependent on potassium efflux. NLRP3 associated with the catalytic domain of NEK7, but the catalytic activity of NEK7 was shown to be dispensable for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Activated macrophages formed a high-molecular-mass NLRP3-NEK7 complex, which, along with ASC oligomerization and ASC speck formation, was abrogated in the absence of NEK7. NEK7 was required for macrophages containing the CAPS-associated NLRP3(R258W) activating mutation to activate caspase-1. Mouse chimaeras reconstituted with wild-type, Nek7(-/-) or Nlrp3(-/-) haematopoietic cells showed that NEK7 was required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo. These studies demonstrate that NEK7 is an essential protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to

  18. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin is associated with constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and represents a favorable prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-López, Juana; Serrano, Josefina; Figueroa, Vianihuini; Torres-Gomez, Antonio; Tabares, Salvador; Casaño, Javier; Fernandez-Escalada, Noemi; Sánchez-Garcia, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Survivin is over-expressed in most hematologic malignancies but the prognostic significance of the subcompartmental distribution of wild-type or splicing variants in acute myeloid leukemia has not been addressed yet. Using western blotting, we assessed the expression of wild-type survivin and survivin splice variants 2B and Delta-Ex3 in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein extracts in samples taken from 105 patients at the time of their diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Given that survivin is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, survivin expression was also correlated with pSer473-Akt. Wild-type survivin and the 2B splice variant were positive in 76.3% and 78.0% of samples in the nucleus, cytoplasm or both, whereas the Delta-Ex3 isoform was only positive in the nucleus in 37.7% of samples. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin was significantly associated with the presence of high levels of pSer473-Akt (P<0.001). Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway with wortmannin and Ly294002 caused a significant reduction in the expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin. The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt was associated with a lower fraction of quiescent leukemia stem cells (P=0.02). The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt were favorable independent prognostic factors. Moreover, the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway with expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin identified a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia patients with an excellent outcome (overall survival rate of 60.0±21.9% and relapse-free survival of 63.0±13.5%). Our findings suggest that cytoplasmic wild-type survivin is a critical downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway leading to more chemosensitive cells and a more favorable outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23812937

  19. Bamboo leaf extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through activating the AKT signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Ying, Changjiang; Mao, Yizhen; Chen, Lei; Wang, Shanshan; Ling, Hongwei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-27

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe diabetic complication and it is becoming become a worldwide epidemic, accounting for approximately one-third of all case of end-stage renal disease. However, the underlying mechanism and strategy to alleviate renal injury remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the protective effect of bamboo leaf extract on the DN, and investigated the underlying mechanism by which bamboo leaf extract ameliorating DN. Diabetic rats were induced by 4 weeks high sugar and high fat diet, and then injected a single dose of STZ (35mg/kg) into abdominal cavity. Different dose of bamboo extract (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) were orally administered every day for a period of 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and 24-hour urinary protein (24 h-UP) were assessed. Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity and MDA (methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, MDA) level were tested by assay kit. Microstructural changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscopy. Expression of phosphorylated ser/thr protein kinase (P-AKT), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (P-GSK-3β), B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2-associated X protein (BAX) and cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (Cleaved Caspase-3) were measured by Western-Blotting (WB). Results showed that diabetic rats had weight loss, high blood glucose, HbAlc, BUN, Scr and 24-UP and T-SOD activity were increased and MDA level was decreased in diabetic rats. Moreover, hyperglycemia could injury renal tissue ultrastructure, inhibit P-AKT level and increase P-GSK-3β, BAX and Cleaved Caspase-3 levels in rats. However, bamboo leaf extract treatment could reduce body weight loss, BUN, Scr, 24 h-UP and MDA level, improve T-SOD activity and alleviate renal injury in diabetic rats. Furthermore, bamboo leaf extract increased P-AKT level, decreased P-GSK-3β, BAX and

  20. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  1. OSU-T315: a novel targeted therapeutic that antagonizes AKT membrane localization and activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ta-Ming; Ling, Yonghua; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Beckwith, Kyle; Yeh, Yuh-Ying; Hertlein, Erin; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lehman, Amy; Awan, Farrukh; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Maddocks, Kami; MacMurray, Jessica; Salunke, Santosh B.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Phelps, Mitch A.; Byrd, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of endogenous survival pathways plays a major role in progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Signaling via conjugation of surface receptors within the tumor environmental niche activates survival and proliferation pathways in CLL. Of these, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway appears to be pivotal to support CLL pathogenesis, and pharmacologic inhibitors targeting this axis have shown clinical activity. Here we investigate OSU-T315, a compound that disrupts the PI3K/AKT pathway in a novel manner. Dose-dependent selective cytotoxicity by OSU-T315 is noted in both CLL-derived cell lines and primary CLL cells relative to normal lymphocytes. In contrast to the highly successful Bruton's tyrosine kinase and PI3K inhibitors that inhibit B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway at proximal kinases, OSU-T315 directly abrogates AKT activation by preventing translocation of AKT into lipid rafts without altering the activation of receptor-associated kinases. Through this mechanism, the agent triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in CLL by suppressing BCR, CD49d, CD40, and Toll-like receptor 9-mediated AKT activation in an integrin-linked kinase-independent manner. In vivo, OSU-T315 attains pharmacologically active drug levels and significantly prolongs survival in the TCL1 mouse model. Together, our findings indicate a novel mechanism of action of OSU-T315 with potential therapeutic application in CLL. PMID:25293770

  2. OSU-T315: a novel targeted therapeutic that antagonizes AKT membrane localization and activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Ming; Ling, Yonghua; Woyach, Jennifer A; Beckwith, Kyle; Yeh, Yuh-Ying; Hertlein, Erin; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lehman, Amy; Awan, Farrukh; Jones, Jeffrey A; Andritsos, Leslie A; Maddocks, Kami; MacMurray, Jessica; Salunke, Santosh B; Chen, Ching-Shih; Phelps, Mitch A; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J

    2015-01-08

    Aberrant regulation of endogenous survival pathways plays a major role in progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Signaling via conjugation of surface receptors within the tumor environmental niche activates survival and proliferation pathways in CLL. Of these, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway appears to be pivotal to support CLL pathogenesis, and pharmacologic inhibitors targeting this axis have shown clinical activity. Here we investigate OSU-T315, a compound that disrupts the PI3K/AKT pathway in a novel manner. Dose-dependent selective cytotoxicity by OSU-T315 is noted in both CLL-derived cell lines and primary CLL cells relative to normal lymphocytes. In contrast to the highly successful Bruton's tyrosine kinase and PI3K inhibitors that inhibit B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway at proximal kinases, OSU-T315 directly abrogates AKT activation by preventing translocation of AKT into lipid rafts without altering the activation of receptor-associated kinases. Through this mechanism, the agent triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in CLL by suppressing BCR, CD49d, CD40, and Toll-like receptor 9-mediated AKT activation in an integrin-linked kinase-independent manner. In vivo, OSU-T315 attains pharmacologically active drug levels and significantly prolongs survival in the TCL1 mouse model. Together, our findings indicate a novel mechanism of action of OSU-T315 with potential therapeutic application in CLL.

  3. Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, Halil Ibrahim; Yu, Jiujiu; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Worth, Andrew J; Iyer, Shankar S; Wang, Jiawei; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Byles, Vanessa; Polynne-Stapornkul, Tiffany; Espinosa, Erika C; Lamming, Dudley; Manning, Brendan D; Zhang, Yijing; Blair, Ian A; Horng, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular proliferation and chemokine production. Moreover, metabolic signals impinge on the Akt-mTORC1 axis for such control of M2 activation. We propose that Akt-mTORC1 signaling calibrates metabolic state to energetically demanding aspects of M2 activation, which may define a new role for metabolism in supporting macrophage activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11612.001 PMID:26894960

  4. Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, Halil Ibrahim; Yu, Jiujiu; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Worth, Andrew J; Iyer, Shankar S; Wang, Jiawei; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Byles, Vanessa; Polynne-Stapornkul, Tiffany; Espinosa, Erika C; Lamming, Dudley; Manning, Brendan D; Zhang, Yijing; Blair, Ian A; Horng, Tiffany

    2016-02-19

    Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular proliferation and chemokine production. Moreover, metabolic signals impinge on the Akt-mTORC1 axis for such control of M2 activation. We propose that Akt-mTORC1 signaling calibrates metabolic state to energetically demanding aspects of M2 activation, which may define a new role for metabolism in supporting macrophage activation.

  5. TGF-{beta}2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-{beta}2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-{beta}2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-{beta}2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-{beta}2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-{beta}2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-{beta}2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-{beta}2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-{beta}2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway.

  6. Oxidative stress induces proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by inhibiting RUNX3 and activating the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Ki Cheon; Bae, Suk Chul; Hyun, Jin Won

    2013-11-01

    We recently reported that the tumor suppressor Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is silenced in colorectal cancer cells via oxidative stress-induced hypermethylation of its promoter. The resulting downregulation of RUNX3 expression influences cell proliferation. Activation of the Akt signaling pathway is also associated with cell survival and proliferation; however, the effects of oxidative stress on the relationship between RUNX3 and Akt signaling are largely unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms involved in cell proliferation caused by oxidative stress-induced silencing of RUNX3. The levels of RUNX3 mRNA and protein were downregulated in response to treatment of the human colorectal cancer cell line SNU-407 with H2O2. Treatment of the cells with H2O2 also upregulated Akt mRNA and protein expression, and inhibited the binding of RUNX3 to the Akt promoter. The inverse correlation between the expression levels of RUNX3 and Akt in H2O2-treated cells was also associated with nuclear translocation of β-catenin and upregulation of cyclin D1 expression, which induced cell proliferation. H2O2 treatment also increased the binding of β-catenin to the cyclin D1 promoter. The results presented here demonstrate that reactive oxygen species silence the tumor suppressor RUNX3, enhance the Akt-mediated signaling pathway, and promote the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

  7. Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gary S.; Aznar, Nicolas; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas; Midde, Krishna K.; Lopez-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Sato, Emi; Dunkel, Ying; Gallo, Richard L.; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and trimeric G proteins are two major signaling hubs. Signal transduction via trimeric G proteins has long been believed to be triggered exclusively by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This paradigm has recently been challenged by several studies on a multimodular signal transducer, Gα-Interacting Vesicle associated protein (GIV/Girdin). We recently demonstrated that GIV’s C terminus (CT) serves as a platform for dynamic association of ligand-activated RTKs with Gαi, and for noncanonical transactivation of G proteins. However, exogenous manipulation of this platform has remained beyond reach. Here we developed cell-permeable GIV-CT peptides by fusing a TAT-peptide transduction domain (TAT-PTD) to the minimal modular elements of GIV that are necessary and sufficient for activation of Gi downstream of RTKs, and used them to engineer signaling networks and alter cell behavior. In the presence of an intact GEF motif, TAT-GIV-CT peptides enhanced diverse processes in which GIV’s GEF function has previously been implicated, e.g., 2D cell migration after scratch-wounding, invasion of cancer cells, and finally, myofibroblast activation and collagen production. Furthermore, topical application of TAT-GIV-CT peptides enhanced the complex, multireceptor-driven process of wound repair in mice in a GEF-dependent manner. Thus, TAT-GIV peptides provide a novel and versatile tool to manipulate Gαi activation downstream of growth factors in a diverse array of pathophysiologic conditions. PMID:25926659

  8. Angiotensin II Signaling in Human Preadipose Cells: Participation of ERK1,2-Dependent Modulation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Dünner, Natalia; Quezada, Carolina; Berndt, F. Andrés; Cánovas, José; Rojas, Cecilia V.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system expressed in adipose tissue has been implicated in the modulation of adipocyte formation, glucose metabolism, triglyceride accumulation, lipolysis, and the onset of the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. As we investigated angiotensin II signal transduction mechanisms in human preadipose cells, an interplay of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and Akt/PKB became evident. Angiotensin II caused attenuation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), at serine 473; the p-Akt/Akt ratio decreased to 0.5±0.2-fold the control value without angiotensin II (p<0.001). Here we report that the reduction of phosphorylated Akt associates with ERK1,2 activities. In the absence of angiotensin II, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 or PD98059 resulted in a 2.1±0.5 (p<0.001) and 1.4±0.2-fold (p<0.05) increase in the p-Akt/Akt ratio, respectively. In addition, partial knockdown of ERK1 protein expression by the short hairpin RNA technique also raised phosphorylated Akt in these cells (the p-Akt/Akt ratio was 1.5±0.1-fold the corresponding control; p<0.05). Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 prevented the reduction of p-Akt/Akt by angiotensin II. An analogous effect was found on the phosphorylation status of Akt downstream effectors, the forkhead box (Fox) proteins O1 and O4. Altogether, these results indicate that angiotensin II signaling in human preadipose cells involves an ERK1,2-dependent attenuation of Akt activity, whose impact on the biological functions under its regulation is not fully understood. PMID:24098385

  9. DCC functions as an accelerator of thalamocortical axonal growth downstream of spontaneous thalamic activity

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Paterna, Mar; Moreno-Juan, Verónica; Filipchuk, Anton; Rodríguez-Malmierca, Luis; Susín, Rafael; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the axon growth rate is fundamental when establishing brain connections. Using the thalamocortical system as a model, we previously showed that spontaneous calcium activity influences the growth rate of thalamocortical axons by regulating the transcription of Robo1 through an NF-κB-binding site in its promoter. Robo1 acts as a brake on the growth of thalamocortical axons in vivo. Here, we have identified the Netrin-1 receptor DCC as an accelerator for thalamic axon growth. Dcc transcription is regulated by spontaneous calcium activity in thalamocortical neurons and activating DCC signaling restores normal axon growth in electrically silenced neurons. Moreover, we identified an AP-1-binding site in the Dcc promoter that is crucial for the activity-dependent regulation of this gene. In summary, we have identified the Dcc gene as a novel downstream target of spontaneous calcium activity involved in axon growth. Together with our previous data, we demonstrate a mechanism to control axon growth that relies on the activity-dependent regulation of two functionally opposed receptors, Robo1 and DCC. These two proteins establish a tight and efficient means to regulate activity-guided axon growth in order to correctly establish neuronal connections during development. PMID:25947198

  10. HER2-induced metastasis is mediated by AKT/JNK/EMT signaling pathway in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yiseul; Ko, Young San; Park, Jinju; Choi, Youngsun; Kim, Younghoon; Pyo, Jung-Soo; Jang, Bo Gun; Hwang, Douk Ho; Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Byung Lan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigated the relationships between HER2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase B (AKT) with respect to metastatic potential of HER2-positive gastric cancer (GC) cells. METHODS Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 423 human GC specimens. Using HER2-positve GC cell lines SNU-216 and NCI-N87, HER2 expression was silenced by RNA interference, and the activations of JNK and AKT were suppressed by SP600125 and LY294002, respectively. Transwell assay, Western blot, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used in cell culture experiments. RESULTS In GC specimens, HER2, JNK, and AKT activations were positively correlated with each other. In vitro analysis revealed a positive regulatory feedback loop between HER2 and JNK in GC cell lines and the role of JNK as a downstream effector of AKT in the HER2/AKT signaling pathway. JNK inhibition suppressed migratory capacity through reversing EMT and dual inhibition of JNK and AKT induced a more profound effect on cancer cell motility. CONCLUSION HER2, JNK and AKT in human GC specimens are positively associated with each other. JNK and AKT, downstream effectors of HER2, co-operatively contribute to the metastatic potential of HER2-positive GC cells. Thus, targeting of these two molecules in combination with HER2 downregulation may be a good approach to combat HER2-positive GC. PMID:27895401

  11. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta; Delogu, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giampiero; Farace, Cristiano; Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Olivero, Martina; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT.

  12. Obesity Increases Vascular Senescence and Susceptibility to Ischemic Injury Through Chronic Activation of Akt and mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Yung; Kim, Hyung-Hwan; Hiroi, Yukio; Sawada, Naoki; Salomone, Salvatore; Benjamin, Laura E.; Walsh, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Liao, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and age are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the signaling mechanism linking obesity with age-related vascular senescence is unknown. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet show increased vascular senescence and vascular dysfunction compared to mice fed standard chow and are more prone to peripheral and cerebral ischemia. All of these changes involve long-term activation of the protein kinase Akt. In contrast, mice with diet-induced obesity that lack Akt1 are resistant to vascular senescence. Rapamycin treatment of diet-induced obese mice or of transgenic mice with long-term activation of endothelial Akt inhibits activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)–rictor complex 2 and Akt, prevents vascular senescence without altering body weight, and reduces the severity of limb necrosis and ischemic stroke. These findings indicate that long-term activation of Akt-mTOR signaling links diet-induced obesity with vascular senescence and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19293429

  13. All Akt Isoforms (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) Are Involved in Normal Hearing, but Only Akt2 and Akt3 Are Involved in Auditory Hair Cell Survival in the Mammalian Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Yves; Levano, Soledad; Radojevic, Vesna; Naldi, Arianne Monge; Setz, Cristian; Ryan, Allen F.; Pak, Kwang; Hemmings, Brian A.; Bodmer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The kinase Akt is a key downstream mediator of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling pathway and participates in a variety of cellular processes. Akt comprises three isoforms each encoded by a separate gene. There is evidence to indicate that Akt is involved in the survival and protection of auditory hair cells in vitro. However, little is known about the physiological role of Akt in the inner ear—especially in the intact animal. To elucidate this issue, we first analyzed the mRNA expression of the three Akt isoforms in the inner ear of C57/BL6 mice by real-time PCR. Next, we tested the susceptibility to gentamicin-induced auditory hair cell loss in isoform-specific Akt knockout mice compared to wild-types (C57/BL6) in vitro. To analyze the effect of gene deletion in vivo, hearing and cochlear microanatomy were evaluated in Akt isoform knockout animals. In this study, we found that all three Akt isoforms are expressed in the cochlea. Our results further indicate that Akt2 and Akt3 enhance hair cell resistance to ototoxicity, while Akt1 does not. Finally, we determined that untreated Akt1 and Akt2/Akt3 double knockout mice display significant hearing loss, indicating a role for these isoforms in normal hearing. Taken together, our results indicate that each of the Akt isoforms plays a distinct role in the mammalian inner ear. PMID:25811375

  14. Acinus integrates AKT1 and subapoptotic caspase activities to regulate basal autophagy.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K; Stenesen, Drew; Krämer, Helmut

    2014-10-27

    How cellular stresses up-regulate autophagy is not fully understood. One potential regulator is the Drosophila melanogaster protein Acinus (Acn), which is necessary for autophagy induction and triggers excess autophagy when overexpressed. We show that cell type-specific regulation of Acn depends on proteolysis by the caspase Dcp-1. Basal Dcp-1 activity in developing photoreceptors is sufficient for this cleavage without a need for apoptosis to elevate caspase activity. On the other hand, Acn was stabilized by loss of Dcp-1 function or by the presence of a mutation in Acn that eliminates its conserved caspase cleavage site. Acn stability also was regulated by AKT1-mediated phosphorylation. Flies that expressed stabilized forms of Acn, either the phosphomimetic Acn(S641,731D) or the caspase-resistant Acn(D527A), exhibited enhanced basal autophagy. Physiologically, these flies showed improvements in processes known to be autophagy dependent, including increased starvation resistance, reduced Huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration, and prolonged life span. These data indicate that AKT1 and caspase-dependent regulation of Acn stability adjusts basal autophagy levels.

  15. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lifen; Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Fei

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  16. Preclinical pharmacology of AZD5363, an inhibitor of AKT: pharmacodynamics, antitumor activity, and correlation of monotherapy activity with genetic background.

    PubMed

    Davies, Barry R; Greenwood, Hannah; Dudley, Phillippa; Crafter, Claire; Yu, De-Hua; Zhang, Jingchuan; Li, Jing; Gao, Beirong; Ji, Qunsheng; Maynard, Juliana; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Cross, Darren; Cosulich, Sabina; Chresta, Christine C; Page, Ken; Yates, James; Lane, Clare; Watson, Rebecca; Luke, Richard; Ogilvie, Donald; Pass, Martin

    2012-04-01

    AKT is a key node in the most frequently deregulated signaling network in human cancer. AZD5363, a novel pyrrolopyrimidine-derived compound, inhibited all AKT isoforms with a potency of 10 nmol/L or less and inhibited phosphorylation of AKT substrates in cells with a potency of approximately 0.3 to 0.8 μmol/L. AZD5363 monotherapy inhibited the proliferation of 41 of 182 solid and hematologic tumor cell lines with a potency of 3 μmol/L or less. Cell lines derived from breast cancers showed the highest frequency of sensitivity. There was a significant relationship between the presence of PIK3CA and/or PTEN mutations and sensitivity to AZD5363 and between RAS mutations and resistance. Oral dosing of AZD5363 to nude mice caused dose- and time-dependent reduction of PRAS40, GSK3β, and S6 phosphorylation in BT474c xenografts (PRAS40 phosphorylation EC(50) ~ 0.1 μmol/L total plasma exposure), reversible increases in blood glucose concentrations, and dose-dependent decreases in 2[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in U87-MG xenografts. Chronic oral dosing of AZD5363 caused dose-dependent growth inhibition of xenografts derived from various tumor types, including HER2(+) breast cancer models that are resistant to trastuzumab. AZD5363 also significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of docetaxel, lapatinib, and trastuzumab in breast cancer xenografts. It is concluded that AZD5363 is a potent inhibitor of AKT with pharmacodynamic activity in vivo, has potential to treat a range of solid and hematologic tumors as monotherapy or a combinatorial agent, and has potential for personalized medicine based on the genetic status of PIK3CA, PTEN, and RAS. AZD5363 is currently in phase I clinical trials.

  17. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway.

  18. Di2-ethylhexyl phthalate disrupts thyroid hormone homeostasis through activating the Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and inducing hepatic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hanfeng; Ha, Mei; Yang, Min; Yue, Ping; Xie, Zhengyuan; Liu, Changjiang

    2017-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widespread environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor, can disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs). In order to elucidate roles of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and hepatic enzymes in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage for 30 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP with NAC, k-Ras siRNA or inhibitors (U0126 and wortmannin). Results showed that DEHP led to histopathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver, such as the decrease in thyroid follicular cavity diameter, hepatocyte edema. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were reduced. DEHP caused ROS production, oxidative stress and k-Ras upregulation, thereby activating the ERK and Akt pathways in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was elevated after the activation of the Akt pathway and was downregulated after the inhibition of the Akt pathway. However, TRHr was not modulated by the ERK pathway. Additionally, hepatic enzymes, including Ugt1a1, CYP2b1, Sult1e1, and Sult2b1, were significantly induced after DEHP exposure. Taken together, DEHP can perturb TH homeostasis and reduce TH levels. The activated Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and induced hepatic enzymes play vital roles in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP. PMID:28065941

  19. Di2-ethylhexyl phthalate disrupts thyroid hormone homeostasis through activating the Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and inducing hepatic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hanfeng; Ha, Mei; Yang, Min; Yue, Ping; Xie, Zhengyuan; Liu, Changjiang

    2017-01-09

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widespread environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor, can disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs). In order to elucidate roles of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and hepatic enzymes in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage for 30 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP with NAC, k-Ras siRNA or inhibitors (U0126 and wortmannin). Results showed that DEHP led to histopathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver, such as the decrease in thyroid follicular cavity diameter, hepatocyte edema. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were reduced. DEHP caused ROS production, oxidative stress and k-Ras upregulation, thereby activating the ERK and Akt pathways in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was elevated after the activation of the Akt pathway and was downregulated after the inhibition of the Akt pathway. However, TRHr was not modulated by the ERK pathway. Additionally, hepatic enzymes, including Ugt1a1, CYP2b1, Sult1e1, and Sult2b1, were significantly induced after DEHP exposure. Taken together, DEHP can perturb TH homeostasis and reduce TH levels. The activated Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and induced hepatic enzymes play vital roles in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP.

  20. Juglanthraquinone C Induces Intracellular ROS Increase and Apoptosis by Activating the Akt/Foxo Signal Pathway in HCC Cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Qin; Yao, Yao; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Yang, Cheng; Gao, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yu, Chun-Lei; Huang, Yan-Xin; Wang, Guan-Nan; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Juglanthraquinone C (JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone extracted from Juglans mandshurica, could induce apoptosis of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the detailed cytotoxicity mechanism of JC in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. The Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays were first used to analyze the mRNA expression exposed to JC or DMSO in HepG2 cells. Consistent with the previous results, the data indicated that JC could induce apoptosis and hyperactivated Akt. The Western blot analysis further revealed that Akt, a well-known survival protein, was strongly activated in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. Furthermore, an obvious inhibitory effect on JC-induced apoptosis was observed when the Akt levels were decreased, while the overexpression of constitutively active mutant Akt greatly accelerated JC-induced apoptosis. The subsequent results suggested that JC treatment suppressed nuclear localization and increased phosphorylated levels of Foxo3a, and the overexpression of Foxo3a abrogated JC-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, the inactivation of Foxo3a induced by JC further led to an increase of intracellular ROS levels by suppressing ROS scavenging enzymes, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and catalase successfully decreased JC-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study demonstrated that JC induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by activating Akt/Foxo signaling pathway and increasing intracellular ROS levels.

  1. Integrin αIIb-Mediated PI3K/Akt Activation in Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Haixia; Chen, Xue; Gruppo, Ralph A.; Li, Ding; Wang, Yanhua; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Kemin; Chai, Weiran; Sun, Yueping; Ding, Zhongren; Gartner, T. Kent; Liu, Junling

    2012-01-01

    Integrin αIIbβ3 mediated bidirectional signaling plays a critical role in thrombosis and haemostasis. Signaling mediated by the β3 subunit has been extensively studied, but αIIb mediated signaling has not been characterized. Previously, we reported that platelet granule secretion and TxA2 production induced by αIIb mediated outside-in signaling is negatively regulated by the β3 cytoplasmic domain residues R724KEFAKFEEER734. In this study, we identified part of the signaling pathway utilized by αIIb mediated outside-in signaling. Platelets from humans and gene deficient mice, and genetically modified CHO cells as well as a variety of kinase inhibitors were used for this work. We found that aggregation of TxA2 production and granule secretion by β3Δ724 human platelets initiated by αIIb mediated outside-in signaling was inhibited by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, respectively, but not by the MAPK inhibitor U0126. Also, PP2 and wortmannin, and the palmitoylated β3 peptide R724KEFAKFEEER734, each inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt residue Ser473 and prevented TxA2 production and storage granule secretion. Similarly, Akt phosphorylation in mouse platelets stimulated by the PAR4 agonist peptide AYPGKF was αIIbβ3-dependent, and blocked by PP2, wortmannin and the palmitoylated peptide p-RKEFAKFEEER. Akt was also phosphorylated in response to mAb D3 plus Fg treatment of CHO cells in suspension expressing αIIbβ3-Δ724 or αIIbβ3E724AERKFERKFE734, but not in cells expressing wild type αIIbβ3. In summary, SFK(s) and PI3K/Akt signaling is utilized by αIIb-mediated outside-in signaling to activate platelets even in the absence of all but 8 membrane proximal residues of the β3 cytoplasmic domain. Our results provide new insight into the signaling pathway used by αIIb-mediated outside-in signaling in platelets. PMID:23082158

  2. Intracellular calcium promotes radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is a major therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer but is restricted by radioresistance. Although Akt signaling promotes radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer, it is not well understood how Akt signaling is activated. Since intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) could activate Akt in A549 cells, we investigated the relationship between intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and Akt signaling in radioresistant A549 cells by establishing radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The radioresistant cell line A549 was generated by dose-gradient irradiation of the parental A549 cells. The cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed using the cell counting kit-8, EdU labeling, and flow cytometry analysis. The phosphorylation of Akt was evaluated by Western blotting, and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was assessed by Fluo 4-AM. The radioresistant A549 cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. After additional irradiation, the radioresistant A549 cells showed decreased cell viability and proliferation but increased apoptosis. Moreover, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation level on the Akt473 site in radioresistant A549 cells were higher than those in original cells, whereas the percentage of apoptosis in radioresistant A549 cells was less. All these results could be reversed by verapamil. In conclusion, our study found that intracellular Ca(2+) could promote radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells through phosphorylating of Akt on the 473 site, which contributes to a better understanding on the non-small cell lung cancer radioresistance, and may provide a new target for radioresistance management.

  3. 2-DEOXY-GLUCOSE DOWN REGULATES ENDOTHELIAL AKT AND ERK VIA INTERFERENCE WITH N-LINKED GLYCOSYLATION, INDUCTION OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AND GSK-3β ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Krisztina; Decatur, Christina; Toro, Marcela; Pham, Dien G.; Liu, Huaping; Jing, Yuqi; Murray, Timothy G.; Lampidis, Theodore J.; Merchan, Jaime R.

    2015-01-01

    Interference with endothelial cell metabolism is a promising, yet unexploited strategy for angiogenesis inhibition. We reported that the glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG) inhibits angiogenesis at significantly lower concentrations than those required for tumor cytotoxicity. Here, we found that hypersensitivity to 2-DG in endothelial cells is not associated with enhanced drug uptake compared to tumor cells, but with time dependent, endothelial selective inhibition of Akt and Erk phosphorylation. Down regulation of these critical survival pathways is shown to be due to 2-DG’s interference with N-linked glycosylation, leading to alterations in VEGFR2 (and downstream signaling) as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, GSK-3β activation and apoptosis. In vivo, periocular administration of 2-DG in LHBETATAG mice was associated with significant reduction of newly formed (CD 105 +) tumor capillaries, ER stress (GRP 78 expression), and endothelial apoptosis (TUNEL). These findings uniquely link N-linked glycosylation inhibition, ER stress and Erk/Akt down regulation in endothelial cells, and provide a novel drug development strategy to overcome resistance mechanisms to currently available antiangiogenic agents. PMID:26637370

  4. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in lipocalin-2-promoted human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoliang; Ma, Ning; Meng, Liukun; Wei, Yingjie; Gui, Jingang

    2015-12-01

    Over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling, a pathway strongly related to cancer survival and proliferation, has been reported recently to be involved in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptosis and proliferation in pulmonary hypertension (PH). In this study, we observed greatly increased lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) expression accompanied with over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling in a standard rat model of PH induced by monocrotaline. In view of the close relationship between Lcn2 and PI3K/Akt pathway, we hypothesized that the up-regulated Lcn2 might be a trigger of over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling in PH. Our results showed that Lcn2 significantly activated the PI3K/Akt pathway (determined by augmented Akt phosphorylation and up-regulated Mdm2) and significantly promoted proliferation (assessed by Ki67 staining) in cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of Akt phosphorylation (LY294002) abrogated the Lcn2-promoted proliferation in cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, Lcn2 significantly promoted human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by activating PI3K/Akt pathway. Further study on the role and mechanism of Lcn2 will help explore novel therapeutic strategies based on attenuating over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling in PH.

  5. Dysfunctional MnSOD leads to redox dysregulation and activation of prosurvival AKT signaling in uterine leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Vidimar, Vania; Gius, David; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar E.; Wei, Jian-Jun; Kim, J. Julie

    2016-01-01

    AKT signaling promotes cell growth and survival and is often dysregulated via multiple mechanisms in different types of cancer, including uterine leiomyomas (ULMs). ULMs are highly prevalent fibrotic tumors that arise from the smooth muscular layer of the uterus, the myometrium (MM). ULMs pose a major public health issue because they can cause severe morbidity and poor pregnancy outcomes. ‬We investigate the mechanisms driving ULM growth and survival via aberrant activation of AKT. We demonstrate that an acetylation-mediated impairment of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity is prevalent in ULM cells compared to the normal-matched MM from the same patients. This impairment increases the levels of superoxide and oxidative stress, which activate AKT via oxidative inactivation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Redox activation of AKT promotes ULM cell survival under conditions of moderate but persistent oxidative stress that are compatible with ULM’s prooxidative microenvironment. Moreover, because of impaired MnSOD activity, ULM cells are sensitive to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide-generating compounds, resulting in decreased ULM cell viability. On the contrary, MM cells with functional MnSOD are more resistant to high levels of oxidants. This study demonstrates a causative role of acetylation-mediated MnSOD dysfunction in activating prosurvival AKT signaling in ULMs. The specific AKT and redox states of ULM cells provide a potential novel therapeutic rationale to selectively target ULM cells because of their defective ROS-scavenging system.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ PMID:27847869

  6. Distinct Pathways Regulate Syk Protein Activation Downstream of Immune Tyrosine Activation Motif (ITAM) and hemITAM Receptors in Platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Dangelmaier, Carol; Eble, Johannes A.; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Kahn, Mark; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase pathways are known to play an important role in the activation of platelets. In particular, the GPVI and CLEC-2 receptors are known to activate Syk upon tyrosine phosphorylation of an immune tyrosine activation motif (ITAM) and hemITAM, respectively. However, unlike GPVI, the CLEC-2 receptor contains only one tyrosine motif in the intracellular domain. The mechanisms by which this receptor activates Syk are not completely understood. In this study, we identified a novel signaling mechanism in CLEC-2-mediated Syk activation. CLEC-2-mediated, but not GPVI-mediated, platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation were abolished by inhibition of PI3K, which demonstrates that PI3K regulates Syk downstream of CLEC-2. Ibrutinib, a Tec family kinase inhibitor, also completely abolished CLEC-2-mediated aggregation and Syk phosphorylation in human and murine platelets. Furthermore, embryos lacking both Btk and Tec exhibited cutaneous edema associated with blood-filled vessels in a typical lymphatic pattern similar to CLEC-2 or Syk-deficient embryos. Thus, our data show, for the first time, that PI3K and Tec family kinases play a crucial role in the regulation of platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation downstream of the CLEC-2 receptor. PMID:25767114

  7. Pyrrolidinium fullerene induces apoptosis by activation of procaspase-9 via suppression of Akt in primary effusion lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ono, Toshiya; Ui, Sadaharu; Yagi, Syota; Kagawa, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hisami; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Mashino, Tadahiko; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Seven fullerenes were evaluated in terms of their cytotoxic effects on B-lymphomas. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene induced apoptosis of KSHV-infected B-lymphoma PEL cells. • The activation of Akt is essential for PEL cell survival. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene activated caspase-9 by inactivating Akt in PEL cells. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene have potential as novel drugs for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma and is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients. In general, PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B-cells and are infected with KSHV. To evaluate potential novel anti-tumor compounds against KSHV-associated PEL, seven water-soluble fullerene derivatives were evaluated as potential drug candidates for the treatment of PEL. Herein, we discovered a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative, 1,1,1′,1′-tetramethyl [60]fullerenodipyrrolidinium diiodide, which induced apoptosis of PEL cells via a novel mechanism, the caspase-9 activation by suppressing the caspase-9 phosphorylation, causing caspase-9 inactivation. Pyrrolidinium fullerene treatment reduced significantly the viability of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected lymphoma cells, and induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-9 via procaspase-9 cleavage. Pyrrolidinium fullerene additionally reduced the Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt and Ser196 of procaspase-9. Ser473-phosphorylated Akt (i.e., activated Akt) phosphorylates Ser196 in procaspase-9, causing inactivation of procaspase-9. We also demonstrated that Akt inhibitors suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected cells. Our data therefore suggest that Akt activation is essential for cell survival in PEL and a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative induced apoptosis by activating caspase-9 via suppression of Akt in PEL cells. In addition, we evaluated

  8. Modification of Caffeic Acid with Pyrrolidine Enhances Antioxidant Ability by Activating AKT/HO-1 Pathway in Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Yang, Kai-Chien; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to an interest in using antioxidant therapy. Activating an endogenous antioxidant signaling pathway is more important due to the fact that the free radical scavenging behavior in vitro does not always correlate with a cytoprotection effect in vivo. Caffeic acid (CA), an antioxidant, is a major phenolic constituent in nature. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a derivative of CA, was compared with CA for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. Our results indicate that CA and PLCA exert the same ability to scavenge DPPH in vitro. In response to myocardial I/R stress, PLCA was shown to attenuate lipid peroxydation and troponin release more than CA. These responses were accompanied with a prominent elevation in AKT and HO-1 expression and a preservation of mnSOD expression and catalase activity. PLCA also improved cell viability and alleviated the intracellular ROS level more than CA in cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2. When inhibiting the AKT or HO-1 pathways, PLCA lost its ability to recover mnSOD expression and catalase activity to counteract with oxidative stress, suggesting AKT/HO-1 pathway activation by PLCA plays an important role. In addition, inhibition of AKT signaling further abolished HO-1 activity, while inhibition of HO-1 signaling attenuated AKT expression, indicating cross-talk between the AKT and HO-1 pathways. These protective effects may contribute to the cardiac function improvement by PLCA. These findings provide new insight into therapeutic approaches using a modified natural compound against oxidative stress from myocardial injuries. PMID:26845693

  9. Dystrophin glycoprotein complex-associated Gbetagamma subunits activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling in skeletal muscle in a laminin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yongmin; Zhou, Yanwen; Jarrett, Harry W

    2009-05-01

    Previously, we showed that laminin-binding to the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) of skeletal muscle causes a heterotrimeric G-protein (Galphabetagamma) to bind, changing the activation state of the Gsalpha subunit. Others have shown that laminin-binding to the DGC also leads to Akt activation. Gbetagamma, released when Gsalpha is activated, is known to bind phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Akt in other cells. Here, we investigate whether muscle Akt activation results from Gbetagamma, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and purified Gbetagamma. In the presence of laminin, PI3K-binding to the DGC increases and Akt becomes phosphorylated and activated (pAkt), and glycogen synthase kinase is phosphorylated. Antibodies, which specifically block laminin-binding to alpha-dystroglycan, prevent PI3K-binding to the DGC. Purified bovine brain Gbetagamma also caused PI3K and Akt activation. These results show that DGC-Gbetagamma is binding PI3K and activating pAkt in a laminin-dependent manner. Mdx mice, which have greatly diminished amounts of DGC proteins, display elevated pAkt signaling and increased expression of integrin beta1 compared to normal muscle. This integrin binds laminin, Gbetagamma, and PI3K. Collectively, these suggest that PI3K is an important target for the Gbetagamma, which normally binds to DGC syntrophin, and activates PI3K/Akt signaling. Disruption of the DGC in mdx mouse is causing dis-regulation of the laminin-DGC-Gbetagamma-PI3K-Akt signaling and is likely to be important to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Upregulating integrin beta1 expression and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in muscular dystrophy may partially compensate for the loss of the DGC. The results suggest new therapeutic approaches to muscle disease.

  10. Suppression of AKT expression by miR-153 produced anti-tumor activity in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Du, Weijie; Wang, Ying; Xu, Chaoqian; Wang, Jinghao; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Huimin; Ju, Jiaming; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Zhiguo; Lu, Yanjie; Cai, Benzhi; Pan, Zhenwei

    2015-03-15

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. microRNAs have been shown to be a novel class of regulators in lung cancer. Here, we explored the role of miR-153 in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and its therapeutic potential. miR-153 was significantly decreased in lung cancer tissues than the adjacent tissues. The protein and mRNA levels of protein kinase B (AKT), which were shown to promote tumor growth, were both increased in lung cancer tissues than adjacent tissues. Overexpression of miR-153 significantly inhibited AKT protein expression, which were abrogated by co-transfection of AMO-153, the specific inhibitor of miR-153. Luciferase assay showed that transfection of miR-153 markedly suppressed the fluorescent intensity of chimeric vectors carrying the 3'UTR of AKT1, while produced no effect on the mutant construct, indicating that AKT is regulated by miR-153. Overexpression of miR-153 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration, and promoted apoptosis of cultured lung cancer cells in vitro, and suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. Interestingly, lung cancer cells with lower endogenous miR-153 expression are more sensitive to ectopic overexpressed miR-153. The IC50 of miR-153 on lung cancer cells is positive correlated with the endogenous miR-153 level, while negative correlated with AKT level. Knockdown of AKT expression suppressed lung cancer cell proliferation. In summary, miR-153 exerted anti-tumor activity in lung cancer by targeting on AKT. The sensitivity of lung cancer cells to miR-153 is determined by its endogenous miR-153 level.

  11. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J.; Aksoylar, H. Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26360589

  12. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, H Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  13. Heregulin-dependent activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt via the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, N J; Kim, M S; Koland, J G

    2001-11-09

    The ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin co-receptor has been shown to couple to phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase in a heregulin-dependent manner. The recruitment and activation of PI 3-kinase by this co-receptor is presumed to occur via its interaction with phosphorylated Tyr-Xaa-Xaa-Met (YXXM) motifs occurring in the ErbB3 C terminus. In this study, mutant ErbB3 receptor proteins expressed in COS7 cells were used to investigate PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathways activated by the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor. We observed that a mutant ErbB3 protein with each of its six YXXM motifs containing a Tyr --> Phe substitution was unable to bind either the p85 regulatory or p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase. However, restoration of a single YXXM motif was sufficient to mediate association with the PI 3-kinase holoenzyme, although at a lower level than wild-type ErbB3. When ErbB3 YXXM motifs were restored in pairs, evidence for cooperativity between two, those incorporating Tyr-1273 and Tyr-1286, was observed. Interestingly, we have shown that an apparent association of PI 3-kinase activity with ErbB2/Neu was due to the residual presence of ErbB3 in ErbB2 immunoprecipitates. The necessity of ErbB3 association with PI 3-kinase for downstream signaling to the effector kinase Akt was also investigated. Here, the heregulin-dependent translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane and its subsequent activation was observed in intact NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Recruitment of PI 3-kinase to ErbB3 was required for both activities, and it appeared that ErbB2 activation alone was not sufficient to activate PI 3-kinase signaling in these cells.

  14. Ischemic post-conditioning facilitates brain recovery after stroke by promoting Akt/mTOR activity in nude rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Wang, Peng; Ji, Xunming; Zhao, Heng

    2013-12-01

    While pre-conditioning is induced before stroke onset, ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC) is performed after reperfusion, which typically refers to a series of mechanical interruption of blood reperfusion after stroke. IPostC is known to reduce infarction in wild-type animals. We investigated if IPostC protects against brain injury induced by focal ischemia in Tcell-deficient nude rats and to examine its effects on Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Although IPostC reduced infarct size at 2 days post-stroke in wild-type rats, it did not attenuate infarction in nude rats. Despite the unaltered infarct size in nude rats, IPostC increased levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and Akt isoforms (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3), and p-mTOR, p-S6K and p-4EBP1 in the mTOR pathway, as well as growth associated Protein 43 (GAP43), both in the peri-infarct area and core, 24 h after stroke. IPostC improved neurological function in nude rats 1-30 days after stroke and reduced the extent of brain damage 30 days after stroke. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abolished the long-term protective effects of IPostC. We determined that IPostC did not inhibit acute infarction in nude rats but did provide long-term protection by enhancing Akt and mTOR activity during the acute post-stroke phase. Post-conditioning did not attenuate infarction in nude rats measured 2 days post-stroke, but improved neurological function in nude rats and reduced brain damage 30 days after stroke. It resulted in increased-activities of Akt and mTOR, S6K and p-4EBP1. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abolished the long-term protective effects of IPostC.

  15. EGFR Activation Leads to Cell Death Independent of PI3K/AKT/mTOR in an AD293 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Popeda, Marta; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena; Grzela, Dawid P.; Walczak, Maciej P.; Banaszczyk, Mateusz; Peciak, Joanna; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Rieske, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and its mutations contribute in various ways to tumorigenesis and biology of human cancers. They are associated with tumor proliferation, progression, drug resistance and the process of apoptosis. There are also reports that overexpression and activation of wild-type EGFR may lead to cell apoptosis. To study this phenomenon, we overexpressed in an AD293 cell line two most frequently observed forms of the EGFR receptor: wild-type and the constitutively active mutant–EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII). Then, we compared the effect of EGF stimulation on cell viability and downstream EGFR signaling. AD293 cells overexpressing wild-type EGFR, despite a significant proliferation increase in serum supplemented medium, underwent apoptosis after EGF stimulation in serum free conditions. EGFRvIII expressing cells, however, were unaffected by either serum starvation or EGF treatment. The effect of EGF was completely neutralized by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), indicating the specificity of this observation. Moreover, apoptosis was not prevented by inhibiting EGFR downstream proteins (PI3K, AKT and mTOR). Here we showed another EGFR function, dependent on environmental factors, which could be employed in therapy and drug design. We also proposed a new tool for EGFR inhibitor analysis. PMID:27153109

  16. EGFR inhibition evokes innate drug resistance in lung cancer cells by preventing Akt activity and thus inactivating Ets-1 function.

    PubMed

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W; Tetsu, Osamu

    2015-07-21

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About 14% of NSCLCs harbor mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite remarkable progress in treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), only 5% of patients achieve tumor reduction >90%. The limited primary responses are attributed partly to drug resistance inherent in the tumor cells before therapy begins. Recent reports showed that activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is an important determinant of this innate drug resistance. In contrast, we demonstrate that EGFR inhibition promotes innate drug resistance despite blockade of RTK activity in NSCLC cells. EGFR TKIs decrease both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt protein kinase pathways for a short time, after which the Ras/MAPK pathway becomes reactivated. Akt inhibition selectively blocks the transcriptional activation of Ets-1, which inhibits its target gene, dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a negative regulator specific for ERK1/2. As a result, ERK1/2 is activated. Furthermore, elevated c-Src stimulates Ras GTP-loading and activates Raf and MEK kinases. These observations suggest that not only ERK1/2 but also Akt activity is essential to maintain Ets-1 in an active state. Therefore, despite high levels of ERK1/2, Ets-1 target genes including DUSP6 and cyclins D1, D3, and E2 remain suppressed by Akt inhibition. Reduction of DUSP6 in combination with elevated c-Src renews activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, which enhances cell survival by accelerating Bim protein turnover. Thus, EGFR TKIs evoke innate drug resistance by preventing Akt activity and inactivating Ets-1 function in NSCLC cells.

  17. A critical role of the small GTPase Rac1 in Akt2-mediated GLUT4 translocation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Izawa, Rumi; Wu, Junyuan; Kitagawa, Kaho; Nihata, Yuma; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Wataru; Aiba, Atsu; Satoh, Takaya

    2014-03-01

    Insulin promotes glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by inducing the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. The serine/threonine kinase Akt2 has been implicated as a key regulator of this insulin action. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates multiple steps of GLUT4 translocation remain incompletely understood. Recently, the small GTPase Rac1 has been identified as a skeletal muscle-specific regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Here, we show that Rac1 is a critical downstream component of the Akt2 pathway in mouse skeletal muscle as well as cultured myocytes. GLUT4 translocation induced by constitutively activated Akt2 was totally dependent on the expression of Rac1 in L6 myocytes. Moreover, we observed the activation of Rac1 when constitutively activated Akt2 was ectopically expressed. Constitutively activated Akt2-triggered Rac1 activation was diminished by knockdown of FLJ00068, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1. Knockdown of Akt2, on the other hand, markedly reduced Rac1 activation by a constitutively activated mutant of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. In mouse skeletal muscle, constitutively activated mutants of Akt2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, when ectopically expressed, induced GLUT4 translocation. Muscle-specific rac1 knockout markedly diminished Akt2- or phosphoinositide 3-kinase-induced GLUT4 translocation, highlighting a crucial role of Rac1 downstream of Akt2. Taken together, these results strongly suggest a novel regulatory link between Akt2 and Rac1 in insulin-dependent signal transduction leading to glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

  18. Oncogenic AKT1(E17K) mutation induces mammary hyperplasia but prevents HER2-driven tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Maria L; Lien, Evan C; Toker, Alex

    2016-04-05

    One of the most frequently deregulated signaling pathways in breast cancer is the PI 3-K/Akt cascade. Genetic lesions are commonly found in PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT, which lead to excessive and constitutive activation of Akt and downstream signaling that results in uncontrolled proliferation and increased cellular survival. One such genetic lesion is the somatic AKT1(E17K) mutation, which has been identified in 4-8% of breast cancer patients. To determine how this mutation contributes to mammary tumorigenesis, we constructed a genetically engineered mouse model that conditionally expresses human AKT1(E17K) in the mammary epithelium. Although AKT1(E17K) is only weakly constitutively active and does not promote proliferation in vitro, it is capable of escaping negative feedback inhibition to exhibit sustained signaling dynamics in vitro. Consistently, both virgin and multiparous AKT1(E17K) mice develop mammary gland hyperplasia that do not progress to carcinoma. This hyperplasia is accompanied by increased estrogen receptor expression, although exposure of the mice to estrogen does not promote tumor development. Moreover, AKT1(E17K) prevents HER2-driven mammary tumor formation, in part through negative feedback inhibition of RTK signaling. Analysis of TCGA breast cancer data revealed that the mRNA expression, total protein levels, and phosphorylation of various RTKs are decreased in human tumors harboring AKT1(E17K).

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid induces cell migration through the selective activation of Akt1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Yun, Sung Ji; Do, Kee Hun; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Mong; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Chi Dae; Kim, Jae Ho; Birnbaum, Morris J.

    2008-01-01

    Akt plays pivotal roles in many physiological responses including growth, proliferation, survival, metabolism, and migration. In the current studies, we have evaluated the isoform-specific role of akt in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration. Ascites from ovarian cancer patients (AOCP) induced mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, ascites from liver cirrhosis patients (ALCP) did not induce MEF cell migration. AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely blocked by pre-treatment of cells with LPA receptor antagonist, Ki16425. Both LPA- and AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely attenuated by PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, cells lacking Akt1 displayed defect in LPA-induced cell migration. Re-expression of Akt1 in DKO (Akt1-/-Akt2-/-) cells restored LPA-induced cell migration, whereas re-expression of Akt2 in DKO cells could not restore the LPA-induced cell migration. Finally, Akt1 was selectively phosphorylated by LPA and AOCP stimulation. These results suggest that LPA is a major factor responsible for AOCP-induced cell migration and signaling specificity of Akt1 may dictate LPA-induced cell migration. PMID:18779657

  20. P2X7 receptors stimulate AKT phosphorylation in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Silva, Maria C; Rodnight, Richard; Lenz, Guido; Liao, Zhongji; Kong, Qiongman; Tran, Minh; Kang, Yuan; Gonzalez, Fernando A; Weisman, Gary A; Neary, Joseph T

    2004-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that nucleotide receptors are widely expressed in the nervous system. Here, we present evidence that P2Y and P2X receptors, particularly the P2X7 subtype, are coupled to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in astrocytes. P2Y and P2X receptor agonists ATP, uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) and 2′,3′-O-(4-benzoyl)-benzoyl ATP (BzATP) stimulated Akt phosphorylation in primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes. BzATP induced Akt phosphorylation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, similar to the effect of BzATP on Akt phosphorylation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells stably transfected with the rat P2X7 receptor. Activation was maximal at 5 – 10 min and was sustained for 60 min; the EC50 for BzATP was approximately 50 μM. In rat cortical astrocytes, the positive effect of BzATP on Akt phosphorylation was independent of glutamate release. The effect of BzATP on Akt phosphorylation in rat cortical astrocytes was significantly reduced by the P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G and the P2X receptor antagonist iso-pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid, but was unaffected by trinitrophenyl-ATP, oxidized ATP, suramin and reactive blue 2. Results with specific inhibitors of signal transduction pathways suggest that extracellular and intracellular calcium, PI3K and a Src family kinase are involved in the BzATP-induced Akt phosphorylation pathway. In conclusion, our data indicate that stimulation of astrocytic P2X7 receptors, as well as other P2 receptors, leads to Akt activation. Thus, signaling by nucleotide receptors in astrocytes may be important in several cellular downstream effects related to the Akt pathway, such as cell cycle and apoptosis regulation, protein synthesis, differentiation and glucose metabolism. PMID:15023862

  1. The anti-inflammatory effect of 3-deoxysappanchalcone is mediated by inducing heme oxygenase-1 via activating the AKT/mTOR pathway in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hyeong; Choo, Young-Yeon; Tae, Nara; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2014-10-01

    3-Deoxysappanchalcone (3-DSC), isolated from Caesalpinia sappan (Leguminosae), is a chalcone that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that 3-DSC exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression at the translational level. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with 3-DSC induced HO-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting HO-1 mRNA expression. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor, did not block 3-DSC-mediated HO-1 induction. However, 3-DSC-mediated HO-1 induction was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Strikingly, 3-DSC increased the phosphorylation level of mTOR downstream target molecules such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that the 3-DSC induces HO-1 expression by activating the AKT/mTOR pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, 3-DSC inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of HO-1 activity by treatment with tin protoporphyrin IX, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, abrogated the inhibitory effects of 3-DSC on the production of NO and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, 3-DSC may be an effective HO-1 inducer at the translational level that has anti-inflammatory effects, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions.

  2. SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival by stabilizing DJ-1 and thus activating Akt

    SciTech Connect

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar Pandey, Shweta; Goswami, Shyamal K.

    2015-08-07

    SG2NA in association with striatin and zinedin forms a striatin family of WD-40 repeat proteins. This family of proteins functions as scaffold in different signal transduction pathways. They also act as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We have shown that SG2NA which evolved first in the metazoan evolution among the striatin family members expresses different isoforms generated out of alternative splicing. We have also shown that SG2NA protects cells from oxidative stress by recruiting DJ-1 and Akt to mitochondria and membrane in the post-mitotic neuronal cells. DJ-1 is both cancer and Parkinson's disease related protein. In the present study we have shown that SG2NA protects DJ-1 from proteasomal degradation in cancer cells. Hence, downregulation of SG2NA reduces DJ-1/Akt colocalization in cancer cells resulting in the reduction of anchorage dependent and independent growth. Thus SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival. Reactive oxygen species enhances SG2NA, DJ-1 and Akt trimerization. Removal of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine thus reduces cancer cell growth. - Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play potential role in cancer cell proliferation. • It enhances the association between DJ-1 and Akt mediated by SG2NA. • In cancer cells SG2NA stabilizes DJ-1 by inhibiting it from proteosomal degradation. • DJ-1 then activates Akt and cancer cells get their property of enhanced proliferation by sustained activation of Akt. • Further study on this field could lead to new target for cancer therapy.

  3. Aspirin enhances the cytotoxic activity of bortezomib against myeloma cells via suppression of Bcl-2, survivin and phosphorylation of AKT

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jiang-Hua; Yuan, Li-Ya; Chen, Guo-An

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, it was found that aspirin (ASA) exerted antimyeloma actions in vivo and in vitro. The resistance to bortezomib (BTZ) in multiple myeloma (MM) is partly due to AKT activation and the upregulation of survivin induced by BTZ, which are the targets of ASA in gastric and ovarian cancer, respectively. Thus, the present study investigated the interaction between ASA and BTZ in MM and further clarified the underlying mechanisms. MM1.S and RPMI-8226 cell lines harboring the N- and K-Ras mutations, respectively, were treated with 2.5 mM ASA, 10 nM BTZ and ASA+BTZ for different durations. The proliferation and apoptosis of the cells were determined, and the underlying mechanisms governing the interaction of ASA and BTZ were examined in the MM cells. Treatment with ASA+BTZ caused higher rates of proliferative inhibition and apoptosis in the MM1.S and RPMI-8226 cells in time-dependent manner, compared with either agent alone. A drug interaction assay revealed the additive effect of ASA and BTZ on the myeloma cells. ASA alone inhibited the levels of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and survivin, whereas BTZ alone augmented the levels of p-AKT and survivin. Of note, ASA markedly decreased the upregulation of p-AKT and survivin induced by BTZ. Treatment with ASA+BTZ significantly suppressed the level of Bcl-2, compared with either agent alone. ASA may potentiate the antimyeloma activity of BTZ against myeloma cells via suppression of AKT phosphorylation, survivin and Bcl-2, indicating the potential of ASA+BTZ in treating MM, particularly for cases of BTZ-refractory/relapsed MM. PMID:28356941

  4. PI3K/Akt responses to oxytocin stimulation in Caco2BB gut cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, Benjamin Y; Tamir, Hadassah; Welch, Martha G

    2011-11-01

    Recently, we discovered oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression in the developing gut villus epithelium that emerges in villus-crypt junctions after weaning. Oxytocin (OT) and OTR regulate many physiological functions in various tissues; however, their function in gut epithelium is unknown. We explored responses of PI3K and Akt phosphoisoforms to OT stimuli in the Caco2BB human gut cell line. In Caco2BB cells, PI3K and pAkt levels peaked at 62.5  nM OT. At higher concentrations, PI3K decreased more gradually than pAkt(S473) suggesting that the pAkt(S473) response is separate from PI3K. At ≤7.8  nM OT, pAkt(T308) increased while pAkt(S473) decreased. Using a specific OTR antagonist, we demonstrated that responses of pAkt(T308) to OT depend on OTR in contrast to the partial OTR-dependence of the pAkt(S473) response. Differential pAkt phosphoisoform responses included pAkt phosphoserine 473 persistently free of phosphothreonine 308. The reduction in PI3K after 62.5  nM OT for 30  min coincided with OTR internalization. The PI3K/Akt activation profile was somewhat different in other cell lines (MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HT29 gut cells), which have PI3K activating mutations, that were examined to establish experimental parameters. In Caco2BB cells, the divergent effects of OT upon pAkt phosphoisoforms suggests separate sub-pathways; pAkt (T308) activation depends on OTR via the PI3K pathway and pAkt(S473) presumably results from its specific kinase mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2). Thus, OT may modulate gut cell functions downstream of mTOR complexes (e.g., translation control as suggested by others in uterine cells). We will next explore OT-stimulated kinase activities downstream of mTOR related to pAkt phosphoisoforms.

  5. Selumetinib Attenuates Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Murine Cachexia Model through ERK Inhibition and AKT Activation.

    PubMed

    Quan-Jun, Yang; Yan, Huo; Yong-Long, Han; Li-Li, Wan; Jie, Li; Jin-Lu, Huang; Jin, Lu; Peng-Guo, Chen; Run, Gan; Cheng, Guo

    2017-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome affecting the skeletal muscle. Previous clinical trials showed that treatment with MEK inhibitor selumetinib resulted in skeletal muscle anabolism. However, it is conflicting that MAPK/ERK pathway controls the mass of the skeletal muscle. The current study investigated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of selumetinib in amelioration of cancer cachexia. The classical cancer cachexia model was established via transplantation of CT26 colon adenocarcinoma cells into BALB/c mice. The effect of selumetinib on body weight, tumor growth, skeletal muscle, food intake, serum proinflammatory cytokines, E3 ligases, and MEK/ERK-related pathways was analyzed. Two independent experiments showed that 30 mg/kg/d selumetinib prevented the loss of body weight in murine cachexia mice. Muscle wasting was attenuated and the expression of E3 ligases, MuRF1 and Fbx32, was inhibited following selumetinib treatment of the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, selumetinib efficiently reduced tumor burden without influencing the cancer cell proliferation, cumulative food intake, and serum cytokines. These results indicated that the role of selumetinib in attenuating muscle wasting was independent of cancer burden. Detailed analysis of the mechanism revealed AKT and mTOR were activated, while ERK, FoxO3a, and GSK3β were inhibited in the selumetinib -treated cachexia group. These indicated that selumetinib effectively prevented skeletal muscle wasting in cancer cachexia model through ERK inhibition and AKT activation in gastrocnemius muscle via cross-inhibition. The study not only elucidated the mechanism of MEK/ERK inhibition in skeletal muscle anabolism, but also validated selumetinib therapy as an effective intervention against cancer cachexia. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(2); 334-43. ©2016 AACR.

  6. FAM83B-mediated activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling cooperates to promote epithelial cell transformation and resistance to targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Rocky; Miskimen, Kristy L.S.; Bryson, Benjamin L.; Foy, Chase R.; Bartel, Courtney A.; Jackson, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Therapies targeting MAPK and AKT/mTOR signaling are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for several tumor types. However, recent studies suggest that these therapies may be limited due to acquired cancer cell resistance and a small therapeutic index between normal and cancer cells. The identification of novel proteins that are involved in MAPK or AKT/mTOR signaling and differentially expressed between normal and cancer cells will provide mechanistically distinct therapeutic targets with the potential to inhibit these key cancer-associated pathways. We recently identified FAM83B as a novel, previously uncharacterized oncogene capable of hyperactivating MAPK and mTOR signaling and driving the tumorigenicity of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). We show here that elevated FAM83B expression also activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and confers a decreased sensitivity to PI3K, AKT, and mTOR inhibitors. FAM83B co-precipitated with the p85α and p110α subunits of PI3K, as well as AKT, and increased p110α and AKT membrane localization, consistent with elevated PI3K/AKT signaling. In tumor-derived cells harboring elevated FAM83B expression, ablation of FAM83B decreased p110α and AKT membrane localization, suppressed AKT phosphorylation, and diminished proliferation, AIG, and tumorigenicity in vivo. We propose that the level of FAM83B expression may be an important factor to consider when combined therapies targeting MAPK and AKT/mTOR signaling are used. Moreover, the identification of FAM83B as a novel oncogene and its integral involvement in activating PI3K/AKT and MAPK provides a foundation for future therapies aimed at targeting FAM83B in order to suppress the growth of PI3K/AKT- and MAPK-driven cancers. PMID:23676467

  7. Inhibition of constitutively activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway enhances antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1-defective breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin; Kim, Hee Jeong; Hwang, Jae Seok; Wang, Antai; Bae, Insoo

    2013-09-01

    Loss or decrease of wild type BRCA1 function, by either mutation or reduced expression, has a role in hereditary and sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers. We report here that the PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in BRCA1-defective human breast cancer cells. Levels of phospho-AKT are sustained even after serum starvation in breast cancer cells carrying deleterious BRCA1 mutations. Knockdown of BRCA1 in MCF7 cells increases the amount of phospho-AKT and sensitizes cells to small molecule protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway. Restoration of wild type BRCA1 inhibits the activated PI3K/AKT pathway and de-sensitizes cells to PKIs targeting this pathway in BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells, regardless of PTEN mutations. In addition, clinical PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, PI-103, and BEZ235, showed anti-proliferative effects on BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cell lines and synergism in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin, doxorubicin, topotecan, and gemcitabine. BEZ235 synergizes with the anti-proliferative effects of gemcitabine by enhancing caspase-3/7 activity. Our results suggest that the PI3K/AKT pathway can be an important signaling pathway for the survival of BRCA1-defective breast cancer cells and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway is a plausible treatment for a subset of breast cancers.

  8. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  9. Galectin-3 protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis by enhancing AKT activation and suppressing ERK activation

    PubMed Central

    Saegusa, Jun; Hsu, Daniel K.; Liu, Wei; Kuwabara, Ichiro; Kuwabara, Yasuko; Yu, Lan; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2009-01-01

    Keratinocytes undergo apoptosis in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Galectin-3 is a member of a family of β-galactoside-binding animal lectins expressed abundantly in keratinocytes and other epithelial cells. Here we have studied the regulatory role of galectin-3 in keratinocyte apoptosis by using cells from gene-targeted galectin-3 null (gal3−/−) mice. We showed that galectin-3 mRNA was transiently upregulated in ultraviolet-B (UVB)-irradiated wild-type keratinocytes. We found that gal3−/− keratinocytes were significantly more sensitive to apoptosis induced by UVB as well as various other stimuli, both in vitro and in vivo, than wild-type cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that increased apoptosis in gal3−/− keratinocytes was attributable to higher extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and lower AKT activation after UVB irradiation. We conclude that endogenous galectin-3 is an anti-apoptotic molecule in keratinocytes functioning by suppressing ERK activation and enhancing AKT activation and may play a role in the development of apoptosis-related skin diseases. PMID:18463681

  10. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-08-29

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development.

  11. K-RAS(V12) Induces Autocrine Production of EGFR Ligands and Mediates Radioresistance Through EGFR-Dependent Akt Signaling and Activation of DNA-PKcs

    SciTech Connect

    Minjgee, Minjmaa; Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Giehl, Klaudia; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: It is known that postirradiation survival of tumor cells presenting mutated K-RAS is mediated through autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study the molecular mechanism of radioresistance of cells overexpressing mutated K-RAS(V12) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) presenting wild-type K-RAS were transfected with empty vector or vector expressing mutated K-RAS(V12). The effect of K-RAS(V12) on autocrine production of EGFR ligands, activation of EGFR downstream pathways, DNA damage repair, and postirradiation survival was analyzed. Results: Conditioned medium collected from K-RAS(V12)-transfected cells enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway and increased postirradiation survival of wild-type K-RAS parental cells when compared with controls. These effects were reversed by amphiregulin (AREG)-neutralizing antibody. In addition, secretion of the EGFR ligands AREG and transforming growth factor {alpha} was significantly increased upon overexpression of K-RAS(V12). Expression of mutated K-RAS(V12) resulted in an increase in radiation-induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation at S2056. This increase was accompanied by increased repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Abrogation of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation by serum depletion or AREG-neutralizing antibody underscored the role of autocrine production of EGFR ligands, namely, AREG, in regulating DNA-PKcs activation in K-RAS mutated cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that radioresistance of K-RAS mutated tumor cells is at least in part due to constitutive production of EGFR ligands, which mediate enhanced repair of DNA double-strand breaks through the EGFR-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt cascade.

  12. A Gammaherpesvirus Complement Regulatory Protein Promotes Initiation of Infection by Activation of Protein Kinase Akt/PKB

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Beatrix; Adler, Barbara; Jonjic, Stipan; Stewart, James P.; Adler, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Background Viruses have evolved to evade the host's complement system. The open reading frames 4 (ORF4) of gammaherpesviruses encode homologs of regulators of complement activation (RCA) proteins, which inhibit complement activation at the level of C3 and C4 deposition. Besides complement regulation, these proteins are involved in heparan sulfate and glycosaminoglycan binding, and in case of MHV-68, also in viral DNA synthesis in macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we made use of MHV-68 to study the role of ORF4 during infection of fibroblasts. While attachment and penetration of virions lacking the RCA protein were not affected, we observed a delayed delivery of the viral genome to the nucleus of infected cells. Analysis of the phosphorylation status of a variety of kinases revealed a significant reduction in phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt in cells infected with ORF4 mutant virus, when compared to cells infected with wt virus. Consistent with a role of Akt activation in initial stages of infection, inhibition of Akt signaling in wt virus infected cells resulted in a phenotype resembling the phenotype of the ORF4 mutant virus, and activation of Akt by addition of insulin partially reversed the phenotype of the ORF4 mutant virus. Importantly, the homologous ORF4 of KSHV was able to rescue the phenotype of the MHV-68 ORF4 mutant, indicating that ORF4 is functionally conserved and that ORF4 of KSHV might have a similar function in infection initiation. Conclusions/Significance In summary, our studies demonstrate that ORF4 contributes to efficient infection by activation of the protein kinase Akt and thus reveal a novel function of a gammaherpesvirus RCA protein. PMID:20657771

  13. A mathematical model of phosphorylation AKT in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi, Y. A.; Kusumo, F. A.; Aryati, L.; Hardianti, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model of PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in phosphorylation AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway is an important mediator of cytokine signaling implicated in regulation of hematopoiesis. Constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway has been observed in Acute Meyloid Leukemia (AML) it caused by the mutation of Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 in internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), the most common molecular abnormality associated with AML. Depending upon its phosphorylation status, protein interaction, substrate availability, and localization, AKT can phosphorylate or inhibite numerous substrates in its downstream pathways that promote protein synthesis, survival, proliferation, and metabolism. Firstly, we present a mass action ordinary differential equation model describing AKT double phosphorylation (AKTpp) in a system with 11 equations. Finally, under the asumtion enzyme catalyst constant and steady state equilibrium, we reduce the system in 4 equation included Michaelis Menten constant. Simulation result suggested that a high concentration of PI3K and/or a low concentration of phospatase increased AKTpp activation. This result also indicates that PI3K is a potential target theraphy in AML.

  14. Promotion of ovarian follicle growth following mTOR activation: synergistic effects of AKT stimulators.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Kim, Jaehong; Li, Xiao Xiao; Hsueh, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase and mTOR signaling is important in regulating cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies using oocyte- and granulosa cell-specific deletion of mTOR inhibitor genes TSC1 or TSC2 demonstrated the important role of mTOR signaling in the promotion of ovarian follicle development. We now report that treatment of ovaries from juvenile mice with an mTOR activator MHY1485 stimulated mTOR, S6K1 and rpS6 phosphorylation. Culturing ovaries for 4 days with MHY1485 increased ovarian explant weights and follicle development. In vivo studies further demonstrated that pre-incubation of these ovaries with MHY1485 for 2 days, followed by allo-grafting into kidney capsules of adult ovariectomized hosts for 5 days, led to marked increases in graft weights and promotion of follicle development. Mature oocytes derived from MHY1485-activated ovarian grafts could be successfully fertilized, leading the delivery of healthy pups. We further treated ovaries with the mTOR activator together with AKT activators (PTEN inhibitor and phosphoinositol-3-kinase stimulator) before grafting and found additive enhancement of follicle growth. Our studies demonstrate the ability of an mTOR activator in promoting follicle growth, leading to a potential strategy to stimulate preantral follicle growth in infertile patients.

  15. Promotion of Ovarian Follicle Growth following mTOR Activation: Synergistic Effects of AKT Stimulators

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Kim, Jaehong; Li, Xiao Xiao; Hsueh, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase and mTOR signaling is important in regulating cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies using oocyte- and granulosa cell-specific deletion of mTOR inhibitor genes TSC1 or TSC2 demonstrated the important role of mTOR signaling in the promotion of ovarian follicle development. We now report that treatment of ovaries from juvenile mice with an mTOR activator MHY1485 stimulated mTOR, S6K1 and rpS6 phosphorylation. Culturing ovaries for 4 days with MHY1485 increased ovarian explant weights and follicle development. In vivo studies further demonstrated that pre-incubation of these ovaries with MHY1485 for 2 days, followed by allo-grafting into kidney capsules of adult ovariectomized hosts for 5 days, led to marked increases in graft weights and promotion of follicle development. Mature oocytes derived from MHY1485-activated ovarian grafts could be successfully fertilized, leading the delivery of healthy pups. We further treated ovaries with the mTOR activator together with AKT activators (PTEN inhibitor and phosphoinositol-3-kinase stimulator) before grafting and found additive enhancement of follicle growth. Our studies demonstrate the ability of an mTOR activator in promoting follicle growth, leading to a potential strategy to stimulate preantral follicle growth in infertile patients. PMID:25710488

  16. Pleckstrin Homology Domain of Akt Kinase: A Proof of Principle for Highly Specific and Effective Non-Enzymatic Anti-Cancer Target

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Eun-Ha; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A.; Kim, Baek; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    While pharmacological inhibition of Akt kinase has been regarded as a promising anti-cancer strategy, most of the Akt inhibitors that have been developed are enzymatic inhibitors that target the kinase active site of Akt. Another key cellular regulatory event for Akt activation is the translocation of Akt kinase to the cell membrane from the cytoplasm, which is accomplished through the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Akt. However, compounds specifically interacting with the PH domain of Akt to inhibit Akt activation are currently limited. Here we identified a compound, lancemaside A (LAN-A), which specifically binds to the PH domain of Akt kinase. First, our mass spectra analysis of cellular Akt kinase isolated from cells treated with LAN-A revealed that LAN-A specifically binds to the PH domain of cellular Akt kinase. Second, we observed that LAN-A inhibits the translocation of Akt kinase to the membrane and thus Akt activation, as examined by the phosphorylation of various downstream targets of Akt such as GSK3β, mTOR and BAD. Third, in a co-cultured cell model containing human lung epithelial cancer cells (A549) and normal human primary lung fibroblasts, LAN-A specifically restricts the growth of the A549 cells. LAN-A also displayed anti-proliferative effects on various human cancer cell lines. Finally, in the A549-luciferase mouse transplant model, LAN-A effectively inhibited A549 cell growth with little evident cytotoxicity. Indeed, the therapeutic index of LAN-A in this mouse model was >250, supporting that LAN-A is a potential lead compound for PH domain targeting as a safe anti-cancer Akt inhibitor. PMID:23189201

  17. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt.

  18. TRIB2 confers resistance to anti-cancer therapy by activating the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Richard; Madureira, Patricia A.; Ferreira, Bibiana; Baptista, Inês; Machado, Susana; Colaço, Laura; dos Santos, Marta; Liu, Ningshu; Dopazo, Ana; Ugurel, Selma; Adrienn, Angyal; Kiss-Toth, Endre; Isbilen, Murat; Gure, Ali O.; Link, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic and acquired resistance to chemotherapy is the fundamental reason for treatment failure for many cancer patients. The identification of molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance or sensitization is imperative. Here we report that tribbles homologue 2 (TRIB2) ablates forkhead box O activation and disrupts the p53/MDM2 regulatory axis, conferring resistance to various chemotherapeutics. TRIB2 suppression is exerted via direct interaction with AKT a key signalling protein in cell proliferation, survival and metabolism pathways. Ectopic or intrinsic high expression of TRIB2 induces drug resistance by promoting phospho-AKT (at Ser473) via its COP1 domain. TRIB2 expression is significantly increased in tumour tissues from patients correlating with an increased phosphorylation of AKT, FOXO3a, MDM2 and an impaired therapeutic response. This culminates in an extremely poor clinical outcome. Our study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism underlying drug resistance and suggests that TRIB2 functions as a regulatory component of the PI3K network, activating AKT in cancer cells. PMID:28276427

  19. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes.

  20. mTORC1-independent TFEB activation via Akt inhibition promotes cellular clearance in neurodegenerative storage diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Michela; Pal, Rituraj; Nelvagal, Hemanth R.; Lotfi, Parisa; Stinnett, Gary R.; Seymour, Michelle L.; Chaudhury, Arindam; Bajaj, Lakshya; Bondar, Vitaliy V.; Bremner, Laura; Saleem, Usama; Tse, Dennis Y.; Sanagasetti, Deepthi; Wu, Samuel M.; Neilson, Joel R.; Pereira, Fred A.; Pautler, Robia G.; Rodney, George G.; Cooper, Jonathan D.; Sardiello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by aberrant accumulation of undigested cellular components represent unmet medical conditions for which the identification of actionable targets is urgently needed. Here we identify a pharmacologically actionable pathway that controls cellular clearance via Akt modulation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal pathways. We show that Akt phosphorylates TFEB at Ser467 and represses TFEB nuclear translocation independently of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a known TFEB inhibitor. The autophagy enhancer trehalose activates TFEB by diminishing Akt activity. Administration of trehalose to a mouse model of Batten disease, a prototypical neurodegenerative disease presenting with intralysosomal storage, enhances clearance of proteolipid aggregates, reduces neuropathology and prolongs survival of diseased mice. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt promotes cellular clearance in cells from patients with a variety of lysosomal diseases, thus suggesting broad applicability of this approach. These findings open new perspectives for the clinical translation of TFEB-mediated enhancement of cellular clearance in neurodegenerative storage diseases. PMID:28165011

  1. Erbin loss promotes cancer cell proliferation through feedback activation of Akt-Skp2-p27 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Song, Yuhua; Wu, Yan; Guo, Ning; Ma, Yuanfang; Qian, Lu

    2015-07-31

    Erbin localizes at the basolateral membrane to regulate cell junctions and polarity in epithelial cells. Dysregulation of Erbin has been implicated in tumorigenesis, and yet it is still unclear if and how disrupted Erbin regulates the biological behavior of cancer cells. We report here that depletion of Erbin leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Erbin deficiency accelerates S-phase entry by down-regulating CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 via two independent mechanisms. Mechanistically, Erbin loss promotes p27 degradation by enhancing E3 ligase Skp2 activity though augmenting Akt signaling. Interestingly, we also show that Erbin is an unstable protein when the Akt-Skp2 signaling is aberrantly activated, which can be specifically destructed by SCF-Skp2 ligase. Erbin loss facilitates cell proliferation and migration in Skp2-dependent manner. Thus, our finding illustrates a novel negative feedback loop between Erbin and Akt-Skp2 signaling. It suggests disrupted Erbin links polarity loss, hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • Erbin loss leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Erbin loss accelerates cell cycle though down-regulating p21 and p27 expression. • Erbin is a novel negative modulator of Akt1-Skp2-p27 signaling pathway. • Our study suggests that Erbin loss contributes to Skp2 oncogenic function.

  2. Hyperforin Inhibits Akt1 Kinase Activity and Promotes Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis Involving Bad and Noxa Activation in Human Myeloid Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Faten; Tang, Ruoping; Piedfer, Marion; Mathieu, Julie; Bombarda, Isabelle; Zaher, Murhaf; Kolb, Jean-Pierre; Billard, Christian; Bauvois, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background The natural phloroglucinol hyperforin HF displays anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral properties of potential pharmacological interest. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells abnormally proliferate and escape apoptosis. Herein, the effects and mechanisms of purified HF on AML cell dysfunction were investigated in AML cell lines defining distinct AML subfamilies and primary AML cells cultured ex vivo. Methodology and Results HF inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner the growth of AML cell lines (U937, OCI-AML3, NB4, HL-60) by inducing apoptosis as evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 population, phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation. HF also induced apoptosis in primary AML blasts, whereas normal blood cells were not affected. The apoptotic process in U937 cells was accompanied by downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Noxa, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of procaspases and cleavage of the caspase substrate PARP-1. The general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and the caspase-9- and -3-specific inhibitors, but not caspase-8 inhibitor, significantly attenuated apoptosis. HF-mediated apoptosis was associated with dephosphorylation of active Akt1 (at Ser473) and Akt1 substrate Bad (at Ser136) which activates Bad pro-apoptotic function. HF supppressed the kinase activity of Akt1, and combined treatment with the allosteric Akt1 inhibitor Akt-I-VIII significantly enhanced apoptosis of U937 cells. Significance Our data provide new evidence that HF's pro-apoptotic effect in AML cells involved inhibition of Akt1 signaling, mitochondria and Bcl-2 members dysfunctions, and activation of procaspases -9/-3. Combined interruption of mitochondrial and Akt1 pathways by HF may have implications for AML treatment. PMID:21998731

  3. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  4. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing of Akt Isoforms Identifies Highly Dynamic Phosphorylation in Neuronal Cells and Brain Tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Schrötter, Sandra; Leondaritis, George; Eickholt, Britta J.

    2016-01-01

    The PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway has been established as a core signaling pathway that is crucial for the integration of neurons into neuronal circuits and the maintenance of the architecture and function of neurons in the adult brain. Akt1–3 kinases are specifically activated by two phosphorylation events on residues Thr308 and Ser473 upon growth factor signaling, which subsequently phosphorylate a vast cohort of downstream targets. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the complexity and regulation of isoform specificity within the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway. We utilized a capillary-based isoelectric focusing method to study dynamics of Akt phosphorylation in neuronal cells and the developing brain and identify previously undescribed features of Akt phosphorylation and activation. First, we show that the accumulation of multiple phosphorylation events on Akt forms occur concurrently with Ser473 and Thr308 phosphorylation upon acute PI3K activation and provide evidence for uncoupling of Ser473 and Thr308 phosphorylation, as well as differential sensitivities of Akt1 forms upon PI3K inhibition. Second, we detect a transient shift in Akt isoform phosphorylation and activation pattern during early postnatal brain development, at stages corresponding to synapse development and maturation. Third, we show differential sensitivities of Ser473-Akt species to PTEN deletion in mature neurons, which suggests inherent differences in the Akt pools that are accessible to growth factors as compared with the pools that are controlled by PTEN. Our study demonstrates the presence of complex phosphorylation events of Akt in a time- and signal-dependent manner in neurons. PMID:26945062

  5. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing of Akt Isoforms Identifies Highly Dynamic Phosphorylation in Neuronal Cells and Brain Tissue.

    PubMed

    Schrötter, Sandra; Leondaritis, George; Eickholt, Britta J

    2016-05-06

    The PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway has been established as a core signaling pathway that is crucial for the integration of neurons into neuronal circuits and the maintenance of the architecture and function of neurons in the adult brain. Akt1-3 kinases are specifically activated by two phosphorylation events on residues Thr(308) and Ser(473) upon growth factor signaling, which subsequently phosphorylate a vast cohort of downstream targets. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the complexity and regulation of isoform specificity within the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway. We utilized a capillary-based isoelectric focusing method to study dynamics of Akt phosphorylation in neuronal cells and the developing brain and identify previously undescribed features of Akt phosphorylation and activation. First, we show that the accumulation of multiple phosphorylation events on Akt forms occur concurrently with Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation upon acute PI3K activation and provide evidence for uncoupling of Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation, as well as differential sensitivities of Akt1 forms upon PI3K inhibition. Second, we detect a transient shift in Akt isoform phosphorylation and activation pattern during early postnatal brain development, at stages corresponding to synapse development and maturation. Third, we show differential sensitivities of Ser(473)-Akt species to PTEN deletion in mature neurons, which suggests inherent differences in the Akt pools that are accessible to growth factors as compared with the pools that are controlled by PTEN. Our study demonstrates the presence of complex phosphorylation events of Akt in a time- and signal-dependent manner in neurons.

  6. A Low-Level Carbon Dioxide Laser Promotes Fibroblast Proliferation and Migration through Activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK

    PubMed Central

    Shingyochi, Yoshiaki; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Rica; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Tobita, Morikuni

    2017-01-01

    Background Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with various types of lasers promotes fibroblast proliferation and migration during the process of wound healing. Although LLLT with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was also reported to promote wound healing, the underlying mechanisms at the cellular level have not been previously described. Herein, we investigated the effect of LLLT with a CO2 laser on fibroblast proliferation and migration. Materials and Methods Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were prepared. MTS and cell migration assays were performed with fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser at various doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0 J/cm2) to observe the effects of LLLT with a CO2 laser on the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. The non-irradiated group served as the control. Moreover, western blot analysis was performed using fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser to analyze changes in the activities of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are signaling molecules associated with cell proliferation and migration. Finally, the MTS assay, a cell migration assay, and western blot analysis were performed using fibroblasts treated with inhibitors of Akt, ERK, or JNK before LLLT with a CO2 laser. Results In MTS and cell migration assays, fibroblast proliferation and migration were promoted after LLLT with a CO2 laser at 1.0 J/cm2. Western blot analysis revealed that Akt, ERK, and JNK activities were promoted in fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser at 1.0 J/cm2. Moreover, inhibition of Akt, ERK, or JNK significantly blocked fibroblast proliferation and migration. Conclusions These findings suggested that LLLT with a CO2 laser would accelerate wound healing by promoting the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. Activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK was essential for CO2 laser-induced proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. PMID:28045948

  7. Luteolin enhances cholinergic activities in PC12 cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Ben Abdrabbah, Manef; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-02-09

    Luteolin, a 3', 4', 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone, is an active compound in Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiacea), and has been reported to exert several benefits in neuronal cells. However cholinergic-induced activities of luteolin still remain unknown. Neuronal differentiation encompasses an elaborate developmental program which plays a key role in the development of the nervous system. The advent of several cell lines, like PC12 cells, able to differentiate in culture proved to be the turning point for gaining and understanding of molecular neuroscience. In this work, we investigated the ability of luteolin to induce PC12 cell differentiation and its effect on cholinergic activities. Our findings showed that luteolin treatment significantly induced neurite outgrowth extension, enhanced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, known as neuronal differentiation marker, and increased the level of total choline and acetylcholine in PC12 cells. In addition, luteolin persistently, activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt; while the addition of pharmacological MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and PI3k/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated luteolin-induced AChE activity and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The above findings suggest that luteolin induces neurite outgrowth and enhanced cholinergic activities, at least in part, through the activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling.

  8. A Switch in Akt Isoforms Is Required for Notch-Induced Snail1 Expression and Protection from Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Alex; Lambies, Guillem; Viñas-Castells, Rosa; Martínez-Guillamon, Catalina; Dave, Natàlia

    2015-01-01

    Notch activation in aortic endothelial cells (ECs) takes place at embryonic stages during cardiac valve formation and induces endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Using aortic ECs, we show here that active Notch expression promotes EndMT, resulting in downregulation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and upregulation of mesenchymal genes such as those for fibronectin and Snail1/2. In these cells, transforming growth factor β1 exacerbates Notch effects by increasing Snail1 and fibronectin activation. When Notch-downstream pathways were analyzed, we detected an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation and inactivation that facilitates Snail1 nuclear retention and protein stabilization. However, the total activity of Akt was downregulated. The discrepancy between Akt activity and GSK-3β phosphorylation is explained by a Notch-induced switch in the Akt isoforms, whereby Akt1, the predominant isoform expressed in ECs, is decreased and Akt2 transcription is upregulated. Mechanistically, Akt2 induction requires the stimulation of the β-catenin/TCF4 transcriptional complex, which activates the Akt2 promoter. Active, phosphorylated Akt2 translocates to the nucleus in Notch-expressing cells, resulting in GSK-3β inactivation in this compartment. Akt2, but not Akt1, colocalizes in the nucleus with lamin B in the nuclear envelope. In addition to promoting GSK-3β inactivation, Notch downregulates Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), another Akt2 nuclear substrate. Moreover, Notch protects ECs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through an Akt2- and Snail1-dependent mechanism. PMID:26711268

  9. Galectin-1 induces hepatocellular carcinoma EMT and sorafenib resistance by activating FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, P-F; Li, K-S; Shen, Y-h; Gao, P-T; Dong, Z-R; Cai, J-B; Zhang, C; Huang, X-Y; Tian, M-X; Hu, Z-Q; Gao, D-M; Fan, J; Ke, A-W; Shi, G-M

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is involved in several pathological activities associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance, however, the role and molecular mechanism of Gal-1 activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and sorafenib resistance remain enigmatic. In the present study, forced Gal-1 expression promoted HCC progression and sorafenib resistance. Gal-1 elevated αvβ3-integrin expression, leading to AKT activation. Moreover, Gal-1 overexpression induced HCC cell EMT via PI3K/AKT cascade activation. Clinically, our data revealed that Gal-1 overexpression is correlated with poor HCC survival outcomes and sorafenib response. These data suggest that Gal-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC and a biomarker for predicting response to sorafenib treatment. PMID:27100895

  10. B Cell Receptor Activation Predominantly Regulates AKT-mTORC1/2 Substrates Functionally Related to RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Dara K.; Ali, Raja H.; Turunen, Janne J.; Nore, Beston F.; Smith, C. I. Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylates numerous substrates on the consensus motif RXRXXpS/T, a docking site for 14-3-3 interactions. To identify novel AKT-induced phosphorylation events following B cell receptor (BCR) activation, we performed proteomics, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses. Phosphorylated consensus motif-specific antibody enrichment, followed by tandem mass spectrometry, identified 446 proteins, containing 186 novel phosphorylation events. Moreover, we found 85 proteins with up regulated phosphorylation, while in 277 it was down regulated following stimulation. Up regulation was mainly in proteins involved in ribosomal and translational regulation, DNA binding and transcription regulation. Conversely, down regulation was preferentially in RNA binding, mRNA splicing and mRNP export proteins. Immunoblotting of two identified RNA regulatory proteins, RBM25 and MEF-2D, confirmed the proteomics data. Consistent with these findings, the AKT-inhibitor (MK-2206) dramatically reduced, while the mTORC-inhibitor PP242 totally blocked phosphorylation on the RXRXXpS/T motif. This demonstrates that this motif, previously suggested as an AKT target sequence, also is a substrate for mTORC1/2. Proteins with PDZ, PH and/or SH3 domains contained the consensus motif, whereas in those with an HMG-box, H15 domains and/or NF-X1-zinc-fingers, the motif was absent. Proteins carrying the consensus motif were found in all eukaryotic clades indicating that they regulate a phylogenetically conserved set of proteins. PMID:27487157

  11. Macrophages induce AKT/β-catenin-dependent Lgr5+ stem cell activation and hair follicle regeneration through TNF

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xusheng; Chen, Haiyan; Tian, Ruiyun; Zhang, Yiling; Drutskaya, Marina S.; Wang, Chengmei; Ge, Jianfeng; Fan, Zhimeng; Kong, Deqiang; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Ting; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Jingwen; Wang, Jinmei; Wang, Shan; Qin, Zhihai; Jia, Huanhuan; Wu, Yue; Liu, Jia; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Tredget, Edward E.; Lin, Mei; Liu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yuyang; Wu, Yaojiong

    2017-01-01

    Skin stem cells can regenerate epidermal appendages; however, hair follicles (HF) lost as a result of injury are barely regenerated. Here we show that macrophages in wounds activate HF stem cells, leading to telogen–anagen transition (TAT) around the wound and de novo HF regeneration, mostly through TNF signalling. Both TNF knockout and overexpression attenuate HF neogenesis in wounds, suggesting dose-dependent induction of HF neogenesis by TNF, which is consistent with TNF-induced AKT signalling in epidermal stem cells in vitro. TNF-induced β-catenin accumulation is dependent on AKT but not Wnt signalling. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT blocks depilation-induced HF TAT. Notably, Pten loss in Lgr5+ HF stem cells results in HF TAT independent of injury and promotes HF neogenesis after wounding. Thus, our results suggest that macrophage-TNF-induced AKT/β-catenin signalling in Lgr5+ HF stem cells has a crucial role in promoting HF cycling and neogenesis after wounding. PMID:28345588

  12. Xenotransplantation elicits salient tumorigenicity of adult T-cell leukemia-derived cells via aberrant AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Takanashi, Tomoka; Nasu, Kentaro; Tamai, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Mai; Satoh, Ikuro; Ine, Shoji; Sasaki, Osamu; Satoh, Kennichi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Harigae, Hideo; Sugamura, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The transplantation of human cancer cells into immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc(null) (NOG) mice often causes highly malignant cell populations like cancer stem cells to emerge. Here, by serial transplantation in NOG mice, we established two highly tumorigenic adult T-cell leukemia-derived cell lines, ST1-N6 and TL-Om1-N8. When transplanted s.c., these cells formed tumors significantly earlier and from fewer initial cells than their parental lines ST1 and TL-Om1. We found that protein kinase B (AKT) signaling was upregulated in ST1-N6 and TL-Om1-N8 cells, and that this upregulation was due to the decreased expression of a negative regulator, INPP5D. Furthermore, the introduction of a constitutively active AKT mutant expression vector into ST1 cells augmented the tumorigenicity of the cells, whereas treatment with the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 attenuated the progression of tumors induced by ST1-N6 cells. Collectively, our results reveal that the AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in the malignancy of adult T-cell leukemia-derived cells.

  13. AG and UAG induce β-casein expression via activation of ERK1/2 and AKT pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sunan; Liu, Juxiong; Lv, Qingkang; Zhang, Chuan; Xu, Shiyao; Yang, Dongxue; Huang, Bingxu; Zeng, Yalong; Gao, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ghrelin peptides were found to circulate in two major forms: acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG). Previous studies showed that AG regulates β-casein (CSN2) expression in mammary epithelial cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which AG regulates CSN2 gene and protein expression. Evidence suggests that UAG has biological activity through GHSR1a-independent mechanisms. Here, we investigated the possible GHSR1a-mediated effect of UAG on the expression of CSN2 in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMECs) isolated from lactating cow. We found that both AG and UAG increase the expression of CSN2 in a dose-dependent manner in pbMECs in comparison with the control group. Increased expression of CSN2 was blocked by [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (an antagonist of the GHSR1a) and NF449 (a Gs-α subunit inhibitor) in pbMECs. In addition, both AG and UAG activated AKT/protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways, whereas [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and NF449 inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in pbMECs respectively. Blockade of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways prevented the expression of CSN2 induced by AG or UAG. Finally, we found that both AG and UAG cause cell proliferation through identical signaling pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both AG and UAG act on ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways to facilitate the expression of CSN2 in a GHSR1a-dependent manner. PMID:26873999

  14. Somatic mutations in PIK3CA and activation of AKT in intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kuboki, Yuko; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Shiratori, Keiko; Kawamura, Shunji; Kobayashi, Makio; Shimizu, Michio; Ban, Shinichi; Koyama, Isamu; Higashi, Morihiro; Shin, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Unno, Michiaki; Kanno, Atsushi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Orikasa, Hideki; Watanabe, Tomoo; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Harada, Youji; Furukawa, Toru

    2011-12-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a recently recognized rare variant of intraductal neoplasms of the pancreas. Molecular aberrations underlying the neoplasm remain unknown. We investigated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, KRAS, and BRAF. We also investigated aberrant expressions of phosphorylated AKT, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), tumor protein 53 (TP53), SMAD4, and CTNNB1 in 11 cases of ITPNs and compared these data with those of 50 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), another distinct variant of pancreatic intraductal neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA were found in 3 of 11 ITPNs but not in IPMNs (P = 0.005; Fisher exact test). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were found in none of the ITPNs but were found in 26 of the 50 IPMNs (P = 0.001; Fisher exact test). PIK3CA mutations were associated with strong expression of phosphorylated AKT (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Moreover, the expression of phosphorylated AKT was apparent in most ITPNs but only in a few IPMNs (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Aberrant expressions of TP53, SMAD4, and CTNNB1 were not statistically different between these neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA and the expression of phosphorylated AKT were not associated with age, sex, tissue invasion, and patients' prognosis in ITPNs. These results indicate that activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may play a crucial role in ITPNs but not in IPMNs. In contrast, the mutation in KRAS seems to play a major role in IPMNs but not in ITPNs. The activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may be a potential target for molecular diagnosis and therapy of ITPNs.

  15. FoxM1 promotes breast tumorigenesis by activating PDGF-A and forming a positive feedback loop with the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanzhen; Zhou, Aidong; Xue, Jianfei; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tan, Christina; Xie, Keping; Wang, Jiejun; Huang, Suyun

    2015-05-10

    The autocrine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms for its dysregulation in breast cancer are largely unknown. In the study, we identified PDGF-A as a novel transcriptional target of FoxM1. FoxM1 directly binds to two sites in the promoter of PDGF-A and activates its transcription. Mutation of these FoxM1-binding sites diminished PDGF-A promoter activity. Increased FoxM1 resulted in the upregulation of PDGF-A, which led to activation of the AKT pathway and increased breast cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas knockdown of FoxM1 does the opposite. Blocking AKT activation with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT inhibitor decreased FoxM1-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, PDGF/AKT pathway upregulates the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-A or blockade of AKT activation inhibited the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of FoxM1 significantly correlated with the expression of PDGF-A and the activated AKT signaling pathway in human breast cancer specimens. Our study demonstrates a novel positive regulatory feedback loop between FoxM1 and the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway; this loop contributes to breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis.

  16. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate protects rat myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/FOXO3A/Bim pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei-qi; Zheng, Yue-liang; Chen, Huan; Tu, Jian-feng; Shen, Ye; Guo, Jun-ping; Yang, Xiang-hong; Yuan, Shu-ren; Chen, Liang-zhong; Chai, Jing-jie; Lu, Jian-hong; Zhai, Chang-lin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced rat myocardial injury model. Methods: Male SD rats were iv injected with STS, STS+LY294002 or saline (NS) for 15 d. Then the hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Cardiac function, infarction size and area at risk were assessed. Cell apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL staining, DNA laddering and measuring caspase-3 activity. In addition, isolated cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats were pretreated with the above drugs, then exposed to H2O2 (200 mol/L) for 1 h. Cell apoptosis was detected using flow cytometric assay. The levels of p-Akt, p-FOXO3A and Bim were examined with immunoblotting. Results: Compared to NS group, administration of STS (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced myocardial infarct size (40.28%±5.36% in STS group vs 59.52%±7.28% in NS group), and improved the myocardial function as demonstrated by the increased values of dp/dtmax, LVDP and coronary flow at different reperfusion time stages. Furthermore, STS significantly decreased the rate of apoptotic cells (15.11%±3.71% in STS group vs 38.21%±7.83% in NS group), and reduced caspase-3 activity to nearly a quarter of that in NS group. Moreover, STS significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream target FOXO3A, and decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bim. Co-treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (40 mg/kg) partially countered the protective effects induced by STS treatment. In isolated cardiomyocytes, STS exerted similar protective effects as shown in the ex vivo I/R model. Conclusion: STS pretreatment reduces infarct size and improves cardiac function in an I/R-induced rat myocardial injury model via activation of Akt/FOXO3A/Bim-mediated signal pathway. PMID:24077633

  17. Akt activation suppresses Chk2-mediated, methylating agent-induced G2 arrest and protects from temozolomide-induced mitotic catastrophe and cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yuchi; Katayama, Makoto; Mirzoeva, Olga K; Berger, Mitchel S; Pieper, Russell O

    2005-06-01

    Pharmacologic inhibition of the DNA signal transducers Chk1 and p38 blocks G2 arrest and sensitizes glioblastoma cells to chemotherapeutic methylating agent-induced cytotoxicity. Because Akt pathway activation has been suggested to also block G2 arrest induced by DNA-damaging agents and because glioma cells frequently have high levels of Akt activation, we examined the contribution of the Akt pathway to methylating agent-induced G2 arrest and toxicity. U87MG human glioma cells containing an inducible Akt expression construct were incubated with inducing agent or vehicle, after which the cells were exposed to temozolomide and assayed for activation of the components of the G2 arrest pathway and survival. Temozolomide-treated control cells activated the DNA damage signal transducers Chk1, Chk2, and p38, leading to Cdc25C and Cdc2 inactivation, prolonged G2 arrest, and loss of clonagenicity by a combination of senescence and mitotic catastrophe. Temozolomide-treated cells induced to overexpress Akt, however, exhibited significantly less drug-induced Cdc25C/Cdc2 inactivation and less G2 arrest. Akt-mediated suppression of G2 arrest was associated not with alterations in Chk1 or p38 activation but rather with suppression of Chk2 activation and reduced recruitment of Chk2 to sites of damage in chromatin. Unlike bypass of the G2 checkpoint induced by pharmacologic inhibitors of Chk1 or p38, however, Akt-induced bypass of G2 arrest suppressed, rather than enhanced, temozolomide-induced senescence and mitotic catastrophe. These results show that whereas Akt activation suppresses temozolomide-induced Chk2 activation and G2 arrest, the overriding effect is protection from temozolomide-induced cytotoxicity. The Akt pathway therefore represents a new target for the sensitization of gliomas to chemotherapeutic methylating agents such as temozolomide.

  18. HO-1 inhibits preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation at the onset of obesity via ROS dependent activation of Akt2

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gabriel; Lindroos-Christensen, Josefine; Einwallner, Elisa; Husa, Julia; Zapf, Thea-Christin; Lipp, Katharina; Rauscher, Sabine; Gröger, Marion; Spittler, Andreas; Loewe, Robert; Gruber, Florian; Duvigneau, J. Catharina; Mohr, Thomas; Sutterlüty-Fall, Hedwig; Klinglmüller, Florian; Prager, Gerhard; Huppertz, Berthold; Yun, Jeanho; Wagner, Oswald; Esterbauer, Harald; Bilban, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a hallmark of obesity. The expansion of WAT in obesity involves proliferation and differentiation of adipose precursors, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used an unbiased transcriptomics approach to identify the earliest molecular underpinnings occuring in adipose precursors following a brief HFD in mice. Our analysis identifies Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as strongly and selectively being upregulated in the adipose precursor fraction of WAT, upon high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Specific deletion of HO-1 in adipose precursors of Hmox1fl/flPdgfraCre mice enhanced HFD-dependent visceral adipose precursor proliferation and differentiation. Mechanistically, HO-1 reduces HFD-induced AKT2 phosphorylation via ROS thresholding in mitochondria to reduce visceral adipose precursor proliferation. HO-1 influences adipogenesis in a cell-autonomous way by regulating events early in adipogenesis, during the process of mitotic clonal expansion, upstream of Cebpα and PPARγ. Similar effects on human preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro were observed upon modulation of HO-1 expression. This collectively renders HO-1 as an essential factor linking extrinsic factors (HFD) with inhibition of specific downstream molecular mediators (ROS & AKT2), resulting in diminished adipogenesis that may contribute to hyperplastic adipose tissue expansion. PMID:28102348

  19. Infection of Female BWF1 Lupus Mice with Malaria Parasite Attenuates B Cell Autoreactivity by Modulating the CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis and Its Downstream Signals PI3K/AKT, NFκB and ERK

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Gamal; Sayed, Ayat; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Amany O.; El-Amir, Azza; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy A.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mahmoud, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal autoreactivity in B cells. Lymphocytes and their soluble mediators contribute to the disease pathogenesis. We recently demonstrated that infecting lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis by attenuating oxidative stress in both liver and kidney tissues. In the current study, we further investigated B cell autoreactivity in female BWF1 lupus mice after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria, using ELISA, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The lupus mice exhibited a significant elevation in plasma levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, BAFF and APRIL and a marked elevation of IgG2a, IgG3 and ant-dsDNA autoantibodies compared with normal healthy mice. Infecting lupus mice with live but not gamma-irradiated malaria parasite partially and significantly restored the levels of the soluble mediators that contribute to the progression of lupus. Furthermore, the B cells of lupus mice exhibited an increased proliferative capacity; aberrant overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4; and a marked elevation in responsiveness to their cognate ligand (CXCL12) via aberrant activation of the PI3K/AKT, NFκB and ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, infecting lupus mice with live but not gamma-irradiated malaria parasite restored a normal proliferative capacity, surface expression of CXCR4 and B cell response to CXCL-12. Taken together, our data present interesting findings that clarify, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms of how infection of lupus mice with malaria parasite controls B cell autoreactivity and thus confers protection against lupus severity. PMID:25909640

  20. Infection of Female BWF1 Lupus Mice with Malaria Parasite Attenuates B Cell Autoreactivity by Modulating the CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis and Its Downstream Signals PI3K/AKT, NFκB and ERK.

    PubMed

    Badr, Gamal; Sayed, Ayat; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Mohamed, Amany O; El-Amir, Azza; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mahmoud, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal autoreactivity in B cells. Lymphocytes and their soluble mediators contribute to the disease pathogenesis. We recently demonstrated that infecting lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis by attenuating oxidative stress in both liver and kidney tissues. In the current study, we further investigated B cell autoreactivity in female BWF1 lupus mice after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria, using ELISA, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The lupus mice exhibited a significant elevation in plasma levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, BAFF and APRIL and a marked elevation of IgG2a, IgG3 and ant-dsDNA autoantibodies compared with normal healthy mice. Infecting lupus mice with live but not gamma-irradiated malaria parasite partially and significantly restored the levels of the soluble mediators that contribute to the progression of lupus. Furthermore, the B cells of lupus mice exhibited an increased proliferative capacity; aberrant overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4; and a marked elevation in responsiveness to their cognate ligand (CXCL12) via aberrant activation of the PI3K/AKT, NFκB and ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, infecting lupus mice with live but not gamma-irradiated malaria parasite restored a normal proliferative capacity, surface expression of CXCR4 and B cell response to CXCL-12. Taken together, our data present interesting findings that clarify, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms of how infection of lupus mice with malaria parasite controls B cell autoreactivity and thus confers protection against lupus severity.

  1. Activated ClC-2 Inhibits p-Akt to Repress Myelination in GDM Newborn Rats.

    PubMed

    He, Feixiang; Peng, Yuchen; Yang, Zhi; Ge, Zilu; Tian, Yanping; Ma, Teng; Li, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of type 2 voltage-gated chloride channel (ClC-2) on myelin development of newborn rats' cerebral white matter with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In this study, GDM model was induced in late pregnant rat model. The alteration of ClC-2 expression in various developmental stages of cerebral white matter with/without being exposed to high glucose was analyzed using RT-PCR, active oxygen detection, TUNEL staining, Western Blot as well as immuno-histochemical staining. Our results showed that ClC-2 mRNA and protein expressions in GDM group were significantly increased in white matter of fetal rats after E18 stage, and elevated the level of TNF-α and iNOS in white matter at P0 and P3 stage of newborn rats. Meanwhile, In GDM group, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels of the white matter at E18, P0, and P3 stage were significantly higher than control group. Furthermore, the expression level of myelin transcription factor Olig2 at P0 stage and CNPase at P3 stage were strikingly lower than that of the control group. In GDM group, ClC-2 expression in the corpus callosum (CC) and cingulate gyrus (CG) regains, and TUNEL positive cell number were increased at P0 and P3 stage. However, PDGFα positive cell number at P0 stage and CNPase expression at P3 stage were significantly decreased. Caspase-3 was also increased in those white matter regions in GDM group, but p-Akt expression was inhibited. While DIDS (a chloride channel blocker) can reverse these changes. In conclusion, ClC-2 and caspase-3 were induced by GDM, which resulted in apoptosis and myelination inhibition. The effect was caused by repressing PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Application of ClC-2 inhibitor DIDS showed protective effects on cerebral white matter damage stimulated by high glucose concentration.

  2. Activated ClC-2 Inhibits p-Akt to Repress Myelination in GDM Newborn Rats

    PubMed Central

    He, Feixiang; Peng, Yuchen; Yang, Zhi; Ge, Zilu; Tian, Yanping; Ma, Teng; Li, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of type 2 voltage-gated chloride channel (ClC-2) on myelin development of newborn rats' cerebral white matter with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In this study, GDM model was induced in late pregnant rat model. The alteration of ClC-2 expression in various developmental stages of cerebral white matter with/without being exposed to high glucose was analyzed using RT-PCR, active oxygen detection, TUNEL staining, Western Blot as well as immuno-histochemical staining. Our results showed that ClC-2 mRNA and protein expressions in GDM group were significantly increased in white matter of fetal rats after E18 stage, and elevated the level of TNF-α and iNOS in white matter at P0 and P3 stage of newborn rats. Meanwhile, In GDM group, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels of the white matter at E18, P0, and P3 stage were significantly higher than control group. Furthermore, the expression level of myelin transcription factor Olig2 at P0 stage and CNPase at P3 stage were strikingly lower than that of the control group. In GDM group, ClC-2 expression in the corpus callosum (CC) and cingulate gyrus (CG) regains, and TUNEL positive cell number were increased at P0 and P3 stage. However, PDGFα positive cell number at P0 stage and CNPase expression at P3 stage were significantly decreased. Caspase-3 was also increased in those white matter regions in GDM group, but p-Akt expression was inhibited. While DIDS (a chloride channel blocker) can reverse these changes. In conclusion, ClC-2 and caspase-3 were induced by GDM, which resulted in apoptosis and myelination inhibition. The effect was caused by repressing PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Application of ClC-2 inhibitor DIDS showed protective effects on cerebral white matter damage stimulated by high glucose concentration. PMID:28255270

  3. MiR-221 and miR-26b Regulate Chemotactic Migration of MSCs Toward HGF Through Activation of Akt and FAK.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Aisi; Kang, Naixin; He, Lihong; Li, Xianyang; Xu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2016-06-01

    The chemotactic migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is fundamental for their use in cell-based therapies, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate their directed migration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the regulation of a large variety of cellular processes. However, their roles in regulating the responses of MSCs to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) remain elusive. Here, we found that microRNA-221 (miR-221) and microRNA-26b (miR-26b) were upregulated in MSCs subjected to HGF. Overexpression of miR-221 or miR-26b enhanced MSC migration through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) was identified as a potential target of miR-221 and miR-26b; overexpression of miR-221 or miR-26b decreased PTEN expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of miR-221 or miR-26b in MSCs increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream effector of PTEN, which regulates cell migration through assembly and distribution of focal adhesions (FAs), and more dot-like FAs were localized at the periphery of these cells. Altering miR-221 or miR-26b expression influenced the directed migration of MSCs toward HGF. Inhibition of miR-221 or miR-26b suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and FAK and upregulated PTEN expression, which was partly restored by HGF treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-26b participate in regulating the chemotactic response of MSCs toward HGF.

  4. Indoor air pollution from biomass burning activates Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes: a study among premenopausal women in rural India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Roy, Amrita; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. The authors investigated in this study whether cumulative exposures to biomass smoke cause activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). For this, the authors enrolled 87 premenopausal (median age 34 years), nonsmoking women who used to cook with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 85 age-matched control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting assays revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorylated forms of Akt protein (p-Akt(ser473) and p-Akt(thr308)) in PBL, airway epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils in sputum of biomass-using women than control. Akt activation in biomass users was associated with marked rise in generation of reactive oxygen species and concomitant depletion of superoxide dismutase. Measurement of particulate matter having a diameter of less than 10 and 2.5 µm in indoor air by real-time aerosol monitor showed 2 to 4 times more particulate pollution in biomass-using households, and Akt activation was positively associated with particulate pollution after controlling potential confounders. The findings suggest that chronic exposure to biomass smoke activates Akt, possibly via generation of oxidative stress.

  5. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  6. Inhibition of phosphorylated Ser473-Akt from translocating into the nucleus contributes to 2-cell arrest and defective zygotic genome activation in mouse preimplantation embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junming; Lian, Xiuli; Du, Juan; Xu, Songhua; Wei, Jianen; Pang, Lili; Song, Chanchan; He, Lin; Wang, Shie

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorylated Ser473-Akt (p-Ser473-Akt) is extensively studied as a correlate for the activity of Akt, which plays an important role in mouse oogenesis and preimplantation embryogenesis. However, little progress has been made about its effect on the mouse zygotic genome activation (ZGA) of 2-cell stage in mouse preimplantation embryos. In this study, we confirmed its localization in the pronuclei of 1-cell embryos and found that p-Ser473-Akt acquired prominent nucleus localization in 2-cell embryos physiologically. Akt specific inhibitors API-2 and MK2206 could inhibit the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro, and induce 2-cell arrest at certain concentrations. 2-cell embryos exposed to 2.0 μmol/L API-2 or 30 μmol/L MK2206 displayed attenuated immunofluorescence intensity of p-Ser473-Akt in the nucleus. Simultaneously, qRT-PCR results revealed that 2.0 μmol/L API-2 treatment significantly downregulated the mRNA pattern of MuERV-L and eIF-1A, two marker genes of ZGA, suggesting a defect in ZGA compared with that of control group. Collectively, our work demonstrated the nuclear localization of p-Ser473-Akt during major ZGA, and Akt specific inhibitors API-2 and MK2206 which led to 2-cell arrest inhibited p-Ser473-Akt from translocating into the nucleus of 2-cell embryos with defective ZGA as well, implying p-Ser473-Akt may be a potential player in the major ZGA of 2-cell mouse embryos.

  7. PPAR-γ agonist stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; He, Ming; Guo, Zong-wei; Wen, Jin-kun

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •PPAR-γ increases KLF4 protein level but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. •The increase of KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. •Pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) plays important roles in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. Both KLF4 and PPAR-γ are involved in VSMC proliferation and differentiation. However, the actual relationship between KLF4 and PPAR-γ in VSMCs is not clear. In this study, we found that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone increases KLF4 protein levels but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. PPAR-γ overexpression increases, while PPAR-γ knockdown reduces KLF4 expression, suggesting that the increase in KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. Further study showed that pioglitazone enhances KLF4 protein stability through reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that stabilization of KLF4 by pioglitazone was related to the activation of Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, we revealed that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination, providing further insights into PPAR-γ and KLF4 in regulating each other’s expression in VSMCs.

  8. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-01-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. These proteins increased the Annexin-V staining and the amount of condensed chromatin, demonstrating that the Gecko proteinsinduced cell death was caused by apoptosis. Gecko proteins suppressed Akt activation, and the overexpression of constitutively active form of myristoylated Akt prevented Gecko proteins-induced death of 5637 cells. Furthermore, Gecko proteins activated caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Gecko proteins suppressed the Akt pathway and activated the intrinsic caspase pathway, leading to the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 531-536] PMID:26246284

  9. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-09-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. These proteins increased the Annexin-V staining and the amount of condensed chromatin, demonstrating that the Gecko proteinsinduced cell death was caused by apoptosis. Gecko proteins suppressed Akt activation, and the overexpression of constitutively active form of myristoylated Akt prevented Gecko proteins-induced death of 5637 cells. Furthermore, Gecko proteins activated caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Gecko proteins suppressed the Akt pathway and activated the intrinsic caspase pathway, leading to the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 531-536].

  10. Alpha-fetoprotein activates AKT/mTOR signaling to promote CXCR4 expression and migration of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Guo, Junli; Xia, Hua; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Fu, Shigan; Li, Mengsen

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4, stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF 1α) receptor, stimulates growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) governs the expression of some metastasis-related genes. Here we report that AFP and CXCR4 levels correlated in HCC tissues. AFP-expressing vectors induced CXCR4. In agreement, AFP depletion by siRNA decreased CXCR4. AFP co-localized and interacted with PTEN, thus inducing CXCR4 by activating AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. In turn, phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) entered the nucleus and bound the CXCR4 gene promoter. Thus, AFP promoted migration of HCC cells. In concusion, AFP induced CXCR4 by activating the AKT/mTOR signal pathway.

  11. Alpha-fetoprotein activates AKT/mTOR signaling to promote CXCR4 expression and migration of hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Fu, Shigan; Li, Mengsen

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4, stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF 1α) receptor, stimulates growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) governs the expression of some metastasis-related genes. Here we report that AFP and CXCR4 levels correlated in HCC tissues. AFP-expressing vectors induced CXCR4. In agreement, AFP depletion by siRNA decreased CXCR4. AFP co-localized and interacted with PTEN, thus inducing CXCR4 by activating AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. In turn, phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) entered the nucleus and bound the CXCR4 gene promoter. Thus, AFP promoted migration of HCC cells. In concusion, AFP induced CXCR4 by activating the AKT/mTOR signal pathway. PMID:25815363

  12. DYRK1B blocks canonical and promotes non-canonical Hedgehog signaling through activation of the mTOR/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajeev; Dhanyamraju, Pavan Kumar; Lauth, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays important roles in embryonic development and in tumor formation. Apart from the well-established stimulation of the GLI family of transcription factors, Hh ligands promote the phosphorylation and activation of mTOR and AKT kinases, yet the molecular mechanism underlying these processes are unknown. Here, we identify the DYRK1B kinase as a mediator between Hh signaling and mTOR/AKT activation. In fibroblasts, Hh signaling induces DYRK1B protein expression, resulting in activation of the mTOR/AKT kinase signaling arm. Furthermore, DYRK1B exerts positive and negative feedback regulation on the Hh pathway itself: It negatively interferes with SMO-elicited canonical Hh signaling, while at the same time it provides positive feed-forward functions by promoting AKT-mediated GLI stability. Due to the fact that the mTOR/AKT pathway is itself subject to strong negative feedback regulation, pharmacological inhibition of DYRK1B results in initial upregulation followed by downregulation of AKT phosphorylation and GLI stabilization. Addressing this issue therapeutically, we show that a pharmacological approach combining a DYRK1B antagonist with an mTOR/AKT inhibitor results in strong GLI1 targeting and in pronounced cytotoxicity in human pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells. PMID:27903983

  13. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation. PMID:28072855

  14. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hiroko; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation.

  15. PARK2 Depletion Connects Energy and Oxidative Stress to PI3K/Akt Activation via PTEN S-Nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Anjomani-Virmouni, Sara; Koundouros, Nikos; Dimitriadi, Maria; Choo-Wing, Rayman; Valle, Adamo; Zheng, Yuxiang; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Agnihotri, Sameer; Zadeh, Gelareh; Asara, John M; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Arends, Mark J; Cantley, Lewis C; Poulogiannis, George

    2017-03-16

    PARK2 is a gene implicated in disease states with opposing responses in cell fate determination, yet its contribution in pro-survival signaling is largely unknown. Here we show that PARK2 is altered in over a third of all human cancers, and its depletion results in enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) activation and increased vulnerability to PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors. PARK2 depletion contributes to AMPK-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species, and a concomitant increase in oxidized nitric oxide levels, thereby promoting the inhibition of PTEN by S-nitrosylation and ubiquitination. Notably, AMPK activation alone is sufficient to induce PTEN S-nitrosylation in the absence of PARK2 depletion. Park2 loss and Pten loss also display striking cooperativity to promote tumorigenesis in vivo. Together, our findings reveal an important missing mechanism that might account for PTEN suppression in PARK2-deficient tumors, and they highlight the importance of PTEN S-nitrosylation in supporting cell survival and proliferation under conditions of energy deprivation.

  16. 8-Prenylnaringenin promotes recovery from immobilization-induced disuse muscle atrophy through activation of the Akt phosphorylation pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Rie; Horikawa, Hitomi; Lin, Pei-Yi; Tsukumo, Nao; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Terao, Junji

    2016-12-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a prenylflavonoid that originates from hop extracts and is thought to help prevent disuse muscle atrophy. We hypothesized that 8-PN affects muscle plasticity by promoting muscle recovery under disuse muscle atrophy. To test the promoting effect of 8-PN on muscle recovery, we administered an 8-PN mixed diet to mice that had been immobilized with a cast to one leg for 14 days. Intake of the 8-PN mixed diet accelerated recovery from muscle atrophy, and prevented reductions in Akt phosphorylation. Studies on cell cultures of mouse myotubes in vitro demonstrated that 8-PN activated the PI3K/Akt/P70S6K1 pathway at physiological concentrations. A cell-culture study using an inhibitor of estrogen receptors and an in vivo experiment with ovariectomized mice suggested that the estrogenic activity of 8-PN contributed to recovery from disuse muscle atrophy through activation of an Akt phosphorylation pathway. These data strongly suggest that 8-PN is a naturally occurring compound that could be used as a nutritional supplement to aid recovery from disuse muscle atrophy.

  17. Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway promotes cellular glucose uptake by downregulating the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Yee; Yu, Fa-Xing; Luo, Yan; Hagen, Thilo

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is known to play an important role to promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism through which the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway promotes glucose utilisation in cancer cells is still not well understood. It has recently been shown that the oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling in lung adenocarcinoma is important in promoting the localisation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) at the plasma membrane. We thus hypothesised that the effect of constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT signalling on glucose metabolism is mediated by thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), a known regulator of the GLUT1 plasma membrane localisation. Consistent with previous studies, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway decreased cellular glucose uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signalling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines using clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resulted in a decrease in GLUT1 membrane localisation. We also observed that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in various cell lines, including NSCLC cells, resulted in an increase in TXNIP expression. Importantly, knockdown of TXNIP using siRNA in the NSCLC cells promoted GLUT1 to be localised at the plasma membrane and reversed the effect of PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Together, our results suggest that the oncogenic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling promotes cellular glucose uptake, at least in part, through the regulation of TXNIP expression. This mechanism may contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer cells.

  18. Akt Activation Correlates with Snail Expression and Potentially Determines the Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients at Stage T2 after a Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Yung-Wei; Liu, Yen-Nien; Chen, Chi-Long; Wen, Yu-Ching; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor, Snail, is a potential marker for predicting the recurrence of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Akt activation is important for Snail stabilization and transcription in PCa. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated level of Akt (p-Akt) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens and cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR). Using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry, the expression of p-Akt was measured in benign and neoplastic tissues from RP specimens in 53 patients whose cancer was pathologically defined as T2 without positive margins. Herein, we observed that the p-Akt level was higher in PCa than in benign tissues and was significantly associated with the Snail level. A high p-Akt image score (≥8) was significantly correlated with a higher histological Gleason sum, Snail image score, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. Moreover, the high p-Akt image score and Gleason score sum (≥7) showed similar discriminatory abilities for BCR according to a receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis and were correlated with worse recurrence-free survival according to a log-rank test (p < 0.05). To further determine whether a high p-Akt image score could predict the risk of BCR, a Cox proportional hazard model showed that only a high p-Akt image score (hazard ratio (HR): 3.12, p = 0.05) and a high Gleason score sum (≥7) (HR: 1.18, p = 0.05) but not a high preoperative PSA value (HR: 0.62, p = 0.57) were significantly associated with a higher risk of developing BCR. Our data indicate that, for localized PCa patients after an RP, p-Akt can serve as a potential prognostic marker that improves predictions of BCR-free survival. PMID:27455254

  19. PDK1 selectively phosphorylates Thr(308) on Akt and contributes to human platelet functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Dangelmaier, Carol; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Liverani, Elizabetta; Jin, Jianguo; Bray, Paul; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), a member of the protein A,G and C (AGC) family of proteins, is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that can phosphorylate and activate other protein kinases from the AGC family, including Akt at Thr308, all of which play important roles in mediating cellular responses. The functional role of PDK1 or the importance of phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 for its activity has not been investigated in human platelets. In this study, we tested two pharmacological inhibitors of PDK1, BX795 and BX912, to assess the role of Thr308 phosphorylation on Akt. PAR4-induced phosphorylation of Akt onThr308 was inhibited by BX795 without affecting phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. The lack of Thr308 phosphorylation on Akt also led to the inhibition of PAR4-induced phosphorylation of two downstream substrates of Akt, viz. GSK3β and PRAS40. In vitro kinase activity of Akt was completely abolished if Thr308 on Akt was not phosphorylated. BX795 caused inhibition of 2-MeSADP-induced or collagen-induced aggregation, ATP secretion and thromboxane generation. Primary aggregation induced by 2-MeSADP was also inhibited in the presence of BX795. PDK1 inhibition also resulted in reduced clot retraction indicating its role in outside-in signalling. These results demonstrate that PDK1 selectively phosphorylates Thr308 on Akt thereby regulating its activity and plays a positive regulatory role in platelet physiological responses. PMID:24352480

  20. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  1. Akt finds its new path to regulate cell cycle through modulating Skp2 activity and its destruction by APC/Cdh1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Daming; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Tseng, Alan; Wei, Wenyi

    2009-01-01

    Skp2 over-expression has been observed in many human cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have remained elusive. We recently reported that Akt1, but not Akt2, directly controls Skp2 stability by interfering with its association with APC/Cdh1. As a result, Skp2 degradation is protected in cancer cells with elevated Akt activity. This finding expands our knowledge of how specific kinase cascades influence proteolysis governed by APC/Cdh1 complexes. However, it awaits further investigation to elucidate whether the PI3K/Akt circuit affects other APC/Cdh1 substrates. Our results further strengthen the argument that different Akt isoforms might have distinct, even opposing functions in the regulation of cell growth or migration. In addition, we noticed that Ser72 is localized in a putative Nuclear Localization Sequence (NLS), and that phosphorylation of Ser72 disrupts the NLS and thus promotes Skp2 cytoplasmic translocation. This finding links elevated Akt activity with the observed cytoplasmic Skp2 staining in aggressive breast and prostate cancer patients. Furthermore, it provides the rationale for the development of specific Akt1 inhibitors as efficient anti-cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:19549334

  2. AKT1 Activation is Obligatory for Spontaneous BCC Tumor Growth in a Murine Model that Mimics Some Features of Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Arianna L; Back, Jung Ho; Zhu, Yucui; Tang, Xiuwei; Yardley, Nathan P; Kim, Katherine J; Athar, Mohammad; Bickers, David R

    2016-10-01

    Patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas (BCC) due to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor PTCH1 and aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Therapies targeted at components of the Hh pathway, including the smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib, can ablate these tumors clinically, but tumors recur upon drug discontinuation. Using SKH1-Ptch1(+/-) as a model that closely mimics the spontaneous and accelerated growth pattern of BCCs in patients with BCNS, we show that AKT1, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is intrinsically activated in keratinocytes derived from the skin of newborn Ptch1(+/-) mice in the absence of carcinogenic stimuli. Introducing Akt1 haplodeficiency in Ptch1(+/-) mice (Akt1(+/-) Ptch1(+/-)) significantly abrogated BCC growth. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of AKT with perifosine, an alkyl phospholipid AKT inhibitor, diminished the growth of spontaneous and UV-induced BCCs. Our data demonstrate an obligatory role for AKT1 in BCC growth, and targeting AKT may help reduce BCC tumor burden in BCNS patients. Cancer Prev Res; 9(10); 794-802. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Activation Status of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 Signaling Pathway in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Prodromidis, Georgios; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Aberrations of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 pathway have been linked to various types of human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation status of Akt, mTOR, and pS6 in oral lichen planus (OLP) in comparison with oral premalignant and malignant lesions and normal oral mucosa (NM). Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry for p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 was performed in 40 OLP, 20 oral leukoplakias (OL), 10 OSCC, and 10 control samples of NM. Results. Nuclear p-Akt expression was detected in the vast majority of cases in all categories, being significantly higher in OL. Cytoplasmic p-Akt and p-mTOR staining was present only in a minority of OLP cases, being significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Phospho-pS6 showed cytoplasmic positivity in most OLP cases, which however was significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Conclusions. Overall, cytoplasmic p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 levels appear to be significantly lower in OLP compared to OL and OSCC. However, the expression of these molecules in a subset of OLP cases suggests that activation of Akt/mTOR/pS6 may occur in the context of OLP, possibly contributing to the premalignant potential of individual cases. PMID:24228033

  4. Akt2 deficiency protects from acute lung injury via alternative macrophage activation and miR-146a induction in mice.

    PubMed

    Vergadi, Eleni; Vaporidi, Katerina; Theodorakis, Emmanuel E; Doxaki, Christina; Lagoudaki, Eleni; Ieronymaki, Eleftheria; Alexaki, Vassilia I; Helms, Mike; Kondili, Eumorfia; Soennichsen, Birte; Stathopoulos, Efstathios N; Margioris, Andrew N; Georgopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsatsanis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of respiratory failure, with limited effective treatments available. Alveolar macrophages participate in the pathogenesis of ARDS. To investigate the role of macrophage activation in aseptic lung injury and identify molecular mediators with therapeutic potential, lung injury was induced in wild-type (WT) and Akt2(-/-) mice by hydrochloric acid aspiration. Acid-induced lung injury in WT mice was characterized by decreased lung compliance and increased protein and cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Alveolar macrophages acquired a classical activation (M1) phenotype. Acid-induced lung injury was less severe in Akt2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Alveolar macrophages from acid-injured Akt2(-/-) mice demonstrated the alternative activation phenotype (M2). Although M2 polarization suppressed aseptic lung injury, it resulted in increased lung bacterial load when Akt2(-/-) mice were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. miR-146a, an anti-inflammatory microRNA targeting TLR4 signaling, was induced during the late phase of lung injury in WT mice, whereas it was increased early in Akt2(-/-) mice. Indeed, miR-146a overexpression in WT macrophages suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and promoted M2 polarization, whereas miR-146a inhibition in Akt2(-/-) macrophages restored iNOS expression. Furthermore, miR-146a delivery or Akt2 silencing in WT mice exposed to acid resulted in suppression of iNOS in alveolar macrophages. In conclusion, Akt2 suppression and miR-146a induction promote the M2 macrophage phenotype, resulting in amelioration of acid-induced lung injury. In vivo modulation of macrophage phenotype through Akt2 or miR-146a could provide a potential therapeutic approach for aseptic ARDS; however, it may be deleterious in septic ARDS because of impaired bacterial clearance.

  5. EBV Latent Membrane Protein 1 Activates Akt, NFκB, and Stat3 in B Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Shair, Kathy H. Y; Bendt, Katherine M; Edwards, Rachel H; Bedford, Elisabeth C; Nielsen, Judith N; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is the major oncoprotein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In transgenic mice, LMP1 promotes increased lymphoma development by 12 mo of age. This study reveals that lymphoma develops in B-1a lymphocytes, a population that is associated with transformation in older mice. The lymphoma cells have deregulated cell cycle markers, and inhibitors of Akt, NFκB, and Stat3 block the enhanced viability of LMP1 transgenic lymphocytes and lymphoma cells in vitro. Lymphoma cells are independent of IL4/Stat6 signaling for survival and proliferation, but have constitutively activated Stat3 signaling. These same targets are also deregulated in wild-type B-1a lymphomas that arise spontaneously through age predisposition. These results suggest that Akt, NFκB, and Stat3 pathways may serve as effective targets in the treatment of EBV-associated B cell lymphomas. PMID:17997602

  6. β-Caryophyllene Pretreatment Alleviates Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; An, Ruidi; Tian, Xiaocui; Yang, Mei; Li, Minghang; Lou, Jie; Xu, Lu; Dong, Zhi

    2017-02-24

    β-Caryophyllene (BCP) has been reported to be protective against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory features. Recent study demonstrates that the BCP exhibits potential neuroprotection against I/R injury induced apoptosis, however, the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigate the underlying anti-apoptotic mechanism of BCP pretreatment in I/R injury. Sprague-Dawley rats (pretreated with BCP suspensions or solvent orally for 7 days) were subjected to transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Results showed that BCP pretreatment improved the neurologic deficit score, lowered the infarct volume and decreased number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus. Moreover, in western blot and RT-qPCR detections, BCP pretreatment down-regulated the expressions of Bax and p53, up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. Blockage of PI3K activity by wortmannin not only abolished the BCP-induced decreases in infarct volume and neurologic deficit score, but also dramatically abrogated the enhancement of AKt phosphorylation. Our results suggested that BCP pre-treatment protects against I/R injury partly by suppressing apoptosis via PI3K/AKt signaling pathway activation.

  7. Acadesine Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Thrombus Formation by Activating the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Huan; Tang, Rong; Belcher, John D.; Viollet, Benoit; Geng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Chunxiang; Wu, Chaodong; Slungaard, Arne; Zhu, Chuhong; Huo, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acadesine, an adenosine-regulating agent and activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been shown to possess antiinflammatory activity. This study investigated whether and how acadesine inhibits tissue factor (TF) expression and thrombus formation. Methods and Results Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human peripheral blood monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide to induce TF expression. Pretreatment with acadesine dramatically suppressed the clotting activity and expression of TF (protein and mRNA). These inhibitory effects of acadesine were unchanged for endothelial cells treated with ZM241385 (a specific adenosine A2A receptor antagonist) or AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor compound C, and in macrophages lacking adenosine A2A receptor or α1–AMP-activated protein kinase. In endothelial cells and macrophages, acadesine activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, reduced the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and consequently suppressed TF expression by inhibiting the activator protein-1 and NF-κB pathways. In mice, acadesine suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated increases in blood coagulation, decreased TF expression in atherosclerotic lesions, and reduced deep vein thrombus formation. Conclusion Acadesine inhibits TF expression and thrombus formation by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This novel finding implicates acadesine as a potentially useful treatment for many disorders associated with thrombotic pathology, such as angina pain, deep vein thrombosis, and sepsis. PMID:20185792

  8. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in cancer stem cells: from basic research to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pu; Xu, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that possess unique self-renewal activity and mediate tumor initiation and propagation. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can be considered as a master regulator for cancer. More and more recent studies have shown the links between PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and CSC biology. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of signaling components upstream and downstream of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in CSC. In addition, we also summarize various classes of small molecule inhibitors of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and their clinical potential in CSC. Overall, the current available data suggest that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway could be a promising target for development of CSC-target drugs. PMID:26175931

  9. Regulator of G protein signaling 1 suppresses CXCL12-mediated migration and AKT activation in RPMI 8226 human plasmacytoma cells and plasmablasts.

    PubMed

    Pak, Hyo-Kyung; Gil, Minchan; Lee, Yoonkyung; Lee, Hyunji; Lee, A-Neum; Roh, Jin; Park, Chan-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Migration of plasma cells to the bone marrow is critical factor to humoral immunity and controlled by chemokines. Regulator of G protein signaling 1 (RGS1) is a GTPase-activating protein that controls various crucial functions such as migration. Here, we show that RGS1 controls the chemotactic migration of RPMI 8226 human plasmacytoma cells and human plasmablasts. LPS strongly increased RGS1 expression and retarded the migration of RPMI 8226 cells by suppressing CXCL12-mediated AKT activation. RGS1 knockdown by siRNA abolished the retardation of migration and AKT suppression by LPS. RGS1-dependent regulation of migration via AKT is also observed in cultured plasmablasts. We propose novel functions of RGS1 that suppress AKT activation and the migration of RPMI 8226 cells and plasmablasts in CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis.

  10. Olprinone and colforsin daropate alleviate septic lung inflammation and apoptosis through CREB-independent activation of the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Hirofumi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Kengo; Takebe, Mariko; Yokoo, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    Olprinone, a specific phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, and corforsin daropate, a direct adenylate cyclase activator, are now being used in critical conditions. We investigated whether their therapeutic use provides protection against septic acute lung injury (ALI) and mortality. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in BALB/c mice. Olprinone or colforsin daropate was continuously given through an osmotic pump that was implanted into the peritoneal cavity immediately following CLP. These treatments prevented the ALI development in CLP mice, as indicated by the findings that severe hypoxemia, increased pulmonary vascular permeability, and histological lung damage were strikingly remedied. Furthermore, continued administration of olprinone or colforsin daropate suppressed apoptosis induction in septic lungs and improved the survival of CLP mice. Olprinone and corforsin daropate enhanced Akt phosphorylation in septic lungs. Wortmannin, which inhibits the Akt upstream regulator phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, abrogated the protective effects of olprinone and corforsin daropate on sepsis-associated lung inflammation and apoptosis. In vivo transfection of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) decoy oligodeoxynucleotide failed to negate the abilities of these agents to increase Akt phosphorylation and to inhibit IκBα degradation in septic lungs. These results demonstrate for the first time that CREB-independent Akt-mediated signaling is a critical mechanism contributing to the therapeutic effects of olprinone and corforsin daropate on septic ALI. Moreover, our data also suggest that these cyclic AMP-related agents, by blocking both nuclear factor-κB activation and apoptosis induction, may represent an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of the septic syndrome.

  11. Akt phosphorylates and activates HSF-1 independent of heat shock, leading to Slug overexpression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, R L; Paw, I; Dewhirst, M W; Lo, H-W

    2015-01-29

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential step for tumor progression, although the mechanisms driving EMT are still not fully understood. In an effort to investigate these mechanisms, we observed that heregulin (HRG)-mediated activation of HER2, or HER2 overexpression, resulted in EMT, which is accompanied with increased expression of a known EMT regulator Slug, but not TWIST or Snail. We then investigated how HER2 induced Slug expression and found, for the first time, that there are four consensus HSF sequence-binding elements (HSEs), the binding sites for heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), located in the Slug promoter. HSF-1 bound to and transactivated the Slug promoter independent of heat shock, leading to Slug expression in breast cancer cells. Mutation of the putative HSEs ablated Slug transcriptional activation induced by HRG or HSF-1 overexpression. Knockdown of HSF-1 expression by siRNA reduced Slug expression and HRG-induced EMT. The positive association between HSF-1 and Slug was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of a cohort of 100 invasive breast carcinoma specimens. While investigating how HER2 activated HSF-1 independent of heat shock, we observed that HER2 activation resulted in concurrent phosphorylation of Akt and HSF-1. We then observed, also for the first time, that Akt directly interacted with HSF-1 and phosphorylated HSF-1 at S326. Inhibition of Akt using siRNA, dominant-negative Akt mutant, or small molecule inhibitors prevented HRG-induced HSF-1 activation and Slug expression. Conversely, constitutively active Akt induced HSF-1 phosphorylation and Slug expression. HSF-1 knockdown reduced the ability of Akt to induce Slug expression, indicating an essential role that HSF-1 plays in Akt-induced Slug upregulation. Altogether, our study uncovered the existence of a novel Akt-HSF-1 signaling axis that leads to Slug upregulation and EMT, and potentially contributes to progression of HER2-positive breast cancer.

  12. Reperfusion Therapy with Rapamycin Attenuates Myocardial Infarction through Activation of AKT and ERK

    PubMed Central

    Filippone, Scott M.; Samidurai, Arun; Roh, Sean K.; Cain, Chad K.; He, Jun; Salloum, Fadi N.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt coronary reperfusion is the gold standard for minimizing injury following acute myocardial infarction. Rapamycin, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, exerts preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesized that Rapamycin, given at the onset of reperfusion, reduces myocardial infarct size through modulation of mTOR complexes. Adult C57 male mice were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion for 1 hour/24 hours. Rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg) or DMSO (7.5%) was injected intracardially at the onset of reperfusion. Post-I/R survival (87%) and cardiac function (fractional shortening, FS: 28.63 ± 3.01%) were improved in Rapamycin-treated mice compared to DMSO (survival: 63%, FS: 17.4 ± 2.6%). Rapamycin caused significant reduction in myocardial infarct size (IS: 26.2 ± 2.2%) and apoptosis (2.87 ± 0.64%) as compared to DMSO-treated mice (IS: 47.0 ± 2.3%; apoptosis: 7.39 ± 0.81%). Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of AKT S473 (target of mTORC2) but abolished ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (target of mTORC1) after I/R. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but inhibited p38 phosphorylation. Infarct-limiting effect of Rapamycin was abolished with ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Rapamycin also attenuated Bax and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results suggest that reperfusion therapy with Rapamycin protects the heart against I/R injury by selective activation of mTORC2 and ERK with concurrent inhibition of mTORC1 and p38. PMID:28373901

  13. Protracted upregulation of leptin and IGF1 is associated with activation of PI3K/Akt and JAK2 pathway in mouse intestine after ionizing radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies including cancer. Hormones and related signaling crosstalk, which could contribute to radiation-induced persistent pathophysiologic changes in the small intestine and colon, remain to be explored. The current study assessed perturbation of GI homeostasis-related hormones and signaling pathways at the systemic as well as at the tissue level in small intestine and colon. Mice (6-8 week old C57BL/6J) were exposed to 2 Gy γ radiation, serum and tissue samples were collected, and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin signaling were assessed two or twelve months after radiation exposure. Serum levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), leptin, and adiponectin were altered at these times after irradiation. Radiation was associated with increased IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) and obesity (leptin) receptor (Ob-R), decreased adiponectin receptor 1 (Adipo-R1) and 2 (Adipo-R2), and increased Ki-67 levels in small intestine and colon at both time points. Immunoblot analysis further showed increased IGF1R and Ob-R, and decreased Adipo-R2. Additionally, upregulation of PI3K/Akt and JAK2 signaling, which are downstream of IGF1 and leptin, was also observed in irradiated samples at both time points. These results when considered along with increased cell proliferation in the small intestine and colon demonstrate for the first time that ionizing radiation can persistently increase IGF1 and leptin and activate downstream proliferative pathways, which may contribute to GI functional alterations and carcinogenesis.

  14. Small molecule inhibition of PAX3-FOXO1 through AKT activation suppresses malignant phenotypes of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Jothi, Mathivanan; Mal, Munmun; Keller, Charles; Mal, Asoke K.

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) comprises a rare highly malignant tumor presumed to be associated with skeletal muscle lineage in children. The hallmark of the majority of ARMS is a chromosomal translocation that generates the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein, which is an oncogenic transcription factor responsible for the development of the malignant phenotype of this tumor. ARMS cells are dependent to the oncogenic activity of PAX3-FOXO1 and its expression status in ARMS tumors correlates with worst patient outcome, suggesting that blocking this activity of PAX3-FOXO1 may be an attractive therapeutic strategy against this fusion-positive disease. In this study, we screened small-molecule chemical libraries for inhibitors of PAX3-FOXO1 transcriptional activity using a cell-based readout system. We identified the Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin as an effective inhibitor of PAX3-FOXO1. Subsequent experiments in ARMS cells demonstrated that activation of AKT by thapsigargin inhibited PAX3-FOXO1 activity via phosphorylation. Moreover, this AKT activation appears to be associated with the effects of thapsigargin on intracellular calcium levels. Furthermore, thapsigargin inhibited the binding of PAX3-FOXO1 to target genes and subsequently promoted its proteosomal degradation. In addition, thapsigargin treatment decreases the growth and invasive capacity of ARMS cells while inducing apoptosis in vitro. Finally, thapsigargin can suppress the growth of an ARMS xenograft tumor in vivo. These data reveal that thapsigargin-induced activation of AKT is an effective mechanism to inhibit PAX3-FOXO1 and a potential agent for targeted therapy against ARMS. PMID:24107448

  15. Lowered Expression of Tumor Suppressor Candidate MYO1C Stimulates Cell Proliferation, Suppresses Cell Adhesion and Activates AKT

    PubMed Central

    Visuttijai, Kittichate; Pettersson, Jennifer; Mehrbani Azar, Yashar; van den Bout, Iman; Örndal, Charlotte; Marcickiewicz, Janusz; Nilsson, Staffan; Hörnquist, Michael; Olsson, Björn; Ejeskär, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Myosin-1C (MYO1C) is a tumor suppressor candidate located in a region of recurrent losses distal to TP53. Myo1c can tightly and specifically bind to PIP2, the substrate of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and to Rictor, suggesting a role for MYO1C in the PI3K pathway. This study was designed to examine MYO1C expression status in a panel of well-stratified endometrial carcinomas as well as to assess the biological significance of MYO1C as a tumor suppressor in vitro. We found a significant correlation between the tumor stage and lowered expression of MYO1C in endometrial carcinoma samples. In cell transfection experiments, we found a negative correlation between MYO1C expression and cell proliferation, and MYO1C silencing resulted in diminished cell migration and adhesion. Cells expressing excess of MYO1C had low basal level of phosphorylated protein kinase B (PKB, a.k.a. AKT) and cells with knocked down MYO1C expression showed a quicker phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) response in reaction to serum stimulation. Taken together the present study gives further evidence for tumor suppressor activity of MYO1C and suggests MYO1C mediates its tumor suppressor function through inhibition of PI3K pathway and its involvement in loss of contact inhibition. PMID:27716847

  16. Angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation is necessary for angiogenesis but is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Kang, Dong-Ku; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Chang, Soo-Ik . E-mail: sichang@cbnu.ac.kr

    2007-01-12

    Angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. In this study, we report that angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. LY294002 inhibits the angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation and also angiogenin-induced cell migration in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in vivo without affecting nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells. These results suggest that cross-talk between angiogenin and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways is essential for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and that angiogenin-induced PKB/Akt activation is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells.

  17. Cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cells through estrogen-induced activities of ERK and Akt protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Geffroy, Nancy; Guédin, Aurore; Dacquet, Catherine; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2005-06-15

    The proliferative effect of estrogens on breast cancer cell (BCC) is mainly mediated through estrogen receptors (ER). Non-transcriptional effects of estrogens, exerted through activation of several protein kinases, may also contribute to BCC proliferation. However, the relative contribution of these two responses to BCC proliferation is not known. We characterized a novel estrogenic receptor ligand which possess Akt and ERK activating properties distinct from that of 17beta-estradiol. Early and delayed waves of activation of these kinases were detected upon estrogenic challenge of BCC, but only molecules able to promote a significant, delayed activation of ERK-induced BCC proliferation. Estrogen-induced cell cycle progression was not sensitive to the inhibition of ERK-regulating kinases MEK1 and 2. ERalpha was found to be necessary, but not sufficient for kinases activation. Thus, estrogens elicit a distinct pattern of early and delayed activation of ERK and Akt, and early protein kinase activation is probably not involved in BCC proliferation. Structural variations in the estrogen molecule may confer novel biological properties unrelated to estrogen-dependent transcriptional activation.

  18. Tanshinone IIA Prevents Leu27IGF-II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Mediated by Estrogen Receptor and Subsequent Akt Activation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Pai, Pei-Ying; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chung, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; HsuanDay, Cecilia; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    IGF-IIR plays important roles as a key regulator in myocardial pathological hypertrophy and apoptosis, which subsequently lead to heart failure. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound in Danshen and is structurally similar to 17[Formula: see text]-estradiol (E[Formula: see text]. However, whether tanshinone IIA improves cardiomyocyte survival in pathological hypertrophy through estrogen receptor (ER) regulation remains unclear. This study investigates the role of ER signaling in mediating the protective effects of tanshinone IIA on IGF-IIR-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Leu27IGF-II (IGF-II analog) was shown in this study to specifically activate IGF-IIR expression and ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist used to investigate tanshinone IIA estrogenic activity. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation through ER activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin expression and subsequent NFATc3 nuclear translocation to suppress myocardial hypertrophy. Tanshinone IIA reduced the cell size and suppressed ANP and BNP, inhibiting antihypertrophic effects induced by Leu27IGF-II. The cardioprotective properties of tanshinone IIA that inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and promote cell survival were reversed by ICI. Furthermore, ICI significantly reduced phospho-Akt, Ly294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and PI3K siRNA significantly reduced the tanshinone IIA-induced protective effect. The above results suggest that tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which was mediated through ER, by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin and NFATC3. Tanshinone IIA exerted strong estrogenic activity and therefore represented a novel selective ER modulator that inhibits IGF-IIR signaling to block cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. c-Src activation promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway: a new and promising target for NPC

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinping; Xia, Weixiong; Yu, Yahui; Peng, Yongjian; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Ye, Yanfang; Yang, Jing; Liang, Hu; Kang, Tiebang; Lv, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of cellular Src (c-Src), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, could promote cancer progression through activating its downstream signaling pathways. However, the roles of c-Src and phosphorylated-Src (p-Src) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression are rarely investigated. Herein, we have identified high c-Src concentrations in the serum of NPC patients with distant metastasis using high-throughput protein microarrays. Levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in human primary NPC samples were unfavorable independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. Depletion or inactivation of c-Src in NPC cells using sgRNA with CRISPR/Cas9 system or PP2 decreased cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, these malignancies could be up-regulated by overexpressed c-Src in a NPC cell line with low-metastasis potential. Furthermore, p-Src was involved in promoting NPC cell metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and cytoskeleton remodeling. The p-Src-induced EMT process could be retarded by PP2, which mediated by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, elevated levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in primary NPC tissue correlated with poor outcomes of NPC patients. And aberrant activation of c-Src facilitated NPC cells with malignant potential, especially metastasis ability, which mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation and sequentially induced the EMT process. These findings unveiled a promising approach for targeted therapy of advanced NPC. PMID:27078847

  20. Ikaros 6 protects acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells against daunorubicin-induced apoptosis by activating the Akt-FoxO1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Jin, Runming; Zhang, Meiling; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Fen

    2017-03-01

    Ikaros isoform 6 (Ik6) is associated with a poor prognosis for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of Ik6 enhances proliferation and chemoresistance of leukemia cells, with a possible underlying mechanism that involves antiapoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether Ik6 protects against apoptosis by regulating the Akt-FoxO1 pathway. Bone marrow samples from children with ALL were collected and evaluated. In Ik6(+) patients, the Akt-FoxO1 pathway was activated such that expression of phosphorylated Akt and FoxO1 was significantly increased, but that of Bim and p27 decreased. In vitro experiments in this study were performed by using human ALL Nalm-6 cells that were stably transfected with Ik6 (Nalm-6/Ik6) or Sup-B15 and Ik6 shRNA (Sup-B15/Ik6 shRNA). Upon treatment with daunorubicin, Nalm-6/Ik6 cells exhibited a statistically significant reduction in apoptosis, with increased expression of p-Akt and p-FoxO1. In contrast, an increase in apoptosis with decreased expression of p-Akt and p-FoxO1 was observed in Sup-B15/Ik6 shRNA cells. This protection was dependent on activation of caspase-3 cleavage. By using an activator and an inhibitor of Akt or FoxO1, we demonstrated that Akt or FoxO1 activation had no effect on Ik6 expression. In conclusion, Ik6, the upstream factor of Akt-FoxO1 pathway, can protect ALL cells against daunorubicin-induced apoptosis and can potentially be explored as a therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with ALL.

  1. HER2 expression and PI3K-Akt pathway alterations in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Sukawa, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Ito, Miki; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Naito, Takafumi; Mitsuhashi, Kei; Matsunaga, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Taiga; Mikami, Masashi; Adachi, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab has led to an era of personalized therapy in gastric cancer (GC). As a result, HER2 expression has become a major concern in GC. HER2 overexpression is seen in 7-34% of GC cases. Trastuzumab is an antibody that targets the HER2 extracellular domain and induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and inhibition of the HER2 downstream signals. Mechanisms of resistance to trastuzumab have been reported in breast cancer. There are various mechanisms underlying trastuzumab resistance, such as alterations of HER2 structure or surroundings, dysregulation of HER2 downstream signal effectors and interaction of HER2 with other membrane receptors. The PI3K-Akt pathway is one of the main downstream signaling pathways of HER2. It is well known that PIK3CA mutations and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN) inactivation cause over-activation of the downstream signal without an upstream signal activation. Frequencies of PIK3CA mutations and PTEN inactivation have been reported to be 4-25 and 16-77%, respectively. However, little is known about the association between HER2 expression and PI3K-Akt pathway alterations in GC. We have found that HER2 over-expression was significantly correlated with pAkt expression in GC tissues. Furthermore, pAkt expression was correlated with poor prognosis. These results suggest that the PI3K-Akt pathway plays an important role in HER2-positive GC. Moreover, PIK3CA mutations and/or PTEN inactivation might affect the effectiveness of HER2-targeting therapy. Hence, it is necessary to clarify not only HER2 alterations but also PI3K-Akt pathway alterations for HER2-targeting therapy in GC. This review will introduce recent investigations and consider the current status of HER2-targeted therapy for treatment of GC.

  2. Autophagy activation protects shock wave induced renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis may through modulation of Akt/ GSK-3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qingzhi; Li, Xiang; He, Hui; He, Dalin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is well documented to exert destructive effect to renal cells and its mechanism is not clear. Autophagy is one of cell basic response for stressful conditions and it is important to determine cell's fate. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of autophagy in the process of shock wave-induced renal cells injury. Methods: NRK-52E cell, a rat renal tubular epithelial cell, was exposed to shock wave at the voltage of 14KV. GFP-LC3 puncta was used to monitor Autophagy flux in the process of shock wave injury. Autophagic relative proteins, such as light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1 and p62, were also examined. Cell variability and apoptosis were detected when inhibition autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA) or stimulating its activity with rapamycin during the process of shock wave injury. The role of Akt/ GSK-3β and its connection with autophagy in the process of shock wave injury were also investigated. Results: Shock wave was confirmed to activate autophagy in renal cells, which was manifested in LC3-II turnover, beclin-1 induction and degradation of p62. Inhibition autophagy enhanced cell damage or apoptosis, whereas its stimulating was able to exert protection from shock wave injury. Akt/ GSK-3β, a cell-survival signaling pathway, can also be activated during the process. And its activation could be suppressed by blockade autophagy. Conclusion: Autophagy is a self-protective response for renal cells from shock wave injury. The cyto-protection of autophagy may be connected with modulation Akt/ GSK-3β pathway. PMID:27994511

  3. Dissociation between the translocation and the activation of Akt in fMLP-stimulated human neutrophils--effect of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Burelout, Chantal; Naccache, Paul H; Bourgoin, Sylvain G

    2007-06-01

    PGE(2) and other cAMP-elevating agents are known to down-regulate most functions stimulated by fMLP in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. We reported previously that the inhibitory potential of PGE(2) resides in its capacity to suppress fMLP-stimulated PI-3Kgamma activation via the PGE(2) receptor EP(2) and hence, to decrease phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] formation. Akt activity is stimulated by fMLP through phosphorylation on threonine 308 (Thr308) and serine 473 (Ser473) by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and MAPK-AP kinase (APK)-APK-2 (MAPKAPK-2), respectively, in a PI-3K-dependent manner. Despite the suppression of fMLP-induced PI-3Kgamma activation observed in the presence of PGE(2), we show that Akt is fully phosphorylated on Thr308 and Ser473. However, fMLP-induced Akt translocation is decreased markedly in this context. PGE(2) does not affect the phosphorylation of MAPKAPK-2 but decreases the translocation of PDK1 induced by fMLP. Other cAMP-elevating agents such as adenosine (Ado) similarly block the fMLP-induced PI-3Kgamma activation process but do not inhibit Akt phosphorylation. However, Akt activity stimulated by fMLP is down-regulated slightly by agonists that elevate cAMP levels. Whereas protein kinase A is not involved in the maintenance of Akt phosphorylation, it is required for the inhibition of Akt translocation by PGE(2). Moreover, inhibition of fMLP-stimulated PI-3Kdelta activity by the selective inhibitor IC87114 only partially affects the late phase of Akt phosphorylation in the presence of PGE(2). Taken together, these results suggest that cAMP-elevating agents, such as PGE(2) or Ado, are able to induce an alternative mechanism of Akt activation by fMLP in which the translocation of Akt to PI(3,4,5)P(3)-enriched membranes is not required prior to its phosphorylation.

  4. Akt- or MEK-mediated mTOR inhibition suppresses Nf1 optic glioma growth

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Aparna; Toonen, Joseph A.; Cimino, Patrick J.; Gianino, Scott M.; Gutmann, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) develop optic pathway gliomas, which result from impaired NF1 protein regulation of Ras activity. One obstacle to the implementation of biologically targeted therapies is an incomplete understanding of the individual contributions of the downstream Ras effectors (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [MEK], Akt) to optic glioma maintenance. This study was designed to address the importance of MEK and Akt signaling to Nf1 optic glioma growth. Methods Primary neonatal mouse astrocyte cultures were employed to determine the consequence of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MEK inhibition on Nf1-deficient astrocyte growth. Nf1 optic glioma–bearing mice were used to assess the effect of Akt and MEK inhibition on tumor volume, proliferation, and retinal ganglion cell dysfunction. Results Both MEK and Akt were hyperactivated in Nf1-deficient astrocytes in vitro and in Nf1 murine optic gliomas in vivo. Pharmacologic PI3K or Akt inhibition reduced Nf1-deficient astrocyte proliferation to wild-type levels, while PI3K inhibition decreased Nf1 optic glioma volume and proliferation. Akt inhibition of Nf1-deficient astrocyte and optic glioma growth reflected Akt-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Sustained MEK pharmacologic blockade also attenuated Nf1-deficient astrocytes as well as Nf1 optic glioma volume and proliferation. Importantly, these MEK inhibitory effects resulted from p90RSK-mediated, Akt-independent mTOR activation. Finally, both PI3K and MEK inhibition reduced optic glioma–associated retinal ganglion cell loss and nerve fiber layer thinning. Conclusion These findings establish that the convergence of 2 distinct Ras effector pathways on mTOR signaling maintains Nf1 mouse optic glioma growth, supporting the evaluation of pharmacologic inhibitors that target mTOR function in future human NF1–optic pathway glioma clinical trials. PMID:25534823

  5. Andrographolide causes apoptosis via inactivation of STAT3 and Akt and potentiates antitumor activity of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guo-Qing; Shen, Bai-Yong; Pan, Chun-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Shi, Min-Min; Peng, Cheng-Hong

    2013-09-12

    Gemcitabine is a first-line drug utilised in the chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer; however, this drug induces chemo-resistance and toxicity to normal tissue during treatment. Here, we firstly report that andrographolide (ANDRO) alone not only has anti-pancreatic cancer activity, but it also potentiates the anti-tumour activity of gemcitabine. Treatment with ANDRO alone inhibits proliferation of the pancreatic cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Interestingly, ANDRO induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting STAT3 and Akt activation, upregulating the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax, and downregulating the expression of cyclinD1, cyclinE, survivin, X-IAP and Bcl-2. Additionally, ANDRO combined with gemcitabine significantly induce stronger cell cycle arrest and more obvious apoptosis than each single treatment. The mechanistic study demonstrates that this synergistic effect is also dependent on the inhibition of STAT3 and Akt activations which subsequently regulates the pathways involved in the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, both ANDRO alone and the combination treatments exhibit efficacious anti-tumour activity in vivo. Overall, our results provide solid evidence supporting that ANDRO alone or its combination with gemcitabine is a potential chemotherapeutic approach for treating human pancreatic cancer in clinical practice.

  6. CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation promotes colon cancer progression via AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Esther; Martín-Ruiz, Asunción; Martín, Paloma; Calvo, Virginia; Provencio, Mariano; García, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological activation of the cannabinoid receptor type 2, CB2, has been shown to elicit anti-tumoral mechanisms in different cancer types. However, little is known about its endogenous role in tumor pathophysiology, and different studies have attributed pro-tumorigenic properties to this receptor. In a previous work, we showed that CB2 expression is a poor prognostic factor in colon cancer patients. Here we report that activation of CB2 with low doses of specific agonists induce cell proliferation and favor the acquisition of aggressive molecular features in colon cancer cells. We show that sub-micromolar concentrations of CB2-specific agonists, JWH-133 and HU-308, promote an increase in cell proliferation rate through the activation of AKT/PKB pathway in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. AKT activation promotes GSK3β inhibition and thus, a more aggressive cell phenotype with the subsequent elevation of SNAIL levels, E-cadherin degradation and β-catenin delocalization from cell membrane. Taken together, our data show that CB2 activation with sub-micromolar doses of agonists, which could be more similar to endogenous levels of cannabinoids, promote colon cancer progression, implicating that CB2 could have a pro-tumorigenic endogenous role in colon cancer. PMID:27634891

  7. Hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation of oral cancer through activation of the COX2/AKT/ERK1/2 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Bian, Huan; Li, Xiaoxu; Wu, Huanhuan; Bi, Qingwei; Yan, Yingbin; Wang, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, the third gaseous transmitter, is one of the main causes of halitosis in the oral cavity. It is generally considered as playing a deleterious role in many oral diseases including oral cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oral cancer growth remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms through CCK-8 assay, EdU incorporation, real-time PCR, western blot and pathway blockade assays. Our results showed that hydrogen sulfide promoted oral cancer cell proliferation through activation of the COX2, AKT and ERK1/2 pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking any of the three above pathways inhibited hydrogen sulfide-induced oral cancer cell proliferation. Meanwhile, blockade of COX2 by niflumic acid downregulated NaHS-induced p-ERK and p-AKT expression. Inactivation of the AKT pathway by GSK690693 significantly decreased NaHS‑induced p-ERK1/2 expression, and inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway by U0126 markedly increased NaHS-induced p-AKT expression. Either the AKT or ERK1/2 inhibitor did not significantly alter the COX2 expression level. Our data revealed, for the first time, that hydrogen sulfide promotes oral cancer cell proliferation through activation of the COX2/AKT/ERK1/2 axis, suggesting new potential targets to eliminate the effect of hydrogen sulfide on the development of oral cancer.

  8. Activation of GRs-Akt-nNOs-NR2B signaling pathway by second dose GR agonist contributes to exacerbated hyperalgesia in a rat model of radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu'e; Liu, Yue; Song, Lihua; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2014-06-01

    Central Akt, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) play key roles in the development of neuropathic pain. Here we investigate the effects of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) on the expression and activation of spinal Akt, nNOS and NR2B after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia (CCD). Thermal hyperalgesia test and mechanical allodynia test were used to measure rats after intrathecal injection of GR antagonist mifepristone or GR agonist dexamethasone for 21 days postoperatively. Expression of spinal Akt, nNOS, NR2B and their phosphorylation state after CCD was examined by western blot. The effects of intrathecal treatment with dexamethasone or mifepristone on nociceptive behaviors and the corresponding expression of Akt, nNOS and NR2B in spinal cord were also investigated. Intrathecal injection of mifepristone or dexamethasone inhibited PWMT and PWTL in CCD rats. However, hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal injection of dexamethasone on days 12 to 14 after surgery. Treatment of dexamethasone increased the expression and phosphorylation levels of spinal Akt, nNOS, GR and NR2B time dependently, whereas administration of mifepristone downregulated the expression of these proteins significantly. GRs activated spinal Akt-nNOS/NR2B pathway play important roles in the development of neuropathic pain in a time-dependent manner.

  9. AKT induces erythroid-cell maturation of JAK2-deficient fetal liver progenitor cells and is required for Epo regulation of erythroid-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Saghi; Kitidis, Claire; Zhao, Wei; Marinkovic, Dragan; Fleming, Mark D; Luo, Biao; Marszalek, Joseph; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-01

    AKT serine threonine kinase of the protein kinase B (PKB) family plays essential roles in cell survival, growth, metabolism, and differentiation. In the erythroid system, AKT is known to be rapidly phosphorylated and activated in response to erythropoietin (Epo) engagement of Epo receptor (EpoR) and to sustain survival signals in cultured erythroid cells. Here we demonstrate that activated AKT complements EpoR signaling and supports erythroid-cell differentiation in wild-type and JAK2-deficient fetal liver cells. We show that erythroid maturation of AKT-transduced cells is not solely dependent on AKT-induced cell survival or proliferation signals, suggesting that AKT transduces also a differentiation-specific signal downstream of EpoR in erythroid cells. Down-regulation of expression of AKT kinase by RNA interference, or AKT activity by expression of dominant negative forms, inhibits significantly fetal liver-derived erythroid-cell colony formation and gene expression, demonstrating that AKT is required for Epo regulation of erythroid-cell maturation.

  10. Computational Model of Gab1/2-Dependent VEGFR2 Pathway to Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wan Hua; Popel, Aleksander S.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signal transduction is central to angiogenesis in development and in pathological conditions such as cancer, retinopathy and ischemic diseases. However, no detailed mass-action models of VEGF receptor signaling have been developed. We constructed and validated the first computational model of VEGFR2 trafficking and signaling, to study the opposing roles of Gab1 and Gab2 in regulation of Akt phosphorylation in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells. Trafficking parameters were optimized against 5 previously published in vitro experiments, and the model was validated against six independent published datasets. The model showed agreement at several key nodes, involving scaffolding proteins Gab1, Gab2 and their complexes with Shp2. VEGFR2 recruitment of Gab1 is greater in magnitude, slower, and more sustained than that of Gab2. As Gab2 binds VEGFR2 complexes more transiently than Gab1, VEGFR2 complexes can recycle and continue to participate in other signaling pathways. Correspondingly, the simulation results show a log-linear relationship between a decrease in Akt phosphorylation and Gab1 knockdown while a linear relationship was observed between an increase in Akt phosphorylation and Gab2 knockdown. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated the importance of initial-concentration ratios of antagonistic molecular species (Gab1/Gab2 and PI3K/Shp2) in determining Akt phosphorylation profiles. It also showed that kinetic parameters responsible for transient Gab2 binding affect the system at specific nodes. This model can be expanded to study multiple signaling contexts and receptor crosstalk and can form a basis for investigation of therapeutic approaches, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), overexpression of key signaling proteins or knockdown experiments. PMID:23805312

  11. Increase in reactive oxygen species and activation of Akt signaling pathway in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Renata P; Araújo, Alex S R; Janner, Daiane; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M; Partata, Wania A

    2008-12-01

    Neuropathic pain occurs as a result of peripheral or central nervous system injury. Its pathophysiology involves mainly a central sensitization mechanism that may be correlated to many molecules acting in regions involved in pain processing, such as the spinal cord. It has been demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signaling molecules, such as the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, are involved in neuropathic pain mechanisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide evidence of this relationship. Sciatic nerve transection (SNT) was used to induce neuropathic pain in rats. Western blot analysis of Akt and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-Michael adducts, and measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the lumbosacral spinal cord were performed. The main findings were found seven days after SNT, when there was an increase in HNE-Michael adducts formation, total and p-Akt expression, and H(2)O(2) concentration. However, one and 15 days after SNT, H(2)O(2) concentration was raised in both sham (animals that were submitted to surgery without nerve injury) and SNT groups, showing the high sensibility of this ROS to nociceptive afferent stimuli, not only to neuropathic pain. p-Akt also increased in sham and SNT groups one day post injury, but at 3 and 7 days the increase occurred exclusively in SNT animals. Thus, there is crosstalk between intracellular signaling pathways and ROS, and these molecules can act as protective agents in acute pain situations or play a role in the development of chronic pain states.

  12. Erythropoietin pretreatment suppresses inflammation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    RONG, REN; XIJUN, XIAO

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein originally known for its important role in the stimulation of erythropoiesis, has recently been shown to have significant protective effects in animal models of kidney and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the mechanism underlying these protective effects remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of EPO on myocardial IRI and to investigate the mechanism underlying these effects. A total of 18 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the sham, IRI-saline and IRI-EPO groups. Rats in the IRI-EPO group were administered 5,000 U/kg EPO intraperitoneally 24 h prior to the induction of IRI. IRI was induced by ligating the left descending coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue were observed and scored. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were evaluated in the serum and myocardial tissue. Furthermore, the effects of EPO on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling and EPO receptor (EPOR) phosphorylation were measured. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue, increased expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in the myocardium, and increased serum levels of these mediators, as a result of IRI, were significantly decreased by EPO pretreatment. The effects of EPO were found to be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, which suppressed the inflammatory responses, following the initiation of EPOR activation by EPO. Therefore, EPO pretreatment was demonstrated to decrease myocardial IRI, which was associated with activation of EPOR, subsequently increasing PI3K/Akt signaling to inhibit the production and release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that EPO may be useful for preventing myocardial IRI. PMID:26622330

  13. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Macrophage Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT Activation and HO-1 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Guibo; Dong, Xi; Wang, Min; Qin, Meng; Yu, Yingli; Sun, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Isorhamnetin (Iso) is a flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Hippophae rhamnoides L. Previous studies have revealed its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. This study investigated the ability of Iso to inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1-derived macrophages. The effects of Iso on atherosclerosis in vivo were also evaluated in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high fat diet. Methods and Results Iso showed significant inhibitory effects on ox-LDL-induced THP-1-derived macrophage injuries via decreasing reactive oxygen species levels, lipid deposition, and caspase-3 activation, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, reducing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and regulating apoptosis-related proteins. We also determined the protective effects of Iso by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. Iso reduced the atherosclerotic plaque size in vivo in ApoE-/- mice as assessed by oil red O, Sudan IV staining, and CD68-positive cells, and reduced macrophage apoptosis as assessed by caspase-3 and TUNEL assays in lesions. Conclusion In conclusion, our results show that Iso inhibited atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-/- mice by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. PMID:25799286

  14. YB-1 overexpression promotes a TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition via Akt activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Bin; Lee, Eun Byul; Cui, Jun; Kim, Yosup; Jang, Ho Hee

    2015-03-06

    The Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a transcription/translation regulatory protein, and the expression thereof is associated with cancer aggressiveness. In the present study, we explored the regulatory effects of YB-1 during the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Downregulation of YB-1 increased E-cadherin promoter activity, and upregulation of YB-1 decreased promoter activity, suggesting that the YB-1 level may be correlated with the EMT. TGF-β1 induced YB-1 expression, and TGF-β1 translocated cytosolic YB-1 into the nucleus. YB-1 overexpression promoted TGF-β1-induced downregulation of epithelial markers, upregulation of mesenchymal markers, and cell migration. Moreover, YB-1 overexpression enhanced the expression of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors via TGF-β1-induced Akt activation. Our findings afford new insights into the role played by YB-1 in the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • YB-1 regulates E-cadherin expression in A549 cells. • TGF-β1 induces upregulating and nuclear localization of YB-1. • YB-1 overexpression accelerates TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. • YB-1 regulates Snail and Slug expression via Akt activation.

  15. Regulation of NF-κB Activation through a Novel PI-3K-Independent and PKA/Akt-Dependent Pathway in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balwani, Sakshi; Chaudhuri, Rituparna; Nandi, Debkumar; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Agrawal, Anurag; Ghosh, Balaram

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-κB regulates numerous inflammatory diseases, and proteins involved in the NF-κB-activating signaling pathway are important therapeutic targets. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation and p65/RelA phosphorylation regulate NF-κB activation. These are mediated by IKKs (IκB kinases) viz. IKKα, β and γ which receive activating signals from upstream kinases such as Akt. Akt is known to be positively regulated by PI-3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase) and differentially regulated via Protein kinase A (PKA) in various cell types. However, the involvement of PKA/Akt cross talk in regulating NF-κB in HUVECs has not been explored yet. Here, we examined the involvement of PKA/Akt cross-talk in HUVECs using a novel compound, 2-methyl-pyran-4-one-3-O-β-D-2′,3′,4′,6′-tetra-O-acetyl glucopyranoside (MPTAG). We observed that MPTAG does not directly inhibit IKK-β but prevents TNF-α-induced activation of IKK-β by blocking its association with Akt and thereby inhibits NF-κB activation. Interestingly, our results also revealed that inhibitory effect of MPTAG on Akt and NF-κB activation was unaffected by wortmannin, and was completely abolished by H-89 treatment in these cells. Thus, MPTAG-mediated inhibition of TNF-α-induced Akt activation was independent of PI-3K and dependent on PKA. Most importantly, MPTAG restores the otherwise repressed activity of PKA and inhibits the TNF-α-induced Akt phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473 residues. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time the involvement of PKA/Akt cross talk in NF-κB activation in HUVECs. Also, MPTAG could be useful as a lead molecule for developing potent therapeutic molecules for diseases where NF-κB activation plays a key role. PMID:23071583

  16. IL-7 promotes Glut1 trafficking and glucose uptake via STAT5-mediated activation of Akt to support T-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Jessica A; Wieman, Heather L; Jacobs, Sarah R; Zhao, Yuxing; Rathmell, Jeffrey C

    2008-02-15

    Lymphocyte homeostasis requires coordination of metabolic processes with cellular energetic and biosynthetic demands but mechanisms that regulate T-cell metabolism are uncertain. We show that interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a key regulator of glucose uptake in T lymphocytes. To determine how IL-7 affects glucose uptake, we analyzed IL-7 signaling mechanisms and regulation of the glucose transporter, Glut1. The IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) stimulated glucose uptake and cell-surface localization of Glut1 in a manner that required IL-7R Y449, which promoted rapid signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation and a delayed yet sustained activation of Akt. Each pathway was necessary for IL-7 to promote glucose uptake, as Akt1(-/-) T cells or PI3-kinase inhibition and RNAi of STAT5 led to defective glucose uptake in response to IL-7. STAT5 and Akt acted in a linear pathway, with STAT5-mediated transcription leading to Akt activation, which was necessary for STAT5 and IL-7 to promote glucose uptake and prevent cell death. Importantly, IL-7 required glucose uptake to promote cell survival. These data demonstrate that IL-7 promotes glucose uptake via a novel signaling mechanism in which STAT5 transcriptional activity promotes Akt activation to regulate Glut1 trafficking and glucose uptake that is critical for IL-7 to prevent T-cell death and maintain homeostasis.

  17. Seabuckthorn Pulp Oil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Activation of Akt/eNOS.

    PubMed

    Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Malik, Salma; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Gamad, Nanda; Goyal, Sameer; Nag, Tapas C; Arya, Dharamvir S; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT) pulp oil obtained from the fruits of seabuckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)] has been used traditionally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, its role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium in rats has not been elucidated so far. The present study reports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil in IR-induced model of myocardial infarction in rats and underlying mechanism mediating activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Male albino Wistar rats were orally administered SBT pulp oil (5, 10, and 20 ml/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. On the day 31, ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. SBT pulp oil pretreatment at the dose of 20 ml/kg observed to stabilize cardiac function and myocardial antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibited lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to IR-control group. SBT pulp oil also improved hemodynamic and contractile function and decreased tumor necrosis factor and activities of myocyte injury marker enzymes; lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. Additionally, a remarkable rise in expression of pAkt-eNOS, Bcl-2 and decline in expression of IKKβ/NF-κB and Bax was observed in the myocardium. The histopathological and ultrastructural salvage of cardiomyocytes further supports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil. Based on findings, it can be concluded that SBT pulp oil protects against myocardial IR injury mediating favorable modulation of Akt-eNOS and IKKβ/NF-κB expression.

  18. DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates low-dose X-ray irradiation (LDI)-induced Akt activation and osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Shi-ji; Zhu, Li-juan; Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhou, Xiao-zhong

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • LDI increases ALP activity, promotes type I collagen (Col I)/Runx2 mRNA expression. • LDI induces DNA–PKcs activation, which is required for osteoblast differentiation. • Akt activation mediates LDI-induced ALP activity and Col I/Runx2 mRNA increase. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation is important for osteoblast differentiation. - Abstract: Low-dose irradiation (LDI) induces osteoblast differentiation, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the potential role of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA–PKcs)–Akt signaling in LDI-induced osteoblast differentiation. We confirmed that LDI promoted mouse calvarial osteoblast differentiation, which was detected by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as mRNA expression of type I collagen (Col I) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In mouse osteoblasts, LDI (1 Gy) induced phosphorylation of DNA–PKcs and Akt (mainly at Ser-473). The kinase inhibitors against DNA–PKcs (NU-7026 and NU-7441) or Akt (LY294002, perifosine and MK-2206), as well as partial depletion of DNA–PKcs or Akt1 by targeted-shRNA, dramatically inhibited LDI-induced Akt activation and mouse osteoblast differentiation. Further, siRNA-knockdown of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also inhibited LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation as well as ALP activity increase and Col I/Runx2 expression in mouse osteoblasts. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay results demonstrated that LDI-induced DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation, which was inhibited by NU-7441 or SIN1 siRNA-knockdown in mouse osteoblasts. In summary, our data suggest that DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation-mediated Akt activation (Ser-473 phosphorylation) is required for mouse osteoblast differentiation.

  19. The small GTPase Rap1b negatively regulates neutrophil chemotaxis and transcellular diapedesis by inhibiting Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Xu, Juying; Kumar, Rupali Sani; Lakshmikanthan, Sribalaji; Kapur, Reuben; Kofron, Matthew; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Filippi, Marie-Dominique

    2014-08-25

    Neutrophils are the first line of cellular defense in response to infections and inflammatory injuries. However, neutrophil activation and accumulation into tissues trigger tissue damage due to release of a plethora of toxic oxidants and proteases, a cause of acute lung injury (ALI). Despite its clinical importance, the molecular regulation of neutrophil migration is poorly understood. The small GTPase Rap1b is generally viewed as a positive regulator of immune cell functions by controlling bidirectional integrin signaling. However, we found that Rap1b-deficient mice exhibited enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed lungs and enhanced susceptibility to endotoxin shock. Unexpectedly, Rap1b deficiency promoted the transcellular route of diapedesis through endothelial cell. Increased transcellular migration of Rap1b-deficient neutrophils in vitro was selectively mediated by enhanced PI3K-Akt activation and invadopodia-like protrusions. Akt inhibition in vivo suppressed excessive Rap1b-deficient neutrophil migration and associated endotoxin shock. The inhibitory action of Rap1b on PI3K signaling may be mediated by activation of phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, this study reveals an unexpected role for Rap1b as a key suppressor of neutrophil migration and lung inflammation.

  20. Gastrin induces sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 phosphorylation and mTOR activation via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-/protein kinase C-dependent but AKT-independent pathway in renal proximal tubule cells derived from a normotensive male human.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbing; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-02-01

    Gastrin is natriuretic, but its renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways are not fully known. In this study, we confirmed the existence of CCKBR (a gastrin receptor) in male human renal proximal tubule cells and discovered that gastrin induced S6 phosphorylation, a downstream component of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Gastrin also increased the phosphorylation of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) at serine 552, caused its internalization, and decreased its expression at the cell surface and NHE activity. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was dependent on PI3 kinases because it was blocked by 2 different PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294,002. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was not affected by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but was blocked by a pan-PKC (chelerythrine) and a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor (Gö6976) (10 μM) and an intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The cPKC involved was probably PKCα because it was phosphorylated by gastrin. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3, S6, and PKCα was via phospholipase C because it was blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122 (10 μM). The phosphorylation (activation) of AKT, which is usually upstream of mammalian target of rapamycin in the classic PI3 kinase-AKT-p70S6K signaling pathway, was not affected, suggesting that the gastrin-induced phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 is dependent on both PI3 kinase and PKCα but not AKT.

  1. Dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells via activation of Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Wonkyun; Hong, Jin Tae; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide (DDI), an alkamide derived from the plant Echinacea purpurea, promotes adipocyte differentiation and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, which is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we investigated whether DDI may increase glucose uptake through activation of the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DDI increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and expression and translocation of glucose transporter 4 in adipocytes treated with sub-optimal levels of insulin. Additionally, DDI enhanced Akt phosphorylation, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt inhibitors suppressed DDI-induced glucose uptake. These results suggest that DDI may improve insulin sensitivity through the activation of Akt signaling, which leads to enhanced glucose uptake.

  2. Tcra enhancer activation by inducible transcription factors downstream of pre-TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    del Blanco, Beatriz; García-Mariscal, Alberto; Wiest, David L; Hernández-Munain, Cristina

    2012-04-01

    The Tcra enhancer (Eα) is essential for pre-TCR-mediated activation of germline transcription and V(D)J recombination. Eα is considered an archetypical enhanceosome that acts through the functional synergy and cooperative binding of multiple transcription factors. Based on dimethylsulfate genomic footprinting experiments, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding Eα activation in the absence of differences in enhancer occupancy. Our data provide the molecular mechanism of Eα activation and an explanation of this paradox. We found that germline transcriptional activation of Tcra is dependent on constant phospholipase Cγ, as well as calcineurin- and MAPK/ERK-mediated signaling, indicating that inducible transcription factors are crucially involved. NFAT, AP-1, and early growth response factor 1, together with CREB-binding protein/p300 coactivators, bind to Eα as part of an active enhanceosome assembled during pre-TCR signaling. We favor a scenario in which the binding of lymphoid-restricted and constitutive transcription factors to Eα prior to its activation forms a regulatory scaffold to recruit factors induced by pre-TCR signaling. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of tissue- and signal-specific transcription factors dictates the Eα function. This mechanism for enhancer activation may represent a general paradigm in tissue-restricted and stimulus-responsive gene regulation.

  3. Purinergic receptor-mediated rapid depletion of nuclear phosphorylated Akt depends on pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat phosphatase, calcineurin, protein phosphatase 2A, and PTEN phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Mistafa, Oras; Ghalali, Aram; Kadekar, Sandeep; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2010-09-03

    Akt is an important oncoprotein, and data suggest a critical role for nuclear Akt in cancer development. We have previously described a rapid (3-5 min) and P2X7-dependent depletion of nuclear phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and effects on downstream targets, and here we studied mechanisms behind the pAkt depletion. We show that cholesterol-lowering drugs, statins, or extracellular ATP, induced a complex and coordinated response in insulin-stimulated A549 cells leading to depletion of nuclear pAkt. It involved protein/lipid phosphatases PTEN, pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat phosphatase (PHLPP1 and -2), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and calcineurin. We employed immunocytology, immunoprecipitation, and proximity ligation assay techniques and show that PHLPP and calcineurin translocated to the nucleus and formed complexes with Akt within 3 min. Also PTEN translocated to the nucleus and then co-localized with pAkt close to the nuclear membrane. An inhibitor of the scaffolding immunophilin FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) and calcineurin, FK506, prevented depletion of nuclear pAkt. Furthermore, okadaic acid, an inhibitor of PP2A, prevented the nuclear pAkt depletion. Chemical inhibition and siRNA indicated that PHLPP, PP2A, and PTEN were required for a robust depletion of nuclear pAkt, and in prostate cancer cells lacking PTEN, transfection of PTEN restored the statin-induced pAkt depletion. The activation of protein and lipid phosphatases was paralleled by a rapid proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) translocation to the nucleus, a PCNA-p21(cip1) complex formation, and cyclin D1 degradation. We conclude that these effects reflect a signaling pathway for rapid depletion of pAkt that may stop the cell cycle.

  4. PI3 kinase/Akt activation mediates estrogen and IGF-1 nigral DA neuronal neuroprotection against a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Arnulfo; Lee, Becky Y; Micevych, Paul E

    2008-04-01

    Recently, using the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) 6-hydroxydopmaine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD), we have demonstrated that blockade of central IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) attenuated estrogen neuroprotection of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) DA neurons, but exacerbated 6-OHDA lesions in IGF-1 only treated rats (Quesada and Micevych [2004]: J Neurosci Res 75:107-116). This suggested that the IGF-1 system is a central mechanism through which estrogen acts to protect the nigrostriatal DA system. Moreover, these results also suggest that IGF-1R-induced intracellular signaling pathways are involved in the estrogen mechanism that promotes neuronal survival. In vitro, two convergent intracellular signaling pathways used by estrogen and IGF-1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK), and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt), have been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. Continuous central infusions of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt inhibitors were used to test the hypothesis that one or both of these signal transduction pathways mediates estrogen and/or IGF-1 neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons after a unilateral administration of 6-OHDA into the MFB of rats. Motor behavior tests and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity revealed that the inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway (LY294002) blocked the survival effects of both estrogen and IGF-1, while an inhibitor of the MAPK/ERK signaling (PD98059) was ineffective. Western blot analyses showed that estrogen and IGF-1 treatments increased PI3K/Akt activation in the SN; however, MAPK/ERK activation was decreased in the SN. Indeed, continuous infusions of inhibitors blocked phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK. These findings indicate that estrogen and IGF-1-mediated SNpc DA neuronal protection is dependent on PI3K/Akt signaling, but not on the MAPK/ERK pathway.

  5. A novel 7-bromoindirubin with potent anticancer activity suppresses survival of human melanoma cells associated with inhibition of STAT3 and Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy; Kritsanida, Marina; Magiatis, Prokopios; Gaboriaud, Nicolas; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jun; Buettner, Ralf; Yang, Fan; Nam, Sangkil; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Jove, Richard

    2012-11-01

    STAT3 and Akt signaling have been validated as potential molecular targets for treatment of cancers including melanoma. These small molecule inhibitors of STAT3 or Akt signaling are promising for developing anti-melanoma therapeutic agents. MLS-2438, a novel 7-bromoindirubin, a derivative of the natural product indirubin, was synthesized with a bromo-group at the 7-position on one indole ring and a hydrophilic group at the 3'-position on the other indole ring. We tested the anticancer activity of MLS-2438 and investigated its mechanism of action in human melanoma cell lines. Here, we show that MLS-2438 inhibits viability and induces apoptosis of human melanoma cells associated with inhibition of STAT3 and Akt signaling. Several pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins are involved in the MLS-2438 mediated apoptosis. MLS-2438 inhibits Src kinase activity in vitro and phosphorylation of JAK2, Src, STAT3 and Akt in cultured cancer cells. In contrast to the decreased phosphorylation levels of JAK2, Src, STAT3 and Akt, phosphorylation levels of the MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling protein were not reduced in cells treated with MLS-2438. These results demonstrate that MLS-2438, a novel natural product derivative, is a Src inhibitor and potentially regulates kinase activity of JAK2 and Akt in cancer cells. Importantly, MLS-2438 suppressed tumor growth with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. Our findings support further development of MLS-2438 as a potential small-molecule therapeutic agent that targets both STAT3 and Akt signaling in human melanoma cells.

  6. Insulin suppresses ischemic preconditioning-mediated cardioprotection through Akt-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, Tanner M; Pei, Shaobo; Zhu, Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Manzanares, Robert; Henrie, Brandon; Pires, Karla M; Cox, James E; Abel, E Dale; Boudina, Sihem

    2013-11-01

    It is believed that the diabetic myocardium is refractory to cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mainly because of impaired insulin signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt). However, human as well as animal studies have clearly showed that the hearts of type 2 diabetic humans and animals may exhibit increased signaling through PI3K-Akt but yet are resistant to cardioprotection by IPC or ischemic post-conditioning. Therefore, this study was designed to determine whether activation of insulin signaling prior to IPC is detrimental for cardioprotection and to assess the role of insulin receptors (IRs) and Akt in mediating this effect. Wild-type (WT) hearts, hearts lacking IRs or hearts expressing an active form of Akt (myrAkt1) were perfused ex vivo using a Langendorff preparation and were subjected to IPC (3cycles of 5min ischemia followed by 5min reflow before 30min no flow ischemia and then by 45min reperfusion) in the presence or absence of 1nmol/L insulin. Interestingly, whereas insulin was protective against I/R (30min no flow ischemia and 45min reperfusion), it completely abolished cardioprotection by IPC in WT hearts but not in mice lacking insulin receptors (IRs) in cardiomyocytes (CIRKO) or in all cardiac cells (TIRKO). The suppression of IPC-mediated cardioprotection was mediated through downstream signaling to Akt and Gsk3β. In addition, transgenic induction of Akt in the heart was sufficient to abrogate IPC even when insulin was absent, further confirming the involvement of Akt in insulin's suppression of cardioprotection by IPC. These data provide evidence that excessive insulin signaling to Akt is detrimental for cardioprotection by IPC and could explain the failure of the diabetic myocardium to precondition.

  7. The pro-angiogenic cytokine pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of endogenous AKT/PKB activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinliang; Wei, Hong; Chesley, Alan; Moon, Chanil; Krawczyk, Melissa; Volkova, Maria; Ziman, Bruce; Margulies, Kenneth B; Talan, Mark; Crow, Michael T; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2007-11-30

    Pleiotrophin is a development-regulated cytokine and growth factor that can promote angiogenesis, cell proliferation, or differentiation, and it has been reported to have neovasculogenic effects in damaged heart. Developmentally, it is prominently expressed in fetal and neonatal hearts, but it is minimally expressed in normal adult heart. Conversely, we show in a rat model of myocardial infarction and in human dilated cardiomyopathy that pleiotrophin is markedly up-regulated. To elucidate the effects of pleiotrophin on cardiac contractile cells, we employed primary cultures of rat neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. We show that pleiotrophin is released from cardiomyocytes in vitro in response to hypoxia and that the addition of recombinant pleiotrophin promotes caspase-mediated genomic DNA fragmentation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Functionally, it potentiates the apoptotic response of neonatal cardiomyocytes to hypoxic stress and to ultraviolet irradiation and of adult cardiomyocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Moreover, UV-induced apoptosis in neonatal cardiomyocytes can be partially inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous pleiotrophin. Mechanistically, pleiotrophin antagonizes IGF-1 associated Ser-473 phosphorylation of AKT/PKB, and it concomitantly decreases both BAD and GSK3beta phosphorylation. Adenoviral expression of constitutively active AKT and lithium chloride-mediated inhibition of GSK3beta reduce the potentiated programmed cell death elicited by pleiotrophin. These latter data indicate that pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte cell death, at least partially, through inhibition of AKT signaling. In conclusion, we have uncovered a novel function for pleiotrophin on heart cells following injury. It fosters cardiomyocyte programmed cell death in response to pro-apoptotic stress, which may be critical to myocardial injury repair.

  8. Pseudolaric acid B exerts antitumor activity via suppression of the Akt signaling pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqun; Hong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of the root and trunk of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae), which has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PAB have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PAB on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells were investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, Rhodamine 123 staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PAB had antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HeLa cells. PAB markedly inhibited HeLa cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that PAB induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PAB suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic factor B cell lymphoma-2, and promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bcl-2-associated X protein. In addition, PAB induced an increase in Caspase-3 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this apoptosis may be mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis indicated that PAB was able to reduce Akt phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the Akt pathway. These results suggested that PAB inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the anti-tumor effects of PAB were associated with inhibition of the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PAB may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human cervical cancer. However, additional studies are required to investigate the underlying apoptotic mechanisms.

  9. Raf-1 Activation Prevents Caspase 9 Processing Downstream of Apoptosome Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cagnol, Sébastien; Mansour, Anna; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen; Chambard, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    In many cell types, growth factor removal induces the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria that leads to activation of caspase-9 in the apoptosome complex. Here, we show that sustained stimulation of the Raf-1/MAPK1,3 pathway prevents caspase-9 activation induced by serum depletion in CCL39/ΔRaf-1:ER fibroblasts. The protective effect mediated by Raf-1 is sensitive to MEK inhibition that is sufficient to induce caspase-9 cleavage in exponentially growing cells. Raf-1 activation does not inhibit the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria while preventing caspase-9 activation. Gel filtration chromatography analysis of apoptosome formation in cells shows that Raf-1/MAPK1,3 activation does not interfere with APAF-1 oligomerization and recruitment of caspase 9. Raf-1-mediated caspase-9 inhibition is sensitive to emetine, indicating that the protective mechanism requires protein synthesis. However, the Raf/MAPK1,3 pathway does not regulate XIAP. Taken together, these results indicate that the Raf-1/MAPK1,3 pathway controls an apoptosis regulator that prevents caspase-9 activation in the apoptosome complex. PMID:21637382

  10. The sonic hedgehog signaling pathway stimulates anaplastic thyroid cancer cell motility and invasiveness by activating Akt and c-Met.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ashley J; Doscas, Michelle E; Ye, Jin; Heiden, Katherine B; Xing, Mingzhao; Li, Yi; Prinz, Richard A; Xu, Xiulong

    2016-03-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is highly activated in thyroid neoplasms and promotes thyroid cancer stem-like cell phenotype, but whether the Shh pathway regulates thyroid tumor cell motility and invasiveness remains unknown. Here, we report that the motility and invasiveness of two anaplastic thyroid tumor cell lines, KAT-18 and SW1736, were inhibited by two inhibitors of the Shh pathway (cyclopamine and GANT61). Consistently, the cell motility and invasiveness was decreased by Shh and Gli1 knockdown, and was increased by Gli1 overexpression in KAT-18 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that Akt and c-Met phosphorylation was decreased by a Gli1 inhibitor and by Shh and Gli1 knockdown, but was increased by Gli1 overexpression. LY294002, a PI-3 kinase inhibitor, and a c-Met inhibitor inhibited the motility and invasiveness of Gli1-transfected KAT-18 cells more effectively than the vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of Snail, a transcription factor regulated by the Shh pathway, led to decreased cell motility and invasiveness in KAT-18 and SW1736 cells. However, key epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin and vimentin as well as Slug were not affected by cyclopamine and GANT61 in either SW1736 or WRO82, a well differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line. Our data suggest that the Shh pathway-stimulated thyroid tumor cell motility and invasiveness is largely mediated by AKT and c-Met activation with little involvement of EMT.

  11. The mRNA-edited form of GABRA3 suppresses GABRA3-mediated Akt activation and breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Sakurai, Masayuki; Yan, Jinchun; Li, Yan; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Paul J; Zhang, Lin; Showe, Louise C; Nishikura, Kazuko; Huang, Qihong

    2016-02-12

    Metastasis is a critical event affecting breast cancer patient survival. To identify molecules contributing to the metastatic process, we analysed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data and identified 41 genes whose expression is inversely correlated with survival. Here we show that GABAA receptor alpha3 (Gabra3), normally exclusively expressed in adult brain, is also expressed in breast cancer, with high expression of Gabra3 being inversely correlated with breast cancer survival. We demonstrate that Gabra3 activates the AKT pathway to promote breast cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, we find an A-to-I RNA-edited form of Gabra3 only in non-invasive breast cancers and show that edited Gabra3 suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. A-to-I-edited Gabra3 has reduced cell surface expression and suppresses the activation of AKT required for cell migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates a significant role for mRNA-edited Gabra3 in breast cancer metastasis.

  12. Betulinic acid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shujie; Zhu, Hongcan; He, Ping; Teng, Junfang

    2016-12-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a naturally occurring pentacyclic lupane group triterpenoid, has been demonstrated to protect against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal damage. However, the effects of BA on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unclear. Hence, this study was to investigate the effects of BA on oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced neuronal injury in rat hippocampal neurons. Our results showed that BA pretreatment greatly attenuated OGD/R-induced neuronal injury. BA also inhibited OGD/R-induced intracellular ROS production and MDA level in rat hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and the consequent activation of caspase-3 induced by OGD/R were reversed by BA pretreatment. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that BA pretreatment up-regulated the expression levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt in hippocampal neurons induced by OGD/R. Taken together, these data suggested that BA inhibits OGD/R-induced neuronal injury in rat hippocampal neurons through the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  13. Cruciferous vegetable phytochemical sulforaphane affects phase II enzyme expression and activity in rat cardiomyocytes through modulation of Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuela; Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Motori, Elisa; Fabbri, Daniele; Hrelia, Silvana

    2011-09-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), abundant in Cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce antioxidant/detoxification enzymes in many cancer cell lines, but studies focused on its cytoprotective action in nontransformed cells are just at the beginning. Since we previously demonstrated that SF elicits cardioprotection through an indirect antioxidative mechanism, the aim of this study was to analyze the signaling pathways through which SF exerts its protective effects. Using cultured rat cardiomyocytes, we investigated the ability of SF to activate Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways, which are implicated in cardiac cell survival, and to increase the phosphorylation of Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its binding to the antioxidant response element. By means of specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway represents a mechanism through which SF influences both expression and activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, analyzed by western immunoblotting and spectrophotometric assay, respectively, and modulates Nrf2 binding and phosphorylation resulting in a cytoprotective action against oxidative damage. Results of this study confirm the importance of phase II enzymes modulation as cytoprotective mechanism and support the nutritional assumption of Cruciferous vegetables as source of nutraceutical cardioprotective agents.

  14. Effects of nicorandil in neuroprotective activation of PI3K/AKT pathways in a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jingjing; Ren, Guiru; Jia, Ning; Wang, Yanfu; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Bingkun; Cao, Yunpeng

    2013-01-01

    Nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener, is known to have protective effects on ischemic injury in heart and brain. One of the most important protective mechanisms is the anti-apoptotic effect on cardiomyocytes and neurons. This study explored the anti-apoptotic effect of nicorandil against neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant APP (APPsw) and the possible mechanisms involved. We used SH-SY5Y cells transiently transfected with APPsw as a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease. Cells were treated with nicorandil (0.1, 0.5, 1 mM) for 24 h with and without glibenclamide (10 μM), a KATP channel inhibitor. The cells were then collected for MTT, apoptosis assay, and Western blot. In addition, we also investigated the potential involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in nicorandil-mediated neuroprotection of APPsw cells. Our results showed that nicorandil dose-dependently increased cell viability and reduced the rate of apoptosis as measured by MTT assay and annexin V/PI staining. Western blot showed that nicorandil could upregulate Bcl-2 levels and downregulate Bax and caspase-3 expression. Further studies showed that nicorandil increased the levels of phospho-Akt and upregulated element-binding protein activity by PI3K activation. Applying a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 blocked the protection. All these findings suggest that nicorandil might be a potential treatment option for Alzheimer's disease.

  15. The mRNA-edited form of GABRA3 suppresses GABRA3-mediated Akt activation and breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Sakurai, Masayuki; Yan, Jinchun; Li, Yan; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Paul J.; Zhang, Lin; Showe, Louise C.; Nishikura, Kazuko; Huang, Qihong

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is a critical event affecting breast cancer patient survival. To identify molecules contributing to the metastatic process, we analysed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data and identified 41 genes whose expression is inversely correlated with survival. Here we show that GABAA receptor alpha3 (Gabra3), normally exclusively expressed in adult brain, is also expressed in breast cancer, with high expression of Gabra3 being inversely correlated with breast cancer survival. We demonstrate that Gabra3 activates the AKT pathway to promote breast cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, we find an A-to-I RNA-edited form of Gabra3 only in non-invasive breast cancers and show that edited Gabra3 suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. A-to-I-edited Gabra3 has reduced cell surface expression and suppresses the activation of AKT required for cell migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates a significant role for mRNA-edited Gabra3 in breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26869349

  16. Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity by COX-2-PGE2-pAKT Axis Promotes Angiogenesis in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Amlan K.; DasMahapatra, Pramathes; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic development of the endometrium which relies on angiogenesis. Although studies have identified the involvement of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in endometriosis, no study has yet investigated the role of MMP-2 in endometriosis-associated angiogenesis. The present study aims to understand the regulation of MMP-2 activity in endothelial cells and on angiogenesis during progression of ovarian endometriosis. Histological and biochemical data showed increased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, cycloxygenase (COX)-2, von Willebrand factor along with angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. Women with endometriosis showed decreased MMP-2 activity in eutopic endometrium as compared to women without endometriosis. However, ectopic ovarian endometrioma showed significantly elevated MMP-2 activity with disease severity. In addition, increased MT1MMP and decreased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 expressions were found in the late stages of endometriosis indicating more MMP-2 activation with disease progression. In vitro study using human endothelial cells showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly increased MMP-2 activity as well as tube formation. Inhibition of COX-2 and/or phosphorylated AKT suppressed MMP-2 activity and endothelial tube formation suggesting involvement of PGE2 in regulation of MMP-2 activity during angiogenesis. Moreover, specific inhibition of MMP-2 by chemical inhibitor significantly reduced cellular migration, invasion and tube formation. In ovo assay showed decreased angiogenic branching upon MMP-2 inhibition. Furthermore, a significant reduction of lesion numbers was observed upon inhibition of MMP-2 and COX-2 in mouse model of endometriosis. In conclusion, our study establishes the involvement of MMP-2 activity via COX-2-PGE2-pAKT axis in promoting angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. PMID:27695098

  17. Activator protein 1 promotes gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer by upregulating its downstream target Bim

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenjing; Du, Yongxing; Zhang, Taiping; You, Lei; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Gemcitabine is a commonly used chemotherapy drug in pancreatic cancer. The function of activator protein 1 (AP-1) is cell-specific, and its function depends on the expression of other complex members. In the present study, we added gemcitabine to the media of Panc-1 and SW1990 cells at clinically achieved concentrations (10 µM). Compared with constitutive c-Fos expression, c-Jun expression increased in a dose-dependent manner upon gemcitabine treatment. c-Jun overexpression increased gemcitabine-induced apoptosis through Bim activation, while cell apoptosis and Bim expression decreased following c-Jun knockdown. Furthermore, gemcitabine-induced apoptosis and Bim levels decreased when c-Jun phosphorylation was blocked by SP600125. Our findings suggest that c-Jun, which is a member of the AP-1 complex, functions in gemcitabine-induced apoptosis by regulating its downstream target Bim in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:28105181

  18. Activator protein 1 promotes gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer by upregulating its downstream target Bim.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenjing; Du, Yongxing; Zhang, Taiping; You, Lei; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-12-01

    Gemcitabine is a commonly used chemotherapy drug in pancreatic cancer. The function of activator protein 1 (AP-1) is cell-specific, and its function depends on the expression of other complex members. In the present study, we added gemcitabine to the media of Panc-1 and SW1990 cells at clinically achieved concentrations (10 µM). Compared with constitutive c-Fos expression, c-Jun expression increased in a dose-dependent manner upon gemcitabine treatment. c-Jun overexpression increased gemcitabine-induced apoptosis through Bim activation, while cell apoptosis and Bim expression decreased following c-Jun knockdown. Furthermore, gemcitabine-induced apoptosis and Bim levels decreased when c-Jun phosphorylation was blocked by SP600125. Our findings suggest that c-Jun, which is a member of the AP-1 complex, functions in gemcitabine-induced apoptosis by regulating its downstream target Bim in pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. Caspase-8 scaffolding function and MLKL regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation downstream of TLR3

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seokwon; Fernandes-Alnemri, Teresa; Rogers, Corey; Mayes, Lindsey; Wang, Ying; Dillon, Christopher; Roback, Linda; Kaiser, William; Oberst, Andrew; Sagara, Junji; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Green, Douglas R.; Zhang, Jianke; Mocarski, Edward S.; Alnemri, Emad S.

    2015-01-01

    TLR2 promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation via an early MyD88-IRAK1-dependent pathway that provides a priming signal (signal 1) necessary for activation of the inflammasome by a second potassium-depleting signal (signal 2). Here we show that TLR3 binding to dsRNA promotes post-translational inflammasome activation through intermediate and late TRIF/RIPK1/FADD-dependent pathways. Both pathways require the scaffolding but not the catalytic function of caspase-8 or RIPK1. Only the late pathway requires kinase competent RIPK3 and MLKL function. Mechanistically, FADD/caspase-8 scaffolding function provides a post-translational signal 1 in the intermediate pathway, whereas in the late pathway it helps the oligomerization of RIPK3, which together with MLKL provides both signal 1 and 2 for inflammasome assembly. Cytoplasmic dsRNA activates NLRP3 independent of TRIF, RIPK1, RIPK3 or mitochondrial DRP1, but requires FADD/caspase-8 in wildtype macrophages to remove RIPK3 inhibition. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of pathways that lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to dsRNA. PMID:26104484

  20. MiT/TFE transcription factors are activated during mitophagy downstream of Parkin and Atg5

    PubMed Central

    Nezich, Catherine L.; Wang, Chunxin; Fogel, Adam I.

    2015-01-01

    The kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin can regulate the selective elimination of damaged mitochondria through autophagy (mitophagy). Because of the demand on lysosomal function by mitophagy, we investigated a role for the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, in this process. We show that during mitophagy TFEB translocates to the nucleus and displays transcriptional activity in a PINK1- and Parkin-dependent manner. MITF and TFE3, homologues of TFEB belonging to the same microphthalmia/transcription factor E (MiT/TFE) family, are similarly regulated during mitophagy. Unlike TFEB translocation after starvation-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibition, Parkin-mediated TFEB relocalization required Atg9A and Atg5 activity. However, constitutively active Rag guanosine triphosphatases prevented TFEB translocation during mitophagy, suggesting cross talk between these two MiT/TFE activation pathways. Analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–generated TFEB/MITF/TFE3/TFEC single, double, and triple knockout cell lines revealed that these proteins partly facilitate Parkin-mediated mitochondrial clearance. These results illuminate a pathway leading to MiT/TFE transcription factor activation, distinct from starvation-induced autophagy, which occurs during mitophagy. PMID:26240184

  1. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide signaling by 4-hydroxynonenal due to differential regulation of Akt1 and Akt2 contributes to decreases in cell survival and proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Reigan, Philip; Petersen, Dennis R

    2012-07-01

    Dysregulation of cell signaling by electrophiles such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory liver disease. Another consequence of inflammation is the perpetuation of oxidative damage by the production of reactive oxidative species such as hydrogen peroxide. Previously, we have demonstrated Akt2 as a direct target of 4-HNE in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In the present study, we used the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 as model to understand the combinatorial effects of 4-HNE and hydrogen peroxide. We demonstrate that 4-HNE inhibits hydrogen peroxide-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 but not Akt2. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 4-HNE prevented hydrogen peroxide stimulation of Akt-dependent phosphorylation of downstream targets and intracellular Akt activity compared with untreated control cells. Using biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that 4-HNE treatment resulted in carbonylation of Akt1, which was not observed in untreated control cells. Using a synthetic GSK3α/β peptide as a substrate, treatment of recombinant human myristoylated Akt1 (rAkt1) with 20 or 40 μΜ 4-HNE inhibited rAkt1 activity by 29 and 60%, respectively. We further demonstrate that 4-HNE activates Erk via a PI3 kinase and PP2A-dependent mechanism leading to increased Jnk phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, 4-HNE decreased both cell survival and proliferation as evidenced by MTT assays and EdU incorporation as well as decreased expression of cyclin D1 and β-catenin, an effect only moderately increased by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The ability of 4-HNE to exert combinatorial effects on Erk, Jnk, and Akt-dependent cell survival pathways provides additional insight into the mechanisms of cellular damage associated with chronic inflammation.

  2. Phosphorylation of GSK3α/β correlates with activation of AKT and is prognostic for poor overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Ruvolo, Peter P.; Qiu, YiHua; Coombes, Kevin R.; Zhang, Nianxiang; Neeley, E. Shannon; Ruvolo, Vivian R.; Hail, Numsen; Borthakur, Gautam; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael; Kornblau, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with highly active AKT tend to do poorly. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis are tightly regulated by AKT via phosphorylation of GSK3α and β isoforms which inactivates these kinases. In the current study we examine the prognostic role of AKT mediated GSK3 phosphorylation in AML. Methods We analyzed GSK3α/β phosphorylation by reverse phase protein analysis (RPPA) in a cohort of 511 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Levels of phosphorylated GSK3 were correlated with patient characteristics including survival and with expression of other proteins important in AML cell survival. Results High levels of p-GSK3α/β correlated with adverse overall survival and a lower incidence of complete remission duration in patients with intermediate cytogenetics, but not in those with unfavorable cytogenetics. Intermediate cytogenetic patients with FLT3 mutation also fared better respectively when p-GSK3α/β levels were lower. Phosphorylated GSK3α/β expression was compared and contrasted with that of 229 related cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis proteins. Consistent with p-GSK3α/β as an indicator of AKT activation, RPPA revealed that p-GSK3α/β positively correlated with phosphorylation of AKT, BAD, and P70S6K, and negatively correlated with β-catenin and FOXO3A. PKCδ also positively correlated with p-GSK3α/β expression, suggesting crosstalk between the AKT and PKC signaling pathways in AML cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that AKT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK3α/β may be beneficial to AML cell survival, and hence detrimental to the overall survival of AML patients. Intrinsically, p-GSK3α/β may serve as an important adverse prognostic factor for a subset of AML patients. PMID:26674329

  3. FOS-1 functions as a transcriptional activator downstream of the C. elegans JNK homolog KGB-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Limeng; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Block, Dena H S; Shapira, Michael

    2017-01-01

    JNK proteins are conserved stress-activated MAP kinases. In C. elegans, the JNK-homolog KGB-1 plays essential roles in protection from heavy metals and protein folding stress. However, the contributions of KGB-1 are age-dependent, providing protection in larvae, but reducing stress resistance and shortening lifespan in adults. Attenuation of DAF-16 was linked to the detrimental contributions of KGB-1 in adults, but its involvement in KGB-1-dependent protection in larvae remains unclear. To characterize age-dependent contributions of KGB-1, we used microarray analysis to measure gene expression following KGB-1 activation either in developing larvae or in adults, achieved by knocking down its negative phosphatase regulator vhp-1. This revealed a robust KGB-1 regulon, most of which consisting of genes induced following KGB-1 activation regardless of age; a smaller number of genes was regulated in an age-dependent manner. We found that the bZIP transcription factor FOS-1 was essential for age-invariant KGB-1-dependent gene induction, but not for age-dependent expression. The latter was more affected by DAF-16, which was further found to be required for KGB-1-dependent cadmium resistance in larvae. Our results identify FOS-1 as a transcriptional activator mediating age-invariant contributions of KGB-1, including a regulatory loop of KGB-1 signaling, but also stress the importance of DAF-16 as a mediator of age-dependent contributions.

  4. Expression of constitutively active Akt/protein kinase B signals GLUT4 translocation in the absence of an intact actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Eyster, Craig A; Duggins, Quwanza S; Olson, Ann Louise

    2005-05-06

    The actin cytoskeleton has been shown to be required for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation; however, the role that the actin network plays is unknown. Actin may play a role in formation of an active signaling complex, or actin may be required for movement of vesicles to the plasma membrane surface. To distinguish between these possibilities, we examined the ability of myr-Akt, a constitutively active form of Akt that signals GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in the absence of insulin, to signal translocation of an HA-GLUT4-GFP reporter protein in the presence or absence of an intact cytoskeleton in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Expression of myr-Akt signaled the redistribution of the GLUT4 reporter protein to the cell surface in the absence or presence of 10 microm latrunculin B, a concentration sufficient to completely inhibit insulin-dependent redistribution of the GLUT4 reporter to the cell surface. These data suggest that the actin network plays a primary role in organization of the insulin-signaling complex. To further support this conclusion, we measured the activation of known signaling proteins using a saturating concentration of insulin in cells pretreated without or with 10 microm latrunculin B. We found that latrunculin treatment did not affect insulin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit and IRS-1 but completely inhibited activation of Akt/PKB enzymatic activity. Phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at Ser-473 and Thr-308 was inhibited by latrunculin B treatment, indicating that the defect in signaling lies prior to Akt/PKB activation. In summary, our data support the hypothesis that the actin network plays a role in organization of the insulin-signaling complex but is not required for vesicle trafficking and/or fusion.

  5. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  6. Crude Preparations of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicles Induce Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Activating Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR–IκB Kinase–NF-κB Pathways in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Rho, Da Jeong; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori sheds outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain many surface elements of bacteria. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in directing the nature of adaptive immune responses against H. pylori, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in regulating function of DCs. In addition, HO-1 is important for adaptive immunity and the stress response. Although H. pylori-derived OMVs may contribute to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection, responses of DCs to OMVs have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of H. pylori-derived crude OMVs in modulating the expression of HO-1 in DCs. Exposure of DCs to crude H. pylori OMVs upregulated HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs obtained from a cagA-negative isogenic mutant strain induced less HO-1 expression than OMVs obtained from a wild-type strain. Crude H. pylori OMVs activated signals of transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2. Suppression of NF-κB or Nrf2 resulted in significant attenuation of crude OMV-induced HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs increased the phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target molecules of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), such as S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Suppression of Akt resulted in inhibition of crude OMV-induced Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. Furthermore, suppression of mTOR was associated with inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK), NF-κB, and HO-1 expression in crude OMV-exposed DCs. These results suggest that H. pylori-derived OMVs regulate HO-1 expression through two different pathways in DCs, Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR–IKK–NF-κB signaling. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression in DCs may modulate inflammatory responses in H. pylori infection. PMID:27185786

  7. Basal ganglia activity patterns in parkinsonism and computational modeling of their downstream effects

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jonathan E.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Turner, Robert S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The availability of suitable animal models and of the opportunity to record electrophysiologic data in movement disorder patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures has allowed researchers to investigate parkinsonism-related changes in neuronal firing patterns in the basal ganglia and associated areas of thalamus and cortex. These studies have shown that parkinsonism is associated with increased activity in the basal ganglia output nuclei, along with an increase in burst discharges, oscillatory firing, and synchronous firing patterns throughout the basal ganglia. Computational approaches have the potential to play an important role in the interpretation of these data. Such efforts can provide a formalized view of neuronal interactions in the network of connections between basal ganglia, thalamus and cortex, allow for the exploration of possible contributions of particular network components to parkinsonism, and potentially result in new conceptual frameworks and hypotheses that can be subjected to biological testing. It has proven very difficult, however, to integrate the wealth of the experimental findings into coherent models of the disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the abnormalities in neuronal activity that have been associated with parkinsonism. Subsequently, we discuss some particular efforts to model the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link abnormal basal ganglia activity to the cardinal parkinsonian motor signs and may help explain the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease. We emphasize the logical structure of these computational studies, making clear the assumptions from which they proceed and the consequences and predictions that follow from these assumptions. PMID:22805066

  8. The inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells proliferation by arctigenin through G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest: persistent p27(Kip1) induction by interfering with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Mingjun; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-15

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is vital for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. In this study, we describe that arctigenin (ATG), a major bioactive component of Fructus Arctii, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity via inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-activated HSCs proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which could not be observed in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activities could be strongly inhibited by ATG through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression in early G1 phase arrest. In the ATG-treated HSCs, the expression level of p27(Kip1) and the formation of CDK2-p27(Kip1) complex were also increased. p27(Kip1) silencing significantly attenuated the effect of ATG, including cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation in activated HSCs. We also found that ATG suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream transcription factor Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a), decreased binding of FOXO3a to 14-3-3 protein, and stimulated nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in activated HSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO3a expression by FOXO3a siRNA attenuated ATG-induced up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in activated HSCs. All the above findings suggested that ATG could increase the levels of p27(Kip1) protein through inhibition of Akt and improvement of FOXO3a activity, in turn inhibited the CDK2 kinase activity, and eventually caused an overall inhibition of HSCs proliferation.

  9. Carvacrol attenuates acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin through suppression of ERK and PI3K/Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Potočnjak, Iva; Domitrović, Robert

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of renoprotective effects of carvacrol, a monoterpenoid compound, against cisplatin (CP)-induced kidney injury. Male BALB/cN mice were orally administered 1, 3, and 10 mg carvacrol/kg body weight for two days, 48 h after intraperitoneal injection of CP (13 mg/kg). Four days after CP administration, renal oxidative stress was evidenced by increased expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). CP treatment increased the expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappaB (p-NF-κB) p65 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in kidneys, suggesting inflammatory response. CP intoxication induced apoptosis and inhibition of the cell cycle in kidneys by increasing the expression of p53 and Bax and suppressing Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 expression. Concomitant increase in p21 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression suggested enhanced DNA repair process. CP administration also resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) with concomitant induction of phosphorylated Akt and suppression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression. All these changes were dose-dependently restored by carvacrol. The results of the current study suggest that carvacrol could attenuate CP-induced acute renal injury by suppressing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation through modulation of the ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  10. Liraglutide reduces lipogenetic signals in visceral adipose of db/db mice with AMPK activation and Akt suppression.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yimin; Yuan, Geheng; Zhang, Junqing; Guo, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, has been proved to reduce body weight and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in human studies. In this study, we aimed at examining lipogenetic signal changes in VAT after weight-loss with liraglutide in db/db mice. The mice were divided into two groups: liraglutide-treated group (n=14, 8-week-old, fasting glucose. >10 mmol/L, liraglutide 300 μg/kg twice a day for 4 weeks) and control group (n=14, saline). We found body weight gain and food intake were reduced after liraglutide treatment (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the VAT weights were significantly lower in the treated group (2.32±0.37 g versus 3.20±0.30 g, P<0.01) than that in control group. In VAT, compared with control group, the lipogenetic transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα expressions were both reduced with pAMPK and pACC increased 3.5-fold and 2.31-fold respectively, while pAkt and pP38MAPK were reduced 0.38-fold and 0.62-fold respectively (P<0.01). In conclusion, VAT was reduced after weight loss with AMPK activation and Akt suppression with liraglutide treatment, which was associated with reduction of lipogenetic process in VAT.

  11. IL-8 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells through the activation of AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Lu, Fuding; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Kewei; Huang, Jian; Yu, Dexin; Bi, Liangkuan

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process has increasingly been examined due to its role in the progression of human tumors. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common urological tumors that results in patient mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that the EMT process is closely associated with the metastasis of RCC; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. The present study revealed that interleukin (IL)-8 was highly expressed in metastatic RCC. IL-8 could induce the EMT of an RCC cell line by enhancing N-cadherin expression and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, IL-8 could induce AKT phosphorylation, and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 could inhibit the EMT of RCC cells that was induced by IL-8. Therefore, these results suggest that IL-8 is able to promote the EMT of RCC through the activation of the AKT signal transduction pathway, and this may provide a possible molecular mechanism for RCC metastasis. PMID:27588140

  12. Curcumin activates autophagy and attenuates oxidative damage in EA.hy926 cells via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shouyu; Long, Mingzhi; Li, Xiuzhen; Zhu, Shushu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin, which is the effective component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has previously been shown to exert potent antioxidant, antitumor and anti‑inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism underlying the protective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage in endothelial cells remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced apoptosis and autophagy in EA.hy926 cells, and to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Cultured EA.hy926 cells were treated with curcumin (5‑20 µmol/l) 4 h prior to and for 4 h during exposure to H2O2 (200 µmol/l). Oxidative stress resulted in a significant increase in the rate of cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by an increase in the expression levels of caspase‑3 and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein (Bax), and a decrease in the expression levels of Bcl‑2. Treatment with curcumin (5 or 20 µmol/l) significantly inhibited apoptosis, and reversed the alterations in caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax expression. Furthermore, curcumin induced autophagy and microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3‑Ⅱ expression, and suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicated that curcumin may protect cells against oxidative stress‑induced damage through inhibiting apoptosis and inducing autophagy via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

  13. miR-221/222 confers radioresistance in glioblastoma cells through activating Akt independent of PTEN status.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Guo, F; Wang, P; Hong, S; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is highly resistant to radiation therapy. The underlying molecular mechanism is not completely understood. The DNA damage response (DDR) pathway plays a crucial role in radioresistance of glioablastoma cells. Growing evidence has demonstrated that radiation induces alterations in microRNA (miR) profiles. However, how radiation induces specific miRs and how they might regulate the DDR remain elusive. In our study, we found that radiation induced c-jun transcription of miR-221 and miR-222. miR-221 and miR- 222 modulated DNA-PKcs expression to affect DNA damage repair by activating Akt independent of PTEN status. Knocking down of miR-221/222 significantly increased radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells. Inhibition of Akt by RNAi or LY294002 treatment may overcome miR-221/222 induced radioresistance. Notably, combined anti-miR-221/222 and radiotherapy has remarkably inhibited tumor growth compared with anti-miR-221/222 or radiotherapy alone in a subcutaneous mouse model. Our results suggest that radio-induced c-jun promotes transcription of miR-221/222, which mediates DNA damage repair of glioblastoma cells independent of PTEN. These data indicate for the first time that miR-221/222 play an important role in mediating radio-induced DNA damage repair and that miR-221/222 could serve as potential therapeutic targets for increasing radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells.

  14. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  15. NF-kB activation and its downstream target genes expression after heavy ions exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Schmitz, Claudia; Koch, Kristina; Feles, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    To enable long-term human space flight cellular radiation response to densely ionizing radiation needs to be better understood for developing appropriate countermeasures to mitigate acute effects and late radiation risks for the astronaut. The biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions (which constitute the most important radiation type in space) with high linear energy transfer (LET) for effecting DNA damage response pathways as a gateway to cell death or survival is of major concern not only for space missions but also for new regimes of tumor radiotherapy. In the current research study, the contribution of NF-κB in response to space-relevant radiation qualities was determined by a NF-κB reporter cell line (HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo L2). The NF-κB dependent reporter gene expression (d2EGFP) after ionizing radiation (X-rays and heavy ions) exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry. Because of differences in the extent of NF-κB activation after X-irradiation and heavy ions exposure, it was expected that radiation quality (LET) might play an important role in the cellular radiation response. In addition, the biological effectiveness (RBE) of NF-κB activation and reduction of cellular survival was examined for heavy ions having a broad range of LET (˜0.3 - 9674 keV/µm). Furthermore, the effect of LET on NF-κB target gene expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In this study it was proven that NF-κB activation and NF-κB dependent gene expression comprises an early step in cellular radiation response. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression by heavy ions are highest in the LET range of ˜50-200 keV/μupm. The up-regulated chemokines and cytokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL10, IL-8 and TNF) might be important for cell-cell communication among hit as well as unhit cells (bystander effect). The results obtained suggest the NF-κB pathway to be a

  16. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHAN; HUANG, LIMING; MENG, LIWEI; SUN, HE; ZHANG, WEI; XU, YINGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  17. Apocynin inhibits Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of NF-κB by suppressing the Akt and mTOR pathways.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Arum; Sohn, Dong Suep; Lee, Chung Soo

    2016-12-01

    Microbial product lipopolysaccharide has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. Apocynin has demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of apocynin on the Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, which is involved in productions of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes, has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of apocynin on the inflammatory mediator production in relation to the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated-Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulates the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Apocynin, Akt inhibitor SH-5, Bay 11-7085 and N-acetylcysteine each attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of cytokines, PGE2, and chemokines, changes in the levels of Toll-like receptor-4, p-Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB, and production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes. The results show that apocynin appears to attenuate the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways. The effect of apocynin appears to be attributed to its inhibitory effect on the production of reactive oxygen species. Apocynin appears to attenuate the microbial product-mediated inflammatory skin diseases.

  18. Epigenetic downregulation of RUNX3 by DNA methylation induces docetaxel chemoresistance in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by activation of the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun; Wang, Rui; Song, Hai-Zhu; Pan, Ban-Zhou; Zhang, You-Wei; Chen, Long-Bang

    2013-11-01

    The RUNX3 gene has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor gene implicated in various cancers, but its association with tumor chemoresistance has not been fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of epigenetic downregulation of RUNX3 in docetaxel resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma and its possible molecular mechanisms. RUNX3 was found to be downregulated by hypermethylation in docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells. Its overexpression could resensitize cells to docetaxel both in vitro and in vivo by growth inhibition, enhancement of apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. Conversely, knockdown of RUNX3 could lead to the decreased sensitivity of parental human lung adenocarcinoma cells to docetaxel by enhancing proliferative capacity. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of RUNX3 could inactivate the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in the docetaxel-resistant cells. Importantly, co-transfection of RUNX3 and constitutively active Akt1 could reverse the effects of RUNX3 overexpression, while treatment with the MK-2206 (AKT inhibitor) mimicked the effects of RUNX3 overexpression in docetaxel-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that decreased RUNX3 expression was correlated with high expression of Akt1 and decreased sensitivity of patients to docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Taken together, our results suggest that epigenetic downregulation of RUNX3 can induce docetaxel resistance in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by activating AKT signaling and increasing expression of RUNX3 may represent a promising strategy for reversing docetaxel resistance in the future.

  19. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Huang, Liming; Meng, Liwei; Sun, He; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways.

  20. Complement membrane attack complexes activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming an Akt+NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Jane-wit, Dan; Surovtseva, Yulia V.; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Liu, Rebecca; Clark, Pamela; Manes, Thomas D.; Wang, Chen; Kashgarian, Michael; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy C.; Tellides, George; Pober, Jordan S.

    2015-01-01

    Complement membrane attack complexes (MACs) promote inflammatory functions in endothelial cells (ECs) by stabilizing NF-κB–inducing kinase (NIK) and activating noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Here we report a novel endosome-based signaling complex induced by MACs to stabilize NIK. We found that, in contrast to cytokine-mediated activation, NIK stabilization by MACs did not involve cIAP2 or TRAF3. Informed by a genome-wide siRNA screen, instead this response required internalization of MACs in a clathrin-, AP2-, and dynamin-dependent manner into Rab5+endosomes, which recruited activated Akt, stabilized NIK, and led to phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)-α. Active Rab5 was required for recruitment of activated Akt to MAC+ endosomes, but not for MAC internalization or for Akt activation. Consistent with these in vitro observations, MAC internalization occurred in human coronary ECs in vivo and was similarly required for NIK stabilization and EC activation. We conclude that MACs activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming a novel Akt+NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes. PMID:26195760

  1. Triptolide has anticancer and chemosensitization effects by down-regulating Akt activation through the MDM2/REST pathway in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jing; Su, Tiefen; Qu, Zhiling; Yang, Qin; Wang, Yu; Li, Jiansha; Zhou, Sheng

    2016-04-26

    Triptolide has been shown to exhibit anticancer activity. However, its mechanism of action is not clearly defined. Herein we report a novel signaling pathway, MDM2/Akt, is involved in the anticancer mechanism of triptolide. We observed that triptolide inhibits MDM2 expression in human breast cancer cells with either wild-type or mutant p53. This MDM2 inhibition resulted in decreased Akt activation. More specifically, triptolide interfered with the interaction between MDM2 and the transcription factor REST to increase expression of the regulatory subunit of PI3-kinase p85 and consequently inhibit Akt activation. We further showed that, regardless of p53 status, triptolide inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Triptolide also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin. MDM2 inhibition plays a causative role in these effects. The inhibitory effect of triptolide on MDM2-mediated Akt activation was eliminated with MDM2 overexpression. MDM2-overexpressing tumor cells, in turn, were less susceptible to the anticancer and chemosensitization effects of triptolide than control cells. Triptolide also exhibited anticancer and chemosensitization effects in nude mouse xenograft model. When it was administered to tumor-bearing nude mice, triptolide inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the antitumor effects of doxorubicin. In summary, triptolide has anticancer and chemosensitization effects by down-regulating Akt activation through the MDM2/REST pathway in human breast cancer. Our study helps to elucidate the p53-independent regulatory function of MDM2 in Akt signaling, offering a novel view of the mechanism by which triptolide functions as an anticancer agent.

  2. A sex- and region-specific role of Akt1 in the modulation of methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and striatal neuronal activity: implications in schizophrenia and methamphetamine-induced psychosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Kao, Hui-Yun; Min, Ming-Yuan; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2014-03-01

    AKT1 (also known as protein kinase B, α), a serine/threonine kinase of AKT family, has been implicated in both schizophrenia and methamphetamine (Meth) use disorders. AKT1 or its protein also has epistatic effects on the regulation of dopamine-dependent behaviors or drug effects, especially in the striatum. The aim of this study is to investigate the sex-specific role of Akt1 in the regulation of Meth-induced behavioral sensitization and the alterations of striatal neurons using Akt1(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates as a model. A series of 4 Experiments were conducted. Meth-induced hyperlocomotion and Meth-related alterations of brain activity were measured. The neural properties of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were also characterized. Further, 17β-estradiol was applied to examine its protective effect in Meth-sensitized male mice. Our findings indicate that (1) Akt1(-/-) males were less sensitive to Meth-induced hyperlocomotion during Meth challenge compared with wild-type controls and Akt1(-/-) females, (2) further sex differences were revealed by coinjection of Meth with raclopride but not SCH23390 in Meth-sensitized Akt1(-/-) males, (3) Meth-induced alterations of striatal activity were confirmed in Akt1(-/-) males using microPET scan with (18)F-flurodeoxyglucose, (4) Akt1 deficiency had a significant impact on the electrophysiological and neuromorphological properties of striatal MSNs in male mice, and (5) subchronic injections of 17β-estradiol prevented the reduction of Meth-induced hyperactivity in Meth-sensitized Akt1(-/-) male mice. This study highlights a sex- and region-specific effect of Akt1 in the regulation of dopamine-dependent behaviors and implies the importance of AKT1 in the modulation of sex differences in Meth sensitivity and schizophrenia.

  3. Static magnetic field enhances the viability and proliferation rate of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells potentially through activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway.

    PubMed

    Marędziak, Monika; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Polinceusz, Paulina; Lewandowski, Daniel; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 0.5T static magnetic field (sMF) on the viability and proliferation rate of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs) via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. In a 7-d culture we examined cell growth kinetic and population doubling time (PDT). We also examined cell morphology and the cellular senescence markers level. Exposure to sMF enhanced the viability of these cells. However, the effect was blocked by treating the cells with LY294002, a P13K inhibitor. We compared this effect by Western Blot analysis of Akt protein expression. We also examined whether the cell response on sMF stimulation is dependent on integrin engagement and we measured integrin gene expression. Our results suggest that stimulation using sMF is a viable method to improve hASC viability. sMF is involved in mechanisms associated with controlling cell proliferative potential signaling events.

  4. Mechanism of IRSp53 inhibition and combinatorial activation by Cdc42 and downstream effectors

    PubMed Central

    Kast, David J; Yang, Changsong; Disanza, Andrea; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Madasu, Yadaiah; Scita, Giorgio; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The Rho family GTPase effector IRSp53 has essential roles in filopodia formation and neuronal development, but its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. IRSp53 contains a membrane-binding BAR domain followed by an unconventional CRIB motif that overlaps with a proline-rich region (CRIB–PR) and an SH3 domain that recruits actin cytoskeleton effectors. Using a fluorescence reporter assay, we show that human IRSp53 adopts a closed inactive conformation that opens synergistically with the binding of human Cdc42 to the CRIB–PR and effector proteins, such as the tumor-promoting factor Eps8, to the SH3 domain. The crystal structure of Cdc42 bound to the CRIB–PR reveals a new mode of effector binding to Rho family GTPases. Structure-inspired mutations disrupt autoinhibition and Cdc42 binding in vitro and decouple Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent filopodia formation in cells. The data support a combinatorial mechanism of IRSp53 activation. PMID:24584464

  5. Coactivation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in PCB153-induced NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjiang; Yang, Jixin; Fu, Wenjuan; Qi, Suqin; Wang, Chenmin; Quan, Chao; Yang, Kedi

    2014-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent and widely distributed environmental pollutants that have various deleterious effects, e.g., neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive abnormalities. In order to verify the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by PCBs, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg for five consecutive days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 h. Results indicated that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were activated in vivo and in vitro after exposure to PCB153, and protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK were significantly increased. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibition caused by PCB153 were also observed. Inhibiting the ERK pathway significantly attenuated PCB153-induced NF-κB activation, whereas inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway hardly influenced phospho-NF-κB level. However, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway significantly elevated caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, while the ERK pathway only synergistically regulated caspase-9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a reliable indicator of cell proliferation, was also induced. Moreover, PCB153 led to hepatocellular hypertrophy and elevated liver weight. Taken together, PCB153 leads to aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition, and coactivated PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways play critical roles in PCB153-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • PCB153 led to hepatotoxicity through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition. • The PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were coactivated in vivo and in vitro by PCB153. • The ERK pathway regulated levels of phospho-NF-κB and caspase-9. • The PI3K/Akt pathway regulated levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9.

  6. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-08-15

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  7. Baicalin against obesity and insulin resistance through activation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Zhang, Lei; Wan, Dan; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-03-27

    Obesity may cause several metabolic complications, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite great advances in medicine, people still keep exploring novel and effective drugs for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to survey if baicalin might ameliorate obesity-induced insulin resistance and to explore its signal mechanisms in skeletal muscles of mice. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were given 50 mg/kg baicalin intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day for 21 days, and C2C12 myotubes were treated with 100, 200, 400 μM baicalin for 12 h in this study. Then insulin resistance indexes and insulin signal protein levels in skeletal muscles were examined. We discovered that administration of baicalin decreased food intake, body weight, HOMA-IR and NT-PGC-1α levels, but enhanced GLUT4, PGC-1α, pP38MAPK, pAKT and pAS160 contents, as well as GLUT4 mRNA, PGC-1α mRNA, PPARγ mRNA, GLUT1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscles of obese mice and myotubes of C2C12 cells, and reversed high fat diet-induced glucose and insulin intolerance, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the mice. These results suggest that baicalin is a powerful and promising agent for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance via Akt/AS160/GLUT4 and P38MAPK/PGC1α/GLUT4 pathway.

  8. Statins upregulate cystathionine γ-lyase transcription and H2S generation via activating Akt signaling in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Du, Hua-Ping; Li, Jiaojiao; Xu, Ran; Wang, Ya-Li; You, Shou-Jiang; Liu, Huihui; Wang, Fen; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, is implicated in various pathophysiologic processes. In the cardiovascular system, H2S exerts effects of cardioprotection, vascular tone regulation, and atherogenesis inhibition. Recent studies demonstrated that atorvastatin, the inhibitor of 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl coenzyme A reductase, affected H2S formation in kidney and other organs. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effects of three different statins (fluvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin) on H2S formation in raw264.7 macrophages. There was a remarkable rise in H2S level in fluvastatin- and atorvastatin-stimulated macrophages, while pravastatin failed to show any significant effect on it. Moreover, fluvastatin and atorvastatin enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in dose- and time-dependent manners. Fluvastatin also markedly enhanced the CSE activity. However, fluvastatin did not alter the mRNA or protein expression of another H2S-producing enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Blockade of CSE with its inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PAG) or siRNA markedly reduced the H2S level in fluvastatin-stimulated macrophages. In addition, fluvastatin elevated Akt phosphorylation, which occurred as early as 15 min after treatment, peaked at 1h, and lasted at least 3h. Both PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (10 μM) and Akt inhibitor perifosine (10μM) were able to reverse the increases of CSE mRNA and H2S production in fluvastatin-stimulated macrophages. Last, we showed that fluvastatin reduced the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory molecules such as IL-1β and MCP-1 in LPS-treated macrophages, which were completely reversed by CSE inhibitor PAG. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that statins may up-regulate CSE expression/activity and subsequently elevate H2S generation by activating Akt signaling pathway and also imply that CSE-H2S pathway plays a critical role in the anti

  9. Putative Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Binding Motifs in Ovine Betaretrovirus Env Proteins Are Not Essential for Rodent Fibroblast Transformation and PI3K/Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Lu; Lerman, Michael I.; Miller, A. Dusty

    2003-01-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) are simple betaretroviruses that cause epithelial cell tumors in the lower and upper airways of sheep and goats. The envelope (Env) glycoproteins of both viruses can transform rodent and chicken fibroblasts, indicating that they play an essential role in oncogenesis. Previous studies found that a YXXM motif in the Env cytoplasmic tail, a putative docking site for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) after tyrosine phosphorylation, was necessary for rodent cell transformation but was not required for transformation of DF-1 chicken fibroblasts. Here we show that JSRV and ENTV Env proteins with tyrosine or methionine mutations in the YXXM motif can still transform rodent fibroblasts, albeit with reduced efficiency. Akt was activated in cells transformed by JSRV or ENTV Env proteins and in cells transformed by the proteins with tyrosine mutations. Furthermore, the PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 could inhibit Akt activation and cell transformation in all cases, indicating that Akt activation and transformation is PI3K dependent. However, we could not detect tyrosine phosphorylation of JSRV or ENTV Env proteins or an interaction between the Env proteins and PI3K in the transformed cells. We found no evidence for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in cells that were transformed by the JSRV or ENTV Env proteins. We conclude that ovine betaretrovirus Env proteins transform the rodent fibroblasts by indirectly activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:12829832

  10. Salvianolic Acid A Attenuates Cell Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Akt and NF-κB Activation in Angiotensin-II Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Xu, Tongda; Du, Yinping; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Wanling; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Yanbin; Li, Dongye

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of Salvianolic acid A(SAA), one of the main effective components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza (known as 'Danshen' in traditional Chinese medicine), in apoptotic factors, the production of oxidative products, and the expression of Akt and NF-κB in angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated murine macrophages. In the present study, Ang II was added to mice abdominal macrophages with or without addition of SAA. After cell identification, apoptosis was measured by DNA strand break level with TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. Intracellular concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. Western blotting determined the expression of Akt, p-Akt, NF-κB and p-NF-κB. Ly294002 (the inhibitor of PI3K) was used to determine the mechanism of SAA. Ang II (1 µM) significantly increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and Bax expression, but reduced Bcl-2 expression. These effects were antagonized when the cells were pretreated with SAA. SAA decreased MDA, but increased SOD in the cell lysis solution treated with Ang II. It markedly reduced the level of p-NF-κB, as also p-Akt, which was partly blocked by Ly294002. SAA prevents Ang IIinduced apoptosis, oxidative stress and related protein expression in the macrophages. It also inhibits the activation of Akt.

  11. AKT is a therapeutic target in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irum; Huang, Zan; Wen, Qiang; Stankiewicz, Monika J.; Gilles, Laure; Goldenson, Benjamin; Schultz, Rachael; Diebold, Lauren; Gurbuxani, Sandeep; Finke, Christy M.; Lasho, Terra L.; Koppikar, Priya; Pardanani, Animesh; Stein, Brady; Altman, Jessica K.; Levine, Ross L.; Tefferi, Ayalew; Crispino, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of patients with BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) harbor mutations in JAK2 or MPL, which lead to constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT, PI3K, and ERK signaling pathways. JAK inhibitors by themselves are inadequate in producing selective clonal suppression in MPN and are associated with hematopoietic toxicities. MK-2206 is a potent allosteric AKT inhibitor that was well tolerated, including no evidence of myelosuppression, in a phase I study of solid tumors. Herein, we show that inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling by MK-2206 affected the growth of both JAK2V617F or MPLW515L-expressing cells via reduced phosphorylation of AKT and inhibition of its downstream signaling molecules. Moreover, we demonstrate that MK-2206 synergizes with Ruxolitinib in suppressing the growth of JAK2V617F mutant SET2 cells. Importantly MK-2206 suppressed colony formation from hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and alleviated hepatosplenomegaly and reduced megakaryocyte burden in the bone marrows, livers and spleens of mice with MPLW515L-induced MPN. Together, these findings establish AKT as a rational therapeutic target in the MPNs. PMID:23748344

  12. MYOCARDIAL AKT: THE OMNIPRESENT NEXUS

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Mark A.; Völkers, Mirko; Fischer, Kimberlee; Bailey, Brandi; Cottage, Christopher T.; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie; Avitabile, Daniele; Alvarez, Roberto; Sundararaman, Balaji; Quijada, Pearl; Mason, Matt; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Malhowski, Amy; Cheng, Zhaokang; Khan, Mohsin; McGregor, Michael

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest examples of integrated signal transduction is revealed by examination of effects mediated by AKT kinase in myocardial biology. Positioned at the intersection of multiple afferent and efferent signals, AKT exemplifies a molecular sensing node that coordinates dynamic responses of the cell in literally every aspect of biological responses. The balanced and nuanced nature of homeostatic signaling is particularly essential within the myocardial context, where regulation of survival, energy production, contractility, and response to pathological stress all flow through the nexus of AKT activation or repression. Equally important, the loss of regulated AKT activity is primarily the cause or consequence of pathological conditions leading to remodeling of the heart and eventual decompensation. This review presents an overview compendium of the complex world of myocardial AKT biology gleaned from more than a decade of research. Summarization of the widespread influence that AKT exerts upon myocardial responses leaves no doubt that the participation of AKT in molecular signaling will need to be reckoned with as a seemingly omnipresent regulator of myocardial molecular biological responses. PMID:21742795

  13. VHL-deficient renal cancer cells gain resistance to mitochondria-activating apoptosis inducers by activating AKT through the IGF1R-PI3K pathway.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Harada, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kiichi

    2016-10-01

    We previously developed (2-deoxyglucose)-(ABT-263) combination therapy (2DG-ABT), which induces apoptosis by activating Bak in the mitochondria of highly glycolytic cells with varied genetic backgrounds. However, the rates of apoptosis induced by 2DG-ABT were lower in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-deficient cancer cells. The re-expression of VHL protein in these cells lowered IGF1R expression in a manner independent of oxygen concentration. Lowering IGF1R expression via small interfering RNA (siRNA) sensitized the cells to 2DG-ABT, suggesting that IGF1R interfered with the activation of apoptosis by the mitochondria. To determine which of the two pathways activated by IGF1R, the Ras-ERK pathway or the PI3K-AKT pathway, was involved in the impairment of mitochondria activation, the cells were treated with a specific inhibitor of either PI3K or ERK, and 2DG-ABT was added to activate the mitochondria. The apoptotic rates resulting from 2DG-ABT treatment were higher in the cells treated with the PI3K inhibitor, while the rates remained approximately the same in the cells treated with the ERK inhibitor. In 2DG-ABT-sensitive cells, a 4-h 2DG treatment caused the dissociation of Mcl-1 from Bak, while ABT treatment alone caused the dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak without substantially reducing Mcl-1 levels. In 2DG-ABT-resistant cells, Mcl-1 dissociated from Bak only when AKT activity was inhibited during the 4-h 2DG treatment. Thus, in VHL-deficient cells, IGF1R activated AKT and stabilized the Bak-Mcl-1 complex, thereby conferring cell resistance to apoptosis.

  14. Cyproheptadine-induced myeloma cell apoptosis is associated with inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Cao, Biyin; Zhou, Shunye; Zhu, Jingyu; Zhang, Zubin; Hou, Tingjun; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies revealed that the anti-allergic cyproheptadine displays anti-blood cancer activity. However, its mechanism is still elusive. In this study, cyproheptadine was found to decrease the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and XIAP. More importantly, cyproheptadine-induced apoptosis was accompanied by suppressing AKT activation in myeloma cells. In the subsequent study, cyproheptadine was found to inhibit insulin-like growth factor 1-triggered AKT activation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Specifically, cyproheptadine blocked AKT translocation from nuclei for phosphorylation. This inhibition led to suppressed activation of p70S6K and 4EBP1, two key downstream signaling proteins in the PI3K/AKT pathway. However, cyproheptadine did not display inhibition on activation of IGF-1R or STAT3, possible upstream signals of AKT activation. These results further demonstrated that cyproheptadine suppresses the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which is probably critical for cyproheptadine-induced MM cell apoptosis.

  15. Psoralidin, An Herbal Molecule Inhibits PI3K Mediated Akt Signaling In Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer (AIPC) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Srinivasan, Sowmyalakshmi; Koduru, Srinivas; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jürgen; Kyprianou, Natasha; Damodaran, Chendil

    2008-01-01

    The protein kinase Akt plays an important role in cell proliferation and survival in many cancers, including prostate cancer. Due to its kinase activity, it serves as a molecular conduit for inhibiting apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis in most cell types. In most of the prostate tumors, Akt signaling is constitutively activated due to the deletion or mutation of the tumor suppressor PTEN, which negatively regulates PI3K through lipid phosphatase activity. Recently, we identified a natural compound, psoralidin, which inhibits Akt phosphorylation and its consequent activation in androgen independent prostate cancer cells (AIPC). Furthermore, ectopic expression of Akt renders AIPC cells resistant chemotherapy; however, psoralidin overcomes Akt-mediated resistance and induces apoptosis in AIPC cells. While dissecting the molecular events, both upstream and downstream of Akt, we found that psoralidin inhibits PI3 kinase activation and transcriptionally represses the activation of NF-κB and its target genes (Bcl-2, Survivin, and Bcl-xL, etc.), which results in the inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 and DU-145 cells. Interestingly, psoralidin selectively targets cancer cells, without causing any toxicity to normal prostate epithelial cells. In vivo xenograft assays substantiate these in vitro findings, and show psoralidin inhibits prostate tumor growth in nude mice. Our findings are of therapeutic significance in the management of prostate cancer patients with advanced or metastatic disease, as they provide new directions for the development of a phyotochemical-based platform for prevention and treatment strategies for AIPC. PMID:19223576

  16. Dual inhibition of autophagy and the AKT pathway in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Francois; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2013-07-01

    Genetic inactivation of PTEN through either gene deletion or mutation is common in metastatic prostate cancer, leading to activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT) pathway, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The PI3K-AKT pathway plays a central role in various cellular processes supporting cell growth and survival of tumor cells. To date, therapeutic approaches to develop inhibitors targeting the PI3K-AKT pathway have failed in both pre-clinical and clinical trials. We showed that a novel AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, inhibits the AKT downstream pathway by reducing p-MTOR and p-RPS6KB/p70S6K. We specifically reported that AZD5363 monotherapy induces G2 growth arrest and autophagy, but fails to induce significant apoptosis in PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Blocking autophagy using pharmacological inhibitors (3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A 1) or genetic inhibitors (siRNA targeting ATG3 and ATG7) enhances cell death induced by AZD5363 in these prostate cancer cells. Importantly, the combination of AZD5363 with chloroquine significantly reduces tumor volume compared with the control group, and compared with either drug alone in prostate tumor xenograft models. Taken together, these data demonstrate that AKT inhibitor AZD5363, synergizes with the lysosomotropic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, to induce apoptosis and delay tumor progression in prostate cancer models that are resistant to monotherapy, with AZD5363 providing a new therapeutic approach potentially translatable to patients.

  17. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-11-14

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy.

  18. The underlying mechanism of proinflammatory NF-κB activation by the mTORC2/Akt/IKKα pathway during skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeon Ja; Moon, Kyoung Mi; Chung, Ki Wung; Jeong, Ji Won; Park, Daeui; Kim, Dae Hyun; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), one of two different enzymatic complexes of mTOR, regulates a diverse set of substrates including Akt. mTOR pathway is one of well-known mediators of aging process, however, its role in skin aging has not been determined. Skin aging can be induced by physical age and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation which are intrinsic and extrinsic factors, respectively. Here, we report increased mTORC2 pathway in intrinsic and photo-induced skin aging, which is implicated in the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). UVB-irradiated or aged mice skin revealed that mTORC2 activity and its component, rictor were significantly upregulated which in turn increased Akt activation and Akt-dependent IκB kinase α (IKKα) phosphorylation at Thr23 in vivo. We also confirmed that UVB induced the mTORC2/Akt/IKKα signaling pathway with HaCaT human normal keratinocytes. The increased mTORC2 signaling pathway during skin aging were associated to NF-κB activation. Suppression of mTORC2 activity by the treatment of a mTOR small inhibitor or knockdown of RICTOR partially rescued UVB-induced NF-κB activation through the downregulation of Akt/IKKα activity. Our data demonstrated the upregulation of mTORC2 pathway in intrinsic and photo-induced skin aging and its role in IKKα/NF-κB activation. These data not only expanded the functions of mTOR to skin aging but also revealed the therapeutic potential of inhibiting mTORC2 in ameliorating both intrinsic skin aging and photoaging. PMID:27486771

  19. Cholesteryl Ester Accumulation Induced by PTEN Loss and PI3K/AKT Activation Underlies Human Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shuhua; Li, Junjie; Lee, Seung-Young; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Shao, Tian; Song, Bing; Cheng, Liang; Masterson, Timothy A.; Liu, Xiaoqi; Ratliff, Timothy L.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Altered lipid metabolism is increasingly recognized as a signature of cancer cells. Enabled by label-free Raman spectromicroscopy, we performed quantitative analysis of lipogenesis at single cell level in human patient cancerous tissues. Our imaging data revealed an unexpected, aberrant accumulation of esterified cholesterol in lipid droplets of high-grade prostate cancer and metastases. Biochemical study showed that such cholesteryl ester accumulation was a consequence of loss of tumor suppressor PTEN and subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT pathway in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that such accumulation arose from significantly enhanced uptake of exogenous lipoproteins and required cholesterol esterification. Depletion of cholesteryl ester storage significantly reduced cancer proliferation, impaired cancer invasion capability, and suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenograft models with negligible toxicity. These findings open opportunities for diagnosing and treating prostate cancer by targeting the altered cholesterol metabolism. PMID:24606897

  20. Analysis of miRNA profiles identified miR-196a as a crucial mediator of aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Ilaria; D'Angelo, Daniela; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Santos, Mafalda; Scrima, Marianna; Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Laudanna, Carmelo; Ceccarelli, Michele; Falco, Geppino; Rizzuto, Antonia; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-11-17

    Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is observed in most human cancer including lung carcinomas. Here we have investigated the role of miRNAs as downstream targets of activated PI3K/AKT signaling in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). To this aim, miRNA profiling was performed in human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) expressing active AKT1 (BEAS-AKT1-E17K), active PI3KCA (BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K) or with silenced PTEN (BEAS-shPTEN).Twenty-four differentially expressed miRNAs common to BEAS-AKT1-E17K, BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K and BEAS-shPTEN cells were identified through this analysis, with miR-196a being the most consistently up-regulated miRNA. Interestingly, miR-196a was significantly overexpressed also in human NSCLC-derived cell lines (n=11) and primary lung cancer samples (n=28).By manipulating the expression of miR-196a in BEAS-2B and NCI-H460 cells, we obtained compelling evidence that this miRNA acts downstream the PI3K/AKT pathway, mediating some of the proliferative, pro-migratory and tumorigenic activity that this pathway exerts in lung epithelial cells, possibly through the regulation of FoxO1, CDKN1B (hereafter p27) and HOXA9.

  1. mTORC1 is necessary but mTORC2 and GSK3β are inhibitory for AKT3-induced axon regeneration in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Linqing; Yang, Liu; Huang, Haoliang; Liang, Feisi; Ling, Chen; Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Injured mature CNS axons do not regenerate in mammals. Deletion of PTEN, the negative regulator of PI3K, induces CNS axon regeneration through the activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling. We have conducted an extensive molecular dissection of the cross-regulating mechanisms in axon regeneration that involve the downstream effectors of PI3K, AKT and the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2). We found that the predominant AKT isoform in CNS, AKT3, induces much more robust axon regeneration than AKT1 and that activation of mTORC1 and inhibition of GSK3β are two critical parallel pathways for AKT-induced axon regeneration. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of T308 and S473 of AKT play opposite roles in GSK3β phosphorylation and inhibition, by which mTORC2 and pAKT-S473 negatively regulate axon regeneration. Thus, our study revealed a complex neuron-intrinsic balancing mechanism involving AKT as the nodal point of PI3K, mTORC1/2 and GSK3β that coordinates both positive and negative cues to regulate adult CNS axon regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14908.001 PMID:27026523

  2. Seabuckthorn Pulp Oil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Activation of Akt/eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Malik, Salma; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Gamad, Nanda; Goyal, Sameer; Nag, Tapas C.; Arya, Dharamvir S.; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT) pulp oil obtained from the fruits of seabuckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)] has been used traditionally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, its role in ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium in rats has not been elucidated so far. The present study reports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil in IR-induced model of myocardial infarction in rats and underlying mechanism mediating activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Male albino Wistar rats were orally administered SBT pulp oil (5, 10, and 20 ml/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. On the day 31, ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. SBT pulp oil pretreatment at the dose of 20 ml/kg observed to stabilize cardiac function and myocardial antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibited lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to IR-control group. SBT pulp oil also improved hemodynamic and contractile function and decreased tumor necrosis factor and activities of myocyte injury marker enzymes; lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. Additionally, a remarkable rise in expression of pAkt–eNOS, Bcl-2 and decline in expression of IKKβ/NF-κB and Bax was observed in the myocardium. The histopathological and ultrastructural salvage of cardiomyocytes further supports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil. Based on findings, it can be concluded that SBT pulp oil protects against myocardial IR injury mediating favorable modulation of Akt-eNOS and IKKβ/NF-κB expression. PMID:27445803

  3. Expansion and long-term culture of human spermatogonial stem cells via the activation of SMAD3 and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Liu, Linhong; Sun, Min; Hai, Yanan; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2015-08-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can differentiate into spermatids, reflecting that they could be used in reproductive medicine for treating male infertility. SSCs are able to become embryonic stem-like cells with the potentials of differentiating into numerous cell types of the three germ layers and they can transdifferentiate to mature and functional cells of other lineages, highlighting significant applications of human SSCs for treating human diseases. However, human SSCs are very rare and a long-term culture system of human SSCs has not yet established. This aim of study was to isolate, identify and culture human SSCs for a long period. We isolated GPR125-positive spermatogonia with high purity and viability from adult human testicular tissues utilizing the two-step enzymatic digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting with antibody against GPR125. These freshly isolated cells expressed a number of markers for SSCs, including GPR125, PLZF, GFRA1, RET, THY1, UCHL1 and MAGEA4, but not the hallmarks for spermatocytes and spermatozoa, e.g. SYCP1, SYCP3, PRM1, and TNP1. The isolated human SSCs could be cultured for two months with a significant increase of cell number with the defined medium containing growth factors and hydrogel. Notably, the expression of numerous SSC markers was maintained during the cultivation of human SSCs. Furthermore, SMAD3 and AKT phosphorylation was enhanced during the culture of human SSCs. Collectively, these results suggest that human SSCs can be cultivated for a long period and expanded whilst retaining an undifferentiated status via the activation of SMAD3 and AKT pathways. This study could provide sufficient cells of SSCs for their basic research and clinic applications in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  4. Cisplatin triggers atrophy of skeletal C2C12 myotubes via impairment of Akt signalling pathway and subsequent increment activity of proteasome and autophagy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fanzani, Alessandro Zanola, Alessandra; Rovetta, Francesca; Rossi, Stefania; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2011-02-01

    Cisplatin (cisPt) is an antineoplastic drug which causes an array of adverse effects on different organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In this work we show that cisPt behaves as a potent trigger to activate protein hypercatabolism in skeletal C2C12 myotubes. Within 24 h of 50 {mu}M cisPt administration, C2C12 myotubes displayed unchanged cell viability but showed a subset of hallmark signs typically recognized during atrophy, including severe reduction in body size, repression of Akt phosphorylation, transcriptional up-regulation of atrophy-related genes, such as atrogin-1, gabarap, beclin-1 and bnip-3, and loss of myogenic markers. As a consequence, proteasomal activity and formation of autophagosomes were remarkably increased in cisPt-treated myotubes, but forced stimulation of Akt pathway, as obtained through insulin administration or delivery of a constitutively activated Akt form, was sufficient to counter the cisPt-induced protein breakdown, leading to rescue of atrophic size. Overall, these results indicate that cisPt induces atrophy of C2C12 myotubes via activation of proteasome and autophagy systems, suggesting that the Akt pathway represents one sensitive target of cisPt molecular action in skeletal muscle.

  5. Inositol hexaphosphate represses telomerase activity and translocates TERT from the nucleus in mouse and human prostate cancer cells via the deactivation of Akt and PKC{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, Shankar; Banerjee, Partha P. . E-mail: ppb@georgetown.edu

    2006-11-03

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has anti-proliferative effects on a variety of cancer cells, including prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of anti-proliferative effects of IP6 is not entirely understood. Since the activation of telomerase is crucial for cells to gain immortality and proliferation ability, we examined the role of IP6 in the regulation of telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that IP6 represses telomerase activity in mouse and human prostate cancer cells dose-dependently. In addition, IP6 prevents the translocation of TERT to the nucleus. Since phosphorylation of TERT by Akt and/or PKC{alpha} is necessary for nuclear translocation, we examined phosphorylation of Akt and PKC{alpha} after IP6 treatments. Our results show that IP6 inhibits phosphorylation of Akt and PKC{alpha}. These results show for the first time that IP6 represses telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells by posttranslational modification of TERT via the deactivation of Akt and PKC{alpha}.

  6. AT7867 Inhibits Human Colorectal Cancer Cells via AKT-Dependent and AKT-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chen; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Shibing; Li, Xiangcheng

    2017-01-01

    AKT is often hyper-activated in human colorectal cancers (CRC). This current study evaluated the potential anti-CRC activity by AT7867, a novel AKT and p70S6K1 (S6K1) dual inhibitor. We showed that AT7867 inhibited survival and proliferation of established (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1 lines) and primary human CRC cells. Meanwhile, it provoked caspase-dependent apoptosis in the CRC cells. Molecularly, AT7867 blocked AKT-S6K1 activation in CRC cells. Restoring AKT-S6K1 activation, via expression of a constitutively-active AKT1 (“ca-AKT1”), only partially attenuated AT7867-induced HT-29 cell death. Further studies demonstrated that AT7867 inhibited sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity to promote pro-apoptotic ceramide production in HT-29 cells. Such effects by AT7867 were independent of AKT inhibition. AT7867-indued ceramide production and subsequent HT-29 cell apoptosis were attenuated by co-treatment of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), but were potentiated with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor PDMP. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of AT7867 inhibited HT-29 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. AKT activation was also inhibited in AT7867-treated HT-29 tumors. Together, the preclinical results suggest that AT7867 inhibits CRC cells via AKT-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:28081222

  7. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  8. Neurotrophin Promotes Neurite Outgrowth by Inhibiting Rif GTPase Activation Downstream of MAPKs and PI3K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoxia; Yan, Huijuan; Li, Jiayi; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Junyu; Fan, Lifei

    2017-01-01

    Members of the well-known semaphorin family of proteins can induce both repulsive and attractive signaling in neural network formation and their cytoskeletal effects are mediated in part by small guanosine 5’-triphosphatase (GTPases). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular role of Rif GTPase in the neurotrophin-induced neurite outgrowth. By using PC12 cells which are known to cease dividing and begin to show neurite outgrowth responding to nerve growth factor (NGF), we found that semaphorin 6A was as effective as nerve growth factor at stimulating neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and that its neurotrophic effect was transmitted through signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). We further found that neurotrophin-induced neurite formation in PC12 cells could be partially mediated by inhibition of Rif GTPase activity downstream of MAPKs and PI3K signaling. In conclusion, we newly identified Rif as a regulator of the cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by semaphorins. PMID:28098758

  9. Nuclear cereblon modulates transcriptional activity of Ikaros and regulates its downstream target, enkephalin, in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeyoshi; Asahi, Toru; Sawamura, Naoya

    2016-08-26

    The gene coding cereblon (CRBN) was originally identified in genetic linkage analysis of mild autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability. CRBN has broad localization in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, the significance of nuclear CRBN remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the role of CRBN in the nucleus. First, we generated a series of CRBN deletion mutants and determined the regions responsible for the nuclear localization. Only CRBN protein lacking the N-terminal region was localized outside of the nucleus, suggesting that the N-terminal region is important for its nuclear localization. CRBN was also identified as a thalidomide-binding protein and component of the cullin-4-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Thalidomide has been reported to be involved in the regulation of the transcription factor Ikaros by CRBN-mediated degradation. To investigate the nuclear functions of CRBN, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments and evaluated the binding of CRBN to Ikaros. As a result, we found that CRBN was associated with Ikaros protein, and the N-terminal region of CRBN was required for Ikaros binding. In luciferase reporter gene experiments, CRBN modulated transcriptional activity of Ikaros. Furthermore, we found that CRBN modulated Ikaros-mediated transcriptional repression of the proenkephalin gene by binding to its promoter region. These results suggest that CRBN binds to Ikaros via its N-terminal region and regulates transcriptional activities of Ikaros and its downstream target, enkephalin.

  10. Neurotrophin Promotes Neurite Outgrowth by Inhibiting Rif GTPase Activation Downstream of MAPKs and PI3K Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoxia; Yan, Huijuan; Li, Jiayi; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Junyu; Fan, Lifei

    2017-01-13

    Members of the well-known semaphorin family of proteins can induce both repulsive and attractive signaling in neural network formation and their cytoskeletal effects are mediated in part by small guanosine 5'-triphosphatase (GTPases). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular role of Rif GTPase in the neurotrophin-induced neurite outgrowth. By using PC12 cells which are known to cease dividing and begin to show neurite outgrowth responding to nerve growth factor (NGF), we found that semaphorin 6A was as effective as nerve growth factor at stimulating neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and that its neurotrophic effect was transmitted through signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). We further found that neurotrophin-induced neurite formation in PC12 cells could be partially mediated by inhibition of Rif GTPase activity downstream of MAPKs and PI3K signaling. In conclusion, we newly identified Rif as a regulator of the cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by semaphorins.

  11. Differential Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-Akt-mTOR Activation by Semliki Forest and Chikungunya Viruses Is Dependent on nsP3 and Connected to Replication Complex Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Biasiotto, Roberta; Eng, Kai; Neuvonen, Maarit; Götte, Benjamin; Rheinemann, Lara; Mutso, Margit; Utt, Age; Varghese, Finny; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Merits, Andres; Ahola, Tero; McInerney, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses affect or exploit the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a crucial prosurvival signaling cascade. We report that this pathway was strongly activated in cells upon infection with the Old World alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), even under conditions of complete nutrient starvation. We mapped this activation to the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain in the C-terminal tail of SFV nonstructural protein nsP3. Viruses with a deletion of this domain (SFV-Δ50) but not of other regions in nsP3 displayed a clearly delayed and reduced capacity of Akt stimulation. Ectopic expression of the nsP3 of SFV wild type (nsP3-wt), but not nsP3-Δ50, equipped with a membrane anchor was sufficient to activate Akt. We linked PI3K-Akt-mTOR stimulation to the intracellular dynamics of viral replication complexes, which are formed at the plasma membrane and subsequently internalized in a process blocked by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Replication complex internalization was observed upon infection of cells with SFV-wt and SFV mutants with deletions in nsP3 but not with SFV-Δ50, where replication complexes were typically accumulated at the cell periphery. In cells infected with the closely related chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was only moderately activated. Replication complexes of CHIKV were predominantly located at the cell periphery. Exchanging the hypervariable C-terminal tail of nsP3 between SFV and CHIKV induced the phenotype of strong PI3K-Akt-mTOR activation and replication complex internalization in CHIKV. In conclusion, infection with SFV but not CHIKV boosts PI3K-Akt-mTOR through the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain of nsP3 to drive replication complex internalization. IMPORTANCE SFV and CHIKV are very similar in terms of molecular and cell biology, e.g., regarding replication and molecular interactions, but are strikingly different regarding pathology: CHIKV is a relevant human

  12. Suppression of Heregulin-β1/HER2-Modulated Invasive and Aggressive Phenotype of Breast Carcinoma by Pterostilbene via Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, p38 Kinase Cascade and Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lin, Ying-Ting; Lin, Chih-Li; Wei, Chi-Shiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Invasive breast cancer is the major cause of death among females and its incidence is closely linked to HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) overexpression. Pterostilbene, a natural analog of resveratrol, exerts its cancer chemopreventive activity similar to resveratrol by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. However, the anti-invasive effect of pterostilbene on HER2-bearing breast cancer has not been evaluated. Here, we used heregulin-β1 (HRG-β1), a ligand for HER3, to transactivate HER2 signaling. We found that pterostilbene was able to suppress HRG-β1-mediated cell invasion, motility and cell transformation of MCF-7 human breast carcinoma through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and growth inhibition. In parallel, pterostilbene also inhibited protein and mRNA expression of MMP-9 driven by HRG-β1, suggesting that pterostilbene decreased HRG-β1-mediated MMP-9 induction via transcriptional regulation. Examining the signaling pathways responsible for HRG-β1-associated MMP-9 induction and growth inhibition, we observed that pterostilbene, as well as SB203580 (p38 kinase inhibitor), can abolish the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 kinase), a downstream HRG-β1-responsive kinase responsible for MMP-9 induction. In addition, HRG-β1-driven Akt phosphorylation required for cell proliferation was also suppressed by pterostilbene. Taken together, our present results suggest that pterostilbene may serve as a chemopreventive agent to inhibit HRG-β1/HER2-mediated aggressive and invasive phenotype of breast carcinoma through down-regulation of MMP-9, p38 kinase and Akt activation. PMID:19617202

  13. ON01210.Na (Ex-RAD®) mitigates radiation damage through activation of the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Anthony D; Cosenza, Stephen C; Bonagura, Marie; Manair, Manoj; Reddy, M V Ramana; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2013-01-01

    Development of radio-protective agents that are non-toxic is critical in light of ever increasing threats associated with proliferation of nuclear materials, terrorism and occupational risks associated with medical and space exploration. In this communication, we describe the discovery, characterization and mechanism of action of ON01210.Na, which effectively protects mouse and human bone marrow cells from radiation-induced damage both in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that treatment of normal fibroblasts with ON01210.Na before and after exposure to ionizing radiation provides dose dependent protection against radiation-induced damage. Treatment of mice with ON01210.Na prior to radiation exposure was found to result in a more rapid recovery of their hematopoietic system. The mechanistic studies described here show that ON01210.Na manifests its protective effects through the up-regulation of PI3-Kinase/AKT pathways in cells exposed to radiation. These results suggest that ON 01210.Na is a safe and effective radioprotectant and could be a novel agent for use in radiobiological disasters.

  14. ON01210.Na (Ex-RAD®) Mitigates Radiation Damage through Activation of the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bonagura, Marie; Manair, Manoj; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, E. Premkumar

    2013-01-01

    Development of radio-protective agents that are non-toxic is critical in light of ever increasing threats associated with proliferation of nuclear materials, terrorism and occupational risks associated with medical and space exploration. In this communication, we describe the discovery, characterization and mechanism of action of ON01210.Na, which effectively protects mouse and human bone marrow cells from radiation-induced damage both in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that treatment of normal fibroblasts with ON01210.Na before and after exposure to ionizing radiation provides dose dependent protection against radiation-induced damage. Treatment of mice with ON01210.Na prior to radiation exposure was found to result in a more rapid recovery of their hematopoietic system. The mechanistic studies described here show that ON01210.Na manifests its protective effects through the up-regulation of PI3-Kinase/AKT pathways in cells exposed to radiation. These results suggest that ON 01210.Na is a safe and effective radioprotectant and could be a novel agent for use in radiobiological disasters. PMID:23505494

  15. Simvastatin inhibits glucose uptake activity and GLUT4 translocation through suppression of the IR/IRS-1/Akt signaling in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Liang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Zhipeng; Yu, Kaizhen; Zhan, Shaopeng; Su, Qiang; Yan, Yinzhi; Mansai, Huseen; Qiao, Weitong; Yang, Qi; Qi, Zhongquan; Huang, Zhengrong

    2016-10-01

    Simvastatin,a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, is clinically used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies demonstrate that statins increase the risk of new-onset diabetes in long-term therapy, but mechanisms underpinning this effect are still unclear. Here, we investigated whether simvastatin inhibited the glucose uptake activity and the underlying mechanisms in C2C12 myotubes. Our studies showed that simvastatin significantly inhibited glucose uptake activity and GLUT4 translocation, whereas the effect was reversible with mevalonolactone (ML), which acts as an intermediate of cholesterol synthesis pathway. Mechanistically, the inhibition of glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation elicited by simvastatin were associated with the suppression of the insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate (IRS)/Akt signaling cascade. Simvastatin suppressed the phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1 and Akt, and total expression of IR or IRS-1, but did not affect Akt. Furthermore, simvastatin decreased Rac1 GTP binding. In conclusion, our findings indicate that simvastatin suppresses glucose uptake activity and GLUT4 translocation via IR-dependent IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide an important new insight into the mechanism of statins on insulin sensitivity which may be associated with new-onset diabetes.

  16. Protection afforded by quercetin against H2O2-induced apoptosis on PC12 cells via activating PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Lejin; Liu, Zhene; Wang, Hongxia; Xu, Cunli

    2016-01-01

    Cell damage and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress have been involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to explore the neuro-protective effects of quercetin on PC12 cells apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability was detected, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the cells in control, H(2)O(2) and quercetin groups. It finally turned out that quercetin might protect PC12 cells against the negative effect of H(2)O(2) by decreasing of LDH release, ROS concentration and MDA level and regaining the GSH-Px and SOD activities. To investigate the mechanism, LY294002 was introduced, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt) were examined by Western blot analysis. The data showed that LY294002 almost had the same effects with H(2)O(2), which was also significantly reversed by quercetin could enhance Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and adjust the p-Akt expression, which indicated quercetin might protect PC12 cells against the negative effect of H(2)O(2) via activating the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  17. Resistance after Chronic Application of the HDAC-Inhibitor Valproic Acid Is Associated with Elevated Akt Activation in Renal Cell Carcinoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Juengel, Eva; Makarević, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drugs have significantly improved the therapeutic options for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, resistance often develops, negating the benefit of these agents. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance towards the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in a RCC in vivo model were investigated. NMRI:nu/nu mice were transplanted with Caki-1 RCC cells and then treated with VPA (200 mg/kg/day). Controls remained untreated. Based on tumor growth dynamics, the mice were divided into “responders” and “non-responders” to VPA. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation and expression of cell signaling and cell cycle regulating proteins in the RCC mouse tumors were evaluated by Western blotting. Tumor growth of VPA responders was significantly diminished, whereas that of VPA non-responders even exceeded control values. Cdk1, 2 and 4 proteins were strongly enhanced in the non-responders. Importantly, Akt expression and activity were massively up-regulated in the tumors of the VPA non-responders. Chronic application (12 weeks) of VPA to Caki-1 cells in vitro evoked a distinct elevation of Akt activity and cancer cells no longer responded with cell growth reduction, compared to the short 2 week treatment. We assume that chronic use of an HDAC-inhibitor is associated with (re)-activation of Akt, which may be involved in resistance development. Consequently, combined blockade of both HDAC and Akt may delay or prevent drug resistance in RCC. PMID:23372654

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1–7)/Mas axis activates Akt signaling to ameliorate hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fangyuan; Shi, Tingting; Yuan, Mingxia; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rongrong; Li, Sen; Li, Hongbing; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The classical axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/AT1, contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of bypass axis of RAS (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1–7)/Mas) in hepatic steatosis is still unclear. Here we showed that deletion of ACE2 aggravates liver steatosis, which is correlated with the increased expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and the decreased expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver of ACE2 knockout (ACE2−/y) mice. Meanwhile, oxidative stress and inflammation were also aggravated in ACE2−/y mice. On the contrary, overexpression of ACE2 improved fatty liver in db/db mice, and the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes were up-regulated. In vitro, Ang-(1–7)/ACE2 ameliorated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced HepG2 cells, and what’s more, Akt inhibitors reduced ACE2-mediated lipid metabolism. Furthermore, ACE2-mediated Akt activation could be attenuated by blockade of ATP/P2 receptor/Calmodulin (CaM) pathway. These results indicated that Ang-(1–7)/ACE2/Mas axis may reduce liver lipid accumulation partly by regulating lipid-metabolizing genes through ATP/P2 receptor/CaM signaling pathway. Our findings support the potential role of ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis in prevention and treatment of hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:26883384

  19. PTH-related protein upregulates integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and activates Akt in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Xiaoli; Falzon, Miriam . E-mail: mfalzon@utmb.edu

    2006-11-15

    Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma that metastasizes to bone. Tumor-produced parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a known stimulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, is a major mediator of the osteolytic process in breast cancer. We have previously shown that PTHrP increases breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and pro-invasive integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. To determine the role of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 in these PTHrP-mediated effects, we utilized two strategies to modulate expression of the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits in parental and PTHrP-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells: overexpression of {alpha}6{beta}4 by transfection with constructs encoding the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits, and suppression of endogenous {alpha}6{beta}4 expression by transfection with siRNAs targeting these subunits. We now show that the effects of PTHrP are mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. We also show that integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression is modulated at the mRNA level, indicating a transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanism of action for PTHrP. PTHrP expression also increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt, with a consequent increase in the levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The role of PTHrP in breast cancer growth and metastasis may thus be mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and Akt activation, with consequent inactivation of GSK-3.

  20. Vitamin A (retinol) up-regulates the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) through p38 and Akt oxidant-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca

    2011-10-28

    Retinol (vitamin A) is believed to exert preventive/protective effects against malignant, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases by acting as an antioxidant. However, later clinical and experimental data show a pro-oxidant action of retinol and other retinoids at specific conditions. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor, being activated by different ligands such as S100 proteins, HMGB1 (amphoterin), β-amyloid peptide and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). RAGE activation influences a wide range of pathological conditions such as diabetes, pro-inflammatory states and neurodegenerative processes. Here, we investigated the involvement of different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK: ERK1/2, p38 and JNK), PKC, PKA and Akt in the up-regulation of RAGE by retinol. As previously reported, we observed that the increase in RAGE immunocontent by retinol is reversed by antioxidant co-treatment, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in this process. Furthermore, the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the Akt inhibitor LY294002 also decreased the effect of retinol on RAGE levels, suggesting the involvement of these protein kinases in such effect. Both p38 and Akt phosphorylation were increased by treatment with pro-oxidant concentrations of retinol, and the antioxidant co-treatment blocked this effect, indicating that activation of p38 and Akt during retinol treatment is dependent on reactive species production. The 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH) assay also indicated that retinol treatment enhances cellular reactive species production. Altogether, these data indicate that RAGE up-regulation by retinol is mediated by the free radical-dependent activation of p38 and Akt.

  1. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-04-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: >PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. >PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx and caspase-3 activity. >PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. >PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. >PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  2. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Signalling Exerts Chondrogenesis Promoting and Protecting Effects: Implication of Calcineurin as a Downstream Target

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Tamás; Matta, Csaba; Katona, Éva; Somogyi, Csilla; Takács, Roland; Gergely, Pál; Csernoch, László; Panyi, Gyorgy; Tóth, Gábor; Reglődi, Dóra; Tamás, Andrea; Zákány, Róza

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an important neurotrophic factor influencing differentiation of neuronal elements and exerting protecting role during traumatic injuries or inflammatory processes of the central nervous system. Although increasing evidence is available on its presence and protecting function in various peripheral tissues, little is known about the role of PACAP in formation of skeletal components. To this end, we aimed to map elements of PACAP signalling in developing cartilage under physiological conditions and during oxidative stress. mRNAs of PACAP and its receptors (PAC1,VPAC1, VPAC2) were detectable during differentiation of chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Expression of PAC1 protein showed a peak on days of final commitment of chondrogenic cells. Administration of either the PAC1 receptor agonist PACAP 1-38, or PACAP 6-38 that is generally used as a PAC1 antagonist, augmented cartilage formation, stimulated cell proliferation and enhanced PAC1 and Sox9 protein expression. Both variants of PACAP elevated the protein expression and activity of the Ca-calmodulin dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase calcineurin. Application of PACAPs failed to rescue cartilage formation when the activity of calcineurin was pharmacologically inhibited with cyclosporine A. Moreover, exogenous PACAPs prevented diminishing of cartilage formation and decrease of calcineurin activity during oxidative stress. As an unexpected phenomenon, PACAP 6-38 elicited similar effects to those of PACAP 1-38, although to a different extent. On the basis of the above results, we propose calcineurin as a downstream target of PACAP signalling in differentiating chondrocytes either in normal or pathophysiological conditions. Our observations imply the therapeutical perspective that PACAP can be applied as a natural agent that may have protecting effect during joint inflammation and/or may promote cartilage regeneration

  3. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hag Dong; Jang, Chang-Young; Choe, Jeong Min; Sohn, Jeongwon; Kim, Joon

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  4. Targeting pathways downstream of KRAS in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zehua; Golay, Hadrien G; Barbie, David A

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS activation is responsible for the most common genetic subtype of lung cancer. Although many of the major downstream signaling pathways that KRAS engages have been defined, these discoveries have yet to translate into effective targeted therapy. Much of the current focus has been directed at inhibiting the activation of RAF/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling, but clinical trials combining multiple different agents that target these pathways have failed to show significant activity. In this article, we will discuss the evidence for RAF and PI3K as key downstream RAS effectors, as well as the RAL guanine exchange factor, which is equally essential for transformation. Furthermore, we will delineate alternative pathways, including cytokine activation and autophagy, which are co-opted by oncogenic RAS signaling and also represent attractive targets for therapy. Finally, we will present strategies for combining inhibitors of these downstream KRAS signaling pathways in a rational fashion, as multitargeted therapy will be required to achieve a cure. PMID:25303301

  5. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in rostral ventrolateral medulla impairs brain stem cardiovascular regulation that underpins circulatory depression during mevinphos intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Yi; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Julie Y H; Chan, Samuel H H

    2014-03-01

    As the most widely used pesticides in the globe, the organophosphate compounds are understandably linked with the highest incidence of suicidal poisoning. Whereas the elicited toxicity is often associated with circulatory depression, the underlying mechanisms require further delineation. Employing the pesticide mevinphos as our experimental tool, we evaluated the hypothesis that transcriptional upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) by NF-κB on activation of the PI3K/Akt cascade in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the brain stem site that maintains blood pressure and sympathetic vasomotor tone, underpins the circulatory depressive effects of organophosphate poisons. Microinjection of mevinphos (10 nmol) bilaterally into the RVLM of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats induced a progressive hypotension that was accompanied sequentially by an increase (Phase I) and a decrease (Phase II) of an experimental index for the baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone. There were also progressive augmentations in PI3K or Akt enzyme activity and phosphorylation of p85 or Akt(Thr308) subunit in the RVLM that were causally related to an increase in NF-κB transcription activity and elevation in NOS II or peroxynitrite expression. Loss-of-function manipulations of PI3K or Akt in the RVLM significantly antagonized the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and hypotension during Phase II mevinphos intoxication, and blunted the increase in NF-κB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling. We conclude that activation of the PI3K/Akt cascade, leading to upregulation of NF-κB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling in the RVLM, elicits impairment of brain stem cardiovascular regulation that underpins circulatory depression during mevinphos intoxication.

  6. Thermoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation depends on auxin-induced ethylene signaling that controls downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 activity.