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Sample records for doxorubicin potential therapeutic

  1. Bone-Targeted Acid-Sensitive Doxorubicin Conjugate Micelles as Potential Osteosarcoma Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a malignancy of the bone that primarily affects adolescents. Current treatments retain mortality rates, which are higher than average cancer mortality rates for the adolescent age group. We designed a micellar delivery system with the aim to increase drug accumulation in the tumor and potentially reduce side effects associated with chemotherapy. The design features are the use of the hydrophilic d-aspartic acid octapeptide as both the effective targeting agent as well as the hydrophilic micelle corona. Micelle stabilization was accomplished by binding of model drug (doxorubicin) via an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond and incorporating one to four 11-aminoundecanoic acid (AUA) moieties to manipulate the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio. Four micelle-forming unimers have been synthesized and their self-assembly into micelles was evaluated. Size of the micelles could be modified by changing the architecture of the unimers from linear to branched. The stability of the micelles increased with increasing content of AUA moieties. Adsorption of all micelles to hydroxyapatite occurred rapidly. Doxorubicin release occurred at pH 5.5, whereas no release was detected at pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity toward human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells correlated with drug release data. PMID:25291150

  2. Bone-targeted acid-sensitive doxorubicin conjugate micelles as potential osteosarcoma therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Low, Stewart A; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-11-19

    Osteosarcoma is a malignancy of the bone that primarily affects adolescents. Current treatments retain mortality rates, which are higher than average cancer mortality rates for the adolescent age group. We designed a micellar delivery system with the aim to increase drug accumulation in the tumor and potentially reduce side effects associated with chemotherapy. The design features are the use of the hydrophilic D-aspartic acid octapeptide as both the effective targeting agent as well as the hydrophilic micelle corona. Micelle stabilization was accomplished by binding of model drug (doxorubicin) via an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond and incorporating one to four 11-aminoundecanoic acid (AUA) moieties to manipulate the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio. Four micelle-forming unimers have been synthesized and their self-assembly into micelles was evaluated. Size of the micelles could be modified by changing the architecture of the unimers from linear to branched. The stability of the micelles increased with increasing content of AUA moieties. Adsorption of all micelles to hydroxyapatite occurred rapidly. Doxorubicin release occurred at pH 5.5, whereas no release was detected at pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity toward human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells correlated with drug release data.

  3. The Therapeutic Potential of AN-7, a Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, for Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome Alone or with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Moyal, Lilach; Feldbaum, Nataly; Goldfeiz, Neta; Rephaeli, Ada; Nudelman, Abraham; Weitman, Michal; Tarasenko, Nataly; Gorovitz, Batia; Maron, Leah; Yehezkel, Shiran; Amitay-Laish, Iris; Lubin, Ido; Hodak, Emmilia

    2016-01-01

    The 2 histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) including mycosis fungoides/sezary syndrome (MF/SS), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and romidepsin, are associated with low rates of overall response and high rates of adverse effects. Data regarding combination treatments with HDACIs is sparse. Butyroyloxymethyl diethylphosphate (AN-7) is a novel HDACI, which was found to have selective anticancer activity in several cell lines and animal models. The aim of this study was to compare the anticancer effects of AN-7 and SAHA, either alone or combined with doxorubicin, on MF/SS cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with Sezary syndrome (SPBL). MyLa cells, Hut78 cells, SPBL, and PBL from healthy normal individuals (NPBL) were exposed to the test drugs, and the findings were analyzed by a viability assay, an apoptosis assay, and Western blot. AN-7 was more selectively toxic to MyLa cells, Hut78 cells, and SPBL (relative to NPBL) than SAHA and also acted more rapidly. Both drugs induced apoptosis in MF/SS cell lines, SAHA had a greater effect on MyLa cell line, while AN-7 induced greater apoptosis in SPBL; both caused an accumulation of acetylated histone H3, but AN-7 was associated with earlier kinetics; and both caused a downregulation of the HDAC1 protein in MF/SS cell lines. AN-7 acted synergistically with doxorubicin in both MF/SS cell lines and SPBL, and antagonistically with doxorubicin in NPBL. By contrast, SAHA acted antagonistically with doxorubicin on MF/SS cell lines, SPBL, and NPBL, leaving <50% viable cells. In conclusion, AN-7 holds promise as a therapeutic agent in MF/SS and has several advantages over SAHA. Our data provide a rationale for combining AN-7, but not SAHA, with doxorubicin to induce the cell death in MF/SS.

  4. Doxorubicin

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin is used in combination with other medications to treat certain types of bladder, breast, lung, stomach, ... leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ANLL). Doxorubicin is also used alone and in combination with ...

  5. Potential therapeutic strategies for non - muscle invasive bladder cancer based on association of intravesical immunotherapy with P-MAPA and systemic administration of cisplatin and doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Queila Cristina; Nunes, Iseu da Silva; Garcia, Patrick Vianna; Fávaro, Wagner José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study describes the histopathological and molecular effects of P-MAPA (Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride) intravesical immunotherapy combined with systemic doxorubicin or cisplatin for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in an appropriate animal model. Our results showed an undifferentiated tumor, characterizing a tumor invading mucosa or submucosa of the bladder wall (pT1) and papillary carcinoma in situ (pTa) in the Cancer group. The histopathological changes were similar between the combined treatment with intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic Cisplatin and P-MAPA immunotherapy alone, showing decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery in 80% of the animals. The animals treated systemically with cisplatin or doxorubicin singly, showed 100% of malignant lesions in the urinary bladder. Furthemore, the combined treatment with P-MAPA and Doxorubicin showed no decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery. Furthermore, Akt, PI3K, NF-kB and VEGF protein levels were significantly lower in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments than other groups. In contrast, PTEN protein levels were significantly higher in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that combination of intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy and systemic cisplatin in the NMIBC animal model was effective, well tolerated and showed no apparent signs of antagonism between the drugs. In addition, intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy may be considered as a valuable option for treatment of BCG unresponsive patients that unmet the criteria for early cystectomy. PMID:24893914

  6. Potential therapeutic strategies for non - muscle invasive bladder cancer based on association of intravesical immunotherapy with p - mapa and systemic administration of cisplatin and doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Dias, Queila Cristina; Nunes, Iseu da Silva; Garcia, Patrick Vianna; Favaro, Wagner Jose

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the histopathological and molecular effects of P-MAPA (Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride) intravesical immunotherapy combined with systemic doxorubicin or cisplatin for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in an appropriate animal model. Our results showed an undifferentiated tumor, characterizing a tumor invading mucosa or submucosa of the bladder wall (pT1) and papillary carcinoma in situ (pTa) in the Cancer group. The histopathological changes were similar between the combined treatment with intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic Cisplatin and P-MAPA immunotherapy alone, showing decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery in 80% of the animals. The animals treated systemically with cisplatin or doxorubicin singly, showed 100% of malignant lesions in the urinary bladder. Furthemore, the combined treatment with P-MAPA and Doxorubicin showed no decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery. Furthermore, Akt, PI3K, NF-kB and VEGF protein levels were significantly lower in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments than other groups. In contrast, PTEN protein levels were significantly higher in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that combination of intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy and systemic cisplatin in the NMIBC animal model was effective, well tolerated and showed no apparent signs of antagonism between the drugs. In addition, intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy may be considered as a valuable option for treatment of BCG unresponsive patients that unmet the criteria for early cystectomy.

  7. Doxorubicin conjugated functionalizable carbon dots for nucleus targeted delivery and enhanced therapeutic efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Zheran; Wang, Ju; Jiang, Weihua; Jiang, Xuewei; Bai, Zhaoshi; He, Yunpeng; Jiang, Jianqi; Wang, Dongkai; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared with free DOX. Thus, the DOX-CD conjugates may be exploited as promising drug delivery vehicles in cancer therapy.Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared

  8. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 muM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt{sub max} of 105 +- 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 +- 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 +- 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 +- 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 +- 1 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 +- 3 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  9. Nanodiamonds enhance therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in treating metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaam, Amanee D.; Hwang, Patrick T. J.; Poonawalla, Aliza; Green, Hadiyah N.; Jun, Ho-wook; Dean, Derrick

    2014-10-01

    Enhancing therapeutic efficacy is essential for successful treatment of chemoresistant cancers such as metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). To improve the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) for treating chemoresistant disease, the feasibility of using nanodiamond (ND) particles was investigated. Utilizing the pH responsive properties of ND, a novel protocol for complexing NDs and DOX was developed using a pH 8.5 coupling buffer. The DOX loading efficiency, loading on the NDs, and pH responsive release characteristics were determined utilizing UV-Visible spectroscopy. The effects of the ND-DOX on HRPC cell line PC3 were evaluated with MTS and live/dead cell viability assays. ND-DOX displayed exceptional loading efficiency (95.7%) and drug loading on NDs (23.9 wt%) with optimal release at pH 4 (80%). In comparison to treatment with DOX alone, cell death significantly increased when cells were treated with ND-DOX complexes demonstrating a 50% improvement in DOX efficacy. Of the tested treatments, ND-DOX with 2.4 μg mL-1 DOX exhibited superior efficacy (60% cell death). ND-DOX with 1.2 μg mL-1 DOX achieved 42% cell death, which was comparable to cell death in response to 2.4 μg mL-1 of free DOX, suggesting that NDs aid in decreasing the DOX dose necessary to achieve a chemotherapeutic efficacy. Due to its enhanced efficacy, ND-DOX can be used to successfully treat HRPC and potentially decrease the clinical side effects of DOX.

  10. Peptide-Mediated Liposomal Doxorubicin Enhances Drug Delivery Efficiency and Therapeutic Efficacy in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Chang, De-Kuan; Li, Pi-Chun; Lu, Ruei-Min; Jane, Wann-Neng; Wu, Han-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer ranks among the most common malignancies, and is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Chemotherapy for lung cancer can be made more specific to tumor cells, and less toxic to normal tissues, through the use of ligand-mediated drug delivery systems. In this study, we investigated the targeting mechanism of the ligand-mediated drug delivery system using a peptide, SP5-2, which specifically binds to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Conjugation of SP5-2 to liposomes enhanced the amount of drug delivered directly into NSCLC cells, through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Functional SP5-2 improved the therapeutic index of Lipo-Dox by enhancing therapeutic efficacy, reducing side effects, and increasing the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice in syngenic, metastatic and orthotopic animal models. Accumulation of SP5-2-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin (SP5-2-LD) in tumor tissues was 11.2-fold higher than that of free doxorubicin, and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0–72 hours) was increased 159.2-fold. Furthermore, the experiment of bioavailability was assessed to confirm that SP5-2 elevates the uptake of the liposomal drugs by the tumor cells in vivo. In conclusion, the use of SP5-2-conjugated liposomes enhances pharmacokinetic properties, improves efficacy and safety profiles, and allows for controlled biodistribution and drug release. PMID:24386166

  11. Redox nanoparticle therapeutics to cancer--increase in therapeutic effect of doxorubicin, suppressing its adverse effect.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Ozaki, Yuki; Thangavel, Sindhu; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2013-11-28

    The ultimate goal of cancer chemotherapy is to achieve a cure without causing any adverse effects. We have developed a pH-sensitive redox nanoparticle (RNP(N)), which disintegrates under acidic conditions and exposes nitroxide radicals, leading to strongly scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). After intravenous administration of RNP(N) to tumor bearing mice, it effectively accumulated in tumors due to the leaky neovascular and immature lymphatic system and scavenged ROS, resulting in suppression of inflammation and activation of NF-кB, after disintegration of RNP(N) in the tumors. Pre-administration of RNP(N) prior to treatments with anticancer agents, doxorubicin, to tumor-bearing mice significantly suppressed the progression of tumor size, compared to low-molecular weight 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. Interestingly, the administration of RNP(N) suppressed adverse effects of doxorubicin to normal organs due to the scavenging ROS and suppression of inflammation, which was confirmed by reduction in lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase activities in plasma. RNP(N) is thus anticipated as a novel and ideal adjuvant for cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Antimicrobial peptides: therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su-Jin; Park, Sung Jean; Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2014-12-01

    The increasing appearance of multidrug-resistant pathogens has created an urgent need for suitable alternatives to current antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act as defensive weapons against microbes, have received great attention because of broad-spectrum activities, unique action mechanisms and rare antibiotic-resistant variants. Despite desirable characteristics, they have shown limitations in pharmaceutical development due to toxicity, stability and manufacturing costs. Because of these drawbacks, only a few AMPs have been tested in Phase III clinical trials and no AMPs have been approved by the US FDA yet. However, these obstacles could be overcome by well-known methods such as changing physicochemical characteristics and introducing nonnatural amino acids, acetylation or amidation, as well as modern techniques like molecular targeted AMPs, liposomal formulations and drug delivery systems. Thus, the current challenge in this field is to develop therapeutic AMPs at a reasonable cost as well as to overcome the limitations.

  13. Amphiphilic dendritic nanomicelle-mediated co-delivery of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin for enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Han, Rui; Sun, Yuan; Kang, Chen; Sun, Huijing; Wei, Wenguang

    2017-02-01

    Combination cancer therapy has attracted considerable attention due to its enhanced antitumor efficacy and reduced toxicity granted by synergistic effects over monotherapy. The application of nanotechnology is expected to achieve coencapsulation of multiple anticancer agents with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Herein, a unique nanomicelle based on amphiphilic dendrimer (AmD) consisting of a hydrophilic polyamidoamine dendritic shell and a hydrophobic polylactide core is developed for effectively loading and shuttling 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and doxorubicin (Dox). The yielded drug-encapsulated dendritic nanomicelle (5-Fu/Dox-DNM) has a modest average size of 68.6 ± 3.3 nm and shows pH-sensitive drug release manner. The parallel activity of 5-Fu and Dox show synergistic anticancer efficacy. The IC50 value of 5-Fu/Dox-DNM toward human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells was 0.25 μg/mL, presenting an 11.2-fold and 6.1-fold increase in cytotoxicity compared to Dox-DNM and 5-Fu-DNM, respectively. Furthermore, 5-Fu/Dox-DNM significantly inhibits the progression of tumor growth in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor mice model. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that our AmD-based combination therapeutic system has promising potential to open an avenue for coencapsulation of multiple chemotherapeutic agents to promote superior anticancer effect.

  14. MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers for doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Gustav; Synnergren, Jane; Andersson, Christian X; Lindahl, Anders; Sartipy, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are well-established, highly efficient anti-neoplastic drugs used for treatment of a variety of cancers, including solid tumors, leukemia, lymphomas, and breast cancer. The successful use of doxorubicin has, however, been hampered by severe cardiotoxic side-effects. In order to prevent or reverse negative side-effects of doxorubicin, it is important to find early biomarkers of heart injury and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The high stability under extreme conditions, presence in various body fluids, and tissue-specificity, makes microRNAs very suitable as clinical biomarkers. The present study aimed towards evaluating the early and late effects of doxorubicin on the microRNA expression in cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells. We report on several microRNAs, including miR-34a, miR-34b, miR-187, miR-199a, miR-199b, miR-146a, miR-15b, miR-130a, miR-214, and miR-424, that are differentially expressed upon, and after, treatment with doxorubicin. Investigation of the biological relevance of the identified microRNAs revealed connections to cardiomyocyte function and cardiotoxicity, thus supporting the findings of these microRNAs as potential biomarkers for drug-induced cardiotoxicity.

  15. Presence of Cx43 in extracellular vesicles reduces the cardiotoxicity of the anti-tumour therapeutic approach with doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Marques, Tania; Pinho, Maria Joao; Zuzarte, Monica; Oliveira, Carla; Pereira, Paulo; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Gomes, Celia; Girao, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are major conveyors of biological information, mediating local and systemic cell-to-cell communication under physiological and pathological conditions. These endogenous vesicles have been recognized as prominent drug delivery vehicles of several therapeutic cargoes, including doxorubicin (dox), presenting major advantages over the classical approaches. Although dox is one of the most effective anti-tumour agents in the clinical practice, its use is very often hindered by its consequent dramatic cardiotoxicity. Despite significant advances witnessed in the past few years, more comprehensive studies, supporting the therapeutic efficacy of EVs, with decreased side effects, are still scarce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) in mediating the release of EV content into tumour cells. Moreover, we investigated whether Cx43 improves the efficiency of dox-based anti-tumour treatment, with a concomitant decrease of cardiotoxicity. In the present report, we demonstrate that the presence of Cx43 in EVs increases the release of luciferin from EVs into tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, using cell-based approaches and a subcutaneous mouse tumour model, we show that the anti-tumour effect of dox incorporated into EVs is similar to the administration of the free drug, regardless the presence of Cx43. Strikingly, we demonstrate that the presence of Cx43 in dox-loaded EVs reduces the cardiotoxicity of the drug. Altogether, these results bring new insights into the concrete potential of EVs as therapeutic vehicles and open new avenues toward the development of strategies that help to reduce unwanted side effects. PMID:27702427

  16. Quercetin Potentiates Doxorubicin Mediated Antitumor Effects against Liver Cancer through p53/Bcl-xl

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanyu; Sharma, Sherven; Dong, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Background The dose-dependent toxicities of doxorubicin (DOX) limit its clinical applications, particularly in drug-resistant cancers, such as liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of quercetin on the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells and its ability to provide protection against DOX-mediated liver damage in mice. Methodology and Results The MTT and Annexin V/PI staining assay demonstrated that quercetin selectively sensitized DOX-induced cytotoxicity against liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. The increase in DOX-mediated apoptosis in hepatoma cells by quercetin was p53-dependent and occurred by downregulating Bcl-xl expression. Z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor), or overexpressed Bcl-xl decreased the effects of quercetin on DOX-mediated apoptosis. The combined treatment of quercetin and DOX significantly reduced the growth of liver cancer xenografts in mice. Moreover, quercetin decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase that were increased in DOX-treated mice. Quercetin also reversed the DOX-induced pathological changes in mice livers. Conclusion and Significance These results indicate that quercetin potentiated the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. Therefore, the development of quercetin may be beneficial in a combined treatment with DOX for increased therapeutic efficacy against liver cancer. PMID:23240061

  17. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications.

  18. Improved drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy of PEgylated liposomal doxorubicin by targeting anti-HER2 peptide in murine breast tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zahmatkeshan, Masoumeh; Gheybi, Fatemeh; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2016-04-30

    Targeted cancer therapy is a powerful therapeutic strategy to management of cancer. HER2 as an anticancer target has long been studied. Its overexpression plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progressiveness of breast and other cancers. To establish efficient and reliable drug delivery to HER2-overexpressing cells, the authors of this study have developed anti-HER2 (ErbB2) peptide-liposomal formulations of doxorubicin (DOX) by an engineered breast tumor-targeting peptide ligand, AHNP, Anti-HER2/neu peptide, (FCDGFYACYADV) with three glycine amino acids as spacer before its original sequencing. Towards this goal, PEGylated liposome doxorubicin (PLD) bearing different ligand densities of AHNP was prepared and characterized for their size, zeta potential and peptide conjugation. The AHNP functionalization and density effects on breast tumor cell uptake, selective cytotoxicity, prevention of tumor growth and the tissue biodistribution of encapsulated DOX were studied in mice bearing TUBO breast cancer tumor model. The findings demonstrated that increasing the ligand density of AHNP increases cytotoxicity and cell-uptake in SKBR3 and TUBO cells which overexpress HER2 but not in MDA-MB-231with low HER2 expression profile. The anticancer activity was also superior for targeted liposomal DOX with more AHNP densities. Overall, the results showed that optimum AHNP density functionalization of PLD can significantly improve selectivity and the therapeutic index of liposomal DOX in the treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer and merits further investigation.

  19. Potentiation of Methoxymorpholinyl Doxorubicin Anti-Tumor Activity by P450 3A4 Gene Transfer#

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Chen, Chong-Sheng; Waxman, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Preclinical and clinical studies of CYP gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy have focused on anticancer prodrugs activated by CYP2B enzymes, which have low endogenous expression in human liver; however, the gene therapeutic potential of CYP3A enzymes, which are highly expressed in human liver, remains unknown. This study investigated methoxymorpholinyl-doxorubicin (MMDX), a novel CYP3A-activated anticancer prodrug. Retroviral transfer of CYP3A4 increased 9L gliosarcoma cell chemosensitivity to MMDX 120-fold (IC50=0.2nM). In CHO cells, overexpression of P450 reductase in combination with CYP3A4 enhanced chemosensitivity to MMDX, and to ifosfamide, another CYP3A4 prodrug, 11–23-fold compared to CYP3A4 expression alone. CYP3A4 expression and MMDX chemosensitivity were increased in human lung (A549) and brain (U251) tumor cells infected with replication-defective adenovirus encoding CYP3A4. Co-infection with Onyx-017, a replication-conditional adenovirus that co-amplifies and co-replicates the Adeno-3A4 virus, led to large increases in CYP3A4 RNA but only modest increases in CYP3A4 protein and activity. MMDX induced remarkable growth delay of 9L/3A4 tumors, but not 9L tumors, in immunodeficient mice administered low-dose MMDX either i.v. or by direct intratumoral injection (60µg/kg, every 7-days ×3), with the intratumoral route being substantially less toxic to the mouse host. No antitumor activity was observed with i.p. MMDX treatment, suggesting a substantial hepatic first pass effect, and with activated MMDX metabolites formed in the liver having poor access to the tumor site. These studies demonstrate that human CYP3A4 has strong potential for MMDX prodrug activation therapy, and suggest that endogenous tumor cell expression of CYP3A4, and not hepatic CYP3A4 activity, is a key determinant of responsiveness to MMDX therapy in cancer patients in vivo. PMID:19011599

  20. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

    PubMed

    Robson, P J

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines. The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology. In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders.

  1. Tannic acid ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and potentiates its anti-cancer activity: Potential role of tannins in cancer chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tikoo, Kulbhushan Sane, Mukta Subhash; Gupta, Chanchal

    2011-03-15

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic, is widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors including breast cancer. However, its use is limited due to a variety of toxicities including cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of tannic acid, a PARG/PARP inhibitor and an antioxidant, on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 embryonic rat heart myoblasts and its anti-cancer activity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells as well as in DMBA-induced mammary tumor animals. Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was assessed by measurement of heart weight, plasma LDH level and histopathology. Bcl-2, Bax, PARP-1 and p53 expression were examined by western blotting. Our results show that tannic acid prevents activation of PARP-1, reduces Bax and increases Bcl-2 expression in H9c2 cells, thus, preventing doxorubicin-induced cell death. Further, it reduces the cell viability of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, increases p53 expression in mammary tumors and shows maximum tumor volume reduction, suggesting that tannic acid potentiates the anti-cancer activity of doxorubicin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that tannic acid ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and potentiates its anti-cancer activity both in vitro (H9c2 and MDA-MB-231 cells) as well as in in vivo model of DMBA-induced mammary tumor animals.

  2. Neuroinflammation: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jeffrey M; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2005-10-01

    The increased appreciation of the importance of glial cell-propagated inflammation (termed 'neuroinflammation') in the progression of pathophysiology for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, has heightened interest in the rapid discovery of neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics. Efforts include searches among existing drugs approved for other uses, as well as development of novel synthetic compounds that selectively downregulate neuroinflammatory responses. The use of existing drugs to target neuroinflammation has largely met with failure due to lack of efficacy or untoward side effects. However, the de novo development of new classes of therapeutics based on targeting selective aspects of glia activation pathways and glia-mediated pathophysiologies, versus targeting pathways of quantitative importance in non-CNS inflammatory responses, is yielding promising results in preclinical animal models. The authors briefly review selected clinical and preclinical data that reflect the prevailing approaches targeting neuroinflammation as a pathophysiological process contributing to onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors conclude with opinions based on recent experimental proofs of concept using preclinical animal models of pathophysiology. The focus is on Alzheimer's disease, but the concepts are transferrable to other neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component.

  3. Evaluation of the potential of doxorubicin loaded microbubbles as a theranostic modality using a murine tumor model.

    PubMed

    Abdalkader, Rodi; Kawakami, Shigeru; Unga, Johan; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a novel phospholipid-based microbubble formulation containing doxorubicin and perfluoropropane gas (DLMB) was developed. The DLMBs were prepared by mechanical agitation of a phospholipid dispersion in the presence of perfluoropropane (PFP) gas. An anionic phospholipid, distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG) was selected to load doxorubicin in the microbubbles by means of electrostatic interaction. The particle size, zeta potential, echogenicity and stability of the DLMBs were measured. Drug loading was ⩾ 92%. The potential of the DLMBs for use as a theranostic modality was evaluated in tumor bearing mice. Gas chromatography analysis of PFP showed significant enhancement of PFP retention when doxorubicin was used at concentrations of 10-82% equivalent to DSPG. The inhibitory effects on the proliferation of B16BL6 melanoma murine cells in vitro were enhanced using a combination of ultrasound (US) irradiation and DLMBs. Moreover, in vivo DLMBs in combination with (US) irradiation significantly inhibited the growth of B16BL6 melanoma tumor in mice. Additionally, US echo imaging showed high contrast enhancement of the DLMBs in the tumor vasculature. These results suggest that DLMBs could serve as US triggered carriers of doxorubicin as well as tumor imaging agents in cancer therapy.

  4. Zinc is a potential therapeutic for chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bastow, Max; Kriedt, Christopher L; Baldassare, Joseph; Shah, Maulik; Klein, Claudette

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. The high mortality rate reflets the lack of early diagnosis and limited treatment alternatives. We have observed a number of properties of zinc cytotoxicity that make it attractive from a therapeutic standpoint. Using SKOV3 and ES2 cells, ovarian cancer cell lines that demonstrate varied degrees of resistance to known therapeutics, we show that zinc killing is time and concentration dependent. Death is preceded by distinct changes in cell shape and size. The effects of zinc are additive with cisplatin or doxorubicin, whose morphological effects are distinct from those of zinc. Cytotoxicity of paclitaxel is minimal, making it difficult to determine additivity with zinc. Paclitaxel results in changes in cell shape and size similar to those of zinc but has different effects on cell cycle progression and cyclin expression. The data indicate that the means by which zinc kills ovarian cancer cells is distinct from currently used chemotherapeutics. Based on the properties reported here, zinc has the potential to be developed as either a primary treatment or as a second line of defense against cancers that have developed resistance to currently used chemotherapeutics.

  5. Pentoxifylline as a modulator of anticancer drug doxorubicin. Part II: Reduction of doxorubicin DNA binding and alleviation of its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Gołuński, Grzegorz; Borowik, Agnieszka; Derewońko, Natalia; Kawiak, Anna; Rychłowski, Michał; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Anticancer drug doxorubicin is commonly used in cancer treatment. However, drug's severe side effects make toxicity reduction important matter. Another biologically active aromatic compound, pentoxifylline, can sequester aromatic compounds in stacking complexes reducing their bioactivity. This work deals with the problem of alleviating doxorubicin side effects by pentoxifylline. We employed a wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular assays. In addition, we used the doxorubicin-pentoxifylline mixed association constant to quantitatively assess pentoxifylline influence on the doxorubicin mutagenic activity. Obtained results indicate strong protective effects of pentoxifylline towards doxorubicin, observed on bacteria and human keratinocytes with no such effects observed on the cancer cells. It may be hypothesized that, considering much shorter half-life of pentoxifylline than doxorubicin, simultaneous administration of doxorubicin and pentoxifylline will lead to gradual release of doxorubicin from complexes with pentoxifylline to reach desired therapeutic concentration. Proposed results shed light on the possible doxorubicin chemotherapy modification and its side effects reduction without the loss of its therapeutic potential.

  6. Doxorubicin loaded polymeric gold nanoparticles targeted to human folate receptor upon laser photothermal therapy potentiates chemotherapy in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Banu, Hussaina; Sethi, Dipinder Kaur; Edgar, Andre; Sheriff, Adhnaan; Rayees, Nuthan; Renuka, N; Faheem, S M; Premkumar, Kumpati; Vasanthakumar, Geetha

    2015-08-01

    The current research focuses on the application of folate conjugated and doxorubicin loaded polymeric gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for the targeted treatment of folate receptor overexpressing breast cancers, augmented by adjunctive laser photothermal therapy. Herein, GNPs surface modified with folate, drug doxorubicin and polyethylene glycol were engineered and were used as vehicles for folate receptor targeted delivery of doxorubicin into cancer cells. Subsequently, the GNPs were photo-excited using laser light for mediating hyperthermia in the cancer cells. In vitro studies were performed to validate the efficacy of the combined modality of folate conjugated and doxorubicin loaded polymeric GNP mediated chemotherapy followed by photothermal therapy in comparison to treatment with free drug; and the combination modality showed better therapeutic efficacy than that of plain doxorubicin treatment in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that express increased levels of surface folate receptors when compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells that express low levels of folate receptor. The mechanism of cell death was investigated using fluorescent microscopy. Immunoassays showed the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Collectively, these results suggest that the folate tagged doxorubicin loaded GNPs are an attractive platform for targeted delivery of doxorubicin and are agents suitable for photothermal cancer therapy.

  7. Didox potentiates the cytotoxic profile of doxorubicin and protects from its cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Asaad, Gihan F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2013-10-15

    The use of adjuvant therapies in cancer treatment is rationalized by potentiating the efficacy and/or protecting from the major side effects of chemotherapeutics. Didox, besides its antioxidant properties, is an inhibitor for DNA synthesis and repair which might recommend its use as adjuvant therapy. Herein, we have studied the effect of didox in potentiating the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) against liver cancer cells and protecting from its dose-limiting cardiotoxic effects. Didox combination with DOX significantly decreased in the IC50 of DOX to half its original value in Huh7 and HepG2 liver cancer cell lines. The calculated combination index (CI-value) indicated additive type of drug interaction (CI-value ranged from 0.81 to 0.9). Both didox and DOX significantly blocked the cell cycle in S-phase and their combination significantly increased cell cycle blockade. Also, didox combination significantly increase the caspase-3 level compared to DOX treatment alone. On the other hand, didox (150 mg/kg daily) significantly protected the cardiomyocyte membrane integrity and decreased the intra-cardiac oxidative stress induced by DOX treatment (15 mg/kg). This protective effect was reflected in reverting the cardiomegaly and cardio-pathological features induced by DOX treatment. Also didox prolonged the median survival time of mice treated with DOX and decreased the mortality risk by 3.7 folds. In conclusion, didox significantly potentiated the cytotoxicity of DOX in liver cancer cells and protected from its cardiotoxicity.

  8. Curcumin: therapeutical potential in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Giannotti, Rossella; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Pascarella, Antonia; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In the last 50 years, in vitro and in vivo experiments supported the main role of polyphenols and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of many different inflammatory diseases and tumors.The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties of curcumin are due to different cellular mechanisms: this compound, in fact, produces different responses in different cell types. Unfortunately, because of its low solubility and oral bioavailability, the biomedical potential of curcumin is not easy to exploit; for this reason more attention has been given to nanoparticles and liposomes, which are able to improve curcumin's bioavailability. Pharmacologically, curcumin does not show any dose-limiting toxicity when it is administered at doses of up to 8 g/day for three months. It has been demonstrated that curcumin has beneficial effects on several ocular diseases, such as chronic anterior uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. The purpose of this review is to report what has so far been elucidated about curcumin properties and its potential use in ophthalmology.

  9. Coating doxorubicin-loaded nanocapsules with alginate enhances therapeutic efficacy against Leishmaniain hamsters by inducing Th1-type immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, S; Tandon, R; Verma, A; Misra, P; Choudhary, A K; Verma, R; Verma, P R P; Dube, A; Mishra, P R

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory and chemotherapeutic potential of alginate-(SA) coated nanocapsule (NCs) loaded with doxorubicin (SA-NCs-DOX) against visceral leishmaniasis in comparison with nano-emulsions containing doxorubicin (NE-DOX). Experimental Approach NE-DOX was prepared using low-energy emulsification methods. Stepwise addition of protamine sulphate and SA in a layer-by-layer manner was used to form SA-NCs-DOX. SA-NCs-DOX, NE-DOX and Free DOX were compared for their cytotoxicity against Leishmania donovani-infected macrophages in vitro and generation of T-cell responses in infected hamsters in vivo. Key Results Size and ζ potential of the NE-DOX and SA-NCs-DOX formulations were 310 ± 2.1 nm and (−)32.6 ± 2.1 mV, 342 ± 4.1 nm and (−)29.3 ± 1.2 mV respectively. SA-NCs-DOX was better (1.5 times) taken up by J774A.1 macrophages compared with NE-DOX. SA-NCs -DOX showed greater efficacy than NE-DOX against intramacrophagic amastigotes. SA-NCs-DOX treatment exhibited enhanced apoptotic efficiency than NE-DOX and free DOX as evident by cell cycle analysis, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS and NO production. T-cell responses, when assessed through lymphoproliferative responses, NO production along with enhanced levels of iNOS, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-12 were found to be up-regulated after SA-NCs-DOX, compared with responses to NE-DOX in vivo. Parasitic burden was decreased in Leishmania-infected hamsters treated with SA-NCs-DOX, compared with NE-DOX. Conclusions and Implications Our results provide insights into the development of an alternative approach to improved management of leishmaniasis through a combination of chemotherapy with stimulation of the innate immune system. PMID:24837879

  10. Chondroitin sulfate-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential carriers of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Neha; Anwar, Mohammed; Asfer, Mohammed; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Rizvi, Mohammed Moshahid Alam; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-10-20

    Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, was used to prepare CS-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were further employed for loading a water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX). CS-capped SPIONs have potential biomedical application in cancer targeting. The optimized formulation had a hydrodynamic size of 91.2±0.8nm (PDI; 0.228±0.004) and zeta potential of -49.1±1.66mV. DOX was loaded onto the formulation up to 2% (w/w) by physical interaction with CS. TEM showed nano-sized particles having a core-shell structure. XRD confirmed crystal phase of iron oxide. FT-IR conceived the interaction of iron oxide with CS as bidentate chelation and also confirmed DOX loading. Vibration sample magnetometry confirmed super-paramagnetic nature of nanoparticles, with saturation magnetization of 0.238emug(-1). In vitro release profile at pH 7.4 showed that 96.67% of DOX was released within 24h (first order kinetics). MTT assay in MCF7 cells showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) cytotoxicity for DOX in SPIONs than DOX solution (IC50 values 6.294±0.4169 and 11.316±0.1102μgmL(-1), respectively).

  11. Tea nanoparticle, a safe and biocompatible nanocarrier, greatly potentiates the anticancer activity of doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Huang, Yujian; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Zhang, Guan-Nan; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Xie, Meina; Lin, Derrick; Yang, Dong-Hua; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    An infusion-dialysis based procedure has been developed as an approach to isolate organic nanoparticles from green tea. Tea nanoparticle (TNP) can effectively load doxorubicin (DOX) via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. We established an ABCB1 overexpressing tumor xenograft mouse model to investigate whether TNP can effectively deliver DOX into tumors and bypass the efflux function of the ABCB1 transporter, thereby increasing the intratumoral accumulation of DOX and potentiating the anticancer activity of DOX. MTT assays suggested that DOX-TNP showed higher cytotoxicity toward CCD-18Co, SW620 and SW620/Ad300 cells than DOX. Animal study revealed that DOX-TNP resulted in greater inhibitory effects on the growth of SW620 and SW620/Ad300 tumors than DOX. In pharmacokinetics study, DOX-TNP greatly increased the SW620 and SW620/Ad300 intratumoral concentrations of DOX. But DOX-TNP had no effect on the plasma concentrations of DOX. Furthermore, TNP is a safe nanocarrier with excellent biocompatibility and minimal toxicity. Ex vivo IHC analysis of SW620 and SW620/Ad300 tumor sections revealed evidence of prominent antitumor activity of DOX-TNP. In conclusion, our findings suggested that natural nanomaterials could be useful in combating multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and potentiating the anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment. PMID:26716507

  12. Monoclonal antibody-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG encapsulating doxorubicin as a potential theranostic agent.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Neus; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa S; Beziere, Nicolas S; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2015-03-30

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved, strongly photo-absorbent/fluorescent probe that has been incorporated into a clinically-relevant PEGylated liposome as a flexible optoacoustic contrast agent platform. This study describes the engineering of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using the anti-MUC-1 "humanized" monoclonal antibody (MoAb) hCTM01 as a tumour-specific theranostic system. We aimed to visualise non-invasively the tumour accumulation of these MoAb-targeted liposomes over time in tumour-bearing mice using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). Preferential accumulation of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG was studied after intravenous administration in comparison to non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using both fast growing (4T1) and slow growing (HT-29) MUC-1 positive tumour models. Monitoring liposomal ICG in the tumour showed that both targeted and non-targeted liposome-ICG formulations preferentially accumulated into the tumour models studied. Rapid accumulation was observed for targeted liposomes at early time points mainly in the periphery of the tumour volume suggesting binding to available MUC-1 receptors. In contrast, non-targeted PEGylated liposomes showed accumulation at the centre of the tumour at later time points. In an attempt to take this a step further, we successfully encapsulated the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) into both targeted and non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG. The engineering of DOX-loaded targeted ICG liposome systems present a novel platform for combined tumour-specific therapy and diagnosis. This can open new possibilities in the design of advanced image-guided cancer therapeutics.

  13. Cardioprotective Potentials of Plant-Derived Small Molecules against Doxorubicin Associated Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Shreesh; Al Taee, Hasan; Goyal, Sameer; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Patil, Chandrgouda R.; Arya, D. S.; Rajesh, Mohanraj

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and widely used anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of several malignancies. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of DOX is often restricted due to the elicitation of organ toxicity. Particularly, the increased risk for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy by DOX among the cancer survivors warrants major attention from the physicians as well as researchers to develop adjuvant agents to neutralize the noxious effects of DOX on the healthy myocardium. Despite these pitfalls, the use of traditional cytotoxic drugs continues to be the mainstay treatment for several types of cancer. Recently, phytochemicals have gained attention for their anticancer, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective activities. The ideal cardioprotective agents should not compromise the clinical efficacy of DOX and should be devoid of cumulative or irreversible toxicity on the naïve tissues. Furthermore, adjuvants possessing synergistic anticancer activity and quelling of chemoresistance would significantly enhance the clinical utility in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The present review renders an overview of cardioprotective effects of plant-derived small molecules and their purported mechanisms against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Phytochemicals serve as the reservoirs of pharmacophore which can be utilized as templates for developing safe and potential novel cardioprotective agents in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:27313831

  14. Role of xanthine oxidase in the potentiation of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D L; Swanson, J D; Pritsos, C A

    1991-09-01

    Clinical evidence has suggested that mitomycin C (MMC) potentiates doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity. In this study a mouse model was used to examine the effect of DOX on the ability of cardiac tissue to bioactivate MMC to generate oxygen radicals. Cardiac damage was assessed by measuring serum CPK-MB isoenzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the cardiac tissue. The exposure of animals to DOX or DOX and MMC over a three week period led to an increase in serum CPK-MB isoenzyme levels as well as TBARS. Treatment with DOX led to an increase in MMC-dependent, NADH-dependent, cyanide insensitive oxygen consumption, compared to control animals, thereby suggesting increased MMC-dependent oxygen radical generation. Levels of xanthine oxidase (XO; EC 1.1.3.22) and NADPH:cytochrome C reductase, two enzymes known to bioactivate MMC with subsequent oxygen radical generation, were measured in cardiac tissue with a 4.5 x increase in XO activity seen in DOX treated animals vs controls and no change in NADPH:cytochrome C reductase activity. Cardiac levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH; EC 1.1.1.204) activity in DOX treated animals decreased while the XO/XDH ratio increased, suggesting a conversion of XDH to XO following DOX treatment.

  15. L-Canavanine potentiates the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and cisplatin in arginine deprived human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid L-canavanine (L-CAV), an antimetabolite of L-arginine (L-ARG), can alter the 3D conformation of proteins when incorporated into a protein instead of L-ARG. L-CAV inhibits the proliferation of some tumour cells. The deprivation of L-ARG in the culture medium enhances the response of cells to L-CAV. This study aimed to investigate the interaction of L-CAV in combination with the chemotherapeutic drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) or cisplatin (CIS), in cancer cells, especially in the absence of L-ARG. A combination method based on the median-effect principle and mass-action law was used. The following cancer cells were employed: HeLa and Caco-2 cells, overexpressing argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), pancreatic cells (MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2 and SK-HEP-1), with down-regulated ASS. When constant and non-constant ratios of L-CAV were combined with DOX and CIS, a synergistic potentiation of cytotoxicity was recorded. Cells expressing high levels of ASS were more sensitive to the treatment as compared to the cells with reduced ASS levels. Overall, this study may provide a new approach to targeting some cancer cells with L-CAV in combination with DNA-targeting drugs such as DOX and CIS, especially those cells which overexpress ASS, such as human cervical and colorectal carcinoma cells. PMID:26839743

  16. Smac therapeutic Peptide nanoparticles inducing apoptosis of cancer cells for combination chemotherapy with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingxing; Liu, Peng; Gao, Guanhui; Deng, Jizhe; Pan, Zhengyin; Wu, Xu; Xie, Gaofeng; Yue, Caixia; Cho, Chi Hin; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2015-04-22

    Smac-conjugated nanoparticle (Smac-NP) was designed to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells and as a drug carrier for combination therapy. It contained three parts, a SmacN7 peptide which could induce apoptosis of cancer cells by interacting with XIAPs, the cell penetrating domain rich in arginine, and four hydrophobic tails for self-assembled Smac-NP. We demonstrated that Smac-NPs exerted an antitumor effect in breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and nonsmall lung cancer (NSCLC) cell H460, which efficiently inhibited cancer cells proliferation without influencing normal liver cell lines LO2. Smac-NPs also significantly induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and H460 cells through activating pro-caspase-3, down-regulating the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, Smac-NPs could be explored as a drug delivery system to load hydrophobic drug such as DOX for combination therapy. The DOX-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-Smac-NPs) exhibited higher cellular uptake efficiency and antitumor effect. Our work provided a new insight into therapeutic peptides integrated with drug simultaneously in one system for cancer combination treatment.

  17. Mechanisms of doxorubicin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Josiah; Weinman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most common solid tumors worldwide, is poorly responsive to available chemotherapeutic approaches. While systemic chemotherapy is of limited benefit, intra-arterial delivery of doxorubicin to the tumor frequently produces tumor shrinkage. Its utility is limited, in part, by the frequent emergence of doxorubicin resistance. The mechanisms of this resistance include increased expression of multidrug resistance efflux pumps, alterations of the drug target, topoisomerase, and modulation of programmed cell death pathways. Many of these effects result from changes in miRNA expression and are particularly prominent in tumor cells with a stem cell phenotype. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of doxorubicin resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma and the potential for approaches toward therapeutic chemosensitization. PMID:26998221

  18. An Engineered Bivalent Neuregulin Protects Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity with Reduced Pro-Neoplastic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Steven M.; Murthy, Ashwin C.; Hawkins, Jessica F.; Wortzel, Joshua R.; Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Alvarez, Luis M.; Gannon, Joseph; Macrae, Calum A.; Griffith, Linda G.; Lee, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin (DOXO) is an effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic, but its use is limited by cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Neuregulin-1β (NRG1B) is an ErbB receptor family ligand that is effective against DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy in experimental models but is also pro-neoplastic. We previously showed that an engineered bivalent neuregulin-1β (NN) has reduced pro-neoplastic potential compared to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of NRG1B (NRG), an effect mediated by receptor biasing towards ErbB3 homotypic interactions uncommonly formed by native NRG1B. Here, we hypothesized that a newly formulated, covalent NN would be cardioprotective with reduced pro-neoplastic effects compared to NRG. Methods and Results NN was expressed as a maltose-binding protein fusion in E. coli. As established previously, NN stimulated anti-neoplastic or cytostatic signaling and phenotype in cancer cells, whereas NRG stimulated pro-neoplastic signaling and phenotype. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM), NN and NRG induced similar downstream signaling. NN, like NRG, attenuated the double-stranded DNA breaks associated with DOXO exposure in NRCM and human cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. NN treatment significantly attenuated DOXO-induced decrease in fractional shortening as measured by blinded echocardiography in mice in a chronic cardiomyopathy model (57.7% ± 0.6% vs. 50.9% ± 2.6%, P=0.004), whereas native NRG had no significant effect (49.4% ± 3.7% vs. 50.9% ± 2.6%, P=0.813). Conclusions NN is a cardioprotective agent that promotes cardiomyocyte survival and improves cardiac function in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. Given the reduced pro-neoplastic potential of NN versus NRG, NN has translational potential for cardioprotection in cancer patients receiving anthracyclines. PMID:23757312

  19. A simple route to develop transparent doxorubicin-loaded nanodiamonds/cellulose nanocomposite membranes as potential wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaogang; Zhang, Hao; Cao, Zhenni; Cai, Ning; Xue, Yanan; Yu, Faquan

    2016-06-05

    The objective of this study is to develop transparent porous nanodiamonds/cellulose nanocomposite membranes with controlled release of doxorubicin for potential applications as wound dressings, which were fabricated by tape casting method from dispersing carboxylated nanodiamonds and dissolving cellulose homogeneously in 7 wt% NaOH/12 wt% urea aqueous solution. By adjusting the carboxylated nanodiamonds content, various nanocomposite membranes were obtained. The structure and properties of these membranes have been investigated by light transmittance measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile tests, water loss analyses, etc. The drug loading and release was investigated using doxorubicin hydrochloride as a model drug. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of the membranes was also studied. This work presented a proof-of-concept utility of these membranes for loading and release of bioactive compounds to be employed as a candidate for wound dressing.

  20. Doxorubicin Conjugated to Glutathione Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) as an Effective Therapeutic Agent for Feline Injection-Site Sarcomas-Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Study.

    PubMed

    Zabielska-Koczywąs, Katarzyna; Dolka, Izabella; Król, Magdalena; Żbikowski, Artur; Lewandowski, Wiktor; Mieczkowski, Józef; Wójcik, Michał; Lechowski, Roman

    2017-02-08

    Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumours with a high local recurrence rate, ranging from 14% to 28%. The treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas includes radical surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In our previous study it has been demonstrated that doxorubicin conjugated to glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) has higher cytotoxic effects than free doxorubicin for feline fibrosarcoma cell lines with high glycoprotein P activity (FFS1, FFS3). The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox on the growth of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. This model has been utilized both in human and veterinary medicine for preclinical oncological studies. The influence of intratumoural injections of Au-GSH-Dox, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles and doxorubicin alone on the Ki-67 proliferation marker was also checked. We demonstrated that the volume ratio of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after a single intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox, which confirms the positive results of in vitro studies and indicates that Au-GSH-Dox may be a potent new therapeutic agent for feline injection-site sarcomas.

  1. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin’s therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin’s therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin’s anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:21607160

  2. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    PubMed

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues.

  3. Circulating miR-1 as a potential biomarker of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Carvalho Vagner, Rigaud; Ferreira, Ludmila R.P; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M; Ávila, Mônica S; Brandão, Sara M.G; Cruz, Fátima D; Santos, Marília H.H; Cruz, Cecilia B.B.V; Alves, Marco S.L; Issa, Victor S; Guimarães, Guilherme V; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2017-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is associated with the chronic use of doxorubicin leading to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Identification of cardiotoxicity-specific miRNA biomarkers could provide clinicians with a valuable prognostic tool. The aim of the study was to evaluate circulating levels of miRNAs in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin treatment and to correlate with cardiac function. This is an ancillary study from “Carvedilol Effect on Chemotherapy-induced Cardiotoxicity” (CECCY trial), which included 56 female patients (49.9±3.3 years of age) from the placebo arm. Enrolled patients were treated with doxorubicin followed by taxanes. cTnI, LVEF, and miRNAs were measured periodically. Circulating levels of miR-1, -133b, -146a, and -423-5p increased during the treatment whereas miR-208a and -208b were undetectable. cTnI increased from 6.6±0.3 to 46.7±5.5 pg/mL (p<0.001), while overall LVEF tended to decrease from 65.3±0.5 to 63.8±0.9 (p=0.053) over 12 months. Ten patients (17.9%) developed cardiotoxicity showing a decrease in LVEF from 67.2±1.0 to 58.8±2.7 (p=0.005). miR-1 was associated with changes in LVEF (r=-0.531, p<0.001). In a ROC curve analysis miR-1 showed an AUC greater than cTnI to discriminate between patients who did and did not develop cardiotoxicity (AUC = 0.851 and 0.544, p= 0.0016). Our data suggest that circulating miR-1 might be a potential new biomarker of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. PMID:28052002

  4. Nanoceria: a Potential Therapeutic for Dry AMD.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xue; McGinnis, James F

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blinding diseases. The "dry" form of AMD is the most common form of AMD. In contrast to the treatable neovascular (wet) AMD, no effective treatment is available for dry AMD. In this review, we summarize the animal models and therapeutic strategies for dry AMD. The novel candidates as potential treatment targets and the potential effectiveness of nanoceria as a treatment of dry AMD are also discussed.

  5. Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kanu; Zhang, Jianqing; Honbo, Norman; Karliner, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Established doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is a lethal disease. When congestive heart failure develops, mortality is approximately 50%. Extensive research has been done to understand the mechanism and pathophysiology of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and considerable knowledge and experience has been gained. Unfortunately, no effective treatment for established doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is presently available. Extensive research has been done and is being done to discover preventive treatments. However an effective and clinically applicable preventive treatment is yet to be discovered. PMID:20016174

  6. Hyperthermic potentiation of doxorubicin and 4'-EPI-doxorubicin in a transplantable neurogenic rat tumor (BT/sub 4/A) in BD IX rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, O.

    1983-02-01

    The combined effect of hyperthermia and doxorubicin on the neurogenic rat cell line BT/sub 4/C was found to be synergistic in vitro. The present investigation was initiated to study if this synergistic effect also could be obtained in vivo. An enhanced effect occurred when doxorubicin and 4'-epi-doxorubicin 7 mg/kg body weight were given 30 minutes prior to local water bath hyperthermia (one hour at 44.0 degrees C). The local side effects of the combined treatment did not increase above that of hyperthermia alone. Therefore, local hyperthermia may become a useful modality for enhancement of the effect of anthracyclines on tumors with marginal drug sensitivity or bulky tumors with poor drug penetration.

  7. Mn-porphyrin Conjugated Au Nanoshells Encapsulating Doxorubicin for Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Light Triggered Synergistic Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yang, Yongbo; Yue, Xueli; Dai, Zhifei

    2014-01-01

    A theranostic agent was successfully fabricated by the formation of Au nanoshell around poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles entrapping doxorubicin, followed by linking a Mn-porphyrin derivative on the Au shell surface through polyethylene glycol. The resulted agent exhibited excellent colloidal stability and long blood circulation time due to introducing polyethylene glycol. The grafting Mn-porphyrin onto the nanoparticle surface endowed a greatly improved relaxivity (r1 value of 22.18 mM-1s-1 of Mn3+), favorable for accurate cancer diagnosing and locating the tumor site to guide the external near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation for photothermal ablation of tumors. The in vitro experiments confirmed that the agent exhibited an efficient photohyperthermia and a light triggered and stepwise release behavior of doxorubicin due to the high NIR light absorption coefficient of Au nanoshell. The in vivo experiments showed that the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy through such theranostic agent offered a synergistically improved therapeutic outcome compared with either therapy alone, making it a promising approach for cancer therapy. Therefore, such theranostic agent can be developed as a smart and promising nanosystemplatform that integrates multiple capabilities for both effective contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and synergistic therapy. PMID:25057312

  8. Mn-porphyrin conjugated Au nanoshells encapsulating doxorubicin for potential magnetic resonance imaging and light triggered synergistic therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yang, Yongbo; Yue, Xueli; Dai, Zhifei

    2014-01-01

    A theranostic agent was successfully fabricated by the formation of Au nanoshell around poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles entrapping doxorubicin, followed by linking a Mn-porphyrin derivative on the Au shell surface through polyethylene glycol. The resulted agent exhibited excellent colloidal stability and long blood circulation time due to introducing polyethylene glycol. The grafting Mn-porphyrin onto the nanoparticle surface endowed a greatly improved relaxivity (r1 value of 22.18 mM(-1)s(-1) of Mn(3+)), favorable for accurate cancer diagnosing and locating the tumor site to guide the external near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation for photothermal ablation of tumors. The in vitro experiments confirmed that the agent exhibited an efficient photohyperthermia and a light triggered and stepwise release behavior of doxorubicin due to the high NIR light absorption coefficient of Au nanoshell. The in vivo experiments showed that the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy through such theranostic agent offered a synergistically improved therapeutic outcome compared with either therapy alone, making it a promising approach for cancer therapy. Therefore, such theranostic agent can be developed as a smart and promising nanosystemplatform that integrates multiple capabilities for both effective contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and synergistic therapy.

  9. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  10. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.

  11. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells.

  12. Melissa officinalis Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats and Potentiates Its Anticancer Activity on MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Alaaeldin Ahmed; Ahmed, Mahguob Mohamed; Elwey, Hanan Mohamed; Amin, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a limiting factor of doxorubicin (DOX)-based anticancer therapy. Due to its beneficial effects, we investigated whether standardized extract of Melissa officinalis (MO) can attenuate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and can potentiate the efficacy of DOX against human breast cancer cells. MO was administered orally to male albino rats once daily for 10 consecutive days at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg b.wt. DOX (15 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) was administered on the 8th day. MO protected against DOX-induced leakage of cardiac enzymes and histopathological changes. MO ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by decreasing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and total oxidant capacity depletion and by increasing antioxidant capacity. Additionally, MO pretreatment inhibited inflammatory responses to DOX by decreasing the expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 and the activity of myeloperoxidase. MO ameliorated DOX-induced apoptotic tissue damage in heart of rats. In vitro study showed that MO augmented the anticancer efficacy of DOX in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and potentiated oxidative damage and apoptosis. Thus, combination of DOX and MO may prove future cancer treatment protocols safer and more efficient. PMID:27880817

  13. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders.

  14. Biopharmaceutics and Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Chen, Chunying; Zhao, Yuliang; Jia, Lee; Wang, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing nanosciences and are founding an important class of new materials with specific physicochemical properties different from bulk materials with the same compositions. The potential for nanomaterials is rapidly expanding with novel applications constantly being explored in different areas. The unique size-dependent properties of nanomaterials make them very attractive for pharmaceutical applications. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of engineered nanomaterials have yielded valuable information. Cytotoxic effects of certain engineered nanomaterials towards malignant cells form the basis for one aspect of nanomedicine. It is inferred that size, three dimensional shape, hydrophobicity and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization forms a base for exciting developments in therapeutics. This review article addresses the fate of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of engineered nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. It updates the distinctive methodology used for studying the biopharmaceutics of nanoparticles. This review addresses the future potential and safety concerns and genotoxicity of nanoparticle formulations in general. It particularly emphasizes the effects of nanoparticles on metabolic enzymes as well as the parenteral or inhalation administration routes of nanoparticle formulations. This paper illustrates the potential of nanomedicine by discussing biopharmaceutics of fullerene derivatives and their suitability for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Future direction is discussed as well. PMID:18855608

  15. Therapeutic Potential of α-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Ram H.; Nahomi, Rooban B.; Mueller, Niklaus H.; Raghavan, Cibin T.; Ammar, David A.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The findings that α-crystallins are multi-functional proteins with diverse biological functions have generated considerable interest in understanding their role in health and disease. Recent studies have shown that chaperone peptides of α-crystallin could be delivered into cultured cells and in experimental animals with beneficial effects against protein aggregation, oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis. Scope of Review In this review, we will summarize the latest developments on the therapeutic potential of α-crystallins and their functional peptides. Major conclusions α-Crystallins and their functional peptides have shown significant favorable effects against several diseases. Their targeted delivery to tissues would be of great therapeutic benefit. However, α-crystallins can also function as disease-causing proteins. These seemingly contradictory functions must be carefully considered prior to their therapeutic use. General significance αA and αB-Crystallin are members of the small heat shock protein family. These proteins exhibit molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. The core crystallin domain within these proteins is largely responsible for these prosperities. Recent studies have identified peptides within the crystallin domain of both α- and αB-crystallins with remarkable chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Administration of α-crystallin or their functional peptides have shown substantial inhibition of pathologies in several diseases. However, α-crystallins have been shown to promote disease-causing pathways. These two sides of the proteins are discussed in this review. PMID:25840354

  16. Cannabidiol and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Leo, Antonio; Russo, Emilio; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the quality of life and therapeutic response for patients with epilepsy remains still poor. Unfortunately, besides several advantages, these new AEDs have not satisfactorily reduced the number of refractory patients. Therefore, the need for different other therapeutic options to manage epilepsy is still a current issue. To this purpose, emphasis has been given to phytocannabinoids, which have been medicinally used since ancient time in the treatment of neurological disorders including epilepsy. In particular, the nonpsychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anticonvulsant properties, both in preclinical and clinical studies, with a yet not completely clarified mechanism of action. However, it should be made clear that most phytocannabinoids do not act on the endocannabinoid system as in the case of CBD. In in vivo preclinical studies, CBD has shown significant anticonvulsant effects mainly in acute animal models of seizures, whereas restricted data exist in chronic models of epilepsy as well as in animal models of epileptogenesis. Likewise, clinical evidence seems to indicate that CBD is able to manage epilepsy both in adults and children affected by refractory seizures, with a favourable side effect profile. However, to date, clinical trials are both qualitatively and numerically limited, thus yet inconsistent. Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies are undoubtedly needed to better evaluate the potential therapeutic profile of CBD in epilepsy, although the actually available data is promising.

  17. [Lactoferrin - a glycoprotein of great therapeutic potentials].

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Ryszard; Kamińska, Ewa; Michalski, Piotr; Lauterbach, Jan Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein, which is present in most biological fluids with particularly high levels in colostrum and in mammalian milk. Bovine lactoferrin is more than 70% homologous with human lactoferrin. Most of the clinical trials have used bovine lactoferrin for supplementation. This review summarizes the recent advances in explaining the mechanisms, which are responsible for the multifunctional roles of lactoferrin, and presents its potential prophylactic and therapeutic applications. On the ground of the results of preliminary clinical observations, authors suggest beneficial effect of lactoferrin supplementation on the prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with birth weight below 1250 grams.

  18. The intratumoral administration of ferucarbotran conjugated with doxorubicin improved therapeutic effect by magnetic hyperthermia combined with pharmacotherapy in a hepatocellular carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local hyperthermia of tumor in conjunction with chemotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intratumoral delivery of clinically approved magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with doxorubicin to simultaneously induce magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model. Materials and methods HCC cells expressing luciferase were implanted into the flank of BALB/c-nu mice (n = 19). When the tumor diameter reached 7–8 mm, the animals were divided into four groups according to the injected agents: group A (normal saline, n = 4), group B (doxorubicin, n = 5), group C (MNP, n = 5), and group D (MNP/doxorubicin complex, n = 5). Animals were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to receive magnetic hyperthermia, and intratumoral temperature changes were measured. Bioluminescence imagings (BLIs) were performed before treatment and at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment to measure the tumoral activities. The relative signal intensity (RSI) of each tumor was calculated by dividing the BLI signal at each time point by the value measured before treatment. At day 14 post-treatment, all tumor tissues were harvested to assess the apoptosis rates by pathological examination. Results The rise in temperature of the tumors was 1.88 ± 0.21°C in group A, 0.96 ± 1.05°C in B, 7.93 ± 1.99°C in C, and 8.95 ± 1.31°C in D. The RSI of the tumors at day 14 post-treatment was significantly lower in group D (0.31 ± 0.20) than in group A (2.23 ± 1.14), B (0.94 ± 0.47), and C (1.02 ± 0.21). The apoptosis rates of the tumors were 11.52 ± 3.10% in group A, 23.0 ± 7.68% in B, 25.4 ± 3.36% in C, and 39.0 ± 13.2% in D, respectively. Conclusions The intratumoral injection of ferucarbotran conjugated with doxorubicin shows an improved therapeutic effect compared with doxorubicin or ferucarbotran alone

  19. Potential therapeutic approaches for Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiaoning; Sun, Jiandong; Ji, Angela X.; Baudry, Michel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deficiency of maternally inherited UBE3A, an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Despite recent progress in understanding the mechanism underlying UBE3A imprinting, there is no effective treatment. Further investigation of the roles played by UBE3A in the central nervous system (CNS) is needed for developing effective therapies. AREA COVERED This review covers the literature related to genetic classifications of AS, recent discoveries regarding the regulation of UBE3A imprinting, alterations in cell signaling in various brain regions, and potential therapeutic approaches. Since a large proportion of AS patients exhibit comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD), potential common molecular bases are discussed. EXPERT OPINION Advances in understanding UBE3A imprinting provide a unique opportunity to induce paternal UBE3A expression, thus targeting the syndrome at its “root.” However, such efforts have yielded less-than-expected rescue effects in AS mouse models, raising the concern that activation of paternal UBE3A after a critical period cannot correct all the CNS defects that developed in a UBE3A-deficient environment. On the other hand, targeting abnormal downstream cell signaling pathways has provided promising rescue effects in preclinical research. Thus, combined reinstatement of paternal UBE3A expression with targeting abnormal signaling pathways should provide better therapeutic effects. PMID:26558806

  20. Bioconjugates: harnessing potential for effective therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Khare, Piush; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Soni, Vandana; Jain, Nitin K; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-01-01

    The accomplishment of selective delivery can be brought through efficient drug targeting in which the attack of drug moiety is visualized only by the diseased organ and not by the organs of the whole body. This, in turn, consequently minimizes the unwanted effects or side effects caused by the drug action on the other organs. Bioconjugation is a fascinating technique that explores new vistas of drug delivery, and at the same time opens new possibilities for safe and effective therapy. This review is dedicated to and describes the science of bioconjugation and its potential in the drug delivery field, including different bioconjugates and their use in various therapeutic strategies. These have been classified as polymer based, macromolecule based, carrier based, and novel bioconjugates. This review describes the utility of bioconjugates in major diseases like cancer and others, and discusses experiments and research on the same. Bioconjugates have immense potential and extend a promising future in the drug delivery field. The review can act as a quick reference for those actively engaged in drug delivery and drug research to help overcome the hurdles of therapeutics.

  1. The role of milk thistle extract in breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) apoptosis with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Rastegar, Hussein; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Anjarani, Soghra; Bokaee, Saeed; Khaki, Arash; Javadi, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive malignancy and first leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Iranian women. Based on silymarin's unique characteristics, its application in chemotherapy combined with doxorubicin can be effective to enhance the efficacy together with a reduced toxicity on normal tissues. The present study focus on evaluate the efficacy of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin, on viability and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). After being cultured, MCF-7 cells were divided into 8 groups and treated as follows: 1st group received 75 μg silymarin, groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin, respectively, and groups 5, 6, and 7 respectively received 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin as well as 75 μg silymarin. Viability percentage and apoptosis of the cells were assessed with Trypan Blue staining after 16, 24, and 48 hours. Silymarin has a synergistic effect on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. Use of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin can be more effective on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin and decreases its dose-limiting side effects.

  2. Chaperones as potential therapeutics for Krabbe disease.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Pannuzzo, Giovanna; Avola, Rosanna; Cardile, Venera

    2016-11-01

    Krabbe's disease (KD) is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disorder. It is classified among the lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). It was first described in , but the genetic defect for the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene was not discovered until the beginning of the 1970s, 20 years before the GALC cloning. Recently, in 2011, the crystal structures of the GALC enzyme and the GALC-product complex were obtained. For this, compared with other LSDs, the research on possible therapeutic interventions is much more recent. Thus, it is not surprising that some treatment options are still under preclinical investigation, whereas their relevance for other pathologies of the same group has already been tested in clinical studies. This is specifically the case for pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT), a promising strategy for selectively correcting defective protein folding and trafficking and for enhancing enzyme activity by small molecules. These compounds bind directly to a partially folded biosynthetic intermediate, stabilize the protein, and allow completion of the folding process to yield a functional protein. Here, we review the chaperones that have demonstrated potential therapeutics during preclinical studies for KD, underscoring the requirement to invigorate research for KD-addressed PCT that will benefit from recent insights into the molecular understanding of GALC structure, drug design, and development in cellular models. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Potential therapeutic interventions for fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Levenga, Josien; de Vrij, Femke M.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Willemsen, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP); FMRP deficiency in neurons of patients with FXS causes intellectual disability (IQ<70) and several behavioural problems, including hyperactivity and autistic-like features. In the brain, no gross morphological malformations have been found, although subtle spine abnormalities have been reported. FXS has been linked to altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent and independent forms of synaptic plasticity. Here, we discuss potential targeted therapeutic strategies developed to specifically correct disturbances in the excitatory mGluR and the inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) receptor pathways that have been tested in animal models and/or in clinical trials with patients with FXS. PMID:20864408

  4. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  5. Antioxidants as Potential Therapeutics for Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    DAY, BRIAN J.

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease encompasses a large group of chronic lung disorders associated with excessive tissue remodeling, scarring, and fibrosis. The evidence of a redox imbalance in lung fibrosis is substantial, and the rationale for testing antioxidants as potential new therapeutics for lung fibrosis is appealing. Current animal models of lung fibrosis have clear involvement of ROS in their pathogenesis. New classes of antioxidant agents divided into catalytic antioxidant mimetics and antioxidant scavengers are being developed. The catalytic antioxidant class is based on endogenous antioxidant enzymes and includes the manganese-containing macrocyclics, porphyrins, salens, and the non–metal-containing nitroxides. The antioxidant scavenging class is based on endogenous antioxidant molecules and includes the vitamin E analogues, thiols, lazaroids, and polyphenolic agents. Numerous studies have shown oxidative stress to be associated with many interstitial lung diseases and that these agents are effective in attenuating fibroproliferative responses in the lung of animals and humans. PMID:17999627

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of the combination of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes with inertial cavitation generated by confocal ultrasound in AT2 Dunning rat tumour model.

    PubMed

    Mestas, Jean-Louis; Fowler, R Andrew; Evjen, Tove J; Somaglino, Lucie; Moussatov, Alexei; Ngo, Jacqueline; Chesnais, Sabrina; Røgnvaldsson, Sibylla; Fossheim, Sigrid L; Nilssen, Esben A; Lafon, Cyril

    2014-09-01

    The combination of liposomal doxorubicin (DXR) and confocal ultrasound (US) was investigated for the enhancement of drug delivery in a rat tumour model. The liposomes, based on the unsaturated phospholipid dierucoylphosphocholine, were designed to be stable during blood circulation in order to maximize accumulation in tumour tissue and to release drug content upon US stimulation. A confocal US setup was developed for delivering inertial cavitation to tumours in a well-controlled and reproducible manner. In vitro studies confirm drug release from liposomes as a function of inertial cavitation dose, while in vivo pharmacokinetic studies show long blood circulation times and peak tumour accumulation at 24-48 h post intravenous administration. Animals injected 6 mg kg(-1) liposomal DXR exposed to US treatment 48 h after administration show significant tumour growth delay compared to control groups. A liposomal DXR dose of 3 mg kg(-1), however, did not induce any significant therapeutic response. This study demonstrates that inertial cavitation can be generated in such a fashion as to disrupt drug carrying liposomes which have accumulated in the tumour, and thereby increase therapeutic effect with a minimum direct effect on the tissue. Such an approach is an important step towards a therapeutic application of cavitation-induced drug delivery and reduced chemotherapy toxicity.

  7. Galectin-3 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Tumors Arising from Malignant Endothelia1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kim D; Glinskii, Olga V; Mossine, Valeri V; Turk, James R; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Anthony, Douglas C; Henry, Carolyn J; Huxley, Virginia H; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Pienta, Kenneth J; Raz, Avraham; Glinsky, Vladislav V

    2007-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (ASA) in humans and hemangiosarcoma (HSA) in dogs are deadly neoplastic diseases characterized by an aggressive growth of malignant cells with endothelial phenotype, widespread metastasis, and poor response to chemotherapy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in tumor progression and metastasis, endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and neoplastic cell response to cytotoxic drugs, has not been studied before in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gal-3 could be widely expressed in human ASA and canine HSA and could play an important role in malignant endothelial cell biology. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 100% of the human ASA (10 of 10) and canine HSA (17 of 17) samples analyzed expressed Gal-3. Two carbohydrate-based Gal-3 inhibitors, modified citrus pectin (MCP) and lactulosyl-l-leucine (LL), caused a dose-dependent reduction of SVR murine ASA cell clonogenic survival through the inhibition of Gal-3 antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, both MCP and LL sensitized SVR cells to the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin to a degree sufficient to reduce the in vitro IC50 of doxorubicin by 10.7-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively. These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA and identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelial cells. PMID:17786185

  8. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation.

    PubMed

    Smits, Loek P; Bouter, Kristien E C; de Vos, Willem M; Borody, Thomas J; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-11-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditions that were not previously considered to be associated with the intestinal microbiota. Although it is not clear if changes in the microbiota cause these conditions, we review the most current and best methods for performing fecal microbiota transplantation and summarize clinical observations that have implicated the intestinal microbiota in various diseases. We also discuss case reports of fecal microbiota transplantations for different disorders, including Clostridium difficile infection, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, insulin resistance, multiple sclerosis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. There has been increasing focus on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome, obesity, and cardiometabolic diseases, and we explore these relationships and the potential roles of different microbial strains. We might someday be able to mine for intestinal bacterial strains that can be used in the diagnosis or treatment of these diseases.

  9. Coadsorption of Doxorubicin and Selected Dyes on Carbon Nanotubes. Theoretical Investigation of Potential Application as a pH-Controlled Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Tomasz; Wolski, Pawel; Lajtar, Leszek

    2016-05-17

    This work shows results of a theoretical survey, based on molecular dynamics simulation, of potential applicability of doxorubicin coadsorption with various dyes molecules on/in carbon nanotubes as a drug delivery system. The central idea is to take advantage of the dyes charge distribution change upon switching the pH of the environment from neutral (physiological 7.4) to acidic one (∼5.5 which is typical for tumor tissues). This work discusses results obtained for four dye molecules revealing more or less interesting behavior. These were bromothymol blue, methyl red, neutral red, and p-phenylenediamine. All of them reveal pKa in the range 5-7 and thus will undergo protonation in that pH range. We considered coadsorption on external walls of carbon nanotubes and sequential filling of the nanotubes inner hollow space by drug and dyes. The latter approach, with the application of neutral red and p-phenylenediamine as blockers of doxorubicin, led to the most promising results. Closer analysis of these systems allowed us to state that neutral red can be particularly useful as a long-term blocker of doxorubicin encapsulated in the inner cavity of (30,0) carbon nanotube at neutral pH. At acidic pH we observed a spontaneous release of neutral red from the nanotube and unblocking of doxorubicin. We also confirmed, by analysis of free energy profiles, that unblocked doxorubicin can spontaneously leave the nanotube interior at the considered conditions. Thus, that system can realize pH controlled doxorubicin release in acidic environment of tumor tissues.

  10. First In Vivo Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated 223Ra as a Potential Alpha-particle-emitting Cancer Therapeutic Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2006-09-13

    Liposomes carrying chemotherapeutics have had some success in cancer treatment and may be suitable carriers for therapeutic radionuclides. This study was designed to evaluate the biodistribution of and to estimate the radiation doses from the alpha emitter 223Ra loaded into pegylated liposomes in selected tissues. 223Ra was encapsulated in pegylated liposomal doxorubicin by ionophore-mediated loading. The biodistribution of liposomal 223Ra was compared to free cationic 223Ra in Balb/C mice. We showed that liposomal 223 Ra circulated in the blood with an initial half-time in excess of 24 hours, which agreed well with that reported for liposomal doxorubicin in rodents, while the blood half-time of cationic 223Ra was considerably less than one hour. When liposomal 223 Ra was catabolized, the released 223Ra was either excreted or taken up in the skeleton. This skeletal uptake increased up to 14 days after treatment, but did not reach the level seen with free 223Ra. Pre-treatment with non-radioactive liposomal doxorubicin 4 days in advance lessened the liver uptake of liposomal 223 Ra. Dose estimates showed that the spleen, followed by bone surfaces, received the highest absorbed doses. Liposomal 223 Ra was relatively stable in vivo and may have potential for radionuclide therapy and combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. Therapeutic potential of monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Melinda M; Nomura, Daniel K

    2013-03-19

    Marijuana and aspirin have been used for millennia to treat a wide range of maladies including pain and inflammation. Both cannabinoids, like marijuana, that exert anti-inflammatory action through stimulating cannabinoid receptors, and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, like aspirin, that suppress pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production have shown beneficial outcomes in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Both cannabinoids and COX inhibitors, however, have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including cognitive deficits and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively. Recent studies have uncovered that the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) links the endocannabinoid and eicosanoid systems together through hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to provide the major arachidonic acid (AA) precursor pools for pro-inflammatory eicosanoid synthesis in specific tissues. Studies in recent years have shown that MAGL inhibitors elicit anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, and anti-emetic responses and attenuate precipitated withdrawal symptoms in addiction paradigms through enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. MAGL inhibitors have also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory action in the brain and protect against neurodegeneration through lowering eicosanoid production. In cancer, MAGL inhibitors have been shown to have anti-cancer properties not only through modulating the endocannabinoid-eicosanoid network, but also by controlling fatty acid release for the synthesis of protumorigenic signaling lipids. Thus, MAGL serves as a critical node in simultaneously coordinating multiple lipid signaling pathways in both physiological and disease contexts. This review will discuss the diverse (patho)physiological roles of MAGL and the therapeutic potential of MAGL inhibitors in treating a vast array of complex human diseases.

  12. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann JE; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy to examine the effects of the prototypical histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Our findings indicate that doxorubicin modulates the expression of the hypertrophy-associated genes, ventricular myosin light chain-2, the alpha isoform of myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide, an effect which is augmented by Trichostatin A. Furthermore, we show that Trichostatin A amplifies doxorubicin-induced DNA double strand breaks, as assessed by γH2AX formation. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of investigating potential side effects that may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer. PMID:20930262

  13. PP2A inhibition determines poor outcome and doxorubicin resistance in early breast cancer and its activation shows promising therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Sandra; Arpí, Oriol; Menéndez, Silvia; Manso, Rebeca; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease. PMID:25726524

  14. PP2A inhibition determines poor outcome and doxorubicin resistance in early breast cancer and its activation shows promising therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Raúl; Cristóbal, Ion; Zazo, Sandra; Arpí, Oriol; Menéndez, Silvia; Manso, Rebeca; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2015-02-28

    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease.

  15. Smac Mimetic SM-164 Potentiates APO2L/TRAIL- and Doxorubicin-Mediated Anticancer Activity in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuijun; Li, Gongquan; Zhao, Yongfu; Liu, Guangzhi; Wang, Yu; Ma, Xiuxian; Li, Dexu; Wu, Yang; Lu, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background The members of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family are key negative regulators of apoptosis. Overexpression of IAPs are found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and can contribute to chemotherapy resistance and recurrence of HCC. Small-molecule Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetics have recently emerged as novel anticancer drugs through targeting IAPs. The specific aims of this study were to 1) examine the anticancer activity of Smac mimetics as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy in HCC cells, and 2) investigate the mechanism of anticancer action of Smac mimetics. Methods Four HCC cell lines, including SMMC-7721, BEL-7402, HepG2 and Hep3B, and 12 primary HCC cells were used in this study. Smac mimetic SM-164 was used to treat HCC cells. Cell viability, cell death induction and clonal formation assays were used to evaluate the anticancer activity. Western blotting analysis and a pancaspase inhibitor were used to investigate the mechanisms. Results Although SM-164 induced complete cIAP-1 degradation, it displayed weak inhibitory effects on the viability of HCC cells. Nevertheless, SM-164 considerably potentiated Apo2 ligand or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (APO2L/TRAIL)- and Doxorubicin-mediated anticancer activity in HCC cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SM-164 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents resulted in enhanced activation of caspases-9, -3 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and also led to decreased AKT activation. Conclusions Smac mimetics can enhance chemotherapeutic-mediated anticancer activity by enhancing apoptosis signaling and suppressing survival signaling in HCC cells. This study suggests Smac mimetics are potential therapeutic agents for HCC. PMID:23240027

  16. Paradoxically, iron overload does not potentiate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro in cardiomyocytes and in vivo in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Guenancia, Charles; Li, Na; Hachet, Olivier; Rigal, Eve; Cottin, Yves; Dutartre, Patrick; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to induce serious cardiotoxicity, which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress and complex interactions with iron. However, the relationship between iron and DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains controversial and the role of iron chelation therapy to prevent cardiotoxicity is called into question. Firstly, we evaluated in vitro the effects of DOX in combination with dextran–iron on cell viability in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and EMT-6 cancer cells. Secondly, we used an in vivo murine model of iron overloading (IO) in which male C57BL/6 mice received a daily intra-peritoneal injection of dextran–iron (15 mg/kg) for 3 weeks (D0–D20) and then (D21) a single sub-lethal intra-peritoneal injection of 6 mg/kg of DOX. While DOX significantly decreased cell viability in EMT-6 and H9c2, pretreatment with dextran–iron (125–1000 μg/mL) in combination with DOX, paradoxically limited cytotoxicity in H9c2 and increased it in EMT-6. In mice, IO alone resulted in cardiac hypertrophy (+ 22%) and up-regulation of brain natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy-chain (β-MHC) expression, as well as an increase in cardiac nitro-oxidative stress revealed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In DOX-treated mice, there was a significant decrease in left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and an up-regulation of cardiac β-MHC and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression. However, prior IO did not exacerbate the DOX-induced fall in LVEF and there was no increase in ANP expression. IO did not impair the capacity of DOX to decrease cancer cell viability and could even prevent some aspects of DOX cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes and in mice. - Highlights: • The effects of iron on cardiomyocytes were opposite to those on cancer cell lines. • In our model, iron overload did not potentiate anthracycline cardiotoxicity. • Chronic oxidative stress induced by iron could mitigate doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. • The role of iron in

  17. Influence of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole on distribution and activity of doxorubicin in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Man; Lee, Carol; Wang, Marina; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-01

    Cellular causes of resistance and limited drug distribution within solid tumors limit therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Acidic endosomes in cancer cells mediate autophagy, which facilitates survival of stressed cells, and may contribute to drug resistance. Basic drugs (e.g. doxorubicin) are sequestered in acidic endosomes, thereby diverting drugs from their target DNA and decreasing penetration to distal cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may raise endosomal pH, with potential to improve drug efficacy and distribution in solid tumors. We determined the effects of the PPI lansoprazole to modify the activity of doxorubicin. To gain insight into its mechanisms, we studied the effects of lansoprazole on endosomal pH, and on the spatial distribution of doxorubicin, and of biomarkers reflecting its activity, using in vitro and murine models. Lansoprazole showed concentration-dependent effects to raise endosomal pH and to inhibit endosomal sequestration of doxorubicin in cultured tumor cells. Lansoprazole was not toxic to cancer cells but potentiated the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and enhanced its penetration through multilayered cell cultures. In solid tumors, lansoprazole improved the distribution of doxorubicin but also increased expression of biomarkers of drug activity throughout the tumor. Combined treatment with lansoprazole and doxorubicin was more effective in delaying tumor growth as compared to either agent alone. Together, lansoprazole enhances the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin both by improving its distribution and increasing its activity in solid tumors. Use of PPIs to improve drug distribution and to inhibit autophagy represents a promising strategy to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer drugs in solid tumors.

  18. [Potential therapeutic usefulness of cannabis and cannabinoids].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Fernández, P

    2000-01-01

    Diseases in which Cannabis and cannabinoids have demonstrated some medicinal putative properties are: nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, muscle spasticity (multiple sclerosis, movement disorders), pain, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, bronchial asthma, neuroegenerative diseases, cancer, etc. Although some of the current data comes from clinical controlled essays, the majority are based on anecdotic reports. Basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies and more extensive controlled clinical essays with higher number of patients and long term studies are necessary to consider these compounds useful since a therapeutical point of view.

  19. Targeting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: A potential therapeutics to treat gynecological and other cancers.

    PubMed

    Ghanghoria, Raksha; Kesharwani, Prashant; Tekade, Rakesh K; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-11-10

    Cancer is a prime healthcare problem that is significantly responsible for universal mortality. Despite distinguished advancements in medical field, chemotherapy is still the mainstay for the treatment of cancers. During chemotherapy, approximately 90% of the administered dose goes to normal tissues, with mere 2-5% precisely reaching the cancerous tissues. Subsequently, the resultant side effects and associated complications lead to dose reduction or even discontinuance of the therapy. Tumor directed therapy therefore, represents a fascinating approach to augment the therapeutic potential of anticancer bioactives as well as overcomes its side effects. The selective overexpression of LHRH receptors on human tumors compared to normal tissues makes them a suitable marker for diagnostics, molecular probes and targeted therapeutics. These understanding enabled the rational to conjugate LHRH with various cytotoxic drugs (doxorubicin, DOX; camptothecin etc.), cytotoxic genes [small interfering RNA (siRNA), micro RNA (miRNA)], as well as therapeutic nanocarriers (nanoparticles, liposomes or dendrimers) to facilitate their tumor specific delivery. LHRH conjugation enhances their delivery via LHRH receptor mediated endocytosis. Numerous cytotoxic analogs of LHRH were developed over the past two decades to target various types of cancers. The potency of LHRH compound were reported to be as high as 5,00-10,00 folds compared to parent molecules. The objective of this review article is to discuss reports on various LHRH analogs with special emphasis on their prospective application in the medical field. The article also focuses on the attributes that must be taken into account while designing a LHRH therapeutics with special account to the biochemistry and applications of these conjugates. The record on various cytotoxic analogs of LHRH are also discussed. It is anticipated that the knowledge of therapeutic and toxicological aspects of LHRH compounds will facilitate the

  20. Gaq proteins: molecular pharmacology and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kamato, Danielle; Mitra, Partha; Davis, Felicity; Osman, Narin; Chaplin, Rebecca; Cabot, Peter J; Afroz, Rizwana; Thomas, Walter; Zheng, Wenhua; Kaur, Harveen; Brimble, Margaret; Little, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have gained much interest in recent years as it is the largest class among cell surface receptors. G proteins lie in the heart of GPCRs signalling and therefore can be therapeutically targeted to overcome complexities in GPCR responses and signalling. G proteins are classified into four families (Gi, Gs, G12/13 and Gq); Gq is further subdivided into four classes. Among them Gαq and Gαq/11 isoforms are most crucial and ubiquitously expressed; these isoforms are almost 88% similar at their amino acid sequence but may exhibit functional divergences. However, uncertainties often arise about Gαq and Gαq/11 inhibitors, these G proteins might also have suitability to the invention of novel-specific inhibitors for each isoforms. YM-254890 and UBO-QIC are discovered as potent inhibitors of Gαq functions and also investigated in thrombin protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 inhibitors and platelet aggregation inhibition. The most likely G protein involved in PAR-1 stimulates responses is one of the Gαq family isoforms. In this review, we highlight the molecular structures and pharmacological responses of Gαq family which may reflect the biochemical and molecular role of Gαq and Gαq/11. The advanced understanding of Gαq and Gαq/11 role in GPCR signalling may shed light on our understanding on cell biology, cellular physiology and pathophysiology and also lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents for a number of diseases.

  1. Targeted Smart pH and Thermoresponsive N,O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Conjugated Nanogels for Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy of Doxorubicin in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neeraj K; Purohit, Mahaveer P; Equbal, Danish; Dhiman, Nitesh; Singh, Amrita; Kar, Aditya K; Shankar, Jai; Tehlan, Sarita; Patnaik, Satyakam

    2016-11-16

    In cancer treatment, developing ideal anticancer drug delivery systems to target tumor microenvironment by circumventing various physiological barriers still remains a daunting challenge. Here, in our work, a series of pH- and temperature-responsive nanogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-1-propene-2-3-dicarboxylate-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate [poly(NIPAAm-IA-AMPS)] cross-linked by ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were synthesized by random copolymerization. The molar ratio between monomer-comonomers-cross-linker was varied to fine-tune the optimum responsiveness of the nanogels. These optimized nanogels were further coupled to N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) stoichiometrically using EDC-NHS coupling chemistry to enhance the swelling behavior at lower pH. Interestingly, these NOCC-g-nanogels, when dispersed in aqueous media under sonication, attain nanosize and retain their high water-retention capacity with conspicuous pH and temperature responsiveness (viz. nanogel shrinkage in size beyond 35 °C and swelled at acidic pH) in vitro, as reflected by dynamic light scattering data. Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anticancer drug, was loaded into these nanogels using the physical entrapment method. These drug-loaded nanogels exhibited a slow and sustained DOX release profile at physiological temperature and cytosolic pH. Furthermore, confocal and TEM results demonstrate that these nanogels were swiftly internalized by MCF-7 cells, and cell viability data showed preferential heightened cytotoxicity toward cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB231) compared to the MCF10A cells (human breast epithelial cell). Furthermore, intracellular DNA damage and cell cycle arrest assays suggest a mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This study substantiates our NOCC-g-nanogel platform as an excellent modality for passive diffusive loading and targeted release of entrapped drug(s) at physiological conditions in a controlled way for the improved

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    He, Rong-jun; Yu, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Ruo-yu; Zhang, Zhong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  3. HAMLET: functional properties and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Ho C S, James; Rydström, Anna; Trulsson, Maria; Bålfors, Johannes; Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina

    2012-10-01

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes that kills tumor cells with high selectivity. The protein component of HAMLET is α-lactalbumin, which in its native state acts as a substrate specifier in the lactose synthase complex, thereby defining a function essential for the survival of lactating mammals. In addition, α-lactalbumin acquires tumoricidal activity after partial unfolding and binding to oleic acid. The lipid cofactor serves the dual role as a stabilizer of the altered fold of the protein and a coactivator of specific steps in tumor cell death. HAMLET is broadly tumoricidal, suggesting that the complex identifies conserved death pathways suitable for targeting by novel therapies. Sensitivity to HAMLET is defined by oncogene expression including Ras and c-Myc and by glycolytic enzymes. Cellular targets are located in the cytoplasmic membrane, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, proteasomes, lysosomes and nuclei, and specific signaling pathways are rapidly activated, first by interactions of HAMLET with the cell membrane and subsequently after HAMLET internalization. Therapeutic effects of HAMLET have been demonstrated in human skin papillomas and bladder cancers, and HAMLET limits the progression of human glioblastomas, with no evidence of toxicity for normal brain or bladder tissue. These findings open up new avenues for cancer therapy and the understanding of conserved death responses in tumor cells.

  4. Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Zhao, Haitian; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2008-12-03

    Several epidemiological studies indicate that moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a lower incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Red wine is enriched in antioxidant polyphenols with potential neuroprotective activities. Despite scepticism concerning the bioavailability of these polyphenols, in vivo data have clearly demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol in rodent models for stress and diseases. Furthermore, recent work in cell cultures and animal models has shed light on the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in the beneficial effects of resveratrol intake against the neurodegenerative process in Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide: A Potential Wound Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanya; Wang, Qi; Lu, Shuliang; Niu, Yiwen

    2017-04-05

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a topical antiseptic used in wound cleaning which kills pathogens through oxidation burst and local oxygen production. Hydrogen peroxide had been reported to be a reactive biochemical molecule synthesized by various cells which influences biological behavior through multiple mechanisms: alterations of membrane potential, generation of new molecules and changing intracellular redox balance which results in activation or inactivation of different signaling transduction pathways. Contrary to the traditional viewpoint that H2O2 probably impairs tissue through its high oxidative property, however, a proper level of H2O2 is considered as an important requirement for normal wound healing. Although the present clinical use of H2O2 is still limited to the elimination of microbial contamination and sometimes hemostasis, better understanding towards the sterilization ability and cell behavior regulatory function of H2O2 within wound will enhance the potential to exogenously augment and manipulate healing.

  6. The Therapeutic Potential of Medicinal Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and nutritional sciences have recently witnessed a bloom in the scientific literature geared towards the use of food plants for their diversified health benefits and potential clinical applications. Health professionals now recognize that a synergism of drug therapy and nutrition might confer optimum outcomes in the fight against diseases. The prophylactic benefits of food plants are being investigated for potential use as novel medicinal remedies due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly growing, there is still a paucity of updated compilation of data and concerns about the rationale of these health-foods still persist in the literature. This paper attempts to congregate the nutritional value, phytochemical composition, traditional uses, in vitro and in vivo studies of 10 common medicinal food plants used against chronic noncommunicable and infectious diseases. Food plants included were based on the criteria that they are consumed as a common food in a typical diet as either fruit or vegetable for their nutritive value but have also other parts which are in common use in folk medicine. The potential challenges of incorporating these medicinal foods in the diet which offers prospective opportunities for future drug development are also discussed. PMID:24822061

  7. Exploring the therapeutic potential of jellyfish venom.

    PubMed

    Daly, Norelle L; Seymour, Jamie; Wilson, David

    2014-10-01

    The venom of certain jellyfish has long been known to be potentially fatal to humans, but it is only recently that details of the proteomes of these fascinating creatures are emerging. The molecular contents of the nematocysts from several jellyfish species have now been analyzed using proteomic MS approaches and include the analysis of Chironex fleckeri, one of the most venomous jellyfish known. These studies suggest that some species contain toxins related to peptides and proteins found in other venomous creatures. The detailed characterization of jellyfish venom is likely to provide insight into the diversification of toxins and might be a valuable resource in drug design.

  8. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131

  9. Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Getting, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH(1-39)) and the melanocortins (alpha, beta and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [MSH]) are derived from a larger precursor molecule known as the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) protein. They exert their numerous biological effects by activating 7 transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), leading to adenylyl cyclase activation and subsequent cAMP accumulation within the target cell. To date, 5 melanocortin receptors (MCR) have been identified and termed MC1R to MC5R, they have been shown to have a wide and varied distribution throughout the body, being found in the central nervous system (CNS), periphery and immune cells. Melanocortins have a multitude of actions including: (i) modulating disease pathologies including arthritis, asthma, obesity; (ii) affecting functions, for example erectile dysfunction, skin tanning; and (iii) organ systems, for example cardiovascular system. Recently a mechanistic approach has been identified with alpha-MSH preventing NF-kappaB activation via the preservation and expression of IkappaBalphaprotein. This leads to a reduction of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines and inhibition of adhesion molecule expression, with subsequent reduction in leukocyte emigration. Development of selective ligands with an appropriate pharmacokinetic profile will enable a pharmacological evaluation of the potential beneficial effects of the melanocortins. In this review I have discussed the potential mechanistic action for the melanocortins and some of the disease pathologies shown to be modulated. This review proposes targeting the MCR with the ultimate aim of controlling many of the diseases that we face today.

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Dietary Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Saibabu, Venkata; Fatima, Zeeshan; Khan, Luqman Ahmad; Hameed, Saif

    2015-01-01

    Although modern lifestyle has eased the quality of human life, this lifestyle's related patterns have imparted negative effects on health to acquire multiple diseases. Many synthetic drugs are invented during the last millennium but most if not all of them possess several side effects and proved to be costly. Convincing evidences have established the premise that the phytotherapeutic potential of natural compounds and need of search for novel drugs from natural sources are of high priority. Phenolic acids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites spread throughout the plant kingdom and generally involved in plethora of cellular processes involved in plant growth and reproduction and also produced as defense mechanism to sustain various environmental stresses. Extensive research on PAs strongly suggests that consumption of these compounds hold promise to offer protection against various ailments in humans. This paper focuses on the naturally derived PAs and summarizes the action mechanisms of these compounds during disease conditions. Based on the available information in the literature, it is suggested that use of PAs as drugs is very promising; however more research and clinical trials are necessary before these bioactive molecules can be made for treatment. Finally this review provides greater awareness of the promise that natural PAs hold for use in the disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26442119

  11. TLRs, future potential therapeutic targets for RA.

    PubMed

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Essani, Abdul E; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Fox, David A; Shahrara, Shiva

    2017-02-01

    Toll like receptors (TLR)s have a central role in regulating innate immunity and in the last decade studies have begun to reveal their significance in potentiating autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Earlier investigations have highlighted the importance of TLR2 and TLR4 function in RA pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the newer data that indicate roles for TLR5 and TLR7 in RA and its preclinical models. We evaluate the pathogenicity of TLRs in RA myeloid cells, synovial tissue fibroblasts, T cells, osteoclast progenitor cells and endothelial cells. These observations establish that ligation of TLRs can transform RA myeloid cells into M1 macrophages and that the inflammatory factors secreted from M1 and RA synovial tissue fibroblasts participate in TH-17 cell development. From the investigations conducted in RA preclinical models, we conclude that TLR-mediated inflammation can result in osteoclastic bone erosion by interconnecting the myeloid and TH-17 cell response to joint vascularization. In light of emerging unique aspects of TLR function, we summarize the novel approaches that are being tested to impair TLR activation in RA patients.

  12. Phytochemicals as potential therapeutics for thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Manasa, K; Soumya, R; Vani, R

    2016-04-01

    Medical knowledge has always relied on plants as the main sources of important beneficial compounds. Many species have been recognized to have medicinal properties and beneficial impact on health, e.g. antioxidant activity, digestive stimulation action, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential. This review focuses on the promising role of plants and their products in attenuating thrombocytopenia, a common and complex bleeding disorder. When the platelet count decreases below 150,000/µl, it causes thrombocytopenia. This bleeding disorder is observed in 2.5 % of the normal population. The risk of spontaneous muco-cutaneous bleeding and life threatening intracranial haemorrhage or gastrointestinal bleeding increases rapidly when the platelet count decreases below 10,000/µl. The inability to provide supportive treatment to increase the platelet counts often proves fatal to patients. Currently, treatment for thrombocytopenia includes use of drugs or splenectomy or platelet transfusions, in severe cases. Recently, studies have shown platelet augmenting activity of various plant extracts. The effectiveness, toxicity and side effects of the phytochemicals have to be critically evaluated in clinical trials. An in depth understanding of the role and mechanism of these phytochemicals would lead to their successful implementation in treatment and management of thrombocytopenia and other related bleeding disorders.

  13. HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin displays enhanced anti-tumorigenic effects without associated cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Joseph G.; Geretti, Elena; Hendriks, Bart S.; Lee, Helen; Leonard, Shannon C.; Klinz, Stephan G.; Noble, Charles O.; Lücker, Petra B.; Zandstra, Peter W.; Drummond, Daryl C.; Olivier, Kenneth J.; Nielsen, Ulrik B.; Niyikiza, Clet; Agresta, Samuel V.; Wickham, Thomas J.

    2012-07-01

    Anthracycline-based regimens are a mainstay of early breast cancer therapy, however their use is limited by cardiac toxicity. The potential for cardiotoxicity is a major consideration in the design and development of combinatorial therapies incorporating anthracyclines and agents that target the HER2-mediated signaling pathway, such as trastuzumab. In this regard, HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin was developed to provide clinical benefit by both reducing the cardiotoxicity observed with anthracyclines and enhancing the therapeutic potential of HER2-based therapies that are currently available for HER2-overexpressing cancers. While documenting the enhanced therapeutic potential of HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin can be done with existing models, there has been no validated human cardiac cell-based assay system to rigorously assess the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines. To understand if HER2-targeting of liposomal doxorubicin is possible with a favorable cardiac safety profile, we applied a human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte platform to evaluate the doxorubicin exposure of human cardiac cells to HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known application of a stem cell-derived system for evaluating preclinical cardiotoxicity of an investigational agent. We demonstrate that HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin has little or no uptake into human cardiomyocytes, does not inhibit HER2-mediated signaling, results in little or no evidence of cardiomyocyte cell death or dysfunction, and retains the low penetration into heart tissue of liposomal doxorubicin. Taken together, this data ultimately led to the clinical decision to advance this drug to Phase I clinical testing, which is now ongoing as a single agent in HER2-expressing cancers. -- Highlights: ► Novel approach using stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to assess preclinical safety. ► HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin has improved safety profile vs free doxorubicin

  14. Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Granados-Principal, Sergio; El-Azem, Nuri; Pamplona, Reinald; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Vera-Ramirez, Laura; Quiles, Jose L; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Ramirez-Tortosa, Mcarmen

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in several processes including cancer, aging and cardiovascular disease, and has been shown to potentiate the therapeutic effect of drugs such as doxorubicin. Doxorubicin causes significant cardiotoxicity characterized by marked increases in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein, we investigate whether doxorubicin-associated chronic cardiac toxicity can be ameliorated with the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol in rats with breast cancer. Thirty-six rats bearing breast tumors induced chemically were divided into 4 groups: control, hydroxytyrosol (0.5mg/kg, 5days/week), doxorubicin (1mg/kg/week), and doxorubicin plus hydroxytyrosol. Cardiac disturbances at the cellular and mitochondrial level, mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I-IV and apoptosis-inducing factor, and oxidative stress markers have been analyzed. Hydroxytyrosol improved the cardiac disturbances enhanced by doxorubicin by significantly reducing the percentage of altered mitochondria and oxidative damage. These results suggest that hydroxytyrosol improve the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This study demonstrates that hydroxytyrosol protect rat heart damage provoked by doxorubicin decreasing oxidative damage and mitochondrial alterations.

  15. Calcium modulation of doxorubicin cytotoxicity in yeast and human cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Trang; Lim, Ying Jun; Fan, Melanie Hui Min; Jackson, Rebecca A; Lim, Kim Kiat; Ang, Wee Han; Ban, Kenneth Hon Kim; Chen, Ee Sin

    2016-03-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, but its utility is limited by cellular resistance and off-target effects. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating chemotherapeutic responses to doxorubicin, we previously carried out a genomewide search of doxorubicin-resistance genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast and showed that these genes are organized into networks that counteract doxorubicin cytotoxicity. Here, we describe the identification of a subgroup of doxorubicin-resistance genes that, when disrupted, leads to reduced tolerance to exogenous calcium. Unexpectedly, we observed a suppressive effect of calcium on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, where concurrent calcium and doxorubicin treatment resulted in significantly higher cell survival compared with cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Conversely, inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in the mutants. Consistent with these observations in fission yeast, calcium also suppressed doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. Further epistasis analyses in yeast showed that this suppression of doxorubicin toxicity by calcium was synergistically dependent on Rav1 and Vph2, two regulators of vacuolar-ATPase assembly; this suggests potential modulation of the calcium-doxorubicin interaction by fluctuating proton concentrations within the cellular environment. Thus, the modulatory effects of drugs or diet on calcium concentrations should be considered in doxorubicin treatment regimes.

  16. Hydrogen-containing saline attenuates doxorubicin-induced heart failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shujing; Zhu, Liqun; Yang, Jing; Fan, Zhixin; Dong, Yanli; Luan, Rui; Cai, Jingjing; Fu, Lu

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between doxorubicin (DOX) and iron generate reactive oxygen species and contribute to DOX-induced heart failure. Hydrogen, as a selective antioxidant, is a promising potential therapeutic option for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Therefore, we investigated the preventive effects of hydrogen treatment on DOX-induced heart failure in rats. We found that cardiac function was significantly improved and that the plasma levels of oxidative-stress markers and myocardial autophagic activity were decreased in animals treated with hydrogen-containing saline. Therefore, we conclude that hydrogen-containing saline may have beneficial effects for doxorubicin-induced heart failure.

  17. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  18. Decreased Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Contributes to Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Doxorubicin Treatment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vandenwijngaert, Sara; Swinnen, Melissa; Walravens, Ann-Sophie; Beerens, Manu; Gillijns, Hilde; Caluwé, Ellen; Tainsh, Robert E.; Nathan, Daniel I.; Allen, Kaitlin; Brouckaert, Peter; Bartunek, Jozef; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.; Janssens, Stefan P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The use of doxorubicin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is limited by cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that decreased soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) enzyme activity contributes to the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Results: Doxorubicin administration (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) reduced cardiac sGC activity in wild-type (WT) mice. To investigate whether decreased sGC activity contributes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deficiency of the sGC α1-subunit (mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of exon 6 of the sGCα1 allele [sGCα1−/−CM]). After 12 weeks of doxorubicin administration (2 mg/kg/week IP), left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was greater in sGCα1−/−CM than WT mice. To further assess whether reduced sGC activity plays a pathogenic role in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied a mouse model in which decreased cardiac sGC activity was induced by cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a dominant negative sGCα1 mutant (DNsGCα1) upon doxycycline removal (Tet-off). After 8 weeks of doxorubicin administration, DNsGCα1tg/+, but not WT, mice displayed LV systolic dysfunction and dilatation. The difference in cardiac function and remodeling between DNsGCα1tg/+ and WT mice was even more pronounced after 12 weeks of treatment. Further impairment of cardiac function was attenuated when DNsGCα1 gene expression was inhibited (beginning at 8 weeks of doxorubicin treatment) by administering doxycycline. Furthermore, doxorubicin-associated reactive oxygen species generation was higher in sGCα1-deficient than WT hearts. Innovation and Conclusion: These data demonstrate that a reduction in cardiac sGC activity worsens doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and identify sGC as a potential therapeutic target. Various pharmacological sGC agonists are in clinical development or use and may represent a promising approach to limit doxorubicin

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Coucha, Maha; Elshaer, Sally L.; Eldahshan, Wael S.; Mysona, Barbara A.; El-Remessy, Azza B.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults in United States. Research indicates an association between oxidative stress and the development of diabetes complications. However, clinical trials with general antioxidants have failed to prove effective in diabetic patients. Mounting evidence from experimental studies that continue to elucidate the damaging effects of oxidative stress and inflammation in both vascular and neural retina suggest its critical role in the pathogenesis of DR. This review will outline the current management of DR as well as present potential experimental therapeutic interventions, focusing on molecules that link oxidative stress to inflammation to provide potential therapeutic targets for treatment or prevention of DR. Understanding the biochemical changes and the molecular events under diabetic conditions could provide new effective therapeutic tools to combat the disease. PMID:25949069

  20. Distinct phenotype and therapeutic potential of gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2014-09-01

    Gingiva of the oral mucosa provides a practical source to isolate fibroblasts for therapeutic purposes because the tissue is easily accessible, tissue discards are common during routine clinical procedures and wound healing after biopsy is fast and results in complete wound regeneration with very little morbidity or scarring. In addition, gingival fibroblasts have unique traits, including neural crest origin, distinct gene expression and synthetic properties and potent immunomodulatory functions. These characteristics may provide advantages for certain therapeutic approaches over other more commonly used cells, including skin fibroblasts, both in intraoral and extra-oral sites. However, identity and phenotype of gingival fibroblasts, like other fibroblasts, are still not completely understood. Gingival fibroblasts are phenotypically heterogeneous, and these…fibroblast subpopulations may play different roles in tissue maintenance, regeneration and pathologies. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is currently known about gingival fibroblasts, their distinct potential for tissue regeneration and their potential therapeutic uses in the future.

  1. Repurposing antipsychotics as glioblastoma therapeutics: Potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JIN-KU; NAM, DO-HYUN; LEE, JEONGWU

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor, with tragically little therapeutic progress over the last 30 years. Surgery provides a modest benefit, and GBM cells are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite significant development of the molecularly targeting strategies, the clinical outcome of GBM patients remains dismal. The challenges inherent in developing effective GBM treatments have become increasingly clear, and include resistance to standard treatments, the blood-brain barrier, resistance of GBM stem-like cells, and the genetic complexity and molecular adaptability of GBM. Recent studies have collectively suggested that certain antipsychotics harbor antitumor effects and have potential utilities as anti-GBM therapeutics. In the present review, the anti-tumorigenic effects and putative mechanisms of antipsychotics, and the challenges for the potential use of antipsychotic drugs as anti-GBM therapeutics are reviewed. PMID:26893731

  2. Assessing the therapeutic potential of lab-made hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Milad; Grimm, Andrew A; Willenbring, Holger

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has potential as a bridge or even alternative to whole-organ liver transplantation. Because donor livers are scarce, realizing this potential requires the development of alternative cell sources. To be therapeutically effective, surrogate hepatocytes must replicate the complex function and ability to proliferate of primary human hepatocytes. Ideally, they are also autologous to eliminate the need for immune suppression, which can have severe side effects and may not be sufficient to prevent rejection long term. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to generate hepatocytes from other readily and safely accessible somatic cells. These lab-made hepatocytes show promise in animal models of liver diseases, supporting the feasibility of autologous liver cell therapies. Here, we review recent preclinical studies exemplifying different types of lab-made hepatocytes that can potentially be used in autologous liver cell therapies. To define the therapeutic efficacy of current lab-made hepatocytes, we compare them to primary human hepatocytes, focusing on engraftment efficiency and posttransplant proliferation and function. In addition to summarizing published results, we discuss animal models and assays effective in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This analysis underscores the therapeutic potential of current lab-made hepatocytes, but also highlights deficiencies and uncertainties that need to be addressed in future studies aimed at developing liver cell therapies with lab-made hepatocytes. (Hepatology 2016;64:287-294).

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells Strategy for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Youn; Lee, Jihyun; Oh, Sekyung; Lee, Hojin; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    Despite development of medicine, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Over the past 10 years, various stem cells have been utilized in therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CVDs. CVDs are characterized by a broad range of pathological reactions including inflammation, necrosis, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy. However, the causes of CVDs are still unclear. While there is a limit to the currently available target-dependent treatments, the therapeutic potential of stem cells is very attractive for the treatment of CVDs because of their paracrine effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and immunomodulatory capacity. Various studies have recently reported increased therapeutic potential of transplantation of microRNA- (miRNA-) overexpressing stem cells or small-molecule-treated cells. In addition to treatment with drugs or overexpressed miRNA in stem cells, stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles also have therapeutic potential because they can deliver the stem cell-specific RNA and protein into the host cell, thereby improving cell viability. Here, we reported the state of stem cell-based therapy for the treatment of CVDs and the potential for cell-free based therapy. PMID:27829839

  4. Inhibition of PKM2 sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to doxorubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • Suppression of PKM2 sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to doxorubicin. • Repression of PKM2 affects the glycolysis and decreases ATP production. • Downregulation of PKM2 increases the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin. • Inhibition of PKM2 enhances the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin in vivo. - Abstract: Cancer cells alter regular metabolic pathways in order to sustain rapid proliferation. One example of metabolic remodeling in cancerous tissue is the upregulation of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), which is involved in aerobic glycolysis. Indeed, PKM2 has previously been identified as a tumor biomarker and as a potential target for cancer therapy. Here, we examined the effects of combined treatment with doxorubicin and anti-PKM2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The suppression of PKM2 resulted in changes in glucose metabolism, leading to decreased synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Reduced levels of ATP resulted in the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of this drug in several triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the combined effect of PKM2 siRNA and doxorubicin was evaluated in an in vivo MDA-MB-231 orthotopic breast cancer model. The siRNA was systemically administered through a polyethylenimine (PEI)-based delivery system that has been extensively used. We demonstrate that the combination treatment showed superior anticancer efficacy as compared to doxorubicin alone. These findings suggest that targeting PKM2 can increase the efficacy of chemotherapy, potentially providing a new approach for improving the outcome of chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.

  5. Therapeutic potential of cone snail venom peptides (conopeptides).

    PubMed

    Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails have evolved many 1000s of small, structurally stable venom peptides (conopeptides) for prey capture and defense. Whilst < 0.1% have been pharmacologically characterised, those with known function typically target membrane proteins of therapeutic importance, including ion channels, transporters and GPCRs. Several conopeptides reduce pain in animals models, with one in clinical development (χ-conopeptide analogue Xen2174) and one marketed (ω- conotoxin MVIIA or Prialt) for the treatment of severe pain. In addition to their therapeutic potential, conopeptides have been valuable probes for studying the role of a number of key membrane proteins in normal and disease physiology.

  6. A rapid screening system evaluates novel inhibitors of DNA methylation and suggests F-box proteins as potential therapeutic targets for high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Penter, Livius; Maier, Bert; Frede, Ute; Hackner, Benjamin; Carell, Thomas; Hagemeier, Christian; Truss, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    After extensive research on radiochemotherapy, 5-year survival rates of children with high risk neuroblastoma still do not exceed 50%, owing to adverse side-effects exemplified by doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. A promising new approach is the combination of conventional therapies with specific modulation of cell signaling pathways promoting therapeutic resistance, such as inhibition of aberrant kinase activity or re-expression of silenced tumor suppressor genes by means of chromatin remodeling. In this regard, we established a system that allows to identify potential drug targets as well as to validate respective candidate inhibitors in high-risk neuroblastoma model cell lines. Cell culture, drug exposure, shRNA-mediated knockdown and phenotype analysis are integrated into an efficient and versatile single well-based protocol. By utilizing this system, we assessed RG108, SGI-1027 and nanaomycin A, three novel DNA methyltransferase inhibitors that have not been tested in neuroblastoma cell lines so far, for their potential of synergistic anti-tumor activity in combination with doxorubicin. We found that, similarly to azacytidine, SGI-1027 and nanaomycin A mediate synergistic growth inhibition with doxorubicin independently of N-Myc status. However, they display high cytotoxicity but lack global DNA demethylation activity. Secondly, we conducted a lentiviral shRNA screen of F-box proteins, key regulators of protein stability, and identified Fbxw11/β-TrCP2 as well as Fbxo5/Emi1 as potential therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma. These results complement existing studies and underline the reliability and versatility of our single well-based protocol.

  7. Potential Therapeutic Uses of Mecamylamine and its Stereoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Justin R.; Grinevich, Vladimir P.; Siripurapu, Kiran B.; Smith, Andrew M.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Mecamylamine (3-methylaminoisocamphane hydrochloride) is a nicotinic parasympathetic ganglionic blocker, originally utilized as a therapeutic agent to treat hypertension. Mecamylamine administration produces several deleterious side-effects at therapeutically relevant doses. As such, mecamylamine’s use as an antihypertensive agent was phased out, except in severe hypertension. Mecamylamine easily traverses the blood-brain barrier to reach the central nervous system (CNS), where it acts as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, inhibiting all known nAChR subtypes. Since nAChRs play a major role in numerous physiological and pathological processes, it is not surprising that mecamylamine has been evaluated for its potential therapeutic effects in a wide variety of CNS disorders, including addiction. Importantly, mecamylamine produces its therapeutic effects on the CNS at doses 3-fold lower than those used to treat hypertension, which diminishes the probability of peripheral side-effects. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties of mecamylamine, the differential effects of its stereoisomers, S(+)- and R(−)-mecamylamine, and the potential for effectiveness in treating CNS disorders, including nicotine and alcohol addiction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:23603417

  8. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and particularly for neurologic conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science, preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. Results The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome. Conclusions Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  9. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. The pharmacology of cannabis is complex, with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits, but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia, or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or RLS. Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological, and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders.

  10. Mirvetuximab Soravtansine (IMGN853), a Folate Receptor Alpha-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate, Potentiates the Activity of Standard of Care Therapeutics in Ovarian Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Jose F; Ab, Olga; Lanieri, Leanne; Lee, Jenny; Coccia, Jennifer; Bartle, Laura M; Themeles, Marian; Zhou, Yinghui; Pinkas, Jan; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Elevated folate receptor alpha (FRα) expression is characteristic of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), thus establishing this receptor as a candidate target for the development of novel therapeutics to treat this disease. Mirvetuximab soravtansine (IMGN853) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that targets FRα for tumor-directed delivery of the maytansinoid DM4, a potent agent that induces mitotic arrest by suppressing microtubule dynamics. Here, combinations of IMGN853 with approved therapeutics were evaluated in preclinical models of EOC. Combinations of IMGN853 with carboplatin or doxorubicin resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects in the IGROV-1 ovarian cancer cell line in vitro. IMGN853 potentiated the cytotoxic activity of carboplatin via growth arrest and augmented DNA damage; cell cycle perturbations were also observed in cells treated with the IMGN853/doxorubicin combination. These benefits translated into improved antitumor activity in patient-derived xenograft models in vivo in both the platinum-sensitive (IMGN853/carboplatin) and platinum-resistant (IMGN853/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) settings. IMGN853 co-treatment also improved the in vivo efficacy of bevacizumab in platinum-resistant EOC models, with combination regimens causing significant regressions and complete responses in the majority of tumor-bearing mice. Histological analysis of OV-90 ovarian xenograft tumors revealed that concurrent administration of IMGN853 and bevacizumab caused rapid disruption of tumor microvasculature and extensive necrosis, underscoring the superior bioactivity profile of the combination regimen. Overall, these demonstrations of combinatorial benefit conferred by the addition of the first FRα-targeting ADC to established therapies provide a compelling framework for the potential application of IMGN853 in the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

  11. Inhibition of Autophagy by Deguelin Sensitizes Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Min; He, Rui Zhi; Shi, Xiu Hui; Guo, Xing Jun; Shi, Cheng Jian; Peng, Feng; Wang, Min; Shen, Min; Wang, Xin; Li, Xu; Qin, Ren Yi

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Furthermore, patients with pancreatic cancer experience limited benefit from current chemotherapeutic approaches because of drug resistance. Therefore, an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with pancreatic cancer is urgently required. Deguelin is a natural chemopreventive drug that exerts potent antiproliferative activity in solid tumors by inducing cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this activity have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that deguelin blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Autophagy induced by doxorubicin plays a protective role in pancreatic cancer cells, and suppressing autophagy by chloroquine or silencing autophagy protein 5 enhanced doxorubicin-induced cell death. Similarly, inhibition of autophagy by deguelin also chemosensitized pancreatic cancer cell lines to doxorubicin. These findings suggest that deguelin has potent anticancer effects against pancreatic cancer and potentiates the anti-cancer effects of doxorubicin. These findings provide evidence that combined treatment with deguelin and doxorubicin represents an effective strategy for treating pancreatic cancer. PMID:28208617

  12. Injectable small molecule hydrogel as a potential nanocarrier for localized and sustained in vivo delivery of doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manish; Kundu, Somanath; Reddy M, Amarendar; Sreekanth, Vedagopuram; Motiani, Rajender K.; Sengupta, Sagar; Srivastava, Aasheesh; Bajaj, Avinash

    2014-10-01

    The majority of the localized drug delivery systems are based on polymeric or polypeptide scaffolds, as weak intermolecular interactions of low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs, Mw <500 Da) are significantly perturbed in the presence of anticancer drugs. Here, we present l-alanine derived low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs) that remain injectable even after entrapping the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). These DOX containing nanoassemblies (DOX-Gel) showed promising anticancer activity in mice models. Subcutaneous injection of DOX-Gel near the tumor achieved a greater decrease in tumour load than by intravenous injection of DOX (DOX-IV), and local injection of DOX alone (DOX-Local) at the tumor site. We noticed that DOX-Gel nanocarriers are especially effective when injected during the early stage of tumor progression, and achieve a substantial decrease in tumor load in the long term.The majority of the localized drug delivery systems are based on polymeric or polypeptide scaffolds, as weak intermolecular interactions of low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs, Mw <500 Da) are significantly perturbed in the presence of anticancer drugs. Here, we present l-alanine derived low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs) that remain injectable even after entrapping the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). These DOX containing nanoassemblies (DOX-Gel) showed promising anticancer activity in mice models. Subcutaneous injection of DOX-Gel near the tumor achieved a greater decrease in tumour load than by intravenous injection of DOX (DOX-IV), and local injection of DOX alone (DOX-Local) at the tumor site. We noticed that DOX-Gel nanocarriers are especially effective when injected during the early stage of tumor progression, and achieve a substantial decrease in tumor load in the long term. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scheme 1, Fig. S1-S6, synthesis of hydrogels; experimental section for gelation, rheology, MALDI, microscopy and

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations: phenotype, property and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Mo, Miaohua; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Hong; Wu, Yaojiong

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of differentiating into cells of multiple cell lineages and have potent paracrine effects. Due to their easy preparation and low immunogenicity, MSC have emerged as an extremely promising therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine for diverse diseases. However, MSC are heterogeneous with respect to phenotype and function in current isolation and cultivation regimes, which often lead to incomparable experimental results. In addition, there may be specific stem cell subpopulations with definite differentiation capacity toward certain lineages in addition to stem cells with multi-differentiation potential. Recent studies have identified several subsets of MSC which exhibit distinct features and biological activities, and enhanced therapeutic potentials for certain diseases. In this review, we give an overview of these subsets for their phenotypic, biological and functional properties.

  14. Therapeutic potential of selenium and tellurium compounds: opportunities yet unrealised.

    PubMed

    Tiekink, Edward R T

    2012-06-07

    Despite being disparaged for their malodorous and toxic demeanour, compounds of selenium, a bio-essential element, and tellurium, offer possibilities as therapeutic agents. Herein, their potential use as drugs, for example, as anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory agents, etc., will be surveyed along with a summary of the established biological functions of selenium. The natural biological functions of tellurium remain to be discovered.

  15. The pharmacology and therapeutic potential of (−)-huperzine A

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Maung Kyaw Moe; Herzon, Seth B

    2012-01-01

    (−)-Huperzine A (1) is an alkaloid isolated from a Chinese club moss. Due to its potent neuroprotective activities, it has been investigated as a candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of (−)-huperzine A (1). Synthetic studies of (−)-huperzine A (1) aimed at enabling its development as a pharmaceutical will be described. PMID:27186124

  16. The natural flavonoid pinocembrin: molecular targets and potential therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xi; Wang, Wenzhu; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Pinocembrin is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from honey, propolis, ginger roots, wild marjoram, and other plants. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects as well as the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, protect the blood-brain barrier, modulate mitochondrial function, and regulate apoptosis. Considering these pharmaceutical characteristics, pinocembrin has potential as a drug to treat ischemic stroke and other clinical conditions. In this review, we summarize its pharmacologic characteristics and discuss its mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25744566

  17. Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, Mohamed

    2006-04-21

    In order to assess the current knowledge on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, a meta-analysis was performed through Medline and PubMed up to July 1, 2005. The key words used were cannabis, marijuana, marihuana, hashish, hashich, haschich, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, dronabinol, nabilone, levonantradol, randomised, randomized, double-blind, simple blind, placebo-controlled, and human. The research also included the reports and reviews published in English, French and Spanish. For the final selection, only properly controlled clinical trials were retained, thus open-label studies were excluded. Seventy-two controlled studies evaluating the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids were identified. For each clinical trial, the country where the project was held, the number of patients assessed, the type of study and comparisons done, the products and the dosages used, their efficacy and their adverse effects are described. Cannabinoids present an interesting therapeutic potential as antiemetics, appetite stimulants in debilitating diseases (cancer and AIDS), analgesics, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, Tourette's syndrome, epilepsy and glaucoma.

  18. miRNA therapeutics: a new class of drugs with potential therapeutic applications in the heart.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Lin, Ruby C Y; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which regulate gene expression. Here, the authors describe the contribution of miRNAs to cardiac biology and disease. They discuss various strategies for manipulating miRNA activity including antisense oligonucleotides (antimiRs, blockmiRs), mimics, miRNA sponges, Tough Decoys and miRNA mowers. They review developments in chemistries (e.g., locked nucleic acid) and modifications (sugar, 'ZEN', peptide nucleic acids) and miRNA delivery tools (viral vectors, liposomes, nanoparticles, pHLIP). They summarize potential miRNA therapeutic targets for heart disease based on preclinical studies. Finally, the authors review current progress of miRNA therapeutics in clinical development for HCV and cancer, and discuss challenges that will need to be overcome for similar therapies to enter the clinic for patients with cardiac disease.

  19. Phosphorylation events during viral infections provide potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Julie A.; Striker, Rob

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY For many medically relevant viruses, there is now considerable evidence that both viral and cellular kinases play important roles in viral infection. Ultimately, these kinases, and the cellular signaling pathways that they exploit, may serve as therapeutic targets for treating patients. Currently, small molecule inhibitors of kinases are under investigation as therapy for herpes viral infections. Additionally, a number of cellular or host-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have been previously FDA-approved for cancer treatment are under study in animal models and clinical trials, as they have shown promise for the treatment of various viral infections as well. This review will highlight the wide range of viral proteins phosphorylated by viral and cellular kinases, and the potential for variability of kinase recognition sites within viral substrates to impact phosphorylation and kinase prediction. Research studying kinase-targeting prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for a number of viral infections will also be discussed. PMID:22113983

  20. Therapeutic potential of icatibant (HOE-140, JE-049).

    PubMed

    Cruden, Nicholas L M; Newby, David E

    2008-09-01

    There is now a substantial body of work implicating bradykinin, an endogenous peptide neurohormone, in the pathophysiology of a variety of inflammatory conditions in man. Icatibant (HOE-140, JE-049), a highly selective antagonist at the bradykinin B2 receptor, blocks the vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability associated with exogenous bradykinin administration both in experimental models and in vivo in man. Recent attention has focused on the therapeutic potential of icatibant in a number of human disease states. The most promising of these is hereditary angioedema in which Phase III clinical trials have recently been completed and regulatory approval is currently being sought in Europe and the USA. A therapeutic role for icatibant has also been proposed in several other human conditions including drug-induced angioedema, airways disease, thermal injury, refractory ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis, and acute pancreatitis, although this work remains largely experimental.

  1. Potential therapeutic applications of hyaluronan in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Jerome O

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a long-chain polysaccharide, is currently being evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for a number of inflammatory disorders. The effect of HA on inflammation appears to be related to its molecular size, with larger polysaccharide chains having anti-inflammatory activity and smaller ones having proinflammatory properties. This dichotomous behavior is particularly relevant to the work of our laboratory on an aerosolized preparation of HA to treat pulmonary emphysema. The breakdown of inhaled HA into smaller fragments could possibly induce an inflammatory reaction in the lung that counteracts any beneficial effect. Consequently, the proposed therapeutic use of HA will require development of treatment strategies aimed at minimizing its proinflammatory activity. PMID:18229566

  2. Potential therapeutic benefits of strategies directed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Camara, Amadou K S; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Stowe, David F

    2010-08-01

    The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy.

  3. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein APPsα

    PubMed Central

    Mockett, Bruce G.; Richter, Max; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Müller, Ulrike C.

    2017-01-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. While most early studies have been conducted in vitro, effectiveness in animal models is now being confirmed. These studies have revealed that either upregulating α-secretase activity, acutely administering APPsα or chronic delivery of APPsα via a gene therapy approach can effectively treat mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders such as traumatic head injury. Together these findings suggest the need for intensifying research efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional protein. PMID:28223920

  5. Genetic determinants and potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Robert; Hendifar, Andrew E.; Tuli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States, carrying a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%, which is the poorest prognosis of any solid tumor type. Given the dismal prognosis associated with PDAC, a more thorough understanding of risk factors and genetic predisposition has important implications not only for cancer prevention, but also for screening techniques and the development of personalized therapies. While screening of the general population is not recommended or practicable with current diagnostic methods, studies are ongoing to evaluate its usefulness in people with at least 5- to 10-fold increased risk of PDAC. In order to help identify high-risk populations who would be most likely to benefit from early detection screening tests for pancreatic cancer, discovery of additional pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes is crucial. Thus, specific gene-based, gene-product, and marker-based testing for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are currently being developed, with the potential for these to be useful as potential therapeutic targets as well. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis for PDAC with a focus on germline and familial determinants. A discussion of potential therapeutic targets and future directions in screening and treatment is also provided. PMID:24624093

  6. Leveraging biodiversity knowledge for potential phyto-therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify and highlight the feasibility, challenges, and advantages of providing a cross-domain pipeline that can link relevant biodiversity information for phyto-therapeutic assessment. Materials and methods A public repository of clinical trials information (ClinicalTrials.gov) was explored to determine the state of plant-based interventions under investigation. Results The results showed that ∼15% of drug interventions in ClinicalTrials.gov were potentially plant related, with about 60% of them clustered within 10 taxonomic families. Further analysis of these plant-based interventions identified ∼3.7% of associated plant species as endangered as determined from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List. Discussion The diversity of the plant kingdom has provided human civilization with life-sustaining food and medicine for centuries. There has been renewed interest in the investigation of botanicals as sources of new drugs, building on traditional knowledge about plant-based medicines. However, data about the plant-based biodiversity potential for therapeutics (eg, based on genetic or chemical information) are generally scattered across a range of sources and isolated from contemporary pharmacological resources. This study explored the potential to bridge biodiversity and biomedical knowledge sources. Conclusions The findings from this feasibility study suggest that there is an opportunity for developing plant-based drugs and further highlight taxonomic relationships between plants that may be rich sources for bioprospecting. PMID:23518859

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound for Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-10-27

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder occurring almost exclusively in females and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in the majority of cases. MeCP2 is essential for the normal function of nerve cells, including neuronal development, maturation, and synaptic activity. RTT is characterized by normal early development followed by autistic-like features, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, breathing irregularities, and cognitive disabilities. Medical management in RTT remains supportive and symptomatic. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of RTT. Recent studies have shown a phenotypic reversal by increasing BDNF expression in a RTT mouse model. Thus, manipulation of BDNF expression/signaling in the brain could be therapeutic for this disease. Transcranial focused ultrasound for (tFUS) can noninvasively focally modulate human cortical function, stimulate neurogenesis, and increase BDNF in animal studies. Consequently, tFUS may be of therapeutic potential for Rett syndrome. Further evaluation of the therapeutic effects of tFUS in Mecp2 deficient animal models is needed before clinical trials can begin.

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound for Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder occurring almost exclusively in females and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in the majority of cases. MeCP2 is essential for the normal function of nerve cells, including neuronal development, maturation, and synaptic activity. RTT is characterized by normal early development followed by autistic-like features, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, breathing irregularities, and cognitive disabilities. Medical management in RTT remains supportive and symptomatic. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of RTT. Recent studies have shown a phenotypic reversal by increasing BDNF expression in a RTT mouse model. Thus, manipulation of BDNF expression/signaling in the brain could be therapeutic for this disease. Transcranial focused ultrasound for (tFUS) can noninvasively focally modulate human cortical function, stimulate neurogenesis, and increase BDNF in animal studies. Consequently, tFUS may be of therapeutic potential for Rett syndrome. Further evaluation of the therapeutic effects of tFUS in Mecp2 deficient animal models is needed before clinical trials can begin. PMID:27786169

  9. Glycine transporter-1: a new potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The hypofunction hypothesis of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggests that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. The glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex is the one of the most attractive therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory site on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methylglycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Currently, a number of pharmaceutical companies have been developing novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. A recent double blind phase II study demonstrated that the novel GlyT-1 inhibitor RG1678 has a robust and clinically meaningful effect in patients with schizophrenia. In this article, the author reviews the recent findings on the GlyT-1 as a potential therapeutic target of schizophrenia.

  10. Commercially available interactive video games in burn rehabilitation: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid S; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-06-01

    Commercially available interactive video games (IVG) like the Nintendo Wii™ (NW) and PlayStation™II Eye Toy (PE) are increasingly used in the rehabilitation of patients with burn. Such games have gained popularity in burn rehabilitation because they encourage range of motion (ROM) while distracting from pain. However, IVGs were not originally designed for rehabilitation purposes but rather for entertainment and may lack specificity for achieving rehabilitative goals. Objectively evaluating the specific demands of IVGs in relation to common burn therapy goals will determine their true therapeutic benefit and guide their use in burn rehabilitation. Upper extremity (UE) motion of 24 normal children was measured using 3D motion analysis during play with the two types of IVGs most commonly described for use after burn: NW and PE. Data was analyzed using t-tests and One-way Analysis of Variance. Active range of motion for shoulder flexion and abduction during play with both PE and NW was within functional range, thus supporting the idea that IVGs offer activities with therapeutic potential to improve ROM. PE resulted in higher demands and longer duration of UE motion than NW, and therefore may be the preferred tool when UE ROM or muscular endurance are the goals of rehabilitation. When choosing a suitable IVG for application in rehabilitation, the user's impairment together with the therapeutic attributes of the IVG should be considered to optimize outcome.

  11. TRAF6 Activation in Multiple Myeloma: A Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Tamashiro, Samantha; Baritaki, Stavroula; Penichet, Manuel; Yu, Youhua; Chen, Haiming; Berenson, James; Bonavida, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-lymphocyte malignancy. New therapeutic options have become available during the past several years; however nearly all patients acquire resistance to currently available therapeutic agents. Mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis and chemoresistance of MM include genetic abnormalities, chromosomal translocations, gene mutations, the interaction between MM cells and the bone marrow microenvironment, and defects in the apoptotic signaling pathways. Survival signaling pathways associated with the pathogenesis of MM and bone marrow stromal cells play crucial roles in promoting growth, survival, adhesion, immortalization, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (RANK/RANKL-TRAF6) signal pathway mediates osteolytic bone lesions through the activation of the NF-κB and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JNK) pathways in osteoclast precursor cells and thus contributes to the main clinical manifestations of bone disease. TRAF6 has also been identified as a ligase for Akt ubiquitination and membrane recruitment and its phosphorylation on growth factor stimulation. The inhibition of TRAF6 by silencing RNA or by decoy peptides decreases MM tumor cell proliferation and increases apoptosis as well as bone resorption. Some proteasome inhibitors and benzoxadiazole derivatives showed inhibitory effects on the activity and function of TRAF6. Overall, we propose that TRAF6 may be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MM. PMID:22440007

  12. Candidate genes and potential targets for therapeutics in Wilms' tumour.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Christopher; Coppes, Max J; Narendran, Aru

    2010-09-01

    Wilms' tumour (WT) is the most common malignant renal tumour of childhood. During the past two decades or so, molecular studies carried out on biopsy specimens and tumour-derived cell lines have identified a multitude of chromosomal and epigenetic alterations in WT. In addition, a significant amount of evidence has been gathered to identify the genes and signalling pathways that play a defining role in its genesis, growth, survival and treatment responsiveness. As such, these molecules and mechanisms constitute potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies for refractory WT. In this report we aim to review some of the many candidate genes and intersecting pathways that underlie the complexities of WT biology.

  13. Targeting nuclear transporters in cancer: Diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Stelma, Tamara; Chi, Alicia; van der Watt, Pauline J; Verrico, Annalisa; Lavia, Patrizia; Leaner, Virna D

    2016-04-01

    The Karyopherin superfamily is a major class of soluble transport receptors consisting of both import and export proteins. The trafficking of proteins involved in transcription, cell signalling and cell cycle regulation among other functions across the nuclear membrane is essential for normal cellular functioning. However, in cancer cells, the altered expression or localization of nuclear transporters as well as the disruption of endogenous nuclear transport inhibitors are some ways in which the Karyopherin proteins are dysregulated. The value of nuclear transporters in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer is currently being elucidated with recent studies highlighting their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  14. Ceruloplasmin dysfunction and therapeutic potential for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Scott; Lei, Peng; Duce, James A; Wong, Bruce X W; Sedjahtera, Amelia; Adlard, Paul A; Bush, Ashley I; Finkelstein, David I

    2013-04-01

    Ceruloplasmin is an iron-export ferroxidase that is abundant in plasma and also expressed in glia. We found a ∼80% loss of ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity in the substantia nigra of idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) cases, which could contribute to the pro-oxidant iron accumulation that characterizes the pathology. Consistent with a role for ceruloplasmin in PD etiopathogenesis, ceruloplasmin knockout mice developed parkinsonism that was rescued by iron chelation. Additionally, peripheral infusion of ceruloplasmin attenuated neurodegeneration and nigral iron elevation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model for PD. These findings show, in principle, that intravenous ceruloplasmin may have therapeutic potential in PD.

  15. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach).

  16. Paradoxically, iron overload does not potentiate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro in cardiomyocytes and in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Guenancia, Charles; Li, Na; Hachet, Olivier; Rigal, Eve; Cottin, Yves; Dutartre, Patrick; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to induce serious cardiotoxicity, which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress and complex interactions with iron. However, the relationship between iron and DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains controversial and the role of iron chelation therapy to prevent cardiotoxicity is called into question. Firstly, we evaluated in vitro the effects of DOX in combination with dextran-iron on cell viability in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and EMT-6 cancer cells. Secondly, we used an in vivo murine model of iron overloading (IO) in which male C57BL/6 mice received a daily intra-peritoneal injection of dextran-iron (15mg/kg) for 3weeks (D0-D20) and then (D21) a single sub-lethal intra-peritoneal injection of 6mg/kg of DOX. While DOX significantly decreased cell viability in EMT-6 and H9c2, pretreatment with dextran-iron (125-1000μg/mL) in combination with DOX, paradoxically limited cytotoxicity in H9c2 and increased it in EMT-6. In mice, IO alone resulted in cardiac hypertrophy (+22%) and up-regulation of brain natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy-chain (β-MHC) expression, as well as an increase in cardiac nitro-oxidative stress revealed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In DOX-treated mice, there was a significant decrease in left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and an up-regulation of cardiac β-MHC and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression. However, prior IO did not exacerbate the DOX-induced fall in LVEF and there was no increase in ANP expression. IO did not impair the capacity of DOX to decrease cancer cell viability and could even prevent some aspects of DOX cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes and in mice.

  17. Vitamin D in Autoimmunity: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Dankers, Wendy; Colin, Edgar M.; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Lubberts, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades, it has become clear that the role of vitamin D goes beyond the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. An important extraskeletal effect of vitamin D is the modulation of the immune system. In the context of autoimmune diseases, this is illustrated by correlations of vitamin D status and genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor with the incidence and severity of the disease. These correlations warrant investigation into the potential use of vitamin D in the treatment of patients with autoimmune diseases. In recent years, several clinical trials have been performed to investigate the therapeutic value of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, type I diabetes, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Additionally, a second angle of investigation has focused on unraveling the molecular pathways used by vitamin D in order to find new potential therapeutic targets. This review will not only provide an overview of the clinical trials that have been performed but also discuss the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and how these advances can be used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:28163705

  18. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes. PMID:25866536

  19. Exosomes: Origins and Therapeutic Potential for Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarko, Diana K.; McKinney, Cindy E.

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes, small lipid bilayer vesicles, are part of the transportable cell secretome that can be taken up by nearby recipient cells or can travel through the bloodstream to cells in distant organs. Selected cellular cytoplasm containing proteins, RNAs, and other macromolecules is packaged into secreted exosomes. This cargo has the potential to affect cellular function in either healthy or pathological ways. Exosomal content has been increasingly shown to assist in promoting pathways of neurodegeneration such as β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) accumulation forming amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, and pathological aggregates of proteins containing α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease transferred to the central nervous system via exosomes. In attempting to address such debilitating neuropathologies, one promising utility of exosomes lies in the development of methodology to use exosomes as natural delivery vehicles for therapeutics. Because exosomes are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier, they can be strategically engineered to carry drugs or other treatments, and possess a suitable half-life and stability for this purpose. Overall, analyses of the roles that exosomes play between diverse cellular sites will refine our understanding of how cells communicate. This mini-review introduces the origin and biogenesis of exosomes, their roles in neurodegenerative processes in the central nervous system, and their potential utility to deliver therapeutic drugs to cellular sites. PMID:28289371

  20. Griffithsin: An Antiviral Lectin with Outstanding Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Bewley, Carole A.

    2016-01-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT), an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin. PMID:27783038

  1. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mϕ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs.

  2. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mφ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs. PMID:24827844

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Neil V.

    2016-01-01

    Brain malignancies currently carry a poor prognosis despite the current multimodal standard of care that includes surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. As new therapies are desperately needed, naturally occurring chemical compounds have been studied for their potential chemotherapeutic benefits and low toxicity profile. Curcumin, found in the rhizome of turmeric, has extensive therapeutic promise via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data have shown it to be an effective treatment for brain tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. These effects are potentiated by curcumin's ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptotic pathways, induction of autophagy, disruption of molecular signaling, inhibition of invasion, and metastasis and by increasing the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics. Further, clinical data suggest that it has low toxicity in humans even at large doses. Curcumin is a promising nutraceutical compound that should be evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of human brain tumors. PMID:27807473

  4. Aptamer nanomedicine for cancer therapeutics: barriers and potential for translation.

    PubMed

    Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Phua, Kyle K L; Leong, Kam W

    2015-03-24

    Aptamer nanomedicine, including therapeutic aptamers and aptamer nanocomplexes, is beginning to fulfill its potential in both clinical trials and preclinical studies. Especially in oncology, aptamer nanomedicine may perform better than conventional or antibody-based chemotherapeutics due to specificity compared to the former and stability compared to the latter. Many proof-of-concept studies on applying aptamers to drug delivery, gene therapy, and cancer imaging have shown promising efficacy and impressive safety in vivo toward translation. Yet, there remains ample room for improvement and critical barriers to be addressed. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progress in clinical trials of aptamer nanomedicine, followed by a discussion of the barriers at the design and in vivo application stages. We will then highlight recent advances and engineering strategies proposed to tackle these barriers. Aptamer cancer nanomedicine has the potential to address one of the most important healthcare issues of the society.

  5. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species

    PubMed Central

    Yende, Subhash R.; Harle, Uday N.; Chaugule, Bhupal B.

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum. PMID:24600190

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Steroidal Alkaloids in Cancer and Other Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yu, Pei-Zhong; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites isolated from plants, amphibians, and marine invertebrates. Evidence accumulated in the recent two decades demonstrates that steroidal alkaloids have a wide range of bioactivities including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, etc., suggesting their great potential for application. It is therefore necessary to comprehensively summarize the bioactivities, especially anticancer activities and mechanisms of steroidal alkaloids. Here we systematically highlight the anticancer profiles both in vitro and in vivo of steroidal alkaloids such as dendrogenin, solanidine, solasodine, tomatidine, cyclopamine, and their derivatives. Furthermore, other bioactivities of steroidal alkaloids are also discussed. The integrated molecular mechanisms in this review can increase our understanding on the utilization of steroidal alkaloids and contribute to the development of new drug candidates. Although the therapeutic potentials of steroidal alkaloids look promising in the preclinical and clinical studies, further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies are mandated to define their efficacy and safety in cancer and other diseases.

  7. Targeted Magnetic Liposomes Loaded with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Pallab; Banerjee, Rinti; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Koch, Christian; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Plank, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Targeted delivery systems for anticancer drugs are urgently needed to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy by site-specific accumulation and thereby minimizing adverse effects resulting from systemic distribution of many potent anticancer drugs. We have prepared folate receptor-targeted magnetic liposomes loaded with doxorubicin, which are designed for tumor targeting through a combination of magnetic and biological targeting. Furthermore, these liposomes are designed for hyperthermia-induced drug release to be mediated by an alternating magnetic field and to be traceable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, detailed preparation and relevant characterization techniques of targeted magnetic liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin are described.

  8. Finding Potential Therapeutic Targets against Shigella flexneri through Proteome Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md. Arif; Hashem, Abu; Islam, Md. Monirul; Morshed, Mohammad Neaz; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease “shigellosis.” S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S. flexneri by using the subtractive proteome analysis. A set of computational tools were used to identify essential proteins those are required for the survival of S. flexneri. Total proteome (13,503 proteins) of S. flexneri was retrieved from NCBI and further analyzed by subtractive channel analysis. After identification of the metabolic proteins we have also performed its qualitative characterization to pave the way for the identification of promising drug targets. Results: Subtractive analysis revealed that a list of 53 targets of S. flexneri were human non-homologous essential metabolic proteins that might be used for potential drug targets. We have also found that 11 drug targets are involved in unique pathway. Most of these proteins are cytoplasmic, can be used as broad spectrum drug targets, can interact with other proteins and show the druggable properties. The functionality and drug binding site analysis suggest a promising effective way to design the new drugs against S. flexneri. Conclusion: Among the 53 therapeutic targets identified through this study, 13 were found highly potential as drug targets based on their physicochemical properties whilst only one was found as vaccine target against S. flexneri. The outcome might also be used as module as well as circuit design in systems biology. PMID:27920755

  9. The Ghrelin Axis in Disease; Potential Therapeutic Indications

    PubMed Central

    Nass, Ralf; Gaylinn, Bruce D.; Thorner, Michael O.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin, the natural ligand for the growth hormone (GH)-secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced predominantly in the stomach. It is present in the circulation in two major forms, an acylated and an unacylated form, both of which have reported activities. Some of the best understood main effects of acylated ghrelin administration include anorexic effects, increased appetite and the stimulation of GH secretion. Ghrelin also seems to plays a role in glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and immune function. Based on its orexigenic and metabolic effects, ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics have potential benefit in antagonizing protein breakdown and weight loss in catabolic conditions such as cancer cachexia, renal, cardiac and pulmonary disease, and age-related frailty. Ghrelin also has potentially useful positive effects on cardiac function and gastric motility. Ghrelin antagonists may be of benefit to increase insulin sensitivity and potentiate weight loss. The following chapter presents some background on ghrelin and ghrelin assays and discusses some of the potential therapeutic approaches for the use of ghrelin, ghrelin mimetic compounds and ghrelin antagonists in clinical disease. PMID:21356273

  10. Therapeutic potential and outlook of alternative medicine for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Qian; Tjhioe, William; Zhao, Jinmin; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge; Tan, Renxiang; Zhou, Mengyu; Xu, Jiake; Feng, Haotian

    2017-03-21

    Osteoporosis, a bone disease resulting in loss of bone density and microstructure quality, is often associated with fragility fractures, and the latter imposes a great burden on the patient and society. Although there are several different treatments available for osteoporosis such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, Denosumab, and parathyroid hormone some concern has been raised regarding the inherent side effects of their long term use. It would be of great relevance to search for alternative natural compounds, which could complementarily overcome the limitations of the currently available therapy. Herein, we review current literature on natural compounds that might have therapeutic values for osteoporosis. Search terms included bone resorption, bone density, osteoporosis, postmenopausal, osteoporosis or bone density conservation agents, and any of the terms related to traditional, herbal, natural therapy, natural health, diet, or phytoestrogens. All the compounds and herbs included in the review are naturally bioactive or are used in folk herbal medicine and have been reported to be capable of attenuating osteopenia or osteoporosis in vivo or in vitro, through various mechanisms - estrogen-like activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, or by modulating the key signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Through our assessment of the therapeutic potential and outlook of alternative medicine, we aim to provide an appealing perspective for the consideration of the application of a complementary anti-osteoporotic treatment option and prevention strategy for osteoporosis or osteolytic bone disorders.

  11. Wasp Venom Toxins as a Potential Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Dongol, Yashad; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapara L; Shrestha, Rakesh K; Aryal, Gopi

    2016-01-01

    It is high time now to discover novel drugs due to the increasing rate of drug resistance by the pathogen organisms and target cells as well as the dependence or tolerance of the body towards the drug. As it is obvious that significant numbers of the modern day pharmaceuticals are derived from natural products, it is equally astonishing to accept that venoms of various origins have therapeutic potentials. Wasp venoms are also a rich source of therapeutically important toxins which includes short cationic peptides, kinins, polyamines and polyDNA viruses, to name a few indentified. Wasp venom cationic peptides, namely mastoparan and its analogs, show a very important potency as an antimicrobial and anticancer agents of the future. They have proven to be the better candidates due to their lesser toxic effects and higher selectivity upon chemical modification and charge optimization. They also have superiority over the conventional chemical drugs as the target cells very rarely develop resistance against them because these peptides primarily imparts its effect through biophysical interaction with the target cell membrane which is dependent upon the net charge of the peptide, its hydrophobicity and anionicity and fluidity of the target cell membranes. Besides, the other components of wasp venom such as kinins, polyamines and polyDNA viruses show various pharmacological promise in the treatment of pain, inflammatory disease, and neurodegenerative diseases such as epilepsy and aversion.

  12. Biochemistry and therapeutic potential of hydrogen sulfide - reality or fantasy?

    PubMed

    Brodek, Paulina; Olas, Beata

    2016-08-11

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling gasotransmitter, involved in different physiological and pathological processes. H2S regulates apoptosis, the cell cycle and oxidative stress. H2S exerts powerful effects on smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclear transcription factors. H2S is known to be produced from L-cysteine, D-cysteine and L-homocysteine in the body. Four enzymes - cystathionine-b synthase (CBS), mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT) - are involved in H2S synthesis. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of H2S from D-cysteine involves 3-MST and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). The therapeutic potential of H2S is not clear. However, recently results have demonstrated that H2S has protective action for ischemic heart disease or hypertension, and protects against ischemia of the brain. This review summarizes the negative and the positive roles of H2S in various biological systems, for example the cardiovascular system and nervous system. We also discuss the function of classical, therapeutic and natural (for example garlic) donors of H2S in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  13. Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Hin; Li, You-Jia; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-08-21

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRas(G12D) mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually PDAC. During ADM, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, Notch and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Akt signaling inhibits the transcription of acinar-specific genes, including Mist and amylase, but promotes the expression of ductal genes, such as cytokeratin-19. Inhibition of this transdifferentiation process hinders the development of PanIN and PDAC. In addition, the transdifferentiated cells regain acinar identity, indicating ADM may be a reversible process. This provides a new therapeutic direction in treating PDAC through cancer reprogramming. Many studies have already demonstrated the success of switching PanIN/PDAC back to normal cells through the use of PD325901, the expression of E47, and the knockdown of Dickkopf-3. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in ADM and the therapeutic potential of targeting reprogramming in order to treat PDAC.

  14. Dedifferentiation-reprogrammed mesenchymal stem cells with improved therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohu; Chen, Rui; Sun, Tingting; Fok, Kin Lam; Dong, Jianda; Tsang, Lai Ling; Yi, Shaoqiong; Ruan, Yechun; Guo, Jinghui; Yu, Mei Kuen; Tian, Yuemin; Chung, Yiu Wa; Yang, Mo; Xu, Wenming; Chung, Chin Man; Li, Tingyu; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2011-12-01

    Stem cell transplantation has been shown to improve functional outcome in degenerative and ischemic disorders. However, low in vivo survival and differentiation potential of the transplanted cells limits their overall effectiveness and thus clinical usage. Here we show that, after in vitro induction of neuronal differentiation and dedifferentiation, on withdrawal of extrinsic factors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, which have already committed to neuronal lineage, revert to a primitive cell population (dedifferentiated MSCs) retaining stem cell characteristics but exhibiting a reprogrammed phenotype distinct from their original counterparts. Of therapeutic interest, the dedifferentiated MSCs exhibited enhanced cell survival and higher efficacy in neuronal differentiation compared to unmanipulated MSCs both in vitro and in vivo, with significantly improved cognition function in a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rat model. Increased expression of bcl-2 family proteins and microRNA-34a appears to be the important mechanism giving rise to this previously undefined stem cell population that may provide a novel treatment strategy with improved therapeutic efficacy.

  15. Gingiva as a source of stem cells with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Benjamin P J; Larjava, Hannu; Häkkinen, Lari

    2013-12-15

    Postnatal connective tissues contain phenotypically heterogeneous cells populations that include distinct fibroblast subpopulations, pericytes, myofibroblasts, fibrocytes, and tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These cells play key roles in tissue development, maintenance, and repair and contribute to various pathologies. Depending on the origin of tissue, connective tissue cells, including MSCs, have different phenotypes. Understanding the identity and specific functions of these distinct tissue-specific cell populations may allow researchers to develop better treatment modalities for tissue regeneration and find novel approaches to prevent pathological conditions. Interestingly, MSCs from adult oral mucosal gingiva possess distinct characteristics, including neural crest origin, multipotent differentiation capacity, fetal-like phenotype, and potent immunomodulatory properties. These characteristics and an easy, relatively noninvasive access to gingival tissue, and fast tissue regeneration after tissue biopsy make gingiva an attractive target for cell isolation for therapeutic purposes aiming to promote tissue regeneration and fast, scar-free wound healing. The purpose of this review is to discuss the identity, phenotypical heterogeneity, and function of gingival MSCs and summarize what is currently known about their properties, role in scar-free healing, and their future therapeutic potential.

  16. Superoxide Dismutase Mimics: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças, Júlio S.; Spasojević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition in a number of diseases, such as ischemia–reperfusion disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, and diabetes. Thus, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been actively sought. Superoxide dismutase is a first line of defense against oxidative stress under physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, the development of therapeutics aimed at mimicking superoxide dismutase was a natural maneuver. Metalloporphyrins, as well as Mn cyclic polyamines, Mn salen derivatives and nitroxides were all originally developed as SOD mimics. The same thermodynamic and electrostatic properties that make them potent SOD mimics may allow them to reduce other reactive species such as peroxynitrite, peroxynitrite-derived CO3·−, peroxyl radical, and less efficiently H2O2. By doing so SOD mimics can decrease both primary and secondary oxidative events, the latter arising from the inhibition of cellular transcriptional activity. To better judge the therapeutic potential and the advantage of one over the other type of compound, comparative studies of different classes of drugs in the same cellular and/or animal models are needed. We here provide a comprehensive overview of the chemical properties and some in vivo effects observed with various classes of compounds with a special emphasis on porphyrin-based compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 877–918. PMID:20095865

  17. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Strategies Directed to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Stowe, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 279–347. PMID:20001744

  18. Maximizing the Therapeutic Potential of Hsp90 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lisa M.; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Armstrong, Heather K.; Centenera, Margaret M.; Workman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hsp90 is required for maintaining the stability and activity of a diverse group of client proteins, including protein kinases, transcription factors and steroid hormone receptors involved in cell signaling, proliferation, survival, oncogenesis and cancer progression. Inhibition of Hsp90 alters the Hsp90-client protein complex, leading to reduced activity, misfolding, ubiquitination and, ultimately, proteasomal degradation of client proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors have demonstrated significant antitumor activity in a wide variety of preclinical models with evidence of selectivity for cancer versus normal cells. In the clinic however, the efficacy of this class of therapeutic agents has been relatively limited to date, with promising responses mainly observed in breast and lung cancer, but no major activity seen in other tumor types. In addition, adverse events and some significant toxicities have been documented. Key to improving these clinical outcomes is a better understanding of the cellular consequences of inhibiting Hsp90 that may underlie treatment response or resistance. This review considers the recent progress that has been made in the study of Hsp90 and its inhibitors, and highlights new opportunities to maximize their therapeutic potential. PMID:26219697

  19. Human-derived natural antibodies: biomarkers and potential therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Ng, Sher May; Hassouna, Eamonn; Warrington, Arthur; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-01-01

    The immune system generates antibodies and antigen-specific T-cells as basic elements of the immune networks that differentiate self from non-self in a finely tuned manner. The antigen-specific nature of immune responses ensures that normal immune activation contains non-self when tolerating self. Here we review the B-1 subset of lymphocytes which produce self-reactive antibodies. By analyzing the IgM class of natural antibodies that recognize antigens from the nervous system, we emphasize that natural antibodies are biomarkers of how the immune system monitors the host. The immune response activated against self can be detrimental when triggered in an autoimmune genetic background. In contrast, tuning immune activity with natural antibodies is a potential therapeutic strategy. PMID:25678860

  20. Cathelicidin a potential therapeutic peptide for gastrointestinal inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jimmy Yip Chuen; Li, Zhi Jie; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin

    2013-05-14

    Cathelicidins, are host defense peptides synthesized and stored in circulating leukocytes and numerous types of epithelial tissues in particular the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and skin. They have been known for their antimicrobial activities against a variety of microbes. Recently it was discovered that they have other significant biological functions and produce appealing pharmacological actions against inflammation and cancer in the GI tract through defined mechanisms. Experimental evidence shows that these actions could be tissue and disease specific and concentration dependent. This article reviews some of the physiological functions of cathelicidins and also their therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammation and cancer and also the delivery system for this peptide as targeted therapy for various disorders in the GI tract both in animals and humans.

  1. Therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Czopek, Alicja; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    Our growing understanding of the role of the endothelin (ET) system in renal physiology and pathophysiology is from emerging studies of renal disease in animal models and humans. ET receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease and cause regression of renal injury in animals. However, the therapeutic potential of ET receptor antagonism has not been fully explored and clinical studies have been largely limited to patients with diabetic nephropathy. There remains a need for more work in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease (patients requiring maintenance dialysis and those with a functioning kidney transplant), ischemia reperfusion injury, and sickle cell disease. The current review summarizes the most recent advances in both preclinical and clinical studies of ET receptor antagonists in the field of kidney disease.

  2. Hepatic macrophages in liver fibrosis: pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; You, Hong; Fan, Xu; Jia, Jidong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic macrophages account for the largest non-parenchymal cell population in the liver. Recent studies have found that hepatic macrophages have different functions in different stages of experimental liver fibrosis. Some studies found that there are different types of hepatic macrophages in the liver, although others have suggested that hepatic macrophages could switch to different phenotypes in different environments. Many studies demonstrated that while hepatic macrophages promoted fibrosis through the recruitment of proinflammatory immune cells, and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the early stages, these also promoted the resolution of hepatic fibrosis through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases in the late stages. This article will review the current role played by hepatic macrophages in liver fibrosis and the potential therapeutic targets that modulate hepatic macrophages. PMID:27252881

  3. Vitamin D: Implications for ocular disease and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Reins, Rose Y; McDermott, Alison M

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D is a multifunctional hormone that is now known to play a significant role in a variety of biological functions in addition to its traditional role in regulating calcium homeostasis. There are a large number of studies demonstrating that adequate vitamin D levels are important in maintaining health and show that vitamin D is able to be utilized at local tissue sites. In the eye, we have increasing evidence of the association between disease and vitamin D. In this narrative review, we summarize recent findings on vitamin D and its relationship to various ocular pathologies and the therapeutic potential for some of these, as well as examine the basic science studies that demonstrate that vitamin D is biologically relevant in the eye.

  4. Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming: epigenetics and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Firas, Jaber; Liu, Xiaodong; Lim, Sue Mei; Polo, Jose M

    2015-03-01

    Cellular reprogramming refers to the conversion of one cell type into another by altering its epigenetic marks. This can be achieved by three different methods: somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion and transcription factor (TF)-mediated reprogramming. TF-mediated reprogramming can occur through several means, either reverting backwards to a pluripotent state before redifferentiating to a new cell type (otherwise known as induced pluripotency), by transdifferentiating directly into a new cell type (bypassing the intermediate pluripotent stage), or, by using the induced pluripotency pathway without reaching the pluripotent state. The possibility of reprogramming any cell type of interest not only sheds new insights on cellular plasticity, but also provides a novel use of this technology across several platforms, most notably in cellular replacement therapies, disease modelling and drug screening. This review will focus on the different ways of implementing TF-mediated reprogramming, their associated epigenetic changes and its therapeutic potential.

  5. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  6. Mitochondrial metals as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, A; White, A R; Liddell, J R

    2014-01-01

    Transition metals are critical for enzyme function and protein folding, but in excess can mediate neurotoxic oxidative processes. As mitochondria are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage due to radicals generated during ATP production, mitochondrial biometal homeostasis must therefore be tightly controlled to safely harness the redox potential of metal enzyme cofactors. Dysregulation of metal functions is evident in numerous neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Friedrich's ataxia. This review describes the mitochondrial metal defects in these disorders and highlights novel metal-based therapeutic approaches that target mitochondrial metal homeostasis in neurological disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24206195

  7. High therapeutic potential of Spilanthes acmella: A review

    PubMed Central

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2013-01-01

    Spilanthes acmella, a well known antitoothache plant with high medicinal usages, has been recognized as an important medicinal plant and has an increasingly high demand worldwide. From its traditional uses in health care and food, extensive phytochemical studies have been reported. This review provides an overview and general description of the plant species, bioactive metabolites and important pharmacological activities including the preparation, purification and in vitro large-scale production. Structure-activity relationships of the bioactive compounds have been discussed. Considering data from the literature, it could be demonstrated that S. acmella possesses diverse bioactive properties and immense utilization in medicine, health care, cosmetics and as health supplements. As a health food, it is enriched with high therapeutic value with high potential for further development. PMID:27092032

  8. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death: Potential Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L

    2017-01-06

    Mitochondria lie at the crossroads of neuronal survival and cell death. They play important roles in cellular bioenergetics, control intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, and participate in key metabolic pathways. Mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial quality control cause a myriad of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria have evolved strategies to kill cells when they are not able to continue their vital functions. This review provides an overview of the role of mitochondria in neurologic disease and the cell death pathways that are mediated through mitochondria, including their role in accidental cell death, the regulated cell death pathways of apoptosis and parthanatos, and programmed cell death. It details the current state of parthanatic cell death and discusses potential therapeutic strategies targeting initiators and effectors of mitochondrial-mediated cell death in neurologic disorders.

  9. Vitamin D: Implications for Ocular Disease and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Reins, Rose Y.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a multifunctional hormone that is now known to play a significant role in a variety of biological functions in addition to its traditional role in regulating calcium homeostasis. There are a large number of studies demonstrating that adequate vitamin D levels are important in maintaining health and show that vitamin D is able to be utilized at local tissue sites. In the eye, we have increasing evidence of the association between disease and vitamin D. In this narrative review, we summarize recent findings on vitamin D and its relationship to various ocular pathologies and the therapeutic potential for some of these, as well as examine the basic science studies that demonstrate that vitamin D is biologically relevant in the eye. PMID:25724179

  10. The human gut microbiota and virome: Potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Attili, Fabia; Bassanelli, Chiara; De Santis, Adriano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with several functions integrated in the host organism (metabolic, immune, nutrients absorption, etc.). Human microbiota is composed by bacteria, yeasts, fungi and, last but not least, viruses, whose composition has not been completely described. According to previous evidence on pathogenic viruses, the human gut harbours plant-derived viruses, giant viruses and, only recently, abundant bacteriophages. New metagenomic methods have allowed to reconstitute entire viral genomes from the genetic material spread in the human gut, opening new perspectives on the understanding of the gut virome composition, the importance of gut microbiome, and potential clinical applications. This review reports the latest evidence on human gut "virome" composition and its function, possible future therapeutic applications in human health in the context of the gut microbiota, and attempts to clarify the role of the gut "virome" in the larger microbial ecosystem.

  11. Cytokines: Roles in atherosclerosis disease progression and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Joe W. E.; Ramji, Dipak P.

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory disorder in the walls of medium and large arteries. CVD is currently responsible for about one in three global deaths and this is expected to rise in the future due to an increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Current therapies for atherosclerosis mainly modulate lipid homeostasis and whilst successful at reducing the risk of a CVD-related death, they are associated with considerable residual risk and various side effects. There is therefore a need for alternative therapies aimed at regulating inflammation in order to reduce atherogenesis. This review will highlight the key role cytokines play during disease progression as well as potential therapeutic strategies to target them. PMID:27357616

  12. Therapeutic potential of HMGB1-targeting agents in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haichao; Zhu, Shu; Zhou, Rongrong; Li, Wei; Sama, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection. The inflammatory response is partly mediated by innate immune cells (such as macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils), which not only ingest and eliminate invading pathogens but also initiate an inflammatory response upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The prevailing theories of sepsis as a dysregulated inflammatory response, as manifested by excessive release of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), are supported by extensive studies employing animal models of sepsis. Here we review emerging evidence that support extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of experimental sepsis, and discuss the therapeutic potential of several HMGB1-targeting agents (including neutralising antibodies and steroid-like tanshinones) in experimental sepsis. PMID:18980707

  13. Therapeutic potential of intermittent hypoxia: a matter of dose

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been the subject of considerable research in recent years, and triggers a bewildering array of both detrimental and beneficial effects in multiple physiological systems. Here, we review the extensive literature concerning IH and its impact on the respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, metabolic, bone, and nervous systems. One major goal is to define relevant IH characteristics leading to safe, protective, and/or therapeutic effects vs. pathogenesis. To understand the impact of IH, it is essential to define critical characteristics of the IH protocol under investigation, including potentially the severity of hypoxia within episodes, the duration of hypoxic episodes, the number of hypoxic episodes per day, the pattern of presentation across time (e.g., within vs. consecutive vs. alternating days), and the cumulative time of exposure. Not surprisingly, severe/chronic IH protocols tend to be pathogenic, whereas any beneficial effects are more likely to arise from modest/acute IH exposures. Features of the IH protocol most highly associated with beneficial vs. pathogenic outcomes include the level of hypoxemia within episodes and the number of episodes per day. Modest hypoxia (9–16% inspired O2) and low cycle numbers (3–15 episodes per day) most often lead to beneficial effects without pathology, whereas severe hypoxia (2–8% inspired O2) and more episodes per day (48–2,400 episodes/day) elicit progressively greater pathology. Accumulating evidence suggests that “low dose” IH (modest hypoxia, few episodes) may be a simple, safe, and effective treatment with considerable therapeutic potential for multiple clinical disorders. PMID:25231353

  14. The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Li, Yaqiong; Liu, Hui; Bai, Ge; Mayl, Jonathan; Lin, Xiaoyang; Sutherland, Kyle; Nabar, Neel; Cai, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic qualities of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with respect to slowing or halting the hallmark characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. N2a-variant amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cells were incubated with THC and assayed for amyloid-β (Aβ) levels at the 6-, 24-, and 48-hour time marks. THC was also tested for synergy with caffeine, in respect to the reduction of the Aβ level in N2a/AβPPswe cells. THC was also tested to determine if multiple treatments were beneficial. The MTT assay was performed to test the toxicity of THC. Thioflavin T assays and western blots were performed to test the direct anti-Aβ aggregation significance of THC. Lastly, THC was tested to determine its effects on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and related signaling pathways. From the results, we have discovered THC to be effective at lowering Aβ levels in N2a/AβPPswe cells at extremely low concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. However, no additive effect was found by combining caffeine and THC together. We did discover that THC directly interacts with Aβ peptide, thereby inhibiting aggregation. Furthermore, THC was effective at lowering both total GSK-3β levels and phosphorylated GSK-3β in a dose-dependent manner at low concentrations. At the treatment concentrations, no toxicity was observed and the CB1 receptor was not significantly upregulated. Additionally, low doses of THC can enhance mitochondria function and does not inhibit melatonin's enhancement of mitochondria function. These sets of data strongly suggest that THC could be a potential therapeutic treatment option for Alzheimer's disease through multiple functions and pathways.

  15. Preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic targets in dedifferentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Robert; Grad, Iwona; Lorenz, Susanne; Stratford, Eva W.; Munthe, Else; Reddy, Chilamakuri Chandra Sekhar; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Myklebost, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare cancers with limited treatment options. Patients are generally treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery, and would benefit from new personalized approaches. In this study we demonstrate the potential of combining personal genomic characterization of patient tumors to identify targetable mutations with in vitro testing of specific drugs in patient-derived cell lines. We have analyzed three metastases from a patient with high-grade metastatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) by exome and transcriptome sequencing as well as DNA copy number analysis. Genomic aberrations of several potentially targetable genes, including amplification of KITLG and FRS2, in addition to amplification of CDK4 and MDM2, characteristic of this disease, were identified. We evaluated the efficacy of drugs targeting these aberrations or the corresponding signaling pathways in a cell line derived from the patient. Interestingly, the pan-FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, which targets FGFR upstream of FRS2, strongly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and induced an accumulation of cells into the G0 phase of the cell cycle. This study indicates that FGFR inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of DDLPS with amplified FRS2. PMID:27409346

  16. Aspects of pericytes and their potential therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Różycka, Justyna; Brzóska, Edyta; Skirecki, Tomasz

    2017-03-13

    Pericytes, which are multi-potential stem cells, co-create the walls of the microvessels: capillaries, terminal arterioles and postcapillary venules. These cells are localized under the basement membrane, tightly encircling the endothelium. The most frequently mentioned molecular markers of pericytes include NG2 (neural-glial antigen 2), β-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRβ), smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), regulator of G protein signalling 5 (RGS5), the adhesion protein CD146 and nestin. Different functions in physiological processes are assigned to pericytes such as maintaining the integrity and senescence of endothelial cells, transregulation of vascular tone or the potential to differentiate into other cells. Probably they are also involved in pathological processes such as tissues fibrosis. In this review, we focus on the participation of pericytes in the process of blood vessel formation, the regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue and fibrosis. Strong evidence for pericytes' participation in endothelial homeostasis, as well as in pathological conditions such as fibrosis, reveals a broad potential for the therapeutic use of these cells. Targeted pharmacological modulation of pericytes, leading to blocking signalling pathways responsible for the differentiation of pericytes into myofibroblasts, seems to be a promising strategy for the treatment of fibrosis in the early stages.

  17. The therapeutic potential of genome editing for β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Astrid; McColl, Bradley; Vadolas, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advances in the field of genome editing using targeted endonucleases have called considerable attention to the potential of this technology for human gene therapy. Targeted correction of disease-causing mutations could ensure lifelong, tissue-specific expression of the relevant gene, thereby alleviating or resolving a specific disease phenotype. In this review, we aim to explore the potential of this technology for the therapy of β-thalassemia. This blood disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the β-globin chain of hemoglobin, leading to severe anemia in affected patients. Curative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is available only to a small subset of patients, leaving the majority of patients dependent on regular blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy. The transfer of gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells could provide a therapeutic alternative, as recent results from gene therapy trials using a lentiviral gene addition approach have demonstrated. Genome editing has the potential to further advance this approach as it eliminates the need for semi-randomly integrating viral vectors and their associated risk of insertional mutagenesis. In the following pages we will highlight the advantages and risks of genome editing compared to standard therapy for β-thalassemia and elaborate on lessons learned from recent gene therapy trials. PMID:26918126

  18. Inhibition of the JAK-STAT3 pathway by andrographolide enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ong, Choon-Nam; Hur, Gang-Min; Shen, Han-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluate whether suppression of STAT3 activity by Andro could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. First, we demonstrated that Andro is able to significantly suppress both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Such inhibition is found to be achieved through suppression of Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1/2 and interaction between STAT3 and gp130. For understanding the biological significance of the inhibitory effect of Andro on STAT3, we next investigated the effect of Andro on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. In our study the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Both the short-term MTT assay and the long-term colony formation assay showed that Andro dramatically promoted doxorubicin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that Andro enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations thus reveal a novel anticancer function of Andro and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy of using Andro in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of cancer.

  19. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Th17 Cells.

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Jonas; Taher, Taher E; Muhyaddin, M Sherwan; Clanchy, Felix I; Mangat, Pamela; Jawad, Ali S; Williams, Richard O; Mageed, Rizgar A

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cells provide protective immunity to infections by fungi and extracellular bacteria as well as cancer but are also involved in chronic inflammation. The cells were first identified by their ability to produce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and, subsequently, associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17 cells have some gene profile similarity with stem cells and can remain dormant in mucosal tissues for long periods. Indeed, recent studies suggest that functionally distinct subsets of pro- and anti-inflammatory Th17 cells can interchange phenotype and functions. For development, Th17 cells require activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and RORγt while RUNX1, c-Maf, and Aiolos are involved in changes of phenotype/functions. Attempts to harness Th17 cells against pathogens and cancer using vaccination strategies are being explored. The cells gain protective abilities when induced to produce interferon γ (IFNγ). In addition, treatment with antibodies to IL-17 is effective in treating patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and refectory rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, since RORγt is a nuclear receptor, it is likely to be a potential future drug target for modulating Th17 functions. This review explores pathways through which Th17 subsets are induced, the molecular basis of their plasticity, and potential therapeutic strategies for their modulation in diseases.

  20. Overview of the therapeutic potential of piplartine (piperlongumine).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Daniel P; Pessoa, Claudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Saker-Neto, Nicolau; Silveira, Edilberto R; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V

    2013-02-14

    Piplartine (piperlongumine, 5,6-dihydro-1-[(2E)-1-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]-2(1H)-pyridinone) is a biologically active alkaloid/amide from peppers, as from long pepper (Piper longum L. - Piperaceae). Long pepper is one of the most widely used in Ayurvedic medicine, which is used to treat many diseases, including tumors. The purpose of the current paper is to address to the chemical structure establishment and to systematically survey the published articles and highlight recent advances in the knowledge of the therapeutic potential of piplartine, establishing new goals for future research. The reported pharmacological activities of piplartine include cytotoxic, genotoxic, antitumor, antiangiogenic, antimetastatic, antiplatelet aggregation, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, and schistosomicidal activities. Among the multiple pharmacological effects of piplartine, its anticancer property is the most promising. Therefore, the preclinical anticancer potential of piplartine has been extensively investigated, which recently resulted in one patent. This compound is selectively cytotoxic against cancer cells by induction of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, as an alternative strategy to killing tumor cells, has excellent oral bioavailability in mice, inhibits tumor growth in mice, and presents only weak systemic toxicity. In summary, we conclude that piplartine is effective for use in cancer therapy and its safety using chronic toxicological studies should be addressed to support the viability of clinical trials.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Maldonado-Navas, Dolores; García-Domínguez, Irene; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies. PMID:24895612

  3. Inhibiting subthalamic nucleus decreases cocaine demand and relapse: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Bentzley, Brandon S; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-03-03

    Preclinical evidence indicates that inactivation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) may be effective for treating cocaine addiction, and therapies that target STN, e.g. deep brain stimulation, are available indicating that this may have clinical promise. Here, we assessed the therapeutic potential of STN inactivation using a translationally relevant economic approach that quantitatively describes drug-taking behavior, and tested these results with drug-seeking tasks. Economic demand for cocaine was assessed in rats (n = 11) using a within-session threshold procedure in which cocaine price (responses/mg cocaine) was sequentially increased throughout the session. Cocaine demand was assessed in this manner immediately after bilateral microinfusions into STN of either vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) or the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. A separate group of animals (n = 8) was tested for changes in cocaine seeking either during extinction or in response to cocaine-associated cues. Muscimol-induced inhibition of STN significantly attenuated cocaine consumption at high prices, drug seeking during extinction and cued reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In contrast, STN inhibition did not reduce cocaine consumption at low prices or locomotor activity. Thus, STN inactivation reduced economic demand for cocaine and multiple measures of drug seeking during extinction. In view of the association between economic demand and addiction severity in both rat and human, these results indicate that STN inactivation has substantial clinical potential for treatment of cocaine addiction.

  4. Characterization of an IL-2 mimetic with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Eckenberg, R; Rose, T; Moreau, J L; Weil, R; Gesbert, F; Dubois, S; Tello, D; Bossus, M; Gras, H; Tartar, A; Bertoglio, J; Chouaïb, S; Jacques, Y; Alzari, P M; Thèze, J

    2001-06-01

    Human interleukin-2 (IL-2) interacts with two types of functional receptors (IL-2R alpha betagamma and IL-2R betagamma) and acts on a broad range of target cells involved in inflammatory reactions and immune responses. IL-2 is also used in different clinical trials aimed at improving the treatment of some cancers and the recovery of CD4 lymphocytes by HIV patients. The therapeutic index of IL-2 is limited by various side effects dominated by the vascular leak syndrome. We have shown that a chemically synthesised fragment of the IL-2 sequence can fold into a helical tetramer likely mimicking the quatemary structure of an hemopoietin. Indeed, peptide p1-30 (containing amino acids 1 to 30, including the sequence corresponding to the entire alpha helix A of IL-2) spontaneously folds into an alpha-helical homotetramer and stimulates the growth of T-cell lines expressing human IL-2R beta, whereas shorter versions of the peptide lack helical structure and are inactive. At the cellular level, p1-30 induces lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and preferentially activates CD8 low lymphocytes and natural killer cells, which constitutively express IL-2R beta. A significant IFN-gamma production is also detected following p1-30 stimulation. A mutant form of p1-30 (Asp20-->Lys) which is likely unable to induce vascular leak syndrome remains capable to generate LAK cells like the original p1-30 peptide. Altogether our data suggest that p1-30 has therapeutic potential.

  5. Pharmacology and therapeutic potential of sigma(1) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Cobos, E J; Entrena, J M; Nieto, F R; Cendán, C M; Del Pozo, E

    2008-12-01

    Sigma (sigma) receptors, initially described as a subtype of opioid receptors, are now considered unique receptors. Pharmacological studies have distinguished two types of sigma receptors, termed sigma(1) and sigma(2). Of these two subtypes, the sigma(1) receptor has been cloned in humans and rodents, and its amino acid sequence shows no homology with other mammalian proteins. Several psychoactive drugs show high to moderate affinity for sigma(1) receptors, including the antipsychotic haloperidol, the antidepressant drugs fluvoxamine and sertraline, and the psychostimulants cocaine and methamphetamine; in addition, the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin allosterically modulates sigma(1) receptors. Certain neurosteroids are known to interact with sigma(1) receptors, and have been proposed to be their endogenous ligands. These receptors are located in the plasma membrane and in subcellular membranes, particularly in the endoplasmic reticulum, where they play a modulatory role in intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Sigma(1) receptors also play a modulatory role in the activity of some ion channels and in several neurotransmitter systems, mainly in glutamatergic neurotransmission. In accordance with their widespread modulatory role, sigma(1) receptor ligands have been proposed to be useful in several therapeutic fields such as amnesic and cognitive deficits, depression and anxiety, schizophrenia, analgesia, and against some effects of drugs of abuse (such as cocaine and methamphetamine). In this review we provide an overview of the present knowledge of sigma(1) receptors, focussing on sigma(1) ligand neuropharmacology and the role of sigma(1) receptors in behavioral animal studies, which have contributed greatly to the potential therapeutic applications of sigma(1) ligands.

  6. Identification of potential glucocorticoid receptor therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alexandra L.; Coarfa, Cristian; Qian, Jun; Wilkerson, Joseph J.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Krett, Nancy L.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Rosen, Steven T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are a cornerstone of combination therapies for multiple myeloma. However, patients ultimately develop resistance to GCs frequently based on decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. An understanding of the direct targets of GC actions, which induce cell death, is expected to culminate in potential therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death by regulating downstream targets in the absence of a functional GR. The specific goal of our research is to identify primary GR targets that contribute to GC-induced cell death, with the ultimate goal of developing novel therapeutics around these targets that can be used to overcome resistance to GCs in the absence of GR. Using the MM.1S glucocorticoid-sensitive human myeloma cell line, we began with the broad platform of gene expression profiling to identify glucocorticoid-regulated genes further refined by combination treatment with phosphatidylinositol-3’-kinase inhibition (PI3Ki). To further refine the search to distinguish direct and indirect targets of GR that respond to the combination GC and PI3Ki treatment of MM.1S cells, we integrated 1) gene expression profiles of combination GC treatment with PI3Ki, which induces synergistic cell death; 2) negative correlation between genes inhibited by combination treatment in MM.1S cells and genes over-expressed in myeloma patients to establish clinical relevance and 3) GR chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in myeloma cells to identify global chromatin binding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Using established bioinformatics platforms, we have integrated these data sets to identify a subset of candidate genes that may form the basis for a comprehensive picture of glucocorticoid actions in multiple myeloma. As a proof of principle, we have verified two targets, namely RRM2 and BCL2L1, as primary functional targets of GR involved in GC-induced cell death. PMID:26715915

  7. Identification of potential glucocorticoid receptor therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alexandra L; Coarfa, Cristian; Qian, Jun; Wilkerson, Joseph J; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Krett, Nancy L; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Rosen, Steven T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are a cornerstone of combination therapies for multiple myeloma. However, patients ultimately develop resistance to GCs frequently based on decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. An understanding of the direct targets of GC actions, which induce cell death, is expected to culminate in potential therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death by regulating downstream targets in the absence of a functional GR. The specific goal of our research is to identify primary GR targets that contribute to GC-induced cell death, with the ultimate goal of developing novel therapeutics around these targets that can be used to overcome resistance to GCs in the absence of GR. Using the MM.1S glucocorticoid-sensitive human myeloma cell line, we began with the broad platform of gene expression profiling to identify glucocorticoid-regulated genes further refined by combination treatment with phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase inhibition (PI3Ki). To further refine the search to distinguish direct and indirect targets of GR that respond to the combination GC and PI3Ki treatment of MM.1S cells, we integrated 1) gene expression profiles of combination GC treatment with PI3Ki, which induces synergistic cell death; 2) negative correlation between genes inhibited by combination treatment in MM.1S cells and genes over-expressed in myeloma patients to establish clinical relevance and 3) GR chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in myeloma cells to identify global chromatin binding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Using established bioinformatics platforms, we have integrated these data sets to identify a subset of candidate genes that may form the basis for a comprehensive picture of glucocorticoid actions in multiple myeloma. As a proof of principle, we have verified two targets, namely RRM2 and BCL2L1, as primary functional targets of GR involved in GC-induced cell death.

  8. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Human RAD51 Potentiates Breast Cancer Cell Killing by Therapeutic Agents in Mouse Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Mazin, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    The homologous recombination pathway is responsible for the repair of DNA double strand breaks. RAD51, a key homologous recombination protein, promotes the search for homology and DNA strand exchange between homologous DNA molecules. RAD51 is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. Downregulation of RAD51 by siRNA increases radio- or chemo-sensitivity of cancer cells. We recently developed a specific RAD51 small molecule inhibitor, B02, which inhibits DNA strand exchange activity of RAD51 in vitro. In this study, we used human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 to investigate the ability of B02 to inhibit RAD51 and to potentiate an anti-cancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents including doxorubicin, etoposide, topotecan, and cisplatin. We found that the combination of B02 with cisplatin has the strongest killing effect on the cancer cells. We then tested the effect of B02 and cisplatin on the MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation in mouse xenografts. Our results showed that B02 significantly enhances the therapeutic effect of cisplatin on tumor cells in vivo. Our current data demonstrate that use of RAD51-specific small molecule inhibitor represents a feasible strategy of a combination anti-cancer therapy. PMID:24971740

  9. Liposomal Coencapsulation of Doxorubicin with Listeriolysin O Increases Potency via Subcellular Targeting.

    PubMed

    Walls, Zachary F; Gong, Henry; Wilson, Rebecca J

    2016-03-07

    Liposomal doxorubicin is a clinically important drug formulation indicated for the treatment of several different forms of cancer. For doxorubicin to exert a therapeutic effect, it must gain access to the nucleus. However, a large proportion of the liposomal doxorubicin dose fails to work because it is sequestered within endolysosomal organelles following endocytosis of the liposomes due to the phenomenon of ion trapping. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming protein that can provide a mechanism for endosomal escape. The present study demonstrates that liposomal coencapsulation of doxorubicin with LLO enables a significantly larger percentage of the dose to colocalize with the nucleus compared to liposomes containing doxorubicin alone. The change in intracellular distribution resulted in a significantly more potent formulation of liposomal doxorubicin as demonstrated in both the ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its doxorubicin-resistant derivative A2780ADR.

  10. Notch signaling: its roles and therapeutic potential in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yisu; Masiero, Massimo; Banham, Alison H

    2016-05-17

    Notch is a highly conserved signaling system that allows neighboring cells to communicate, thereby controlling their differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, with the outcome of its activation being highly dependent on signal strength and cell type. As such, there is growing evidence that disturbances in physiological Notch signaling contribute to cancer development and growth through various mechanisms. Notch was first reported to contribute to tumorigenesis in the early 90s, through identification of the involvement of the Notch1 gene in the chromosomal translocation t(7;9)(q34;q34.3), found in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since then, Notch mutations and aberrant Notch signaling have been reported in numerous other precursor and mature hematological malignancies, of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, as well as many epithelial tumor types. Of note, Notch has been reported to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, dependent on the cancer cell type. In this review, we will first give a general description of the Notch signaling pathway, and its physiologic role in hematopoiesis. Next, we will review the role of aberrant Notch signaling in several hematological malignancies. Finally, we will discuss current and potential future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway.

  11. Parasitic infection as a potential therapeutic tool against rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Apaer, Shadike; Tuxun, Tuerhongjiang; Ma, Hai-Zhang; Zhang, Heng; Aierken, Amina; Aini, Abudusalamu; Li, Yu-Peng; Lin, Ren-Yong; Wen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, which are a recently discovered yet ancient dweller in human hosts, remain a great public health burden in underdeveloped countries, despite preventative efforts. Rheumatoid arthritis is a predominantly cosmopolitan health problem with drastic morbidity rates, although encouraging progress has been achieved regarding treatment. However, although various types of methods and agents have been applied clinically, their broad usage has been limited by their adverse effects and/or high costs. Sustained efforts have been exerted on the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ since the 1870s. The immunosuppressive nature of parasitic infections may offer potential insight into therapeutic strategies for rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immune system is overactivated. An increasing number of published papers are focusing on the preventive and/or curative effect of various parasitic infection on rheumatoid arthritis from experimental studies to large-scale epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Therefore, the present review aimed to provide a general literature review on the possible beneficial role of parasitic infection on rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27698735

  12. Assessment of therapeutic potential of amantadine in methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Ahuja, Manuj; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine epidemic has a broad impact on world's health care system. Its abusive potential and neurotoxic effects remain a challenge for the anti-addiction therapies. In addition to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, excitotoxicity is also involved in methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor is thought to be one of the predominant mediators of excitotoxicity. There is growing evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists could be one of the therapeutic options to manage excitotoxicity. Amantadine, a well-tolerated and modestly effective antiparkinsonian agent, was found to possess NMDA antagonistic properties and has shown to release dopamine from the nerve terminals. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of amantadine pre-treatment against methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity. Results showed that methamphetamine treatment had depleted striatal dopamine, generated of reactive oxygen species and decreased activity of complex I in the mitochondria. Interestingly, amantadine, at high dose (10 mg/kg), did not prevent dopamine depletion moreover it exacerbated the behavioral manifestations of methamphetamine toxicity such as akinesia and catalepsy. Only lower dose of amantadine (1 mg/kg) produced significant scavenging of the reactive oxygen species induced by methamphetamine. Overall results from the present study suggest that amantadine should not be used concomitantly with methamphetamine as it may results in excessive neurotoxicity.

  13. Extracellular Bacterial Proteases in Chronic Wounds: A Potential Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Bacterial biofilms are considered to be responsible for over 80% of persistent infections, including chronic lung infections, osteomyelitis, periodontitis, endocarditis, and chronic wounds. Over 60% of chronic wounds are colonized with bacteria that reside within a biofilm. The exaggerated proteolytic environment of chronic wounds, more specifically elevated matrix metalloproteinases, is thought to be one of the possible reasons as to why chronic wounds fail to heal. However, the role of bacterial proteases within chronic wounds is not fully understood. Recent Advances: Recent research has shown that bacterial proteases can enable colonization and facilitate bacterial immune evasion. The inhibition of bacterial proteases such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase B (LasB) has resulted in the disruption of the bacterial biofilm in vitro. P. aeruginosa is thought to be a key pathogen in chronic wound infection, and therefore, the disruption of these biofilms, potentially through the targeting of P. aeruginosa bacterial proteases, is an attractive therapeutic endeavor. Critical Issues: Disrupting biofilm formation through the inhibition of bacterial proteases may lead to the dissemination of bacteria from the biofilm, allowing planktonic cells to colonize new sites within the wound. Future Directions: Despite a plethora of evidence supporting the role of bacterial proteases as virulence factors in infection, there remains a distinct lack of research into the effect of bacterial proteases in chronic wounds. To assess the viability of targeting bacterial proteases, future research should aim to understand the role of these proteases in a variety of chronic wound subtypes. PMID:27785379

  14. Metabolic isoenzyme shifts in cancer as potential novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ononye, S N; Shi, W; Wali, V B; Aktas, B; Jiang, T; Hatzis, C; Pusztai, L

    2014-12-01

    The functional redundancy of metabolic enzyme expression may present a new strategy for developing targeted therapies in cancer. To satisfy the increased metabolic demand required during neoplastic transformations and proliferation, cancer cells may rely on additional isoforms of a metabolic enzyme to satisfy the increased demand for metabolic precursors, which could subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors. In this review, we provide a survey of common isoenzyme shifts that have been reported to be important in cancer metabolism and link those to metabolic pathways that currently have drugs in various stages of development. This phenomenon suggests a potentially new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer by identifying shifts in the expression of metabolic isoenzymes between cancer and normal cells. We also delineate other putative metabolic isoenzymes that could be targets for novel targeted therapies for cancer. Changes in isoenzyme expression that occur during neoplastic transformations or in response to environmental pressure in cancer cells may result in isoenzyme diversity that may subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors due to reliance on a single isoform to perform a vital enzymatic function.

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in cancer stem cells: potential as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to current chemotherapeutic or radiation-based cancer treatment strategies is a serious concern. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are typically able to evade treatment and establish a recurrent tumor or metastasis, and it is these that lead to the majority of cancer deaths. Therefore, a major current goal is to develop treatment strategies that eliminate the resistant CSCs as well as the bulk tumor cells in order to achieve complete disease clearance. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are important for maintenance and differentiation of stem cells as well as normal development. There is expanding evidence that ALDH expression increases in response to therapy and promotes chemoresistance and survival mechanisms in CSCs. This perspective will discuss a paper by Cojoc and colleagues recently published in Cancer Research, that indicates ALDHs play a key role in resistance to radiation therapy and tumor recurrence in prostate cancer. The authors suggest that ALDHs are a potential therapeutic target for treatment prostate cancer patients to limit radiation resistance and disease recurrence. The findings are consistent with work from other cancers showing ALDHs are major contributors of CSC signaling and resistance to anti-cancer treatments. This perspective will address representative work concerning the validity of ALDH and the associated retinoic acid signaling pathway as chemotherapeutic targets for prostate as well as other cancers. PMID:28149880

  16. Physiological effects and therapeutic potential of proinsulin C-peptide

    PubMed Central

    Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Luppi, Patrizia; Wahren, John

    2014-01-01

    Connecting Peptide, or C-peptide, is a product of the insulin prohormone, and is released with and in amounts equimolar to those of insulin. While it was once thought that C-peptide was biologically inert and had little biological significance beyond its role in the proper folding of insulin, it is now known that C-peptide binds specifically to the cell membranes of a variety of tissues and initiates specific intracellular signaling cascades that are pertussis toxin sensitive. Although it is now clear that C-peptide is a biologically active molecule, controversy still remains as to the physiological significance of the peptide. Interestingly, C-peptide appears to reverse the deleterious effects of high glucose in some tissues, including the kidney, the peripheral nerves, and the vasculature. C-peptide is thus a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes-associated long-term complications. This review addresses the possible physiologically relevant roles of C-peptide in both normal and disease states and discusses the effects of the peptide on sensory nerve, renal, and vascular function. Furthermore, we highlight the intracellular effects of the peptide and present novel strategies for the determination of the C-peptide receptor(s). Finally, a hypothesis is offered concerning the relationship between C-peptide and the development of microvascular complications of diabetes. PMID:25249503

  17. Targeting CBLB as a Potential Therapeutic Approach for Disseminated Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yun; Tang, Juan; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Yixia; Tang, Rong; Ouyang, Song; Zeng, Qiuming; Rappleye, Chad; Rajaram, Murugesan V.S.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Tao, Lijian; Brown, Gordon D.; Langdon, Wallace Y.; Li, Belinda T.; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated candidiasis has become one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired blood stream infections with high mobility and mortality. However, the molecular basis of host defense against disseminated candidiasis remains elusive, and treatment options are limited. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CBLB directs polyubiquitination of dectin-1 and -2, two key pattern recognition receptors for sensing Candida albicans, and their downstream kinase SYK, thus inhibiting dectin-1/2-mediated innate immune responses. CBLB deficiency or inactivation protects mice from systemic infection with a lethal dose of Candida albicans, and deficiency of dectin-1, -2, or both, in Cblb−/− mice abrogates this protection. Importantly, silencing the Cblb gene in vivo protects mice from lethal systemic Candida albicans infection. Our data reveal that CBLB is crucial for homeostatic control of innate immune responses mediated by dectin-1 and -2. Our data also indicate that CBLB represents a potential therapeutic target for protection from disseminated candidiasis. PMID:27428899

  18. Sesamol: an efficient antioxidant with potential therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Thiraviam; Rohit, Bhandari; Pal, Kaur Indu

    2009-07-01

    Sesamol has been shown earlier to exhibit antimutagenic (reactive oxygen mediated) and antiageing activity in our lab and it has also been found to exert chemopreventive effect. Here we report the in vitro antioxidant activity of sesamol. As most of the antioxidants act due to their property to auto-oxidise and the pro- or antioxidant activity would depend on the concentration of the agent used and the free radical source, at least 6 dilutions in concentration range of 5-1000 nmoles of sesamol were selected for each test system. Further the antioxidant activity was compared with a water soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid). Eventhough some preliminary studies on the antioxidant activity of sesamol have been reported in DPPH assay & inhibition of lipid peroxidation, it is not complete. We, here in report comprehensively (both in terms of the no. of doses and also a variety of test systems being employed) on the antioxidant activity of sesamol. Furthermore, since all the data has been generated by the same workers and under same laboratory conditions, hence is scientifically significant. Also the process of dose selection as discussed earlier is more scientific; and the data treatment, i.e. calculation of IC(50) values and comparisons with ascorbic acid has been statistically validated. In conclusion, sesamol was found to be an efficient scavenger of the entire range of ROS in several test systems pointing towards the potential of sesamol to be developed as a possible therapeutic.

  19. Pueraria tuberosa: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Pandit, Subrata; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2014-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC is a perennial herb commonly known as 'vidarikanda', distributed throughout south east Asia. The plant's tuber is widely used in ethanomedicine as well as in traditional systems of medicine, particularly in ayurveda. It has been used in various ayurvedic formulations as restorative tonic, antiaging, spermatogenic and immune booster and has been recommended for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, fertility disorders, menopausal syndrome, sexual debility and spermatorrhoea. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, mostly isoflavonoids such as puerarin, genistein, daidzein, tuberosin and so on have been identified in the tuber. In vivo and in vitro studies have provided the support against traditional demands of the tuber as spermatogenic, immune booster, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and brain tonic. However, further studies are required to define the active phytochemical compositions and to validate its clinical utilisation in the herbal formulations for human uses. This review provides an overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. tuberosa. This review also provides plausible hypotheses about how various isoflavones particularly puerarin, genistein and daidzein, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the therapeutic potential against a wide range of ailments.

  20. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2011-03-21

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin.

  1. Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Dexter, David T

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder affecting more than 4million people worldwide. The primary motor symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Dopamine replacement therapies have therefore revolutionised disease management by partially controlling these symptoms. However these drugs can produce debilitating side effects when used long term and do not protect degenerating neurons against death. Recent evidence has highlighted a pathological imbalance in PD between the acetylation and deacetylation of the histone proteins around which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is coiled, in favour of excessive histone deacetylation. This mechanism of adding/removing acetyl groups to histone lysine residues is one of many epigenetic regulatory processes which control the expression of genes, many of which will be essential for neuronal survival. Hence, such epigenetic modifications may have a pathogenic role in PD. It has therefore been hypothesised that if this pathological imbalance can be corrected with the use of histone deacetylase inhibiting agents then neurodegeneration observed in PD can be ameliorated. This article will review the current literature with regard to epigenetic changes in PD and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) in PD: examining the evidence of the neuroprotective effects of numerous HDACIs in cellular and animal models of Parkinsonian cell death. Ultimately answering the question: does epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylases hold therapeutic potential in PD?

  2. GLP-1: physiological effects and potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Aaboe, Kasper; Krarup, Thure; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone with the potential to change diabetes. The physiological effects of GLP-1 are multiple, and many seem to ameliorate the different conditions defining the diverse physiopathology seen in type 2 diabetes. In animal studies, GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell proliferation and neogenesis and inhibits beta-cell apoptosis. In humans, GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon and gastrointestinal secretions and motility. It enhances satiety and reduces food intake and has beneficial effects on cardiovascular function and endothelial dysfunction. Enhancing incretin action for therapeutic use includes GLP-1 receptor agonists resistant to degradation (incretin mimetics) and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors. In clinical trials with type 2 diabetic patients on various oral antidiabetic regimes, both treatment modalities efficaciously improve glycaemic control and beta-cell function. Whereas the incretin mimetics induce weight loss, the DPP-4 inhibitors are considered weight neutral. In type 1 diabetes, treatment with GLP-1 shows promising effects. However, several areas need clinical confirmation: the durability of the weight loss, the ability to preserve functional beta-cell mass and the applicability in other than type 2 diabetes. As such, long-term studies and studies with cardiovascular end-points are needed to confirm the true benefits of these new classes of antidiabetic drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  3. The Therapeutic Potential of Milk Thistle in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kazazis, Christos E.; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A.; Kollas, Aris; Vallianou, Natalia G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle has been known for more than 2.000 years as a herbal remedy for a variety of disorders. It has mainly been used to treat liver and gallbladder diseases. Silibum marianum, the Latin term for the plant, and its seeds contain a whole family of natural compounds, called flavonolignans. Silimarin is a dry mixture of these compounds; it is extracted after processing with ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Silimarin contains mainly silibin A, silibin B, taxifolin, isosilibin A, isosilibin B, silichristin A, silidianin, and other compounds in smaller concentrations. Apart from its use in liver and gallbladder disorders, milk thistle has recently gained attention due to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Recently, a substance from milk thistle has been shown to possess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist properties. PPARγ is the molecular target of thiazolidinediones, which are used clinically as insulin sensitizers to lower blood glucose levels in diabetes type 2 patients. The thiazolidinedione type of PPARγ ligands is an agonist with a very high binding affinity. However, this ligand type demonstrates a range of undesirable side effects, thus necessitating the search for new effective PPARγ agonists. Interestingly, studies indicate that partial agonism of PPARγ induces promising activity patterns by retaining the positive effects attributed to the full agonists, with reduced side effects. In this review, the therapeutic potential of milk thistle in the management of diabetes and its complications are discussed. PMID:25396404

  4. MPS1 kinase as a potential therapeutic target in medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Alimova, Irina; Ng, June; Harris, Peter; Birks, Diane; Donson, Andrew; Taylor, Michael D.; Foreman, Nicholas K.; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Vibhakar, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common type of malignant brain tumor that affects children. Although recent advances in chemotherapy and radiation have improved outcomes, high-risk patients perform poorly with significant morbidity. Gene expression profiling has revealed that monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) (TTK1) is highly expressed in medulloblastoma patient samples compared to that noted in normal cerebellum. MPS1 is a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a mitotic mechanism specifically required for proper chromosomal alignment and segregation. The SAC can be activated in aneuploid cancer cells and MPS1 is overexpressed in many types of cancers. A previous study has demonstrated the effectiveness of inhibiting MPS1 with small-molecule inhibitors, but the role of MPS1 in medulloblastoma is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that MPS1 inhibition by shRNA or with a small-molecule drug, NMS-P715, resulted in decreased cell growth, inhibition of clonogenic potential and induction of apoptosis in cells belonging to both the Shh and group 3 medulloblastoma genomic signature. These findings highlight MPS1 as a rational therapeutic target for medulloblastoma. PMID:27633003

  5. Investigation of Stilbenoids as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Ball, Judith M; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Defrates, Katelyn; Hambleton, Emily; Hurlburt, Megan E; Fang, Lingling; Yang, Tianhong; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Atwill, Richard L; Ghai, Pooja; Parr, Rebecca D

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are available but cost prohibitive for many countries and only reduce severe symptoms. Vaccinated infants continue to shed infectious particles, and studies show decreased efficacy of the RV vaccines in tropical and subtropical countries where they are needed most. Continuing surveillance for new RV strains, assessment of vaccine efficacy, and development of cost effective antiviral drugs remain an important aspect of RV studies. This study was to determine the efficacy of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory stilbenoids to inhibit RV replication. Peanut (A. hypogaea) hairy root cultures were induced to produce stilbenoids, which were purified by high performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) and analyzed by HPLC. HT29.f8 cells were infected with RV in the presence stilbenoids. Cell viability counts showed no cytotoxic effects on HT29.f8 cells. Viral infectivity titers were calculated and comparatively assessed to determine the effects of stilbenoid treatments. Two stilbenoids, trans-arachidin-1 and trans-arachidin-3, show a significant decrease in RV infectivity titers. Western blot analyses performed on the infected cell lysates complemented the infectivity titrations and indicated a significant decrease in viral replication. These studies show the therapeutic potential of the stilbenoids against RV replication.

  6. Chitosan oligosaccharide: Biological activities and potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an oligomer of β-(1➔4)-linked d-glucosamine. COS can be prepared from the deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and insects and the cell walls of fungi. COS is water soluble, non-cytotoxic, readily absorbed through the intestine and mainly excreted in the urine. Of particular importance, COS and its derivatives have been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammation, immunostimulation, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-Alzheimer's disease, tissue regeneration promotion, drug and DNA delivery enhancement, anti-microbial, anti-oxidation and calcium-absorption enhancement. The mechanisms of actions of COS have been found to involve the modulation of several important pathways including the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This review summarizes the current knowledge of the preparation methods, pharmacokinetic profiles, biological activities, potential therapeutic applications and safety profiles of COS and its derivatives. In addition, future research directions are discussed.

  7. Therapeutic potential of growth factors and their antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Garner, A.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes studies with four peptides, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), gastrin-releasing peptide/bombesin (GRP), and gastrin. The mitogenic and anti-secretory activities of EGF/TGF alpha appear to be mediated by a single class of high-affinity membrane receptors but may involve different signal transducing mechanisms. Biological activity of EGF resides in the N-terminal 42 amino acid fragment with the C-terminal undecapeptide determining binding affinity. A parenteral depot formulation of an EGF-related peptide or a small molecule agonist of the EGF receptor could have utility in treating various ulcerative disorders of the gut. Although antagonism of EGF (and thus TGF alpha) receptors and/or transducing mechanisms is frequently cited as a potential therapeutic approach to hyperproliferative diseases, blocking the action of TGF alpha, GRP, or gastrin with neutralizing antibodies or receptor antagonists did not influence the growth of a wide range of solid tumors in nude mice. These findings suggest that, unless tumor growth displays absolute dependency on one particular mitogen, antagonism of a specific growth factor is unlikely to have great effect in cancer therapy. PMID:1341074

  8. Extracellular Bacterial Proteases in Chronic Wounds: A Potential Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed

    Suleman, Louise

    2016-10-01

    Significance: Bacterial biofilms are considered to be responsible for over 80% of persistent infections, including chronic lung infections, osteomyelitis, periodontitis, endocarditis, and chronic wounds. Over 60% of chronic wounds are colonized with bacteria that reside within a biofilm. The exaggerated proteolytic environment of chronic wounds, more specifically elevated matrix metalloproteinases, is thought to be one of the possible reasons as to why chronic wounds fail to heal. However, the role of bacterial proteases within chronic wounds is not fully understood. Recent Advances: Recent research has shown that bacterial proteases can enable colonization and facilitate bacterial immune evasion. The inhibition of bacterial proteases such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase B (LasB) has resulted in the disruption of the bacterial biofilm in vitro. P. aeruginosa is thought to be a key pathogen in chronic wound infection, and therefore, the disruption of these biofilms, potentially through the targeting of P. aeruginosa bacterial proteases, is an attractive therapeutic endeavor. Critical Issues: Disrupting biofilm formation through the inhibition of bacterial proteases may lead to the dissemination of bacteria from the biofilm, allowing planktonic cells to colonize new sites within the wound. Future Directions: Despite a plethora of evidence supporting the role of bacterial proteases as virulence factors in infection, there remains a distinct lack of research into the effect of bacterial proteases in chronic wounds. To assess the viability of targeting bacterial proteases, future research should aim to understand the role of these proteases in a variety of chronic wound subtypes.

  9. Notch signaling: its roles and therapeutic potential in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yisu

    2016-01-01

    Notch is a highly conserved signaling system that allows neighboring cells to communicate, thereby controlling their differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, with the outcome of its activation being highly dependent on signal strength and cell type. As such, there is growing evidence that disturbances in physiological Notch signaling contribute to cancer development and growth through various mechanisms. Notch was first reported to contribute to tumorigenesis in the early 90s, through identification of the involvement of the Notch1 gene in the chromosomal translocation t(7;9)(q34;q34.3), found in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since then, Notch mutations and aberrant Notch signaling have been reported in numerous other precursor and mature hematological malignancies, of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, as well as many epithelial tumor types. Of note, Notch has been reported to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, dependent on the cancer cell type. In this review, we will first give a general description of the Notch signaling pathway, and its physiologic role in hematopoiesis. Next, we will review the role of aberrant Notch signaling in several hematological malignancies. Finally, we will discuss current and potential future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway. PMID:26934331

  10. Nrf2: a potential therapeutic target for diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Ruchika

    2017-03-28

    Different aspects involved in pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy are related to inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. This article summarizes evidence that Nrf2 acts as a bridging link in various inflammatory and apoptotic pathways impacting progression of diabetic neuropathy. Nrf2 is involved in expression of various antioxidant proteins (such as detoxifying enzymes) via antioxidant response element (ARE) binding site. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 is inactive and remains in the cytosol. Hyperglycemia is a strong stimulus for oxidative stress and inflammation that downregulates the activity of Nrf2 through various neuroinflammatory pathways. Acute hyperglycemia increases the expression of Nrf2, but persistent hyperglycemia decreases its expression. This downregulation of Nrf2 causes various microvascular changes, which result in diabetic neuropathy. The key contribution of Nrf2 in progression of diabetic neuropathy has been summarized in the article. Despite involvement of Nrf2 in progression of diabetic neuropathy, targeting Nrf2 activators as a therapeutic potential will provide important new insights into the ways that influence treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (中藥 zhōng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (丹參 dān shēn), Notoginseng Radix (三七 sān qī), Lycii Fructus (枸杞子 gǒu qǐ zǐ), Cnidii Fructus (蛇床子 shé chuáng zǐ), Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn), Puerariae Radix (葛根 gé gēn), Puerariae Flos (葛花 gé huā), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (厚朴 hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (桔梗 jié gěng), and Trigonellae Semen (胡蘆巴 hú lú bā). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  12. Surface functionalization of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes with octa-arginine for enhanced anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swati; Dodwadkar, Namita S.; Deshpande, Pranali P.; Parab, Shruti; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes (commercially available as DOXIL® or Lipodox®) were surface functionalized with a cell-penetrating peptide, octa-arginine (R8). For this purpose, R8-peptide was conjugated to the polyethylene glycol–dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG–DOPE) amphiphilic co-polymer. The resultant R8–PEG–PE conjugate was introduced into the lipid bilayer of liposomes at 2 mol% of total lipid amount via spontaneous micelle-transfer technique. The liposomal modification did not alter the particle size distribution, as measured by Particle Size Analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, surface-associated cationic peptide increased zeta potential of the modified liposomes. R8-functionalized liposomes (R8-Dox-L) markedly increased the intracellular and intratumoral delivery of doxorubicin as measured by flow cytometry and visualizing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) compared to unmodified Doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes (Dox-L). R8-Dox-L delivered loaded Doxorubicin to the nucleus, being released from the endosomes at higher efficiency compared to unmodified liposomes, which had marked entrapment in the endosomes at tested time point of 1 h. The significantly higher accumulation of loaded drug to its site of action for R8-Dox-L resulted in improved cytotoxic activity in vitro (cell viability of 58.5 ± 7% for R8-Dox-L compared to 90.6 ± 2% for Dox-L at Dox dose of 50 μg/mL for 4 h followed by 24 h incubation) and enhanced suppression of tumor growth (348 ± 53 mm3 for R8-Dox-L, compared to 504 ± 54 mm3 for Dox-L treatment) in vivo compared to Dox-L. R8-modification has the potential for broadening the therapeutic window of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment, which could lead to lower non-specific toxicity. PMID:23333899

  13. Quercetin attenuates doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by modulating Bmi-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qinghua; Chen, Long; Lu, Qunwei; Sharma, Sherven; Li, Lei; Morimoto, Sachio; Wang, Guanyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy induces cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. We previously reported the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin on the expression of Bmi-1, a protein regulating mitochondrial function and ROS generation, as a mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Experimental Approach Effects of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated using H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice. Changes in apoptosis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and related signalling were evaluated in H9c2 cells. Cardiac function, serum enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured in mice after a single injection of doxorubicin with or without quercetin pre-treatment. Key Results In H9c2 cells, quercetin reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS generation and DNA double-strand breaks. The quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin toxicity was characterized by decreased expression of Bid, p53 and oxidase (p47 and Nox1) and by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1. Bmi-1 siRNA abolished the protective effect of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, quercetin protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction that was accompanied by reduced ROS levels and lipid peroxidation, but enhanced the expression of Bmi-1 and anti-oxidative superoxide dismutase. Conclusions and Implications Our results demonstrate that quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by reducing oxidative stress by up-regulation of Bmi-1 expression. The findings presented in this study have potential applications in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:24902966

  14. Therapeutic potential of ginseng in the management of cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Karmazyn, Morris; Moey, Melissa; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey

    2011-10-22

    Although employed in Asian societies for thousands of years, the use of ginseng as an herbal medication for a variety of disorders has increased tremendously worldwide in recent years. Ginseng belongs to the genus Panax, of which there exists a variety, generally reflecting their geographic origin. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) are two such varieties possessing a plethora of pharmacological properties, which are attributed primarily to the presence of different ginsenosides that bestow these ginsengs with distinct pharmacodynamic profiles. The many cardiovascular benefits attributed to ginseng include cardioprotection, antihypertensive effects, and attenuation of myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. Experimental studies have revealed a number of beneficial properties of ginseng, particularly in the area of cardiac protection, where ginseng and ginsenosides have been shown to protect the ischaemic and reperfused heart in a variety of experimental models. Emerging evidence also suggests that ginseng attenuates myocardial hypertrophy, thus blunting the remodelling and heart failure processes. However, clinical evidence of efficacy is not convincing, likely owing primarily to the paucity of well designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials. Adding to the complexity in understanding the cardiovascular effects of ginseng is the fact that each of the different ginseng varieties possesses distinct cardiovascular properties, as a result of their respective ginsenoside composition, rendering it difficult to assign a general, common cardiovascular effect to ginseng. Additional challenges include the identification of mechanisms (likely multifaceted) that account for the effects of ginseng and determining which ginsenoside(s) mediate these cardiovascular properties. These concerns notwithstanding, the potential cardiovascular benefit of ginseng is worthy of further studies in view of its possible development as a

  15. Llama Nanoantibodies with Therapeutic Potential against Human Norovirus Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I.; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y.; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis. PMID:26267898

  16. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional erythropoietin receptor: Potential therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SUSZYNSKA, MALWINA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2015-01-01

    The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is expressed by cells from the erythroid lineage; however, evidence has accumulated that it is also expressed by some solid tumors. This is an important observation, because recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) is employed in cancer patients to treat anemia related to chemo/radiotherapy. In our studies we employed eight rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines (three alveolar-type RMS cell lines and five embrional-type RMS cell lines), and mRNA samples obtained from positive, PAX7-FOXO1-positive, and fusion-negative RMS patient samples. Expression of EpoR was evaluated by RT-PCR, gene array and FACS. The functionality of EpoR in RMS cell lines was evaluated by chemotaxis, adhesion, and direct cell proliferation assays. In some of the experiments, RMS cells were exposed to vincristine (VCR) in the presence or absence of EPO to test whether EPO may impair the therapeutic effect of VCR. We report for a first time that functional EpoR is expressed in human RMS cell lines as well as by primary tumors from RMS patients. Furthermore, EpoR is detectably expressed in both embryonal and alveolar RMS subtypes. At the functional level, several human RMS cell lines responded to EPO stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. Moreover, RMS cells became more resistant to VCR treatment in the presence of EPO. Our findings have important potential clinical implications, indicating that EPO supplementation in RMS patients may have the unwanted side effect of tumor progression. PMID:26412593

  17. Therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen Ta; Cheng, Chuan Chu; Chiu, Ted H; Lai, Pei Chun

    2015-11-01

    Controversial effects of thalidomide for solid malignancies have been reported. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of thalidomide for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), the most common type of bladder cancer. Thalidomide precipitates were observed when its DMSO solution was added to the culture medium. No precipitation was found when thalidomide was dissolved in 45% γ-cyclodextrin, and this concentration of γ-cyclodextrin elicited slight cytotoxicity on TCC BFTC905 and primary human urothelial cells. Thalidomide-γ-cyclodextrin complex exerted a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in TCC cells, but was relatively less cytotoxic (with IC50 of 200 µM) in BFTC905 cells than the other 3 TCC cell lines, possibly due to upregulation of Bcl-xL and HIF-1α mediated carbonic anhydrase IX, and promotion of quiescence. Gemcitabine-resistant BFTC905 cells were chosen for additional experiments. Thalidomide induced apoptosis through downregulation of survivin and securin. The secretion of VEGF and TNF-α was ameliorated by thalidomide, but they did not affect cell proliferation. Immune-modulating lenalidomide and pomalidomide did not elicit cytotoxicity. In addition, cereblon did not play a role in the thalidomide effect. Oxidative DNA damage was triggered by thalidomide, and anti-oxidants reversed the effect. Thalidomide also inhibited TNF-α induced invasion through inhibition of NF-κB, and downregulation of effectors, ICAM-1 and MMP-9. Thalidomide inhibited the growth of BFTC905 xenograft tumors in SCID mice via induction of DNA damage and suppression of angiogenesis. Higher average body weight, indicating less chachexia, was observed in thalidomide treated group. Sedative effect was observed within one-week of treatment. These pre-clinical results suggest therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.

  18. Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis.

  19. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-02-22

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity.

  20. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity. PMID:28225086

  1. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, W. P.; Hua, H. Y.; Sun, P. C.; Zhao, Y. X.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells. PMID:26664069

  2. Nuclear proteomics with XRCC3 knockdown to reveal the development of doxorubicin-resistant uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jo-Fan; Lin, Szu-Ting; Hung, Eric; Lu, Yi-Ling; Soon May, Eugenie Wong; Lo, Yi-Wen; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chan, Hong-Lin

    2014-06-01

    The nucleus is a key organelle in mammary cells, which is responsible for several cellular functions including cell proliferation, gene expression, and cell survival. In addition, the nucleus is the primary targets of doxorubicin treatment. In the current study, low-abundance nuclear proteins were enriched for proteomic analysis by using a state-of-the-art two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) strategy to compare and identify the nuclear protein profiling changes responsible for the development of doxorubicin resistance in human uterine cancer cells. The results of the nuclear proteomic analysis indicated that more than 2100 protein features were resolved from an equal pooled amount of three purified nuclear proteins and 117 differentially expressed spots were identified. Of these 117 identified proteins, 48 belonged to nuclear proteins and a positive correlation was observed between the expression levels of 32 of these nuclear proteins and an increase in drug resistance. According to our review of relevant research, nuclear proteins such as DNA repair protein XRCC3 (XRCC3) have not been reported to play roles in the formation of doxorubicin resistance. Previous studies have used RNA interference and cell viability analysis to evidence the essential roles of XRCC3 on its potency in the formation of doxorubicin resistance. To sum up, our nuclear proteomic approaches enabled us to identify numerous proteins, including XRCC3, involved in various drug-resistance-forming mechanisms. Our results provide potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for treating doxorubicin-resistant uterine cancer.

  3. Siglec-15 is a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Yusuke; Takahata, Masahiko; Mikuni, Shintaro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Hamano, Hiroki; Angata, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Kinjo, Masataka; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2015-02-01

    organization of osteoclasts in both RANKL and TNF-α induced osteoclastogenesis. The present findings indicate that Siglec-15 is involved in estrogen deficiency-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and is thus a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  4. Asparagus racemosus: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram

    2016-09-01

    Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) is a widely found medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical parts of India. The therapeutic applications of this plant have been reported in Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional system of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. The crude, semi-purified and purified extracts obtained from different parts of this plant have been useful in therapeutic applications. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals mostly saponins and flavonoids have been isolated and identified from this plant which are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of A. racemosus.

  5. PI3K inhibitors as potential therapeutics for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jennifer; Archer, Sophie; Ward, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant overactivation of the immune system can give rise to chronic and persistent self-attack, culminating in autoimmune disease. This is currently managed therapeutically using potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs. Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have been identified as ideal therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases given their wide-ranging roles in immunological processes. Recent studies into the function of selective PI3K inhibitors in vitro and in vivo have yielded encouraging results, allowing progression into the clinic. Here, we review their recent progress across a range of autoimmune diseases.

  6. Novel hepatocellular carcinoma molecules with prognostic and therapeutic potentials

    PubMed Central

    Scaggiante, Bruna; Kazemi, Maryam; Pozzato, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara; Farra, Rosella; Grassi, Mario; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. The difficulty to diagnose early cancer stages, the aggressive behaviors of HCC, and the poor effectiveness of therapeutic treatments, represent the reasons for the quite similar deaths per year and incidence number. Considering the fact that the diagnosis of HCC typically occurs in the advanced stages of the disease when the therapeutic options have only modest efficacy, the possibility to identify early diagnostic markers could be of significant benefit. So far, a large number of biomarkers have been associated to HCC progression and aggressiveness, but many of them turned out not to be of practical utility. This is the reason why active investigations are ongoing in this field. Given the huge amount of published works aimed at the identification of HCC biomarkers, in this review we mainly focused on the data published in the last year, with particular attention to the role of (1) molecular and biochemical cellular markers; (2) micro-interfering RNAs; (3) epigenetic variations; and (4) tumor stroma. It is worth mentioning that a significant number of the HCC markers described in the present review may be utilized also as targets for novel therapeutic approaches, indicating the tight relation between diagnosis and therapy. In conclusion, we believe that integrated researches among the different lines of investigation indicated above should represent the winning strategies to identify effective HCC markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:24574801

  7. Agaricus blazei Murill enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by NFκB-mediated increase of intracellular doxorubicin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that the Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) mushroom, which primarily consists of polysaccharides, possesses anti-tumor activities. However, the mechanisms by which ABM inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma growth remain unknown. Our study demonstrates that ABM acts as an enhancer to sensitize doxorubicin (Dox)-mediated apoptotic signaling, and this sensitization can be achieved by enhancing intracellular Dox accumulation via the inhibition of NFκB activity. These findings suggest that ABM, when combined with low doses of Dox, has the potential to provide more efficient therapeutic effects against drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Combinatorial effects of doxorubicin and retargeted tissue factor by intratumoral entrapment of doxorubicin and proapoptotic increase of tumor vascular infarction

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Caroline; Höltke, Carsten; Schliemann, Christoph; Kessler, Torsten; Schmidt, Lars Henning; Harrach, Saliha; Mantke, Verena; Hintelmann, Heike; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Wardelmann, Eva; Lenz, Georg; Wünsch, Bernhard; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Mesters, Rolf M.; Schwöppe, Christian; Berdel, Wolfgang E.

    2016-01-01

    Truncated tissue factor (tTF), retargeted to tumor vasculature by GNGRAHA peptide (tTF-NGR), and doxorubicin have therapeutic activity against a variety of tumors. We report on combination experiments of both drugs using different schedules. We have tested fluorescence- and HPLC-based intratumoral pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin, flow cytometry for cellular phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, and tumor xenograft studies for showing in vivo apoptosis, proliferation decrease, and tumor shrinkage upon combination therapy with doxorubicin and induced tumor vascular infarction. tTF-NGR given before doxorubicin inhibits the uptake of the drug into human fibrosarcoma xenografts in vivo. Reverse sequence does not influence the uptake of doxorubicin into tumor, but significantly inhibits the late wash-out phase, thus entrapping doxorubicin in tumor tissue by vascular occlusion. Incubation of endothelial and tumor cells with doxorubicin in vitro increases PS concentrations in the outer layer of the cell membrane as a sign of early apoptosis. Cells expressing increased PS concentrations show comparatively higher procoagulatory efficacy on the basis of equimolar tTF-NGR present in the Factor X assay. Experiments using human M21 melanoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma xenografts in athymic nude mice indeed show a combinatorial tumor growth inhibition applying doxorubicin and tTF-NGR in sequence over single drug treatment. Combination of cytotoxic drugs such as doxorubicin with tTF-NGR-induced tumor vessel infarction can improve pharmacodynamics of the drugs by new mechanisms, entrapping a cytotoxic molecule inside tumor tissue and reciprocally improving procoagulatory activity of tTF-NGR in the tumor vasculature via apoptosis induction in tumor endothelial and tumor cells. PMID:27738341

  9. Therapeutic potential of nuclear receptor agonists in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Miguel; Landreth, Gary E

    2017-03-06

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an extensive accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which triggers a set of deleterious processes including synaptic dysfunction, inflammation and neuronal injury leading to neuronal loss and cognitive impairment. A large body of evidence supports that nuclear receptor (NR) activation could be a promising therapeutic approach for AD. NRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression and have a cell type-specific effects. In this review we discuss the mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of NRs in AD. Moreover, we summarize studies reported in the last 10-15 years and their major outcomes arising from the pharmacological targeting of NRs in AD animal models. The dissection of the pathways regulated by NRs in the context of AD is of importance in identifying novel and effective therapeutic strategies.

  10. Stratification and therapeutic potential of PML in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Martín, Natalia; Piva, Marco; Urosevic, Jelena; Aldaz, Paula; Sutherland, James D.; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Arreal, Leire; Torrano, Verónica; Cortazar, Ana R.; Planet, Evarist; Guiu, Marc; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Garcia, Stephane; Macías, Iratxe; Salvador, Fernando; Domenici, Giacomo; Rueda, Oscar M.; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Zúñiga-García, Patricia; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Varela-Rey, Marta; Martínez-Chantar, Maria Luz; Anguita, Juan; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Lawrie, Charles H.; Aransay, Ana M.; Iovanna, Juan L.; Baselga, Jose; Caldas, Carlos; Barrio, Rosa; Serra, Violeta; dM Vivanco, Maria; Matheu, Ander; Gomis, Roger R.; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2016-01-01

    Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification. PMID:27553708

  11. The potential of prison-based democratic therapeutic communities.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jamie; Shuker, Richard

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the work of HMP Grendon, the only prison in the UK to operate entirely as a series of democratic therapeutic communities and to summarise the research of its effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach The paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the work of a prison-based therapeutic community, and offers a literature review regarding evidence of effectiveness. Findings The work of HMP Grendon has a wide range of positive benefits including reduced levels of disruption in prison, reduced self-harm, improved well-being, an environment that is experienced as more humane and reduced levels of reoffending. Originality/value The work of HMP Grendon offers a well established and evidenced approach to managing men who have committed serious violent and sexually violent offences. It also promotes and embodies a progressive approach to managing prisons rooted in the welfare tradition.

  12. Cardiovascular calcifications in chronic kidney disease: Potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Bover, Jordi; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Górriz, José Luis; Lloret, María Jesús; da Silva, Iara; Ruiz-García, César; Chang, Pamela; Rodríguez, Mariano; Ballarín, José

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is a highly prevalent condition at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is directly associated with increased CV and global morbidity and mortality. In the first part of this review, we have shown that CV calcifications represent an important part of the CKD-MBD complex and are a superior predictor of clinical outcomes in our patients. However, it is also necessary to demonstrate that CV calcification is a modifiable risk factor including the possibility of decreasing (or at least not aggravating) its progression with iatrogenic manoeuvres. Although, strictly speaking, only circumstantial evidence is available, it is known that certain drugs may modify the progression of CV calcifications, even though a direct causal link with improved survival has not been demonstrated. For example, non-calcium-based phosphate binders demonstrated the ability to attenuate the progression of CV calcification compared with the liberal use of calcium-based phosphate binders in several randomised clinical trials. Moreover, although only in experimental conditions, selective activators of the vitamin D receptor seem to have a wider therapeutic margin against CV calcification. Finally, calcimimetics seem to attenuate the progression of CV calcification in dialysis patients. While new therapeutic strategies are being developed (i.e. vitamin K, SNF472, etc.), we suggest that the evaluation of CV calcifications could be a diagnostic tool used by nephrologists to personalise their therapeutic decisions.

  13. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Maintaining Mitochondrial Health in Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. Method: The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Results: Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Conclusions: In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26818748

  14. Protein-Remodeling Factors As Potential Therapeutics for Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackrel, Meredith E.; Shorter, James

    2017-01-01

    Protein misfolding is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. A unifying feature of patients with these disorders is the accumulation of deposits comprised of misfolded protein. Aberrant protein folding can cause toxicity through a loss or gain of protein function, or both. An intriguing therapeutic approach to counter these disorders is the application of protein-remodeling factors to resolve these misfolded conformers and return the proteins to their native fold and function. Here, we describe the application of protein-remodeling factors to alleviate protein misfolding in neurodegenerative disease. We focus on Hsp104, Hsp110/Hsp70/Hsp40, NMNAT, and HtrA1, which can prevent and reverse protein aggregation. While many of these protein-remodeling systems are highly promising, their activity can be limited. Thus, engineering protein-remodeling factors to enhance their activity could be therapeutically valuable. Indeed, engineered Hsp104 variants suppress neurodegeneration in animal models, which opens the way to novel therapeutics and mechanistic probes to help understand neurodegenerative disease. PMID:28293166

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-07-08

    Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta⁸-THC), and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta⁸-THC and other cannabinoid CB₁ receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta⁸-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB₁ receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB₁ receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB₁ receptor independent. Of the CB₁ receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB₁ receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.

  16. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  17. Interleukin-4 receptor-targeted liposomal doxorubicin as a model for enhancing cellular uptake and antitumor efficacy in murine colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Yung; Liu, Hong-Wen; Tsai, Ya-Ching; Tseng, Ju-Yu; Liang, Shu-Ching; Chen, Chin-Yau; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wei, Ming-Cheng; Lu, Maggie; Lu, Ruey-Hwa; Lin, Chi-Hung; Jiang, Jeng-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that colorectal tumor has high interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) expression, whereas adjacent normal tissue has low or no IL-4Rα expression. We also observed that human atherosclerotic plaque-specific peptide-1 (AP1) can specifically target to IL-4Rα. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity of AP1-conjuagted liposomal doxorubicin. AP1 bound more strongly to and was more efficiently internalized into IL-4Rα-overexpressing CT26 cells than CT26 control cells. Selective cytotoxicity experiment revealed that AP1-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin preferentially killed IL-4Rα-overexpressing CT26 cells. AP1-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin administered intravenously into mice produced significant inhibition of tumor growth and showed decreased cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. These results indicated that AP1-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin has a potent and selective anticancer potential against IL-4Rα-overexpressing colorectal cancer cells, thus providing a model for targeted anticancer therapy. PMID:26436767

  18. The evidence for natural therapeutics as potential anti-scarring agents in burn-related scarring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J

    2016-01-01

    Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair.

  19. Metformin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Recurrent Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Yu, Yingjie; Vasudevan, Anita; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G.; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, a biguanide class of anti-diabetic drugs, possesses anti-cancer properties. However, most of the studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of metformin have been on primary cancer. No information is available whether metformin could be effectively used for recurrent cancer, specifically colorectal cancer (CRC) that affects up to 50% of patients treated by conventional chemotherapies. Although the reasons for recurrence are not fully understood, it is thought to be due to re-emergence of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs). Therefore, development of non-toxic treatment strategies targeting CSCs would be of significant therapeutic benefit. In the current investigation, we have examined the effectiveness of metformin, in combination with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FuOx), the mainstay of colon cancer therapeutics, on survival of chemo-resistant colon cancer cells that are highly enriched in CSCs/CSLCs. Our data show that metformin acts synergistically with FuOx to (a) induce cell death in chemo resistant (CR) HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells, (b) inhibit colonospheres formation and (c) enhance colonospheres disintegration. In vitro cell culture studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment inhibits migration of CR colon cancer cells. These changes were associated with increased miRNA 145 and reduction in miRNA 21. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was also down-regulated indicating its pivotal role in regulating the growth of CR colon cancer cells. Data from SCID mice xenograft model of CR HCT-116 and CR HT-29 cells show that the combination of metformin and FuOX is highly effective in inhibiting the growth of colon tumors as evidenced by ∼50% inhibition in growth following 5 weeks of combination treatment, when compared with the vehicle treated controls. Our current data suggest that metformin together with conventional chemotherapy could be an effective treatment

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-Derived Therapeutic Factor Concentrate for Treating Critical Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Václav; Jurčíková, Jana; Laššák, Ondrej; Vítková, Kateřina; Pavliska, Lubomír; Porubová, Ludmila; Buszman, Piotr P; Krauze, Agata; Fernandez, Carlos; Jalůvka, František; Špačková, Iveta; Lochman, Ivo; Jana, Dvořáčková; Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie; March, Keith L; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Johnstone, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is an emerging therapeutic option for addressing intractable diseases such as critical limb ischemia (CLI). Evidence suggests that therapeutic effects of ADSCs are primarily mediated through paracrine mechanisms rather than transdifferentiation. These secreted factors can be captured in conditioned medium (CM) and concentrated to prepare a therapeutic factor concentrate (TFC) composed of a cocktail of beneficial growth factors and cytokines that individually and in combination demonstrate disease-modifying effects. The ability of a TFC to promote reperfusion in a rabbit model of CLI was evaluated. A total of 27 adult female rabbits underwent surgery to induce ischemia in the left hindlimb. An additional five rabbits served as sham controls. One week after surgery, the ischemic limbs received intramuscular injections of either (1) placebo (control medium), (2) a low dose of TFC, or (3) a high dose of TFC. Limb perfusion was serially assessed with a Doppler probe. Blood samples were analyzed for growth factors and cytokines. Tissue was harvested postmortem on day 35 and assessed for capillary density by immunohistochemistry. At 1 month after treatment, tissue perfusion in ischemic limbs treated with a high dose of TFC was almost double (p < 0.05) that of the placebo group [58.8 ± 23 relative perfusion units (RPU) vs. 30.7 ± 13.6 RPU; mean ± SD]. This effect was correlated with greater capillary density in the affected tissues and with transiently higher serum levels of the angiogenic and prosurvival factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The conclusions from this study are that a single bolus administration of TFC demonstrated robust effects for promoting tissue reperfusion in a rabbit model of CLI and that a possible mechanism of revascularization was promotion of angiogenesis by TFC. Results of this study demonstrate that TFC represents a potent

  1. Melatonin and Nitrones As Potential Therapeutic Agents for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramos, Eva; Patiño, Paloma; Oset-Gasque, Maria J.; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Marco-Contelles, José

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a disease of aging affecting millions of people worldwide, and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) is the only treatment approved. However, r-tPA has a low therapeutic window and secondary effects which limit its beneficial outcome, urging thus the search for new more efficient therapies. Among them, neuroprotection based on melatonin or nitrones, as free radical traps, have arisen as drug candidates due to their strong antioxidant power. In this Perspective article, an update on the specific results of the melatonin and several new nitrones are presented. PMID:27932976

  2. Therapeutic potential of growth factors in pulmonary emphysematous condition.

    PubMed

    Muyal, Jai Prakash; Muyal, Vandana; Kotnala, Sudhir; Kumar, Dhananjay; Bhardwaj, Harsh

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a major manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by progressive destruction of alveolar parenchyma with persistent inflammation of the small airways. Such destruction in the distal respiratory tract is irreversible and irreparable. All-trans-retinoic acid was suggested as a novel therapy for regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysema. However, profound discrepancies were evident between studies. At present, no effective therapeutic options are available that allow for the regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysematous human lungs. Recently, some reports on rodent's models have suggested the beneficial effects of various growth factors toward alveolar maintenance and repair processes.

  3. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  4. Autophagy modulation as a potential therapeutic target for diverse diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsztein, David C.; Codogno, Patrice; Levine, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential, conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that controls the quality of the cytoplasm by eliminating protein aggregates and damaged organelles. It begins when double-membraned autophagosomes engulf portions of the cytoplasm, which is followed by fusion of these vesicles with lysosomes and degradation of the autophagic contents. In addition to its vital homeostatic role, this degradation pathway is involved in various human disorders, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and infectious diseases. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy, the role of this pathway in disease and strategies for therapeutic modulation. PMID:22935804

  5. Biological targets for therapeutic interventions in COPD: clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Vatrella, Alessandro; Gallelli, Luca; Renda, Teresa; Caputi, Mario; Maselli, Rosario; Marsico, Serafino A

    2006-01-01

    COPD is a widespread inflammatory respiratory disorder characterized by a progressive, poorly reversible airflow limitation. Currently available therapies are mostly based on those used to treat asthma. However, such compounds are not able to effectively reduce the gradual functional deterioration, as well as the ongoing airway and lung inflammation occurring in COPD patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve the efficacy of the existing drug classes and to develop new treatments, targeting the main cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis. These therapeutic strategies will be highlighted in the present review. PMID:18046869

  6. Organometallic Rhenium Complexes Divert Doxorubicin to the Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Imstepf, Sebastian; Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Felber, Michael; Fox, Thomas; Gasser, Gilles; Alberto, Roger

    2016-02-18

    Doxorubicin, a well-established chemotherapeutic agent, is known to accumulate in the cell nucleus. By using ICP-MS, we show that the conjugation of two small organometallic rhenium complexes to this structural motif results in a significant redirection of the conjugates from the nucleus to the mitochondria. Despite this relocation, the two bioconjugates display excellent toxicity toward HeLa cells. In addition, we carried out a preliminarily investigation of aspects of cytotoxicity and present evidence that the conjugates disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential, are strong inhibitors of human Topoisomerase II, and induce apoptosis. Such derivatives may enhance the therapeutic index of the aggressive parent drug and overcome drug resistance by influencing nuclear and mitochondrial homeostasis.

  7. Improvement of a potential anthrax therapeutic by computational protein design.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean J; Eiben, Christopher B; Carra, John H; Huang, Ivan; Zong, David; Liu, Peixian; Wu, Cindy T; Nivala, Jeff; Dunbar, Josef; Huber, Tomas; Senft, Jeffrey; Schokman, Rowena; Smith, Matthew D; Mills, Jeremy H; Friedlander, Arthur M; Baker, David; Siegel, Justin B

    2011-09-16

    Past anthrax attacks in the United States have highlighted the need for improved measures against bioweapons. The virulence of anthrax stems from the shielding properties of the Bacillus anthracis poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule. In the presence of excess CapD, a B. anthracis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, the protective capsule is degraded, and the immune system can successfully combat infection. Although CapD shows promise as a next generation protein therapeutic against anthrax, improvements in production, stability, and therapeutic formulation are needed. In this study, we addressed several of these problems through computational protein engineering techniques. We show that circular permutation of CapD improved production properties and dramatically increased kinetic thermostability. At 45 °C, CapD was completely inactive after 5 min, but circularly permuted CapD remained almost entirely active after 30 min. In addition, we identify an amino acid substitution that dramatically decreased transpeptidation activity but not hydrolysis. Subsequently, we show that this mutant had a diminished capsule degradation activity, suggesting that CapD catalyzes capsule degradation through a transpeptidation reaction with endogenous amino acids and peptides in serum rather than hydrolysis.

  8. Therapeutic potential of turmeric in Alzheimer's disease: curcumin or curcuminoids?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Touqeer; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. There is limited choice in modern therapeutics, and drugs available have limited success with multiple side effects in addition to high cost. Hence, newer and alternate treatment options are being explored for effective and safer therapeutic targets to address AD. Turmeric possesses multiple medicinal uses including treatment for AD. Curcuminoids, a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are vital constituents of turmeric. It is generally believed that curcumin is the most important constituent of the curcuminoid mixture that contributes to the pharmacological profile of parent curcuminoid mixture or turmeric. A careful literature study reveals that the other two constituents of the curcuminoid mixture also contribute significantly to the effectiveness of curcuminoids in AD. Therefore, it is emphasized in this review that each component of the curcuminoid mixture plays a distinct role in making curcuminoid mixture useful in AD, and hence, the curcuminoid mixture represents turmeric in its medicinal value better than curcumin alone. The progress in understanding the disease etiology demands a multiple-site-targeted therapy, and the curcuminoid mixture of all components, each with different merits, makes this mixture more promising in combating the challenging disease.

  9. Cotinine: a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Valentina; Zeitlin, Ross

    2012-07-01

    Tobacco smoking has been correlated with a lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This negative correlation has been attributed to nicotine's properties. However, the undesired side-effects of nicotine and the absence of clear evidence of positive effects of this drug on the cognitive abilities of AD patients have decreased the enthusiasm for its therapeutic use. In this review, we discuss evidence showing that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, has many of the beneficial effects but none of the negative side-effects of its precursor. Cotinine has been shown to be neuroprotective, to improve memory in primates as well as to prevent memory loss, and to lower amyloid-beta (Aβ)) burden in AD mice. In AD, cotinine's positive effect on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Because stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) positively modulates these factors and memory, the involvement of these receptors in cotinine's effects are discussed. Because of its beneficial effects on brain function, good safety profile, and nonaddictive properties, cotinine may represent a new therapeutic agent against AD.

  10. Brain: The Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Kumar, Ashutosh; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a form of multifactorial ocular neurodegeneration with immensely complex etiology, pathogenesis and pathology. Though the mainstream therapeutic management of glaucoma is lowering of intraocular pressure, there is, as of now, no cure for the disease. New evidences ardently suggest brain involvement in all aspects of this malady. This consequently advocates the opinion that brain should be the spotlight of glaucoma research and may form the impending and promising target for glaucoma diagnosis and treatment. The present analysis endeavors at understanding glaucoma vis-à-vis brain structural and/or functional derangement and central nervous system (CNS) degeneration. Commencing with the premise of developing some understanding about the brain-nature of ocular structures; we discuss the nature of the cellular and molecular moieties involved in glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease. Substantial deal of literature implies that glaucoma may well be a disease of the brain, nevertheless, manifesting as progressive loss of vision. If that is the case, then targeting brain will be far more imperative in glaucoma therapeutics than any other remedial regimen currently being endorsed.

  11. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-2 Antagonists: Therapeutic Potential and Potential Risks

    PubMed Central

    Blankenbach, Kira V.; Schwalm, Stephanie; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling system with its specific G-protein-coupled S1P receptors, the enzymes of S1P metabolism and the S1P transporters, offers a multitude of promising targets for drug development. Until today, drug development in this area has nearly exclusively focused on (functional) antagonists at the S1P1 receptor, which cause a unique phenotype of immunomodulation. Accordingly, the first-in class S1P1 receptor modulator, fingolimod, has been approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and novel S1P1 receptor (functional) antagonists are being developed for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus erythematodes, or polymyositis. Besides the S1P1 receptor, also S1P2 and S1P3 are widely expressed and regulate many diverse functions throughout the body. The S1P2 receptor, in particular, often exerts cellular functions which are opposed to the functions of the S1P1 receptor. As a consequence, antagonists at the S1P2 receptor have the potential to be useful in a contrasting context and different areas of indication compared to S1P1 antagonists. The present review will focus on the therapeutic potential of S1P2 receptor antagonists and discuss their opportunities as well as their potential risks. Open questions and areas which require further investigations will be emphasized in particular. PMID:27445808

  12. Molecular and Therapeutic Potential and Toxicity of Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Chateauvieux, Sébastien; Morceau, Franck; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a branched short-chain fatty acid, is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and a mood stabilizer. Antiepileptic properties have been attributed to inhibition of Gamma Amino Butyrate (GABA) transaminobutyrate and of ion channels. VPA was recently classified among the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, acting directly at the level of gene transcription by inhibiting histone deacetylation and making transcription sites more accessible. VPA is a widely used drug, particularly for children suffering from epilepsy. Due to the increasing number of clinical trials involving VPA, and interesting results obtained, this molecule will be implicated in an increasing number of therapies. However side effects of VPA are substantially described in the literature whereas they are poorly discussed in articles focusing on its therapeutic use. This paper aims to give an overview of the different clinical-trials involving VPA and its side effects encountered during treatment as well as its molecular properties. PMID:20798865

  13. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Ivan K. H.; Lucas, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with a variety of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions such as killing tumour cells by specific cell death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and anti-tumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24481336

  14. Autophagy: Can it become a potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao Hong; Naomoto, Yoshio; Hao, Hui Fang; Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Noma, Kazuhiro; Motoki, Takayuki; Tomono, Yasuko; Fukazawa, Takuya; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Matsuoka, Junji; Takaoka, Munenori

    2010-04-01

    Autophagy is a cellular lysosomal degradation pathway involved in proteins and organelles recycling for promoting cell survival, development and homeostasis. It is a multistep process and genetic studies have identified many proteins that participate in autophagosome formation and fusion with lysosomes, and various signaling factors that associate with the regulation of autophagy. In general, autophagy acts as a cell protector and its dysfunction is correlated with diverse pathologies, such as neurodegeneration, liver, heart and muscle diseases, cancer, inflammation and ageing. However, its role in cell death increases the complexity of the autophagic degradation system. A broad understanding of autophagy, ranging from detailed processes, including induction, formation and degradation, to function in physiology and pathology, revealed by accumulating studies, may be helpful for formulating therapeutic strategies for autophagy-associated human diseases.

  15. Potential role of bromelain in clinical and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Rathnavelu, Vidhya; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Sohila, Subramaniam; Kanagesan, Samikannu; Ramesh, Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple has been used as part of traditional folk medicine since ancient times and it continues to be present in various herbal preparations. Bromelain is a complex mixture of protease extracted from the fruit or stem of the pineapple plant. Although the complete molecular mechanism of action of bromelain has not been completely identified, bromelain gained universal acceptability as a phytotherapeutic agent due to its history of safe use and lack of side effects. Bromelain is widely administered for its well-recognized properties, such as its anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic affects, anticancer activity and immunomodulatory effects, in addition to being a wound healing and circulatory improvement agent. The current review describes the promising clinical applications and therapeutic properties of bromelain. PMID:27602208

  16. Current and Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Hemodynamic Cardiorenal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kim, Taehee; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Amin, Alpesh N.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) encompasses conditions in which cardiac and renal disorders co-exist and are pathophysiologically related. The newest classification of CRS into seven etiologically and clinically distinct types for direct patient management purposes includes hemodynamic, uremic, vascular, neurohumoral, anemia- and/or iron metabolism-related, mineral metabolism-related and protein-energy wasting-related CRS. This classification also emphasizes the pathophysiologic pathways. The leading CRS category remains hemodynamic CRS, which is the most commonly encountered type in patient care settings and in which acute or chronic heart failure leads to renal impairment. Summary This review focuses on selected therapeutic strategies for the clinical management of hemodynamic CRS. This is often characterized by an exceptionally high ratio of serum urea to creatinine concentrations. Loop diuretics, positive inotropic agents including dopamine and dobutamine, vasopressin antagonists including vasopressin receptor antagonists such as tolvaptan, nesiritide and angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitors are among the pharmacologic agents used. Additional therapies include ultrafiltration (UF) via hemofiltration or dialysis. The beneficial versus unfavorable effects of these therapies on cardiac decongestion versus renal blood flow may act in opposite directions. Some of the most interesting options for the outpatient setting that deserve revisiting include portable continuous dobutamine infusion, peritoneal dialysis and outpatient UF via hemodialysis or hemofiltration. Key Messages The new clinically oriented CRS classification system is helpful in identifying therapeutic targets and offers a systematic approach to an optimal management algorithm with better understanding of etiologies. Most interventions including UF have not shown a favorable impact on outcomes. Outpatient portable dobutamine infusion is underutilized and not well studied. Revisiting traditional and

  17. Biological Relevance and Therapeutic Potential of the Hypusine Modification System*

    PubMed Central

    Pällmann, Nora; Braig, Melanie; Sievert, Henning; Preukschas, Michael; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Schweizer, Michaela; Nagel, Claus Henning; Neumann, Melanie; Wild, Peter; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Hagel, Christian; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hypusine modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is emerging as a crucial regulator in cancer, infections, and inflammation. Although its contribution in translational regulation of proline repeat-rich proteins has been sufficiently demonstrated, its biological role in higher eukaryotes remains poorly understood. To establish the hypusine modification system as a novel platform for therapeutic strategies, we aimed to investigate its functional relevance in mammals by generating and using a range of new knock-out mouse models for the hypusine-modifying enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase as well as for the cancer-related isoform eIF-5A2. We discovered that homozygous depletion of deoxyhypusine synthase and/or deoxyhypusine hydroxylase causes lethality in adult mice with different penetrance compared with haploinsufficiency. Network-based bioinformatic analysis of proline repeat-rich proteins, which are putative eIF-5A targets, revealed that these proteins are organized in highly connected protein-protein interaction networks. Hypusine-dependent translational control of essential proteins (hubs) and protein complexes inside these networks might explain the lethal phenotype observed after deletion of hypusine-modifying enzymes. Remarkably, our results also demonstrate that the cancer-associated isoform eIF-5A2 is dispensable for normal development and viability. Together, our results provide the first genetic evidence that the hypusine modification in eIF-5A is crucial for homeostasis in mammals. Moreover, these findings highlight functional diversity of the hypusine system compared with lower eukaryotes and indicate eIF-5A2 as a valuable and safe target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:26037925

  18. Potential Therapeutic Strategies of Regenerative Medicine for Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Mata-Miranda, Monica Maribel; Delgado-Macuil, Raul Jacobo; Rojas-Lopez, Marlon; Martinez-Flores, Ricardo; Vazquez-Zapien, Gustavo Jesus

    2017-03-17

    Kidney diseases are a public health problem worldwide; the mortality rate is between 50 and 80%. Available therapies include replacement function by dialysis or transplant, associated with a high morbidity and mortality; kidney transplantation is limited by the shortage of donor organs, immune rejection and lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive. Likewise, none of these treatments compensates all kidney functions. There is a great concern in developing more effective therapies with the ability to replace the wide range of renal functions, so that, new researches on developing therapeutic strategies have focused on regenerative medicine, science that includes artificial creation of tissues and organs, in order to repair or replace a tissue or organ function. The aim of this paper is to review the new advances in regenerative medicine strategies for treatment of renal failure. Generally, regenerative medicine comprises two therapeutic strategies: cell therapy and tissue engineering. Cell therapy techniques depend on cell and tissue culture, with the aim to grow specific cells that will replace morphological structures, tissues and functions. In this area, some investigations that include the use of stem cells have been carried out. Tissue engineering complements cell therapy combining techniques of biological sciences and engineering to create structures and devices as scaffolds, matrices or biocompatible materials, which alone or in combination will give support and facilitate the repair of damaged tissue. Even though there is a great advance in regenerative medicine strategies, we are far from using any of its techniques on health institutions, due to it is necessary to evaluate side effects, biodistribution, dosage, type of administration, vehicle of cell therapy, as well as the evaluation of response time and long-term studies, among other studies.

  19. Potential immunological markers for diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Ferreira, Antonio Walter

    2011-01-01

    In human toxocariasis, there are few approaches using immunological markers for diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. An immunoblot (IB) assay using excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen was standardized for monitoring IgG, IgE and IgA antibodies in 27 children with toxocariasis (23 visceral, three mixed visceral and ocular, and one ocular form) for 22-116 months after chemotherapy. IB sensitivity was 100% for IgG antibodies to bands of molecular weight 29-38, 48-54, 95-116, 121-162, >205 kDa, 80.8% for IgE to 29-38, 48-54, 95-121, > 205 kDa, and 65.4% for IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa. Candidates for diagnostic markers should be IgG antibodies to bands of low molecular weight (29-38 and 48-54 kDa). One group of patients presented the same antibody reactivity to all bands throughout the follow-up study; in the other group, antibodies decayed partially or completely to some or all bands, but these changes were not correlated with time after chemotherapy. Candidates for monitoring patients after chemotherapy may be IgG antibodies to > 205 kDa fractions, IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa and IgE to 95-121 kDa. Further identification of antigen epitopes related to these markers will allow the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays for the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of toxocariasis.

  20. COGNITION AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET IN LATE-LIFE DEPRESSION: POTENTIAL FOR NICOTINIC THERAPEUTICS

    PubMed Central

    Zurkovsky, Lilia; Taylor, Warren D.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Depression is associated with impairments to cognition and brain function at any age, but such impairments in the elderly are particularly problematic because of the additional burden of normal cognitive aging and in some cases, structural brain pathology. Individuals with late-life depression exhibit impairments in cognition and brain structural integrity, alongside mood dysfunction. Antidepressant treatment improves symptoms in some but not all patients, and those who benefit may not return to the cognitive and functional level of nondepressed elderly. Thus, for comprehensive treatment of late-life depression, it may be necessary to address both the affective and cognitive deficits. In this review, we propose a model for the treatment of late-life depression in which nicotinic stimulation is used to improve cognitive performance and improve the efficacy of an antidepressant treatment of the syndrome of late-life depression. The cholinergic system is well-established as important to cognition. Although muscarinic stimulation may exacerbate depressive symptoms, nicotinic stimulation may improve cognition and neural functioning without a detriment to mood. While some studies of nicotinic subtype specific receptor agonists have shown promise in improving cognitive performance, less is known regarding how nicotinic receptor stimulation affects cognition in depressed elderly patients. Late-life depression thus represents a new therapeutic target for the development of nicotinic agonist drugs and parallel treatment of cognitive dysfunction along with medical and psychological approaches to treating mood dysfunction may be necessary to ensure full resolution of depressive illness in aging. PMID:23933385

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Yang, Chih-Ching; Li, Ping-Chia; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress induces inflammation to several tissues/organs leading to cell death and long-term injury. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic regulatory functions has been widely used as preventive or therapeutic strategy in modern medicine. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been widely reported to contribute to cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, hepatotoxicity, or sympathetic activation-induced liver inflammation, lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation, and substance P-mediated neurogenic hyperactive bladder based on clinical findings. In this review, we introduce several evidences for TCM treatment including Monascus adlay (MA) produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) with Monascus purpureus on lung injury, Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. of Euphorbiaceae family) on hepatotoxin-induced liver inflammation, Virgate Wormwood Decoction (Yīn Chén Hāo tāng) and its active component genipin on sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, and green tea extract and its active components, catechins, or a modified TCM formula Five Stranguries Powder (Wǔ Lén Sǎn) plus Crataegi Fructus (Shān Zhā) on hyperactive bladder. The pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms of TCM on ameliorating inflammatory diseases are discussed in the review. PMID:24716170

  2. Therapeutic potential of traditional chinese medicine on inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Yang, Chih-Ching; Li, Ping-Chia; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2013-07-01

    Increased oxidative stress induces inflammation to several tissues/organs leading to cell death and long-term injury. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic regulatory functions has been widely used as preventive or therapeutic strategy in modern medicine. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been widely reported to contribute to cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, hepatotoxicity, or sympathetic activation-induced liver inflammation, lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation, and substance P-mediated neurogenic hyperactive bladder based on clinical findings. In this review, we introduce several evidences for TCM treatment including Monascus adlay (MA) produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) with Monascus purpureus on lung injury, Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. of Euphorbiaceae family) on hepatotoxin-induced liver inflammation, Virgate Wormwood Decoction (Yīn Chén Hāo tāng) and its active component genipin on sympathetic activation-induced liver inflammation, and green tea extract and its active components, catechins, or a modified TCM formula Five Stranguries Powder (Wǔ Lén Sǎn) plus Crataegi Fructus (Shān Zhā) on hyperactive bladder. The pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms of TCM on ameliorating inflammatory diseases are discussed in the review.

  3. Nicotine: therapeutic potential for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Green, J T; Thomas, G A; Rhodes, J

    1997-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is predominantly a disease of non-smokers, and nicotine may be the agent responsible for this association. Transdermal nicotine has been shown to improve disease activity and sigmoidoscopic appearance in the active disease but in one study had no effect on maintenance of remission. Since side-effects with nicotine patches occur in up to two thirds of patients, attempts to reduce systemic levels and improve drug tolerance have been developed with colonic delivery systems of nicotine. Preliminary observations with nicotine enemas in UC have shown clinical benefit, but controlled trials are needed. Mechanisms responsible for the association of smoking with colitis and for the therapeutic effect of nicotine remain an enigma; possibilities include: modulation of the immune response, alterations of colonic mucus and eicosanoid production, changes in rectal blood flow, decreased intestinal permeability and the release of endogenous glucocorticoids. With current treatment for UC limited to corticosteroids and formulations of 5-aminosalicylic acid, alternative treatments are required and nicotine may fulfil this role.

  4. Autophagy and mitophagy in the myocardium: therapeutic potential and concerns

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Rebecca E; Kubli, Dieter A; Gustafsson, Åsa B

    2014-01-01

    The autophagic-lysosomal degradation pathway is critical for cardiac homeostasis, and defects in this pathway are associated with development of cardiomyopathy. Autophagy is responsible for the normal turnover of organelles and long-lived proteins. Autophagy is also rapidly up-regulated in response to stress, where it rapidly clears dysfunctional organelles and cytotoxic protein aggregates in the cell. Autophagy is also important in clearing dysfunctional mitochondria before they can cause harm to the cell. This quality control mechanism is particularly important in cardiac myocytes, which contain a very high volume of mitochondria. The degradation of proteins and organelles also generates free fatty acids and amino acids, which help maintain energy levels in myocytes during stress conditions. Increases in autophagy have been observed in various cardiovascular diseases, but a major question that remains to be answered is whether enhanced autophagy is an adaptive or maladaptive response to stress. This review discusses the regulation and role of autophagy in the myocardium under baseline conditions and in various aetiologies of heart disease. It also discusses whether this pathway represents a new therapeutic target to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease and the concerns associated with modulating autophagy. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24148024

  5. Pharmacology and therapeutic potential of pattern recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Paul-Clark, M J; George, P M; Gatheral, T; Parzych, K; Wright, W R; Crawford, D; Bailey, L K; Reed, D M; Mitchell, J A

    2012-08-01

    Pharmacologists have used pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for decades as a stimulus for studying mediators involved in inflammation and for the screening of anti-inflammatory compounds. However, in the view of immunologists, LPS was too non-specific for studying the mechanisms of immune signalling in infection and inflammation, as no receptors had been identified. This changed in the late 1990s with the discovery of the Toll-like receptors. These 'pattern recognition receptors' (PRRs) were able to recognise highly conserved sequences, the so called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present in or on pathogens. This specificity of particular PAMPs and their newly defined receptors provided a common ground between pharmacologists and immunologists for the study of inflammation. PRRs also recognise endogenous agonists, the so called danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can result in sterile inflammation. The signalling pathways and ligands of many PRRs have now been characterised and there is no doubt that this rich vein of research will aid the discovery of new therapeutics for infectious conditions and chronic inflammatory disease.

  6. Physiological mechanisms and therapeutic potential of bone mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhousheng

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal loading is an important physiological regulator of bone mass. Theoretically, mechanical forces or administration of drugs that activate bone mechanosensors would be a novel treatment for osteoporotic disorders, particularly age-related osteoporosis and other bone loss caused by skeletal unloading. Uncertainty regarding the identity of the molecular targets that sense and transduce mechanical forces in bone, however, has limited the therapeutic exploitation of mechanosesning pathways to control bone mass. Recently, two evolutionally conserved mechanosensing pathways have been shown to function as “physical environment” sensors in cells of the osteoblasts lineage. Indeed, polycystin–1 (Pkd1, or PC1) and polycystin–2 (Pkd2, or PC2, or TRPP2), which form a flow sensing receptor channel complex, and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, or WWTR1), which responds to the extracellular matrix microenvironment act in concert to reciprocally regulate osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis through co-activating Runx2 and a co-repressing PPARγ activities. Interactions of polycystins and TAZ with other putative mechanosensing mechanism, such as primary cilia, integrins and hemichannels, may create multifaceted mechanosensing networks in bone. Moreover, modulation of polycystins and TAZ interactions identify novel molecular targets to develop small molecules that mimic the effects of mechanical loading on bone. PMID:26038304

  7. Potential therapeutic targets in energy metabolism pathways of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rowshan Ara; Hossain, Sazzad; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2017-03-30

    Mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes make cancer cells proliferate indefinitely. As they possess almost all mechanisms for cell proliferation and survival like healthy cells, it is difficult to specifically target cancer cells in the body. Current treatments in most of the cases are harmful to healthy cells as well. Thus, it would be of great prudence to target specific characters of cancer cells. Since cancer cells avidly use glucose and glutamine to survive and proliferate by upregulating the relevant enzymes and their specific isoforms having important regulatory roles, it has been of great interest recently to target the energy-related metabolic pathways as part of the therapeutic interventions. This paper summarizes the roles of energy metabolism and their cross-talks with other important signaling pathways in regulating proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. As breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, a clear understanding of the variations of energy metabolism in different molecular subtypes would help in treating each type with a very customized, safer and efficient treatment regimen, by targeting specific glucose metabolism and related pathways with gene silencing nucleic acid sequences or small molecule drugs, or the combination of both.

  8. Therapeutic potential of matrix metalloproteinases in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are secreted proteinases that have physiologic roles in degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in almost all tissues. However, their excessive production in disease conditions leads to many pathological features including tissue breakdown, inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscle disorder caused by partial or complete loss of cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Progressive muscle wasting in DMD is accompanied by myofiber necrosis followed by cycles of regeneration and degeneration and inflammation that eventually result in replacement of myofiber by connective and adipose tissues. Emerging evidence suggests that gene expression and the activity of various MMPs are aberrantly regulated in muscle biopsies from DMD patients and in skeletal muscle of animal models of DMD. Moreover, a few studies employing genetic mouse models have revealed that different MMPs play distinct roles in disease progression in DMD. Modulation of the activity of MMPs improves myofiber regeneration and enhances the efficacy of transplantation and engraftment of muscle progenitor cells in dystrophic muscle in mouse models of DMD. Furthermore, recent reports also suggest that some MMPs especially MMP-9 can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of DMD. In this article, we provide a succinct overview of the regulation of various MMPs and their therapeutic importance in DMD. PMID:25364719

  9. Melatonin receptors in diabetes: a potential new therapeutical target?

    PubMed

    She, Meihua; Laudon, Moshe; Yin, Weidong

    2014-12-05

    Melatonin is synthesized and secreted mainly by the pineal gland in a circadian fashion, and it thus mediates endogenous circadian rhythms and influences other physiological functions. Both the G-protein coupled receptors MT1 (encoded by MTNR1A) and MT2 (encoded by MTNR1B) in mammals mediate the actions of melatonin. Evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies proved a key role of melatonin in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the pathogenesis of diabetes, as further confirmed by the recent studies of human genetic variants of MTNR1B. Remarkably, it was also suggested that genetic variations within MTNR1B disordered β-cells function directly, i.e. insulin secretion. This indicated the functional link between MT2 and T2D risk at the protein level, and it may represent the prevailing pathomechanism for how impaired melatonin signaling causes metabolic disorders and increases the T2D risk. It is speculated that melatonin and its receptors may be a new therapeutic avenue in diabetes.

  10. Immunological Defects in Neonatal Sepsis and Potential Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Steven L.; Stortz, Julie A.; Mira, Juan C.; Larson, Shawn D.; Wynn, James L.; Moldawer, Lyle L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in critical care medicine, neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the greatest risk affecting very low birth weight, preterm neonates. The presentation of neonatal sepsis varies markedly from its presentation in adults, and there is no clear consensus definition of neonatal sepsis. Previous work has demonstrated that when neonates become septic, death can occur rapidly over a matter of hours or days and is generally associated with inflammation, organ injury, and respiratory failure. Studies of the transcriptomic response by neonates to infection and sepsis have led to unique insights into the early proinflammatory and host protective responses to sepsis. Paradoxically, this early inflammatory response in neonates, although lethal, is clearly less robust relative to children and adults. Similarly, the expression of genes involved in host protective immunity, particularly neutrophil function, is also markedly deficient. As a result, neonates have both a diminished inflammatory and protective immune response to infection which may explain their increased risk to infection, and their reduced ability to clear infections. Such studies imply that novel approaches unique to the neonate will be required for the development of both diagnostics and therapeutics in this high at-risk population. PMID:28224121

  11. Synthetic and natural iron chelators: therapeutic potential and clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Heather C; Singh, Ravi N; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2013-01-01

    Iron-chelation therapy has its origins in the treatment of iron-overload syndromes. For many years, the standard for this purpose has been deferoxamine. Recently, considerable progress has been made in identifying synthetic chelators with improved pharmacologic properties relative to deferoxamine. Most notable are deferasirox (Exjade®) and deferiprone (Ferriprox®), which are now available clinically. In addition to treatment of iron overload, there is an emerging role for iron chelators in the treatment of diseases characterized by oxidative stress, including cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. While iron is not regarded as the underlying cause of these diseases, it does play an important role in disease progression, either through promotion of cellular growth and proliferation or through participation in redox reactions that catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species and increase oxidative stress. Thus, iron chelators may be of therapeutic benefit in many of these conditions. Phytochemicals, many of which bind iron, may also owe some of their beneficial properties to iron chelation. This review will focus on the advances in iron-chelation therapy for the treatment of iron-overload disease and cancer, as well as neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases. Established and novel iron chelators will be discussed, as well as the emerging role of dietary plant polyphenols that effectively modulate iron biochemistry. PMID:21425984

  12. Therapeutic potential of matrix metalloproteinases in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Sato, Shuichi; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are secreted proteinases that have physiologic roles in degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in almost all tissues. However, their excessive production in disease conditions leads to many pathological features including tissue breakdown, inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscle disorder caused by partial or complete loss of cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Progressive muscle wasting in DMD is accompanied by myofiber necrosis followed by cycles of regeneration and degeneration and inflammation that eventually result in replacement of myofiber by connective and adipose tissues. Emerging evidence suggests that gene expression and the activity of various MMPs are aberrantly regulated in muscle biopsies from DMD patients and in skeletal muscle of animal models of DMD. Moreover, a few studies employing genetic mouse models have revealed that different MMPs play distinct roles in disease progression in DMD. Modulation of the activity of MMPs improves myofiber regeneration and enhances the efficacy of transplantation and engraftment of muscle progenitor cells in dystrophic muscle in mouse models of DMD. Furthermore, recent reports also suggest that some MMPs especially MMP-9 can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of DMD. In this article, we provide a succinct overview of the regulation of various MMPs and their therapeutic importance in DMD.

  13. Centipede venoms and their components: resources for potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren

    2015-11-17

    Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components.

  14. Guanosine: a Neuromodulator with Therapeutic Potential in Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lanznaster, Débora; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Piermartiri, Tetsadê C. B.; Tasca, Carla I.

    2016-01-01

    Guanosine is a purine nucleoside with important functions in cell metabolism and a protective role in response to degenerative diseases or injury. The past decade has seen major advances in identifying the modulatory role of extracellular action of guanosine in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence from rodent and cell models show a number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of guanosine preventing deleterious consequences of seizures, spinal cord injury, pain, mood disorders and aging-related diseases, such as ischemia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. The present review describes the findings of in vivo and in vitro studies and offers an update of guanosine effects in the CNS. We address the protein targets for guanosine action and its interaction with glutamatergic and adenosinergic systems and with calcium-activated potassium channels. We also discuss the intracellular mechanisms modulated by guanosine preventing oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory burden and modulation of glutamate transport. New and exciting avenues for future investigation into the protective effects of guanosine include characterization of a selective guanosine receptor. A better understanding of the neuromodulatory action of guanosine will allow the development of therapeutic approach to brain diseases. PMID:27699087

  15. Novel class of potential therapeutics that target ricin retrograde translocation.

    PubMed

    Redmann, Veronika; Gardner, Thomas; Lau, Zerlina; Morohashi, Keita; Felsenfeld, Dan; Tortorella, Domenico

    2013-12-23

    Ricin toxin, an A-B toxin from Ricinus communis, induces cell death through the inhibition of protein synthesis. The toxin binds to the cell surface via its B chain (RTB) followed by its retrograde trafficking through intracellular compartments to the ER where the A chain (RTA) is transported across the membrane and into the cytosol. Ricin A chain is transported across the ER membrane utilizing cellular proteins involved in the disposal of aberrant ER proteins by a process referred to as retrograde translocation. Given the current lack of therapeutics against ricin intoxication, we developed a high-content screen using an enzymatically attenuated RTA chimera engineered with a carboxy-terminal enhanced green fluorescent protein (RTA(E177Q)egfp) to identify compounds that target RTA retrograde translocation. Stabilizing RTA(E177Q)egfp through the inclusion of proteasome inhibitor produced fluorescent peri-nuclear granules. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescent granules provided the basis to discover compounds from a small chemical library (2080 compounds) with known bioactive properties. Strikingly, the screen found compounds that stabilized RTA molecules within the cell and several compounds limited the ability of wild type RTA to suppress protein synthesis. Collectively, a robust high-content screen was developed to discover novel compounds that stabilize intracellular ricin and limit ricin intoxication.

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Immunoproteasome Inhibition in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Farini, Andrea; Sitzia, Clementina; Cassani, Barbara; Cassinelli, Letizia; Rigoni, Rosita; Colleoni, Federica; Fusco, Nicola; Gatti, Stefano; Bella, Pamela; Villa, Chiara; Napolitano, Filomena; Maiavacca, Rita; Bosari, Silvano; Villa, Anna; Torrente, Yvan

    2016-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited fatal genetic disease characterized by mutations in dystrophin gene, causing membrane fragility leading to myofiber necrosis and inflammatory cell recruitment in dystrophic muscles. The resulting environment enriched in proinflammatory cytokines, like IFN-γ and TNF-α, determines the transformation of myofiber constitutive proteasome into the immunoproteasome, a multisubunit complex involved in the activation of cell-mediate immunity. This event has a fundamental role in producing peptides for antigen presentation by MHC class I, for the immune response and also for cytokine production and T-cell differentiation. Here, we characterized for the first time the presence of T-lymphocytes activated against revertant dystrophin epitopes, in the animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the mdx mice. Moreover, we specifically blocked i-proteasome subunit LMP7, which was up-regulated in dystrophic skeletal muscles, and we demonstrated the rescue of the dystrophin expression and the amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype. The i-proteasome blocking lowered myofiber MHC class I expression and self-antigen presentation to T cells, thus reducing the specific antidystrophin T cell response, the muscular cell infiltrate, and proinflammatory cytokine production, together with muscle force recovery. We suggest that i-proteasome inhibition should be considered as new promising therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy pathology.

  17. Centipede Venoms and Their Components: Resources for Potential Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components. PMID:26593947

  18. Drug delivery to the testis: current status and potential pathways for the development of novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Samplaski, Mary K; Labhasetwar, Vinod; Sabanegh, Edmund S

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology has been increasingly utilized for the targeting and delivery of novel therapeutic agents to different tissues and cell types. The current therapeutic options for testicular disorders fall short in many instances due to difficulty traversing the blood-testis barrier, systemic toxicities, and complicated dosing regiments. For testicular tissue, potential targeting can be obtained either via anatomic methods or specific ligands such as luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone analogs. Potential novel therapeutic agents include DNA, RNA, cytokines, peptide receptor antagonists, peptide receptor agonists, hormones, and enzymes. Nanotherapeutic treatment of testicular cancer, infertility, testicular torsion, orchalgia, hypogonadism, testicular infections, and cryptorchidism within the framework of potential target cells are an emerging area of research. While there are many potential applications of nanotechnology in drug delivery to the testis, this remains a relatively unexplored field. This review highlights the current status as well as potential future of nanotechnology in the development of novel therapeutics for testicular disorders.

  19. Therapeutic radiology: a potential unfolding through bioelectromagnetic sciences.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J I

    1996-09-01

    Clinical and experimental research in the area of bioelectromagnetics is reviewed and considered from a physical standpoint. An equation relating the intrinsic or "rest" energy of a charged particle with its energy of interaction in an externally applied magnetic field is proposed. This equation is intended to represent an initial basic physical interaction that may be part of a more complex biological mechanism that may explain the potential effects of externally applied magnetic fields. Speculations are presented on the potential use of magnetic fields for the noninvasive treatment of such diverse conditions as cancer, AIDS, and neurological disorders.

  20. Therapeutic Potentials of Microalgae in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Olasehinde, Tosin A; Olaniran, Ademola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-03-18

    Current research is geared towards the discovery of new compounds with strong neuroprotective potential and few or no side effects compared to synthetic drugs. This review focuses on the potentials of extracts and biologically active compounds derived from microalgal biomass for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microalgal research has gained much attention recently due to its contribution to the production of renewable fuels and the ability of alga cells to produce several secondary metabolites such as carotenoids, polyphenols, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polysaccharides. These compounds exhibit several pharmacological activities and possess neuroprotective potential. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves complex mechanisms that are associated with oxidative stress, cholinergic dysfunction, neuronal damage, protein misfolding and aggregation. The antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities as well as the inhibitory effects of some bioactive compounds from microalgae extracts on β-amyloid aggregation and neuronal death are discussed extensively. Phytochemical compounds from microalgae are used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and food supplements, and may possess neuroprotective potentials that are relevant to the management and/or treatment of AD.

  1. The multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease for developing potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Carreiras, M Carmo; Mendes, Eduarda; Perry, M Jesus; Francisco, Ana Paula; Marco-Contelles, J

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder with several target proteins contributing to its aetiology. Pathological, genetic, biochemical, and modeling studies all point to a critical role of Aβ aggregation in AD. Though there are still many enigmatic aspects of the Aβ cascade, none of the gaps invalidate the hypothesis. The amyloid hypothesis determines that the production, aggregation and accumulation of Aβ in the brain gives rise to a cascade of neurotoxic events that proceed to neuronal degeneration. Different targets of the disease include APP pathogenic cleavage, cytoskeletal destabilization, neurotransmitter and ion dyshomeostasis, metal ion accumulation, protein misfolding, oxidative stress, neuronal death and gene mutations. Thus, disease-modifying treatments for AD must interfere with the pathogenic steps responsible for the clinical symptoms: the deposition of extracellular Aβ plaques, the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation, oxidative stress, iron deregulation, among others. The observations supporting the development of multifunctional compounds in association with the perception that several dual binding site AChEIs were able to reach different targets guided the development of a new drug design strategy, the multi-target-directed-ligand (MTDL) approach. This may be regarded as the buildup of hybrid molecules composed of distinct pharmacophores of different drugs. Thus, each pharmacophore of the new hybrid drug would preserve the capacity of interacting with their specific sites on the targets and, therefore, generate multiple specific pharmacological responses which would enable the treatment of multi-factorial diseases. This review summarizes a few current therapeutic trends on MTDL strategy intended to halt or revert the progression of the disease.

  2. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation.

  3. The therapeutic potential of the cerebellum in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Krystal L.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive role of the cerebellum is critically tied to its distributed connections throughout the brain. Accumulating evidence from anatomical, structural and functional imaging, and lesion studies advocate a cognitive network involving indirect connections between the cerebellum and non-motor areas in the prefrontal cortex. Cerebellar stimulation dynamically influences activity in several regions of the frontal cortex and effectively improves cognition in schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we summarize current literature on the cingulocerebellar circuit and we introduce a method to interrogate this circuit combining opotogenetics, neuropharmacology, and electrophysiology in awake-behaving animals while minimizing incidental stimulation of neighboring cerebellar nuclei. We propose the novel hypothesis that optogenetic cerebellar stimulation can restore aberrant frontal activity and rescue impaired cognition in schizophrenia. We focus on how a known cognitive region in the frontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, is influenced by the cerebellum. This circuit is of particular interest because it has been confirmed using tracing studies, neuroimaging reveals its role in cognitive tasks, it is conserved from rodents to humans, and diseases such as schizophrenia and autism appear in its aberrancy. Novel tract tracing results presented here provide support for how these two areas communicate. The primary pathway involves a disynaptic connection between the cerebellar dentate nuclei (DN) and the anterior cingulate cortex. Secondarily, the pathway from cerebellar fastigial nuclei (FN) to the ventral tegmental area, which supplies dopamine to the prefrontal cortex, may play a role as schizophrenia characteristically involves dopamine deficiencies. We hope that the hypothesis described here will inspire new therapeutic strategies targeting currently untreatable cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25309350

  4. Thalidomide: chemistry, therapeutic potential and oxidative stress induced teratogenicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Upendra; Singh, Chitra; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    lacking. In this review, we will concisely describe the therapeutic aspects, metabolism and synthesis of thalidomide.

  5. A Biophysical Systems Approach to Identifying the Pathways of Acute and Chronic Doxorubicin Mitochondrial Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Bernardo L.; Niederer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The clinical use of the anthracycline doxorubicin is limited by its cardiotoxicity which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Redox cycling, mitochondrial DNA damage and electron transport chain inhibition have been identified as potential mechanisms of toxicity. However, the relative roles of each of these proposed mechanisms are still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to identify which of these pathways independently or in combination are responsible for doxorubicin toxicity. A state of the art mathematical model of the mitochondria including the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and ROS production and scavenging systems was extended by incorporating a novel representation for mitochondrial DNA damage and repair. In silico experiments were performed to quantify the contributions of each of the toxicity mechanisms to mitochondrial dysfunction during the acute and chronic stages of toxicity. Simulations predict that redox cycling has a minor role in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Electron transport chain inhibition is the main pathway for acute toxicity for supratherapeutic doses, being lethal at mitochondrial concentrations higher than 200μM. Direct mitochondrial DNA damage is the principal pathway of chronic cardiotoxicity for therapeutic doses, leading to a progressive and irreversible long term mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27870850

  6. Clinical trials with pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Carmela; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Di Napoli, Marilena; Cavaliere, Carla; Tambaro, Rosa; Facchini, Gaetano; Scaffa, Cono; Losito, Simona; Pizzolorusso, Antonio; Pignata, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Among the pharmaceutical options available for treatment of ovarian cancer, increasing attention has been progressively focused on pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), whose unique formulation prolongs the persistence of the drug in the circulation and potentiates intratumor accumulation. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has become a major component in the routine management of epithelial ovarian cancer. In 1999 it was first approved for platinum-refractory ovarian cancer and then received full approval for platinum-sensitive recurrent disease in 2005. PLD remains an important therapeutic tool in the management of recurrent ovarian cancer in 2012. Recent interest in PLD/carboplatin combination therapy has been the object of phase III trials in platinum-sensitive and chemonaïve ovarian cancer patients reporting response rates, progressive-free survival, and overall survival similar to other platinum-based combinations, but with a more favorable toxicity profile and convenient dosing schedule. This paper summarizes data clarifying the role of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in ovarian cancer, as well as researches focusing on adding novel targeted drugs to this cytotoxic agent.

  7. Hormetic/cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa seed alcoholic and aqueous extracts on MCF-7 breast cancer cells alone or in combination with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Sherif S; Torchilin, Vladmir P

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the possible cytotoxic effects of different Nigella sativa seed extracts on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and screening the effects of a wide range of extracts concentrations and their application as an adjuvant therapy to doxorubicin. The results obtained showed that the cytotoxic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide can be used for permeation assay in concentration range 697.5-0.341 mmol/ml without affecting the viability of MCF-7 cells. N. sativa lipid extract is cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells with LC50 of 2.72 ± 0.232 mg/ml, while its aqueous extract cytotoxicity exhibited when the applied concentration is high as ≈ 50 mg/ml. The results of this study reveal for the first time that low concentrations of aqueous extract of the seed has a hormetic rather than cytotoxic effect. It is also possible to use cell culture medium or bovine serum to dilute the oil extract for the permeation assay. In conclusion, N. sativa aqueous extract should not be used as antitumor compound by its own. The oil is a promising antitumor compound and its cytotoxicity was greatly enhanced with its nanoemulsion formulation. Antitumor activity of doxorubicin was enhanced, as a function of time, when N. sativa extracts were involved as adjunct therapeutic compounds. Adding doxorubicin to the prepared lipid nanoemulsion has a beneficial impact to their bioactivity. These doxorubicin-N. sativa lipid nanoemulsion are promising and potential therapeutic modality.

  8. Potential therapeutic use of herbal extracts in trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Thaise L; Teixeira, Samuel Cota; da Silva, Claudio Vieira; de Souza, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of crude extracts from Handroanthus impetiginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, and Ruta graveolens on Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in vitro. The results showed that the extracts caused significant toxicity in promastigotes and trypomastigotes. A significant decrease in the rate of cell invasion by pretreated trypomastigotes and promastigotes was also observed. The extracts caused a significant reduction of the multiplication of intracellular amastigotes of both parasites. Therefore, these herbal extracts may be potential candidates for the development of drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

  9. Potential therapeutic use of herbal extracts in trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Thaise L; Teixeira, Samuel Cota; da Silva, Claudio Vieira; de Souza, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of crude extracts from Handroanthus impetiginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, and Ruta graveolens on Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in vitro. The results showed that the extracts caused significant toxicity in promastigotes and trypomastigotes. A significant decrease in the rate of cell invasion by pretreated trypomastigotes and promastigotes was also observed. The extracts caused a significant reduction of the multiplication of intracellular amastigotes of both parasites. Therefore, these herbal extracts may be potential candidates for the development of drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. PMID:24548158

  10. Monoclonal Antibody Shows Promise as Potential Therapeutic for MERS | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A monoclonal antibody has proven effective in preventing Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in lab animals, suggesting further development as a potential intervention for the deadly disease in humans, according to new research. MERS is a newly emerged coronavirus first detected in humans in 2012. Most cases have occurred in the Middle East, but the disease has appeared elsewhere. In all, MERS has infected more than 1,700 individuals and killed more than 600, according to the World Health Organization. No vaccines or antiviral therapies currently exist. Several candidate vaccines are being developed, and some have been tested in animal models, a prerequisite to human clinical trials.

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Pterocarpus santalinus L.: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Recently there has been increasing interest in plants and plant-derived compounds as raw food and medicinal agents. In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, a wide spectrum of medicinal properties of Pterocarpus santalinus is described. Many important bioactive phytocompounds have been extracted and identified from the heartwood of P. santalinus. Bioactive compounds typically occur in small amounts and have more subtle effects than nutrients. These bioactive compounds influence cellular activities that modify the risk of disease rather than prevent deficiency diseases. A wide array of biological activities and potential health benefits of P. santalinus have been reported, including antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, and protective effects on the liver, gastric mucosa, and nervous system. All these protective effects were attributed to bioactive compounds present in P. santalinus. The major bioactive compounds present in the heartwood of P. santalinus are santalin A and B, savinin, calocedrin, pterolinus K and L, and pterostilbenes. The bioactive compounds have potentially important health benefits: These compounds can act as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and inducers, inhibitors of receptor activities, and inducers and inhibitors of gene expression, among other actions. The present review aims to understand the pharmacological effects of P. santalinus on health and disease with “up-to-date” discussion. PMID:27041873

  12. HDL and glucose metabolism: current evidence and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Andrew L; Heywood, Sarah Elizabeth; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its principal apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have now been convincingly shown to influence glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The key clinically relevant observations are that both acute HDL elevation via short-term reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusion and chronically raising HDL via a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor reduce blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HDL may mediate effects on glucose metabolism through actions in multiple organs (e.g., pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, adipose, liver, brain) by three distinct mechanisms: (i) Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, (ii) Insulin-independent glucose uptake, (iii) Insulin sensitivity. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve both direct HDL signaling actions as well as effects secondary to lipid removal from cells. The implications of glucoregulatory mechanisms linked to HDL extend from glycemic control to potential anti-ischemic actions via increased tissue glucose uptake and utilization. Such effects not only have implications for the prevention and management of diabetes, but also for ischemic vascular diseases including angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, cerebral ischemia and even some forms of dementia. This review will discuss the growing evidence for a role of HDL in glucose metabolism and outline related potential for HDL therapies.

  13. HDL and glucose metabolism: current evidence and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Siebel, Andrew L.; Heywood, Sarah Elizabeth; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its principal apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have now been convincingly shown to influence glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The key clinically relevant observations are that both acute HDL elevation via short-term reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusion and chronically raising HDL via a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor reduce blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HDL may mediate effects on glucose metabolism through actions in multiple organs (e.g., pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, adipose, liver, brain) by three distinct mechanisms: (i) Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, (ii) Insulin-independent glucose uptake, (iii) Insulin sensitivity. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve both direct HDL signaling actions as well as effects secondary to lipid removal from cells. The implications of glucoregulatory mechanisms linked to HDL extend from glycemic control to potential anti-ischemic actions via increased tissue glucose uptake and utilization. Such effects not only have implications for the prevention and management of diabetes, but also for ischemic vascular diseases including angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, cerebral ischemia and even some forms of dementia. This review will discuss the growing evidence for a role of HDL in glucose metabolism and outline related potential for HDL therapies. PMID:26582989

  14. G-quadruplexes in viruses: function and potential therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Métifiot, Mathieu; Amrane, Samir; Litvak, Simon; Andreola, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    G-rich nucleic acids can form non-canonical G-quadruplex structures (G4s) in which four guanines fold in a planar arrangement through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. Although many biochemical and structural studies have focused on DNA sequences containing successive, adjacent guanines that spontaneously fold into G4s, evidence for their in vivo relevance has recently begun to accumulate. Complete sequencing of the human genome highlighted the presence of ∼300 000 sequences that can potentially form G4s. Likewise, the presence of putative G4-sequences has been reported in various viruses genomes [e.g., Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), papillomavirus (HPV)]. Many studies have focused on telomeric G4s and how their dynamics are regulated to enable telomere synthesis. Moreover, a role for G4s has been proposed in cellular and viral replication, recombination and gene expression control. In parallel, DNA aptamers that form G4s have been described as inhibitors and diagnostic tools to detect viruses [e.g., hepatitis A virus (HAV), EBV, cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS), simian virus 40 (SV40)]. Here, special emphasis will be given to the possible role of these structures in a virus life cycle as well as the use of G4-forming oligonucleotides as potential antiviral agents and innovative tools. PMID:25332402

  15. Brown adipose tissue in humans: therapeutic potential to combat obesity.

    PubMed

    Carey, Andrew L; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2013-10-01

    Harnessing the considerable capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to consume energy was first proposed as a potential target to control obesity nearly 40years ago. The plausibility of this approach was, however, questioned due to the prevailing view that BAT was either not present or not functional in adult humans. Recent definitive identification of functional BAT in adult humans as well as a number of important advances in the understanding of BAT biology has reignited interest in BAT as an anti-obesity target. Proof-of-concept evidence demonstrating drug-induced BAT activation provides an important foundation for development of targeted pharmacological approaches with clinical application. This review considers evidence from both human and relevant animal studies to determine whether harnessing BAT for the treatment of obesity via pharmacological intervention is a realistic goal.

  16. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  17. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  18. Androgen receptor in human health: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Nanda, Sanjeev; Parray, Aijaz; Saleem, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Androgen is a key for the activation of Androgen Receptor (AR) in most of the disease conditions, however androgen-independent activation of AR is also found in aggressive type human malignancies. An intense search for the inhibitors of AR is underway to cure AR-dependent diseases. In addition to targeting various components of AR signaling pathway, compounds which directly target AR are under preclinical and clinical investigation. Various In vitro and preclinical animal studies suggest that different natural compounds have potential to act against AR. Some natural compounds have been found to be pharmacologically effective against AR irrespective of varying routs of administration viz; oral, intra-peritoneal and intravenous. This mini-review summarizes the studies conducted with different natural agents in determining their pharmacological utility against AR signaling.

  19. The potential for emerging therapeutic options for Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is mainly a nosocomial pathogen and is a significant cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is also implicated in the majority of cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Recently, advancements in next generation sequencing technology (NGS) have highlighted the extent of damage to the gut microbiota caused by broad-spectrum antibiotics, often resulting in C. difficile infection (CDI). Currently the treatment of choice for CDI involves the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. However, recurrence and relapse of CDI, even after rounds of metronidazole/vancomycin administration is a problem that must be addressed. The efficacy of alternative antibiotics such as fidaxomicin, rifaximin, nitazoxanide, ramoplanin and tigecycline, as well as faecal microbiota transplantation has been assessed and some have yielded positive outcomes against C. difficile. Some bacteriocins have also shown promising effects against C. difficile in recent years. In light of this, the potential for emerging treatment options and efficacy of anti-C. difficile vaccines are discussed in this review.

  20. Trauma and Stem Cells: Biology and Potential Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Thurairajah, Kabilan; Broadhead, Matthew L.; Balogh, Zsolt J.

    2017-01-01

    Trauma may cause irreversible tissue damage and loss of function despite current best practice. Healing is dependent both on the nature of the injury and the intrinsic biological capacity of those tissues for healing. Preclinical research has highlighted stem cell therapy as a potential avenue for improving outcomes for injuries with poor healing capacity. Additionally, trauma activates the immune system and alters stem cell behaviour. This paper reviews the current literature on stem cells and its relevance to trauma care. Emphasis is placed on understanding how stem cells respond to trauma and pertinent mechanisms that can be utilised to promote tissue healing. Research involving notable difficulties in trauma care such as fracture non-union, cartilage damage and trauma induced inflammation is discussed further. PMID:28272352

  1. Possible therapeutic potential of berberine in diabetic osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Rahigude, A B; Kaulaskar, S V; Bhutada, P S

    2012-10-01

    Diabetic osteopathy is a complication that leads to decreased bone mineral density, bone formation and having high risk of fractures that heals slowly. Diabetic osteopathy is a result of increase in osteoclastogenesis and decrease in osteoblastogenesis. Various factors viz., oxidative stress, increased inflammatory markers, PPAR-γ activation in osteoblast, activation of apoptotic pathway, increased glucose levels and inhibitory effect on parathyroid hormone etc. are mainly responsible for decreased bone mineral density. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used in Asian countries as a traditional medicine. Berberine is extensively reported to be an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and having potential to treat diabetic complications and glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. The osteoclastogenesis decreasing property of berberine can be hypothesized for inhibiting diabetic osteopathy. In addition, chronic treatment of berberine will be helpful for increasing the osteoblastic activity and expression of the modulators that affect osteoblastic differentiation. The apoptotic pathways stimulated due to increased inflammatory markers and nucleic acid damages could be reduced due to berberine. Another important consideration that berberine is having stimulatory effect on glucagon like peptide release and insulin sensitization that will be helpful for decreasing glucose levels and therefore, may exerts osteogenesis. Thiazolidinediones show bone loss due to activation of PPAR-γ in osteoblasts, whereas berberine stimulates PPAR-γ only in adipocytes and not in osteoblasts, and therefore the decreased bone loss due to use of thiazolidinediones may not be observed in berberine treatment conditions. Berberine decreases the advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation in diabetic condition which will be ultimately helpful to decrease the stiffness of collagen fibers due to AGE-induced cross linking. Lastly, it is also reported that berberine has

  2. Cardioprotective effect of cannabidiol in rats exposed to doxorubicin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Albuali, Waleed H; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-09-01

    The potential protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in rats. Cardiotoxicity was induced by six equal doses of doxorubicin (2.5mgkg(-1) i.p., each) given at 48h intervals over two weeks to achieve a total dose of 15mgkg(-1). Cannabidiol treatment (5mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was started on the same day of doxorubicin administration and continued for four weeks. Cannabidiol significantly reduced the elevations of serum creatine kinase-MB and troponin T, and cardiac malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and calcium ion levels, and attenuated the decreases in cardiac reduced glutathione, selenium and zinc ions. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin in cardiac tissue of doxorubicin-treated rats. These results indicate that cannabidiol represents a potential protective agent against doxorubicin cardiac injury.

  3. Apoferritin Modified Magnetic Particles as Doxorubicin Carriers for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Blazkova, Iva; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Dostalova, Simona; Kopel, Pavel; Stanisavljevic, Maja; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle mediated transport in combination with nanomaterial based drug carrier has a great potential for targeted cancer therapy. In this study, doxorubicin encapsulation into the apoferritin and its conjugation with magnetic particles was investigated by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The quantification of encapsulated doxorubicin was performed by fluorescence spectroscopy and compared to CE-LIF. Moreover, the significant enhancement of the doxorubicin signal was observed by addition of methanol into the sample solution. PMID:23807501

  4. Anticancer therapeutic potential of Mn porphyrin/ascorbate system.

    PubMed

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Sampaio, Romulo S; Boss, Mary-Keara; Bueno-Janice, Jacqueline C; Bader, Bader H; Thomas, Milini; Reboucas, Julio S; Orr, Michael; Chandler, Joshua D; Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Haberle, Sinisa; Kyui, Natalia; Lascola, Christopher D; Dewhirst, Mark W; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-12-01

    Ascorbate (Asc) as a single agent suppressed growth of several tumor cell lines in a mouse model. It has been tested in a Phase I Clinical Trial on pancreatic cancer patients where it exhibited no toxicity to normal tissue yet was of only marginal efficacy. The mechanism of its anticancer effect was attributed to the production of tumoricidal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during ascorbate oxidation catalyzed by endogenous metalloproteins. The amount of H2O2 could be maximized with exogenous catalyst that has optimized properties for such function and is localized within tumor. Herein we studied 14 Mn porphyrins (MnPs) which differ vastly with regards to their redox properties, charge, size/bulkiness and lipophilicity. Such properties affect the in vitro and in vivo ability of MnPs (i) to catalyze ascorbate oxidation resulting in the production of H2O2; (ii) to subsequently employ H2O2 in the catalysis of signaling proteins oxidations affecting cellular survival pathways; and (iii) to accumulate at site(s) of interest. The metal-centered reduction potential of MnPs studied, E1/2 of Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P redox couple, ranged from -200 to +350 mV vs NHE. Anionic and cationic, hydrophilic and lipophilic as well as short- and long-chained and bulky compounds were explored. Their ability to catalyze ascorbate oxidation, and in turn cytotoxic H2O2 production, was explored via spectrophotometric and electrochemical means. Bell-shape structure-activity relationship (SAR) was found between the initial rate for the catalysis of ascorbate oxidation, vo(Asc)ox and E1/2, identifying cationic Mn(III) N-substituted pyridylporphyrins with E1/2>0 mV vs NHE as efficient catalysts for ascorbate oxidation. The anticancer potential of MnPs/Asc system was subsequently tested in cellular (human MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T1) and animal models of breast cancer. At the concentrations where ascorbate (1mM) and MnPs (1 or 5 µM) alone did not trigger any alteration in cell viability, combined

  5. Silibinin as a potential therapeutic for sulfur mustard injuries.

    PubMed

    Balszuweit, Frank; John, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent causing skin blistering, ulceration, impaired wound healing, prolonged hospitalization and permanent lesions. Silibinin, the lead compound from Silybum marianum, has also been discussed as a potential antidote to SM poisoning. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only with regard to nitrogen mustards. Moreover, there are no data on the efficacy of the water-soluble prodrug silibinin-bis-succinat (silibinin-BS). We investigated the effect of SIL-BS treatment against SM toxicity in HaCaT cells with regard to potential reduction of necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation including dose-dependency of any protective effects. We also demonstrated the biotransformation of the prodrug into free silibinin. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (30, 100, and 300μM) for 30min and treated thereafter with SIL-BS (10, 50, and 100μM) for 24h. Necrosis and apoptosis were quantified using the ToxiLight BioAssay and the nucleosome ELISA (CDDE). Pro-inflammatory interleukins-6 and -8 were determined by ELISA. HaCaT cells, incubated with silibinin-BS were lysed and investigated by LC-ESI MS/MS. LC-ESI MS/MS results suggest that SIL-BS is absorbed by HaCaT cells and biotransformed into free silibinin. SIL-BS dose-dependently reduced SM cytotoxicity, even after 300μM exposure. Doses of 50-100μM silibinin-BS were required for significant protection. Apoptosis and interleukin production remained largely unchanged by 10-50μM silibinin-BS but increased after 100μM treatment. Observed reductions of SM cytotoxicity by post-exposure treatment with SIL-BS suggest this as a promising approach for treatment of SM injuries. While 100μM SIL-BS is most effective to reduce necrosis, 50μM may be safer to avoid pro-inflammatory effects. Pro-apoptotic effects after high doses of SIL-BS are in agreement with findings in literature and might even be useful to eliminate cells irreversibly damaged by SM. Further investigations will focus on the

  6. Honey: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Managing Diabetic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an “all in one” remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims. PMID:25386217

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Hyporesponsive CD4+ T Cells in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Jaxaira; Schafer, Carolina; Ubilla-Olguín, Gabriela; Catalán, Diego; Schinnerling, Katina; Aguillón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells is crucial on immunity or tolerance induction. In an immature or semi-mature state, DCs induce tolerance through T-cell deletion, generation of regulatory T cells, and/or induction of T-cell anergy. Anergy is defined as an unresponsive state that retains T cells in an “off” mode under conditions in which immune activation is undesirable. This mechanism is crucial for the control of T-cell responses against self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmunity. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs), generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes of healthy donors or patients with autoimmune pathologies, were shown to modulate immune responses by inducing T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Animal models of autoimmune diseases confirmed the impact of T-cell anergy on disease development and progression in vivo. Thus, the induction of T-cell hyporesponsiveness by tDCs has become a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. Here, we review recent findings in the area and discuss the potential of anergy induction for clinical purposes. PMID:26441992

  8. The potential for emerging therapeutic options for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is mainly a nosocomial pathogen and is a significant cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is also implicated in the majority of cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Recently, advancements in next generation sequencing technology (NGS) have highlighted the extent of damage to the gut microbiota caused by broad-spectrum antibiotics, often resulting in C. difficile infection (CDI). Currently the treatment of choice for CDI involves the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. However, recurrence and relapse of CDI, even after rounds of metronidazole/vancomycin administration is a problem that must be addressed. The efficacy of alternative antibiotics such as fidaxomicin, rifaximin, nitazoxanide, ramoplanin and tigecycline, as well as faecal microbiota transplantation has been assessed and some have yielded positive outcomes against C. difficile. Some bacteriocins have also shown promising effects against C. difficile in recent years. In light of this, the potential for emerging treatment options and efficacy of anti-C. difficile vaccines are discussed in this review. PMID:25564777

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shufang; Pan, Chuli; Zhou, Feifei; Yuan, Zhi; Wang, Huiying; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced endogenously by the activation of two major H2S-generating enzymes (cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase), plays important regulatory roles in different physiologic and pathologic conditions. The abnormal metabolism of H2S is associated with fibrosis pathogenesis, causing damage in structure and function of different organs. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that both endogenous H2S level and the expressions of H2S-generating enzymes in plasma and tissues are significantly downregulated during fibrosis. Supplement with exogenous H2S mitigates the severity of fibrosis in various experimental animal models. The protective role of H2S in the development of fibrosis is primarily attributed to its antioxidation, antiapoptosis, anti-inflammation, proangiogenesis, and inhibition of fibroblasts activities. Future studies might focus on the potential to intervene fibrosis by targeting the pathway of endogenous H2S-producing enzymes and H2S itself. PMID:26078809

  10. Geographic atrophy: clinical features and potential therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Holz, Frank G; Strauss, Erich C; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), where loss of vision is typically acute and treatment leads to a relatively rapid reduction in retinal fluid and subsequent improvements in visual acuity (VA), disease progression and vision loss in geographic atrophy (GA) owing to AMD are gradual processes. Although GA can result in significant visual function deficits in reading, night vision, and dark adaptation, and produce dense, irreversible scotomas in the visual field, the initial decline in VA may be relatively minor if the fovea is spared. Because best-corrected VA does not correlate well with GA lesions or progression, alternative clinical endpoints are being sought. These include reduction in drusen burden, slowing the enlargement rate of GA lesion area, and slowing or eliminating the progression of intermediate to advanced AMD. Among these considerations, slowing the expansion of the GA lesion area seems to be a clinically suitable primary efficacy endpoint. Because GA lesion growth is characterized by loss of photoreceptors, it is considered a surrogate endpoint for vision loss. Detection of GA can be achieved with a number of different imaging techniques, including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), near-infrared reflectance, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Previous studies have identified predictive characteristics for progression rates including abnormal patterns of FAF in the perilesional retina. Although there is currently no approved or effective treatment to prevent the onset and progression of GA, potential therapies are being evaluated in clinical studies.

  11. Ion Channels in Obesity: Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Souza, Iara L. L.; Pinheiro, Lílian S.; Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance, and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation. PMID:27065858

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted.

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F.; Peterson, Greg M.; Walton, Shelley F.; Hammer, Kate A.; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C.; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M.; Baby, Kavya E.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26787146

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Oncogenic SHP2 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase associated with various kinds of leukemia and solid tumors. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing SHP2 inhibitors as potential anticancer and antileukemia agents. Using a structure-guided and fragment-based library approach, we identified a novel hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1, with an IC50 value of 200 nM and greater than 5-fold selectivity against 20 mammalian PTPs. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the hydroxyindole carboxylic acid anchors the inhibitor to the SHP2 active site, while interactions of the oxalamide linker and the phenylthiophene tail with residues in the β5–β6 loop contribute to 11a-1’s binding potency and selectivity. Evidence suggests that 11a-1 specifically attenuates the SHP2-dependent signaling inside the cell. Moreover, 11a-1 blocks growth factor mediated Erk1/2 and Akt activation and exhibits excellent antiproliferative activity in lung cancer and breast cancer as well as leukemia cell lines. PMID:25003231

  15. Targeting PARP-1 allosteric regulation offers therapeutic potential against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Jamin D.; Tholey, Renee M.; Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Lal, Shruti; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A.; Yeo, Charles J.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Pascal, John M.

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 is a nuclear protein that has important roles in maintenance of genomic integrity. During genotoxic stress, PARP-1 recruits to sites of DNA damage where PARP-1 domain architecture initiates catalytic activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent DNA repair. PARP-1 inhibition is a promising new way to selectively target cancers harboring DNA repair deficiencies. However, current inhibitors target other PARPs raising important questions concerning long-term off-target effects. Here we propose a new strategy that targets PARP-1 allosteric regulation as a selective way of inhibiting PARP-1. We found that disruption of PARP-1 domain-domain contacts through mutagenesis held no cellular consequences on recruitment to DNA damage or a model system of transcriptional regulation, but prevented DNA-damage dependent catalytic activation. Further, PARP-1 mutant overexpression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) increased sensitivity to platinum-based anti-cancer agents. These results not only highlight the potential of a synergistic drug combination of allosteric PARP inhibitors with DNA damaging agents in genomically unstable cancer cells (regardless of homologous recombination status), but also signify important applications of selective PARP-1 inhibition. Lastly, the development of a high-throughput (HT) PARP-1 assay is described as a tool to promote discovery of novel PARP-1 selective inhibitors. PMID:24189460

  16. Targeting PARP-1 allosteric regulation offers therapeutic potential against cancer.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Jamin D; Tholey, Renee M; Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L; Schiewer, Matthew J; Lal, Shruti; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A; Yeo, Charles J; Knudsen, Karen E; Brody, Jonathan R; Pascal, John M

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 is a nuclear protein that has important roles in maintenance of genomic integrity. During genotoxic stress, PARP-1 recruits to sites of DNA damage where PARP-1 domain architecture initiates catalytic activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent DNA repair. PARP-1 inhibition is a promising new way to selectively target cancers harboring DNA repair deficiencies. However, current inhibitors target other PARPs, raising important questions about long-term off-target effects. Here, we propose a new strategy that targets PARP-1 allosteric regulation as a selective way of inhibiting PARP-1. We found that disruption of PARP-1 domain-domain contacts through mutagenesis held no cellular consequences on recruitment to DNA damage or a model system of transcriptional regulation, but prevented DNA-damage-dependent catalytic activation. Furthermore, PARP-1 mutant overexpression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) increased sensitivity to platinum-based anticancer agents. These results not only highlight the potential of a synergistic drug combination of allosteric PARP inhibitors with DNA-damaging agents in genomically unstable cancer cells (regardless of homologous recombination status), but also signify important applications of selective PARP-1 inhibition. Finally, the development of a high-throughput PARP-1 assay is described as a tool to promote discovery of novel PARP-1 selective inhibitors.

  17. Ion Channels in Obesity: Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; Souza, Iara L L; Pinheiro, Lílian S; Silva, Bagnólia A

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance, and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation.

  18. Potential therapeutic effects of meditation for treating affective dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Lo, Mandy M; Lee, Tatia M C

    2014-01-01

    Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the "mindfulness" component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of "compassion" into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  19. Therapeutic potential of octreotide in the treatment of liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Davies, N; Cooke, T G; Jenkins, S A

    1996-01-01

    Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of somatostatin that has clear inhibitory effects on the growth of many animal and human cell lines, including colorectal cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver is clinically important, both in terms of the number of patients affected and the lack of any effective treatment for the majority of patients. Octreotide inhibits the growth of colorectal liver tumour in a number of experimental models and, in at least three tumour types, inhibits the growth of established micro-metastases. The precise mechanism of action is not known. However, the drug is likely to be most beneficial in the treatment of liver metastases when the tumour burden is relatively small. The available evidence, although experimental, suggests that octreotide may also have a beneficial effect on the development of liver metastases when used as an adjuvant to surgery in colorectal cancer and this area warrants urgent clinical investigation. The cytotoxics which are currently used as an adjuvant to surgery for colorectal cancer have unpleasant side effects which can be life-threatening. There will also be a proportion of patients who have undergone a truly curative resection of their tumour and will thus be treated unnecessarily. The potential benefits of octreotide in the adjuvant setting, although promising, remain speculative, but octreotide has an acceptably low incidence of side effects and can be administered safely for a prolonged period of time.

  20. MicroRNA-299-3p promotes the sensibility of lung cancer to doxorubicin through directly targeting ABCE1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dawei; Dai, Yan; Wang, Song; Xing, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in various biological and cellular processes, including chemoresistance. The expression level of miR-299-3p was dysregulated in doxorubicin-resistance lung cancer cell lines. However, the exact role of miR-299-3p in doxorubicin-resistance is still unknown. In the present study, miR-299-3p was down-expressed in doxorubicin-resistant or -sensitive lung cancer samples and it was identified to directly targeted adenosine triphosphate binding cassette E1 (ABCE1) 3’-untranslated region (UTR) in lung cancer H69 cells by luciferase assay. After transfection of miR-299-3p mimics or ABCE1-siRNA, MTT assay confirmed that the H69/ADR cell proliferation was inhibited, as well as the enhanced cell inhibitory rate in the presence of doxorubicin. H69/ADR cell apoptosis rate was promoted after miR-299-3p or ABCE1-siRNA transfection. The results indicated that miR-299-3p promotes the sensibility of lung cancer to doxorubicin through suppression of ABCE1, at least partly. Therefore, the disordered decreased of miR-299-3p and resulting ABCE1 up-expression may contribute to chemoresistance of lung cancer, and miR-299-3p-ABCE1 may represent a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of chemoresistance of lung cancer. PMID:26617714

  1. Therapeutic potential of oncolytic Newcastle disease virus: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Tayeb, Shay; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Panet, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) features a natural preference for replication in many tumor cells compared with normal cells. The observed antitumor effect of NDV appears to be a result of both selective killing of tumor cells and induction of immune responses. Genetic manipulations to change viral tropism and arming the virus with genes encoding for cytokines improved the oncolytic capacity of NDV. Several intracellular proteins in tumor cells, including antiapoptotic proteins (Livin) and oncogenic proteins (H-Ras), are relevant for the oncolytic activity of NDV. Defects in the interferon system, found in some tumor cells, also contribute to the oncolytic selectivity of NDV. Notwithstanding, NDV displays effective oncolytic activity in many tumor types, despite having intact interferon signaling. Taken together, several cellular systems appear to dictate the selective oncolytic activity of NDV. Some barriers, such as neutralizing antibodies elicited during NDV treatment and the extracellular matrix in tumor tissue appear to interfere with spread of NDV and reduce oncolysis. To further understand the oncolytic activity of NDV, we compared two NDV strains, ie, an attenuated virus (NDV-HUJ) and a pathogenic virus (NDV-MTH-68/H). Significant differences in amino acid sequence were noted in several viral proteins, including the fusion precursor (F0) glycoprotein, an important determinant of replication and pathogenicity. However, no difference in the oncolytic activity of the two strains was noted using human tumor tissues maintained as organ cultures or in mouse tumor models. To optimize virotherapy in clinical trials, we describe here a unique organ culture methodology, using a biopsy taken from a patient’s tumor before treatment for ex vivo infection with NDV to determine the oncolytic potential on an individual basis. In conclusion, oncolytic NDV is an excellent candidate for cancer therapy, but more knowledge is needed to ensure success in clinical trials. PMID

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands as potential therapeutics for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Olive, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction and alcoholism. As a result, there has been increasing interest in developing glutamate-based therapies for the treatment of addictive disorders. Receptors for glutamate are primarily divided into two classes: ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that mediate fast excitatory glutamate transmission, and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are G-protein coupled receptors that mediate slower, modulatory glutamate transmission. Most iGluR antagonists, while showing some efficacy in animal models of addiction, exhibit serious side effects when tested in humans. mGluR ligands, on the other hand, which have been advanced to testing in clinical trials for various medical conditions, have demonstrated the ability to reduce drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behaviors in animal studies. mGluR ligands that have been shown to be primarily effective are Group I (mGluR1 and mGluR5) negative allosteric modulators and Group II (mGluR2 and mGluR3) orthosteric presynaptic autoreceptor agonists. In this review, we will summarize findings from animal studies suggesting that these mGluR ligands may be of potential benefit in reducing on-going drug self-administration and may aid in the prevention of relapse. The neuroanatomical distribution of mGluR1, mGluR2/3, and mGluR5 receptors and the pharmacological properties of Group I negative allosteric modulators and Group II agonists will also be overviewed. Finally, we will discuss the current status of mGluR ligands in human clinical trials. PMID:19630739

  3. Doxorubicin induces cardiotoxicity through upregulation of death receptors mediated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liqun; Zhang, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective anticancer agent but causes cardiotoxicity in many patients. The mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). We found that doxorubicin and related anthracycline agents (e.g., daunorubicin, idarubicin, and epirubicin) significantly upregulated the expression of death receptors (DRs) (TNFR1, Fas, DR4 and DR5) in iPS-derived cardiomyocytes at both protein and mRNA levels. The resulting iPS-CMs cells underwent spontaneous apoptosis which was further enhanced by physiologically relevant death ligands including TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Furthermore, TRAIL potentiated doxorubicin-induced decrease in beating rate and amplitude of iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that the induction of death receptors in cardiomyocytes is likely a critical mechanism by which doxorubicin causes cardiotoxicity. PMID:28300219

  4. Novel alginate-stabilized doxorubicin-loaded nanodroplets for ultrasounic theranosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Mohandesi, Jamshid Aghazadeh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe

    2016-12-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions are a new class of multifunctional stimuli-responsive nanocarriers which combine the properties of passive-targeted drug carriers, ultrasound imaging contrast agents, and ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems. Doxorubicin-loaded alginate stabilized perflourohexane (PFH) nanodroplets were synthesized via nanoemulsion preparation method and their ultrasound responsivity, imaging, and therapeutic properties were studied. Doxorubicin was loaded into the nanodroplets (39.2nm) with encapsulation efficiency of 92.2%. In vitro release profile of doxorubicin from nanodroplets was an apparently biphasic release process and 12.6% of drug released from nanodroplets after 24h incubation in PBS, pH=7.4. Sonication with 28kHz therapeutic ultrasound for 10min triggered droplet-to-bubble transition in PFH nanodroplets which resulted in the release of 85.95% of doxorubicin from nanodroplets. Microbubbles formed by acoustic vaporization of the nanodroplets underwent inertial cavitation. In the breast cancer mice models, ultrasound-mediated therapy with doxorubicin-loaded PFH nanodroplets showed excellent anti-cancer effects characterized by tumor regression. Complete tumor regression was observed for the group in which doxorubicin-loaded nanodroplets were combined with ultrasound, whereas the tumor growth inhibition of doxorubicin -loaded nanodroplets was 89.6%. These multifunctional nanodroplets, with excellent therapeutic and ultrasound properties, could be promising drug delivery systems for chemotherapeutic application.

  5. Doxorubicin induced heart failure: Phenotype and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mitry, Maria A.; Edwards, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Long term survival of childhood cancers is now more than 70%. Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, are some of the most efficacious anticancer drugs available. However, its use as a chemotherapeutic agent is severely hindered by its dose-limiting toxicities. Most notably observed is cardiotoxicity, but other organ systems are also degraded by doxorubicin use. Despite the years of its use and the amount of information written about this drug, an understanding of its cellular mechanisms is not fully appreciated. The mechanisms by which doxorubicin induces cytotoxicity in target cancer cells have given insight about how the drug damages cardiomyocytes. The major mechanisms of doxorubicin actions are thought to be as an oxidant generator and as an inhibitor of topoisomerase 2. However, other signaling pathways are also invoked with significant consequences for the cardiomyocyte. Further the interaction between oxidant generation and topoisomerase function has only recently been appreciated and the consequences of this interaction are still not fully understood. The unfortunate consequences of doxorubicin within cardiomyocytes have promoted the search for new drugs and methods that can prevent or reverse the damage caused to the heart after treatment in cancer patients. Alternative protocols have lessened the impact on newly diagnosed cancer patients. However the years of doxorubicin use have generated a need for monitoring the onset of cardiotoxicity as well as understanding its potential long-term consequences. Although a fairly clear understanding of the short-term pathologic mechanisms of doxorubicin actions has been achieved, the long-term mechanisms of doxorubicin induced heart failure remain to be carefully delineated. PMID:27213178

  6. The regulatory mechanisms of myogenin expression in doxorubicin-treated rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Ting; Huang, Shih-Ming; Ho, Ching-Liang; Yen, Li-Chen; Huang, Chi-Jung; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Chan, James Yi-Hsin

    2015-11-10

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic, has been used as an anti-neoplastic drug for almost 60 years. However, the mechanism(s) by which anthracyclines cause irreversible myocardial injury remains unclear. In order to delineate possible molecular signals involved in the myocardial toxicity, we assessed candidate genes using mRNA expression profiling in the doxorubicin-treated rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cell line. In the study, it was confirmed that myogenin, an important transcriptional factor for muscle terminal differentiation, was significantly reduced by doxorubicin in a dose-dependent manner using both RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Also, it was identified that the doxorubicin-reduced myogenin gene level could not be rescued by most cardio-protectants. Furthermore, it was demonstrated how the signaling of the decreased myogenin expression by doxorubicin was altered at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational levels. Based on these findings, a working model was proposed for relieving doxorubicin-associated myocardial toxicity by down-regulating miR-328 expression and increasing voltage-gated calcium channel β1 expression, which is a repressor of myogenin gene regulation. In summary, this study provides several lines of evidence indicating that myogenin is the target for doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity and a novel therapeutic strategy for doxorubicin clinical applications based on the regulatory mechanisms of myogenin expression.

  7. Doxorubicin loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for the efficiency of chemotherapy against osteosarcoma. Although chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients dramatically after introduction of neo-adjuvant therapy in the early 1980's, the outcome has since reached plateau at approximately 70% for 5 year survival. The remaining 30% of the patients eventually develop resistance to multiple types of chemotherapy. In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure incurred from multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cells, we explored the possibility of loading doxorubicin onto biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles and evaluated the efficacy. Methods Doxorubicin was loaded onto a lipid-modified dextran based polymeric nano-system. The effect of various concentrations of doxorubicin alone or nanoparticle loaded doxorubicin on KHOS, KHOSR2, U-2OS, and U-2OSR2 cells was analyzed. Effects on drug retention, immunofluorescence, Pgp expression, and induction of apoptosis were also analyzed. Results Dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin had a curative effect on multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in the nucleus via Pgp independent pathway. Nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin also showed increased apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells as compared with doxorubicin alone. Conclusion Lipid-modified dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin showed pronounced anti-proliferative effects against osteosarcoma cell lines. These findings may lead to new treatment options for MDR osteosarcoma. PMID:19917123

  8. Protective effect of Co-enzyme Q10 On doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy of rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Pai, Peiying; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Lin, Tze-Yi; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-02-01

    Q10 is a powerful antioxidant often used in medical nutritional supplements for cancer treatment. This study determined whether Q10 could effectively prevent cardio-toxicity caused by doxorubicin treatment. Four week old SD rats were segregated into groups namely control, doxorubicin group (challenged with doxorubicin), Dox + Q10 group (with doxorubicin challenge and oral Q10 treatment), and Q10 group (with oral Q10 treatment). Doxorubicin groups received IP doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg) every 3 days and Q10 groups received Q10 (10 mg/kg) every day. Three weeks of doxorubicin challenge caused significant reduction in heart weight, disarray in cardiomyocyte arrangement, elevation of collagen accumulation, enhancement of fibrosis and cell death associated proteins, and inhibition of survival proteins. However, Q10 effectively protected cardiomyocytes and ameliorated fibrosis and cell death induced by doxorubicin. Q10 is, therefore, evidently a potential drug to prevent heart damage caused by doxorubicin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 679-689, 2017.

  9. Cardiotoxic drugs Herceptin and doxorubicin inhibit cardiac microvascular endothelial cell barrier formation resulting in increased drug permeability

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Emma L.; Sidaway, James E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiotoxicity induced by anti-cancer therapeutics is a severe, and potentially fatal, adverse reaction of the heart in response to certain drugs. Current in vitro approaches to assess cardiotoxicity have focused on analysing cardiomyocytes. More recently it has become apparent that non-cardiomyocyte cells of the heart can potentially contribute to cardiotoxicity. Herceptin and doxorubicin are known to induce cardiotoxicity in the clinic. The effect of these drugs on the endothelial tight junction barrier was tested by analysing tight junction formation and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) levels, revealing that Herceptin and doxorubicin are able to induce barrier perturbment and decrease barrier function in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) leading to increased permeability. Herceptin treatment had no effect on the tight junction barrier function in human dermal and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. HCMECs showed detectable levels of HER2 compared with the other endothelial cells suggesting that Herceptin binding to HER2 in these cells may interfere with tight junction formation. Our data suggests that doxorubicin and Herceptin can affect tight junction formation in the cardiac microvasculature leading to increased drug permeability and adverse effects on the cardiac myocytes. PMID:27543060

  10. Knockdown of ROS1 gene sensitizes breast tumor growth to doxorubicin in a syngeneic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tiash, Snigdha; Chua, Ming Jang; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of breast cancer, the second leading cause of female deaths worldwide, with classical drugs is often accompanied by treatment failure and relapse of disease condition. Development of chemoresistance and drug toxicity compels compromising the drug concentration below the threshold level with the consequence of therapeutic inefficacy. Moreover, amplification and over-activation of proto-oncogenes in tumor cells make the treatment more challenging. The oncogene, ROS1 which is highly expressed in diverse types of cancers including breast carcinoma, functions as a survival protein aiding cancer progression. Thus we speculated that selective silencing of ROS1 gene by carrier-mediated delivery of siRNA might sensitize the cancer cells to the classical drugs at a relatively low concentration. In this investigation we showed that intracellular delivery of c-ROS1-targeting siRNA using pH-sensitive inorganic nanoparticles of carbonate apatite sensitizes mouse breast cancer cells (4T1) to doxorubicin, but not to cisplatin or paclitaxel, with the highest enhancement in chemosensitivity obtained at 40 nM of the drug concentration. Although intravenous administrations of ROS1-loaded nanoparticles reduced growth of the tumor, a further substantial effect on growth retardation was noted when the mice were treated with the siRNA- and Dox-bound particles, thus suggesting that silencing of ROS1 gene could sensitize the mouse breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo to doxorubicin as a result of synergistic effect of the gene knockdown and the drug action, eventually preventing activation of the survival pathway protein, AKT1. Our findings therefore provide valuable insight into the potential cross-talk between the pathways of ROS1 and doxorubicin for future development of effective therapeutics for breast cancer.

  11. Molecular biology of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Umlauf, J; Horký, M

    2002-01-01

    The anthracycline doxorubicin is an antineoplastic agent, eliciting chronic cardiac toxicity. It occurs in patients after prolonged administration of doxorubicin, leading to congestive heart failure. The pathogenesis of the doxorubicin-induced car-diomyopathy is not well understood. The present article summarizes the unique effect of doxorubicin on cardiac-specific gene expression. In addition to binding to DNA, doxorubicin directly affects the function of a variety of proteins. Free radical generation, damage to mitochondria and active cell death are also critical in the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. Agents providing effective cardioprotection are also reviewed. PMID:19644577

  12. Salvianolic acid A as a multifunctional agent ameliorates doxorubicin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua-Ying; Yang, Ming-Yan; Qi, Dong; Zhang, Zuo-Kai; Zhu, Lin; Shang-Guan, Xiu-Xin; Liu, Ke; Xu, Hui; Che, Xin

    2015-07-21

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is still a therapeutic challenge. To date there is no ideal treatment. Evidence suggest that multidrug therapy has more effect than monotherapy in amelioration of renal injury. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the major active component of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge. Previous studies have demonstrated that SAA is a multi-target agent and has various pharmacological activities. The pleiotropic properties of SAA predict its potential in the treatment of NS. The study investigated the effect of SAA on doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The kidney function related-biochemical changes, hemorheological parameters and oxidative stress status were determined, and histological examination using light and transmission electron microcopies and western blot analysis were also performed. Results revealed that treatment with SAA alleviated histological damages, relieved proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, reduced oxidative stress, as well as improving hemorheology. Furthermore, SAA restored podocin expression, down-regulated the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα while up-regulating IκBα protein expression. Overall, as a multifunctional agent, SAA has a favorable renoprotection in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The anti-inflammation, antioxidant, amelioration of podocyte injury, improvement of hemorheology and hypolipidemic properties may constituent an important part of its therapeutic effects. All these indicate that SAA is likely to be a promising agent for NS.

  13. Salvianolic acid A as a multifunctional agent ameliorates doxorubicin-induced nephropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua-Ying; Yang, Ming-Yan; Qi, Dong; Zhang, Zuo-Kai; Zhu, Lin; Shang-Guan, Xiu-Xin; Liu, Ke; Xu, Hui; Che, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is still a therapeutic challenge. To date there is no ideal treatment. Evidence suggest that multidrug therapy has more effect than monotherapy in amelioration of renal injury. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the major active component of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge. Previous studies have demonstrated that SAA is a multi-target agent and has various pharmacological activities. The pleiotropic properties of SAA predict its potential in the treatment of NS. The study investigated the effect of SAA on doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The kidney function related-biochemical changes, hemorheological parameters and oxidative stress status were determined, and histological examination using light and transmission electron microcopies and western blot analysis were also performed. Results revealed that treatment with SAA alleviated histological damages, relieved proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, reduced oxidative stress, as well as improving hemorheology. Furthermore, SAA restored podocin expression, down-regulated the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα while up-regulating IκBα protein expression. Overall, as a multifunctional agent, SAA has a favorable renoprotection in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The anti-inflammation, antioxidant, amelioration of podocyte injury, improvement of hemorheology and hypolipidemic properties may constituent an important part of its therapeutic effects. All these indicate that SAA is likely to be a promising agent for NS. PMID:26194431

  14. Magnetically Controllable Polymer Nanotubes from a Cyclized Crosslinker for Site-Specific Delivery of Doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newland, Ben; Leupelt, Daniel; Zheng, Yu; Thomas, Laurent S. V.; Werner, Carsten; Steinhart, Martin; Wang, Wenxin

    2015-12-01

    Externally controlled site specific drug delivery could potentially provide a means of reducing drug related side effects whilst maintaining, or perhaps increasing therapeutic efficiency. The aim of this work was to develop a nanoscale drug carrier, which could be loaded with an anti-cancer drug and be directed by an external magnetic field. Using a single, commercially available monomer and a simple one-pot reaction process, a polymer was synthesized and crosslinked within the pores of an anodized aluminum oxide template. These polymer nanotubes (PNT) could be functionalized with iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic manipulation, without affecting the large internal pore, or inherent low toxicity. Using an external magnetic field the nanotubes could be regionally concentrated, leaving areas devoid of nanotubes. Lastly, doxorubicin could be loaded to the PNTs, causing increased toxicity towards neuroblastoma cells, rendering a platform technology now ready for adaptation with different nanoparticles, degradable pre-polymers, and various therapeutics.

  15. Magnetically Controllable Polymer Nanotubes from a Cyclized Crosslinker for Site-Specific Delivery of Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Newland, Ben; Leupelt, Daniel; Zheng, Yu; Thomas, Laurent S. V.; Werner, Carsten; Steinhart, Martin; Wang, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Externally controlled site specific drug delivery could potentially provide a means of reducing drug related side effects whilst maintaining, or perhaps increasing therapeutic efficiency. The aim of this work was to develop a nanoscale drug carrier, which could be loaded with an anti-cancer drug and be directed by an external magnetic field. Using a single, commercially available monomer and a simple one-pot reaction process, a polymer was synthesized and crosslinked within the pores of an anodized aluminum oxide template. These polymer nanotubes (PNT) could be functionalized with iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic manipulation, without affecting the large internal pore, or inherent low toxicity. Using an external magnetic field the nanotubes could be regionally concentrated, leaving areas devoid of nanotubes. Lastly, doxorubicin could be loaded to the PNTs, causing increased toxicity towards neuroblastoma cells, rendering a platform technology now ready for adaptation with different nanoparticles, degradable pre-polymers, and various therapeutics. PMID:26619814

  16. Magnetically Controllable Polymer Nanotubes from a Cyclized Crosslinker for Site-Specific Delivery of Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Newland, Ben; Leupelt, Daniel; Zheng, Yu; Thomas, Laurent S V; Werner, Carsten; Steinhart, Martin; Wang, Wenxin

    2015-12-01

    Externally controlled site specific drug delivery could potentially provide a means of reducing drug related side effects whilst maintaining, or perhaps increasing therapeutic efficiency. The aim of this work was to develop a nanoscale drug carrier, which could be loaded with an anti-cancer drug and be directed by an external magnetic field. Using a single, commercially available monomer and a simple one-pot reaction process, a polymer was synthesized and crosslinked within the pores of an anodized aluminum oxide template. These polymer nanotubes (PNT) could be functionalized with iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic manipulation, without affecting the large internal pore, or inherent low toxicity. Using an external magnetic field the nanotubes could be regionally concentrated, leaving areas devoid of nanotubes. Lastly, doxorubicin could be loaded to the PNTs, causing increased toxicity towards neuroblastoma cells, rendering a platform technology now ready for adaptation with different nanoparticles, degradable pre-polymers, and various therapeutics.

  17. Therapeutic potential of abalone and status of bioactive molecules: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Suleria, H A R; Masci, P P; Gobe, G C; Osborne, S A

    2017-05-24

    Marine organisms are increasingly being investigated as sources of bioactive molecules with therapeutic applications as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In particular, nutraceuticals are gaining popularity worldwide owing to their therapeutic potential and incorporation in functional foods and dietary supplements. Abalone, a marine gastropod, contains a variety of bioactive compounds with anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities. For thousands of years different cultures have used abalone as a traditional functional food believing consumption provides health benefits. Abalone meat is one of the most precious commodities in Asian markets where it is considered a culinary delicacy. Recent research has revealed that abalone is composed of many vital moieties like polysaccharides, proteins, and fatty acids that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. A review of past and present research is presented with relevance to the therapeutic potential of bioactive molecules from abalone.

  18. Adenosine potentiates the therapeutic effects of neural stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase against metastatic brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonyoung; Seol, Ho Jun; Seong, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jandi; Kim, Yonghyun; Kim, Seung U; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2013-09-01

    Tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) provide a novel approach with which to deliver targeting therapeutic genes to brain tumors. Previously, we developed a therapeutic strategy against metastatic brain tumors using a human NSC line (F3) expressing cytosine deaminase (F3.CD). F3.CD converts systemically administered 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a blood-brain barrier permeable nontoxic prodrug, into the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In this study, we potentiated a therapeutic strategy of treatment with nucleosides in order to chemically facilitate the endogenous conversion of 5-FU to its toxic metabolite 5-FU ribonucleoside (5-FUR). In vitro, 5-FUR showed superior cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 cancer cells when compared to 5-FU. Although adenosine had little cytotoxic activity, the addition of adenosine significantly potentiated the in vitro cytotoxicity of 5-FU. When MDA-MB‑435 cells were co-cultured with F3.CD cells, F3.CD cells and 5-FC inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells more significantly in the presence of adenosine. Facilitated 5-FUR production by F3.CD was confirmed by an HPLC analysis of the conditioned media derived from F3.CD cells treated with 5-FC and adenosine. In vivo systemic adenosine treatment also significantly potentiated the therapeutic effects of F3.CD cells and 5-FC in an MDA-MB-435 metastatic brain tumor model. Simple adenosine addition improved the antitumor activity of the NSCs carrying the therapeutic gene. Our results demonstrated an increased therapeutic potential, and thereby, clinical applicability of NSC-based gene therapy.

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Neuregulin in Cardiovascular System: Can we Ignore the Effects of Neuregulin on Electrophysiology?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Liu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Hui Nan; Wang, Long

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin-1(NRG-1) has now been accepted to have therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease. The preclinical and clinical researches of NRG-1 have demonstrated its advantage effects in cardiac function with multi-target cardiovascular biology and pathophysiology, but its influence on cardiac electrophysiology is rarely involved, which is a very important aspect and should not be ignored.

  20. Mixed nanomicelles as potential carriers for systemic delivery of Z-GP-Dox, an FAPα-based doxorubicin prodrug: formulation and pharmacokinetic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Zhang, Xingwang; Liu, Hongming; Cai, Shaohui; Wu, Baojian

    2015-01-01

    Z-GP-Dox, the FAPα (fibroblast activation protein-α)-based doxorubicin prodrug, demonstrates excellent tumor targeting effects and a favorable toxicokinetic profile. However, the insoluble nature of Z-GP-Dox becomes a significant barrier to drug administration, particularly when it comes to the clinical stage. Here we developed a nanomicelle system to facilitate the systemic delivery of Z-GP-Dox, and evaluated its disposition in rats following administration of the micelles using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. Z-GP-Dox-loaded mixed nanomicelles (ZGD-MNs) were prepared by dispersion of an ethanol solution of Z-GP-Dox, lecithin, and sodium oleate in water. The obtained ZGD-MNs were 86.6 nm in size with a drug loading of 14.03%. ZGD-MNs were fairly stable in phosphate-buffered saline and showed satisfactory physical and chemical stability over a 2-week observation period. Accumulative drug release was more than 56% within 24 hours. Further, the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic rat model consisting of various organs (ie, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and intestine) was fitted to the experimental data following administration of ZGD-loaded cosolvent (control) or micelles. Derived partition coefficient values revealed that the nanomicelles significantly altered the biodistribution of Z-GP-Dox. Of note, drug distribution to the lung, liver, and spleen was greatly enhanced and the fold change ranged from 2.4 to 33. In conclusion, this is the first report of a mixed micelle system being a viable carrier for delivery of Z-GP-Dox. Also, the pharmacokinetic behavior of Z-GP-Dox was satisfactorily described by the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. PMID:25759584

  1. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  2. Smart doxorubicin nanoparticles with high drug payload for enhanced chemotherapy against drug resistance and cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Caitong; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wei, Weijia; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Considering the obvious advantages in efficacy and price, doxorubicin (DOX) has been widely used for a range of cancers, which is usually encapsulated in various nanocarriers for drug delivery. Although effective, in most nanocarrier-based delivery systems, the drug loading capacity of DOX is rather low; this can lead to undesired systemic toxicity and excretion concern. Herein, we report for the first time the usage of pure doxorubicin nanoparticles (DOX NPs) without addition of any carriers for enhanced chemotherapy against drug-resistance. The drug payload reaches as high as 90.47%, which largely surpassed those in previous reports. These PEG stabilized DOX NPs exhibit good biocompatibility and stability, long blood circulation time, fast release in an acidic environment and high accumulation in tumors. Compared with free DOX, DOX NPs display a dramatically enhanced anticancer therapeutic efficacy in the inhibition of cell and tumor growth. Moreover, they can also be readily incorporated with other anticancer drugs for synergistic chemotherapy to overcome the drug resistance of cancers. The fluorescence properties of DOX also endow these NPs with imaging capabilities, thus making it a multifunctional system for diagnosis and treatment. This work demonstrates great potential of DOX NPs for cancer diagnosis, therapy and overcoming drug tolerance.Considering the obvious advantages in efficacy and price, doxorubicin (DOX) has been widely used for a range of cancers, which is usually encapsulated in various nanocarriers for drug delivery. Although effective, in most nanocarrier-based delivery systems, the drug loading capacity of DOX is rather low; this can lead to undesired systemic toxicity and excretion concern. Herein, we report for the first time the usage of pure doxorubicin nanoparticles (DOX NPs) without addition of any carriers for enhanced chemotherapy against drug-resistance. The drug payload reaches as high as 90.47%, which largely surpassed those in

  3. Proteomic Profiling Reveals That Resveratrol Inhibits HSP27 Expression and Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Doxorubicin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Arechaga-Ocampo, Elena; Flores-Pérez, Ali; Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Marchat, Laurence A.; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Gariglio, Patricio; López-Camarillo, César

    2013-01-01

    The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene) is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05) in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5′-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27 levels using

  4. Animal models of diabetic retinopathy: doors to investigate pathogenesis and potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Cho, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Jun, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-06-20

    Effective and validated animal models are valuable to investigate the pathogenesis and potential therapeutics for human diseases. There is much concern for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in that it affects substantial number of working population all around the world, resulting in visual deterioration and social deprivation. In this review, we discuss animal models of DR based on different species of animals from zebrafish to monkeys and prerequisites for animal models. Despite criticisms on imprudent use of laboratory animals, we hope that animal models of DR will be appropriately utilized to deepen our understanding on the pathogenesis of DR and to support our struggle to find novel therapeutics against catastrophic visual loss from DR.

  5. Therapeutic potential of the endocrine fibroblast growth factors FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23.

    PubMed

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, are critical for maintaining whole-body homeostasis, with roles in bile acid, glucose and lipid metabolism, modulation of vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis and metabolic adaptation during fasting. Given these functions, the endocrine FGFs have therapeutic potential in a wide array of chronic human diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, the safety and feasibility of chronic endocrine FGF administration has been challenged, and FGF analogues and mimetics are now being investigated. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the complex biology of the endocrine FGFs and assess how this may be harnessed therapeutically.

  6. Propofol ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.C.; Yeh, Y.C.; Wang, L.C.; Ting, C.T.; Lee, W.L.; Lee, H.W.; Wang, K.Y.; Wu, A.; Su, C.S.; Liu, T.J.

    2011-12-15

    Background: Propofol is an anesthetic with pluripotent cytoprotective properties against various extrinsic insults. This study was designed to examine whether this agent could also ameliorate the infamous toxicity of doxorubicin, a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent against a variety of cancer diseases, on myocardial cells. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were administrated with vehicle, doxorubicin (1 {mu}M), propofol (1 {mu}M), or propofol plus doxorubicin (given 1 h post propofol). After 24 h, cells were harvested and specific analyses regarding oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis were conducted. Results: Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays disclosed that viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced by doxorubicin. Contents of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were increased and antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, and GPx were decreased in these doxorubicin-treated cells. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and membrane potential were also depressed, along with activation of key effectors downstream of mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling. Besides, abundance of p53 was elevated and cleavage of PKC-{delta} was induced in these myocardial cells. In contrast, all of the above oxidative, nitrative and pro-apoptotic events could be suppressed by propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: Propofol could extensively counteract oxidative/nitrative and multiple apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in the heart; hence, this anesthetic may serve as an adjuvant agent to assuage the untoward cardiac effects of doxorubicin in clinical application. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how propofol prevents doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol reduces doxorubicin-imposed nitrative and oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol suppresses mitochondrion-, p53- and PKC-related apoptotic signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol ameliorates apoptosis and

  7. Berberine attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Zhang, J; Tong, N; Liao, X; Wang, E; Li, Z; Luo, Y; Zuo, H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of berberine, a natural alkaloid, on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with saline 10 ml/kg (n = 10), doxorubicin 2.5 mg/kg (n = 10), 60 mg/kg berberine 1 h before doxorubicin 2.5 mg/kg (n = 10), or 60 mg/kg berberine alone (n = 10) every other day for 14 days. Body weight, general condition and mortality were recorded over the 14-day study period. Electro cardiography was performed before the start of treatment and after 14 days and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured after 14 days. At the end of the study period the heart was excised and examined histologically. An increase in mortality, an initial decrease in body weight, increased LDH activity, prolongation of QRS duration and increased myocardial injury were seen in the doxorubicin-treated group compared with the saline control group. These changes were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with berberine. The study suggests that berberine may have a potential protective role against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

  8. CD56 and RUNX1 isoforms in AML prognosis and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Z A; Motabi, Ibraheem H; Al-Shanqeeti, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM/CD56) expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been associated with extramedullary leukemia, multidrug resistance, shorter remission and survival. Recently, Bloomfield et al. published a succinct review of issues surrounding the AML prognostication and current therapeutics. However, we want to reiterate the prognostic value and therapeutic potential of CD56 that is frequently expressed in AML as was also reported by their own group earlier. In addition, novel RUNX1 isoforms contribute in controlling CD56 expression in AML cells. Anti-CD56 antibody therapy deserves exploration as an arsenal against AML patients expressing CD56. Relevantly, targeting RNA splicing machinery or RUNX1 isoform-specific siRNA may also become part of future therapeutic strategies for AML with CD56 overexpression.

  9. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  10. Combination regimens using doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin prior to autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin are key compounds of several induction regimens used prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with de novo multiple myeloma, such as vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (VAD), vincristine, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin/Doxil, dexamethasone (DVd) or PS-341/bortezomib, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (PAD). The aim of this article is to summarize the more recent data available on the efficacy of these combinations and to discuss their role as part of initial therapy.

  11. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) Cardiomyopathy—A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Saltiel, Emmanuel; McGuire, William

    1983-01-01

    Despite its vast utility in clinical oncology, the use of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) is limited by a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy. The following critical review, which examines the natural course, histopathologic effects, risk factors and monitoring indicators of this toxicity, also analyzes recent research of proposed mechanisms, including free radical formation with depletion of detoxifying enzymes, inhibition of vital enzyme systems and alterations in relative calcium concentrations. Prevention of the adverse reaction has been attempted by using such agents as α-tocopherol, selenium sulfide, coenzyme Q10, sulfhydryl donors, nucleosides and razoxane, and via liposomal carriage and alternative methods of administration. PMID:6356608

  12. Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    El husseny, Mostafa Wanees Ahmed; Mamdouh, Mediana; Shaban, Sara; Zaki, Marwa Mostafa Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama M.

    2017-01-01

    Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity. PMID:28286779

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Mami; HOSHINO, Yuki; IZUMI, Yusuke; TAKAGI, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA. PMID:26685984

  14. Virus-derived anti-inflammatory proteins: potential therapeutics for cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Donghang; Chen, Hao; Bartee, Mee Y; Williams, Jennifer; Davids, Jennifer A; Huang, Emina; Moreb, Jan; Lucas, Alexandra

    2012-06-01

    Inflammatory responses now have a defined central role in cancer cell growth, invasion, and metastases. Anti-inflammatory proteins from viruses target key stages in immune response pathways and have potential as novel therapeutics for cancer, including highly potent virus-derived inhibitors of protease, chemokine, cytokine, and apoptotic cascades that have been identified. Serine proteases, in addition to their conventional roles in thrombosis, thrombolysis, and apoptotic pathways, are essential regulators of inflammation and are associated with developing cancers. Chemokines drive other inflammatory response pathways with central roles in cell invasion and activation as well as establishing the microenvironment of tumors, modulating immune cell infiltration, cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the mechanisms of action and potential for application of viral immunomodulatory proteins as anticancer therapeutics.

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Natural Product-Based Oral Nanomedicines for Stroke Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tatsushi; Mutoh, Tomoko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral stroke is the leading cause of death and permanent disability in elderly persons. The impaired glucose and oxygen transport to the brain during ischemia causes bioenergetic failure, leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and eventually cell death. However, the development of effective therapies against stroke has been hampered by insufficient oral absorption of pharmaceuticals and subsequent delivery to the brain. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new method of treating cerebral diseases, with the potential to fundamentally change currently available therapeutic approaches using compounds with low bioavailability. This perspective review provides an overview of the therapeutic potential of oral nanomedicines for stroke, focusing on novel natural product-loaded delivery system with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  16. Therapeutic potential for mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation for the treatment of ischemic conditions such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke has been explored in animal models and early-phase clinical trials. A substantial database documents the safety profile of MSC administration to humans in a large number of disease states. The mechanism of the therapeutic effect of MSC transplantation in ischemic disease has been postulated to be due to paracrine, immunomodulatory, and differentiation effects. This review provides an overview of the potential role of MSC-based therapy for critical limb ischemia (CLI), the comparison of MSC cellular therapy with angiogenesis gene therapy in CLI, and the proposed mechanism of action of MSC therapy. Preclinical efficacy data in animal models of hindlimb ischemia, current early-phase human trial data, and considerations for future MSC-based therapy in CLI will also be discussed. PMID:22846185

  17. Doxorubicin: nanotechnological overviews from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Cagel, Maximiliano; Grotz, Estefanía; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Moretton, Marcela A; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2017-02-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, used as a first-line drug in numerous types of cancer. Nevertheless, it exhibits serious adverse effects, such as lethal cardiotoxicity and dose-limiting myelosuppression. In this review, we focus on the description and the clinical benefits of different DOX-loaded nanotechnological platforms, not only those commercially available but also the ones that are currently in clinical phases, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, polymer-drug conjugates, polymeric micelles and ligand-based DOX-loaded nanoformulations. Although some DOX-based nanoproducts are currently being used in the clinical field, it is clear that further research is necessary to achieve improvements in cancer therapeutics.

  18. LC-MS/MS method development for quantification of doxorubicin and its metabolite 13-hydroxy doxorubicin in mice biological matrices: Application to a pharmaco-delivery study.

    PubMed

    Mazzucchelli, Serena; Ravelli, Alessandro; Gigli, Fausto; Minoli, Mauro; Corsi, Fabio; Ciuffreda, Pierangela; Ottria, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the development of simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of doxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol, in mouse plasma, urine and tissues. The calibration curves were linear over the range 5-250 ng/mL for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/mL for doxorubicinol in plasma and tumor, over the range 25-500 ng/mL for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/mL for doxorubicinol in liver and kidney, and over the range 25-1000 ng/mL for doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in urine. The study was validated, using quality control samples prepared in all different matrices, for accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, lower limit of quantification and recovery in accordance with the US Food & Drug Administration guidelines. The method was successfully applied in determining the pharmaco-distribution of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol after intravenously administration in tumor-bearing mice of drug, free or nano-formulated in ferritin nanoparticles or in liposomes. Obtained results demonstrate an effective different distribution and doxorubicin protection against metabolism linked to nano-formulation. This method, thanks to its validation in plasma and urine, could be a powerful tool for pharmaceutical research and therapeutic drug monitoring, which is a clinical approach currently used in the optimization of oncologic treatments.

  19. Therapeutic hypothermia and reliability of somatosensory evoked potentials in predicting outcome after cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Ted Laurence

    2012-08-01

    The loss of the N20 component on testing median somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) has been established as the most reliable indicator of unfavorable prognosis in post-cardiopulmonary arrest patients. With the intervention of therapeutic hypothermia in the management of patients who remain comatose following cardiopulmonary arrest that association is now in dispute. Abandoning SSEP as a key prognostic indicator of neurologic outcome would be a serious loss and cannot be justified.

  20. Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential for Targeting Human Brain Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etame, Arnold B.

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge to the advancement and application of systemic anti-cancer therapeutics into the central nervous system. The structural and physiological delivery constraints of the BBB significantly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, thereby making systemic administration a non-viable option for the vast majority of chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the lack of specificity of conventional systemic chemotherapy when applied towards malignant brain tumors remains a major shortcoming. Hence novel therapeutic strategies that focus both on targeted and enhanced delivery across the BBB are warranted. In recent years nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as attractive vehicles for efficient delivery of targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provide a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, the permeation of AuNPs across the BBB has not been well characterized, and hence is a potential limitation for successful application of AuNP-based therapeutics within the central nervous system (CNS). In this dissertation, we designed and characterized AuNPs and assessed the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical and biological properties of AuNPs. We established a size-dependent permeation profile with respect to core size as well as PEG length when AuNPs were assessed through a transport-permissive in-vitro BBB. This study was the first of its kind to systematically examine the influence of design on permeation of AuNPs through transport-permissive BBB. Given the significant delivery limitations through the non

  1. Wnt signaling in bone formation and its therapeutic potential for bone diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Liu, Xing; Wang, Jinhua; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Kim, Stephanie H.; Cui, Jing; Li, Ruidong; Zhang, Wenwen; Kong, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiye; Shui, Wei; Lamplot, Joseph; Rogers, Mary Rose; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Ning; Rajan, Prashant; Tomal, Justin; Statz, Joseph; Wu, Ningning; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role not only in embryonic development but also in the maintenance and differentiation of the stem cells in adulthood. In particular, Wnt signaling has been shown as an important regulatory pathway in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Induction of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes bone formation while inactivation of the pathway leads to osteopenic states. Our current understanding of Wnt signaling in osteogenesis elucidates the molecular mechanisms of classic osteogenic pathologies. Activating and inactivating aberrations of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis results in sclerosteosis and osteoporosis respectively. Recent studies have sought to target the Wnt signaling pathway to treat osteogenic disorders. Potential therapeutic approaches attempt to stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway by upregulating the intracellular mediators of the Wnt signaling cascade and inhibiting the endogenous antagonists of the pathway. Antibodies against endogenous antagonists, such as sclerostin and dickkopf-1, have demonstrated promising results in promoting bone formation and fracture healing. Lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, has also been reported to stimulate osteogenesis by stabilizing β catenin. Although manipulating the Wnt signaling pathway has abundant therapeutic potential, it requires cautious approach due to risks of tumorigenesis. The present review discusses the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis and examines its targeted therapeutic potential. PMID:23514963

  2. Therapeutic potential of tetracycline derivatives to suppress the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R W; Liao, S; Curci, J A

    1998-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) represent a potentially lethal disorder associated with aging and atherosclerosis. Although current management of AAA is predicted on early detection and elective surgical repair, routine screening for AAA is infrequent, because most AAA are too small to warrant repair when first detected and because there are no therapeutic approaches proven to suppress aneurysm expansion. Basic research on this problem suggests that chronic inflammation and increased local production of elastin-degrading proteinases play prominent roles in the process of aneurysmal degeneration. Members of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) family appear to be the most prominent elastases produced in human AAA, suggesting that unique therapeutic targets might exist for aneurysm disease. Studies using a representative animal model for AAA support this view, providing a means for further development of pharmacological approaches to suppress aneurysm expansion. Indeed, recent work indicates that tetracycline derivatives have the potential to interrupt the progressive connective tissue destruction that occurs in AAA, by virtue of their non-antimicrobial properties as MMP inhibitors, and they do so at clinically achievable dose schedules. These findings support the view that MMPs are potentially important pharmacotherapeutic targets in AAA and, moreover, that tetracyclines might be useful in suppressing aneurysm expansion in vivo. Because tetracycline derivatives offer a number of distinct advantages as MMP inhibitors for patients with small AAA, prospective clinical trials of this novel therapeutic strategy can be anticipated in the near future.

  3. Kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutics for acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions.

    PubMed

    Cuny, G D

    2009-01-01

    Kinases, which number > 500 in humans, are a class of enzymes that participate in an array of important functions within normal cellular physiology and during various pathological conditions. Due to the key role of kinases in the regulation of all aspects of cellular signaling and the well established contribution of kinase dysregulation to the etiology of many human pathologies, the development of kinase inhibitors has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human disease, including most notably oncology. Difficulties generating selective inhibitors have hampered their use in other therapeutic areas with less tolerance for off-target effects. However, with an increasing understanding of kinase structures and with the advent of newer inhibitor design strategies more highly selective inhibitors are beginning to emerge. This has prompted interest in utilizing kinase inhibitors in therapeutic areas beyond oncology, including acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions for which disease modify therapies are lacking. This review provides a background in acute (i.e. brain ischemia and traumatic brain injury) and chronic (i.e. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis) neurodegenerative conditions. Then, the role of several kinase (i.e. JNK3, p38 MAPK, ERK, PKC, ROCKII, GSK3, Cdk5, MLK, EphB3 kinase, RIP1 kinase, LRRK2, TTBK1, ASK1, CK, DAPK, and PKN1) that could serve as potential therapeutic targets for these maladies are reviewed.

  4. DART MS based chemical profiling for therapeutic potential of Piper betle landraces.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Pandey, Renu; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh

    2012-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. leaves are traditionally used as a folk medicine in India and other Asiatic countries. Twenty-one P. betle landraces were analyzed using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectral technique and evaluated on the basis of molecules detected in the leaves. Clustering of landraces based on three well known biologically active phenols (m/z 151,165,193) showed two broad groups with high and low phenol contents suggesting differences in their therapeutic potential. Findings of this study could be useful in rapid screening of the landraces for determining their medicinal potential and optimum utilization of the bioresource.

  5. IGF-binding protein 2 is a candidate target of therapeutic potential in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhou, Xuan; Guo, Wenyu; Zhang, Lun

    2016-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein 2(IGFBP2), a key member of IGF family, has been reported as a notable oncogene in most human epithelium cancers. Increasing evidences suggested that IGFBP2 might be a candidate target of therapuetic potential by regulating key cancer metastasis and invasion-associated signaling networks, but there is still confusion about the mechanism on how IGFBP2 takes part in these processes. In this review, we summarized the current points of view that IGFBP2 functions in signaling pathways during tumorigenesis and tumor progression and discussed its potential clinical applications as a therapeutic target.

  6. The wonderous chaperones: A highlight on therapeutics of cancer and potentially malignant disorders.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Nutan; Tyagi, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental and physiological factors are known to induce the transcription of a set of genes encoding special protective molecules known as "molecular chaperones" within our cells. Literature abounds in evidence regarding the varied roles; these "guides" can effectively perform in our system. Highly conserved through evolution, from the prokaryotes to the eukaryotes, these make perfect study tools for verifying their role in both the pathogenesis as well as the therapeutics of varied neurodegenerative, autoimmune and potentially malignant disorders and varied cancer states. We present a concise review of this ever dynamic molecule, highlighting the probable role in a potentially malignant disorder, oral lichen planus.

  7. The wonderous chaperones: A highlight on therapeutics of cancer and potentially malignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Nutan; Tyagi, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental and physiological factors are known to induce the transcription of a set of genes encoding special protective molecules known as “molecular chaperones” within our cells. Literature abounds in evidence regarding the varied roles; these “guides” can effectively perform in our system. Highly conserved through evolution, from the prokaryotes to the eukaryotes, these make perfect study tools for verifying their role in both the pathogenesis as well as the therapeutics of varied neurodegenerative, autoimmune and potentially malignant disorders and varied cancer states. We present a concise review of this ever dynamic molecule, highlighting the probable role in a potentially malignant disorder, oral lichen planus. PMID:26604499

  8. A unique squalenoylated and nonpegylated doxorubicin nanomedicine with systemic long-circulating properties and anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Dosio, Franco; Mougin, Julie; Ferrero, Annalisa; Wack, Severine; Reddy, L. Harivardhan; Weyn, Andrée-Anne; Lepeltier, Elise; Bourgaux, Claudie; Stella, Barbara; Cattel, Luigi; Couvreur, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We identified that the chemical linkage of the anticancer drug doxorubicin onto squalene, a natural lipid precursor of the cholesterol’s biosynthesis, led to the formation of squalenoyl doxorubicin (SQ-Dox) nanoassemblies of 130-nm mean diameter, with an original “loop-train” structure. This unique nanomedicine demonstrates: (i) high drug payload, (ii) decreased toxicity of the coupled anticancer compound, (iii) improved therapeutic response, (iv) use of biocompatible transporter material, and (v) ease of preparation, all criteria that are not combined in the currently available nanodrugs. Cell culture viability tests and apoptosis assays showed that SQ-Dox nanoassemblies displayed comparable antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects than the native doxorubicin because of the high activity of apoptotic mediators, such as caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In vivo experiments have shown that the SQ-Dox nanomedicine dramatically improved the anticancer efficacy, compared with free doxorubicin. Particularly, the M109 lung tumors that did not respond to doxorubicin treatment were found inhibited by 90% when treated with SQ-Dox nanoassemblies. SQ-Dox nanoassembly-treated MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic tumor xenografts in mice decreased by 95% compared with the tumors in the saline-treated mice, which was significantly higher than the 29% reduction achieved by native doxorubicin. Concerning toxicity, SQ-Dox nanoassemblies showed a fivefold higher maximum-tolerated dose than the free drug, and moreover, the cardiotoxicity study has evidenced that SQ-Dox nanoassemblies did not cause any myocardial lesions, such as those induced by the free doxorubicin treatment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SQ-Dox nanoassemblies make tumor cells more sensitive to doxorubicin and reduce the cardiac toxicity, thus providing a remarkable improvement in the drug’s therapeutic index. PMID:24385587

  9. Dual-targeted and pH-sensitive Doxorubicin Prodrug-Microbubble Complex with Ultrasound for Tumor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wanxian; Wen, Ge; Yang, Li; Tang, Jiao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Jihui; Zhang, Shiyu; Zhang, Li; Ma, Fei; Xiao, Liling; Wang, Ying; Li, Yingjia

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of a dual-targeted pH-sensitive doxorubicin prodrug-microbubble complex (DPMC) in ultrasound (US)-assisted antitumor therapy. The doxorubicin prodrug (DP) consists of a succinylated-heparin carrier conjugated with doxorubicin (DOX) via hydrazone linkage and decorated with dual targeting ligands, folate and cRGD peptide. Combination of microbubble (MB) and DP, generated via avidin-biotin binding, promoted intracellular accumulation and improved therapeutic efficiency assisted by US cavitation and sonoporation. Aggregates of prepared DP were observed with an inhomogeneous size distribution (average diameters: 149.6±29.8 nm and 1036.2±38.8 nm, PDI: 1.0) while DPMC exhibited a uniform distribution (average diameter: 5.804±2.1 μm), facilitating its usage for drug delivery. Notably, upon US exposure, DPMC was disrupted and aggregated DP dispersed into homogeneous small-sized nanoparticles (average diameter: 128.6±42.3 nm, PDI: 0.21). DPMC could target to angiogenic endothelial cells in tumor region via αvβ3-mediated recognition and subsequently facilitate its specific binding to tumor cells mediated via recognition of folate receptor (FR) after US exposure. In vitro experiments showed higher tumor specificity and killing ability of DPMC with US than free DOX and DP for breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, significant accumulation and specificity for tumor tissues of DPMC with US were detected using in vivo fluorescence and ultrasound molecular imaging, indicating its potential to integrate tumor imaging and therapy. In particular, through inducing apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and antagonizing angiogenesis, DPMC with US produced higher tumor inhibition rates than DOX or DPMC without US in MCF-7 xenograft tumor-bearing mice while inducing no obvious body weight loss. Our strategy provides an effective platform for the delivery of large-sized or aggregated particles to tumor sites, thereby extending their

  10. Gain of BDNF Function in Engrafted Neural Stem Cells Promotes the Therapeutic Potential for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Hou, Wen-Hsien; Chiang, Po-Min; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2016-06-06

    Stem cell-based therapy is a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, but its application to Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains limited. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical in the pathogenesis and treatment of AD. Here, we present a novel therapeutic approach for AD treatment using BDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells (BDNF-NSCs). In vitro, BDNF overexpression was neuroprotective to beta-amyloid-treated NSCs. In vivo, engrafted BDNF-NSCs-derived neurons not only displayed the Ca(2+)-response fluctuations, exhibited electrophysiological properties of mature neurons and integrated into local brain circuits, but recovered the cognitive deficits. Furthermore, BDNF overexpression improved the engrafted cells' viability, neuronal fate, neurite complexity, maturation of electrical property and the synaptic density. In contrast, knockdown of the BDNF in BDNF-NSCs diminished stem cell-based therapeutic efficacy. Together, our findings indicate BDNF overexpression improves the therapeutic potential of engrafted NSCs for AD via neurogenic effects and neuronal replacement, and further support the feasibility of NSC-based ex vivo gene therapy for AD.

  11. Potential applications of RNA interference-based therapeutics in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ali

    2006-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes is a recently identified phenomenon in which small double stranded RNA molecules called short interfering RNA (siRNA) interact with messenger RNA (mRNA) containing homologous sequences in a sequence-specific manner. Ultimately, this interaction results in degradation of the target mRNA. Because of the high sequence specificity of the RNAi process, and the apparently ubiquitous expression of the endogenous protein components necessary for RNAi, there appears to be little limitation to the genes that can be targeted for silencing by RNAi. Thus, RNAi has enormous potential, both as a research tool and as a mode of therapy. Several recent patents have described advances in RNAi technology that are likely to lead to new treatments for cardiovascular disease. These patents have described methods for increased delivery of siRNA to cardiovascular target tissues, chemical modifications of siRNA that improve their pharmacokinetic characteristics, and expression vectors capable of expressing RNAi effectors in situ. Though RNAi has only recently been demonstrated to occur in mammalian tissues, work has advanced rapidly in the development of RNAi-based therapeutics. Recently, therapeutic silencing of apoliporotein B, the ligand for the low density lipoprotein receptor, has been demonstrated in adult mice by systemic administration of chemically modified siRNA. This demonstrates the potential for RNAi-based therapeutics, and suggests that the future for RNAi in the treatment of cardiovascular disease is bright.

  12. Antioxidant properties of natural polyphenols and their therapeutic potentials for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Young-Jung; Hong, Jin Tae; Lee, Hwa-Jeong

    2012-02-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and most common cause of dementia. However, there is no known way to halt or cure the neurodegenerative disease. Oxidative stress is a cardinal hallmark of the disease and has been considered as therapeutic target for AD treatment. Several factors may contribute to oxidative stress in AD brains. First, mitochondrion is a key player that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial dysfunction found in AD patients may exaggerate generation of ROS and oxidative stress. Second, amyloid-beta peptide generates ROS in the presence of metal ions such as Fe(2+) and Cu(2+). Third, activated glial cells in AD brains may produce excessive amount of superoxide and nitric oxide through NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively. Increased ROS can cause damage to protein, lipid and nucleic acids. Numerous studies demonstrated that natural polyphenolic compounds protect against various neurotoxic insults in vitro and in vivo AD models. In these studies, dietary polyphenolic compounds exhibit neuroprotective effects through scavenging free radicals and increasing antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, they could facilitate the endogenous antioxidant system by stimulating transcription. Some epidemiological and clinical studies highlighted their therapeutic potential for AD treatment. In this review, we will briefly discuss causes of oxidative stress in AD brains, and describe antioxidant neuroprotective effects and therapeutic potential for AD of selected natural polyphenolic compounds.

  13. Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Kasote, Deepak M; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

  14. Potential therapeutic applications of plant toxin-ricin in cancer: challenges and advances.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Nikhil; Tyagi, Monika; Pachauri, Manendra; Ghosh, Prahlad C

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is one of the most common devastating disease affecting millions of people per year worldwide. To fight against cancer, a number of natural plant compounds have been exploited by researchers to discover novel anti-cancer therapeutics with minimum or no side effects and plants have proved their usefulness in anti-cancer therapy in past few years. Ricin, a cytotoxic plant protein isolated from castor bean seeds, is a ribosome-inactivating protein which destroys the cells by inhibiting proteins synthesis. Ricin presents great potential as anti-cancer agent and exerts its anti-cancer activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the current information on anti-cancer properties of plant toxin ricin, its potential applications in cancer therapy, challenges associated with its use as therapeutic agent and the recent advances made to overcome these challenges. Nanotechnology could open the doors for quick development of ricin-based anti-cancer therapeutics. Conceivably, ricin may serve as a chemotherapeutic agent against cancer by utilizing nanocarriers for its targeted delivery to cancer cells.

  15. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Tan, Kok Hian; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-02-06

    The intense research focus on stem and progenitor cells could be attributed to their differentiation potential to generate new cells to replace diseased or lost cells in many highly intractable degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, and heart diseases. However, experimental and clinical studies have increasingly attributed the therapeutic efficacy of these cells to their secretion. While stem and progenitor cells secreted many therapeutic molecules, none of these molecules singly or in combination could recapitulate the functional effects of stem cell transplantations. Recently, it was reported that extracellular vesicles (EVs) could recapitulate the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation. Based on the observations reported thus far, the prevailing hypothesis is that stem cell EVs exert their therapeutic effects by transferring biologically active molecules such as proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA from the stem cells to injured or diseased cells. In this respect, stem cell EVs are similar to EVs from other cell types. They are both primarily vehicles for intercellular communication. Therefore, the differentiating factor is likely due to the composition of their cargo. The cargo of EVs from different cell types are known to include a common set of proteins and also proteins that reflect the cell source of the EVs and the physiological or pathological state of the cell source. Hence, elucidation of the stem cell EV cargo would provide an insight into the multiple physiological or biochemical changes necessary to affect the many reported stem cell-based therapeutic outcomes in a variety of experimental models and clinical trials.

  16. The Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Their Future Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, Gerald W.; Striessnig, Joerg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are required for many key functions in the body. In this review, the different subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels are described and their physiologic roles and pharmacology are outlined. We describe the current uses of drugs interacting with the different calcium channel subtypes and subunits, as well as specific areas in which there is strong potential for future drug development. Current therapeutic agents include drugs targeting L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels, particularly 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. T-type (CaV3) channels are a target of ethosuximide, widely used in absence epilepsy. The auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 is the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are of value in certain epilepsies and chronic neuropathic pain. The limited use of intrathecal ziconotide, a peptide blocker of N-type (CaV2.2) calcium channels, as a treatment of intractable pain, gives an indication that these channels represent excellent drug targets for various pain conditions. We describe how selectivity for different subtypes of calcium channels (e.g., CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 L-type channels) may be achieved in the future by exploiting differences between channel isoforms in terms of sequence and biophysical properties, variation in splicing in different target tissues, and differences in the properties of the target tissues themselves in terms of membrane potential or firing frequency. Thus, use-dependent blockers of the different isoforms could selectively block calcium channels in particular pathologies, such as nociceptive neurons in pain states or in epileptic brain circuits. Of important future potential are selective CaV1.3 blockers for neuropsychiatric diseases, neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease, and resistant hypertension. In addition, selective or nonselective T-type channel blockers are considered potential therapeutic targets in epilepsy, pain, obesity, sleep, and

  17. Smart doxorubicin nanoparticles with high drug payload for enhanced chemotherapy against drug resistance and cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Caitong; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wei, Weijia; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-03-19

    Considering the obvious advantages in efficacy and price, doxorubicin (DOX) has been widely used for a range of cancers, which is usually encapsulated in various nanocarriers for drug delivery. Although effective, in most nanocarrier-based delivery systems, the drug loading capacity of DOX is rather low; this can lead to undesired systemic toxicity and excretion concern. Herein, we report for the first time the usage of pure doxorubicin nanoparticles (DOX NPs) without addition of any carriers for enhanced chemotherapy against drug-resistance. The drug payload reaches as high as 90.47%, which largely surpassed those in previous reports. These PEG stabilized DOX NPs exhibit good biocompatibility and stability, long blood circulation time, fast release in an acidic environment and high accumulation in tumors. Compared with free DOX, DOX NPs display a dramatically enhanced anticancer therapeutic efficacy in the inhibition of cell and tumor growth. Moreover, they can also be readily incorporated with other anticancer drugs for synergistic chemotherapy to overcome the drug resistance of cancers. The fluorescence properties of DOX also endow these NPs with imaging capabilities, thus making it a multifunctional system for diagnosis and treatment. This work demonstrates great potential of DOX NPs for cancer diagnosis, therapy and overcoming drug tolerance.

  18. Utility of animal models for identification of potential therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hegen, M; Keith, J C; Collins, M; Nickerson-Nutter, C L

    2008-11-01

    Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are widely used for testing potential new therapies for RA. However, the question of which animal model is most predictive of therapeutic efficacy in human RA commonly arises in data evaluation. A retrospective review of the animal models used to evaluate approved, pending RA therapies, and compounds that were discontinued during phase II or III clinical trials found that the three most commonly used models were adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and mice. Limited data were found for more recently developed genetically modified animal models. Examination of the efficacy of various compounds in these animal models revealed that a compound's therapeutic efficacy, rather than prophylactic efficacy, in AIA and CIA models was more predictive of clinical efficacy in human RA than data from either model alone.

  19. Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Targeting or Beyond β-Amyloid: Insights from Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qiutian; Qing, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with two hallmarks: β-amyloid plagues and neurofibrillary tangles. It is one of the most alarming illnesses to elderly people. No effective drugs and therapies have been developed, while mechanism-based explorations of therapeutic approaches have been intensively investigated. Outcomes of clinical trials suggested several pitfalls in the choice of biomarkers, development of drug candidates, and interaction of drug-targeted molecules; however, they also aroused concerns on the potential deficiency in our understanding of pathogenesis of AD, and ultimately stimulated the advent of novel drug targets tests. The anticipated increase of AD patients in next few decades makes development of better therapy an urgent issue. Here we attempt to summarize and compare putative therapeutic strategies that have completed clinical trials or are currently being tested from various perspectives to provide insights for treatments of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25136630

  20. Exploring the potential of monoclonal antibody therapeutics for HIV-1 eradication.

    PubMed

    Euler, Zelda; Alter, Galit

    2015-01-01

    The HIV field has seen an increased interest in novel cure strategies. In particular, new latency reversal agents are in development to reverse latency to flush the virus out of its hiding place. Combining these efforts with immunotherapeutic approaches may not only drive the virus out of latency, but allow for the rapid elimination of these infected cells in a "shock and kill" approach. Beyond cell-based approaches, growing interest lies in the potential use of functionally enhanced "killer" monoclonal therapeutics to purge the reservoir. Here we discuss prospects for a monoclonal therapeutic-based "shock and kill" strategy that may lead to the permanent elimination of replication-competent virus, making a functional cure a reality for all patients afflicted with HIV worldwide.

  1. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, an ancient disease: new light and potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Alazzam, Mo'iad; Tidy, John; Hancock, Barry W; Powers, Hilary

    2010-02-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is a rare malignancy, which can occur after any type of pregnancy. The incidence varies according to the geographical location and ethnic origin. Although most patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are cured by conventional chemotherapy and surgery, some suffer resistant disease and may die. New therapeutic agents are needed to reduce the toxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and treat those with resistant or refractory disease. Molecular targeted treatment provides an exciting avenue, however, the biology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is not well understood. This review briefly summarises the recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis and molecular biology of this group of diseases and sheds light on molecules that could provide potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Potential prospects of nanomedicine for targeted therapeutics in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Pichai, Madharasi V A; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2012-06-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease are highly debilitating. There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications, failures in adequate drug delivery, and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD. This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics. This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine, studied so far in animal and in vitro models, before comprehensive clinical testing in humans. The investigations carried out so far in IBD models have provided substantial evidence of the nanotherapeutic approach as having the potential to overcome some of the current drawbacks to conventional IBD therapy. We analyze the pros and cons of nanotechnology in IBD therapies studied in different models, aimed at different targets and mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis, in an attempt to predict its possible impact in humans.

  3. Delivery methods for site-specific nucleases: Achieving the full potential of therapeutic gene editing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Shui, Sai-Lan

    2016-12-28

    The advent of site-specific nucleases, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, provides researchers with the unprecedented ability to manipulate genomic sequences. These nucleases are used to create model cell lines, engineer metabolic pathways, produce transgenic animals and plants, perform genome-wide functional screen and, most importantly, treat human diseases that are difficult to tackle by traditional medications. Considerable efforts have been devoted to improving the efficiency and specificity of nucleases for clinical applications. However, safe and efficient delivery methods remain the major obstacle for therapeutic gene editing. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on nuclease delivery methods, highlight their impact on the outcomes of gene editing and discuss the potential of different delivery approaches for therapeutic gene editing.

  4. Therapeutic potentials of gene silencing by RNA interference: principles, challenges, and new strategies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Chi Chiu; Choy, Kwong Wai; Du, Quan; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Qin; Li, Lu; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Tang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades there have been remarkable advances in biology, in which one of the most important discoveries is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a specific post-transcriptional regulatory pathway that can result in silencing gene functions. Efforts have been done to translate this new discovery into clinical applications for disease treatment. However, technical difficulties restrict the development of RNAi, including stability, off-target effects, immunostimulation and delivery problems. Researchers have attempted to surmount these barriers and improve the bioavailability and safety of RNAi-based therapeutics by optimizing the chemistry and structure of these molecules. This paper aimed to describe the principles of RNA interference, review the therapeutic potential in various diseases and discuss the new strategies for in vivo delivery of RNAi to overcome the challenges.

  5. Cell and molecular biology of intervertebral disc degeneration: current understanding and implications for potential therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Z; Rui, Y F; Lu, J; Wang, C

    2014-10-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a chronic, complex process associated with low back pain; mechanisms of its occurrence have not yet been fully elucidated. Its process is not only accompanied by morphological changes, but also by systematic changes in its histological and biochemical properties. Many cellular and molecular mechanisms have been reported to be related with IDD and to reverse degenerative trends, abnormal conditions of the living cells and altered cell phenotypes would need to be restored. Promising biological therapeutic strategies still rely on injection of active substances, gene therapy and cell transplantation. With advanced study of tissue engineering protocols based on cell therapy, combined use of seeding cells, bio-active substances and bio-compatible materials, are promising for IDD regeneration. Recently reported progenitor cells within discs themselves also hold prospects for future IDD studies. This article describes the background of IDD, current understanding and implications of potential therapeutic strategies.

  6. Prostate cancer progression and metastasis: potential regulatory pathways for therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Nandana, Srinivas; Chung, Leland WK

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Research utilizing animal models during the past decade has reached a consensus that PCa progression and distant metastasis can be tackled at the molecular level. Although there are a good number of models that have shown to facilitate the study of PCa initiation and progression at the primary site, models that mimic the distant dissemination of cancer cells, particularly bone metastasis, are scarce. Despite this limitation, the field has gleaned valuable knowledge on the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathways of PCa progression, including local invasion and distant metastasis, and has moved forward in developing the concepts of current therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this review is to put together recent work on pathways that are currently being targeted for therapy, as well as other prospective novel therapeutic targets to be developed in the future against metastatic and potentially lethal PCa in patients. PMID:25374910

  7. Pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes and therapeutic drug monitoring as potential tools for individualizing taxane therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Stefanie D; McLeod, Howard L; Hertz, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    The taxanes are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Although taxanes are highly effective in cancer treatment, their use is associated with serious complications attributable to large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window. Unpredictable toxicity occurrence necessitates close patient monitoring while on therapy and adverse effects frequently require decreasing, delaying or even discontinuing taxane treatment. Currently, taxane dosing is based primarily on body surface area, ignoring other factors that are known to dictate variability in pharmacokinetics or outcome. This article discusses three potential strategies for individualizing taxane treatment based on patient information that can be collected before or during care. The clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes or therapeutic drug monitoring could enable clinicians to personalize taxane treatment to enhance efficacy and/or limit toxicity. PMID:23556452

  8. Therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs/micro interfering RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2015-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems.

  9. Structure-activity relationships of pyrazole derivatives as potential therapeutics for immune thrombocytopenias.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Meena K; Chakka, Sai Kumar; Scovell, Iain; Neschadim, Anton; Bello, Angelica M; Salum, Noruê; Katsman, Yulia; Bareau, Madeleine C; Branch, Donald R; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2014-05-01

    Idiopathic or immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a serious clinical disorder involving the destruction of platelets by macrophages. Small molecule therapeutics are highly sought after to ease the burden on current therapies derived from human sources. Earlier, we discovered that dimers of five-membered heterocycles exhibited potential to inhibit phagocytosis of human RBCs by macrophages. Here, we reveal a structure-activity relationship of the bis-pyrazole class of molecules with -C-C-, -C-N- and -C-O- linkers, and their evaluation as inhibitors of phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized human RBCs as potential therapeutics for ITP. We have uncovered three potential candidates, 37, 47 and 50, all carrying a different linker connecting the two pyrazole moieties. Among these compounds, hydroxypyrazole derivative 50 is the most potent compound with an IC50 of 14 ± 9 μM for inhibiting the phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized human RBCs by macrophages. None of the compounds exhibited significant potential to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Current study has revealed specific functional features, such as up to 2-atom spacer arm and alkyl substitution at one of the N(1) positions of the bivalent pyrazole core to be important for the inhibitory activity.

  10. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization.

    PubMed

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications.

  11. Amplification of TRIM44: Pairing a Prognostic Target With Potential Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chin-Ann Johnny; Shannon, Nicholas B.; Ross-Innes, Caryn S.; O’Donovan, Maria; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hu, De-en; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Walker, Christina Elaine; Noorani, Ayesha; Hardwick, Richard H.; Caldas, Carlos; Brindle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Many prognostic biomarkers have been proposed recently. However, there is a lack of therapeutic strategies exploiting novel prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to propose therapeutic options in patients with overexpression of TRIM44, a recently identified prognostic gene. Methods Genomic and transcriptomic data of epithelial cancers (n = 1932), breast cancers (BCs; n = 1980) and esophago-gastric cancers (EGCs; n = 163) were used to identify genomic aberrations driving TRIM44 overexpression. The driver gene status of TRIM44 was determined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the 11p13 amplicon. Integrative analysis was applied across multiple datasets to identify pathway activation and potential therapeutic strategies. Validation of the in silico findings were performed using in vitro assays, xenografts, and patient samples (n = 160). Results TRIM44 overexpression results from genomic amplification in 16.1% of epithelial cancers, including 8.1% of EGCs and 6.1% of BCs. This was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The siRNA screen confirmed TRIM44 to be a driver of the amplicon. In silico analysis revealed an association between TRIM44 and mTOR signalling, supported by a decrease in mTOR signalling after siRNA knockdown of TRIM44 in cell lines and colocalization of TRIM44 and p-mTOR in patient samples. In vitro inhibition studies using an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) decreased cell viability in two TRIM44-amplified cells lines by 88% and 70% compared with 35% in the control cell line. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models. Conclusions Genomic amplification drives TRIM44 overexpression in EGCs and BCs. Targeting the mTOR pathway provides a potential therapeutic option for TRIM44-amplified tumors. PMID:24777112

  12. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications. PMID:26973523

  13. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-12-05

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects.

  14. Sensitization of U937 leukemia cells to doxorubicin by the MG132 proteasome inhibitor induces an increase in apoptosis by suppressing NF-kappa B and mitochondrial membrane potential loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The resistance of cancerous cells to chemotherapy remains the main limitation for cancer treatment at present. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent antitumor drug that activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system, but unfortunately it also activates the Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB) pathway leading to the promotion of tumor cell survival. MG132 is a drug that inhibits I kappa B degradation by the proteasome-avoiding activation of NF-кB. In this work, we studied the sensitizing effect of the MG132 proteasome inhibitor on the antitumor activity of DOX. Methods U937 human leukemia cells were treated with MG132, DOX, or both drugs. We evaluated proliferation, viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, -8, and −9 activity and cleavage, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane potential, the Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL antiapoptotic proteins, senescence, p65 phosphorylation, and pro- and antiapoptotic genes. Results The greatest apoptosis percentage in U937 cells was obtained with a combination of MG132 + DOX. Likewise, employing both drugs, we observed a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and important caspase-3 activation, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Therefore, MG132 decreases senescence, p65 phosphorylation, and the DOX-induced Bcl-2 antiapoptotic protein. The MG132 + DOX treatment induced upregulation of proapoptotic genes BAX, DIABLO, NOXA, DR4, and FAS. It also induced downregulation of the antiapoptotic genes BCL-XL and SURVIVIN. Conclusion MG132 sensitizes U937 leukemia cells to DOX-induced apoptosis, increasing its anti-leukemic effectiveness. PMID:24495648

  15. Boswellic acids synergize antitumor activity and protect against the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in mice bearing Ehrlich's carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa A; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether boswellic acids add to the antitumor effects of doxorubicin against solid tumors of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) grown in mice, and to investigate the protective effects of boswellic acids against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Sixty-four female Swiss albino mice bearing EAC solid tumors were distributed among 8 groups as follows: group 1, EAC control group; group 2, doxorubicin treatment group [mice were injected with doxorubicin (6 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·week(-1)) for 3 weeks]; groups 3-5, these mice were treated with boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively; groups 6-8, these mice were treated with a combination of doxorubicin and boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively, for 3 weeks. The results indicated that boswellic acids synergized the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-treated mice showed elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB as well as cardiac malondialdehyde. Further, decreases in cardiac levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed. These effects were accompanied by an increase in cardiac expression of caspase 3. Thus, treatment with boswellic acids attenuated doxorubicin-evoked disturbances in the above-mentioned parameters, highlighting antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Therefore, boswellic acids could be potential candidates for ameliorating the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin.

  16. Insights into the antimicrobial properties of hepcidins: advantages and drawbacks as potential therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lisa; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Batoni, Giovanna; Tavanti, Arianna

    2015-04-10

    The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals), and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application.

  17. Marijuana, endocannabinoids, and epilepsy: potential and challenges for improved therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E.; Frazier, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids isolated from the cannabis plant have broad potential in medicine that has been well recognized for many centuries. It is presumed that these lipid soluble signaling molecules exert their effects in both the central and peripheral nervous system in large part through direct interaction with metabotropic cannabinoid receptors. These same receptors are also targeted by a variety of endogenous cannabinoids including 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide. Significant effort over the last decade has produced an enormous advance in our understanding of both the cellular and the synaptic physiology of endogenous lipid signaling systems. This increase in knowledge has left us better prepared to carefully evaluate the potential for both natural and synthetic cannabinoids in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders. In the case of epilepsy, long standing interest in therapeutic approaches that target endogenous cannabinoid signaling systems are, for the most part, not well justified by available clinical data from human epileptics. Nevertheless, basic science experiments have clearly indicated a key role for endogenous cannabinoid signaling systems in moment to moment regulation of neuronal excitability. Further it has become clear that these systems can both alter and be altered by epileptiform activity in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. Collectively these observations suggest clear potential for effective therapeutic modulation of endogenous cannabinoid signaling systems in the treatment of human epilepsy, and in fact, further highlight key obstacles that would need to be addressed to reach that goal. PMID:22178327

  18. Doxorubicin and deracoxib adjuvant therapy for canine splenic hemangiosarcoma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S Anthony; Mullin, Christine M; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Burgess, Kristine E; Risbon, Rebecca E; Fred, Rogers M; Drobatz, Kenneth; Clifford, Craig A

    2013-03-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a highly malignant tumor for which standard chemotherapy has done little to substantially improve survival. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) plays a role in the formation, growth, and metastasis of tumors and inhibitors have demonstrated therapeutic benefit with certain canine cancers. In this prospective study, 21 dogs received adjuvant therapy combining the selective Cox-2 inhibitor deracoxib with doxorubicin, following splenectomy for HSA. The combination was well-tolerated with only low-grade gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities noted. An overall median survival of 150 days (range; 21 to 1506 days) was noted. Although there was no significant difference in survival based upon stage of disease, dogs with stage III HSA (n = 11) had a median survival of 149 days, which appears to be longer than previously reported. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the potential benefit of Cox-2 inhibitors in the treatment of canine HSA.

  19. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Potential of Acetyl-L-carnitine against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Salman A; Alanazi, Abdulrazaq; Bakheet, Saleh A; Alharbi, Naif O; Nagi, Mahmoud N

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of acetylcarnitine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity were studied in mice. To evaluate the prophylactic effects of acetylcarnitine, mice were supplemented with acetylcarnitine (2 mmol/kg/day per oral (p.o.) for 5 days) before a single dose of acetaminophen (350 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)). Animals were sacrificed 6 h after acetaminophen injection. Acetaminophen significantly increased the markers of liver injury, hepatic reactive oxygen species, and nitrate/nitrite, and decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes. Acetylcarnitine supplementation resulted in reversal of all biochemical parameters toward the control values. To explore the therapeutic effects of acetylcarnitine, mice were given a single dose of acetylcarnitine (0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/kg p.o.) 1.5 h after acetaminophen. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after acetaminophen. Acetylcarnitine administration resulted in partial reversal of liver injury only at 2 mmol/kg p.o. At equimolar doses, N-acetylcystiene was superior as therapeutic agent to acetylcarnitine. However, acetylcarnitine potentiated the effect of N-acetylcystiene in the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity.

  20. Therapeutic potential and limitations of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kanashiro, Alexandre; Sônego, Fabiane; Ferreira, Raphael G; Castanheira, Fernanda V S; Leite, Caio A; Borges, Vanessa F; Nascimento, Daniele C; Cólon, David F; Alves-Filho, José Carlos; Ulloa, Luis; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2017-03-01

    Sepsis is one of the main causes of mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite the recent technical advances and the development of novel generation of antibiotics, severe sepsis remains a major clinical and scientific challenge in modern medicine. Unsuccessful efforts have been dedicated to the search of therapeutic options to treat the deleterious inflammatory components of sepsis. Recent findings on neuronal networks controlling immunity raised expectations for novel therapeutic strategies to promote the regulation of sterile inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases. Interesting studies have dissected the anatomical constituents of the so-called "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway", suggesting that electrical vagus nerve stimulation and pharmacological activation of beta-2 adrenergic and alpha-7 nicotinic receptors could be alternative strategies for improving inflammatory conditions. However, the literature on infectious diseases, such as sepsis, is still controversial and, therefore, the real therapeutic potential of this neuroimmune pathway is not well defined. In this review, we will discuss the beneficial and detrimental effects of neural manipulation in sepsis, which depend on the multiple variables of the immune system and the nature of the infection. These observations suggest future critical studies to validate the clinical implications of vagal parasympathetic signaling in sepsis treatment.

  1. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-09-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes.

  2. RNAi: a potential new class of therapeutic for human genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Attila A

    2011-11-01

    Dominant negative genetic disorders, in which a mutant allele of a gene causes disease in the presence of a second, normal copy, have been challenging since there is no cure and treatments are only to alleviate the symptoms. Current therapies involving pharmacological and biological drugs are not suitable to target mutant genes selectively due to structural indifference of the normal variant of their targets from the disease-causing mutant ones. In instances when the target contains single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), whether it is an enzyme or structural or receptor protein are not ideal for treatment using conventional drugs due to their lack of selectivity. Therefore, there is a need to develop new approaches to accelerate targeting these previously inaccessible targets by classical therapeutics. Although there is a cooling trend by the pharmaceutical industry for the potential of RNA interference (RNAi), RNAi and other RNA targeting drugs (antisense, ribozyme, etc.) still hold their promise as the only drugs that provide an opportunity to target genes with SNP mutations found in dominant negative disorders, genes specific to pathogenic tumor cells, and genes that are critical for mediating the pathology of various other diseases. Because of its exquisite specificity and potency, RNAi has attracted a considerable interest as a new class of therapeutic for genetic diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), spinocerebellar ataxia, dominant muscular dystrophies, and cancer. In this review, progress and challenges in developing RNAi therapeutics for genetic diseases will be discussed.

  3. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26501106

  4. MMP-9 and CXCL8/IL-8 Are Potential Therapeutic Targets in Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Lettner, Thomas; Lang, Roland; Klausegger, Alfred; Hainzl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a group of genodermatoses that affects the integrity of epithelial layers, phenotypically resulting in severe skin blistering. Dowling-Meara, the major subtype of epidermolysis bullosa simplex, is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and can be caused by mutations in either the keratin-5 (K5) or the keratin-14 (K14) gene. Currently, no therapeutic approach is known, and the main objective of this study was to identify novel therapeutic targets. We used microarray analysis, semi-quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and ELISA to identify differentially regulated genes in two K14 mutant cell lines carrying the mutations K14 R125P and K14 R125H, respectively. We found kallikrein-related peptidases and matrix metalloproteinases to be upregulated. We also found elevated expression of chemokines, and we observed deregulation of the Cdc42 pathway as well as aberrant expression of cytokeratins and junction proteins. We further demonstrated, that expression of these genes is dependent on interleukin-1 β signaling. To evaluate these data in vivo we analysed the blister fluids of epidermolysis bullosa simplex patients vs. healthy controls and identified matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23894602

  5. Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB(2) ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2012-02-01

    The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB(1) antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB(2) drugs without CB(1) psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB(1) receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB(2) is mainly expressed in peripheral cells and tissues, and is involved in immune signal transduction. Conversely, the CB(2) receptor was recently detected in the CNS, for example, in the microglial cells and the neurons. While the CB(2) neurons activity remains controversial, the CB(2) receptor is an attractive therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, immune system, cancer and osteoporosis without psychoactivity. This review addresses CB drug abuse and therapeutic potential with a focus on the most recent advances on new CB(2) ligands from the literature as well as patents.

  6. From here to eternity - the secret of Pharaohs: Therapeutic potential of black cumin seeds and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Mohammad, Ramzi; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering substances that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases; many such remedies are useful even today as modern day medicine. Emerging evidence also suggests that the search is still continuing for harnessing active compounds from nature in combating human illnesses although pharmaceutical industries are equally active for synthesizing small molecule compounds as novel therapeutics. The lesson learned over many centuries clearly suggests that further sophisticated search for finding compounds from natural resources together with robust characterization and chemical synthesis will lead to the discovery of novel drugs that may have high therapeutic efficacy against all human diseases including cancer. Black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil extracts have been used for many centuries for the treatment of many human illnesses, and more recently the active compound found in black seed oil, viz. thymoquinone (TQ) has been tested for its efficacy against several diseases including cancer. However, further research is needed in order to assess the full potential of TQ as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against cancers. Here, we have summarized what is known regarding the value of black seed oil and its active compound TQ, and how this knowledge will help us to advance further research in this field by creating awareness among scientists and health professionals in order to appreciate the medicinal value of TQ and beyond. PMID:19018291

  7. Enzyme promiscuity in earthworm serine protease: substrate versatility and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mahendra Kumar; Pulicherla, K K

    2016-04-01

    Enzymes are the most versatile molecules in the biological world. These amazing molecules play an integral role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways and physiology subsequently. Promiscuity of an enzyme is the capacity to catalyze additional biochemical reactions besides their native one. Catalytic promiscuity has shown great impact in enzyme engineering for commercial enzyme and therapeutics with natural or engineered catalytic promiscuity. The earthworm serine protease (ESP) is a classic example of enzyme promiscuity and studied for its therapeutic potential over the last few decades. The ESP was reported for several therapeutic properties and fibrinolytic activity has been much explored. ESP, a complex enzyme exists as several isoforms of molecular weight ranging from 14 to 33 kDa. The fibrinolytic capacity of the enzyme has been studied in different species of earthworm and molecular mechanism is quite different from conventional thrombolytics. Cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities of ESP were evaluated using several cancer cell lines. Enzyme had shown tremendous scope in fighting against plant viruses and microbes. ESP is also reported for anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidant property. Apart from these, recently, ESP is reported for DNase activity. The daunting challenge for researchers is to understand the molecular mechanism for such diverse properties and possibility of enzyme promiscuity. This review emphasizes molecular mechanism of ESP governing various biochemical reactions. Further, the concept of enzyme promiscuity in ESP towards development of novel enzyme based drugs has been reviewed in this study.

  8. MicroRNAs Expressed during Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential and Therapeutic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Louten, Jennifer; Beach, Michael; Palermino, Kristina; Weeks, Maria; Holenstein, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short sequences of noncoding single-stranded RNAs that exhibit inhibitory effects on complementary target mRNAs. Recently, it has been discovered that certain viruses express their own miRNAs, while other viruses activate the transcription of cellular miRNAs for their own benefit. This review summarizes the viral and/or cellular miRNAs that are transcribed during infection, with a focus on the biomarker and therapeutic potential of miRNAs (or their antagomirs). Several human viruses of clinical importance are discussed, namely, herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:26819546

  9. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  10. A window on disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies: molecular imaging for arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Novel molecular imaging techniques are at the forefront of both preclinical and clinical imaging strategies. They have significant potential to offer visualisation and quantification of molecular and cellular changes in health and disease. This will help to shed light on pathobiology and underlying disease processes and provide further information about the mechanisms of action of novel therapeutic strategies. This review explores currently available molecular imaging techniques that are available for preclinical studies with a focus on optical imaging techniques and discusses how current and future advances will enable translation into the clinic for patients with arthritis. PMID:21345267

  11. Sigma (σ) receptors as potential therapeutic targets to mitigate psychostimulant effects.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Rae R; Nguyen, Linda; Kaushal, Nidhi; Robson, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Many psychostimulants, including cocaine and methamphetamine, interact with sigma (σ) receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations. The potential therapeutic relevance of this interaction is underscored by the ability to selectively target σ receptors to mitigate many behavioral and physiological effects of psychostimulants in animal and cell-based model systems. This chapter begins with an overview of these enigmatic proteins. Provocative preclinical data showing that σ ligands modulate an array of cocaine and methamphetamine effects are summarized, along with emerging areas of research. Together, the literature suggests targeting of σ receptors as an innovative option for combating undesired actions of psychostimulants through both neuronal and glial mechanisms.

  12. Therapeutic potential of a peptide targeting BCL-2 cell guardians in cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M

    2012-06-01

    A promising approach to cancer therapy is to elicit apoptosis with "BH3 mimetic" drugs, which target proteins of the BCL-2 family. As of yet, however, such drugs can target only certain BCL-2 family proteins. Hence, in this issue of the JCI, LaBelle et al. assess instead the therapeutic potential of a "stapled" BH3 peptide from the BIM protein, which inactivates all its prosurvival relatives. The peptide killed cultured hematologic tumor cells and abated growth of a leukemia xenograft, without perturbing the hematopoietic compartment. Hence, such peptides might eventually provide a new way to treat refractory leukemias.

  13. New therapeutic approaches for Krabbe disease: The potential of pharmacological chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Spratley, Samantha J.

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations in the lysosomal hydrolase β‐galactocerebrosidase (GALC) account for at least 40% of known cases of Krabbe disease (KD). Most of these missense mutations are predicted to disrupt the fold of the enzyme, preventing GALC in sufficient amounts from reaching its site of action in the lysosome. The predominant central nervous system (CNS) pathology and the absence of accumulated primary substrate within the lysosome mean that strategies used to treat other lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are insufficient in KD, highlighting the still unmet clinical requirement for successful KD therapeutics. Pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT) is one strategy being explored to overcome defects in GALC caused by missense mutations. In recent studies, several small‐molecule inhibitors have been identified as promising chaperone candidates for GALC. This Review discusses new insights gained from these studies and highlights the importance of characterizing both the chaperone interaction and the underlying mutation to define properly a responsive population and to improve the translation of existing lead molecules into successful KD therapeutics. We also highlight the importance of using multiple complementary methods to monitor PCT effectiveness. Finally, we explore the exciting potential of using combination therapy to ameliorate disease through the use of PCT with existing therapies or with more generalized therapeutics, such as proteasomal inhibition, that have been shown to have synergistic effects in other LSDs. This, alongside advances in CNS delivery of recombinant enzyme and targeted rational drug design, provides a promising outlook for the development of KD therapeutics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638604

  14. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maysa Mariana; Cunha, Roberta D. C.; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel; Oyama, Lila Missae; Nascimento, Claudia M. Oller; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; dos Santos, Ronaldo V. T.; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc) and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c) in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects. PMID:27015538

  15. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Luana Amorim; Lima Junior, Edson Alves; Souza, Camila Oliveira; Cruz, Maysa Mariana; Cunha, Roberta D C; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel; Oyama, Lila Missae; Nascimento, Claudia M Oller; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Dos Santos, Ronaldo V T; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rosa Neto, José Cesar

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc) and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c) in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects.

  16. High-intensity focused ultrasound-mediated doxorubicin delivery with thermosensitive liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Mannaris, Christophoros; Novell, Anthony; Rioc, Laëtitia; Meyre, Marie-Edith; Germain, Matthieu; Averkiou, Michalakis; Bouakaz, Ayache

    2012-10-01

    Local drug delivery of doxorubicin holds promise to improve the therapeutic efficacy and to reduce toxicity profiles. Here, we investigated the release of doxorubicin from thermosensitive liposomes (Dox-TSL) into human glioblastoma (U-87MG) cells. Using Dox-TSL, experiments were carried out in a water bath and showed that 15 min incubation of TSL at 43°C induced the release of 80% doxorubicin loaded TSL compared to the release at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of a range of concentrations of Dox-TSL was also evaluated on U-87MG cells. At 37°C, no cytotoxicity was observed, whereas at 43°C the results showed that the cytotoxicity is dose dependent. At maximal dose of doxorubicin (30 μg/mL), the cell viability was less than 20%. Application of 15 min of HIFU at 1 MHz, 1.5 MPa and 50% duty cycle induced the release of 100% of doxorubicin from Dox-TSL. In the same experimental condition, the cell viability decreased to 40% and 20% at 12h and 48h, respectively, in comparison to that obtained during the incubation of cells with Dox-TSL alone without HIFU. In conclusion, a significant release of doxorubicin from temperature-sensitive liposomes can be achieved leading to an efficient treatment and cell death of tumor cells using HIFU.

  17. A small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1 protects against doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asish K.; Rai, Rahul; Park, Kitae E.; Eren, Mesut; Miyata, Toshio; Wilsbacher, Lisa D.; Vaughan, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic, is a commonly used anticancer drug. In spite of its widespread usage, its therapeutic effect is limited by its cardiotoxicity. On the cellular level, Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity manifests as stress induced premature senescence. Previously, we demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a potent inhibitor of serine proteases, is an important biomarker and regulator of cellular senescence and aging. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of cellular PAI-1 protects against stress- and aging-induced cellular senescence and delineated the molecular basis of protective action of PAI-1 inhibition. Results show that TM5441, a potent small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, effectively prevents Doxorubicin-induced senescence in cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. TM5441 exerts its inhibitory effect on Doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence by decreasing reactive oxygen species generation, induction of antioxidants like catalase and suppression of stress-induced senescence cadre p53, p21, p16, PAI-1 and IGFBP3. Importantly, TM5441 also reduces replicative senescence of fibroblasts. Together these results for the first time demonstrate the efficacy of PAI-1 inhibitor in prevention of Doxorubicin-induced and replicative senescence in normal cells. Thus PAI-1 inhibitor may form an important adjuvant component of chemotherapy regimens, limiting not only Doxorubicin-induced cardiac senescence but also ameliorating the prothrombotic profile. PMID:27736799

  18. Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chia-Siu; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Huang, Hsiang-Wei; Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Lu, Pei-Hsuan; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Human gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detection of GC are essential for improving patients’ survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in tumorigenesis. They contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Because of their stability in tissues, serum/plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs have been suggested as novel tumor biomarkers with suitable clinical potential. Recently, aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been identified and tested for clinical application in the management of GC. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles determined with miRNA microarrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing approaches could be used to establish sample specificity and to identify tumor type. Here, we provide an up-to-date summary of tissue-based GC-associated miRNAs, describing their involvement and that of their downstream targets in tumorigenic and biological processes. We examine correlations among significant clinical parameters and prognostic indicators, and discuss recurrence monitoring and therapeutic options in GC. We also review plasma/serum-based, GC-associated, circulating miRNAs and their clinical applications, focusing especially on early diagnosis. By providing insights into the mechanisms of miRNA-related tumor progression, this review will hopefully aid in the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27322246

  19. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. PMID:26973412

  20. Neural stem cells: properties and therapeutic potentials for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il-Shin; Jung, Kwangsoo; Kim, Miri; Park, Kook In

    2010-12-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their ability to self-renew, to differentiate into cells of all glial and neuronal lineages throughout the neuraxis, and to populate developing or degenerating central nervous system (CNS) regions. The recognition that NSCs propagated in culture could be reimplanted into the mammalian brain, where they might integrate appropriately throughout the mammalian CNS and stably express foreign genes, has unveiled a new role for neural transplantation and gene therapy and a possible strategy for addressing the CNS manifestations of diseases that hitherto had been refractory to intervention. An intriguing phenomenon with possible therapeutic potentials has begun to emerge from our observations of the behavior of NSCs in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. During phases of active neurodegeneration, factors seem to be transiently elaborated to which NSCs may respond by migrating to degenerating regions and differentiating specifically towards replacement of dying neural cells. NSCs may attempt to repopulate and reconstitute ablated regions. These 'repair mechanisms' may actually reflect the reexpression of basic developmental principles that may be harnessed for therapeutic ends. In addition, NSCs may serve as vehicles for gene delivery and appear capable of simultaneous neural cell replacement and gene therapy (e.g. with factors that might enhance neuronal differentiation, neurites outgrowth, proper connectivity, and/or neuroprotection). When combined with certain synthetic biomaterials, NSCs may be even more effective in 'engineering' the damaged CNS towards reconstitution. We have also cultured human NSCs or progenitors as neurospheres which were derived from fetal cadavers at 13 weeks of gestation, and transplanted them into HI-injured immature brains to investigate their therapeutic potentials in this type of model.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Mood Stabilizers Lithium and Valproic Acid: Beyond Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Wang, Zhifei; Hunsberger, Joshua G.

    2013-01-01

    The mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid (VPA) are traditionally used to treat bipolar disorder (BD), a severe mental illness arising from complex interactions between genes and environment that drive deficits in cellular plasticity and resiliency. The therapeutic potential of these drugs in other central nervous system diseases is also gaining support. This article reviews the various mechanisms of action of lithium and VPA gleaned from cellular and animal models of neurologic, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical evidence is included when available to provide a comprehensive perspective of the field and to acknowledge some of the limitations of these treatments. First, the review describes how action at these drugs’ primary targets—glycogen synthase kinase-3 for lithium and histone deacetylases for VPA—induces the transcription and expression of neurotrophic, angiogenic, and neuroprotective proteins. Cell survival signaling cascades, oxidative stress pathways, and protein quality control mechanisms may further underlie lithium and VPA’s beneficial actions. The ability of cotreatment to augment neuroprotection and enhance stem cell homing and migration is also discussed, as are microRNAs as new therapeutic targets. Finally, preclinical findings have shown that the neuroprotective benefits of these agents facilitate anti-inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, blood-brain barrier integrity, and disease-specific neuroprotection. These mechanisms can be compared with dysregulated disease mechanisms to suggest core cellular and molecular disturbances identifiable by specific risk biomarkers. Future clinical endeavors are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of lithium and VPA across the spectrum of central nervous system diseases, with particular emphasis on a personalized medicine approach toward treating these disorders. PMID:23300133

  2. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2016-03-07

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake.

  3. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been used clinically to treat bipolar disorder for over half a century, and remains a fundamental pharmacological therapy for patients with this illness. Although lithium’s therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood, substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties against various insults, and considerable clinical potential for the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions. Evidence from pharmacological and gene manipulation studies support the notion that glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling are lithium’s main mechanisms of action, leading to enhanced cell survival pathways and alteration of a wide variety of downstream effectors. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, lithium also contributes to calcium homeostasis and suppresses calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, lithium decreases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by inhibiting phosphoinositol phosphatases, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. Through these mechanisms, therapeutic doses of lithium have been demonstrated to defend neuronal cells against diverse forms of death insults and to improve behavioral as well as cognitive deficits in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, as well as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases, among others. Several clinical trials are also underway to assess the therapeutic effects of lithium for treating these disorders. This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the potential targets involved in lithium’s neuroprotective effects, and the implication of these findings for the treatment of a variety of diseases. PMID:20705090

  4. Phase I trial of cremophor EL with bolus doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Millward, M J; Webster, L K; Rischin, D; Stokes, K H; Toner, G C; Bishop, J F; Olver, I N; Linahan, B M; Linsenmeyer, M E; Woodcock, D M

    1998-10-01

    Cremophor EL (cremophor), a component of the paclitaxel formulation, can potentially reverse P-glycoprotein-associated multidrug resistance. A Phase I trial of cremophor as a 6-h infusion every 3 weeks was performed with bolus doxorubicin (50 mg/m2). The cremophor dose was escalated from 1 to 60 ml/m2. A standard paclitaxel premedication was given before cremophor. Using a bioassay, potentially active cremophor levels (> or = 1 microl/ml) were measured in plasma from patients receiving cremophor doses of 30, 45, and 60 ml/m2. A cross-over design was used to assess the influence of cremophor 30 ml/m2 on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol. The plasma area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of doxorubicin increased from 1448 +/- 350 to 1786 +/- 264 ng/ml x h (P = 0.02) in the presence of cremophor, whereas the AUC of doxorubicinol increased from 252 +/- 104 to 486 +/- 107 ng/ml x h (P = 0.02). This pharmacokinetic interaction was associated with significantly increased neutropenia. With reduction of the doxorubicin dose to 35 mg/m2, the cremophor dose was increased to 60 ml/m2. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in two of six patients after 45 ml/m2 and two of four patients after 60 ml/m2, which included febrile neutropenia and grade III cremophor-related toxicities of rash, pruritus, headache, and hypotension. All patients who received 45 ml/m2 cremophor reached plasma levels > or = 1.5 microl/ml, but at 60 ml/m2, only two of four reached this level, and the calculated plasma clearance of cremophor was significantly faster at this dose. One patient with hepatoma resistant to epirubicin achieved a near-complete response. Cremophor 45 ml/m2 over 6 h with 35 mg/m2 doxorubicin is recommended for further studies. The pharmacokinetic interaction between cremophor and doxorubicin is quantitatively similar to that described in trials of paclitaxel with doxorubicin and suggests that the cremophor in the paclitaxel formulation is responsible.

  5. Doxorubicin as an Antioxidant: Maintenance of Myocardial Levels of Lycopene under Doxorubicin Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity remains controversial. Wistar-rats (n=96) were randomly assigned to either a control (C), Lycopene (L), Doxorubicin (D) or Doxorubicin + Lycopene (DL) group. The L and DL groups received lycopene (5 mg/Kg-body-wt/d by gavage) for 7 wks. The D and D...

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Moringa oleifera Leaves in Chronic Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, Majambu

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is an angiosperm plant, native of the Indian subcontinent, where its various parts have been utilized throughout history as food and medicine. It is now cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The nutritional, prophylactic, and therapeutic virtues of this plant are being extolled on the Internet. Dietary consumption of its part is therein promoted as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in various diseases. The enthusiasm for the health benefits of M. oleifera is in dire contrast with the scarcity of strong experimental and clinical evidence supporting them. Fortunately, the chasm is slowly being filled. In this article, I review current scientific data on the corrective potential of M. oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, as symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reported studies in experimental animals and humans, although limited in number and variable in design, seem concordant in their support for this potential. However, before M. oleifera leaf formulations can be recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and CVD, it is necessary that the scientific basis of their efficacy, the therapeutic modalities of their administration and their possible side effects be more rigorously determined. PMID:22403543

  7. The insulin-like growth factor system in multiple myeloma: diagnostic and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Johnsen, Hans E.; Maes, Ken; Menu, Eline; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Overgaard, Michael T.; Nyegaard, Mette; Conover, Cheryl A.; Vanderkerken, Karin; De Bruyne, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a highly heterogeneous plasma cell malignancy. The MM cells reside in the bone marrow (BM), where reciprocal interactions with the BM niche foster MM cell survival, proliferation, and drug resistance. As in most cancers, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been demonstrated to play a key role in the pathogenesis of MM. The IGF system consists of IGF ligands, IGF receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases and contributes not only to the survival, proliferation, and homing of MM cells, but also MM-associated angiogenesis and osteolysis. Furthermore, increased IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression on MM cells correlates with a poor prognosis in MM patients. Despite the prominent role of the IGF system in MM, strategies targeting the IGF-IR using blocking antibodies or small molecule inhibitors have failed to translate into the clinic. However, increasing preclinical evidence indicates that IGF-I is also involved in the development of drug resistance against current standard-of-care agents against MM, including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and corticoids. IGF-IR targeting has been able to overcome or revert this drug resistance in animal models, enhancing the efficacy of standard-of-care agents. This finding has generated renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of IGF-I targeting in MM. The present review provides an update of the impact of the different IGF system components in MM and discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. PMID:27129151

  8. Alcohol Versus Cannabinoids: A Review of Their Opposite Neuro-Immunomodulatory Effects and Future Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan P.; Figueroa, Gloria; Casteleiro, Gianna; Muñoz, Karla; Agudelo, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Due to the legalization of marijuana and the increased demand for cannabis and alcohol consumption, research efforts highlighting the biomedical consequences of the use of alcohol and cannabinoids are not only relevant to the substance abuse scientific field, but are also of public health interest. Moreover, an overview of the recent literature about alcohol and cannabinoids neuro-immunomodulatory effects highlighting their future therapeutic potentials will provide a significant contribution to science and medicine. Therefore, in the current review, we will first discuss briefly the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana abuse, followed by a discussion on the individual effects of alcohol and cannabinoids on the immune system; then, we will focus on the role of endocannabinoids on the alcohol-induced inflammatory effects. In addition, the review also incorporates cytokine array data obtained from human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, providing a different perspective on the alcohol and cannabinoid abuse divergent effects on cytokine production. The final section will highlight the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptors and the novel strategies to treat alcohol dependence as determined by in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. PMID:26478902

  9. Function, therapeutic potential and cell biology of BACE proteases: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Vassar, Robert; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Haass, Christian; Kennedy, Matthew E; Rajendran, Lawrence; Wong, Philip C; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F

    2014-07-01

    The β-site APP cleaving enzymes 1 and 2 (BACE1 and BACE2) were initially identified as transmembrane aspartyl proteases cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP). BACE1 is a major drug target for Alzheimer's disease because BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is the first step in the generation of the pathogenic amyloid-β peptides. BACE1, which is highly expressed in the nervous system, is also required for myelination by cleaving neuregulin 1. Several recent proteomic and in vivo studies using BACE1- and BACE2-deficient mice demonstrate a much wider range of physiological substrates and functions for both proteases within and outside of the nervous system. For BACE1 this includes axon guidance, neurogenesis, muscle spindle formation, and neuronal network functions, whereas BACE2 was shown to be involved in pigmentation and pancreatic β-cell function. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding cell biology, substrates, and functions of BACE proteases and discusses the therapeutic options and potential mechanism-based liabilities, in particular for BACE inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease. The protease BACE1 is a major drug target in Alzheimer disease. Together with its homolog BACE2, both proteases have an increasing number of functions within and outside of the nervous system. This review highlights recent progress in understanding cell biology, substrates, and functions of BACE proteases and discusses the therapeutic options and potential mechanism-based liabilities, in particular for BACE inhibitors in Alzheimer disease.

  10. MicroRNA and diseases: therapeutic potential as new generation of drugs.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Taous; Kim, You Young

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding regulatory RNA of 21-25 nucleotides (nts) in length. miRNA works as a post-transcriptional regulator of a specific mRNA by inducing degradation or translation repression resulting in gene silencing. A large number of miRNA have been reported and many more are yet to be discovered. Aberrant expression of miRNA has been linked to numerous diseases. Attempts have been made to attenuate miRNA misregulation under pathophysiological conditions. Additionally, the potential use of miRNA in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases has been studied. Several preclinical and clinical results have been obtained, and miRNA-based therapeutics are still under investigations. In this review, the role of miRNA in a variety of pathological conditions has been summarized. Recent findings from preclinical and clinical investigations examining the role of miRNA as diagnostic markers, and their potential as drug candidates, are also highlighted. The current results summarized in this review may elucidate new dimensions of miRNA therapeutic and diagnostic techniques for biomedical academic and industry research.

  11. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses as potential vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Campillo-Pedroza, Natalia; Almazán, Fernando; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

    2013-06-07

    Viral vectors have become the best option for the delivery of therapeutic genes in conventional and RNA interference-based gene therapies. The current viral vectors for the delivery of small regulatory RNAs are based on DNA viruses and retroviruses/lentiviruses. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses have been excluded as viral vectors for RNAi therapy because of the nuclear localization of the microprocessor complex and the potential degradation of the viral RNA genome during the excision of any virus-encoded pre-microRNAs. However, in the last few years, the presence of several species of small RNAs (e.g., virus-derived small interfering RNAs, virus-derived short RNAs, and unusually small RNAs) in animals and cell cultures that are infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses has suggested the existence of a non-canonical mechanism of microRNA biogenesis. Several studies have been conducted on the tick-borne encephalitis virus and on the Sindbis virus in which microRNA precursors were artificially incorporated and demonstrated the production of mature microRNAs. The ability of these viruses to recruit Drosha to the cytoplasm during infection resulted in the efficient processing of virus-encoded microRNA without the viral genome entering the nucleus. In this review, we discuss the relevance of these findings with an emphasis on the potential use of cytoplasmic RNA viruses as vehicles for the efficient delivery of therapeutic small RNAs.

  12. Expression Profiling Identifies Bezafibrate as Potential Therapeutic Drug for Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyan; Yang, Xiaoqin; Chen, Xinmei; Zhang, Yantao; Pan, Xuebin; Wang, Guiping; Ye, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced gene expression patterns that invert disease profiles have recently been illustrated to be a new strategy for drug-repositioning. In the present study, we validated this approach and focused on prediction of novel drugs for lung adenocarcinoma (AC), for which there is a pressing need to find novel therapeutic compounds. Firstly, connectivity map (CMap) analysis computationally predicted bezafibrate as a putative compound against lung AC. Then this hypothesis was verified by in vitro assays of anti-proliferation and cell cycle arrest. In silico docking evidence indicated that bezafibrate could target cyclin dependent kinase 2(CDK2), which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that bezafibrate can significantly down-regulate the expression of CDK2 mRNA and p-CDK2. Using a nude mice xenograft model, we also found that bezafibrate could inhibit tumor growth of lung AC in vivo. In conclusion, this study proposed bezafibrate as a potential therapeutic option for lung AC patients, illustrating the potential of in silico drug screening. PMID:26535062

  13. Effect of Hypobaric Hypoxia on Cognitive Functions and Potential Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    MUTHURAJU, Sangu; PATI, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    High altitude (HA), defined as approximately 3000–5000 m, considerably alters physiological and psychological parameters within a few hours. Chronic HA-mediated hypoxia (5000 m) results in permanent neuronal damage to the human brain that persists for one year or longer, even after returning to sea level. At HA, there is a decrease in barometric pressure and a consequential reduction in the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), an extreme environmental condition to which humans are occasionally exposed. This condition is referred to as hypobaric hypoxia (HBH), which represents the most unfavourable characteristics of HA. HBH causes the disruption of oxygen availability to tissue. However, no review article has explored the impact of HBH on cognitive functions or the potential therapeutic agents for HBH. Therefore, the present review aimed to describe the impact of HBH on both physiological and cognitive functions, specifically learning and memory. Finally, the potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of HBH-induced cognitive impairment are discussed. PMID:25941462

  14. Monoacylglycerol Lipase: A Novel Potential Therapeutic Target and Prognostic Indicator for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junyong; Liu, Zuojin; Lian, Zhengrong; Liao, Rui; Chen, Yi; Qin, Yi; Wang, Jinlong; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Xiaobo; Gong, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism that is demonstrated to be involved in tumor progression through both energy supply of fatty acid (FA) oxidation and enhancing cancer cell malignance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MAGL could be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate the relationship between MAGL levels and clinical characteristics, a tissue microarray (TMA) of 353 human HCC samples was performed. MAGL levels in HCC samples were closely linked to the degree of malignancy and patient prognosis. RNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitor JZL-184 and gene knock-in of MAGL were utilized to investigate the effects of MAGL on HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. MAGL played important roles in both proliferation and invasion of HCC cells through mechanisms that involved prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). JZL-184 administration significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice. Furthermore, we confirmed that promoter methylation of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) resulted in dysfunction of the Hippo signal pathway, which induced overexpression of MAGL in HCC. These results indicate that MAGL could be a potentially novel therapeutic target and prognostic indicator for HCC. PMID:27767105

  15. Aprotinin revisited: formulation, characterization, biodistribution and therapeutic potential of new aprotinin microemulsion in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karasulu, H Yeşim; Oruç, Nevin; Üstündağ-Okur, Neslihan; İlem Özdemir, Derya; Ay Şenyiğit, Zeynep; Barbet Yılmaz, Funda; Aşıkoğlu, Makbule; Özkılıç, Hayal; Akçiçek, Eren; Güneri, Tamer; Özütemiz, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop aprotinin-loaded microemulsion (MA) for intravenous administration and evaluate the biodistribution and therapeutic potential of developed formulation in acute pancreatitis models in rats. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify microemulsion region and the optimal microemulsion was evaluated for physicochemical properties and treatment effect in rats, and comparisons made with the solution of aprotinin (SA). To evaluate the biodistribution of the drug by gamma scintigraphy aprotinin was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc radionuclide. Mild and severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injections of cerulein and introductal infusion of 3% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct, respectively. In addition, serum amylase and pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase activities were measured to evaluate the pancreatic damage. According to gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution studies, accumulation times and distribution of (99m)Tc-MA and SA were different. While MA was highly uptake by reticuloendothelial system, SA was mostly excreted by kidneys and bladder. Compared with the mild acute pancreatitis group, treatment with MA significantly decreased the serum amylase activity and pancreas myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, the protease inhibitor molecule aprotinin has therapeutic potential in acute pancreatitis. Finally, MA may be suggested as a promising alternative for treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  16. MicroRNA208 family in cardiovascular diseases: therapeutic implication and potential biomarker.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Li, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains to be a severe and yet unsolved health problem that has become a leading threat to human health. It is urgent to explore early diagnostic biomarker and innovative therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of cardiovascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved endogenous, non-coding small RNAs that are essential modulators of gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). A large range of functions has been attributed to miRNAs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and invasion. So far, miRNAs have shown characteristic changes in expression during the process of cardiovascular disease that may act as potential biomarkers. A series of studies have clearly discovered that the miR-208 family is closely associated with the development of cardiac diseases, such as myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and heart failure. In this review, we will highlight novel insights into miR-208 family functions and discuss it as potential biomarker and therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Modulation of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Activity by Toll-Like Receptors: Implications on Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    DelaRosa, Olga; Lombardo, Eleuterio

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of special interest as therapeutic agents in the settings of both chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands have been linked with the perpetuation of inflammation in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases due to the permanent exposure of the immune system to TLR-specific stimuli. Therefore, MSCs employed in therapy can be potentially exposed to TLR ligands, which may modulate MSC therapeutic potential in vivo. Recent results demonstrate that MSCs are activated by TLR ligands leading to modulation of the differentiation, migration, proliferation, survival, and immunosuppression capacities. However inconsistent results among authors have been reported suggesting that the source of MSCs, TLR stimuli employed or culture conditions play a role. Notably, activation by TLR ligands has not been reported to modulate the “immunoprivileged” phenotype of MSCs which is of special relevance regarding the use of allogeneic MSC-based therapies. In this review, we discuss the available data on the modulation of MSCs activity through TLR signalling. PMID:20628526

  18. Therapeutic Potential and Challenges of Natural Killer Cells in Treatment of Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gras Navarro, Andrea; Björklund, Andreas T.; Chekenya, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that hold tremendous potential for effective immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers. Due to the mode of NK cell killing, requiring one-to-one target engagement and site-directed release of cytolytic granules, the therapeutic potential of NK cells has been most extensively explored in hematological malignancies. However, their ability to precisely kill antibody coated cells, cancer stem cells, and genotoxically altered cells, while maintaining tolerance to healthy cells makes them appealing therapeutic effectors for all cancer forms, including metastases. Due to their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NK cells may potently reverse the anti-inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME) and augment adaptive immune responses by promoting differentiation, activation, and/or recruitment of accessory immune cells to sites of malignancy. Nevertheless, integrated and coordinated mechanisms of subversion of NK cell activity against the tumor and its microenvironment exist. Although our understanding of the receptor ligand interactions that regulate NK cell functionality has evolved remarkably, the diversity of ligands and receptors is complex, as is their mechanistic foundations in regulating NK cell function. In this article, we review the literature and highlight how the TME manipulates the NK cell phenotypes, genotypes, and tropism to evade tumor recognition and elimination. We discuss counter strategies that may be adopted to augment the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor surveillance, the clinical trials that have been undertaken so far in solid malignancies, critically weighing the challenges and opportunities with this approach. PMID:25972872

  19. The therapeutic potential of HIF-2 antagonism in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia, the insufficient delivery of oxygen for the demand of a tissue, contributes to the development of an aggressive phenotype, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and is predictive of a poor outcome in numerous tumor types. Adaptation to hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), including HIF-1α and HIF-2α, which regulate genes promoting angiogenesis, increased tumor growth or metastasis. In kidney cancer, HIF-2α is believed to be the most important driver for development and progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), highlighting the therapeutic potential of HIF-2 antagonists in this disease. Recent studies show that HIF-2α can be targeted by selective, and orally active new class of inhibitors. In conjunction with the restricted expression of HIF-2α in normal adult physiology, these studies suggest that such therapeutic approach might be favorable for patients with lower toxicity than current anti-angiogenic drugs like sunitinib. However, the differential sensitivity to these HIF-2α antagonists along with the potential mechanisms of resistance reported in these studies advocate for the identification of biomarkers to determine which patients are more likely to benefit from these therapies as well as paving the way for second generation inhibitors or complementary inhibitory approaches. PMID:28217462

  20. Curcumin, A Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Anterior Segment Eye Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases. PMID:28261099

  1. Curcumin, A Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Anterior Segment Eye Diseases: A Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases.

  2. Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Michael; Yadav, Hariom; Thakali, Keshari M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT). Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production in order to dissipate energy as heat. Because of its crucial role in regulating energy homeostasis, ongoing exploration of BAT has emphasized its therapeutic potential in addressing the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The recent appreciation that adult humans possess functional BAT strengthens this prospect. Furthermore, it has been identified that there are both classical brown adipocytes residing in dedicated BAT depots and “beige” adipocytes residing in white adipose tissue depots that can acquire BAT-like characteristics in response to environmental cues. This review aims to provide a brief overview of BAT research and summarize recent findings concerning the physiological, cellular, and developmental characteristics of brown adipocytes. In addition, some key genetic, molecular, and pharmacologic targets of BAT/Beige cells that have been reported to have therapeutic potential to combat obesity will be discussed. PMID:28105413

  3. A Prodrug Approach to the Use of Coumarins as Potential Therapeutics for Superficial Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Derry K.; Robertson, Jennifer; Wright, Kristine; Miller, Lorna; Smith, Shane; Stewart, Colin S.; O′Neil, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20–25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide), inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l) and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones. PMID:24260474

  4. Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2011-11-16

    The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated in rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion liver injury. Ischemia was induced by clamping the pedicle of the left hepatic lobe for 30 min, and cannabidiol (5mg/kg, i.v.) was given 1h following the procedure and every 24h thereafter for 2 days. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by ischemia/reperfusion. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin protein in ischemic/reperfused liver tissue. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the liver against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

  5. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool

    PubMed Central

    Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R

    2016-01-01

    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo’s time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo’s time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool – the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD. PMID:27895485

  6. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

    PubMed

    Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R

    2016-01-01

    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo's time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool - the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.

  7. Lung cancer and β-glucans: review of potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Roudi, Raheleh; Mohammadi, Shahla Roudbar; Roudbary, Maryam; Mohsenzadegan, Monireh

    2017-03-16

    The potential of natural substances with immunotherapeutic properties has long been studied. β-glucans, a cell wall component of certain bacteria and fungi, potentiate the immune system against microbes and toxic substances. Moreover, β-glucans are known to exhibit direct anticancer effects and can suppress cancer proliferation through immunomodulatory pathways. Mortality of lung cancer has been alarmingly increasingly worldwide; therefore, treatment of lung cancer is an urgent necessity. Numerous researchers are now dedicated to using β-glucans as a therapy for lung cancer. In the present attempt, we have reviewed the studies addressing therapeutic effects of β-glucans in primary and metastatic lung cancer published in the time period of 1991-2016.

  8. DisSim: an online system for exploring significant similar diseases and exhibiting potential therapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Zhenzhen; Shi, Hongbo; Sun, Jie; Yang, Haixiu; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The similarity of pair-wise diseases reveals the molecular relationships between them. For example, similar diseases have the potential to be treated by common therapeutic chemicals (TCs). In this paper, we introduced DisSim, an online system for exploring similar diseases, and comparing corresponding TCs. Currently, DisSim implemented five state-of-the-art methods to measure the similarity between Disease Ontology (DO) terms and provide the significance of the similarity score. Furthermore, DisSim integrated TCs of diseases from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), which can help to identify potential relationships between TCs and similar diseases. The system can be accessed from http://123.59.132.21:8080/DisSim. PMID:27457921

  9. Therapeutic potential of mGluR5 targeting in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Dhull, Dinesh K.; Mishra, Pooja S.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research dedicated toward Alzheimer's disease (AD) has culminated in much of the current understanding of the neurodegeneration associated with disease. However, delineating the pathophysiology and finding a possible cure for the disease is still wanting. This is in part due to the lack of knowledge pertaining to the connecting link between neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathways. Consequently, the inefficacy and ill-effects of the drugs currently available for AD encourage the need for alternative and safe therapeutic intervention. In this review we highlight the potential of mGluR5, a metabotropic glutamatergic receptor, in understanding the mechanism underlying the neuronal death and neuroinflammation in AD. We also discuss the role of mGlu5 receptor in mediating the neuron-glia interaction in the disease. Finally, we discuss the potential of mGluR5 as target for treating AD. PMID:26106290

  10. Potential therapeutic targets and the role of technology in developing novel cannabinoid drugs from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Manogar, P; Prabhu, S

    2016-10-01

    Cyanobacteria find several applications in pharmacology as potential candidates for drug design. The need for new compounds that can be used as drugs has always been on the rise in therapeutics. Cyanobacteria have been identified as promising targets of research in the quest for new pharmaceutical compounds as they can produce secondary metabolites with novel chemical structures. Cyanobacteria is now recognized as a vital source of bioactive molecules like Curacin A, Largazole and Apratoxin which have succeeded in reaching Phase II and Phase III into clinical trials. The discovery of several new clinical cannabinoid drugs in the past decade from diverse marine life should translate into a number of new drugs for cannabinoid in the years to come. Conventional cannabinoid drugs have high toxicity and as a result, they affect the efficacy of chemotherapy and patients' life very much. The present review focuses on how potential, safe and affordable drugs used for cannabinoid treatment could be developed from cyanobacteria.

  11. Therapeutic potential of somatic cell nuclear transfer for degenerative disease caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Greggains, Gareth D.; Lister, Lisa M.; Tuppen, Helen A. L.; Zhang, Qi; Needham, Louise H.; Prathalingam, Nilendran; Hyslop, Louise A.; Craven, Lyndsey; Polanski, Zbigniew; Murdoch, Alison P.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Herbert, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold much promise in the quest for personalised cell therapies. However, the persistence of founder cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations limits the potential of iPSCs in the development of treatments for mtDNA disease. This problem may be overcome by using oocytes containing healthy mtDNA, to induce somatic cell nuclear reprogramming. However, the extent to which somatic cell mtDNA persists following fusion with human oocytes is unknown. Here we show that human nuclear transfer (NT) embryos contain very low levels of somatic cell mtDNA. In light of a recent report that embryonic stem cells can be derived from human NT embryos, our results highlight the therapeutic potential of NT for mtDNA disease, and underscore the importance of using human oocytes to pursue this goal. PMID:24457623

  12. The Therapeutic Potential of Differentiated Lung Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells in Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mokhber Dezfouli, Mohammad Reza; Chaleshtori, Sirous Sadeghian; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Tavanaeimanesh, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Tahamtani, Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Lung diseases cause great morbidity and mortality. The choice of effective medical treatment is limited and the number of lung diseases are difficult to treat with current treatments. The embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to differentiate into cell types of all three germinal layers, including lung epithelial cells. So they can be a potential source for new cell therapies for hereditary or acquired diseases of the airways and lungs. One method for treatment of lung diseases is cell therapy and the use of ESCs that can replace the damaged epithelial and endothelial cells. Progress using ESCs has developed slowly for lung regeneration because differentiation of lung cells from ESCs is more difficult as compared to differentiation of other cells. The review studies the therapeutic effects of differentiated lung cells from embryonic stem cells in lung diseases. There are few studies of differentiation of ESCs into a lineage of respiratory and then investigation of this cell in experimental model of lung diseases.

  13. Therapeutic potential of yeast killer toxin-like antibodies and mimotopes.

    PubMed

    Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Salati, Antonella; Vaccari, Simona; Ravanetti, Lara; Maffei, Domenico L; Polonelli, Luciano

    2004-10-01

    This review focuses on the potential of yeast killer toxin (KT)-like antibodies (KTAbs), that mimic a wide-spectrum KT through interaction with specific cell wall receptors (KTR) and their molecular derivatives (killer mimotopes), as putative new tools for transdisease anti-infective therapy. KTAbs are produced during the course of experimental and natural infections caused by KTR-bearing micro-organisms. They have been produced by idiotypic vaccination with a KT-neutralizing mAb, also in their monoclonal and recombinant formats. KTAbs and KTAbs-derived mimotopes may exert a strong therapeutic activity against mucosal and systemic infections caused by eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogenic agents, thus representing new potential wide-spectrum antibiotics.

  14. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent.

  15. The Role and Potential Therapeutic Application of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Allo- and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Fujino, Masayuki; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Xiao-kang

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that consists of myeloid progenitor cells and immature myeloid cells. They have been identified as a cell population that may affect the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells to regulate the immune response negatively, which makes them attractive targets for the treatment of transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Several studies have suggested the potential suppressive effect of MDSCs on allo- and autoimmune responses. Conversely, MDSCs have also been found at various stages of differentiation, accumulating during pathological situations, not only during tumor development but also in a variety of inflammatory immune responses, bone marrow transplantation, and some autoimmune diseases. These findings appear to be contradictory. In this review, we summarize the roles of MDSCs in different transplantation and autoimmune diseases models as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit. PMID:26078493

  16. The potential of sarcospan in adhesion complex replacement therapeutics for the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jamie L; Kwok, Yukwah; McMorran, Brian J; Baum, Linda G; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2013-09-01

    Three adhesion complexes span the sarcolemma and facilitate critical connections between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton: the dystrophin- and utrophin-glycoprotein complexes and α7β1 integrin. Loss of individual protein components results in a loss of the entire protein complex and muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is a progressive, lethal wasting disease characterized by repetitive cycles of myofiber degeneration and regeneration. Protein-replacement therapy offers a promising approach for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. Recently, we demonstrated that sarcospan facilitates protein-protein interactions amongst the adhesion complexes and is an important potential therapeutic target. Here, we review current protein-replacement strategies, discuss the potential benefits of sarcospan expression, and identify important experiments that must be addressed for sarcospan to move to the clinic.

  17. Doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress: The protective effect of nicorandil on HL-1 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Asensio-López, Mari C; Soler, Fernando; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Fernández-Belda, Francisco; Lax, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The primary cardiotoxic action of doxorubicin when used as antitumor drug is attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) therefore effective cardioprotection therapies are needed. In this sense, the antianginal drug nicorandil has been shown to be effective in cardioprotection from ischemic conditions but the underlying molecular mechanism to cope with doxorubicin-induced ROS is unclear. Our in vitro study using the HL-1 cardiomyocyte cell line derived from mouse atria reveals that the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production was stimulated by nicorandil and arrested by NO synthase inhibition. Moreover, while the NO synthase activity was inhibited by doxorubicin-induced ROS, the NO synthase inhibition did not affect doxorubicin-induced ROS. The inhibition of NO synthase activity by doxorubicin was totally prevented by preincubation with nicorandil. Nicorandil also concentration-dependently (10 to 100 μM) decreased doxorubicin-induced ROS and the effect was antagonized by 5-hydroxydecanoate. The inhibition profile of doxorubicin-induced ROS by nicorandil was unaltered when an L-arginine derivative or a protein kinase G inhibitor was present. Preincubation with pinacidil mimicked the effect of nicorandil and the protection was eliminated by glibenclamide. Quantitative colocalization of fluorescence indicated that the mitochondrion was the target organelle of nicorandil and the observed response was a decrease in the mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Interference with H+ movement across the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to depolarization, also protected from doxorubicin-induced ROS. The data indicate that activation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel by nicorandil causing mitochondrial depolarization, without participation of the NO donor activity, was responsible for inhibition of the mitochondrial NADPH oxidase that is the main contributor to ROS production in cardiomyocytes. Impairment of the cytosolic Ca2+ signal induced

  18. Doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress: The protective effect of nicorandil on HL-1 cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Fernández-Belda, Francisco; Lax, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The primary cardiotoxic action of doxorubicin when used as antitumor drug is attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) therefore effective cardioprotection therapies are needed. In this sense, the antianginal drug nicorandil has been shown to be effective in cardioprotection from ischemic conditions but the underlying molecular mechanism to cope with doxorubicin-induced ROS is unclear. Our in vitro study using the HL-1 cardiomyocyte cell line derived from mouse atria reveals that the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production was stimulated by nicorandil and arrested by NO synthase inhibition. Moreover, while the NO synthase activity was inhibited by doxorubicin-induced ROS, the NO synthase inhibition did not affect doxorubicin-induced ROS. The inhibition of NO synthase activity by doxorubicin was totally prevented by preincubation with nicorandil. Nicorandil also concentration-dependently (10 to 100 μM) decreased doxorubicin-induced ROS and the effect was antagonized by 5-hydroxydecanoate. The inhibition profile of doxorubicin-induced ROS by nicorandil was unaltered when an L-arginine derivative or a protein kinase G inhibitor was present. Preincubation with pinacidil mimicked the effect of nicorandil and the protection was eliminated by glibenclamide. Quantitative colocalization of fluorescence indicated that the mitochondrion was the target organelle of nicorandil and the observed response was a decrease in the mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Interference with H+ movement across the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to depolarization, also protected from doxorubicin-induced ROS. The data indicate that activation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel by nicorandil causing mitochondrial depolarization, without participation of the NO donor activity, was responsible for inhibition of the mitochondrial NADPH oxidase that is the main contributor to ROS production in cardiomyocytes. Impairment of the cytosolic Ca2+ signal induced

  19. P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system and their potential as therapeutic targets in disease.

    PubMed

    Ralevic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets

  20. The engineering of doxorubicin-loaded liposome-quantum dot hybrids for cancer theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Tian; Wafa', T. Al-Jamal; Kostas, Kostarelos

    2014-08-01

    Many studies have recently attempted to develop multifunctional nanoconstructs by integrating the superior fluorescence properties of quantum dots (QD) with therapeutic capabilities into a single vesicle for cancer theranostics. Liposome-quantum dot (L-QD) hybrid vesicles have shown promising potential for the construction of multifunctional nanoconstructs for cancer imaging and therapy. To fulfil such a potential, we report here the further functionalization of L-QD hybrid vesicles with therapeutic capabilities by loading anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) into their aqueous core. L-QD hybrid vesicles are first engineered by the incorporation of TOPO-capped, CdSe/ZnS QD into the lipid bilayers of DSPC:Chol:DSPE-PEG2000, followed by Dox loading using the pH-gradient technique. The loading efficiency of Dox into L-QD hybrid vesicles is achieved up to 97%, comparable to liposome control. All these evidences prove that the incorporation of QD into the lipid bilayer does not affect Dox loading through the lipid membrane of liposomes using the pH-gradient technique. Moreover, the release study shows that Dox release profile can be modulated simply by changing lipid composition. In conclusion, the Dox-loaded L-QD hybrid vesicles presented here constitute a promising multifunctional nanoconstruct capable of transporting combinations of therapeutic and diagnostic modalities.

  1. Combined therapeutic potential of nuclear receptors with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wairagu, Peninah M.; Park, Kwang Hwa; Kim, Jihye; Choi, Jong-Whan; Kim, Hyun-Won; Yeh, Byung-Il; Jung, Soon-Hee; Yong, Suk-Joong; Jeong, Yangsik

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • The 48 NR genes and 48 biological anti-cancer targets are profiled in paired-cells. • Growth inhibition by NR ligands or TKIs is target receptor level-dependent. • T0901317 with gefitinib/PHA665752 shows additive growth inhibition in lung cells. - Abstract: Cancer heterogeneity is a big hurdle in achieving complete cancer treatment, which has led to the emergence of combinational therapy. In this study, we investigated the potential use of nuclear receptor (NR) ligands for combinational therapy with other anti-cancer drugs. We first profiled all 48 NRs and 48 biological anti-cancer targets in four pairs of lung cell lines, where each pair was obtained from the same patient. Two sets of cell lines were normal and the corresponding tumor cell lines while the other two sets consisted of primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines. Analysis of the expression profile revealed 11 NRs and 15 cancer targets from the two pairs of normal versus tumor cell lines, and 9 NRs and 9 cancer targets from the primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines had distinct expression patterns in each category. Finally, the evaluation of nuclear receptor ligand T0901317 for liver X receptor (LXR) demonstrated its combined therapeutic potential with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The combined treatment of cMET inhibitor PHA665752 or EGFR inhibitor gefitinib with T0901317 showed additive growth inhibition in both H2073 and H1993 cells. Mechanistically, the combined treatment suppressed cell cycle progression by inhibiting cyclinD1 and cyclinB expression. Taken together, this study provides insight into the potential use of NR ligands in combined therapeutics with other biological anti-cancer drugs.

  2. Chaperone proteins and brain tumors: Potential targets and possible therapeutics1

    PubMed Central

    Graner, Michael W.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2005-01-01

    Chaperone proteins are most notable for the proteo- and cyotoprotective capacities they afford during cellular stress. Under conditions of cellular normalcy, chaperones still play integral roles in the folding of nascent polypeptides into functional entities, in assisting in intracellular/intraorganellar transport, in assembly and maintenance of multi-subunit protein complexes, and in aiding and abetting the degradation of senescent proteins. Tumors frequently have relatively enhanced needs for chaperone number and activity because of the stresses of rapid proliferation, increased metabolism, and overall genetic instability. Thus, it may be possible to take advantage of this reliance that tumor cells have on chaperones by pharmacologic and biologic means. Certain chaperones are abundant in the brain, which implies important roles for them. While it is presumed that the requirements of brain tumors for chaperone proteins are similar to those of any other cell type, tumor or otherwise, very little inquiry has been directed at the possibility of using chaperone proteins as therapeutic targets or even as therapeutic agents against central nervous system malignancies. This review highlights some of the research on the functions of chaperone proteins, on what can be done to modify those functions, and on the physiological responses that tumors and organisms can have to chaperone-targeted or chaperone-based therapies. In particular, this review will also underscore areas of research where brain tumors have been part of the field, although in general those instances are few and far between. This relative dearth of research devoted to chaperone protein targets and therapeutics in brain tumors reveals much untrodden turf to explore for potential treatments of these dreadfully refractive diseases. PMID:16053701

  3. Induction of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm: therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Orriols, Mar; Rodríguez, José Antonio; Aguiló, Silvia; Dilmé, Jaume; Camacho, Mercedes; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is currently limited to elective surgical repair because an effective pharmacotherapy is still awaited. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity could be a promising therapeutic option in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to characterise HDAC expression in human AAA and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of class I and IIa HDAC inhibitors in the AAA model of angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry evidenced an increased expression of HDACs 1, 2 (both class I), 4 and 7 (both class IIa) in abdominal aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA open repair (n=22) compared with those from donors (n=14). Aortic aneurysms from Ang-II-infused ApoE−/− mice exhibited a similar HDAC expression profile. In these animals, treatment with a class I HDAC inhibitor (MS-275) or a class IIa inhibitor (MC-1568) improved survival, reduced the incidence and severity of AAA and limited aneurysmal expansion evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. These beneficial effects were more potent in MC-1568-treated mice. The disorganisation of elastin and collagen fibres and lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration were effectively reduced by both inhibitors. Additionally, HDAC inhibition attenuated the exacerbated expression of pro-inflammatory markers and the increase in metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity induced by Ang II in this model. Therefore, our data evidence that HDAC expression is deregulated in human AAA and that class-selective HDAC inhibitors limit aneurysm expansion in an AAA mouse model. New-generation HDAC inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic approach to overcome human aneurysm progression. PMID:26989193

  4. Potential and development of inhaled RNAi therapeutics for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Man, Dede K W; Chow, Michael Y T; Casettari, Luca; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Lam, Jenny K W

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), continues to pose a serious threat to public health, and the situation is worsening with the rapid emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. Current TB regimens require long duration of treatment, and their toxic side effects often lead to poor adherence and low success rates. There is an urgent need for shorter and more effective treatment for TB. In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful tool for studying gene function by silencing the target genes. The survival of Mtb in host macrophages involves the attenuation of the antimicrobial responses mounted by the host cells. RNAi technology has helped to improve our understanding of how these bacilli interferes with the bactericidal effect and host immunity during TB infection. It has been suggested that the host-directed intervention by modulation of host pathways can be employed as a novel and effective therapy against TB. This therapeutic approach could be achieved by RNAi, which holds enormous potential beyond a laboratory to the clinic. RNAi therapy targeting TB is being investigated for enhancing host antibacterial capacity or improving drug efficacy on drug resistance strains while minimizing the associated adverse effects. One of the key challenges of RNAi therapeutics arises from the delivery of the RNAi molecules into the target cells, and inhalation could serve as a direct administration route for the treatment of pulmonary TB in a non-invasive manner. However, there are still major obstacles that need to be overcome. This review focuses on the RNAi candidates that are currently explored for the treatment of TB and discusses the major barriers of pulmonary RNAi delivery. From this, we hope to stimulate further studies of local RNAi therapeutics for pulmonary TB treatment.

  5. The Therapeutic Potential of Cystathionine β-Synthetase/Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibition in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Mark R.; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cancer represents a major socioeconomic problem; there is a significant need for novel therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-specific pathways. Recent Advances: In colorectal and ovarian cancers, an increase in the intratumor production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) plays an important role in promoting the cellular bioenergetics, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. It also stimulates peritumor angiogenesis inhibition or genetic silencing of CBS exerts antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, and potentiates the antitumor efficacy of anticancer therapeutics. Critical Issues: Recently published studies are reviewed, implicating CBS overexpression and H2S overproduction in tumor cells as a tumor-growth promoting “bioenergetic fuel” and “survival factor,” followed by an overview of the experimental evidence demonstrating the anticancer effect of CBS inhibition. Next, the current state of the art of pharmacological CBS inhibitors is reviewed, with special reference to the complex pharmacological actions of aminooxyacetic acid. Finally, new experimental evidence is presented to reconcile a controversy in the literature regarding the effects of H2S donor on cancer cell proliferation and survival. Future Directions: From a basic science standpoint, future directions in the field include the delineation of the molecular mechanism of CBS up-regulation of cancer cells and the delineation of the interactions of H2S with other intracellular pathways of cancer cell metabolism and proliferation. From the translational science standpoint, future directions include the translation of the recently emerging roles of H2S in cancer into human diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 424–448. PMID:24730679

  6. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation Promotes Anti-cell Proliferative Activity in Doxorubicin-treated Mouse Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    MURAMATSU, YOSHITAKA; MATSUI, TAKUYA; DEIE, MASATAKA; SATO, KEIJI

    2017-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and doxorubicin therapy in a mouse osteosarcoma cell line (LM8 cells) in vitro. Materials and Methods: The effects of PEMF (5 mT, 200 Hz) of different durations and doxorubicin on the proliferative activity of LM8 cells were measured by the MTT assay. Apoptotic-related factors such as cell-cycle phase, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3/7 activity were investigated using 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and apoptosis kits. Identification of intracellular signaling molecules induced by the combination was comprehensively explored using a stress and apoptosis-related protein array kit. Results: PEMF enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by doxorubicin but did not affect the cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, or doxorubicin-induced G2/M arrest. The combination of PEMF and doxorubicin altered a few signaling molecules. PEMF tended to reduce the doxorubicin-induced decrease of phosphorylated BAD, while reducing the increased expression of total IĸB and phosphorylated-CHK1 induced by doxorubicin. Conclusion: Our results indicate that combination of PEMF and doxorubicin could be a novel chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:28064222

  7. Potential therapeutic value of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    PubMed

    Derbenev, Andrei V; Zsombok, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus and obesity, which is a major risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, have reached epidemic proportions worldwide including the USA. The current statistics and forecasts, both short- and long-term, are alarming and predict severe problems in the near future. Therefore, there is a race for developing new compounds, discovering new receptors, or finding alternative solutions to prevent and/or treat the symptoms and complications related to obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is well demonstrated that members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily play a crucial role in a variety of biological functions both in health and disease. In the recent years, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were shown to have beneficial effects on whole body metabolism including glucose homeostasis. TRPV1 and TRPA1 have been associated with control of weight, pancreatic function, hormone secretion, thermogenesis, and neuronal function, which suggest a potential therapeutic value of these channels. This review summarizes recent findings regarding TRPV1 and TRPA1 in association with whole body metabolism with emphasis on obese and diabetic conditions.

  8. Improvement in the drug delivery and anti-tumor efficacy of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin by targeting RNA aptamers in mice bearing breast tumor model.

    PubMed

    Moosavian, Seyedeh Alia; Abnous, Khalil; Badiee, Ali; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2016-03-01

    Targeted delivery by ligands such as aptamers, is a promising method to increase the efficiency of PEGylated-liposomal doxorubicin (PL-Dox). In this study, we have successfully conjugated our recently developed anti-breast cancer RNA aptamer (TSA14) to the surface of PL-Dox and characterized for their size, zeta potential, Dox percent encapsulation and release properties in the presence of fetal bovine serum. In vitro experiments showed that aptamer could improve cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of PL-Dox in TUBO breast cell line. In mice bearing TUBO breast tumor, although, the doxorubicin plasma level of liposomal doxorubicin did not significantly change after modification of nanoparticles with aptamer, however, much higher tumor accumulation of Dox as compared with non-targeted liposomes proved the tumor-targeting capability of aptamers. In the same way, aptamer-PL-Dox improved anti-tumor efficiency of liposomes in TUBO breast tumor in mice compared to non-targeted liposomes. Overall, the results showed that aptamer decoration of PL-Dox could significantly improve selectivity and the therapeutic efficacy of liposomal DOX and merits further investigation.

  9. In vitro investigation of self-assembled nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates for controlled release doxorubicin: effect of degree of substitution of deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Hao; Dong, Xue-Meng; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2015-03-31

    Self-assembled nanoparticles based on a hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HD) chemical conjugate with different degree of substitution (DS) of deoxycholic acid (DOCA) were prepared. The degree of substitution (DS) was determined by titration method. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) as the model drug. The human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line was utilized for in vitro studies and cell cytotoxicity of DOX incorporated in the HD nanoparticles was accessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles was also investigated. An increase in the degree of deoxycholic acid substitution reduced the size of the nanoparticles and also enhanced their drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), which increased with the increase of DS. A higher degree of deoxycholic acid substitution also lead to a lower release rate and an initial burst release of doxorubicin from the nanoparticles. In summary, the degree of substitution allows the modulation of the particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug release rate, and cell uptake efficiency of the nanoparticles. The herein developed hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates are a good candidate for drug delivery and could potentiate therapeutic formulations for doxorubicin-mediated cancer therapy.

  10. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enhancement of tumor cell sensitivity may help facilitate a reduction in drug dosage using conventional chemotherapies. Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants. Methods The biological activity of a fraction enriched in hydrolysable polyphenols (P2Et) obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa was evaluated using the hematopoietic cell line K562. This fraction was tested alone or in combination with the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, camptothecin and taxol. The parameters evaluated were mitochondrial dep