Science.gov

Sample records for dpm control strategies

  1. Application of microwave energy in the control of DPM, oxides of nitrogen and VOC emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavkar, Sameer M.

    The emissions of DPM (diesel particulate matter), NOx (oxides of nitrogen), and toxic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine exhaust gases and other sources such as chemical process industry and manufacturing industry have been a great environmental and health concern. Most control technologies for these emissions require elevated temperatures. The use of microwave energy as a source of heat energy, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, the microwave energy was used as the energy source in three separate emission control processes, namely, the regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) for DPM control, the NOx reduction using a platinum catalyst, and the VOC destruction involving a ceramic based material. The study has demonstrated that microwave heating is an effective method in providing heat for the studied processes. The control efficiencies associated with the microwave-assisted processes have been observed to be high and acceptable. Further research, however, is required for the commercial use of these technologies.

  2. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to provide multi-stream transfers for high performance wide area access, support for third party copies, credential delegation or the required changes in the experiment and fabric management frameworks and tools. We describe new functionality that has been added to ease system administration, such as different filesystem weights and a faster disk drain, and new configuration and monitoring solutions based on the industry standards Puppet and Nagios. Finally, we explain some of the internal changes we had to do in the DPM architecture to better handle the additional load from the analysis use cases.

  3. DPM — efficient storage in diverse environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmich, Martin; Furano, Fabrizio; Smith, David; Brito da Rocha, Ricardo; Álvarez Ayllón, Alejandro; Manzi, Andrea; Keeble, Oliver; Calvet, Ivan; Regala, Miguel Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments, including low power devices, cluster file systems and cloud storage, represent an explosion in the possibilities for deploying and managing grid storage. In this paper we present how different technologies can be leveraged to build a storage service with differing cost, power, performance, scalability and reliability profiles, using the popular storage solution Disk Pool Manager (DPM/dmlite) as the enabling technology. The storage manager DPM is designed for these new environments, allowing users to scale up and down as they need it, and optimizing their computing centers energy efficiency and costs. DPM runs on high-performance machines, profiting from multi-core and multi-CPU setups. It supports separating the database from the metadata server, the head node, largely reducing its hard disk requirements. Since version 1.8.6, DPM is released in EPEL and Fedora, simplifying distribution and maintenance, but also supporting the ARM architecture beside i386 and x86_64, allowing it to run the smallest low-power machines such as the Raspberry Pi or the CuBox. This usage is facilitated by the possibility to scale horizontally using a main database and a distributed memcached-powered namespace cache. Additionally, DPM supports a variety of storage pools in the backend, most importantly HDFS, S3-enabled storage, and cluster file systems, allowing users to fit their DPM installation exactly to their needs. In this paper, we investigate the power-efficiency and total cost of ownership of various DPM configurations. We develop metrics to evaluate the expected performance of a setup both in terms of namespace and disk access considering the overall cost including equipment, power consumptions, or data/storage fees. The setups tested range from the lowest scale using Raspberry Pis with only 700MHz single cores and a 100Mbps network connections, over conventional multi-core servers to typical virtual machine instances in cloud settings. We evaluate the

  4. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  5. Web enabled data management with DPM & LFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Ayllon, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble and, Oliver; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and LCG File Catalog (LFC) are two grid data management components currently used in production with more than 240 endpoints. Together with a set of grid client tools they give the users a unified view of their data, hiding most details concerning data location and access. Recently we've put a lot of effort in developing a reliable and high performance HTTP/WebDAV frontend to both our grid catalog and storage components, exposing the existing functionality to users accessing the services via standard clients - e.g. web browsers, curl - present in all operating systems, giving users a simple and straight-forward way of interaction. In addition, as other relevant grid storage components (like dCache) expose their data using the same protocol, for the first time we had the opportunity of attempting a unified view of all grid storage using HTTP. We describe the HTTP redirection mechanism used to integrate the grid catalog(s) with the multiple storage components, including details on some assumptions made to allow integration with other implementations. We describe the way we hide the details regarding site availability or catalog inconsistencies by switching the standard HTTP client automatically between multiple replicas. We also present measurements of access performance, and the relevant factors regarding replica selection - current throughput and load, geographic proximity, etc. Finally, we report on some additional work done to have this system as a viable alternative to GridFTP, providing multi-stream transfers and exploiting some additional features of WebDAV to enable third party copies - essential for managing data movements between storage systems - with equivalent performance.

  6. Avian influenza control strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  7. Collection of ultrafine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in cylindrical single-stage wet electrostatic precipitators.

    PubMed

    Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Khang, Soon-Jai; Evans, Douglas E

    2006-12-15

    Long-term exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions are linked to increasing adverse human health effects due to the potential association of DPM with carcinogenicity. Current diesel vehicular particulate emission regulations are based solely upon total mass concentration, albeit it is the submicrometer particles that are highly respirable and the most detrimental to human health. In this study, experiments were performed with a tubular single-stage wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) to evaluate its performance for the removal of number-based DPM emissions. A nonroad diesel generator utilizing a low sulfur diesel fuel (500 ppmw) operating under varying load conditions was used as a stationary DPM emission source. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to quantify the number concentration distributions of diesel particles in the diluted exhaust gas at each tested condition. The wESP was evaluated with respect to different operational control parameters such as applied voltage, gas residence time, etc., to determine their effect on overall collection efficiency, as well as particle size dependent collection efficiency. The results show that the total DPM number concentrations in the untreated diesel exhaust are in the magnitude of approximately108/cm(3) at all engine loads with the particle diameter modes between 20 and 40 nm. The measured collection efficiency of the wESP operating at 70 kV based on total particle numbers was 86% at 0 kW engine load and the efficiency decreased to 67% at 75 kW due to a decrease in gas residence time and an increase in particle concentrations. At a constant wESP voltage of 70 kV and at 75 kW engine load, the variation of gas residence time within the wESP from approximately 0.1 to approximately 0.4 s led to a substantial increase in the collection efficiency from 67% to 96%. In addition, collection efficiency was found to be directly related to the applied voltage, with increasing collection efficiency

  8. Supervisory Control Strategy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic

    2007-02-28

    Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions.

  9. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  10. An old workhorse for new applications: Fe(dpm)3 as a precursor for low-temperature PECVD of iron(III) oxide.

    PubMed

    Carraro, G; Maccato, C; Gasparotto, A; Barreca, D; Walter, M; Mayrhofer, L; Moseler, M; Venzo, A; Seraglia, R; Marega, C

    2015-05-01

    An iron(III) β-diketonate complex, Fe(dpm)3 (Hdpm = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione), has been investigated as a potential precursor for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of iron(III) oxide nanomaterials. Thanks to the combined experimental-theoretical approach, spectroscopic properties, spin state, thermal behavior and fragmentation pathways of Fe(dpm)3 have been carefully analysed, obtaining an excellent agreement between simulation and experiment. Preliminary PECVD tests evidenced the possibility of obtaining pure and homogeneous Fe2O3 deposits with controlled nano-organization at temperatures as low as 100 °C, even on flexible plastic substrates. The present results open up intriguing perspectives for the exploitation of Fe(dpm)3 as an efficient molecular source for the preparation of nanostructured iron(III) oxides to be used in energetics and gas sensing applications.

  11. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iFi) and population intake fraction (iFp) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iFi of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iFp of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iFi and iFp of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management.

  12. IRON(III) NITRATE-CATALYZED FACILE SYNTHESIS OF DIPHENYLMETHYL (DPM) ETHERS FROM ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diphenyl methyl (DPM) ethers constitute important structural portion of some pharmaceutical entities and also as protective group for hydroxyl groups in synthetic chemistry. DPM ethers are normally prepared using concentrated acids or base as catalysts, which may result in the fo...

  13. National Drug Control Strategy. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    President Bush's new National Drug Control Strategy for 2003 focuses on three core priorities: stopping drug use before it starts; healing America's drug users; and disrupting the market. The 2003 strategy reports progress toward meeting the President's goals of reducing drug use by 10 percent over 2 years, and 25 percent over 5 years. With regard…

  14. National Drug Control Strategy. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The first National Drug Control Strategy set ambitious two and five-year performance based goals: (1) to lower the rate of drug use by 10 percent over 2 years among both youth and adults; and (2) to lower the rate by 25 percent over 5 years. The chapters in this updated version are keyed to the strategies three priorities: (1) Stopping Use Before…

  15. Control strategies for a telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John; Stasi, Bill

    1989-01-01

    One of the major issues impacting the utility of telerobotic systems for space is the development of effective control strategies. For near-term applications, telerobot control is likely to utilize teleoperation methodologies with integrated supervisory control capabilities to assist the operator. Two different approaches to telerobotic control are evaluated: bilateral force reflecting master controllers and proportional rate six degrees-of-freedom hand controllers. The controllers' performance of single manipulator arm tasks is compared. Simultaneous operation of both manipulator arms and complex multiaxis slave arm movements is investigated. Task times are significantly longer and fewer errors are committed with the hand controllers. The hand controllers are also rated significantly higher in cognitive and manual control workload on the two-arm task. The master controllers are rated significantly higher in physical workload. The implications of these findings for space teleoperations and higher levels of control are discussed.

  16. National Drug Control Strategy, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the Fiscal Year 2007 Budget for the National Drug Control Strategy within the three key priority areas; education and community action, treatment and intervention, and disruption in the illegal drug market. The first chapter, "Stopping Drug Use Before It Starts," outlines the Administration's work to prevent the…

  17. Analysis of pilot control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hanson, G. D.; Jewell, W. F.; Clement, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for nonintrusive identification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics are presented along with examples based on flight data. The specific analysis technique is Nonintrusive Parameter Identification Procedure (NIPIP), which is described in a companion user's guide (NASA CR-170398). Quantification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics is discussed in general terms followed by a more detailed description of how NIPIP can be applied. The examples are based on flight data obtained from the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire airplane. These examples involve various piloting tasks and control axes as well as a demonstration of how the dynamics of the aircraft itself are identified using NIPIP. Application of NIPIP to the AFTI/F-16 flight test program is discussed. Recommendations are made for flight test applications in general and refinement of NIPIP to include interactive computer graphics.

  18. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  19. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... national standard which the requirement is intended to implement. (b) A control strategy may be disapproved... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... national standard which the requirement is intended to implement. (b) A control strategy may be disapproved... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... national standard which the requirement is intended to implement. (b) A control strategy may be disapproved... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  3. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  4. 2011 National Drug Control Strategy. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy", a comprehensive approach to combat the public health and safety consequences posed by drug use. Now, a year later, the Administration is releasing its update building upon that initial "Strategy". The "Strategy" establishes ambitious goals to…

  5. SU-E-T-278: Realization of Dose Verification Tool for IMRT Plan Based On DPM

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jinfeng; Cao, Ruifen; Dai, Yumei; Pei, Xi; Hu, Liqin; LIN, Hui; Zhang, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To build a Monte Carlo dose verification tool for IMRT Plan by implementing a irradiation source model into DPM code. Extend the ability of DPM to calculate any incident angles and irregular-inhomogeneous fields. Methods: With the virtual source and the energy spectrum which unfolded from the accelerator measurement data,combined with optimized intensity maps to calculate the dose distribution of the irradiation irregular-inhomogeneous field. The irradiation source model of accelerator was substituted by a grid-based surface source. The contour and the intensity distribution of the surface source were optimized by ARTS (Accurate/Advanced Radiotherapy System) optimization module based on the tumor configuration. The weight of the emitter was decided by the grid intensity. The direction of the emitter was decided by the combination of the virtual source and the emitter emitting position. The photon energy spectrum unfolded from the accelerator measurement data was adjusted by compensating the contaminated electron source. For verification, measured data and realistic clinical IMRT plan were compared with DPM dose calculation. Results: The regular field was verified by comparing with the measured data. It was illustrated that the differences were acceptable (<2% inside the field, 2–3mm in the penumbra). The dose calculation of irregular field by DPM simulation was also compared with that of FSPB (Finite Size Pencil Beam) and the passing rate of gamma analysis was 95.1% for peripheral lung cancer. The regular field and the irregular rotational field were all within the range of permitting error. The computing time of regular fields were less than 2h, and the test of peripheral lung cancer was 160min. Through parallel processing, the adapted DPM could complete the calculation of IMRT plan within half an hour. Conclusion: The adapted parallelized DPM code with irradiation source model is faster than classic Monte Carlo codes. Its computational accuracy and

  6. Strategies of Administrative Control and Organizational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Bernard C.; Negandhi, Anant R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of 30 manufacturing firms in India indicated that the most effective organizations tended to choose a unidimensional strategy of administrative control. This strategy consisted of the use of formalized procedures to control decentralized decision-making with respect to both human and material resources. (Author)

  7. National Drug Control Strategy. 2008 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 National Drug Control Strategy of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The overarching goal of the President's Strategy is to reduce drug use in America through a balanced approach that focuses on stopping use before it starts, healing America's drug users, and disrupting the market for illegal…

  8. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  9. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  10. Can rewiring strategy control the epidemic spreading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Yin, Qiuju; Liu, Wenyang; Yan, Zhijun; Shi, Tianyu

    2015-11-01

    Relation existed in the social contact network can affect individuals' behaviors greatly. Considering the diversity of relation intimacy among network nodes, an epidemic propagation model is proposed by incorporating the link-breaking threshold, which is normally neglected in the rewiring strategy. The impact of rewiring strategy on the epidemic spreading in the weighted adaptive network is explored. The results show that the rewiring strategy cannot always control the epidemic prevalence, especially when the link-breaking threshold is low. Meanwhile, as well as strong links, weak links also play a significant role on epidemic spreading.

  11. RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunsheng; Shen, Jia; Sun, Yao; Ying, Na

    2015-01-01

    Time synchronization is essential for node localization, target tracking, data fusion, and various other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To improve the estimation accuracy of continuous clock offset and skew of mobile nodes in WSNs, we propose a novel time synchronization algorithm, the Rao-Blackwellised (RB) particle filter time synchronization algorithm based on the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) model. In a state-space equation with a linear substructure, state variables are divided into linear and non-linear variables by the RB particle filter algorithm. These two variables can be estimated using Kalman filter and particle filter, respectively, which improves the computational efficiency more so than if only the particle filter was used. In addition, the DPM model is used to describe the distribution of non-deterministic delays and to automatically adjust the number of Gaussian mixture model components based on the observational data. This improves the estimation accuracy of clock offset and skew, which allows achieving the time synchronization. The time synchronization performance of this algorithm is also validated by computer simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher time synchronization precision than traditional time synchronization algorithms. PMID:26404291

  12. RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunsheng; Shen, Jia; Sun, Yao; Ying, Na

    2015-01-01

    Time synchronization is essential for node localization, target tracking, data fusion, and various other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To improve the estimation accuracy of continuous clock offset and skew of mobile nodes in WSNs, we propose a novel time synchronization algorithm, the Rao-Blackwellised (RB) particle filter time synchronization algorithm based on the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) model. In a state-space equation with a linear substructure, state variables are divided into linear and non-linear variables by the RB particle filter algorithm. These two variables can be estimated using Kalman filter and particle filter, respectively, which improves the computational efficiency more so than if only the particle filter was used. In addition, the DPM model is used to describe the distribution of non-deterministic delays and to automatically adjust the number of Gaussian mixture model components based on the observational data. This improves the estimation accuracy of clock offset and skew, which allows achieving the time synchronization. The time synchronization performance of this algorithm is also validated by computer simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher time synchronization precision than traditional time synchronization algorithms. PMID:26404291

  13. Assessing control strategies for ground level ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Neelesh Vijay

    2009-12-01

    Developing cost effective control strategies for ozone has been a challenge to air quality modelers. Conventionally, the control strategies are applied across-the board to the region. The main aim of this research was to develop a Decision-Making Framework (DMF) for evaluating and optimizing the selection of ozone control strategies. Conventional across-the-board reductions conduct emission reductions uniformly throughout the region and throughout the day. By contrast, this dissertation studied targeted reductions, in which emission sources of various types are reduced at various times and locations. The proposed DMF comprised of four phases: (1) Initialization, (2) Mining, (3) Metamodeling, and (4) Optimization. This DMF was tested on a DFW 2009 future case episode which was based on a 10-day episode from August 13-22, 1999. 612 emission variables were identified in three source categories viz. point, area (includes non-road) and line (on-road). The emission control regions and time periods along with ozone monitoring regions and time periods were defined. The control strategy emission reductions and costs were also identified in this stage. Initially a Latin hypercube experimental design was setup to organize 30 sets of emission reduction scenarios to be modeled using the photochemical model CAMx. Data mining reduced the number of variables to a maximum of 126. A second Latin hypercube was setup to organize another 30 emission reduction scenarios for the significant variables identified by data mining. Metamodels were developed for ozone from the 60 CAMx runs using linear regression models constructed with the stepwise model selection method. Stepwise regression further reduced the number of variables. The metamodels were implemented in optimization as a surrogate for time-intensive CAMx modeling. Appropriate constraints were calculated for each metamodel to ensure that it satisfied EPA's MAT. The optimization was formulated to find the most cost effective

  14. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  16. Environmental Strategies for Portion Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Matheson, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25485874

  17. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  18. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer and photophysical characteristics of (2Z)-3-[4-(dimethylamino) phenyl]-2-(2-methylphenyl) prop-2-ene-nitrile (DPM) in different media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, Abdullah M.; El-Daly, Samy A.; Alamry, Khalid A.; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Pannipara, Mehboobali

    2015-10-01

    A new fluorophore, (2Z)-3-[4-(dimethylamino) phenyl]-2-(2-methylphenyl) prop-2-ene-nitrile (DPM), was synthesized by knoevenagel condensation of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde and 2-methylbenzyl cyanide in ethanol using NaOH as base. The electronic absorption and emission characteristic of DPM was studied in different solvents. The X-ray crystallographic structure of DPM was also investigated. A crystalline solid of DPM gives a strong green emission at about 533 nm; these phenomena are important for the application of DPM dye in organic photo emitting diode. DPM exhibits a red shift in its emission spectrum as solvent polarity increases, indicating a large change in the dipole moment of dye molecule upon excitation due to intramolecular charge transfer in excited DPM*. The fluorescence quantum yield depends strongly on the properties of the solvents, which was attributed to positive and negative solvatokinetic effects. The DPM dye displays solubilization in cationic (CTAB) micelle and could be used as a probe to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CTAB.

  19. Experiences and Early Coping of Bereaved Spouses/Partners in an Intervention Based on the Dual Process Model (DPM)

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Dale; Caserta, Michael; Utz, Rebecca; de Vries, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effectiveness of the dual process model (DPM) of coping with bereavement. The sample consisted of 298 recently widowed women (61%) and men age 50+ who participated in 14 weekly intervention sessions and also completed before (O1) and after (O2) self-administered questionnaires. While the study also includes two additional follow-up assessments (O3 and O4) that cover up to 14-16 months bereaved this paper examines only O1 and O2 assessments. Based on random assignment, 128 persons attended traditional grief groups that focused on loss-orientation (LO) in the model and 170 persons participated in groups receiving both the LO and restoration-orientation (RO) coping (learning daily life skills). As expected, participants in DPM groups showed slightly higher use of RO coping initially, but compared with LO group participants they improved at similar levels and reported similar high degrees of satisfaction with their participation (i.e. having their needs met and 98-100% indicating they were glad they participated. Even though DPM participants had six fewer LO sessions, they showed similar levels of LO improvement. Qualitative data indicate that the RO component of the DPM might be more effective if it is tailored and delivered individually. PMID:21058611

  20. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, Desineni S.

    1990-01-01

    The first part of the report concerns broadly the summary of the work done in the areas of singular perturbations and time scales (SPaTS), aerobraking technology, guidance and aerocruise. The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  1. Control strategies for planetary rover motion and manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.

    1973-01-01

    An unusual insect-like vehicle designed for planetary surface exploration is made the occasion for a discussion of control concepts in path selection, hazard detection, obstacle negotiation, and soil sampling. A control scheme which actively articulates the pitching motion between a single-loop front module and a dual loop rear module leads to near optimal behavior in soft soil; at the same time the vehicle's front module acts as a reliable tactile forward probe with a detection range much longer than the stopping distance. Some optimal control strategies are discussed, and the photos of a working scale model are displayed.

  2. A Vehicle Control Strategy in AGV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Cao; Yamada, Jun; Suzuki, Yuuki; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

    It is important to discuss the behavior of traffic at merging sections in the design of the overall Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) and in the realization of the system. In this paper, we deal with a merging section of the AGVS under time limit for merging. Near the merging section, one flow of traffic must form a queue to avoid collision of vehicles. We propose an improved control strategy and clarify the fundamental features comparing with previous model. It is analyzed that the vehicle behavior at the merging section of the AGVS using the recurrence relation. The analytical solutions have been obtained.

  3. Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  4. Intermittent locomotion as an optimal control strategy

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Birds, fish and other animals routinely use unsteady effects to save energy by alternating between phases of active propulsion and passive coasting. Here, we construct a minimal model for such behaviour that can be couched as an optimal control problem via an analogy to travelling with a rechargeable battery. An analytical solution of the optimal control problem proves that intermittent locomotion has lower energy requirements relative to steady-state strategies. Additional realistic hypotheses, such as the assumption that metabolic cost at a given power should be minimal (the fixed gear hypothesis), a nonlinear dependence of the energy storage rate on propulsion and/or a preferred average speed, allow us to generalize the model and demonstrate the flexibility of intermittent locomotion with implications for biological and artificial systems. PMID:24711718

  5. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a... of the plan. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a... of the plan. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  12. Chemical Biology Strategies for Biofilm Control.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Givskov, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbes live as densely populated multicellular surface-attached biofilm communities embedded in self-generated, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs serve as a scaffold for cross-linking biofilm cells and support development of biofilm architecture and functions. Biofilms can have a clear negative impact on humans, where biofilms are a common denominator in many chronic diseases in which they prime development of destructive inflammatory conditions and the failure of our immune system to efficiently cope with them. Our current assortment of antimicrobial agents cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms. For industrial applications, the removal of biofilms within production machinery in the paper and hygienic food packaging industry, cooling water circuits, and drinking water manufacturing systems can be critical for the safety and efficacy of those processes. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process that involves microbial cell migration, cell-to-cell signaling and interactions, EPS synthesis, and cell-EPS interactions. Recent progress of fundamental biofilm research has shed light on novel chemical biology strategies for biofilm control. In this article, chemical biology strategies targeting the bacterial intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways will be discussed.

  13. Gorbachev's arms-control strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogee, J.L.

    1987-01-22

    Soviet foreign policy under the Gorbachev administration, along with domestic policy, has been in a state of flux, particularly in the realm of arms-control policy. Both in substance and style, Gorbachev introduced a new dynamic in arms-control policy. He has skillfully manipulated the issue for propaganda appeal. But also he has shown flexibility in modifying Soviet positions both to respond to U.S. demands and to exert pressure on the United States to reach an agreement. Soviet arms-control objectives (some of which are incompatible) may be realized either through a formal agreement with the United States or without an agreement. These objectives include: (a) to use arms control to build a new framework for relations with the United States to replace detente; (b) to kill the Strategic Defense Initiative; (c) to constrain U.S. development in manned aircraft and cruise missiles (d) to deligitimize nuclear weapons as an instrument of military strategy; (e) to exacerbate differences between the United States and Europe. During his first year in power, Gorbachev relied heavily on propaganda with calls for eliminating nuclear weapons by the 21st century, his test ban moratorium and denunciation of SDI. After the 21st Party Congress he significantly modified Soviet positions closer to those of the United States with his acceptance of the zero option for INF forces, deep cuts in strategic weapons and willingness to accept limited research on SDI. Gorbachev now sees an arms control agreement as essential to his program for domestic reform and is prepared to make genuine concessions to achieve it.

  14. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    scale was steered by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and greatly supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Perhaps the most important contribution of this period was the development of malaria epidemiology, including the study of the genesis of epidemics and their possible forecasting and prevention. Although the great effectiveness of DDT was perhaps the main determinant for proposing the global eradication of the disease in the 1950s, it was the confidence in the epidemiological knowledge and the prestige of malariology, which gave credibility to the proposal at the political level. The second part deals with the global malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. It recognises the enormous impact of the eradication effort in the consolidation of the control successes of the first half of the century, as well as its influence in the development of planning of health programmes. Nevertheless, it also stresses the negative influence that the failure to achieve its utopian expectations had on the general disappointment and slow progress of malaria control, which characterised the last third of the century. The paper then analyses the evolution of malaria control funding, which often appears out of tune with political statements. The fourth part is devoted to the search for realistic approaches to malaria control, leading to the adoption of the global malaria control strategy in Amsterdam in 1992, and the challenge, at the end of the century, to rally forces commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, while aiming at realistic objectives. After discussing the conflicting views on the relations between malaria and socio-economic development and the desirable integration of malaria control into sustainable development, the paper ends with some considerations on the perspectives of malaria control, as seen by the author in early 1998, just before the launching of the current Roll Back Malaria initiative by WHO. PMID:11921521

  15. Intervention strategies for control of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneja, Vijay K.

    2004-03-01

    The increasing numbers of illnesses associated with foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has renewed concerns about food safety because of consumer preferences for minimally processed foods that offer convenience in availability and preparation. Accordingly, the need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Mechanical removal of microorganisms from food can be accomplished by centrifugation, filtration, trimming and washing. Cleaning and sanitation strategies can be used for minimizing the access of microorganisms in foods from various sources. Other strategies for control of foodborne pathogens include established physical microbiocidal treatments such as ionizing radiation and heating. Research has continued to demonstrate that food irradiation is a suitable process to control and possibly eliminate foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, from a number of raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Heat treatment is the most common method in use today for the inactivation of microorganisms. Microorganisms can also be destroyed by nonthermal treatments, such as application of high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields or a combination of physical processes such as heat-irradiation, or heat-high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Each of the non-thermal technologies has specific applications in terms of the types of food that can be processed. Both conventional and newly developed physical treatments can be used in combination for controlling foodborne pathogens and enhancing the safety and shelf life of foods. Recent research has focused on combining traditional preservation factors with emerging intervention technologies. However, many key issues still need to be addressed for combination preservation factors or technologies to be useful in the food industry to meet public demands for foods with enhanced safety

  16. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow? PMID:21926451

  17. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  6. Step Coverage and Electrical Properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 Films Prepared by Liquid Source Chemical Vapor Deposition Using TiO(DPM)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Takaaki; Yamamuka, Mikio; Makita, Tetsuro; Naka, Jiro; Yuuki, Akimasa; Mikami, Noboru; Ono, Kouichi

    1994-09-01

    Thin films of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) with high dielectric constant were prepared on Pt/ SiO2/Si substrates of 6-inch-diameter by liquid source chemical vapor deposition using Ba(DPM)2, Sr(DPM)2 and TiO(DPM)2 (DPM=dipivaloylmethanato; C11H19O2) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The reproducibility of ±3 % for the film composition was achieved by optimizing the deposition procedures. It was found that the coverage of 72%, obtained at the substrate temperature T s=753 K, was better than those obtained using other Ti sources such as Ti(O-i-Pr)4 (TTIP) and Ti(O-i-Pr)2(DPM)2. The electrical properties of the 480-Å-thick BST film, deposited at T s=753 K using TiO(DPM)2, were as follows: dielectric constant ɛ=230, equivalent SiO2 thickness t eq=7.8 Å, leakage current density J L=6.7×10-6 A/cm2 at 1.65 V and dielectric loss tan δ=0.013.

  7. Behavioral Self-Control Strategies for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…

  8. Improving epidemic control strategies by extended detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Paweł; Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Majority of epidemics eradication programs work in preventive responsive way. The lack of exact information about epidemiological status of individuals makes responsive actions less efficient. Here, we demonstrate that additional tests can significantly increase the efficiency of "blind" treatment (vaccination or culling). Eradication strategy consisting of "blind" treatment in very limited local neighborhood supplemented by extra tests in a little bit larger neighborhood is able to prevent invasion of even highly infectious diseases and to achieve this at a cost lower than for the "blind" strategy. The effectiveness of the extended strategy depends on such parameters as the test efficiency and test cost.

  9. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  10. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals. PMID:27586601

  11. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  12. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  14. 40 CFR 52.523 - Control strategy: Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(2)(J). A FIP is currently in place and approved for Florida at 40 CFR 52.37 for these requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone 52.523 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.523 Control strategy: Ozone (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  16. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  17. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  18. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  19. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  2. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  3. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  4. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a... requirements of sections 172(c)(9) and 182(c)(9) of the Clean Air Act, for the Greater Hartford serious...

  5. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  6. 40 CFR 52.523 - Control strategy: Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(2)(J). A FIP is currently in place and approved for Florida at 40 CFR 52.37 for these requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone 52.523 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.523 Control strategy: Ozone (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  8. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  9. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  11. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  12. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...'s ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone....

  13. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  14. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  15. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  16. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  18. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  19. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  20. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  1. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  3. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  4. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  5. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  6. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  7. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  9. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  12. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  13. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  14. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  15. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  17. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  18. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  20. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  2. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  4. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  6. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a) Since the testing and research rule (FAC 17-1.585) submitted by the Florida Department of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and Missoula PM-10 SIPS. (b) Determination—EPA has determined...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  16. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  18. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  3. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  4. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  9. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... SIP on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a...

  11. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... SIP on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  17. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  3. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  8. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  10. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  12. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  13. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  14. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  16. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  17. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  19. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  20. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  1. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  2. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  3. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  4. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  6. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  7. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  8. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  9. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  10. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  11. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  15. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy: General. The generic rules and procedures for emission trades (bubbles), submitted on October 27, 1982, by...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are not consistent with the continuous monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring...

  18. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are not consistent with the continuous monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring...

  20. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573 Section 52.573 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy:...

  1. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General....

  2. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  3. National Drug Control Strategy. FY 2009 Budget Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Control Budget Summary identifies resources and performance indicators for programs within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President's National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy, which is the Administration's plan for reducing drug use and availability, is based on three pillars: (1) Stopping Use Before It Starts,…

  4. Global lessons from Nigeria's ebolavirus control strategy.

    PubMed

    Elemuwa, Chris; Kutalek, Ruth; Ali, Mohammad; Mworozi, Edison; Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus disease outbreak challenged medical and public health systems in West Africa. In Nigeria, the existing infrastructure of the polio surveillance system was leveraged rapidly to contain the spread of Ebola virus. We highlight important lessons learnt from the successful implementation of Ebola virus disease surveillance strategies, which should be amplified further to prepare the ground for successful vaccination programs. Close collaboration between national and international stakeholders as well as public/private partnerships will be instrumental in future Ebola virus immunization strategies.

  5. SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensive...

  6. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  7. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  8. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  9. A multiple pointing-mount control strategy for space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A new disturbance-adaptive control strategy for multiple pointing-mount space platforms is proposed and illustrated by consideration of a simplified 3-link dynamic model of a multiple pointing-mount space platform. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new platform control strategy. The simulation results also reveal a system 'destabilization phenomena' that can occur if the set of individual platform-mounted experiment controllers are 'too responsive.'

  10. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  11. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...) and 182(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Air Act for the Springfield, Massachusetts serious ozone...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1779 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1779... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...) and 182(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Air Act for the Springfield, Massachusetts serious ozone...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... Areas Did Not Attain the 1-Hour Ozone NAAQS. EPA has determined that the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... Areas Did Not Attain the 1-Hour Ozone NAAQS. EPA has determined that the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1779 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1779... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard and that the reasonable further progress and...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  16. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  17. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1576 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52... strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16346), are not met since the plan does not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following rule and portions of the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF INTEGRATED URBAN WET-WEATHER CONTROL STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optimization method for urban wet weather control (WWC) strategies is presented. The developed optimization model can be used to determine the most cost-effective strategies for the combination of centralized storage-release systems and distributed on-site WWC alternatives. T...

  17. A nonlinear strategy for sensor based vehicle path control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method of transverse control which makes use of nonlinear formulations is presented. The strategy is utilized to stabilize a vehicle. The vehicle is autonomously guided and takes its control inputs from an optical sensing system. Additionally, the velocity of the vehicle is dictated by a longitudinal controller, which is also discussed.

  18. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  19. Unified power flow controller: Modeling, stability analysis, control strategy and control system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasachar, Kannan

    2001-07-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) has been the most versatile Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device due to its ability to control real and reactive power flow on transmission lines while controlling the voltage of the bus to which it is connected. UPFC being a multi-variable power system controller it is necessary to analyze its effect on power system operation. To study the performance of the UPFC in damping power oscillations using PSCAD-EMTDC software, a de-coupled control system has been designed for the shunt inverter to control the UPFC bus voltage and the DC link capacitor voltage. The series inverter of a UPFC controls the real power flow in the transmission line. One problem associated with using a high gain PI controller (used to achieve fast control of transmission line real power flow) for the series inverter of a UPFC to control the real power flow in a transmission line is the presence of low damping. This problem is solved in this research by using a fuzzy controller. A method to model a fuzzy controller in PSCAD-EMTDC software has also been described. Further, in order to facilitate proper operation between the series and the shunt inverter control system, a new real power coordination controller has been developed and its performance was evaluated. The other problem concerning the operation of a UPFC is with respect to transmission line reactive power flow control. Step changes to transmission line reactive power references have significant impact on the UPFC bus voltage. To reduce the adverse effect of step changes in transmission line reactive power references on the UPFC bus voltage, a new reactive power coordination controller has been designed. Transient response studies have been conducted using PSCAD-EMTDC software to show the improvement in power oscillation damping with UPFC. These simulations include the real and reactive power coordination controllers. Finally, a new control strategy has been proposed for UPFC. In this

  20. Synthesis of nonlinear control strategies from fuzzy logic control algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langari, Reza

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy control has been recognized as an alternative to conventional control techniques in situations where the plant model is not sufficiently well known to warrant the application of conventional control techniques. Precisely what fuzzy control does and how it does what it does is not quite clear, however. This important issue is discussed and in particular it is shown how a given fuzzy control scheme can resolve into a nonlinear control law and that in those situations the success of fuzzy control hinges on its ability to compensate for nonlinearities in plant dynamics.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  6. Control Strategies for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Paul J.; Sutton, Robert; Burns, Roland S.

    In recent years, both the offshore industry and the navies of the world have become increasingly interested in the potential operational usage of unmanned underwater vehicles. This paper provides a comprehensive review of a number of modern control approaches and artificial intelligence techniques which have been applied to the autopilot design problem for such craft.

  7. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  8. Control strategies for human intestinal nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Crompton, D W; Savioli, L

    1999-01-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding the ecology, epidemiology and related morbidity and development of new tools for the control of soil-transmitted helminths. Such knowledge has recognized the impact of helminth infections on the health of infected groups and has created a rational basis for their control. Schoolchildren harbour some of the most intense helminthic infections, which produce adverse effects on health, growth and scholastic performance. However, although great effort has been put into targeting school-age children, women of child-bearing age and pre-school children are two other groups at high risk of morbidity due to intestinal nematode infections. Highly effective and safety-tested, single-dose anthelminthic drugs are now available, permitting periodical deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups at affordable prices. Four anthelminthics against all intestinal nematodes are included in the WHO Essential Drug List (albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole and pyrantel). Recently ivermectin has also been registered for use against Strongyloides stercoralis in humans. Several well-monitored country experiences have shown that chemotherapy-based control of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminths is possible and highly cost-effective.

  9. Computer simulation of control strategies for optimal anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, S; Possfelt, M O; Liu, J

    2013-01-01

    Three previously published control strategies for anaerobic digestion were implemented in Simulink/Matlab using Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to model the biological process. The controllers' performance were then simulated and evaluated based on their responses from five different types of process scenarios i.e. start-up and steady state performance as well as disturbances from concentration, pH and ammonia in the inflow. Of the three evaluated control strategies, the extremum-seeking variable gain controller gave the best overall performance. However, a proportional feedback controller based on the pH-level, used as a reference case in the evaluation, proved to give as good results as the extremum-seeking variable gain controller but with a lower wear on the pump. It was therefore concluded that a fast proportional control of the reactor pH is a key element for optimally controlling a low-buffering anaerobic digestion process.

  10. SARS: hospital infection control and admission strategies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Seto, Wing-Hong

    2003-11-01

    Nosocomial clustering with transmission to health care workers, patients and visitors is a prominent feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Hospital outbreaks of SARS typically occurred within the first week after admission of the very first SARS cases when the disease was not recognized and before isolation measures were implemented. In the majority of nosocomial infections, there was a history of close contact with a SARS patient, and transmission occurred via large droplets, direct contact with infectious material or by contact with fomites contaminated by infectious material. In a few instances, potential airborne transmission was reported in association with endotracheal intubation, nebulised medications and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation of SARS patients. In all SARS-affected countries, nosocomial transmission of the disease was effectively halted by enforcement of routine standard, contact and droplet precautions in all clinical areas and additional airborne precautions in the high-risk areas. In Hong Kong, where there are few private rooms for patient isolation, some hospitals have obtained good outcome by having designated SARS teams and separate wards for patient triage, confirmed SARS cases and step-down of patients in whom SARS had been ruled out. In conclusion, SARS represents one of the new challenges for those who are involved in hospital infection control. As SARS might re-emerge, all hospitals should take advantage of the current SARS-free interval to review their infection control programmes, alert mechanisms, response capability and to repair any identified inadequacies.

  11. Attention, intention, and strategy in preparatory control

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Hannes; Braver, Todd; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying different forms of preparatory control were examined using event-related fMRI. Preparatory brain activation was monitored in relation to different types of advance information: (1) random task cues indicating which of two possible tasks to perform upon subsequent target presentation, (2) task-ambiguous target stimuli, or 3) targets for which the correct response could be pre-determined. Three types of activation pattern were observed in different brain regions. First, more posterior regions of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and parietal cortex were activated by both advance task cues and advance targets, but with increased and more sustained activation for the latter. Second, more anterior regions of LPFC and parietal cortex were selectively activated by advance targets. Importantly, in these regions preparatory activation was not further modulated by the availability of advance response information. In contrast, preparatory activation in a third set of brain regions, including medial frontal cortex, reflected the utilization of advance response information, but by only a subset of participants. These results suggest three types of preparatory control: attentional (stimulus-oriented), intentional (action-oriented), and a possibly strategic component that might determine inter-individual differences in response readiness. Notably, the absence of regions selectively or even preferentially activated during cue-based preparation argues against certain conceptualizations of task-selective attention under cued task switching conditions. PMID:19397862

  12. A study of copper corrosion control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, N.; Sjolund, W.

    1994-10-01

    In compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule of the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act, Brainerd Public Utilities tested the first drawn water from 60 sampling sites within the city. Ninety percent of these site samples contained elevated copper levels in excess of the 1.3 mg/L (1,300 ppb) action level established by the EPA standard. The samples, however, did not exceed the 0.015 mg/L (15 ppb) action level for lead. A water quality study evaluated the various options for copper corrosion control using a test stand for approximately five months starting in May 1993. The study evaluated the effectiveness of applying various chemicals for the control of copper corrosion. Chemicals tested included sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (for pH adjustment); sodium silicate; ortho/polyphosphate (Calgon C-4). The study also examined the possibility of reducing the level of dissolved oxygen in the water during aeration as a means of reducing the level of copper corrosion.

  13. Control strategy for cooperating disparate manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jae Young

    1989-01-01

    To manipulate large payloads typical of space construction, the concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm is introduced. The main purposes of such a configuration are to increase the structural stiffness of the robot by bracing against or locking to a stationary frame, and to maintain a firm position constraint between the robot's base and workpieces by grasping them. Possible topologies for a combination of disparate large and small arms are discussed, and kinematics, dynamics, controls, and coordination of the two arms, especially when they brace at the tip of the small arm, are developed. The feasibility and improvement in performance are verified, not only with analytical work and simulation results but also with experiments on the existing arrangement Robotic Arm Large and Flexible and Small Articulated Manipulator.

  14. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  15. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  16. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  17. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  18. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  19. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  20. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  5. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control...

  6. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control...

  7. A corporate strategy for the control of information processing.

    PubMed

    Lucas, H C; Turner, J A

    1982-01-01

    Although the use of information processing has become widespread, many organizations have developed systems that are basically independent of the firm's strategy. However, the authors in this article argue that the greatest benefits come when information technology is merged with strategy formulation. The article includes examples of how this has been done and presents a framework for top management direction and control of information processing.

  8. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Vanja; Mangwiro, T. N. Clement; Vale, Glyn A.; Hastings, Ian; Solano, Philippe; Lehane, Michael J.; Torr, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT) outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT. Methods and Findings The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2). In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings. Interpretation The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment), covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures). One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised. PMID:26267814

  9. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    PubMed

    El-Helw, Hadi M; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  10. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    PubMed Central

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  11. Resurgent malaria at the millennium: control strategies in crisis.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    2000-04-01

    Completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 marked the beginning of an era of vector control that achieved conspicuous success against malaria. In 1955 the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the controversial Global Eradication Campaign emphasising DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) spraying in homes. The incidence of malaria fell sharply where the programme was implemented, but the strategy was not applied in holoendemic Africa. This, along with the failure to achieve eradication in larger tropical regions, contributed to disillusionment with the policy. The World Health Assembly abandoned the eradication strategy in 1969. A resurgence of malaria began at about that time and today reaches into areas where eradication or control had been achieved. A global malaria crisis looms. In 1993 the WHO adopted a Global Malaria Control Strategy that placed priority in control of disease rather than infection. This formalises a policy that emphasises diagnosis and treatment in a primary healthcare setting, while de-emphasising spraying of residual insecticides. The new policy explicitly stresses malaria in Africa, but expresses the intent to bring control programmes around the world into line with the strategy. This review raises the argument that a global control strategy conceived to address the extraordinary malaria situation in Africa may not be suitable elsewhere. The basis of argument lies in the accomplishments of the Global Eradication Campaign viewed in an historical and geographical context. Resurgent malaria accompanying declining vector control activities in Asia and the Americas suggests that the abandonment of residual spraying may be premature given the tools now at hand. The inadequacy of vector control as the primary instrument of malaria control in holoendemic Africa does not preclude its utility in Asia and the Americas. PMID:10804031

  12. Optimal control strategy for abnormal innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jinying; Zou, Xiufen

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune response plays an important role in control and clearance of pathogens following viral infection. However, in the majority of virus-infected individuals, the response is insufficient because viruses are known to use different evasion strategies to escape immune response. In this study, we use optimal control theory to investigate how to control the innate immune response. We present an optimal control model based on an ordinary-differential-equation system from a previous study, which investigated the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways, and we prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem involving antiviral treatment or/and interferon therapy. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the treatment effects of different control strategies through varying the cost function and control efficiency. The results show that a separate treatment, that is, only inhibiting viral replication (u1(t)) or enhancing interferon activity (u2(t)), has more advantages for controlling viral infection than a mixed treatment, that is, controlling both (u1(t)) and (u2(t)) simultaneously, including the smallest cost and operability. These findings would provide new insight for developing effective strategies for treatment of viral infectious diseases.

  13. Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.

  14. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-01-01

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  15. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  16. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  17. Modelling the control strategies against dengue in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burattini, M N; Chen, M; Chow, A; Coutinho, F A B; Goh, K T; Lopez, L F; Ma, S; Massad, E

    2008-03-01

    Notified cases of dengue infections in Singapore reached historical highs in 2004 (9459 cases) and 2005 (13,817 cases) and the reason for such an increase is still to be established. We apply a mathematical model for dengue infection that takes into account the seasonal variation in incidence, characteristic of dengue fever, and which mimics the 2004-2005 epidemics in Singapore. We simulated a set of possible control strategies and confirmed the intuitive belief that killing adult mosquitoes is the most effective strategy to control an ongoing epidemic. On the other hand, the control of immature forms was very efficient in preventing the resurgence of dengue epidemics. Since the control of immature forms allows the reduction of adulticide, it seems that the best strategy is to combine both adulticide and larvicide control measures during an outbreak, followed by the maintenance of larvicide methods after the epidemic has subsided. In addition, the model showed that the mixed strategy of adulticide and larvicide methods introduced by the government seems to be very effective in reducing the number of cases in the first weeks after the start of control.

  18. Modelling the control strategies against dengue in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    BURATTINI, M. N.; CHEN, M.; CHOW, A.; COUTINHO, F. A. B.; GOH, K. T.; LOPEZ, L. F.; MA, S.; MASSAD, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Notified cases of dengue infections in Singapore reached historical highs in 2004 (9459 cases) and 2005 (13 817 cases) and the reason for such an increase is still to be established. We apply a mathematical model for dengue infection that takes into account the seasonal variation in incidence, characteristic of dengue fever, and which mimics the 2004–2005 epidemics in Singapore. We simulated a set of possible control strategies and confirmed the intuitive belief that killing adult mosquitoes is the most effective strategy to control an ongoing epidemic. On the other hand, the control of immature forms was very efficient in preventing the resurgence of dengue epidemics. Since the control of immature forms allows the reduction of adulticide, it seems that the best strategy is to combine both adulticide and larvicide control measures during an outbreak, followed by the maintenance of larvicide methods after the epidemic has subsided. In addition, the model showed that the mixed strategy of adulticide and larvicide methods introduced by the government seems to be very effective in reducing the number of cases in the first weeks after the start of control. PMID:17540051

  19. Estimating costs of sea lice control strategy in Norway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Bjelland, Hans Vanhauwaer

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the costs of sea lice control strategies associated with salmon aquaculture at a farm level in Norway. Diseases can cause reduction in growth, low feed efficiency and market prices, increasing mortality rates, and expenditures on prevention and treatment measures. Aquaculture farms suffer the most direct and immediate economic losses from diseases. The goal of a control strategy is to minimize the total disease costs, including biological losses, and treatment costs while to maximize overall profit. Prevention and control strategies are required to eliminate or minimize the disease, while cost-effective disease control strategies at the fish farm level are designed to reduce the losses, and to enhance productivity and profitability. Thus, the goal can be achieved by integrating models of fish growth, sea lice dynamics and economic factors. A production function is first constructed to incorporate the effects of sea lice on production at a farm level, followed by a detailed cost analysis of several prevention and treatment strategies associated with sea lice in Norway. The results reveal that treatments are costly and treatment costs are very sensitive to treatment types used and timing of the treatment conducted. Applying treatment at an early growth stage is more economical than at a later stage.

  20. Two-DOF precision platform for spacecraft thrust vector control: control strategies and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents control strategies and simulations of a two-DOF precision platform as an adaptive thruster mount structure with precision positioning and active vibration suppression capabilities for thrust vector control of space satellites. First, the configuration of the two-DOF precision platform is introduced, which is an intelligent tripod with two in-plane rotational degrees of freedom for the top device-plate. Precision positioning of this platform is achieved using active members that extend or contract to tilt the top device-plate where the thruster is mounted. Kinematic analysis of the platform is then presented and followed by two control strategies; namely local control strategy and global control strategy. In the local control strategy, the motion of each active member is controlled locally according to the kinematical feature of the platform and the local sensor information to achieve the desired tilt of the top device-plate. In the global control strategy, the motion of each active member is adjusted according to the system level information from a tilt sensor. Fuzzy logic control is employed and the two control strategies are simulated and compared.

  1. THE CHOICE OF REAL-TIME CONTROL STRATEGY FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper focuses on the strategies used to operate a collection system in real-time control (RTC) in order to optimize use of system capacity and to reduce the cost of long-term combined sewer overflow (CSO) control. Three RTC strategies were developed and analyzed based on the...

  2. Wolbachia: A biological control strategy against arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ipsita; Rath, Animesha; Mahapatra, Namita; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes like Dengue are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in human population. There are no effective vaccines or treatment against dengue fever till date and the control methods are limited. So, new approaches are urgently in need to reverse these trends. Vector control is currently the primary intervention tool. Strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. Wolbachia an endosymbiont of arthropod vectors is being explored as a novel ecofriendly control strategy. Studies in Drosophila have shown that Wolbachia can confer resistance to diverse RNA viruses and protect flies from virus-induced mortality. This review was focused on biology of the Wolbachia and its implication as a control measure for arboviral diseases mainly Dengue and Chikungunya. PMID:27681542

  3. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  4. Wolbachia: A biological control strategy against arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ipsita; Rath, Animesha; Mahapatra, Namita; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes like Dengue are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in human population. There are no effective vaccines or treatment against dengue fever till date and the control methods are limited. So, new approaches are urgently in need to reverse these trends. Vector control is currently the primary intervention tool. Strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. Wolbachia an endosymbiont of arthropod vectors is being explored as a novel ecofriendly control strategy. Studies in Drosophila have shown that Wolbachia can confer resistance to diverse RNA viruses and protect flies from virus-induced mortality. This review was focused on biology of the Wolbachia and its implication as a control measure for arboviral diseases mainly Dengue and Chikungunya.

  5. Control strategy for a dual-arm maneuverable space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1987-01-01

    A simple strategy for the attitude control and arm coordination of a maneuverable space robot with dual arms is proposed. The basic task for the robot consists of the placement of marked rigid solid objects with specified pairs of gripping points and a specified direction of approach for gripping. The strategy consists of three phases each of which involves only elementary rotational and translational collision-free maneuvers of the robot body. Control laws for these elementary maneuvers are derived by using a body-referenced dynamic model of the dual-arm robot.

  6. Control of decoherence: Analysis and comparison of three different strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Facchi, P.; Pascazio, S.; Tasaki, S.; Tokuse, A.; Nakazato, H.; Lidar, D.A.

    2005-02-01

    We analyze and compare three different strategies, all aimed at controlling and eventually halting decoherence. The first strategy hinges upon the quantum Zeno effect, the second makes use of frequent unitary interruptions ('bang-bang' pulses and their generalization, quantum dynamical decoupling), and the third uses a strong, continuous coupling. Decoherence is shown to be suppressed only if the frequency N of the measurements or pulses is large enough or if the coupling K is sufficiently strong. Otherwise, if N or K is large, but not extremely large, all these control procedures accelerate decoherence. We investigate the problem in a general setting and then consider some practical examples, relevant for quantum computation.

  7. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  8. Control strategies used in the control software for the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Wang, Yan-Yu; Pan, Liang-Ming; Tu, Sheng-Pan

    2016-07-01

    Automation control systems are important for the operation of an accelerator. To ensure the reliable, stable and flexible operation of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), several control systems are developed. The developed control systems are the SECRAL control system, the LECR3 control system, the LAPECR1 control system and the Electro-Static septum control system. The corresponding control software systems are developed using Visual C++. To ensure the accuracy, stability and flexibility of the control systems, some special control strategies are developed in the control software systems. This paper provides a detailed description of the main control strategies used in the control software systems. The main control strategies are composed of a reliable communication mechanism, a correct data/command transmission mechanism, an efficient data storage mechanism and an interlock protection mechanism. To guarantee a reliable communication between the devices for the commercially purchased devices and the built in-house ones, a modified heartbeat method is developed. To provide flexible reconstitution function for the control systems, the command queue and the state machine are combined. The message mechanism and the multiple windows mechanism are also used for the module mechanism. The relevant control systems are introduced as examples of these control strategies. These systems have been running stably for several years.

  9. The challenges and strategies in schistosomiasis control program in China.

    PubMed

    Xianyi, Chen

    2002-05-01

    In spite of the great achievements gained in the national schistosomiasis control program during the last 5 decades, serious challenges for the control program exist due to the impact of biological factors, environmental facts and limitation of scientific technology, as well as shortages of socio-economic development in the endemic areas. This paper reviewed the experiences of the national control program, then the author considered it essential to put forward a newly sustainable strategy with an emphasis on the areas with high endemicity of schistosomiasis, on poverty-stricken areas, especially in the Western part of the People's Republic of China, when taking into account both the opportunities and challenges of the future. It is expected that the schistosomiasis control program with a sustainable strategy would promote local economic development in the People's Republic of China. PMID:12020901

  10. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    PubMed

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies. PMID:25583867

  11. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    PubMed

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies.

  12. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning CommercialBuilding Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-05-01

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak pricing (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a new electricity tariff design to promote demand response. This paper begins with a brief review of terminology regarding energy management and demand response, followed by a discussion of DR control strategies and a preliminary overview of a forthcoming guide on DR strategies. The final section discusses experience to date with these strategies, followed by a discussion of the peak electric demand savings from the 2005 Automated CPP program. An important concept identified in the automated DR field tests is that automated DR will be most successful if the building commissioning industry improves the operational effectiveness of building controls. Critical peak pricing and even real time pricing are important trends in electricity pricing that will require new functional tests for building commissioning.

  13. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment demonstration... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  16. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attaining data for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the State to provide for the establishment and maintenance of... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1342 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1342...: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of June 9, 2011, that the St. Louis...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1342 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1342...: Ozone. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of June 9, 2011, that the St. Louis...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1683 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1683...: Ozone. (a) The State of New York has certified to the satisfaction of the EPA that no sources...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.1885, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment demonstration... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  5. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... data for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends..., into the Georgia State Implementation Plan. This submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582...

  6. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has determined the Baton Rouge 1-hour ozone nonattainment area has attained the 1-hour ozone National Ambient Air...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for purposes of satisfying the 5 percent increment of progress requirement of 40 CFR 51.905(a)(1)(ii... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023...: Ozone. (a) Determination. EPA is determining that, as of July 21, 1995, the Lewiston-Auburn...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ozone standard. Under the provisions of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this... 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment demonstration... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  13. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area has attaining data for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the State to provide for the establishment and maintenance of... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.1885, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for purposes of satisfying the 5 percent increment of progress requirement of 40 CFR 51.905(a)(1)(ii... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023...: Ozone. (a) Determination. EPA is determining that, as of July 21, 1995, the Lewiston-Auburn...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  18. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Under the provisions of 40 CFR 51.918 this determination suspends... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. (a) Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for purposes of satisfying the 5 percent increment of progress requirement of 40 CFR 51.905(a)(1)(ii... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023...: Ozone. (a) Determination. EPA is determining that, as of July 21, 1995, the Lewiston-Auburn...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  1. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Under the provisions of 40 CFR 51.918 this determination suspends... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. (a) Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1683 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.1683, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1683 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1683...: Ozone. (a) The State of New York has certified to the satisfaction of the EPA that no sources...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for purposes of satisfying the 5 percent increment of progress requirement of 40 CFR 51.905(a)(1)(ii... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023...: Ozone. (a) Determination. EPA is determining that, as of July 21, 1995, the Lewiston-Auburn...

  6. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable.... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  8. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Under the provisions of 40 CFR 51.918 this determination suspends... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. (a) Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment demonstration... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1683 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1683...: Ozone. (a) The State of New York has certified to the satisfaction of the EPA that no sources...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1342 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1342...: Ozone. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of June 9, 2011, that the St. Louis...

  12. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 2008-2010 and data through 2011. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377...

  13. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Under the provisions of 40 CFR 51.918 this determination suspends... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. (a) Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  17. Developing a Scale on the Usage of Learner Control Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlu, M. Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert-like scale in order to measure teachers' usage level of learner control strategy. This study was carried out with 219 State primary school teachers who were class teachers, Turkish teachers, English teachers, Mathematics teachers, Science teachers, Social Sciences teachers, Religion and Moral teachers…

  18. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  12. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  13. Managing Work and Family: Do Control Strategies Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2015-01-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping…

  14. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied the... provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of Minnesota submitted a committal...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  19. Adaptive Insecure Attachment and Resource Control Strategies during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…

  20. [Strategies for diagnosis and biochemical control of porphyrias].

    PubMed

    Brock, Axel; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2014-02-17

    Porphyrias are rare, distinct and well characterized diseases due to impairment of one of the eight steps in the biosynthesis of haem, which is the functional group of haemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochromes, including the cytochrome P-450 family. The actual strategies for diagnosis and biochemical control of the five most common porphyrias are described.

  1. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  2. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  6. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  7. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  8. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  9. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  10. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... area has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  3. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  4. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. (a) Part D—Conditional Approval: The Pueblo plan is approved assuming the... will be published in the Colorado Register by March 10, 1981. (3) Public hearing will be held by May...

  5. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. (a) Part D—Conditional Approval: The Pueblo plan is approved assuming the... will be published in the Colorado Register by March 10, 1981. (3) Public hearing will be held by May...

  6. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. (a) Part D—Conditional Approval: The Pueblo plan is approved assuming the... will be published in the Colorado Register by March 10, 1981. (3) Public hearing will be held by May...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plan—Michigan air quality Administrative Rule, R336.1901 (Rule 901)—Air Contaminant or Water Vapor, has... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1174 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Part D—Conditional Approval—Michigan Rules 336.1603 and 336.1606 are approved provided...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plan—Michigan air quality Administrative Rule, R336.1901 (Rule 901)—Air Contaminant or Water Vapor, has... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1174 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Part D—Conditional Approval—Michigan Rules 336.1603 and 336.1606 are approved provided...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plan—Michigan air quality Administrative Rule, R336.1901 (Rule 901)—Air Contaminant or Water Vapor, has... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1174 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Part D—Conditional Approval—Michigan Rules 336.1603 and 336.1606 are approved provided...

  10. Integrated environmental control: Volume 1, Sample design strategy: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nold, D.G.; Baus, T.R.; Robie, C.P.

    1987-07-01

    The Volume 1 report for this study proposes an integrated design approach for coal-fired power plant environmental controls. Two characteristics distinguish the integrated environmental control (IEC) approach as defined in this study from historical design approaches. First, all major environmental control subsystems are considered to equally influence costs and overall plant performance until preliminary analysis indicates otherwise. This assures benefits derived for one subsystem (e.g., solid waste disposal) do not increase complexity for other subsystems (e.g., water management) to the level where total plant costs are higher. Second, the IEC approach maximizes compatibility between equipment, fuel properties, and site characteristics. This allows the least complex environmental control system (ECS), lowering cost and minimizing potential operating problems. The IEC design strategy, described in detail in Section 2 and Appendices A-D, can reduce ECS costs in two ways. First, the IEC approach helps insure cost savings derived for one subsystem are not offset by other increases, raising total ECS costs. Second, reliability can be increased and potential operating problems reduced if equipment and control strategies selected are most compatible with the site and fuel characteristics, and thus most simple. Selection of the best control strategy for given site and fuel characteristics is aided by a technical/economic analysis, described in Section 3, that allows ECS costs and technical features to be analyzed. 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  12. Control Strategies of Thermostatically Controlled Appliances in a Competitive Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2005-06-30

    This paper discusses the setpoint-control strategies for thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) in a competitive electricity market with electric water heater used as an example. By varying the TCA thermostat settings, the TCA power consumption can be shifted from the high-price period to the low-price period to reduce the peak-load and energy cost. Economic benefits and impacts on distribution feeder load shapes when applying different setpoint-control strategies are studied.

  13. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  14. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  15. [Acceptance of alternative disease control strategies in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Nigsch, Annette; Depner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission intends to change its animal disease control strategy following the slogan "Prevention is better than cure". Vaccination and diagnostics should play a major role in emergency situations. A policy paper regarding the use of vaccines has been discussed with all Member States and the main aspects were evaluated in a questionnaire. In principle, the majority of Member States are in favour of a future strategy in which vaccination is replacing culling. However, questions regarding the pathogen freedom and the trade of vaccinated animals and animal products from vaccinated animals still remain open.

  16. Evaluating paratransgenesis as a potential control strategy for African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jan; Atkins, Katherine E; Thomas, David N; Aksoy, Serap; Galvani, Alison P

    2013-01-01

    Genetic-modification strategies are currently being developed to reduce the transmission of vector-borne diseases, including African trypanosomiasis. For tsetse, the vector of African trypanosomiasis, a paratransgenic strategy is being considered: this approach involves modification of the commensal symbiotic bacteria Sodalis to express trypanosome-resistance-conferring products. Modified Sodalis can then be driven into the tsetse population by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) from Wolbachia bacteria. To evaluate the effectiveness of this paratransgenic strategy in controlling African trypanosomiasis, we developed a three-species mathematical model of trypanosomiasis transmission among tsetse, humans, and animal reservoir hosts. Using empirical estimates of CI parameters, we found that paratransgenic tsetse have the potential to eliminate trypanosomiasis, provided that any extra mortality caused by Wolbachia colonization is low, that the paratransgene is effective at protecting against trypanosome transmission, and that the target tsetse species comprises a large majority of the tsetse population in the release location.

  17. Clear federal strategy is emerging for cost control.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, T

    1979-02-01

    The author states that the purpose of governmental cost containment initiatives is to gain control over hospital capital expenditures, utilization, payment and quality assurance. He suggests that the costs of hospital operation should be completely re-examined stating that the reform of the hospital payment system is emerging as the energizing factor which will stimulate proper allocation of capital resources and effective utilization and quality assurance. O'Hare outlines the potential of the federal strategy. Recent legislation (PL 93-641 and PL 95-142) has mandated that hospital financial and statistical data be made available to federal agencies. He concludes that a dominant federal role in cost containment strategy threatens to abolish individual differences between institutions and their ability to be responsive to local needs. The author urges hospital leadership to take a more active position in implementing a cost containment strategy.

  18. Evaluating Paratransgenesis as a Potential Control Strategy for African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Medlock, Jan; Atkins, Katherine E.; Thomas, David N.; Aksoy, Serap; Galvani, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic-modification strategies are currently being developed to reduce the transmission of vector-borne diseases, including African trypanosomiasis. For tsetse, the vector of African trypanosomiasis, a paratransgenic strategy is being considered: this approach involves modification of the commensal symbiotic bacteria Sodalis to express trypanosome-resistance-conferring products. Modified Sodalis can then be driven into the tsetse population by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) from Wolbachia bacteria. To evaluate the effectiveness of this paratransgenic strategy in controlling African trypanosomiasis, we developed a three-species mathematical model of trypanosomiasis transmission among tsetse, humans, and animal reservoir hosts. Using empirical estimates of CI parameters, we found that paratransgenic tsetse have the potential to eliminate trypanosomiasis, provided that any extra mortality caused by Wolbachia colonization is low, that the paratransgene is effective at protecting against trypanosome transmission, and that the target tsetse species comprises a large majority of the tsetse population in the release location. PMID:23967363

  19. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research. PMID:25256398

  20. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.

  1. A new weed control strategy in onion culture.

    PubMed

    Thieron, M; Kerres, W; Schäffer, A

    2007-01-01

    A new strategy combining modem hoeing technique and spray application has been developed in order to reduce the amount of herbicides down to 20% compared to common practice. The effects on weed control have been investigated as well as the impact on qualitative and quantitative harvest. In two large scale field trials and two years of testing the authors evaluated different hoeing techniques combined with band spray application and standard spray application, the minimal lethal herbicide dose method (MLHD). All varieties have been calculated for environmental impact as well as practical and economical means. These studies reveal crop losses due to improper weed control as well as losses due to herbicide stress. Detailed information on concentration depending impact of several herbicides have been correlated to their control of different weeds and the achieved yield. Two contrary effects influencing the total yield have been identified. The novel strategy is based on the knowledge of these complex effects which finally led to a well practicable and highly economic strategy that enables onion farmers to control weeds while reducing the amounts of herbicides down to approximately 20%. PMID:18399447

  2. New and future strategies to improve asthma control in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William C; Szefler, Stanley J

    2015-10-01

    Symptomatic asthma in childhood has lifelong effects on lung function and disease severity, emphasizing the need for improved pediatric asthma control. Control of pediatric risk and impairment domains can be achieved through increased medication adherence or new therapeutic strategies. Developing electronic monitoring device technology with reminders might be a key noninvasive resource to address poor adherence in children and adolescents in a clinical setting. In patients who have persistently poor control despite optimal medication compliance, newly emerging pharmaceuticals, including inhaled therapies and biologics, might be key to their treatment. However, barriers exist to their development in the pediatric population, and insights must be drawn from adult studies, which has its own unique limitations. Biomarkers to direct the use of such potentially expensive therapies to those patients most likely to benefit are imperative. In this review the current literature regarding strategies to improve pediatric asthma control is addressed with the goal of exploring the potential and pitfalls of strategies that might be available in the near future.

  3. Optimal management strategies in variable environments: Stochastic optimal control methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic optimization was used to investigate the optimal defoliation of salt desert shrubs in north-western Utah. Management was formulated in the context of optimal stochastic control theory, with objective functions composed of discounted or time-averaged biomass yields. Climatic variability and community patterns of salt desert shrublands make the application of stochastic optimal control both feasible and necessary. A primary production model was used to simulate shrub responses and harvest yields under a variety of climatic regimes and defoliation patterns. The simulation results then were used in an optimization model to determine optimal defoliation strategies. The latter model encodes an algorithm for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Three questions were addressed: (i) What effect do changes in weather patterns have on optimal management strategies? (ii) What effect does the discounting of future returns have? (iii) How do the optimal strategies perform relative to certain fixed defoliation strategies? An analysis was performed for the three shrub species, winterfat (Ceratoides lanata), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). In general, the results indicate substantial differences among species in optimal control strategies, which are associated with differences in physiological and morphological characteristics. Optimal policies for big sagebrush varied less with variation in climate, reserve levels and discount rates than did either shadscale or winterfat. This was attributed primarily to the overwintering of photosynthetically active tissue and to metabolic activity early in the growing season. Optimal defoliation of shadscale and winterfat generally was more responsive to differences in plant vigor and climate, reflecting the sensitivity of these species to utilization and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves. Similarities could be seen in the influence of both

  4. Productivity Savings from Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Cathy J.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Yabroff, K. Robin; Dahman, Bassam; Mariotto, Angela; Feuer, Eric J.; Brown, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lost productivity represents a considerable portion of the total economic burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), but cost-effectiveness studies of CRC prevention and control have not included these costs and therefore underestimate potential savings from CRC prevention and control. Purpose To use microsimulation modeling study to estimate and project productivity costs of CRC and to model the savings from four approaches to reducing CRC incidence and mortality: risk factor reduction, improved screening, improved treatment, and a simultaneous approach where all three strategies are implemented. Methods A model was developed to project productivity losses from CRC using the U.S. population with CRC incidence and mortality projected through the year 2020. Outcome measures were CRC mortality, morbidity, and productivity savings. Results With 2005 levels in risk factors, screening, and treatment, 48,748 CRC deaths occurred in 2010, amounting to $21 billion of lost productivity. Using prevention and treatment strategies simultaneously, 3586 deaths could have been avoided in 2010, leading to a savings of $1.4 billion. Cumulatively, by 2020, simultaneous strategies that reduce risk factors and increase screening and treatment could result in 101,353 deaths avoided and $33.9 billion in savings in reduced productivity loss. Improved screening rates alone led to nearly $14.7 billion in savings between 2005 and 2020, followed by risk factor reduction ($12.4 billion) and improved treatment ($8.4 billion). Conclusions The savings in productivity loss from strategies to reduce CRC incidence and mortality are substantial, providing evidence that CRC prevention and control strategies are likely to be cost-saving. PMID:21767717

  5. Dynamic and kinematic strategies for head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. W.; Choi, H.; Hain, T.; Keshner, E.; Peng, G. C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes our analysis of the complex head-neck system using a combination of experimental and modeling approaches. Dynamical analysis of head movements and EMG activation elicited by perturbation of trunk position has examined functional contributions of biomechanically and neurally generated forces in lumped systems with greatly simplified kinematics. This has revealed that visual and voluntary control of neck muscles and the dynamic and static vestibulocollic and cervicocollic reflexes preferentially govern head-neck system state in different frequency domains. It also documents redundant control, which allows the system to compensate for lesions and creates a potential for substantial variability within and between subjects. Kinematic studies have indicated the existence of reciprocal and co-contraction strategies for voluntary force generation, of a vestibulocollic strategy for stabilizing the head during body perturbations and of at least two strategies for voluntary head tracking. Each strategy appears to be executed by a specific muscle synergy that is presumably optimized to efficiently meet the demands of the task.

  6. An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, K. . Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

    1994-01-01

    A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

  7. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others. PMID:21794185

  8. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  9. Designing new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Ding, Hong-ming; Ren, Chun-lai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Orientation controllable DNA biosensors hold great application potentials in recognizing small molecules and detecting DNA hybridization. Though electric field is usually used to control the orientation of DNA molecules, it is also of great importance and significance to seek for other triggered methods to control the DNA orientation. Here, we design a new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors. The main idea is to copolymerize DNA molecules with responsive polymers that can show swelling/deswelling transitions due to the change of external stimuli, and then graft the copolymers onto an uncharged substrate. In order to highlight the responsive characteristic, we take thermo-responsive polymers as an example, and reveal multi-responsive behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism of the DNA orientation by combining dissipative particle dynamics simulation and molecular theory. Since swelling/deswelling transitions can be also realized by using other stimuli-responsive (like pH and light) polymers, the present strategy is universal, which can enrich the methods of controlling DNA orientation and may assist with the design of the next generation of biosensors. PMID:26400770

  10. Designing new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chao; Ding, Hong-ming; Ren, Chun-lai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Orientation controllable DNA biosensors hold great application potentials in recognizing small molecules and detecting DNA hybridization. Though electric field is usually used to control the orientation of DNA molecules, it is also of great importance and significance to seek for other triggered methods to control the DNA orientation. Here, we design a new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors. The main idea is to copolymerize DNA molecules with responsive polymers that can show swelling/deswelling transitions due to the change of external stimuli, and then graft the copolymers onto an uncharged substrate. In order to highlight the responsive characteristic, we take thermo-responsive polymers as an example, and reveal multi-responsive behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism of the DNA orientation by combining dissipative particle dynamics simulation and molecular theory. Since swelling/deswelling transitions can be also realized by using other stimuli-responsive (like pH and light) polymers, the present strategy is universal, which can enrich the methods of controlling DNA orientation and may assist with the design of the next generation of biosensors. PMID:26400770

  11. Controller strategy for a 6 DOF piezoelectric translation stage

    SciTech Connect

    Buice, E S; Yang, H; Smith, S T; Hocken, R J; Trumper, D L; Otten, D; Seugling, R M

    2006-03-22

    A controller for the third generation, 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) piezoelectric translation stage shown in Figure 1 is presented. This was tested by monitoring all six coordinate motions using an orthogonal array of six, high-resolution capacitance gages. The full 6 DOF matrix transformations and controller block diagrams for this system have been measured and the system operated under closed loop control. Results of early experiments to determine the 21 open loop response functions as well as preliminary results showing the closed loop response for the 3 linear translations are presented in this abstract. The ultimate goal of this project is to incorporate this 6 DOF stage within a long range X-Y scanning system for nanometer pick-and-place capability over an area of 50 x 50 mm. The control strategy and early results from this system will be presented.

  12. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. Methods: Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA, were analysed. Documents were sought by Finland and by names of organisations and tobacco control activists. Documents were accessed and assessed between September 2000 and November 2002. Tactics of the tobacco industry activities were categorised as presented by Saloojee and Dagli. Results: The international tobacco companies utilised similar strategies in Finland as in other industrial markets to fight tobacco control and legislation, the health advocacy movement, and litigation. These activities slowed down the development and implementation of the Tobacco Act in Finland. However, despite the extensive pressure, the industry was not able to prevent the most progressive tobacco legislation in Europe from being passed and coming into force in Finland in 1977 and in 1995. Conclusion: Denying the health hazards caused by tobacco—despite indisputable scientific evidence—decreased the credibility of the tobacco industry. Strategy of denial was falsely chosen, as health advocacy groups were active both in society and the parliamentary system. The strong influence of the tobacco industry may have in fact increased the visibility of tobacco control in Finland as the litigation process was also drawing attention to negative health effects of tobacco. Therefore the tobacco industry did not manage to convince public opinion. However, the tobacco industry did obtain experience in Finland in how to object to tobacco control measures. PMID:14660780

  13. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further.

  14. Control Strategies for Accurate Force Generation and Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics and motor strategies for force generation and force relaxation were examined using graded tasks during isometric force control. Ten female college students (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 1.1) were instructed to accurately control the force of isometric elbow flexion using their right arm to match a target force level as quickly as possible. They performed: (1) a generation task, wherein they increased their force from 0% maximum voluntary force to 20% maximum voluntary force (0%-20%), 40% maximum voluntary force (0%-40%), or 60% maximum voluntary force (0%-60%) and (2) and a relaxation task, in which they decreased their force from 60% maximum voluntary force to 40% maximum voluntary force (60%-40%), 20% maximum voluntary force (60%-20%), or to 0% maximum voluntary force (60%-0%). Produced force parameters of point of accuracy (force level, error), quickness (reaction time, adjustment time, rate of force development), and strategy (force wave, rate of force development) were analyzed. Errors of force relaxation were all greater, and reaction times shorter, than those of force generation. Adjustment time depended on the magnitude of force and peak rates of force development and force relaxation differed. Controlled relaxation of force is more difficult with low magnitude of force control.

  15. Control Strategies for Accurate Force Generation and Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics and motor strategies for force generation and force relaxation were examined using graded tasks during isometric force control. Ten female college students (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 1.1) were instructed to accurately control the force of isometric elbow flexion using their right arm to match a target force level as quickly as possible. They performed: (1) a generation task, wherein they increased their force from 0% maximum voluntary force to 20% maximum voluntary force (0%-20%), 40% maximum voluntary force (0%-40%), or 60% maximum voluntary force (0%-60%) and (2) and a relaxation task, in which they decreased their force from 60% maximum voluntary force to 40% maximum voluntary force (60%-40%), 20% maximum voluntary force (60%-20%), or to 0% maximum voluntary force (60%-0%). Produced force parameters of point of accuracy (force level, error), quickness (reaction time, adjustment time, rate of force development), and strategy (force wave, rate of force development) were analyzed. Errors of force relaxation were all greater, and reaction times shorter, than those of force generation. Adjustment time depended on the magnitude of force and peak rates of force development and force relaxation differed. Controlled relaxation of force is more difficult with low magnitude of force control. PMID:27555365

  16. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family. PMID:26322486

  17. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  18. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-06-24

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  19. Strategies for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boyce, J M

    1995-07-01

    In areas where the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is very low, aggressive strategies, which appear to have been effective, such as those used in the Netherlands and western Australia, may be feasible. In hospitals where MRSA is epidemic or highly endemic, less rigorous strategies are appropriate. However, which isolation techniques and barrier precautions are optimal is controversial. In addition, there is no consensus regarding the epidemiological importance of environmental contamination. Rapid detection of MRSA, prompt implementation of barrier precautions and prospective surveillance are essential components of a successful control programme. Eradicating nasal carriage of MRSA among patients and personnel can be useful during epidemics, but the cost-effectiveness of using this approach in hospitals where the prevalence of MRSA is low is unknown. Additional studies of this issue need to include surveillance for mupirocin-resistant strains.

  20. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  1. Preparation of controlled gold nanoparticle aggregates using a dendronization strategy.

    PubMed

    Paez, Julieta I; Coronado, Eduardo A; Strumia, Miriam C

    2012-10-15

    In this work, a dendronization strategy was used to control interparticle spacing and the optical properties of gold nanoparticle (NP) aggregates in aqueous media. To achieve this goal, two dendritic disulfides bearing different functionalities on their periphery were synthesized and used as ligands to dendronize gold NPs. The dendronized NPs then undergo aggregation; this process was followed by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) measurements and correlated with Generalized Mie Theory electrodynamics calculations. For comparison, NP functionalization was also studied using a nondendritic ligand. It was found that the use of dendritic disulfides allows for the preparation of controlled NP aggregates. This study demonstrates how different dendronization parameters, such as disulfide concentration, temperature, time and nature of the ligand (dendritic vs nondendritic), determine the control exerted over the size and stability of the NP aggregates.

  2. NOx control strategy at the Lyondell-Citgo refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.; Merritt, M.; Canon, D.; Wood, S.; Haas, G.; Agrawal, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) promulgated rules (referred to as NOx RACT Rules) establishing NOx emission limitations affecting industry located in the Texas Gulf Coast area in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, Title I -- Ozone Non-Attainment requirements. These rules presented comprehensive Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (RACT) based NOx emission limitations from a wide range of industrial combustion devices. These rules required industry to submit preliminary test data and initial control plans by April 1, 1994, demonstrating how each affected facility will achieve compliance with the rules by May 31, 1995. In compliance with these rules the Lyondell-Citgo Refinery in Houston, TX conducted a comprehensive test program on all affected combustion devices at this facility. Testing was conducted on more than fifty-five (55) process heaters and boilers. The preliminary test results were used to evaluate potential compliance status and identify an optimum NOx Control Strategy for achieving compliance. This paper presents the results of the preliminary test program and the technoeconomic evaluation of combining process modifications and commercially available combustion and post-combustion retrofit NOx control technologies. The preliminary test program identified operational process modifications which resulted in efficiency gains as well as reducing NOx emissions. Incorporation of combustion process tuning in the control strategy not only reduced the number of units required to implement retrofit control technologies, but the corresponding fuel savings potential may well offset the cost of compliance. This paper will be of benefit to those industries faced with similar NOx RACT compliance requirements.

  3. PMSM sensorless control with separate control strategies and smooth switch from low speed to high speed.

    PubMed

    Chen, SiYi; Luo, Ying; Pi, YouGuo

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a smooth switching scheme with separate control strategies on low speed mode and high speed mode for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) sensorless control to improve the overall performance in full speed range. Constant voltage/frequency tuning method is used on low speed mode because the rotor position can hardly be estimated precisely at low speed. Along with the increasing speed, the control strategy can be switched to high speed mode smoothly when current and speed meet the given requirements. In this high speed mode, the current tracking with a sliding mode observer (SMO) and speed tracking with a sliding mode controller (SMC) are handled, respectively. Experimental demonstration is presented to show the desired performance in full speed range of the PMSM sensorless control using the proposed control scheme in this paper.

  4. Subjective well-being in times of social change: congruence of control strategies and perceived control.

    PubMed

    Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change. PMID:23173869

  5. Subjective well-being in times of social change: congruence of control strategies and perceived control.

    PubMed

    Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change.

  6. Advanced control strategy for plant heat rate improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.; Frerichs, D.K.; Kyr, D.

    1995-12-31

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) supplies electricity to about half of the population of Florida, roughly 6.5 million people. The load base is largely residential/business with the obvious seasonal extremes due to the climate. FPL`s generating capacity is 16,320 MW composed of 70% traditional fossil cycle, 18% nuclear, and 12% gas turbine. The system load profile coupled with bulk power purchases is such that the 400 MW class units (9 Foster Wheeler drum type units comprising 24% of total capacity) are now forced to cycle daily all year, and to come off line on weekends during the winter months. The current economic realities of power generation force utility companies to seek methods to improve plant heat rate, and FPL is no exception. FPL believed it possible to achieve the goal of lower heat rate and follow the required load demand with the 400 MW class units through the use of an advanced control strategy implemented totally within the unit`s Distributed Control System (DCS). As of the writing of this paper, the project is still ongoing. This paper will present the theory and methodology of the advanced control strategy along with the current design and implementation status and results obtained to date.

  7. Control strategy for maximum anaerobic co-digestion performance.

    PubMed

    García-Gen, Santiago; Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M

    2015-09-01

    A control strategy for optimising the performance of anaerobic co-digestion in terms of methane productivity, digestate quality and process stability is presented. A linear programming approach is adopted to calculate the feeding of multiple substrates for maximum methane productivity, subjected to restrictions based on experimental and heuristic knowledge. Process stability is quantitatively assessed by an empirical diagnosis function comparing alkalinity ratio measurements against reference values (outputs between (-1,1]). A second empirical diagnosis function is defined to compare methane flow rate measurements against a reference value of maximum capacity (outputs between (0,1]). A variable-gain control function (outputs between (-1,1]), derived from the diagnosis functions, is defined to determine the quantitative change applied to the most active constraint of the substrate blend optimisation problem leading to a new set-point of feeding substrates blend. The control strategy works in a closed-loop architecture under which the process performance for each blend of substrates is continuously assessed. The system was successfully validated in a 1 m(3) hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket - Anaerobic Filter (UASB-AF) reactor, treating blends of substrates (gelatine, glycerine and pig manure supernatant) at OLR values between 0.71 and 6.33 gCOD/L d over a period of 210 days at mesophilic conditions. PMID:26001824

  8. Identification of manipulated variables for a glycosylation control strategy.

    PubMed

    St Amand, Melissa M; Radhakrishnan, Devesh; Robinson, Anne S; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A

    2014-10-01

    N-linked glycan distribution affects important end-use characteristics such as the bioactivity and efficacy of many therapeutic proteins, (including monoclonal antibodies), in vivo. Yet, obtaining desired glycan distributions consistently during batch-to-batch production can be challenging for biopharmaceutical manufacturers. While an appropriately implemented on-line glycosylation control strategy during production can help to ensure a consistent glycan distribution, to date no such strategies have been reported. Our goal is to develop and validate a comprehensive strategy for effective on-line control of glycosylation, the successful achievement of which requires first identifying appropriate manipulated variables that can be used to direct the glycan distribution to a desired state. While various culture conditions such as bioreactor process variables, media type, and media supplements have been shown to affect the glycan distribution, in this study we focus on the latter. Specifically, we implemented a statistically designed series of experiments to determine the significant main effects (as well as interaction effects) of media supplementation with manganese, galactose, ammonia and found that each had significant effects on certain glycans. We also include data indicating the glycosylation enzyme gene transcript levels as well as the intracellular nucleotide sugar concentrations in the presence of the media supplements to provide insight into the intracellular conditions that may be contributing to the changes in glycan distribution. The acquired experimental data sets were then used to identify which glycans can be controlled by the media supplements and to what degree. We determined that MnCl2 can be used as a manipulated variable to increase the relative abundance of M51 and decrease FA2 simultaneously, and galactose can be used as a manipulated variable to increase the relative abundance of FA2G1 and decrease FA2 and A2 simultaneously.

  9. Control strategies for afterload reduction with an artificial vasculature device.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Cheng, Rolando Chip; Glower, Jacob S; Ewert, Daniel L; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been used successfully as a bridge to transplant in heart failure patients by unloading ventricular volume and restoring the circulation. An artificial vasculature device (AVD) is being developed that may better facilitate myocardial recovery than VAD by controlling the afterload experienced by the native heart and controlling the pulsatile energy entering into the arterial system from the device, potentially reconditioning the arterial system properties. The AVD is a valveless, 80 ml blood chamber with a servo-controlled pusher plate connected to the ascending aorta by a vascular graft. Control algorithms for the AVD were developed to maintain any user-defined systemic input impedance (IM) including resistance, elastance, and inertial components. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of the cardiovascular system were used to test the efficacy of two control strategies for the AVD: 1) average impedance position control (AIPC)-to maintain an average value of resistance during left ventricular (LV) systole and 2) instantaneous impedance force feedback (IIFF) and position control (IIPC)-to maintain a desired value or profile of resistance and compliance. Computer simulations and mock loop tests were performed to predict resulting cardiovascular pressures, volumes, flows, and the resistance and compliance experienced by the native LV during ejection for simulated normal, failing, and recovering LV. These results indicate that the LV volume and pressure decreased, and the LV stroke volume increased with decreasing IM, resulting in an increased ejection fraction. Although the AIPC algorithm is more stable and can tolerate higher levels of sensor errors and noise, the IIFF and IIPC control algorithms are better suited to maintain any instantaneous IM or an IM profile. The developed AVD impedance control algorithms may be implemented with current VADs to promote myocardial recovery and facilitate weaning. PMID:22635010

  10. Control strategies for afterload reduction with an artificial vasculature device.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Cheng, Rolando Chip; Glower, Jacob S; Ewert, Daniel L; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been used successfully as a bridge to transplant in heart failure patients by unloading ventricular volume and restoring the circulation. An artificial vasculature device (AVD) is being developed that may better facilitate myocardial recovery than VAD by controlling the afterload experienced by the native heart and controlling the pulsatile energy entering into the arterial system from the device, potentially reconditioning the arterial system properties. The AVD is a valveless, 80 ml blood chamber with a servo-controlled pusher plate connected to the ascending aorta by a vascular graft. Control algorithms for the AVD were developed to maintain any user-defined systemic input impedance (IM) including resistance, elastance, and inertial components. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of the cardiovascular system were used to test the efficacy of two control strategies for the AVD: 1) average impedance position control (AIPC)-to maintain an average value of resistance during left ventricular (LV) systole and 2) instantaneous impedance force feedback (IIFF) and position control (IIPC)-to maintain a desired value or profile of resistance and compliance. Computer simulations and mock loop tests were performed to predict resulting cardiovascular pressures, volumes, flows, and the resistance and compliance experienced by the native LV during ejection for simulated normal, failing, and recovering LV. These results indicate that the LV volume and pressure decreased, and the LV stroke volume increased with decreasing IM, resulting in an increased ejection fraction. Although the AIPC algorithm is more stable and can tolerate higher levels of sensor errors and noise, the IIFF and IIPC control algorithms are better suited to maintain any instantaneous IM or an IM profile. The developed AVD impedance control algorithms may be implemented with current VADs to promote myocardial recovery and facilitate weaning.

  11. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. A rapid approach to rational water pollution control strategies.

    PubMed

    Economopoulos, A P

    1996-10-01

    The formulation of rational wastewater control strategies is becoming increasingly important in many countries where, exploding urbanization, industrialization and/or tourism, often combined with improved standards of living and better awareness of the environmental problems, are resulting in enlarged pollution problems, but also in the availability of expanding financial resources for environmental protection. However, more often than one tends to believe, lack of planning, or planning with limited understanding of the principles involved, has resulted in solutions that are both expensive and incapable of addressing the key problems.As rigorous planning is extremely resource intensive, and for this reason impractical for most study areas, the development of a much simplified analysis procedure, capable of generating rational, near-optimum, strategies and detailed action programs, is required, if proper environmental management is to be widely practiced.In an effort to achieve the above objectives, a systems analysis approach is selected as the most suitable at rationalizing the allocation of available resources and at producing detailed action programs that promote implementation. In the context of this approach, new, easy to use models have been developed, while others, have been selected, adapted and streamlined in their use. The entire problem analysis and strategy synthesis procedures have thus been simplified and defined to a degree appropriate for widespread use, and the resultant procedure is actively promoted by WHO and UNEP.

  13. A rapid approach to rational water pollution control strategies.

    PubMed

    Economopoulos, A P

    1996-10-01

    The formulation of rational wastewater control strategies is becoming increasingly important in many countries where, exploding urbanization, industrialization and/or tourism, often combined with improved standards of living and better awareness of the environmental problems, are resulting in enlarged pollution problems, but also in the availability of expanding financial resources for environmental protection. However, more often than one tends to believe, lack of planning, or planning with limited understanding of the principles involved, has resulted in solutions that are both expensive and incapable of addressing the key problems.As rigorous planning is extremely resource intensive, and for this reason impractical for most study areas, the development of a much simplified analysis procedure, capable of generating rational, near-optimum, strategies and detailed action programs, is required, if proper environmental management is to be widely practiced.In an effort to achieve the above objectives, a systems analysis approach is selected as the most suitable at rationalizing the allocation of available resources and at producing detailed action programs that promote implementation. In the context of this approach, new, easy to use models have been developed, while others, have been selected, adapted and streamlined in their use. The entire problem analysis and strategy synthesis procedures have thus been simplified and defined to a degree appropriate for widespread use, and the resultant procedure is actively promoted by WHO and UNEP. PMID:24193733

  14. A compatible control algorithm for greenhouse environment control based on MOCC strategy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haigen; Xu, Lihong; Zhu, Bingkun; Wei, Ruihua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methods used for solving greenhouse environment multi-objective conflict control problems lay excessive emphasis on control performance and have inadequate consideration for both energy consumption and special requirements for plant growth. The resulting solution will cause higher energy cost. However, during the long period of work and practice, we find that it may be more reasonable to adopt interval or region control objectives instead of point control objectives. In this paper, we propose a modified compatible control algorithm, and employ Multi-Objective Compatible Control (MOCC) strategy and an extant greenhouse model to achieve greenhouse climate control based on feedback control architecture. A series of simulation experiments through various comparative studies are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The results are encouraging and suggest the energy-saving application to real-world engineering problems in greenhouse production. It may be valuable and helpful to formulate environmental control strategies, and to achieve high control precision and low energy cost for real-world engineering application in greenhouse production. Moreover, the proposed approach has also potential to be useful for other practical control optimization problems with the features like the greenhouse environment control system.

  15. Strategies for Increasing Recruitment to Randomised Controlled Trials: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Patrina H. Y.; Hamilton, Sana; Tan, Alvin; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recruitment of participants into randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is critical for successful trial conduct. Although there have been two previous systematic reviews on related topics, the results (which identified specific interventions) were inconclusive and not generalizable. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of recruitment strategies for participation in RCTs. Methods and Findings A systematic review, using the PRISMA guideline for reporting of systematic reviews, that compared methods of recruiting individual study participants into an actual or mock RCT were included. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies. From over 16,000 titles or abstracts reviewed, 396 papers were retrieved and 37 studies were included, in which 18,812 of at least 59,354 people approached agreed to participate in a clinical RCT. Recruitment strategies were broadly divided into four groups: novel trial designs (eight studies), recruiter differences (eight studies), incentives (two studies), and provision of trial information (19 studies). Strategies that increased people's awareness of the health problem being studied (e.g., an interactive computer program [relative risk (RR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.18], attendance at an education session [RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28], addition of a health questionnaire [RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.66]), or a video about the health condition (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11–2.74), and also monetary incentives (RR1.39, 95% CI 1.13–1.64 to RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28–1.84) improved recruitment. Increasing patients' understanding of the trial process, recruiter differences, and various methods of randomisation and consent design did not show a difference in recruitment. Consent rates were also higher for nonblinded trial design, but differential loss to follow up between groups may jeopardise the study findings. The study's main limitation was the necessity of

  16. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  17. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  18. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  19. Molecular technology: improving strategies for controlling hydatid disease and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1990-06-01

    Recombinant DNA and related technologies are providing valuable, novel reagents for application in control strategies against the major parasitic diseases, including hydatid disease and cysticercosis. The impact of these powerful techniques for improving diagnosis and identification of various life cycle stages of Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium, essential pre-requisites for epidemiological studies and for evaluating control programs, is beyond question. Furthermore, the use of molecular technology for characterizing sub-specific variants of strains of both Echinococcus and T. solium has led to important revisions of our understanding of the diseases they cause. In light of the recent remarkable development of a recombinant vaccine against T. ovis, the first practical parasite vaccine to be produced, the prospects for rapid development of similar vaccines against the medically important taeniids appear to be very encouraging.

  20. [Malaria in the central highlands of Madagascar: control strategies].

    PubMed

    Rabarijaona, L P; Rabe, T; Ranaivo, L H; Raharimalala, L A; Rakotomanana, F; Rakotondraibe, E M; Ramarosandratana, B; Rakotoson, J D; Rakotonjanabelo, L A; Tafangy, P B

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present data on malaria in the central highland plateaux of Madagascar and strategies to improve the national malaria control program. Use of rapid diagnosis strips, early home-based fever management with pre-packaged chloroquine treatment kits and proposed new therapeutic combination based on artemisinine are discussed for management of patients with high suspicion of malaria attack. Preventive measures including alternated targeted and full-house indoor spraying for vector control, use of insecticide-impregnated bednets, implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in risk groups, optimization of the epidemic early detection and warning system using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method for epidemiological investigation if the alert threshold is exceeded, and provision of rapid diagnosis strips are presented.