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Sample records for dq cap alpha

  1. A novel association of DQ alpha and DQ beta genes in the DRw10 haplotype. Determination of a DQw1 specificity by the DQ beta-chain.

    PubMed

    Merryman, P; Silver, J; Gregersen, P K; Solomon, G; Winchester, R

    1989-09-15

    The association of the class II genes of the DRw10 haplotype from a cell line, NASC, initiated from a member of a well characterized family, was analyzed by sequencing cDNA clones corresponding to DR beta I, DQ alpha, and DQ beta genes. An identical haplotype was also identified in the Raji cell line. In addition to typing as DRw10 and DQw1 with HLA typing sera both, the NASC and Raji cell lines were shown to react strongly with the monoclonal antibodies 109d6 (specific for DRw10 beta 1 and DRw53 beta 2 gene products) and Genox 3.5.3 (specific for DQw1) and exhibited the restriction fragment length polymorphism indicative of a DRw10, DQw1 haplotype. The DR beta 1 gene corresponding to the DRw10 specificity was found to have a first domain sequence different from all other DR beta I genes. Sequence analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of this DR beta-chain gene showed a significant divergence from the 3' untranslated region of the DRw53 family of haplotypes and a lesser divergence from that of the DRw52 and DR1/DR2 families. The sequence of the DQ beta genes corresponding to the DQw1 specificity in the DRw10 haplotype was found to be identical to the DQ beta gene from a DR1, DQw1 haplotype. Surprisingly, however, the DQ alpha gene did not resemble other DQw1-like DQ alpha genes, but was identical in sequence to the DQ alpha gene found in DR4 haplotypes. The novel association of DQ alpha and DQ beta genes in the DRw10 haplotype revealed in these studies may result from a double recombinational event. More consequentially, these studies strongly suggest that the DQw1 specificity recognized by Genox 3.5.3 is determined by the DQ beta chain and is not affected by the DQ alpha-chain.

  2. PCR amplification and typing of the HLA DQ alpha gene in forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Comey, C T; Budowle, B; Adams, D E; Baumstark, A L; Lindsey, J A; Presley, L A

    1993-03-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the HLA DQ alpha gene using DNA recovered from evidentiary samples. Amplified HLA DQ alpha DNA was then typed using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Slight modifications of previously published DNA extraction methods improved typing success of bloodstains and semen-containing material. Evidentiary samples, consisting of 206 known bloodstains, 26 questioned bloodstains, and 123 questioned semen-containing evidentiary materials were analyzed from 96 cases previously analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing in the FBI Laboratory. Of the known bloodstains, 98.5% yielded DQ alpha typing results. Of the questioned samples, 102 of 149 (24/26 bloodstains and 78/123 semen-containing materials), or 68%, produced typing results. Of the 78 cases that were RFLP inclusions, 59 yielded interpretable DQ alpha results and these were all inclusions. The remaining 19 cases could not be interpreted for DQ alpha. Of the 18 RFLP exclusions, eleven were DQ alpha exclusions, four were DQ alpha inclusions, and three could not be interpreted for DQ alpha. It is expected that because of the difference in discrimination potential of the two methods, some RFLP exclusions would be DQ alpha inclusions. Some samples that failed to produce typing results may have had insufficient DNA for analysis. Employment of a human DNA quantification method in DQ alpha casework would allow the user to more consistently use sufficient quantities of DNA for amplification. It also could provide a guide for determining if an inhibitor of PCR is present, thus suggesting the use of a procedure to improve amplification. This study provides support that the HLA DQ alpha typing procedure is valid for typing forensic samples.

  3. Ancient roots for polymorphism at the HLA-DQ. alpha. locus in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Gyllensten, U.B.; Erlich, H.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The genes encoding the human histocompatibility antigens (HLA) exhibit a remarkable degree of polymorphism as revealed by immunologic and molecular analyses. This extensive sequence polymorphism either may have been generated during the lifetime of the human species or could have arisen before speciation and been maintained in the contemporary human population by selection or, possibly, by genetic drift. These two hypotheses were examined using the polymerase chain reaction method to amplify polymorphic sequences from the DQ{alpha} locus, as well as the DX{alpha} locus, an homologous but nonexpressed locus, in a series of primates that diverged at known times. In general, the amino acid sequence of a specific human DQ{alpha} allelic type is more closely related to its chimpanzee or gorilla counterpart than to other human DQ{alpha} alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of the silent nucleotide position changes shows that the similarity of allelic types between species is due to common ancestry rather than convergent evolution. Thus, most of the polymorphism at the DQ{alpha} locus in the human species was already present at least 5 million years ago in the ancestral species that gave rise to the chimpanzee, gorilla, and human lineages. However, one of the DQ{alpha} alleles may have arisen after speciation by recombination between two ancestral alleles.

  4. Analysis of HLA DQ alpha allele and genotype frequencies in populations from Florida.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C A; Feuer, W J; Nippes, D C; Hutto, S C; Barnes, K S; Coffman, D; Livingston, S H; Ginsberg, L; Glidewell, D E

    1994-05-01

    HLA DQ alpha allele and genotype frequencies for Caucasian, African American, Haitian, and Hispanic populations in Florida have been estimated. The Florida laboratories involved in these studies collected donor samples from a variety of sites including clinical laboratories, victim and suspect standards, blood banks, county jail detainees, and laboratory personnel. We have determined that the Caucasian and African American DQ alpha genotype frequencies do not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg expectations and as a result of this heterogeneity analyses, data from the four Florida Caucasian populations may be combined and data from the four Florida African American populations may be combined to form two large HLA DQ alpha genotype frequency databanks. Further, data from the Florida Haitian population may be combined with the Florida African American population. Comparison of the combined Florida Caucasian populations, combined Florida African American populations, the Palm Beach Sheriff's Office (PBSO) Hispanic, and PBSO Haitian population with other databases does not support combination because allele frequency distributions are heterogeneous.

  5. Intermediate filaments in. cap alpha. -keratins

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, R.D.B.; MacRae, T.P.; Parry, D.A.D.; Suzuki, E.

    1986-03-01

    Previous x-ray diffraction studies on the ..cap alpha..-keratins of hair and wool have revealed that the intermediate filaments (IF) have a helical structure rendered imperfect by a precisely defined dislocation. It has also been possible to deduce a surface lattice for the IF and to determine the number of IF molecules associated with each lattice point. In this work this information is combined with data on the ionic interactions between the coiled-coil rope segments of the IF molecules to provide a plausible model for the pattern of interactions that stabilize the framework of the IF in the hard ..cap alpha..-keratins. Similar interaction studies of the proteins from the IF in the so-called soft ..cap alpha..-keratin from the stratum corneum layer of the skin suggest that they are likely to have an essentially similar pattern.

  6. Identification of immunodominant epitopes of alpha-gliadin in HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice following oral immunization.

    PubMed

    Senger, Stefania; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzeo, Maria F; Gaita, Marcello; Fierro, Olga; David, Chella S; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; Siciliano, Rosa A; Rossi, Mauro

    2005-12-15

    Celiac disease, triggered by wheat gliadin and related prolamins from barley and rye, is characterized by a strong association with HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genes. Gliadin is a mixture of many proteins that makes difficult the identification of major immunodominant epitopes. To address this issue, we expressed in Escherichia coli a recombinant alpha-gliadin (r-alpha-gliadin) showing the most conserved sequence among the fraction of alpha-gliadins. HLA-DQ8 mice, on a gluten-free diet, were intragastrically immunized with a chymotryptic digest of r-alpha-gliadin along with cholera toxin as adjuvant. Spleen and mesenteric lymph node T cell responses were analyzed for in vitro proliferative assay using a panel of synthetic peptides encompassing the entire sequence of r-alpha-gliadin. Two immunodominant epitopes corresponding to peptide p13 (aa 120-139) and p23 (aa 220-239) were identified. The response was restricted to DQ and mediated by CD4+ T cells. In vitro tissue transglutaminase deamidation of both peptides did not increase the response; furthermore, tissue transglutaminase catalyzed extensive deamidation in vitro along the entire r-alpha-gliadin molecule, but failed to elicit new immunogenic determinants. Surprisingly, the analysis of the cytokine profile showed that both deamidated and native peptides induced preferentially IFN-gamma secretion, despite the use of cholera toxin, a mucosal adjuvant that normally induces a Th2 response to bystander Ags. Taken together, these data suggest that, in this model of gluten hypersensitivity, deamidation is not a prerequisite for the initiation of gluten responses.

  7. Report of the blind trial of the Cetus Amplitype HLA DQ alpha forensic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) amplification and typing kit.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P S; Fildes, N; Louie, A S; Higuchi, R

    1991-09-01

    The AmpliType HLA DQ alpha forensic DNA amplification and typing kit is designed for the qualitative analysis of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha alleles present in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from forensic samples. The AmpliType kit is the first forensic DNA typing product based on the GeneAmp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The kit was evaluated by five forensic science laboratories (test sites) to assess their ability to perform DNA typing using PCR on sample types typically encountered by forensic laboratories. None of the DNA-containing samples was mistyped. Of the 180 DNA-containing samples analyzed, results were reported for 178 (98.9%). Of the 178 samples with results, all were correctly typed. Two sites did not report a result for one sample each. Four of the five laboratories experienced no significant levels of contamination in the DNA-containing samples. At the one site with the highest number of DNA-containing samples with contamination, the typing results were not compromised. This site was able to correct the contamination problem through simple procedural changes and stricter attention to sterile technique. Blank controls were important to monitor contamination. In conclusion, the trial demonstrated that forensic science laboratories are capable of setting up a PCR-based DNA typing laboratory and successfully using the AmpliType HLA DQ alpha forensic DNA amplification and typing kit to analyze forensic samples.

  8. cap alpha. -2 adrenergic receptor: a radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Unnerstall, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-2 adrenergic agents have been shown to influence blood pressure, heart rate and other physiological and behavioral functions through interactions with adrenergic pathways within the central nervous system. Pharmacologically relevant ..cap alpha..-1 adrenergic receptors were biochemically characterized and radiohistochemically analyzed in intact tissue sections of the rat and human central nervous system. The anatomical distribution of the ..cap alpha..-2 receptors, labeled with the agonist (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine, verified the concept that ..cap alpha..-2 receptors are closely associated with adrenergic nerve terminals and that ..cap alpha..-2 agents can influence autonomic and endocrine function through an action in the central nervous system. Since ..cap alpha..-2 agonists can influence sympathetic outflow, ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites were closely analyzed in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. The transport of putative presynaptic ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites in the rat sciatic nerve was analyzed by light microscopic radiohistochemical techniques. Finally, in intact tissue section of the rat central nervous system, the biochemical characteristics of (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine binding were analyzed. Data were also shown which indicates that the synthetic ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist (/sup 3/H)RX781094 also binds to ..cap alpha..-2 receptors with high-affinity. Further, the distribution of (/sup 3/H)RX781094 binding sites in the rat central nervous system was identical to the distribution seen when using (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine.

  9. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T shield design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    MFTF-..cap alpha..+T is a DT upgrade option of the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) to study better plasma performance, and test tritium breeding blankets in an actual fusion reactor environment. The central cell insert, designated DT axicell, has a 2-MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading at the first wall for blanket testing. This upgrade is completely shielded to protect the reactor components, the workers, and the general public from the radiation environment during operation and after shutdown. The shield design for this upgrade is the subject of this paper including the design criteria and the tradeoff studies to reduce the shield cost.

  10. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.D.

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  11. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  12. Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

    1987-12-10

    The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

  13. Gliadin-specific, HLA-DQ(alpha 1*0501,beta 1*0201) restricted T cells isolated from the small intestinal mucosa of celiac disease patients

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is most probably an immunological disease, precipitated in susceptible individuals by ingestion of wheat gliadin and related proteins from other cereals. The disease shows a strong human HLA association predominantly to the cis or trans encoded HLA- DQ(alpha 1*0501,beta 1*0201) (DQ2) heterodimer. T cell recognition of gliadin presented by this DQ heterodimer may thus be of immunopathogenic importance in CD. We therefore challenged small intestinal biopsies from adult CD patients on a gluten-free diet in vitro with gluten (containing both gliadin and other wheat proteins), and isolated activated CD25+ T cells. Polyclonal T cell lines and a panel of T cell clones recognizing gluten were established. They recognized the gliadin moiety of gluten, but not proteins from other cereals. Inhibition studies with anti-HLA antibodies demonstrated predominant antigen presentation by HLA-DQ molecules. The main antigen- presenting molecule was established to be the CD-associated DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201) heterodimer. The gluten-reactive T cell clones were CD4+, CD8-, and carried diverse combinations of T cell receptor (TCR) V alpha and V beta chains. The findings suggest preferential mucosal presentation of gluten-derived peptides by HLA-DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201) in CD, which may explain the HLA association. PMID:8315377

  14. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  15. Systematics of. cap alpha. decay of even--even isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Poplavskii-breve, I.V.

    1987-02-01

    On the basis of an analysis of experimental data we have investigated for the first time the ..cap alpha.. decay of even--even isotones. We have established that the ..cap alpha..-decay energy of isotones depends on the number of protons approximately according to a linear law. We have shown that the Geiger--Nuttall law is valid both for isotopes and isobars, and also for isotones. The deviations from the Geiger--Nuttall law are due to the shell structure of the nucleus. The regularities observed in the ..cap alpha.. decay of isotones have been used to estimate the magnitudes of the ..cap alpha..-decay energies, the kinetic energies of the emitted ..cap alpha.. particles, and the partial half-lives for ..cap alpha.. decay of the known and unknown neutron--deficient nuclei /sup 202//sup ,//sup 204/Ra, /sup 210/Th, /sup 228//sup ,//sup 230/Pu, /sup 234//sup ,//sup 236/Cm, /sup 242//sup ,//sup 244/Fm, /sup 250//sup ,//sup 258/No, and /sup 254//sup ,//sup 256/Ku.

  16. The human HLA class II alpha chain gene DZ alpha is distinct from genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions.

    PubMed Central

    Trowsdale, J; Kelly, A

    1985-01-01

    A new human HLA class II alpha gene DZ alpha was sequenced. The structure and organisation of the gene was similar to other alpha chain genes except for a particularly small intron (95 bp) after the exon encoding the alpha 2 domain, and the position of the stop codon, which was on a different exon to that encoding the cytoplasmic portion of the molecule. Comparison of the DZ alpha sequence with other class II genes showed that the gene is about as distantly related to alpha chain genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions as they are to each other. The DZ alpha gene results in an unusually large mRNA transcript of greater than 3.0 kb, detected on Northern blots of B cell lines. From the sequence, there are no obvious features that would render DZ alpha a pseudogene, except for an unusual poly(A)+ addition signal, ACTAAA. Analysis of Northern blots shows that sequences downstream (3') of this signal are present in mature mRNA. The large transcripts are probably due to defects in the signals for processing of the mRNA transcript at the 3' end. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3000765

  17. PCR-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha typing of blood stained light and dark blue denim fabric.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, S A; Marino, M A; Belgrader, P

    1996-05-01

    Obtaining typable PCR products from DNA purified from blood stained blue denim has been difficult since inhibitors of PCR in blue denim apparently co-purify with the DNA. Organic and chelex extraction methods were tested for their ability to purify typable DNA from either light or dark blue denim fabric both stained with blood. DNA purified from the light blue denim using either method was successfully used in obtaining correct HLA-DQ alpha typing results. The chelex, but not the organic, procedure was able to yield typable DNA when the dark blue denim was the substrate. Therefore, the chelex method may be more effective than the organic method in preventing compounds that inhibit PCR from co-purifying with the DNA.

  18. Amiloride interacts with renal. cap alpha. - and. beta. -adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, M.J.; Mullen, M.D.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have used radioligand binding techniques to assess whether amiloride and certain analogues of amiloride (ethylisopropyl amiloride and benzamil) can bind to adrenergic receptors in the kidney. They found that amiloride could compete for (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine (..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors), (/sup 3/H)prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors), and (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol (..beta..-adrenergic receptors) binding in rat renal cortical membranes with inhibitor constants of 13.6 /plus minus/ 5.7, 24.4 /plus minus/ 7.4, and 8.36 /plus minus/ 13.5 ..mu..M, respectively. Ethylisopropyl amiloride and benzamil were from 2- to 25-fold more potent than amiloride in competing for radioligand binding sites in studies with these membranes. In addition, amiloride and the two analogues competed for (/sup 3/H)prazosin sites on intact Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and amiloride blocked epinephrine-stimulated prostaglandin E/sub 2/ production in these cells. They conclude that amiloride competes for binding to several classes of renal adrenergic receptors with a rank order of potency of ..cap alpha../sub 2/ > ..cap alpha../sub 1/ > ..beta... Binding to, and antagonism of, adrenergic receptors occurs at concentrations of amiloride that are lower than previously observed nonspecific interactions of this agent.

  19. Photoreactivity of. cap alpha. -fluorinated phenyl alkyl ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, P.J.; Thomas, M.J.; Puchalski, A.E.

    1986-11-26

    The photoreactivities of the mono-, di-, and tri-..cap alpha..-fluorinated acetophenones have been compared to that of acetophenone itself. All four ketones have similar triplet excitation energies; the three fluorinated ketones have reduction potentials 0.5-0.7 eV lower than that of acetophenone. Triplet reactivity toward alkylbenzenes keeps increasing with fluorine substitution, since the rate-determining step becomes charge-transfer complexation as the ketone reduction potential decreases. The primary/tertiary C-H selectivity toward p-cymene increases with the number of fluorines. Triplet reactivity toward cyclopentane also is increased by fluorination but peaks at two fluorines, since the lowest triplet switches from n,..pi..* to ..pi..,..pi..* with two or three fluorines and ..pi..,..pi..* triplets are unreactive in simple hydrogen atom abstraction. In contrast, ..cap alpha..-fluorination of valerophenone does not significantly increase the rate of triplet ..gamma..-hydrogen abstraction. The inductive effect on reactivity apparently is offset by a conformational effect. The ..cap alpha..-fluorinated phenones give predominantly cyclobutanols instead of Norrish type II elimination. ..cap alpha..-Fluoroacetophenone forms predominantly acetophenone and HF when irradiated with 2-propanol, in what appears to be a short chain process involving electron transfer to ketone followed by fluoride ion loss. Finally, the radical coupling products in these reactions are formed in varying yields, depending on solvent and additives.

  20. 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in rat adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zyirek, M.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1987-11-01

    We measured the 5 ..cap alpha..-reductase activity in isolated cell preparations of rat adipose tissue using the formation of (/sup 3/H) dihydrotestosterone from (/sup 3/H) testosterone as an endpoint. Stromal cells were prepared from the epididymal fat pad, perinephric fat, and subcutaneous fat of male rats and from perinephric fat of female rats. Adipocytes were prepared from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat of male rats. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat contained greater 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity than did the adipocytes from these depots. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad contained greater activity than those from perinephric and subcutaneous depots. Perinephric stromal cells from female rats were slightly more active than those from male rats. Estradiol (10/sup -8/ M), when added to the medium, caused a 90% decrease in 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity. Aromatase activity was minimal, several orders of magnitude less than 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity in each tissue studied.

  1. Isolation of human hexosaminidase. cap alpha. cDNA and expression of. cap alpha. chains in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wiktorowicz, J.E.; Whitman, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Pooled antisera against homogeneous, glutaraldehyde cross-linked hexosaminidase (hex) A was adsorbed with E. coli lysate insolubilized on Sepharose 4B. Aliquots of a human liver lambdagtll cDNA library (50,000-100,000 pfu) were plated on E. coli Y1090. Expression of cloned cDNA, after sufficient plaque growth at 42/sup 0/, was accomplished by induction with isopropylthiogalactoside soaked nitrocellulose filters. Identification of hex cDNA clones was performed by incubation of the filters with purified antisera. Protein A labelled with I-125 was used to develop the reactive plaques. Positive plaques, identified by autoradiography, were picked, replated at a lower density, and rescreened. This was repeated several more times until all plaques yielded positive signals. Identification of the clones as containing ..cap alpha.. or ..beta.. cDNA was accomplished by replating the purified phage and rescreening the plaques with anti-hex B antiserum preadsorbed with E. coli lysate. According to this protocol several hex ..cap alpha.. clones have been identified. While these clones generate ..beta..-galactosidase: hex ..cap alpha.. fusion proteins, these findings suggest that in the future it may be possible to obtain large quantities of unmodified hex ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. polypeptides from E. coli for the study of the structural and enzymatic properties of these polypeptides and for diagnostic purposes in the GM2 gangliosidoses.

  2. Intranasal administration of a recombinant alpha-gliadin down-regulates the immune response to wheat gliadin in DQ8 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Senger, Stefania; Luongo, Diomira; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzeo, Maria F; Siciliano, Rosa A; Gianfrani, Carmela; David, Chella; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; Rossi, Mauro

    2003-08-05

    The mucosal lesion in coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated injury triggered by gliadin and associated with HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. In view of this, an approach that re-induces tolerance to this antigen should be considered as possible alternative to a strict gluten-free diet in treating CD. However, T-cell activation to multiple antigens, as a consequence of the chemical complexity shown by the antigen gliadin, could hamper the efforts to identify single component(s) useful for tolerance induction. To address this issue, a recombinant alpha-gliadin was tested in tolerance experiments in HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. As tissue transglutaminase (tTG) treatment of gliadin, previously reported to enhance its stimulatory activity in CD, did not increase its immunogenicity when parenterally administered in these mice, untreated gliadin was used as immunogen. A decrease in systemic T cell responses to the recombinant alpha-gliadin was found after nasal administration of antigen, reflected by lymphocytes proliferation assay. Interestingly, while the immunisation protocol induced transcription of both Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines, the tolerisation protocol down-regulated significantly only the IFN-gamma mRNA expression. More important, the recombinant alpha-gliadin induced a similar down-regulatory effect in mice immunised with a commercial preparation of wheat gliadin, that is a mixture of many different gliadin components. As the Th1 phenotype and the HLA-DQ8 molecule play a role in the pathogenesis of CD, our data underlined the potential usefulness of this recombinant protein for the immunomodulation of this disease.

  3. Complementary DNA sequences encoding the multimammate rat MHC class II DQ alpha and beta chains and cross-species sequence comparison in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Bellocq, J Goüy; Leirs, H

    2009-09-01

    Sequences of the complete open reading frame (ORF) for rodents major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are rare. Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the alpha and beta chains of MHC class II DQ gene was cloned from a rapid amplifications of cDNA Emds (RACE) cDNA library. The ORFs consist of 801 and 771 bp encoding 266 and 256 amino acid residues for DQB and DQA, respectively. The genomic structure of Mana-DQ genes is globally analogous to that described for other rodents except for the insertion of a serine residue in the signal peptide of Mana-DQB, which is unique among known rodents.

  4. Tritium systems for the mirror upgrade MFTF-. cap alpha. +T

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium systems and the tritium needed for MFTF-..cap alpha..+T were assessed. This mirror reactor produces 20 MW of power, has 10% availability, and uses tritium positive neutral beams with 20 to 30% total gas efficiency as fuelers. The two burn times considered were 10 h and 100 h. A reference processing case was developed including types, sizes, and cost of units.

  5. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  6. cap alpha. -Methyl-p-tyrosine shifts circadian temperature rhythms

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, A.L.; Ehret, C.F.

    1982-09-01

    ..cap alpha..-Methyl-p-tyrosine shifts the acrophase (time of highest temperature) of the circadian temperature rhythm of the rat to earlier or later times of day depending on the phase of the cicadian cycle at which the drug is administered. When ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester HCl is injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg late in the projected 8-h light phase, the acrophase of the intraperitoneal temperature rhythm is delayed by up to 3 h.However, when the same dose of drug is given 9-10 h into the projected 16-h dark phase of the daily cycle, the acrophase of the temperature rhythm occurs about 2 h earlier than expected. The times of ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine administration leading to maximal phase delays or advances are correlated with the times of minimal and maximal turnover of norepinephrine in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that changing rates of norepinephrine turnover in the hypothalamus may regulate the circadian temperature rhythm in rats. The results also emphasize the fact that the effects of drugs may vary as a function of the time of administration. This fact must be taken into account in pharmacologic testing.

  7. Human hTM. cap alpha. gene: Expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, A.R.; Gooding, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from a human skeletal muscle library which contains the complete protein-coding sequence of a skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. This cDNA sequence defines a fourth human tropomyosin gene, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene, which is distinct from the hTM/sub nm/ gene encoding a closely related isoform of skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. In cultured human fibroblasts, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene encodes both skeletal-muscle- and smooth-muscle-type ..cap alpha..-tropomyosins by using an alternative mRNA-splicing mechanism.

  8. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  9. Influence of the. cap alpha. /sub 1/ and. cap alpha. /sub 2/ fractions on the low temperature carbonization of coal tar pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Pashchenkova, L.F.; Rusinovskaya, N.N.; Puzyreva, E.B.

    1980-01-01

    The investigations showed that increasing the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ content of the pitch retards the formation, growth and consolidation of mesophase spherules during low-temperature carbonization. The quinoline-soluble ..cap alpha../sub 2/ fraction accelerates the formation, growth, and consolidation of the spherules.

  10. cap alpha. /sub i/-3 cDNA encodes the. cap alpha. subunit of G/sub k/, the stimulatory G protein of receptor-regulated K/sup +/ channels

    SciTech Connect

    Codina, J.; Olate, J.; Abramowitz, J.; Mattera, R.; Cook, R.G.; Birnbaumer, L.

    1988-05-15

    cDNA cloning has identified the presence in the human genome of three genes encoding ..cap alpha.. subunits of pertussis toxin substrates, generically called G/sub i/. They are named ..cap alpha../sub i/-1, ..cap alpha../sub i/-2 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3. However, none of these genes has been functionally identified with any of the ..cap alpha.. subunits of several possible G proteins, including pertussis toxin-sensitive G/sub p/'s, stimulatory to phospholipase C or A/sub 2/, G/sub i/, inhibitory to adenylyl cyclase, or G/sub k/, stimulatory to a type of K/sup +/ channels. The authors now report the nucleotide sequence and the complete predicted amino acid sequence of human liver ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 and the partial amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human erythrocyte G/sub k/. The amino acid sequence of the proteolytic fragment is uniquely encoded by the cDNA of ..cap alpha../sub i/-3, thus identifying it as ..cap alpha../sub k/. The probable identity of ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 with ..cap alpha../sub p/ and possible roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-2, as well as additional roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 (..cap alpha../sub k/) are discussed.

  11. ACTH and. cap alpha. -melanotropin in central temperature control

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, J.M.; Glyn, J.R.; Zimmer, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and ..cap alpha..-melanotropin (..cap alpha..-MSH) occur in brain tissue known to be important to temperature control. These peptides cause hypothermia if they are injected centrally in sufficient doses, but they do not act on the central set point of temperature control. Instead they appear to inhibit central pathways for heat conservation and production. In addition to their hypothermic capability, these peptides are antipyretic when given centrally in doses that have no effect on normal body temperature. ACTH has previously been associated with fever reduction in both clinical and experimental studies, and it may be that endogenous central ACTH is important for limitation of maximal fever. The hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH do not depend on stimulation of the adrenal cortex because they are also observed in adrenalectomized rabbits. Nor is the antipyretic effect limited to the rabbit inasmuch as a comparable effect has been demonstrated in the squirrel monkey. The two peptides may be involved in central mediation of normal thermoregulation and fever, perhaps limiting the febrile response and other rises in body temperature by acting as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in central thermoregulatory pathways.

  12. cap alpha. -Alkenylphenones - A new class of acid corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Frenier, W.W.; Growcock, F.B.; Lopp, V.R. )

    1988-09-01

    In this paper, a new class of corrosion inhibitors for steel in strong HCI is described. When formulated with small amounts of surfactants, ..cap alpha..-Alkenylphenones provide excellent protection for oilfield steel in contact with strong HCI (up to 28%). The protection levels are similar to, and sometimes superior to, those provided by alkynols. In 15% HCI, benzylallyl alcohol (BAA) appears to be a common intermediate, i.e., in the acid after 24 h when any of the four different phenyl ketones are used. Poly(phenylvinyl ketone) (PPVK), which could form on the surface from reaction of absorbed BAA, was the major component of the thin surface film after corrosion tests with the four ketones.

  13. Probable new type of reaction mechanism: Double. cap alpha. direct transfer process

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Shu-wei; Wu Guo-hua; Miao Rong-zhi; Han Fei

    1983-10-01

    It is assumed that /sup 8/Be consists of two ..cap alpha.. particles which are close to each other in configuration space. A spectroscopic density of /sup 8/Be cluster in the residue nuclei is then obtained, which is proportional to the square of the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at nuclear surface. Using the improved method of parametrization of EFR-DWBA overlap integral,/sup 1//sup en-dash//sup 2/ we calculate the double differential energy spectra and angular distributions of ..cap alpha.. particles for the reactions /sup 209/Bi (/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr and extract the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at the surface of /sup 217/Fr nuclei from fitting the experimental data. The agreement within the range of calculation error between the preformation probabilities extracted from transfer reactions and ..cap alpha.. decay suggests that the reaction /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr may be explained as a double ..cap alpha.. direct transfer process.

  14. Immunochemical studies on thymosin: radioimmunoassay of thymosin. cap alpha. /sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.E.; Lameris, N.; Wara, D.W.; Goldstein, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ in human blood and tissue extracts. Thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ originally isolated from bovine thymosin fraction 5, has an identical primary structure in bovine and human species. Antiserum to synthetic thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ was prepared in rabbits. A synthetic analogue, N-Ac-(Tyr/sup 1/)thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ was radioiodinated by utilizing Na /sup 125/I and soluble lactoperoxidase. The RIA is capable of detecting as small an amount as 40 pg thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ in serum/plasma and does not significatly cross-react with other putative thymic hormones or other purified blood proteins that have been assayed. Proteolytic degradation of thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ does not occur during the collection, storage, or assay of serum or plasma. The concentration of thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ in blood is highest in utero, decreases sharply after birth, and appears to remain fairly constant during the first 15 yr of life. Maternal blood levels of thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ appear to be above normal during pregnancy.

  15. Improved radioimmunoassay for thymosin. cap alpha. 1 recognizes the N-14 amino terminus

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, P.H.; Goldstein, A.L.

    1986-03-01

    Thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/(T..cap alpha../sub 1/) is a biologically active thymic peptide currently undergoing trials as an immunomodulator in cancer patients and patients with immunodeficiencies. Abnormally elevated levels of T..cap alpha../sub 1/ have been found in the serum of individuals with or at risk for AIDS, with T-cell leukemias, and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Absorption of the current antibody with a synthetic C-14 fragment of T..cap alpha../sub 1/ results in an antisera specific for the N-14 amino terminus of T..cap alpha../sub 1/, which measures significantly higher levels of T..cap alpha../sub 1/ in serum from normal individuals and significantly increases the sensitivity of the assay. Ongoing studies indicate that this new RIA for T..cap alpha../sub 1/ will be useful in monitoring changes of immunoreactive T..cap alpha../sub 1/ in serum with age and in patients with known or suspected T-cell abnormalities.

  16. Radical ions of alpha,alpha'-bis(diphenylamino)-capped oligothiophenes: a combined spectroelectrochemical and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Dirk; Dunsch, Lothar; Tabet, Ahacine; Hartmann, Horst; Fabian, Jürgen

    2006-04-27

    A new homologous series of alpha,alpha'-bis(diphenylamino)-capped oligothiophenes, prepared by a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of stannylated 2-diphenylaminothiophenes with 2-mono- or 2,5-dibromothiophenes and their homologues, was studied by in situ ESR/UV-vis/NIR spectroelectrochemistry. In general, the oxidation potentials of these oligothiophenes were found to be proportional to the inverse number of thiophene units. However, the potential slope of the first oxidation is completely different from that of higher oxidation steps. Trication radicals were identified by electron spin resonance (ESR) for higher thiophene homologues in addition to monocation radicals (polarons). According to the ESR hyperfine structures, the unpaired electron is delocalized in the conjugated system. In contrast to the parent alpha,alpha'-bis(diphenylamino)-capped oligothiophenes, the UV-vis/NIR absorption maxima of the oxidized species strongly depend on the number of thiophene units. Spin-restricted and spin-unrestricted Kohn-Sham density functional calculations were used to explain and to understand these properties. Absorption wavelength and intensities were calculated by the time-dependent density functional response theory. Unrestricted density functional calculations of oligothiophene dications (bipolarons) with five or more thiophene rings result in spin-broken structures which may be considered as two-polaron biradicals (polaron pairs).

  17. Purification and characterization of the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shreeve, S.M.; Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Mariani, A.P.; Venter, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor (..cap alpha../sub 2/-R) from human platelets has been purified to homogeneity using a four step process. An affinity column was prepared by coupling p-aminoclonidine to CH-Sepharose 4B via the p-NH/sub 2/ group. Digitonin solubilized ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R bound to the affinity matrix were eluted with 100 ..mu..M phentolamine and directly applied to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Bound receptors were eluted with a linear gradient of 0-500 mM NaCl, pooled and chromatographed on HPLC size exclusion columns. Three peaks of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding were eluted from HPLC columns (t = 33, 42, 47 min). Radioiodination of HPLC eluates and analysis by SDS-PAGE indicated that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding was associated with a 75-85 kDa protein. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R may exist in monomeric and oligomeric forms in the purified state and support previous target size data which indicate that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R exists as a dimer in the native membrane. The pure radioiodinated ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R (77-85 kDa) is a glycoprotein with terminal sialic acid or N-acetylglucosamine residues and has a pI of 4.1 on column isoelectric focusing. These data are consistent with those previously reported on the partially purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R. Electron micrographs confirm the oligomeric nature and size of the pure ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R.

  18. Characteristics of binding of human seminal. cap alpha. -inhibin-92 to human pituitary membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-06-01

    The authors investigated the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 (a 92-residue peptide) to human pituitary membrane preparations. Unlabeled ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 competed effectively with the labeled peptide for binding to the membranes. Binding was also inhibited by both ..cap alpha..-inhibin-52 and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-31, but less effectively. Scatchard analysis of the ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 binding data indicated the presence of high-affinity binding sites (1.35 nM/mg of membrane protein) with an apparent K/sub d/ of 0.37 nM. When /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 was covalently crosslinked to the pituitary membrane preparation with disuccinimidyl suberate and the solubilized labeled receptor complex was analyzed by NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE under either reducing or nonreducing conditions, a single radioactive band at an apparent molecular weight of 90,000 +/- 5000 observed. These data suggest that human pituitary has specific binding sites for ..cap alpha..-inhibins.

  19. Limited proteolysis by macrophage elastase inactivities human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, M.J.; Clark, E.J.; Werb, Z.

    1980-12-01

    Ever since the initial description of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor (..cap alpha../sub 1/PI), the role of this plasma glycoprotein and its allelic polymorphism in disease and in healthy physiology has been the subject of much investigation, ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI inactivates a number of serine proteinases, including granulocyte elastase, and thus affords protection from the connective tissue degradation mediated by this class of proteinases. Because an imbalance in the ratio between ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI and proteinase may contribute to the development of destructive lung diseases, proteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been implicated in disruption of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance. In this report, a new mechanism for alteration of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance is demonstrated. It was found that the purified form of macrophage elastase catalytically degrades and inactivates ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI so that it no longer inhibits the elastinolytic activity of granulocyte elastase.

  20. Metal-capped alpha-cyclodextrins: squaring the circle.

    PubMed

    Armspach, D; Matt, D

    2001-07-02

    This report describes the four-step synthesis of 6A,6D-diamino-6A,6D-dideoxy-2(A),2(B),2(C),2(D),2(E),2(F),3(A),3(B),3(C),3(D),3(E),3(F), 6(B),6(C),6(E),6(F)-hexadeca-O-methylcyclomaltohexaose (5), a methylated alpha-CD that bears two -CH(2)NH(2) ligands located on diametrically opposed glucopyranose rings. Reaction of 5 with K(2)PtCl(4) afforded the water-soluble chelate complex [PtCl(2)(5)] where the metal center is bonded to cis-arranged nitrogen atoms. A single-crystal X-ray structure of the latter reveals the high distortion imposed on the CD structure by the short metallo-organic cap. The cyclodextrin core adopts an unprecedented elongated, almost rectangular shape, the shortest and longest O(4)(n). O(4)(n+3) distances being respectively 5.44 and 9.98 A. Two opposing glucose rings are no longer in the usual (4)C(1) chair conformation, but adopt an elongated (O)S(2) skew-boat structure. The observed CD-flattening produces a highly preorganized hydrophilic pocket that complexes through multiple hydrogen bonding a single water molecule. Complex [PtCl(2)(5)] and the corresponding synthetic intermediates were characterized by elemental analysis, MS, and IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Membrane transfer of. cap alpha. -tocopherol: influence of soluble. cap alpha. -tocopherol-binding factors from the liver, lung, heart and brain of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1981-10-25

    The pH of liver supernatant was lowered from 7.4 to 5.1, which removed 23% of the soluble protein and 97% of the lipid-soluble phosphate, increased the total ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity 1.3-fold and the specific activity of the transfer rate 1.6-fold. This transfer activity was proportional to time up to 4 min and to protein concentrations up to 0.1 mg/ml. Fractionation of the pH 5.1-treated liver supernatant by gel filtration produced a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding activity which was coincident with the transfer activity. The transfer rate of this peak of activity was 316 pmol/min/mg of protein, a 9-fold purification over the original untreated supernatant. This ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer rate was reduced by 83 and 96% following pronase digestion or heat treatment (80/sup 0/C) of the soluble fraction, respectively, while trypsin digestion reduced the transfer rate only 18% and phospholipase C digestion had no effect. Untreated liver supernatant possessed the peak of binding activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a high molecular weight binding fraction that eluted at the void volume. Heart and brain supernatants also possessed an ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding fraction that eluted at the void volume, while lung supernatant lacked binding activity.

  2. Distribution of G/sub o. cap alpha. / mRNA and protein in bovine tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.R.; Tsai, S.C.; Adamik, R.; Angus, C.W.; Van Meurs, K.P.; Czarnecki, S.; Bruckwick, E.C.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M.

    1987-05-01

    G/sub o..cap alpha../ is a 39 kDa guanyl nucleotide-binding protein similar in structure and function to G/sub s..cap alpha../ and G/sub i..cap alpha../ in the adenylate cyclase complex and transducin (G/sub t..cap alpha../) in the retinal photon receptor system. A bovine retinal cDNA clone, lambdaG09, that encodes the complete amino acid sequence of G/sub o..cap alpha../ has been isolated. Nick-translated lambdaG09 cDNA and a 5' end-labeled oligonucleotide probe complementary to a 24 base sequence unique to G/sub o..cap alpha../ were used as probes for Northern analysis of poly(A)/sup +/ RNA from bovine tissues. A major 4.0 kb mRNA was detected in brain and retina and in lesser amounts in heart. Several smaller mRNAs also hybridized with both probes in these tissues and in liver and lung. G/sub o..cap alpha../ protein was identified using rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed against purified bovine G/sub o..cap alpha../ and pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation. Soluble and membrane proteins were incubated with toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD and then separated by gel electrophoresis before transfer to nitrocellulose for immunoreaction and subsequent autoradiography. A radiolabeled and immunoreactive 39 kDa membrane protein was found principally in retina and brain, and to a lesser extent, in heart. Thus, in the tissues examined, distribution of the 4.0 kb mRNA parallels that of the immunoreactive G/sub o..cap alpha../ with relatively small amounts in heart and larger amounts in brain and retina.

  3. Photoinduced reductive dissolution of. cap alpha. -Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ by bisulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, B.C.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    The kinetics of the photoinduced reductive dissolution of ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ by bisulfite in anoxic colloidal suspensions have been investigated. Quantum yields, ..cap alpha../sub Fe(II)/, as a function of wavelength for Fe(II)/sub aq/ production were obtained. Photochemical reactivity has been discussed in terms of the excitation of the O/sup 2 -/ to Fe/sup 3 +/ charge-transfer band of ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and in terms of photoassisted charge-transfer reactions of Fe(III)-S(IV) curficial complexes.

  4. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  5. Introduction of the human pro. cap alpha. 1(I) collagen gene into pro. cap alpha. 1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-02-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of pro..cap alpha..2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse pro..cap alpha..2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human ..cap alpha..1 chains and one mouse ..cap alpha..2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both ..cap alpha..1(I) and ..cap alpha..2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the ..cap alpha..(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse ..cap alpha..1 and ..cap alpha..2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human ..cap alpha.. chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected pro..cap alpha..1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I.

  6. Neutron diffraction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. and. gamma. cyclodextrins: hydrogen bonding patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Hingerty, B.E.; Klar, B.; Hardgrove, G.; Betzel, C.; Saenger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CD's) are torus-shaped molecules composed of six (..cap alpha..), seven (..beta..) or eight (..gamma..) (1 ..-->.. 4) linked glucoses. ..cap alpha..-CD has been shown to have two different structures with well-defined hydrogen bonds, one tense and the other relaxed. An induced-fit-like mechanism for ..cap alpha..-CD complex formation has been proposed. Circular hydrogen bond networks have also been found for ..cap alpha..-CD due to the energetically favored cooperative effect. ..beta..-CD with a disordered water structure possesses an unusual flip-flop hydrogen bonding system of the type O-H H-O representing an equilibrium between two states; O-H O reversible H-O. ..gamma..-CD with a disordered water structure similar to ..beta..-CD also possesses the flip-flop hydrogen bond. This study demonstrates that hydrogen bonds are operative in disordered systems and display dynamics even in the solid state.

  7. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  8. Antibodies to the. cap alpha. -subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hens

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Yu, J.; Bai, D.H.; Hester, P.Y.; Kim, K.

    1985-11-01

    Simple methods for the generation, purification, and assay of antibodies to the ..cap alpha..-subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hen have been described. Chicken antibodies against the ..cap alpha..-subunit inhibit insulin binding to the receptor and stimulate glucose oxidation as well as autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit. Thus the properties of chicken antibodies are very similar to those of antibodies found in human autoimmune diseases and different from rabbit antibodies obtained against the same antigen.

  9. Demonstration of. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rat pancreatic islets using radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cherksey, B.; Mendelsohn, S.; Zadunaisky, J.; Altszuler, N.

    1982-11-01

    The type of the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors on rat pancreatic islet cells was characterized directly using specific radioligands and displacement agonists and antagonists. Scatchard plots for binding of (/sup 3/H)clonidine (..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist) revealed a dissociation constant, K/sub d/ of 0.542 +/- 0.1 nM and density of binding sites (B/sub max/) of 50.4 +/- 3.6 fmole/mg protein. Similar values were obtained with (/sup 3/H)dihydroergocryptine (antagonist). The various agonists displaced (/sup 3/H)clonidine with the following order of potency: clonidine > epinephrine approx. = norepinephrine > isoproterenol. Yohimbine, the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonist, was very effective in displacing (/sup 3/H)clonidine, whereas the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antagonist, prazosin, was much less effective. The data indicate that the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors on rat pancreatic islets are of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ subtype.

  10. New, tritium-release assay for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.J.; Perlman, K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1986-05-01

    A new, rapid assay for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D)-1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase has been developed using 25-OH-(1..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ as substrate. This compound was prepared by reduction of 1-oxo-25-hydroxycyclovitamin D/sub 3/ with (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/, separation of the 1..cap alpha..- and 1..beta..-hydroxy products by HPLC, subsequent treatments with methylsulfonylchloride and lithium aluminum hydride, cycloreversion, and saponification. The 1..cap alpha..- and 1..beta..-tritiated substrates were tested in the solubilized and reconstituted chick 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase system. After incubation, the reaction mixture was passed through a reversed phase silica cartridge to separate (/sup 3/H)H/sub 2/O from the labeled substrate. The cartridges were then washed with methanol to elute all vitamin D metabolites, and the amount of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/(/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ was measured by HPLC. In addition, identical reaction mixtures using 25-OH-(26,27-/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ as substrate were extracted and analyzed by HPLC for 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/(/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/. Reactions with 25-OH-(1..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ produced (/sup 3/H)H/sub 2/O comparable to the amount of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/(26,27-/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ and negligible (/sup 3/H) in 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Conversely, reactions with 25-OH-(1..beta..-/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ produced negligible (/sup 3/H)H/sub 2/O but produced 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/(/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ comparable to that from reactions with 25-OH-(26,27-/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/. The results indicate that 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation specifically displaces the 1..cap alpha..-hydrogen of 25-OH-D/sub 3/ and that the release of the 1..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H provides an accurate measure of vitamin D 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  11. Regulation of the synthesis of barley aleurone. cap alpha. -amylase by gibberellic acid and calcium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Carbonell, J.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) and calcium ions on the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase and acid phosphatase by isolated aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) were studied. Aleurone layers not previously exposed to GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ show qualitative and quantitative changes in hydrolase production following incubation in either GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ or both. In cubation in H/sub 2/O or CA/sup 2 +/ results in the production of low levels of ..cap alpha..-amylase or acid phosphatase. The addition of GA/sub 3/ to the incubation medium causes 10- to 20-fold increase in the amounts of these enzymes released from the tissue, and addition of CA/sup 2 +/ at 10 millimolar causes a further 8- to 9-fold increase in ..cap alpha..-amylase release and a 75% increase in phosphatase release. Production of ..cap alpha..-amylase isoenzymes is also modified by the levels of GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. ..cap alpha..-amylase 2 is produced under all conditions of incubation, while ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 appears only when layers are incubated in GA/sub 3/ or GA/sub 3/ plus CA/sup 2 +/. The synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylases 3 and 4 requires the presence of both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis shows that two distinct groups of ..cap alpha..-amylase antigens are present in incubation media of aleurone layers incubated with both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/, while only one group of antigens is found in media of layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. Strontium ions can be substituted for CA/sup 2 +/ in increasing hydrolase production, although higher concentrations of Sr/sup 2 +/ are requried for maximal response. We conclude that GA/sub 3/ is required for the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 and that both GA/sub 3/ and either CA/sup 2 +/ or Sr/sup 2 +/ are required for the production of isoenzymes 3 and 4 of barley aleurone ..cap alpha..-amylase. 22 references, 8

  12. Human cDNA clones for an. cap alpha. subunit of G/sub i/ signal-transduction protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, P.; Carter, A.; Guo, V.; Puckett, C.; Kamholz, J.; Spiegel, A.; Nirenberg, M.

    1987-08-01

    Two cDNA clones were obtained from a lambdagt11 cDNA human brain library that correspond to ..cap alpha../sub i/ subunits of G signal-transduction proteins (where ..cap alpha../sub i/ subunits refer to the ..cap alpha.. subunits of G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase). The nucleotide sequence of human brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ is highly homologous to that of bovine brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ and the predicted amino acid sequences are identical. However, human and bovine brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs differ significantly from ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs from human monocytes, rat glioma, and mouse macrophages in amino acid (88% homology) and nucleotide (71-75% homology) sequences. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of the 3' untranslated regions of human and bovine brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs differ markedly from the sequences of human monocyte, rat glioma, and mouse macrophage ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs. These results suggest there are at least two classes of ..cap alpha../sub i/ mRNA

  13. Production of transforming growth factor. cap alpha. in human pancreatic cancer cells: evidence for a superagonist autocrine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Derynck, R.; Korc, M.

    1987-11-01

    Previous work showed that cultured human pancreatic cancer cells overexpress the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether some of these cell lines produce transforming growth factor ..cap alpha.. (TGF-..cap alpha..). Utilizing a radiolabeled TGF-..cap alpha.. cDNA in hybridization experiments, they determined that ASPC-1, T/sub 3/M/sub 4/, PANC-1, COLO-357, and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines expressed TGF-..cap alpha.. mRNA. Serum-free medium conditioned by T/sub 3/M/sub 4/ and ASPC-1 cells contained significant amounts of TGF-..cap alpha.. protein. Although unlabeled TGF-..cap alpha.. readily competed with /sup 125/I-labeled EGF for binding, each cell line exhibited lower surface binding and internalization of /sup 125/I-labeled TGF-..cap alpha.. as compared to /sup 125/I-labeled EGF. Both TGF-..cap alpha.. and EGF significantly enhanced the anchorage-independent growth of PANC-1, T/sub 3/M/sub 4/, and ASPC-1 cells. However, TGF-..cap alpha.. was 10- to 100-fold more potent than EGF. These findings suggest that the concomitant overexpression of EGF receptors and production of TGF-..cap alpha.. may represent an efficient mechanism for certain cancer cells to obtain a growth advantage.

  14. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  15. The dilemma of DQ HLA-antibodies.

    PubMed

    Al Attas, Rabab; Al Abduladheem, Dalal; Shawhatti, Adel A; Lopez, Ricardo; Liacini, Abdelhamid; AlZahrani, Saber; Akkari, Khalid; Hasan, Nasreen; Alabadi, Abdulnaser

    2015-05-01

    Accurate identification of antibody reactivity against HLA-DQ antigens was difficult by using the old serological assays because of the strong linkage disequilibrium between HLA-DR and HLA-DQ (the usual inheritance of a certain HLA-DR molecule that ties together with the same DQ molecule within a racial group). The accurate and precise identifications of anti-HLA-antibodies of DQ specificities were made possible with the introduction of multiplex-bead arrays (Luminex), using single antigen bead (SAB) assay. The SAB assay is also considered today to be the most sensitive and specific method for alloimmunization assessment even for the low titer anti-HLA-antibodies. However, it is becoming clear that the detection of the HLA antibodies by SAB is not absolutely perfect due to the variation in densities, conformations and orientations of the antigen coated beads. Unlike HLA-DR, the HLA-DQ antigens are made of two polymorphic chains, both (alpha and beta chains) can contribute to the process of immunization individually or jointly. Routine SAB testing approach, which assigns the specificities based on beta chains and ignores the contribution of the DQα chains, can lead to erroneous DQ-antibody assignments. Therefore, it is important to recognize both the peculiarity of the HLA-DQ antigens as well as the nature of the assay format used in order to reach the correct antibody assignments. Erroneous donor specific antibodies (DSA) assignment may lead to denial of an otherwise immunologically compatible organ transplant, or exposing transplant recipients to unnecessary investigations or immunosuppression. The following two patients presented with HLA-antibodies against DQ antigens (anti-DQ-Abs) highlight these two scenarios. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. cap alpha. -Methylglucoside satisfies only Na/sup +/-dependent transport system of intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmich, G.A.; Randles, J.

    1981-01-01

    The unidirectional influx of ..cap alpha..-methylglucoside (..cap alpha..-MG) by isolated chicken intestinal epithelial cells is 98% inhibited by phlorizin. The remaining 2% of the total influx occurs in the absence of Na/sup +/, is not sensitive to phloretin, and is equal to the diffusional entry rate for 2-deoxyglucose. The glucoside is much more strongly accumulated (75-fold) than 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG) (10-fold). Inhibitors of the serosal sugar carrier (phloretin, cytochalasin B, theophylline, and flavanoids) do not enhance ..cap alpha..-MG accumulation. It is concluded that the glycoside is not a substrate for the intestinal serosal transport system. Steady-state gradients of the sugar can be represented accurately by a concentrative, phlorizin-sensitive system that is opposed by a diffusional efflux process.

  17. Chronotypic induction of tyrosine aminotransferase by. cap alpha. -methyl-p-tyrosine. [Rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, A.L.; Ferguson, S.M.; Ehret, C.F.

    1981-04-06

    ..cap alpha..Methyl-p-tyrosine induced hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity to different extents depending upon the time of day of administration of the drug. Maximal induction occurred when ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally during the first several hours of the light phase of the daily cycle, but the magnitude of the induction depended on the nutritional state of the animal. Induction was 4- to 5-fold greater in fasting rats. The effect of ..cap alpha..-methyl-ptyrosine on hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase is believed to be mediated by decreases in hypothalamic norepinephrine. This hypothesis was supported by the demonstration that decreasing levels of hypothalamic norepinephrine at times of day when hypothalamic turnover of norepinephrine was greatest resulted in the greatest induction of tyrosine aminotransferase, while lowering hypothalamic norepinephrine at times when turnover was minimal resulted in minimal induction of tyrosine aminotransferase.

  18. Crystal structures of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -CdUO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, T.; Fujino, T.; Masaki, N.; Tagawa, H.

    1981-04-01

    The structural parameters of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-CdUO/sub 4/ crystals are determined by x-ray powder diffraction technique. ..cap alpha..-CdUO/sub 4/ is rhombohedral and cell parameters are a = 6.233(3) A and ..cap alpha.. = 36.12(5)/sup 0/. ..beta..-CdUO/sub 4/ crystallizes in a C-centered orthorhombic cell with a = 7.023(4), b = 6.849(3), c = 3.514(2) A. The space groups are R3m for ..cap alpha..-CdUO/sub 4/ and Cmmm for ..beta..-CdUO/sub 4/. ..cap alpha..-CdUO/sub 4/: 1U in (000), 1Cd in (1/2 1/2 1/2), 2O(1) in +-(uuu), 2O(2) in +-(vvv); u = 0.113, v= 0.350, Z = 1. ..beta..-CdUO/sub 4/: 2U in (000; 1/2 1/2 0), 2Cd in (1/2 0 1/2; 0 1/2 1/2), 40(1) in (0, +-y, 0; 1/2, 1/2 +-y, 0), 4O(2) in (+-x, 0, 1/2; 1/2 +-x, 1/2, 1/2); x = 0.159, y = 0.278, Z = 2. ..beta..-CdUO/sub 4/ contains collinear uranyl UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ groups with a U-O(1) distance of 1.91 A, located either along or parallel to the c axis whereas the U-O(1) bond length in ..cap alpha..-CdUO/sub 4/ is 1.98 A which is longer than the usual uranyl bond length.

  19. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -tubulin genes in Sea Urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandraki, D.; Ruderman, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    The authors analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The ..cap alpha.. cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of ..cap alpha.. tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The ..beta.. cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100 C-terminal amino acids of ..beta.. tubulin and 83 base pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of ..cap alpha..-tubulin genes with ..beta..-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.

  20. Cardiovascular and endocrine response to hemorrhage after. cap alpha. /sub 1/-blockade in lambs and ewes

    SciTech Connect

    Block, S.M.; Rose, J.C.; Ernest, J.M.; Flowe, K.; South, S.; Zimmerman, C.

    1987-02-01

    To evaluate the role of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic system in the response to hemorrhage during development, lambs and adult sheep were chronically catheterized and hemorrhaged after pretreatment with prazosin or vehicle. The adults became markedly more hypotensive after ..cap alpha../sub 1/-blockade and hemorrhage than after vehicle and hemorrhage, whereas the lambs were no more hypotensive when hemorrhaged after prazosin. In the adults and the lambs hemorrhage produced elevations in plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin measured by radioimmunoassay. However, after prazosin, the adults had a far greater increase in arginine vasopressin levels than after vehicle treatment.

  1. Reactions of. cap alpha. -oxides in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine and glycerine diphenyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, P.V.; Sveshnikova, N.F.; Ignatov, V.A.

    1987-11-20

    Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) is widely used as a catalyst for the condensation and hardening of compositions based on epoxide oligomer. To provide objective information about the reaction scheme and the kinetics of reactions in which epoxide oligomers participate we studied a model reaction system. The model epoxide oligomer selected was phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) and the ..cap alpha..,..gamma..-diphenyl ether of glycerine (GDPE). The reference substances in the differential thermal analysis were magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, and GDPE. Monitoring of the progress of the isothermal reaction was effected by determining the ..cap alpha..-oxide group mercurimetrically. The concentration of HMTA was determined iodometrically.

  2. A remarkable member of the polyoxometalates: the eight-nickel-capped alpha-keggin polyoxoazonickelate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lanjun; Huang, Rudan; Wei, Yongge; Chu, Wei

    2009-08-17

    The eight-nickel-capped polyoxoazonickelate, [Ni(20)(OH)(24)(MMT)(12)(SO(4))](NO(3))(2).6H(2)O (1; MMT = 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole), has been synthesized, which has an alpha-Keggin structure with eight nickel caps. In this structure, the polyatom is the late transition metal Ni(II); the central heteroatom is S, and the organic terminal ligand becomes the primary part of the Keggin structure. This is a Keplerate-type cluster, which shows a central Ni(II)(12) cuboctahedron formed by the 12 Ni(II) centers of the classical alpha-Keggin core and a Ni(II)(8) hexahedron formed by the eight nickel caps.

  3. Photoaffinity labeling of human platelet and rabbit kidney. cap alpha. -adrenoceptors with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Raymond, J.R.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; DeMarinis, R.M.

    1986-06-13

    A newly developed ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic photoaffinity ligand, 3-methyl-6-chloro-9-azido-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepine (SKF 102229), has been radiolabeled with tritium to a specific activity of approx. 80 Ci/mmol. Using membranes prepared from human platelets and from rabbit kidney, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors have been covalently labeled following photolysis in the presence of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229. As determined by SDS-PAGE, the apparent molecular weight of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from both of these tissues was 64,000. The yield of covalent insertion of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229 into the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor was very good. Thus, following photolysis up to 90% of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors could be irreversibly labeled with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229.

  4. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-time for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.

  5. Purification and characterization of the glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit-like material secreted by HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.S.; Rimerman, R.A.

    1988-08-23

    The protein secreted by HeLa cells that cross-reacts with antiserum developed against the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been purified approximately 30,000-fold from concentrated culture medium by organic solvent fractionation followed by ion exchange, gel filtration, and lectin affinity chromatography. The final preparation had a specific activity (by RIA) of 6.8 x 10/sup 5/ ng of ..cap alpha../mg of protein and appeared homogeneous by electrophoresis on reducing/denaturing polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). Amino acid analysis indicated that HeLa-..cap alpha.. had a composition very similar to that of the urinary hCG ..cap alpha..-subunit. However, comparison of hCG-..cap alpha.. and HeLa-..cap alpha.. demonstrated that the tumor-associated subunit was not identical with its normal counterpart. The purified tumor protein had an apparent molecular weight greater than that of the urinary ..cap alpha..-subunit when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and this difference was even greater when a partially purified preparation was examined by an immunoblot technique (Western). Isoelectric focusing of the HeLa and hCG subunits demonstrated that the tumor protein had a lower pI. Immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis of ..cap alpha..-subunit from HeLa cultures labeled with (/sup 3/H)fucose indicated that the tumor subunit was fucosylated, whereas analysis of hCG-..cap alpha.. hydrosylates by HPLC confirmed previous reports that the placental subunit does not contain fucose. The results indicate that, regardless of whether or not a single ..cap alpha..-subunit gene is being expressed in both normal and neoplastic tissues, posttranslational modifications lead to a highly altered subunit in the tumor. The differences observed may be useful in diagnosing neoplastic vs hyperplastic conditions and may lend insight into the mechanism of ectopic hormone production by tumors.

  6. Rapid capping in alpha-spectrin-deficient MEL cells from mice afflicted with hereditary hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A spectrin-based membrane skeleton is important for the stability and organization of the erythrocyte. To study the role of spectrin in cells that possess complex cytoskeletons, we have generated alpha-spectrin- deficient erythroleukemia cell lines from sph/sph mice. These cells contain beta-spectrin, but lack alpha-spectrin as determined by immunoblot and Northern blot analyses. The effects of alpha-spectrin deficiency are apparent in the cells' irregular shape and fragility in culture. Capping of membrane glycoproteins by fluorescent lectin or antibodies occurs more rapidly in sph/sph than in wild-type erythroleukemia cells, and the caps appear more concentrated. The data support the idea that spectrin plays an important role in organizing membrane structure and limiting the lateral mobility of integral membrane glycoproteins in cells other than mature erythrocytes. PMID:8195289

  7. Interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rabbit ileal cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Homeidan, F.R.; Wicks, J.; Cusolito, S.; El-Sabban, M.E.; Sharp, G.W.G.; Donowitz, M.

    1986-03-05

    An interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor on active electrolyte transport was demonstrated in rabbit ileum. Clonidine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist, stimulated NaCl absorption apparently by Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonism since it inhibited /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ uptake across the basolateral membrane and decreased total ileal calcium content. This stimulation was inhibited by the Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists dl- and l-verapamil and cadmium but not by nifedipine. The binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine, a specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic antagonist, was studied on purified ileal cell membranes using a rapid filtration technique. dl-Verapamil and Cd/sup + +/ inhibited the specific binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine over the same concentration range in which they affected transport. In contrast, nifedipine had no effect on binding, just as it had no effect on clonidine-stimulated NaCl absorption. These data demonstrate that there is an interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channels and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in ileal basolateral membranes. Some Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists alter ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic binding to the receptor and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist binding leads to changes in Ca/sup + +/ entry. A close spatial relationship between the Ca/sup + +/-channel and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor could explain the data.

  8. Agonist-promoted desensitization and phosphorylation of. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptors coupled to stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F.; Cotecchia, S.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    In the DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 hamster vas deferens smooth muscle cell line the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor (..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR) agonist norepinephrine (NE) promotes rapid attenuation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism which is paralleled by rapid phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR. Cells were labeled by incubation with /sup 32/P/sub i/. Coincubation with NE (100 ..mu..M) significantly increases the rate of /sup 32/P-labeling of both PI and phosphatidic acid. Pretreatment of cells with 100 ..mu..M NE (in the presence of 1 ..mu..M propranolol to prevent ..beta..-AR interactions) results in a drastic attenuation of the NE response on PI metabolism. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR from labeled cells can be solubilized and purified by affinity chromatography on Affigel-A55414 and wheat germ agglutinin agarose chromatography. SDS-PAGE of purified ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR shows a NE-promoted increase in phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 80K ligand binding peptide. Stoichiometry of phosphorylation increases from approx. 1 mol phosphate/mol ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR in the basal condition to approx. 2.5 after NE treatment. Both desensitization and phosphorylation are rapid being maximal within 10-20 min of agonist exposure. These results together with previous findings that phorbol esters promote rapid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR uncoupling and phosphorylation suggest that receptor phosphorylation is an important mechanism of regulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR receptor responsiveness.

  9. Stable yeast transformants that secrete functional. cap alpha. -amylase encoded by cloned mouse pancreatic cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, S.A.; Galembeck, E.V.; Faria, J.B.; Frascino, A.C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Mouse pancreatic ..cap alpha..-amylase complementary DNA was inserted into a yeast shuttle vector after the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MF..cap alpha..1 promoter and secretion signals coding sequences. When transformed with the recombinant plasmid, S. cerevisiae cells were able to synthesize and secrete functional ..cap alpha..-amylase, efficiently hydrolyzing starch present in the culture medium. Stable amylolytic cells were obtained from different yeast strains. This work represents a significant step towards producing yeast that can convert starchy materials directly to ethanol.

  10. Determination of the half-lives of. cap alpha. disintegration and spontaneous fission of /sup 242/Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.Q.; Xu, J.C.; Wen, T.Q.

    1981-04-01

    Followup measurements have been made by using the method of low geometry for ..cap alpha.. disintegration of /sup 242/Cm. It has been obtained that the half-life of ..cap alpha.. disintegration is T/sub ..cap alpha../ = 163.02 +- 0.11 d. This value is in accord with other recent results. Besides, the method of the specific activity has been used to determine the half-life of spontaneous fission of /sup 242/Cm, T/sub f/ = (7.46 +- 0.06) x 10/sup 6/ yr. This value has provided a check for two appreciably different existing results.

  11. Separation of Cf, Es, and Fm by eluative chromatography using ammonium. cap alpha. -hydroxyisobutyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Auerman, L.N.; Kulyukhin, S.A.; Rumer, I.A.; Novichenko, V.L.

    1987-11-01

    The method of separation of californium, einsteinium, fermium, and certain lanthanides, based on the use of ammonium ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyrate as the eluent, has been improved. The use of a 0.10-0.14 M solution of this reagent and columns (9 x 0.5 cm) filled with the resin Aminex SB with particle size 20-25 ..mu.., permitted the production of about 0.5 ..mu..g of einsteinium-253 from irradiated californium-252 with coefficient of purification of einsteinium from californium in two cycles of adsorption and elution of approx. 10/sup 10/. The coefficient of separation of californium and einsteinium is equal to 1.6 and that of einsteinium and fermium 1.9. The behavior of certain lanthanides in the separation of californium, einsteinium, and fermium using a 0.010 M solution of ammonium ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyrate is discussed.

  12. Physiological significance of benzo(. cap alpha. )pyrene adsorbed to carbon blacks: elution studies, AHH determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Buddingh, F.; Bailey, M.J.; Wells, B.; Haesemeyer, J.

    1981-07-01

    Desorption of benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene from commercial carbon blacks by tissue fluids in vitro is compared to arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase induction in mice at three levels of carbon black exposure. Less than 0.005% of the adsorbed benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene content determined by soxhlet extraction in toluene is eluted by human plasma, swine serum, swine lung homogenate and swine lung washings. Statistically significant differences in elution efficiency are observed for the various tissue fluids and carbon blacks. There is no detectable increase in AHH level in mouse lung or liver tissues even at the highest carbon black exposure and consumption rate of 1g/g bdywt/year.

  13. Structural studies of. cap alpha. -bungarotoxin. 1. Sequence-specific /sub 1/H NMR resonance assignments

    SciTech Connect

    Basus, V.J.; Billeter, M.; Love, R.A.; Stroud, R.M.; Kuntz, I.D.

    1988-04-19

    The authors report the complete sequence-specific assignment of the backbone resonances and most of the side-chain resonances in the /sup 1/H NMR spectrum of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin by two-dimensional NMR. Problems with resonance overlap were resolved with the assistance of the HRNOESY experiment described in an accompanying paper. Significant differences exist between the solution structure described here and the crystal structure of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, on the basis of the proton to proton distances obtained by nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY) and the corresponding distances from the X-ray crystal structure. These differences include a larger ..beta..-sheet in solution and a different orientation of the invariant tryptophan, Trp-28, making the solution structure more consistent with the crystal structure of the homologous neurotoxin ..cap alpha..-cobratoxin. Four errors in the order of the amino acids in the primary sequence were indicated by the NMR data. These errors were confirmed by chemical means, as described in an accompanying paper.

  14. Role of DNA polymerase. cap alpha. in chromosomal aberration production by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aphidicolin is a tetracyclic diterpinoid fungal antibiotic which inhibits DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells by interfering specifically with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.., apparently by binding to and inactivating the DNA-polymerase ..cap alpha.. complex. We have shown that aphidicolin, like other inhibitors of DNA synthesis, both induces chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes, and, as a post-treatment, interacts synergistically with x rays to produce greatly enhanced aberration yields. The present experiments explore the effects of aphidicolin in human lymphocytes in the post-DNA-synthetic G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle. These experiments utilized labeling with tritiated thymidine to positively identify cells in the S phase at the time of treatment, and used serial colcemid collections and fixations to determine aberration yields over as much of the G/sub 2/ phase as feasible. Because DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. is the only DNA synthetic or repair enzyme known to be affected by aphidicolin, we infer that this enzyme is directly involved in the repair of DNA lesions which can result in visible chromosomal aberrations. (DT)

  15. Study of the /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 6/Li* reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, B.S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Differential cross sections for formation of the 5.37 MeV (J'' = 2/sup +/, T = 1) level in /sup 6/Li have been measured via the reaction /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 6/Li at incident /sup 3/He energies in the range 0.7 to 2.5 MeV and for angles in the range 20/sup 0/ less than or equal to theta (Lab) less than or equal to 160/sup 0/. Data for the g.s., 2.18 and 3.56 MeV excited states of /sup 6/Li were also obtained. The results for the g.s. and the first two excited states are in good agreement with previous measurements and show no clear resonance structure. The excitation function for the 5.37 MeV state, however, exhibits resonance structure at incident /sup 3/He energies of 1.45 and 2.15 MeV corresponding to formation of states in the compound nucleus, /sup 10/B, at 18.8 and 19.3 MeV excitation respectively. The experimental data were compared with the results of DWBA calculations using the computer code DWUCK4. Coincident events between the first emitted alpha particle and the decay alpha's or proton's were detected using a counter telescope in the reaction plane at several appropriately chosen angle pairs at an incident /sup 3/He energy of 2.15 MeV. Branching ratios for the allowed decay modes /sup 5/He + p and ..cap alpha.. + p + n, as well as the isospin forbidden decay into ..cap alpha.. + d, were deduced from the data.

  16. Stimulation of the synthesis of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1. cap alpha. / (6-keto-PGF/sub 1. cap alpha. /) by cultured human umbilical veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, B.O.; Johnson, A.R.; Falck, J.R.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-03-05

    These studies were designed to investigate the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in cultured human endothelial cells. The identification of the 15-HETE in these cells was made by UV absorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Specific radioimmunoassays were developed to quantify the synthesized 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE. The release of 15-HETE and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was stimulated by arachidonic acid, histamine or the calcium ionophore A23187. The release of 15-HETE paralleled the release of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and was both concentration-related and time-dependent. Aspirin, ibuprofen and indomethacin inhibited both the formation of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in similar concentrations. These data indicate that agents which stimulate PGI/sub 2/ synthesis also stimulate the synthesis of 15-HETE. Also, they implicate the cyclooxygenase pathway in the synthesis of 6-keto PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in human endothelial cells.

  17. Synthesis of complex pyridine bases in the reaction of. cap alpha. ,omega-nitrileacetylenes with acetylene, catalyzed by cobalt complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Selimov, F.A.; Khafizov, V.R.

    1987-01-20

    It has been shown that ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes under the action of homogeneous cobalt-containing catalysts undergo transformations into pyridine derivatives. In order to expand the scope of this method for synthesis of complex pyridine bases, for investigation of the reactivity of nitrileacetylenes of various structure in the reaction of cooligomerization with acetylene, as well as for the introduction to these reactions of new types of ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes, containing in their molecules an oxygen atom, they studied the homo- and codimerization of ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes with acetylene under the action of a Co(2-ethyl hexanoate)/sub 2/-AIR/sub 3/ catalyst in a toluene solution. Cyclodimerization of acetylene with ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes, catalyzed by a Co(2-ethyl hexanoate)/sub 2/-AlEt/sub 3/ system gives new types of mono- and bicyclic pyridines.

  18. ORIGEN-S (. cap alpha. ,n) neutron source spectra in borosilicate glass containing HLW (high-level waste)

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    There is growing interest in the methodology and computational software for evaluating the (..cap alpha..,n) source spectra produced in mixtures of high-level waste (HLW) and borosilicate glass. The need for this development has been seen in previous work involving the analysis of HLW in borosilicate glass. Descriptions and applications of the ORIGEN-S method of computing neutron source spectra by both (..cap alpha..,n) reactions and spontaneous fission of UO/sub 2/ spent fuel have been reported previously. This summary presents a significant expansion of the ORIGEN-S (..cap alpha..,n) model to include ..cap alpha..-interactions with the light elements of borosilicate glass.

  19. Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals: II. Tissue distribution of 17. cap alpha. -methylestradiol in normal and tumor-bearing rats

    SciTech Connect

    Feenstra, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Nolten, G.M.J.; Reiffers, S.; Talma, A.G.; Wiegman, T.; van der Molen, H.D.; Woldring, M.G.

    1983-06-01

    Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol was synthesized to investigate the potential of the carbon-11-labeled analog as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical. In vitro, 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is bound with high affinity to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptor from rabbit uterus (K/sub d/ = 1.96 x 10/sup -10/M), and it sediments as an 8S hormone-receptor complex in sucrose gradients. The compound shows specific uptake in the uterus of the adult rat, within 1 h after injection. In female rats bearing DMBA-induced tumors, specific uterine and tumor uptakes were observed, although at 30 min the tumor uptake was only 23 to 30% of the uptake in the uterus. Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol with a specific activity of 6 Ci/mmole showed a similar tissue distribution. Our results indicate that a 17 ..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is promising as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical.

  20. Control of. cap alpha. -amylase mRNA accumulation by gibberellic acid and calcium in barley aleurone layers

    SciTech Connect

    Deikman, J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pulse-labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) aleurone layers incubated for 13 hours in 2.5 micromolar gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) with or without 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ shows that ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 are not synthesized in vivo in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. No difference was observed in ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels between layers incubated for 12 hours in 2.5 micromolar GA/sub 3/ with 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ and layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. RNA isolated from layers incubated for 12 hours in GA/sub 3/ with and without CA/sup 2 +/. A cDNA clone for ..cap alpha..-amylase was isolated and used to measure ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels in aleurone layers incubated in the presence and absence of Ca/sup 2 +/ was translated in vitro and was found to produce the same complement of translation products regardless of the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Immunoprecipitation of translation products showed that the RNA for ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesized in Ca/sup 2 +/-deprived aleurone layers was translatable. Ca/sup 2 +/ is required for the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 at a step after mRNA accumulation and processing.

  1. Limited proteolysis of human leukocyte interferon-. cap alpha. 2 and localization of the monoclonal antibody-binding antigenic determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrov, S.V.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Khodova, O.M.; Borukhov, S.I.; Ryzhavskaya, A.S.; Izotova, L.S.; Strongin, A.Ya.

    1986-05-20

    Large peptide fragments of human leukocyte interferon-..cap alpha..2 (INF-..cap alpha..2) were produced by limited proteolysis with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens serine proteinase, and the ability of the fragments to react with murine monoclonal antibodies NK2, directed toward INF-..cap alpha..2, was studied by the immunoblotting technique. The region of the sequence 110-149 is the most sensitive to proteinase attack and evidently is exposed on the surface of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule. The INF-..cap alpha..2 fragments 1-139, 1-147, and 1-149 react with antibodies, whereas the fragments 1-109 and 1-112 do not bind NK2 antibodies. A comparison of the primary structure of the families of human leukocyte and murine leukocyte INF in the region of the sequence 110-139 and an analysis of the ability of human INF differing in amino acid sequence to interact with NK2 antibodies suggested that the antigenic determinant that binds monoclonal antibodies NK2 is the sequence Glu/sub 114/-Asp/sub 115/-Ser/sub 116/-He/sub 117/ of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule.

  2. Human transforming growth factor. beta. -. cap alpha. /sub 2/-macroglobulin complex is a latent form of transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.S.; O'Grady, P.; Huang, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor ..beta.. (TGF..beta..) has been shown to be present as a high molecular weight latent form in human serum. Appearance of transforming growth factor activity, along with the change from high molecular weight form to low molecular weight form, was observed following treatment of the latent form of TGF..beta.. with acid or urea, suggesting that the latent form of TGF..beta.. is a complex of TGF..beta.. and a high molecular weight binding protein. Human ..cap alpha../sub 2/-M has been found to be a plasma binding protein for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in serum or plasma. TGF..beta.. and PDGF share similar properties. They, therefore, investigated the interaction between /sup 125/I-TGF..beta.. and ..cap alpha../sub 2/M. /sup 125/I-TGF..beta.. and purified human ..cap alpha../sub 2/M formed a complex as demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Most of the /sup 125/I-TGF..beta..-..cap alpha../sub 2/M complex could be dissociated by acid or urea treatment. These results suggest that ..cap alpha../sub 2/M is a binding protein for TGF..beta.. and that TGF..beta..-..cap alpha../sub 2/M complex may be the latent form of TGF..beta.. in serum.

  3. Actin capping protein alpha maintains vestigial-expressing cells within the Drosophila wing disc epithelium.

    PubMed

    Janody, Florence; Treisman, Jessica E

    2006-09-01

    Tissue patterning must be translated into morphogenesis through cell shape changes mediated by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We have found that Capping protein alpha (Cpa) and Capping protein beta (Cpb), which prevent extension of the barbed ends of actin filaments, are specifically required in the wing blade primordium of the Drosophila wing disc. cpa or cpb mutant cells in this region, but not in the remainder of the wing disc, are extruded from the epithelium and undergo apoptosis. Excessive actin filament polymerization is not sufficient to explain this phenotype, as loss of Cofilin or Cyclase-associated protein does not cause cell extrusion or death. Misexpression of Vestigial, the transcription factor that specifies the wing blade, both increases cpa transcription and makes cells dependent on cpa for their maintenance in the epithelium. Our results suggest that Vestigial specifies the cytoskeletal changes that lead to morphogenesis of the adult wing.

  4. The DQ Herculis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We review the properties of the DQ Herculis stars: cataclysmic variables containing an accreting, magnetic, rapidly rotating white dwarf. These stars are characterized by strong X-ray emission, high-excitation spectra, and very stable optical and X-ray pulsations in their light curves. There is considerable resemblance to their more famous cousins, the AM Herculis stars, but the latter class is additionally characterized by spin-orbit synchronism and the presence of strong circular polarization. We list eighteen stars passing muster as certain or very likely DQ Her stars. The rotational periods range from 33 s to 2.0 hr. Additional periods can result when the rotating searchlight illuminates other structures in the binary. A single hypothesis explains most of the observed properties: magnetically channeled accretion within a truncated disk. Some accretion flow still seems to proceed directly to the magnetosphere, however. The white dwarfs' magnetic moments are in the range 10(sup 32) - 10(sup 34) G cc, slightly weaker than in AM Her stars but with some probable overlap. The more important reason why DQ Hers have broken synchronism is probably their greater accretion rate and orbital separation. The observed L(sub x)/L(sub V) values are surprisingly low for a radially accreting white dwarf, suggesting that most of the accretion energy is not radiated in a strong shock above the magnetic pole. The fluxes can be more satisfactorily explained if most of the radial infall energy manages to bypass the shock and deposit itse lf directly in the white dwarf photosphere, where it should emerge as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. This also provides an adequate source of ionizing photons to power the high-excitation optical and UV emission lines. This is probably the DQ Her analog to the famous 'soft X-ray excess' in AM Her stars. However, unlike the AM Her case, this radiation has not been directly observed, so the analogy must not (yet) be embraced too firmly. There is

  5. Radiation degradation of methyl. cap alpha. -chloroacrylate-methacrylonitrile copolymers. [Gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.Y.; Pittman, C.U. Jr.; Helbert, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation degradation behavior of methyl ..cap alpha..-chloroacrylate (MCA) and methacrylonitrile (MCN) copolymers has been investigated as part of a program to develop high-sensitivity polymeric resists for integrated circuit manufacture. High-molecular-weight copolymers were prepared by emulsion techniques. Several different copolymer compositions were prepared varying from 19 to 68 mol % MCA. These copolymers were fractionated and then subjected to ..gamma.. irradiation from a /sup 60/Co source. The G/sub s/ - G/sub x/, G/sub s/ - 4G/sub x/ values were determined from anti M/sub n//sup -1/ and anti M/sub w//sup -1/ versus dose plots, and the G/sub s/ and G/sub x/ values were then calculated. Molecular weights of both unirradiated and irradiated polymers were analyzed by membrane osmometry and gel permeation chromatography. All copolymers exhibited higher degradation susceptibilities than that of poly(methyl methacrylate), which has G/sub s/ = 1.3. The individual G/sub s/ and G/sub x/ values of the copolymers were found to fall between those of the two homopolymers, poly(methyl ..cap alpha..-chloracrylate) (G/sub s/ = 6.0) and polymethacrylonitrile (G/sub s/ = 3.1). The dependence of G/sub s/ and G/sub x/ values on molecular weight was minor. The crosslinking susceptibility of the poly(methyl ..cap alpha..-chloroacrylate) (G/sub x/ = 0.8) was greatly decreased by copolymerization with MCN. Relatively small amounts of MCN caused alarge drop in G/sub x/, i.e., G/sub x/ = 0.15 at 32% MCN and G/sub x/ = 0.03 at 51% MCN. The observation could be attributed to the decreasing probability that crosslinking sites, in the MCA monomer units on adjacent chains, would lie in close proximity. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of limonene oxide,. cap alpha. -pinene oxide, and. beta. -pinene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Aikins, J.A.; Williams, F.

    1984-01-01

    After suitable drying, the subject monomers in the form of neat liquids undergo radiation-induced polymerization with no apparent side reactions and high conversions to precipitatable polymers of low molecular weight. A cationic mechanism is evidenced by the strongly retarding effect of tri-n-propylamine on the polymerization rate. At 25/sup 0/C, limonene oxide gives the highest polymerization rates, an average conversion of 36% per Mrad being obtained in comparison with values of 5.7 and 7.3% per Mrad for the ..cap alpha..-pinene and ..beta..-pinene oxides, respectively. Similarly, the average anti DP/sub n/ decreases from 11.8 for the limonene oxide polymer to 5.6 and 4.0 for the ..cap alpha..-pinene oxide and ..beta..-pinene oxide polymers, respectively. A high frequency of chain transfer to monomer is indicated in each case by the fact that the kinetic chain lengths are estimated to be on the order of a hundred times larger than the anti DP/sub n/ values. Structural characterization of the limonene oxide polymer by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy provides conclusive evidence that the polymerization proceeds by the opening of the epoxide ring to yield a 1,2-trans polyether. Similar NMR studies on the polymers formed from the ..cap alpha..-pinene and ..beta..-pinene oxides show that in the polymerization of these monomers, the opening of the epoxide ring is generally accompanied by the concomitant ring opening of the cyclobutane ring structure to yield a gem-dimethyl group in the main chain. The detection of isopropenyl end groups in the pinene oxide polymers is also consistent with this mode of propagation being followed by chain (proton) transfer to monomer.

  7. Spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her and HR Del

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyogin, L.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper considers the formation of the spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her (1934) and HR Del (1967). It is shown that the existence of polar caps is due to the influence of the second component of the system on the angular distribution of the mass shell depth of the mainshell. The ratio of the mass shell depth in the equatorial ring and in the polar caps is 1.13 for DQ Her and 2.7 for HR Del. The ratio of the maximal densities in the equatorial ring and the polar caps is of order 3 for DQ Her and of order 70 for HR Del.

  8. Quasi-relativistic SCF X. cap alpha. study of octahedral 5f/sup 1/ complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, G.; Roesch, N.; Edelstein, N.

    1980-05-01

    Quasi-relativistic SCF X..cap alpha.. calculations have been carried out for the octahedral 5f/sup 1/ complexes Pa/sup IV/X/sub 6//sup 2 -/, U/sup V/X/sub 6//sup -/(X = F, Cl, Br, I), and Np/sup VI/F/sub 6/. The 5f ..-->.. 5f excitation energies calculated by using the transition-state method agree well with the available absorption spectra. Ionic effects appear to dominate the trends observed in the f-orbital ligand field splitting.

  9. Involvement of prostaglandins F/sub 2. cap alpha. / and E/sub 1/ with rabbit endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Orlicky, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several growth factors and hormones are thought to play a role in the growth control of endometrial cells. The authors have shown that prostaglandin F/sub 2..-->../ (PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../) is a growth factor for primary cultures of rabbit endometrium cultured in chemically-defined serum-free medium and that prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) antagonizes the PGF/sub 2..-->../ induction of growth. Both (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ bind in a time and temperature dependent, dissociable, saturable and specific manner. The binding of (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ can be both down and up regulated and is enzyme sensitive. PGE /sub 1/ stimulates intracellular cAMP synthesis and accumulation in a time and concentration dependent manner. PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ probably exerts its effects through an amiloride-sensitive intermediate. Both PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ are constitutively synthesized by these primary cultures, and they have shown this synthesis to be both drug and hormone sensitive. They hypothesize that it is the ratio, rather than the absolute quantities, of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ which is of more importance in the regulation of endometrial cell growth. Furthermore, they believe this regulation of endometrial growth plays a role in control of proliferation during the decidual response and that a derangement in the ratio of these prostaglandins may lead to either infertility or hyperplasia. The ability of these cultures to synthesize prostaglandins in a hormonally regulatable manner may be of importance in the study of dysmenorrhea and uterine cramping as caused by the myometrial contracting prostaglandin, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../.

  10. Stimulation of bovine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by. cap alpha. -ketoisovalerate in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.G.; Barron, L.L.; Olson, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    Purified bovine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was used to study pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDH kinase) regulation. Previously, they showed that KCl and NH4Cl stimulate PDH kinase, and that thiamin pyrophosphate over the range of 1-80 ..mu..M completely blocks PDH kinase stimulation by 20 mM KCl, whereas thiamin pyrophosphate has very little inhibitory effect in the absence of KCl. Under inhibitory conditions, 100 ..mu..M thiamin pyrophosphate and 20 mM KCl, addition of 1 mM ..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate stimulated PDH kinase activity 1.5-fold. Addition of 1 mM ..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate had a similar stimulatory effect in the presence of 1 mM NH4Cl and 100 ..mu..M thiamin pyrophosphate. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at about 200 ..mu..M ..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate in both cases. Inhibition by thiamin pyrophosphate was uncompetitive, and the effect of ..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate on thiamin pyrophosphate inhibition was to shift both Vm and Km toward control values without changing the slope of the reciprocal plot. After incubation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex with ..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate and gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 to remove ..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate, PDH kinase activity remained stimulated relative to controls incubated with only buffer. In bovine heart mitochondria solubilized in 0.2% Triton X-100 and incubated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP, ..cap alpha..-ketoisovalerate stimulated PDH phosphorylation in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate, as detected by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. The results indicate that acylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex results in PDH kinase stimulation, but only in the presence of monovalent cation and thiamin pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the results also suggest that this effect may be relevant under more in vivo conditions.

  11. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to G1 arrest by a factor and. cap alpha. factor pheromones

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, R.K.; Otte, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATa cells carrying mutations in either sst1 or sst2 are supersensitive to the G1 arrest induced by ..cap alpha.. factor pheromone. When sst1 mutants were mixed with normal SST/sup +/ cells, the entire population recovered together from ..cap alpha.. factor arrest, suggesting that SST/sup +/ cells helped sst1 mutants to recover. Complementation tests and linkage analysis showed that sst1 and bar1, a mutation which eliminates the ability of MATa cells to act as a ''barrier'' to the diffusion of ..cap alpha.. factor, were lesions in the same genes. These findings suggest that sst1 mutants are defective in recovery from ..cap alpha.. factor arrest because they are unable to degrade the pheromone. In contrast, recovery of sst2 mutants was not potentiated by the presence of SST/sup +/ cells in mixing experiments. When either normal MATa cells or mutant cells carrying defects in sst1 or sst2 were exposed to ..cap alpha.. factor for 1 h and then washed free of the pheromone, the sst2 cells subsequently remained arrested in the absence of ..cap alpha.. factor for a much longer time than SST/sup +/ or sst1 cells. These observations suggest that the defect in sst2 mutants is intrinsic to the cell and is involved in the mechanism of ..cap alpha.. factor action at some step after the initial interaction of the pheromone with the cell. The presence of an sst2 mutation appears to cause a growth debility, since repeated serial subculture of haploid sst2-1 strains led to the accumulation of faster-growing revertants that were pheromone resistant and were mating defective (''sterile'').

  12. cap alpha. -D-Mannopyranosylmethyl-P-nitrophenyltriazene effects on the degradation and biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharide chains on. cap alpha. /sub 1/-acid glycoprotein by liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Docherty, P.A.; Aronson, N.N. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of ..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene (..cap alpha..-ManMNT) on the degradation and processing of oligosaccharide chains on ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were studied. Addition of the triazene to a perfused liver blocked the complete degradation of endocytosed N-acetyl (/sup 14/C)glucosamine-labeled asialo-AGP and caused the accumulation of Man/sub 2/GlcNAc/sub 1/ fragments in the lysosome-enriched fraction of the liver homogenate. This compound also reduced the reincorporation of lysosomally-derived (/sup 14/C)GlcNAc into newly secreted glycoproteins. Cultured hepatocytes treated with the inhibitor synthesized and secreted fully-glycosylated AGP. However, the N-linked oligosaccharide chains on AGP secreted by the ..cap alpha..-ManMNT-treated hepatocytes remained sensitive to digestion with endoglycosidase H, were resistant to neuraminidase, and consisted of Man/sub 9-7/GlcNAc/sub 2/ structures as analyzed by high resolution Bio-Gel P-4 chromatography. As measured by their resistance to cleavage by endoglycosidase H, the normal processing of all six carbohydrate chains on AGP to the complex form did not completely resume until nearly 24 h after triazene treatment. Since ManMNT is likely to irreversibly inactivate ..cap alpha..-D-mannosidases, the return of AGP to secretory forms with complex chains after 24 h probably resulted from synthesis of new processing enzymes.

  13. Presynaptic UNC-31 (CAPS) is required to activate the G alpha(s) pathway of the Caenorhabditis elegans synaptic signaling network.

    PubMed

    Charlie, Nicole K; Schade, Michael A; Thomure, Angela M; Miller, Kenneth G

    2006-02-01

    C. elegans mutants lacking the dense-core vesicle priming protein UNC-31 (CAPS) share highly similar phenotypes with mutants lacking a neuronal G alpha(s) pathway, including strong paralysis despite exhibiting near normal levels of steady-state acetylcholine release as indicated by drug sensitivity assays. Our genetic analysis shows that UNC-31 and neuronal G alpha(s) are different parts of the same pathway and that the UNC-31/G alpha(s) pathway is functionally distinct from the presynaptic G alpha(q) pathway with which it interacts. UNC-31 acts upstream of G alpha(s) because mutations that activate the G alpha(s) pathway confer similar levels of strongly hyperactive, coordinated locomotion in both unc-31 null and (+) backgrounds. Using cell-specific promoters, we show that both UNC-31 and the G alpha(s) pathway function in cholinergic motor neurons to regulate locomotion rate. Using immunostaining we show that UNC-31 is often concentrated at or near active zones of cholinergic motor neuron synapses. Our data suggest that presynaptic UNC-31 activity, likely acting via dense-core vesicle exocytosis, is required to locally activate the neuronal G alpha(s) pathway near synaptic active zones.

  14. Sensitive radioimmunoassay of. cap alpha. human atrial natriuretic polypeptide using monoclonal antibody recognizing human form ring structure

    SciTech Connect

    Naomi, S.; Umeda, T.; Iwaoka, T.; Miura, F.; Ohno, M.; Sasaki, M.; Oishi, S.; Sato, T.; Takatsu, K.

    1988-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (C351) against ..cap alpha.. human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..hANP) recognizing human form ring structure was established and applied to a radioimmunoassay of plasma ..cap alpha..hANP. The minimum detectable amount in terms of 10 % radioligand displacement relative to zero dose were 0.28 fmol/tube, corresponding to 0.7 fmol/ml in plasma after extraction using Sep-Pak C18 cartridges. When the mean plasma levels at recumbent position in fasted morning were compared in 10 young (<30 years) and 10 elderly (greater than or equal to50 years) healthy subjects taking normal sodium diet, it was slightly higher in the latter. After i.v. infusion of hypertonic saline at a rate of 0.24 ml/kg/min for 20 min in 6 normal subjects (26 to 35 years), it was increased from 4.1 +/- 0.4 to 5.9 +/- 0.7 fmol/ml (p<0.01). In 6 patients with essential hypertension (34 to 57 years), it was elevated with high salt intake. From these results, the radioimmunoassay of plasma IR-..cap alpha..hANP using MAb C351 seems to be quite suitable to detect rather small changes at low plasma concentrations and to investigate a physiological importance of ..cap alpha..hANP in man.

  15. Reaction of HO/sub 2//O/sub 2//sup -/ with. cap alpha. -tocopherol in ethanolic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The HO/sub 2/ perhydroxyl radical reacts with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol in 85% ethanol containing some H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, EDTA, and O/sub 2/. The resulting transient has a spectral maximum near 390 ..mu... The final product is mostly ..cap alpha..-tocopherylquinone. Best reproducibility for reaction of O/sub 2//sup -/ with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was obtained in a deoxygenated reaction mixture of 26 +- 3 ..mu..M O/sub 2//sup -/, 0.0565M ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, 5..mu..M EDTA, and 0.005 M KOH in 85% EtOH; the upper limit for the reaction was 6.0 +- 3.0 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, indicating that for all practical purposes O/sub 2//sup -/ does not react at all with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Preliminary experiments with Trolox, a vitamin E model compound, indicates that it too reacts with HO/sub 2/ but not with O/sub 2//sup -/. Membrane-bound tocopherols in vivo may fulfil a dual antioxidant role. (DLC)

  16. Analysis of a mouse. cap alpha. -globin gene mutation induced by ethylnitrosourea

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, R.A.; Bailiff, E.G.; Skow, L.C.; Johnson, F.M.; Lewis, S.E.

    1983-09-01

    A DBA/2 mouse treated with ethylnitrosourea sired an offspring whose hemoglobin showed an extra band following starch gel electrophoresis. The variant hemoglobin migrated to a more cathodal posititon in starch gel. Isoelectric focusing indicated that chain 5 of the mutant hemoglobin migrated to a more cathodal position than the normal chain 5 from DBA/2 mice and that the other ..cap alpha..-globin, chain 1, was not affected. On focusing gels the phenotype of the mutant allele, Hba/sup y9/, was expressed without dominance to normal chain 5, and Hba/sup y9/ / Hba/sup y9/ homozygotes were fully viable in the laboratory. The molecular basis for the germinal mutation was investigated by analyzing the amino acid sequence of chain 5/sup y9/, the mutant form of ..cap alpha..-chain 5. A single amino acid substitution (His ..-->.. Leu) at position 89 was found in chain 5/sup y9/. The authors propose that ethylnitrosourea induced an A ..-->.. T transversion in the histidine codon at position 89 (CAC ..-->.. CTC). This mutation has apparently not been observed previously in humans, mice or other mammals, and its novel occurrence may be indicative of other unusual mutational events that do not ordinarily occur in the absence of specific mutagen exposure.

  17. Removal of. cap alpha. -tocopherol from blood and its comparison with other lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.K.; Vang, M.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The blood decay curve of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol in rats was compared with those of the two major blood lipids by labeling rat serum in vitro with /sup 3/H-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (AT), /sup 3/H-cholesterol (CHO) or /sup 3/H-trioleoylglycerol (TO) and injecting it into the bloodstream. For the three lipids, loss from blood was biphasic. The half time of the faster decay was 2-4 minutes. The slower curve decayed with half times of 42, 289 and 990 minutes for TO, AT and CHO, respectively. This intermediate rate of AT removal is consistent with its accompanying both of the major blood lipids as they are removed by their respective mechanisms or with a process specific for AT. To investigate the role of liver in the faster curve, animals were hepatectomized. TO and CHO loss remained biphasic after liver removal. However, AT loss became monophasic, with a loss rate intermediate between the non-hepatectomized fast and slow decays. This demonstrates a central role for liver in the metabolism of blood-borne AT and a mode of removal distinct from the other two lipids.

  18. Identification of a GTP-binding protein. cap alpha. subunit that lacks an apparent ADP-ribosylation site for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, H.K.W.; Yoshimoto, K.K.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Simon, M.I.

    1988-05-01

    Recent molecular cloning of cDNA for the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine transducin (a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein, or G protein) has revealed the presence of two retinal-specific transducins, called T/sub r/ and T/sub c/, which are expressed in rod or cone photoreceptor cells. In a further study of G-protein diversity and signal transduction in the retina, the authors have identified a G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunit, which they refer to as G/sub z/..cap alpha.., by isolating a human retinal cDNA clone that cross-hybridizes at reduced stringency with bovine T/sub r/ ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of G/sub z/..cap alpha.. is 41-67% identical with those of other known G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. However, the 355-residue G/sub z/..cap alpha.. lacks a consensus site for ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin, and its amino acid sequence varies within a number of regions that are strongly conserved among all of the other G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. They suggest that G/sub z/..cap alpha.., which appears to be highly expressed in neural tissues, represents a member of a subfamily of G proteins that mediate signal transduction in pertussis toxin-insensitive systems.

  19. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene coding for the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilka, B.K.; Matsui, H.; Kobilka, T.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Francke, U.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Regan, J.W.

    1987-10-30

    The gene for the human platelet ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor has been cloned with oligonucleotides corresponding to the partial amino acid sequence of the purified receptor. The identity of this gene has been confirmed by the binding of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic ligands to the cloned receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence is most similar to the recently cloned human ..beta../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors; however, similarities to the muscarinic cholinergic receptors are also evident. Two related genes have been identified by low stringency Southern blot analysis. These genes may represent additional ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

  20. Reconstitution of high affinity. cap alpha. /sub 2/ adrenergic agonist binding by fusion with a pertussis toxin substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.H.; Neubig, R.R.

    1986-03-05

    High affinity ..cap alpha../sub 2/ adrenergic agonist binding is thought to occur via a coupling of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptor with N/sub i/, the inhibitory guanyl nucleotide binding protein. Human platelet membranes pretreated at pH 11.5 exhibit a selective inactivation of agonist binding and N/sub i/. To further study the mechanism of agonist binding, alkali treated membranes (ATM) were mixed with membranes pretreated with 10 ..mu..M phenoxybenzamine to block ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptors (POB-M). The combined membrane pellet was incubated in 50% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote membrane-membrane fusion and assayed for binding to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ agonist (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 (UK) and the antagonist (/sup 3/H) yohimbine. PEG treatment resulted in a 2-4 fold enhancement of UK binding whereas yohimbine binding was unchanged. No enhancement of UK binding was observed in the absence of PEG treatment. The reconstitution was dependent on the addition of POB-M. They found that a 1:1 ratio of POB-M:ATM was optimal. Reconstituted binding was inhibited by GppNHp. Fusion of rat C6 glioma cell membranes, which do not contain ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptors, also enhanced agonist binding to ATM. Fusion of C6 membranes from cells treated with pertussis toxin did not enhance (/sup 3/H) UK binding. These data show that a pertussis toxin sensitive membrane component, possibly N/sub i/, can reconstitute high affinity ..cap alpha../sub 2/ agonist binding.

  1. Generation of hydrogen using hematite (. cap alpha. -Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R.C.; Jadhav, C.M.; Khan, M.M.T.

    1983-12-01

    Recent reports by Somorjai produced considerable interest in photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water using P- and ntype polycrystalline iron oxide assembly. The authors report the constant generation of hydrogen using semi-conductor electrode of hematite (..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) available in nature. The naturally occurring hematite was ground and powdered, the powder then pressed in the form of pellets of 0.8 cm/sup 2/ diameter and connected with a copper lead using silver eposy. The P-type Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ electrode was prepared by pressing the ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ powder with fine powder of MgO (different weight percentage) and heating them in air at 1350 - 1400/sup 0/C in air. When both electrodes were connected and dipped in 0.1 M Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ aqueous solution, hydrogen was evolved at the rate 3 X 10/sup 5/ molecules/hr on irradiation with 450 W xenon lamp. The hydrogen was detected by gas chromatography. It was observed that the production of hydrogen decreases with time and stops completely after sometime. The reactivation by flowing oxygen gas through the reaction cell for an hour, as reported by Somorjai, was not successful. This may have been due to the deterioration of p-type samples by gradual reduction of the iron oxide surfaces by a small fraction of the photoproduced hydrogen. This deterioration was stopped up to a certain extent by deposition of a thin film of indium on the p-type electrode. The progress to improve the efficiency of this system is being accomplished by changing the grain size of polycrystalline iron oxide and by depositing different metal films of different thickness on p-type electrode. It appears from preliminary observations that hematite available in nature contains impurities of SiO/sub 2/ and, on heating at higher temperatures, the hematite (..cap alpha..-Fe/sup 2/O/sub 3/) becomes doped automatically and gives an n-type electrode. The spectral studies show that it absorbs maximum light at

  2. Allelic sequence variation of the HLA-DQ loci: relationship to serology and to insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Horn, G T; Bugawan, T L; Long, C M; Erlich, H A

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of sequence variation in the polymorphic second exon of the major histocompatibility complex genes HLA-DQ alpha and -DQ beta has revealed 8 allelic variants at the alpha locus and 13 variants at the beta locus. Correlation of sequence variation with serologic typing suggests that the DQw2, DQw3, and DQ(blank) types are determined by the DQ beta subunit, while the DQw1 specificity is determined by DQ alpha. The nature of the amino acid at position 57 in the DQ beta subunit is correlated with susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This region of the DQ beta chain contains shared peptides with Epstein-Barr virus and rubella virus. PMID:2842756

  3. Chemical and physical consequences of. cap alpha. and. beta. /sup -/ decay in the solid state

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.P.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Ensor, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Interesting chemical and structural phenomena can occur when radioactive materials are stored in the solid state. Extensive studies have been made of both the chemical and physical status of progeny species that result from the ..cap alpha.. or ..beta.. /sup -/ day of actinide ions in several different compounds. The samples have been both initially pure actinide compounds - halides, oxides, etc. and actinides incorporated into other non-radioactive host materials, for example lanthanide halides. In general, the oxidation state of the actinide progeny is controlled by the oxidation state of its parent (a result of heredity). The structure of the progeny compound seems to be controlled by its host (a result of environment). These conclusions are drawn from solid state absorption spectral studies, and where possible, from x-ray diffraction studies of multi-microgram sized samples. 13 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  4. H/sub. cap alpha. / photon yield in fuelling of tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D.H.

    1988-08-01

    The number of H/sub ..cap alpha../ photons emitted per entering particle is examined for three types of fueling in tokamaks: wall and limiter efflux, gas puff, and solid pellet injection. These sources correspond to greater involvement of heavy particles in the breakup of entering molecules and to an increasing degree of thermodynamic equilibrium in the radiating zone. The effect of wall absorption and charge exchange on the photon yield in normal tokamak discharges is examined with a molecular influx model. The emission from a perturbing gas puff is discussed qualitatively as an extension to this model. The photon yield from injected pellets corresponds to a limit of extremely high neutral influx and is estimated with a simple hydrodynamical model and measured pellet cloud parameters. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Characterization of the MHC class II region in cattle. The number of DQ genes varies between haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    The organization of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region in cattle was investigated by Southern blot analysis using human probes corresponding to DO, DP, DQ, and DR genes. Exon-specific probes were also employed to facilitate the assessment of the number of different bovine class II genes. The results indicated the presence of single DO beta and DR alpha genes, at least three DR beta genes, while the number of DQ genes was found to vary between MHC haplotypes. Four DQ haplotypes, DQ alpha 1 beta 1 to DQ alpha 2 beta 4, possessed a single DQ alpha and a single DQ beta gene whereas both these genes were duplicated in eight other haplotypes, DQ alpha 3 beta 5 to DQ alpha 9 beta 12. No firm evidence for the presence of bovine DP genes was obtained. The same human probes were also used to investigate the genetic polymorphism of bovine class II genes. DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, DR beta, and DO beta restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were resolved and in particular the DQ restriction fragment patterns were highly polymorphic. Comparison of the present result with the current knowledge of the class II region in other mammalian species suggested that the DO, DP, DQ, DR, and DZ subdivision of the class II region was established already in the ancestor of mammals. The DP genes appear to be the least conserved class II genes among mammalian species and may have been lost in cattle. The degree of polymorphism of different class II genes, as revealed by RFLP analyses, shows striking similarities between species.

  6. Pivotal and distinct role for Plasmodium actin capping protein alpha during blood infection of the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Ganter, Markus; Rizopoulos, Zaira; Schüler, Herwig; Matuschewski, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Accurate regulation of microfilament dynamics is central to cell growth, motility and response to environmental stimuli. Stabilizing and depolymerizing proteins control the steady-state levels of filamentous (F-) actin. Capping protein (CP) binds to free barbed ends, thereby arresting microfilament growth and restraining elongation to remaining free barbed ends. In all CPs characterized to date, alpha and beta subunits form the active heterodimer. Here, we show in a eukaryotic parasitic cell that the two CP subunits can be functionally separated. Unlike the beta subunit, the CP alpha subunit of the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium is refractory to targeted gene deletion during blood infection in the mammalian host. Combinatorial complementation of Plasmodium berghei CP genes with the orthologs from Plasmodium falciparum verified distinct activities of CP alpha and CP alpha/beta during parasite life cycle progression. Recombinant Plasmodium CP alpha could be produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of the beta subunit and the protein displayed F-actin capping activity. Thus, the functional separation of two CP subunits in a parasitic eukaryotic cell and the F-actin capping activity of CP alpha expand the repertoire of microfilament regulatory mechanisms assigned to CPs. PMID:25565321

  7. Pivotal and distinct role for Plasmodium actin capping protein alpha during blood infection of the malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Markus; Rizopoulos, Zaira; Schüler, Herwig; Matuschewski, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Accurate regulation of microfilament dynamics is central to cell growth, motility and response to environmental stimuli. Stabilizing and depolymerizing proteins control the steady-state levels of filamentous (F-) actin. Capping protein (CP) binds to free barbed ends, thereby arresting microfilament growth and restraining elongation to remaining free barbed ends. In all CPs characterized to date, alpha and beta subunits form the active heterodimer. Here, we show in a eukaryotic parasitic cell that the two CP subunits can be functionally separated. Unlike the beta subunit, the CP alpha subunit of the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium is refractory to targeted gene deletion during blood infection in the mammalian host. Combinatorial complementation of Plasmodium berghei CP genes with the orthologs from Plasmodium falciparum verified distinct activities of CP alpha and CP alpha/beta during parasite life cycle progression. Recombinant Plasmodium CP alpha could be produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of the beta subunit and the protein displayed F-actin capping activity. Thus, the functional separation of two CP subunits in a parasitic eukaryotic cell and the F-actin capping activity of CP alpha expand the repertoire of microfilament regulatory mechanisms assigned to CPs.

  8. Human transforming growth factor type. cap alpha. coding sequence is not a directed-acting oncogene when overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Finzi, E.; Fleming, T.; Segatto, O.; Pennington, C.Y.; Bringman, T.S.; Derynck, R.; Aaronson, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    A peptide secreted by some tumor cells in vitro imparts anchorage-independent growth to normal rat kidney (NRK) cells and has been termed transforming growth factor type ..cap alpha.. (TGF-..cap alpha..). To directly investigate the transforming properties of this factor, the human sequence coding for TGF-..cap alpha.. was placed under the control of either a metallothionein promoter or a retroviral long terminal repeat. These constructs failed to induce morphological transformation upon transfection of NIH 3T3 cells, whereas viral oncogenes encoding a truncated form of its cognate receptor, the EGF receptor, or another growth factor, sis/platelet-derived growth factor 2, efficiently induced transformed foci. Binding assays were done using (/sup 125/I)-EGF. When NIH 3T3 clonal sublines were selected by transfection of TGF-..cap alpha.. expression vectors in the presence of a dominant selectable market, they were shown to secrete large amounts of TGF-..cap alpha.. into the medium, to have downregulated EGF receptors, and to be inhibited in growth by TGF-..cap alpha.. monoclonal antibody. These results indicated that secreted TGF-..cap alpha.. interacts with its receptor at a cell surface location. Single cell-derived TGF-..cap alpha..-expressing sublines grew to high saturation density in culture. These and other results imply that TGF-..cap alpha.. exerts a growth-promoting effect on the entire NIH 3T3 cell population after secretion into the medium but little, if any, effect on the individual cell synthesizing this factor. It is concluded that the normal coding sequence for TGF-..cap alpha.. is not a direct-acting oncogene when overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells.

  9. Isolation and genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to G1 arrest by a factor and. cap alpha. factor pheromones

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, R.K.; Otte, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Eight independently isolated mutants which are supersensitive (Sst/sup -/) to the G1 arrest induced by the tridecapeptide pheromone ..cap alpha.. factor were identified by screening mutagenized Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATa cells on solid medium for increased growth inhibition by ..cap alpha.. factor. These mutants carries lesions in two complementation groups, sst1 and sst2. Mutations at the sst1 locus were mating type specific: MATa sst1 cells were supersensitive to ..cap alpha.. factor, but MAT..cap alpha.. sst1 cells were not supersensitive to a factor. In contrast, mutations at the sst2 locus conferred supersensitivity to the pheromones of the opposite mating type on both MATa and MAT..cap alpha.. cells. Even in the absence of added ..cap alpha.. pheromone, about 10% of the cells in exponentially growing cultures of MATa strains carrying any of three different alleles of sst2 (including the ochre mutation sst2-4) had the aberrant morphology (''shmoo'' shape) that normally develops only after MATa cells are exposed to ..cap alpha.. factor. This ''self-shmooing'' phenotype was genetically linked to the sst2 mutations, although the leakiest allele isolated (sst2-3) did not display this characteristic. Normal MATa/MAT..cap alpha.. diploids do not respond to pheromones; diploids homozygous for an sst2 mutation (MATa/MAT..cap alpha.. sst2-1/sst2-1) were still insensitive to ..cap alpha.. factor. The sst1 gene was mapped to within 6.9 centimorgans of his6 on chromosome IX. The sst2 gene was unlinked to sst1, was not centromere linked, and was shown to be neither linked nor centromere distal to MAT on the right arm of chromosome III.

  10. cap alpha. -chain locus of the T-cell antigen receptor is involved in the t(10; 14) chromosome translocation of T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Finan, J.; Letofsky, J.; Besa, E.C.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Human leukemic T cells carrying a t(10;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation were fused with mouse leukemic T cells, and the hybrids were examined for genetic markers of human chromosomes 10 and 14. Hybrids containing the human 10q+ chromosome had the human genes for terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase that has been mapped at 10q23-q25 and for C/sub ..cap alpha../ (the constant region of TCRA (the ..cap alpha..-chain locus of the T-cell antigen receptor gene)), but not for V/sub ..cap alpha../ (the variable region of TCRA). Hybrids containing the human 14q- chromosome retained the V/sub ..cap alpha../genes. Thus the 14q11 breakpoint in the t(10;14) chromosome translocation directly involves TCRA, splitting the locus in a region between the V/sub ..cap alpha../ and the C/sub ..cap alpha../ genes. These results suggest that the translocation of the C/sub ..cap alpha../ locus to a putative cellular protooncogene located proximal to the breakpoint at 10q24, for which the authors propose the name TCL3, results in its deregulation, leading to T-cell leukemia. Since hybrids with the 10q+ chromosome also retained the human terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase gene, it is further concluded that the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase locus is proximal to the TCL3 gene, at band 10q23-q24.

  11. Trypsin pretreatment dissociates the effect of GTP and Na/sup +/ on ligand binding to human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenoreceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Periyasamy, S.M.; Somani, P.

    1986-03-01

    The authors recently showed that maximal concentration of trypsin (TR) inactivated only 70-80% of specific (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (/sup 3/H-Y) binding to human platelet ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors (..cap alpha../sub 2/-AR). The effect of TR on the interaction between the agonist, epinephrine, and GTP or Na/sup +/ on /sup 3/H-Y binding to ..cap alpha../sub 2/-AR of human platelets was investigated in the present study. Partially purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-AR protein was pretreated with 500 ..mu..g TR for 3 min at 35/sup 0/C, the proteolytic action was terminated by specific TR-inhibitor, and the membranes were washed twice prior to specific ligand binding studies. Under these conditions, TR produced a 40-50% reduction of specific /sup 3/H-Y binding. Further characterization of the specific ligand binding by Scatchard plots showed that TR did not modify the affinity of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-AR to the agonist or the antagonist or the antagonists. However, in the TR-pretreated membranes, the ability of GTP to reduce the receptor affinity for epinephrine was lost. The effect of Na/sup +/, on the other hand, remained intact under these conditions. Thus, TR can selectively destroy the GTP-..cap alpha../sub 2/-AR but not Na/sup +/-..cap alpha../sub 2/-AR interaction suggesting that the GTP- and Na/sup +/-binding proteins are distinct.

  12. Validation and population studies of the loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, and Gc (PM loci), and HLA-DQ alpha using a multiplex amplification and typing procedure.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Lindsey, J A; DeCou, J A; Koons, B W; Giusti, A M; Comey, C T

    1995-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate the forensic applicability of multiplex amplification of the loci low density lipoprotein receptor, glycophorin A, hemoglobin G gammaglobin, D7S8, and group-specific component (PM loci) and simultaneous typing of these loci using a reverse dot blot approach where allele specific oligonucleotide probes are immobilized on a nylon membrane strip. These results were obtained by using the AmpliType PM PCR Amplification and Typing Kit. The experiments included: mixed body fluid studies; chemical contaminant effects on the DNA in body fluid samples; the effect of typing DNA from body fluid samples deposited on various substrates; the effect of microorganism contamination on typing DNA derived from blood and semen; the effect of sunlight and storage conditions on DNA typing; determination of the sensitivity of detection of the PM test kit; determination of cross-reactivity of DNA from species other than human; typing DNA derived from various tissues from an individual; and an evaluation of the hybridization temperature of the assay. The data demonstrate that DNA exposed to a variety of environmental insults yields reliable PM typing results. Allele and genotype frequencies for six loci (PM loci and HLA-DQ alpha) were determined in African Americans. Caucasians, southeastern Hispanics, and southwestern Hispanics. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations and there is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci. The frequency data can be used in forensic analyses and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a multiple locus DNA profile in various general United States populations.

  13. cap alpha. -Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) stimulates the release of superoxide by rat neutrophils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.A.; Hewett, J.

    1986-03-01

    ..cap alpha..-Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is an hepatotoxicant that produces cholestasis and hyperbilirubinemia in rats. Its mechanism of action is unknown. The observation that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) accumulate in the bile ductular region of the liver following ANIT administration prompted us to examine the ability of ANIT to stimulate these cells. PMNs elicited from rat peritoneum were treated with ANIT in vitro to test for the release of superoxide anion (O/sub 2//sup -/). ANIT stimulated O/sub 2//sup -/ release from PMNs in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal O/sub 2//sup -/ release was achieved by an ANIT concentration of 110 ..mu.. M. O/sub 2//sup -/ release was rapid after the first few minutes of ANIT addition and ceased entirely between 10 and 15 minutes. An increase in the extracellular activity of lactate dehydrogenase also occurred after a 5-10 minute lag phase following ANIT addition. PMNs exposed to ANIT also failed to exclude trypan blue dye, either in the presence or in the absence of superoxide dismutase and catalase, suggesting a direct, oxygen radical-independent, cytotoxic effect of ANIT on PMNs. Release of the lysosomal enzyme, ..beta..-glucuronidase, also occurred within 5 min following exposure of PMNs to ANIT. These results indicate that ANIT stimulates the release of cytotoxic agents from rat PMNs in vitro and suggests that the direct stimulation of PMNs in vivo may contribute to ANIT-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  14. Removal of. cap alpha. -tocopherol from blood and its comparison with other lipids: studies of inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.K.; Mavis, R.D.

    1986-05-01

    To investigate the mechanism of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol (AT) uptake into tissues, loss of /sup 3/H-AT from blood was characterized and compared with the losses of two major blood lipids: /sup 3/H-cholesterol (CHO) and /sup 3/H-trioleoylglycerol (TO). Male Long-Evans rats (200-325 gm) were injected with serum labelled with one lipid, and bled from the tail from 1-240 min. In one group heparin (HEP), an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase which mediates uptake of TO into tissues, was intravenously injected prior to serum and following corn oil gavage. The control group was only gavaged (GAV). A third group was injected with labelled serum which had been incubated with 1,2-cyclohexanedione (CHD), a reagent which modifies the receptors responsible for removal of CHO-rich low density lipoproteins from blood. Labelled serum incubated only with borate buffer (BO) was injected into the fourth group. HEP slowed TO loss from 2-220 min, but left CHO loss unchanged. AT loss was slowed by HEP from 100 min on. That AT responded to HEP but over a time span different from that of TO suggests that AT may be removed by a mechanism distinct from that of TO but sensitive to HEP. CHD slowed CHO loss from 40-240 min while TO and AT loss were uninhibited. This argues against a mechanism of removal common to both AT and CHO.

  15. Characterization of D-enzyme (4-. cap alpha. -glucanotransferase) in Arabidopsis leaf

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.P.; Preiss, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two major forms of D-enzyme (4-..cap alpha..-glucanotransferase, EC 2.4.1.25) were successfully separated from most of the amylase activity using FPLC-Mono Q column chromatography. Transfer of a maltosyl group was observed upon the incubation of D-enzyme with maltotriose and D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose. About 4.5% of the radioactivity was transferred to maltotriose in 2 hours. End product analysis showed the accumulation of glucose and maltopentaose from maltotriose within the first 10 minutes of the reaction. Several other maltodextrins were also observed with longer incubation times, although maltose was never produced. A quantitative measurement of maltodextrin production from the reaction of (/sup 14/C)maltotriose with D-enzyme showed that the quantity of maltotriose decreased from 100% to 31% after 3 hours incubation, while glucose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, maltoheptaose, maltooctaose, and higher maltodextrins increased in amount. Glucose is the major product throughout the course of the reaction of D-enzyme with maltotriose. Maltotriose, in addition to glucose, are the major products in the reaction of D-enzyme with maltodextrins with a chain length greater than maltotriose. This study confirms the existence of a transglycosylase that disproportionates amaltotriose and higher maltodextrins by transferring maltosyl or maltodextrinyl groups between maltodextrins resulting in the production of glucose and different maltodextrins, but not maltose.

  16. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of limonene oxide,. cap alpha. -pinene oxide, and. beta. -pinene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Aikins, J.A.; Williams, F.

    1985-01-01

    After suitable drying, the subject monomers in the form of neat liquids undergo radiation-induced polymerization with no apparent side reactions and high conversions to precipitatable polymers of low molecular weights. A high frequency of chain (proton) transfer to monomer is indicated by the fact that the kinetic chain lengths are estimated to be several hundred times larger than the range of DP/sub n/ values (12-4). Structural characterization of the limonene oxide polymer by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy provides conclusive evidence that the polymerization proceeds by the opening of the epoxide ring to yield a 1,2-trans polyether. Similar NMR studies on the polymers formed from the ..cap alpha..-pinene and ..beta..-pinene oxides show that the opening of the epoxide ring for these monomers is generally accompanied by the concomitant ring opening of the cyclobutane ring structure to yield a gem-di-methyl group in the main chain.

  17. Neutron-multiplicity distributions for (. cap alpha. ,xn. gamma. ) reactions with E/sub. cap alpha. / = 50--120 MeV and the pre-equilibrium neutron deexcitation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Shibata, T.; Ejiri, H.; Sakai, H.

    1983-08-01

    Pre-equilibrium and equilibrium deexcitation processes for (..cap alpha..,xn ..gamma..) reactions induced by 50--120 MeV ..cap alpha.. particles were studied. Reaction channels were identified by measuring rotational ..gamma.. rays characteristic of the reaction residues. The branching of the reaction channels gave neutron multiplicity distributions. Features characteristic of the pre-equilibrium process were seen in the reaction channels with small neutron multiplicity x. An exciton model calculation code was developed so as to incorporate both multiparticle emission at the fast pre-equilibrium stage and multiparticle p evaporation at the slow equilibrium stage. The calculation reproduced the neutron multiplicity distributions in the whole range of E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 50--120 MeV. The pre-equilibrium fractions and the entry lines from the pre-equilibrium stage to the equilibrium one were deduced. The pre-equilibrium fractions were found to be approximately 40--60 %, being rather independent of the individual reaction channel. The entry lines slowly increase from 25 to 35 MeV with increasing projectile energy.

  18. Kinetics of ozonation. 4. Reactions of ozone with. cap alpha. -tocopherol and oleate and linoleate esters in carbon tetrachloride and in aqueous micellar solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, D.H.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A.

    1986-10-15

    Vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol; ..cap alpha..-T) is known to protect animals against the deleterious effects of ozone in polluted air; one such effect is the ozone-initiated autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that occur in membranes. In order to assess the possibility of a direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T competing with the very fast ozone-PUFA reaction, we have measured the rates of reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. I CCl/sub 4/ as solvent, ..cap alpha..-T reacts with ozone with a rate constant of about 5500 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/; methyl oleate and methyl linoleate react 2 orders of magnitude faster. In aqueous micellar solutions the rate constants for ..cap alpha..-T and the fatty acids are more similar. The k for the ozone/..cap alpha..-T reaction is about 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ at pH 7, but decreases as the solution becomes more acidic; the k's for oleic acid and linoleic acid are ca. 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ and exhibit no significant pH dependence. Since the ratio of fatty acids to ..cap alpha..-T in membranes is typically at least 100-1000 to 1, we conclude that the direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T is unlikely. Thus, the protection that vitamin E provides to animals breathing ozone-containing air must result from vitamin E acting as a free radical scavenger. We have also detected the ..cap alpha..-tocopheroxyl radical as an intermediate from the reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T both in CCl/sub 4/ and aqueous micelles using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The authors suggest that the observation of this intermediate is consistent with an initial electron transfer from ..cap alpha..-T to ozone.

  19. DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8 Distribution and Clinical Manifestations in Celiac Cases and Their First-Degree Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Magdalena; Oyarzun, Amaya; Lucero, Yalda; Espinosa, Nelly; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    HLA-linked genes are relevant to celiac disease (CD); the potential genetic differences present worldwide are not fully understood. Previous results suggest that the distribution of HLA-DQ2/DQ7/DQ8 in Chile may differ from that in Europe and North America. In celiac patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRS), we assessed their clinical, serological and histological characteristics, determined HLA-DQ2, HLA-DQ7 and HLA-DQ8 alleles and genotypes, and evaluated the relations between them. A total of 222 individuals were assessed (56 cases, 166 FDRs). 16.9% of FDRs were tTG positive; 53.6% of them showed overweight/obesity and 3% undernourishment; they spontaneously declared being asymptomatic, but detailed questioning revealed that 60.7% experienced symptoms, which had not been investigated. DQ2 was present in 53.9% and 43.9.0% of cases and FDRs (p < 0.05). The most frequent genotype distribution was DQ2/DQ7 (fr 0.392 (cases) and 0.248 (FDRs), respectively, p < 0.02). The next most common genotypes were HLA-DQ2/DQ8 (fr 0.236 in FDRs and 0.176 in cases, p < 0.05). 3.92% cases were not HLA-DQ2/DQ8 carriers. Among tTG positive FDRs, 57.4%, 22.3% and 20.2% carried DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8, respectively. In cases, 72.7% of the biopsies classified Marsh ≥3 carried at least one DQ2; 91.7% of DQ2/DQ2 and 88.3% of DQ2/DQ7 were Marsh ≥3. Thus, DQ2 frequency is lower than reported; the higher frequency found for DQ8 and DQ7 concur with recent publications from Argentine and Brazil. These results suggest that although CD may manifest clinically in ways similar to those described in other populations, some genetic peculiarities in this region deserve further study. PMID:26096569

  20. Role of human major histocompatibility complex DQ molecules in superantigenicity of streptococcus-derived protein.

    PubMed Central

    Esaki, Y; Fukui, Y; Sudo, T; Yamamoto, K; Inamitsu, T; Nishimura, Y; Hirokawa, K; Kimura, A; Sasazuki, T

    1994-01-01

    Antigenicity of peptic extract from type 12 group A streptococci (PEAST12) for T cells was examined in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transgenic mice. PEAST12 was mitogenic for murine T cells when antigen-presenting cells were obtained from human MHC (HLA)-DQ4 alpha beta transgenic mice or from DQ6 alpha beta transgenic mice but was not mitogenic in DR alpha transgenic, DR51 alpha beta transgenic, E alpha transgenic, or nontransgenic mice. In addition, PEAST12 showed mitogenicity for murine T cells in DQ4 alpha singly transgenic mice but not in DQ4 beta singly transgenic mice. T-cell stimulation by PEAST12 was unrestricted by but dependent on the expression of HLA-DQ molecules on antigen-presenting cells, and PEAST12 selectively activated T-cell receptor V beta 11-, V beta 15-, and V beta 18-positive T cells in mice. We propose that PEAST12 contains a superantigen which binds preferentially to the alpha-chain of HLA-DQ molecules. The well-known phenomenon that peptic extracts from group A streptococci are mitogenic in humans but not in mice is likely due to structural differences in MHC class II molecules between these two species of mammals. Images PMID:8132329

  1. Assay and properties of rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, S.K.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1986-11-04

    An in vitro assay has been developed for the rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase). The subcellular location and some properties of the enzyme are described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ produced from incubations of yolk sac homogenates was extracted, purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and straight- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured by a competitive binding assay using chick intestinal receptor. The reaction is linear with time for up to 45 min at a substrate concentration of 80 ..mu..M and 4-6 mg/mL microsomal protein. The enzyme, located in the microsomes, requires molecular oxygen and NADPH. Metyrapone (1 x 10/sup -3/ M) was found to inhibit 1-hydroxylation, but a 90% carbon monoxide-10% oxygen atmosphere did not, leaving open the question of involvement of cytochrome P-450. Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, a lipid peroxidase inhibitor, inhibited 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  2. Selective inhibition by chloramphenicol of pregnenolone-16. cap alpha. -carbonitrile-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, P.E.; Kaminsky, L.S.; Halpert, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnenolone-16 ..cap alpha..-carbonitrile (PCN) has been shown to induce, in male rats, cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the formation of R-10-hydroxywarfarin and R-dehydrowarfarin. Antibodies to the major PCN-inducible isozyme (PB/PCN-E) inhibit both activities in microsomal preparations. Recently the authors have shown that PCN treatment of female rats also induces the formation of both R-warfarin metabolites. However, in both sexes chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment selectively inhibits only the rate of formation of the R-dehydrowarfarin. A decrease in microsomal P-450 content occurs after in vivo administration of CAP to PCN-treated rats of both sexes. This is in contrast to the lack of effect of CAP on P-450 levels in phenobarbital-treated rats. Covalent binding of /sup 14/C-CAP to microsomal protein in vitro was increased 3 to 4-fold following PCN treatment. Chromatographic evidences suggests the presence of at least two PCN-induced isozymes of similar molecular weights in both male and female rat liver microsomes. These data are consistent with the multiplicity of PCN-inducible P-450 in rat liver.

  3. Clearance of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid during in-situ perfusion of the guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Sikov, M.R.

    1983-05-01

    Extensive investigation of the transport of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; a nonmetabolized amino acid) has shown that AIB is actively transported from mother to fetus across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig. As a step towards clarifying the relative rolls of active and passive movements of amino acids across the placenta, it would be useful to obtain concurrent measurements of transplacental movements of a substance which crosses the placenta rapidly by simple diffusion (water) and of a substance which is actively transported across the placenta (AIB). In our study, placentas from guinea pigs between 59 and 61 days of gestation were perfused in situ through cannulated umbilical vessels with the maternal circulation left intact. Tritiated water and /sup 14/C-AIB were injected into a maternal jugular vein and maternal blood samples were obtained at 1 to 10 minute intervals; perfusate samples were collected sequentially after one pass through the placenta. Clearance of /sup 14/C-AIB from mother to fetus (AIB/sub MF/) and AIB concentrations in placental tissue, maternal plasma, and perfusate were consistent in magnitude with data obtained by other invetigators who have clearly shown an active transport of AIB in the placenta. On the other hand, in this study AIB/sub MF/ ranged from approximately 50% to 96% of the clearance of /sup 3/H-labeled water from mother to fetus (T/sub MF/) and that changes in AIB/sub MF/ correlated closely with changes in T/sub MF/ in all perfusions. Thus, it appears that AIB/sub MF/ closely paralleled T/sub MF/ and these data suggest that a relatively large component of AIB/sub MF/ is of passive origin in the in situ placenta.

  4. Transport of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid by Streptococcus pyogenes and its derived L-form

    SciTech Connect

    Reizer, J.; Panos, C.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) in Streptococcus pyogenes and its physiologically isotonic L-form. S. pyogenes cells starved for glucose or treated with carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone accumulated limited amounts of AIB. A high apparent K/sub m/ value characterized the glucose-independent transport of AIB. The rate and extent of AIB accumulation significantly increased in the presence of glucose. Two saturable transport components with distinct apparent K/sub m/values characterized glycolysis-coupled transport of AIB. A biphasic Lineweaver-Burk plot was also obtained for L-alanine transport by glycolyzing S. pyogenes cells. AIB seems to share a common transport system(s) with glycine, L- and D-anine, L-serine, and L-valine. This was shown by the competitive exchange efflux of accumulated AIB. About 30% of the AIB uptake was not inhibited by a saturating amount of L-valine, indicating the existence of more than one system for AIB transport, p-Chloromercuribenzoate markedly inhibited the accumulation of AIB by both glycolyzing and glucose-starved cells. In contrast, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone affected only metabolism-dependent uptake of AIB, which was also sensitive to dinitrophenol, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate, fluoride (NaF), arsenate, and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. These results are interpreted according to the chemiosmotic theory of Mitchell, whereby a proton motive force constitutes the driving force for AIB accumulation. AIB was not accumulated by the L-form. However, a temporary accumulation of AIB by a counterflow mechanism and a saturable system with a low apparent affinity were demonstrated for AIB transport by this organism. We suggest that a deficiency in the coupling of energy to AIB transport is responsible for the apparent lack of active AIB accumulation by the L-form.

  5. Dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in cardiac and skeletal muscle membranes: studies with antibodies against the. cap alpha. subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Catterall, W.A.

    1987-08-25

    Polyclonal antibodies (PAC-2) against the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel were prepared and shown to be directed against ..cap alpha.. subunits of this protein by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. These polypeptides have an apparent molecular weight of 162,000 without reduction of disulfide bonds. Under conditions where the functional properties of the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel are retained, ..beta.. subunits (M/sub r/ 50,000) and lambda subunits (M/sub r/ 33,000) are coprecipitated, demonstrating specific noncovalent association of these three polypeptides in the purified skeletal muscle channel. PAC-2 immunoprecipitated cardiac calcium channels labeled with (/sup 3/H)isopropyl 4-(2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-(methoxycarbonyl)pyridine-3-carboxylate ((/sup 3/H)PN200-110) at a 3-fold higher concentration than skeletal muscle channels. Preincubation with cardiac calcium channels blocked only 49% of the immunoreactivity of PAC-2 toward skeletal muscle channels, indicating that these two proteins have both homologous and distinct epitopes. The immunoreactive component of the cardiac calcium channel was identified by immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 170,000 before reduction of disulfide bonds and 141,000 after reduction, in close analogy with the properties of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ subunits of the skeletal muscle channel. The calcium channels were radiolabeled with /sup 32/P and /sup 125/I. It is concluded that these two calcium channels have a homologous, but distinct, ..cap alpha.. subunit as a major polypeptide component.

  6. Reaction mechanism of the /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 11/C reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Y.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanism of the reactions /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He, ..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C leading to the (3/2)/sup -/ ground state and (5/2)/sup -/ second excited state of /sup 11/C is studied using finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation with all one-step direct and exchange processes. By taking into account in detail the cluster structure of /sup 11/C and /sup 12/C, the transition to the (5/2)/sup -/ state which is a j forbidden direct process can be explained well by the exchange process.

  7. Acute CNS syndrome from /sup 10/B(n,. cap alpha. )/sup 7/Li irradiation of mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Stoner, R.D.; Rosander, K.M.; Kalef-Ezra, J.K.; Laissue, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare absorbed doses of /sup 10/B-neutron capture radiation and x radiation in the brains of head-exposed, body-shielded mice, at LD/sub 50/ for acute (<4 days post exposure) mortality from the central nervous system (CNS) radiation syndrome. This comparison leads to an estimate of the in vivo relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of heavy particle radiation (helium and lithium ions) from the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li nuclear reaction.

  8. Catalytic versatility of Bacillus pumilus. beta. -xylosidase: glycosyl transfer and hydrolysis promoted with. cap alpha. - and. beta. -D-xylosyl fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kasumi, T.; Tsumuraya, Y.; Brewer, C.F.; Kersters-Hilderson, H.; Claeyssens, M.; Hehre, E.J.

    1987-06-02

    Bacillus pumilus ..beta..-xylosidase, an enzyme considered restricted to hydrolyzing a narrow range of ..beta..-D-xylosidic substrates with inversion of configuration, was found to catalyze different stereochemical, essentially irreversible, glycosylation reactions with ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride. The enzyme promoted the hydrolysis of ..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride at a high rate, V = 6.25 ..mu..mol min/sup -1/ mg/sup -1/ at 0/sup 0/C, in a reaction that obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In contrast, its action upon ..cap alpha..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride was slow and characterized by an unusual relation between the rate of fluoride release and the substrate concentration, suggesting the possible need for two substrate molecules to be bound at the active center in order for reaction to occur. Moreover, /sup 1/H NMR spectra of a digest of ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride showed the substrate to be specifically converted to ..cap alpha..-D-xylose by the enzyme. The observed retention of configuration is not consistent with direct hydrolysis by this inverting enzyme but is strongly indicative of the occurrence of two successive inverting reactions: xylosyl transfer from ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride to form a ..beta..-D-xylosidic product, followed by hydrolysis of the latter to produce ..cap alpha..-D-xylose. The transient intermediate product formed enzymically from ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride in the presence of (/sup 14/C)xylose was isolated and shown by its specific radioactivity and /sup 1/H NMR spectrum as well as by methylatino and enzymic analyses to be 4-O-..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl-D-xylopyranose containing one (/sup 14/C)xylose residue.

  9. Human interleukin 1. beta. (IL-1. beta. ), a more powerful inducer of bone demineralization than interleukin 1. cap alpha. IL-1. cap alpha. ), parathyroid hormone (PTH) or prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, R.C.; Hodges, Y.C.; Allison, A.C.

    1986-03-01

    Effects of human IL-1..cap alpha.. and IL-1..beta.., prepared by recombinant DNA technology on cultures of rat fetal long bones, prelabelled with /sup 45/Ca were studied. IL-1..beta.. was found to be the most powerful inducer of bone calcium loss so far known. Maximal activity (2.5 times the control rate of calcium loss) was induced by IL-1..beta.. at concentrations between 1 x 10/sup -10/ M to 6 x 10/sup -12/ M. With IL-1..cap alpha.. maximal activity (1.5 times the control rate of calcium loss) was obtained at 6 x 10/sup -10/ M. With bovine PTH (1-34) maximal activity (1.8 times the control rate of calcium loss) was obtained at 1 x 10/sup -8/ M. With PGE/sub 2/ maximal activity (1.6 times the control rate of calcium loss) was obtained at 1 x 10/sup -7/ M. The calcium loss induced by IL-1..beta.. was inhibited in the presence of 1 x 10/sup -7/ M indomethacin, 5 x 10/sup -5/ M naproxen or ketorolac, or 5 x 10/sup -6/ M cyclohexamide. These findings suggest that protein synthesis and prostaglandin formation are required to mediate bone demineralization induced by IL-1..beta...

  10. Immunochemical detection of a primase activity related subunit of DNA polymerase. cap alpha. from human and mouse cells using the monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Yagura, T.; Kozu, T.; Seno, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1987-12-01

    A hybrid cell line (HDR-854-Er) secreting monoclonal antibody (E4 antibody) against a subunit of human DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. was established by immunizing mice with DNA replicase complex (DNA polymerase ..cap alpha..-primase complex) prepared from HeLa cells. The E4 antibody immunoprecipitates DNA replicase complex from both human and mouse cells. The E4 antibody neutralized the primase activity as assessed either by the direct primase assay (incorporation of (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)AMP) or by assay of DNA polymerase activity coupled with the primase activity using unprimed poly(dT) as a template. The E4 antibody does not neutralize DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. activity with the activated calf thymus DNA as a template. Western immunoblotting analysis shows that the E4 antibody binds to a polypeptide of 77 kilodaltons (kDa) which is tightly associated with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha... The 77-kDa polypeptide was distinguished from the catalytic subunit (160 and 180 kDA) for DNA synthesis which was detected by another monoclonal antibody, HDR-863-A5. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the 77-kDa peptide is the primase, since we found that the E4 antibody also immunoprecipitates the mouse 7.3 S DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. which has no primase activity, and Western immunoblotting analysis shows that the 77-kDa polypeptide is a subunit of the 7.3S DNA polymerase ..cap alpha... Furthermore, after dissociation of the primase from mouse DNA replicase by chromatography on a hydroxyapatite column in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol, the 77-kDA polypeptide is associated with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.., and not with the primase. These results indicate that the 77-kDa polypeptide detected with the E4 antibody is not the primase but is a subunit firmly bound to DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. catalytic polypeptide and yet influences the activity of the associated DNA primase.

  11. Genomic clone encoding the. cap alpha. chain of the OKM1, LFA-1, and platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, L.J.; Sandrin, M.S.; Rajasekariah, P.; McKenzie, I.F.C.

    1986-02-01

    LFA-1, an antigen involved in cytolytic T lymphocyte-mediated killing, and Mac-1, the receptor for complement component C3bi, constitute a family of structurally and functionally related cell surface glycoproteins involved in cellular interactions. In both mouse and man, Mac-1 (OKM1) and LFA-1 share a common 95-kDa ..beta.. subunit but are distinguished by their ..cap alpha.. chains, which have different cellular distributions, apparent molecular masses (165 and 177 kDa, respectively), and peptide maps. The authors report the isolation of a genomic clone from a human genomic library that on transfection into mouse fibroblasts produced a molecule(s) reactive with monoclonal antibodies to OKM1, to LFA-1, and to platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. This gene was cloned by several cycles of transfection of L cells with a human genomic library cloned in lambda phase Charon 4A and subsequent rescue of the lambda phage. Transfection with the purified recombinant lambda DNA yielded a transfectant that expressed the three human ..cap alpha.. chains of OKM1, LFA-1, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, presumably in association with the murine ..beta.. chain.

  12. Inhibition of reticulocyte lysate protein synthesis by heavy metal ions involves eIF-2. cap alpha. phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Matts, R.; Hurst, R.; Schatz, J.

    1987-05-01

    Heavy metal ions inhibit protein synthesis and disaggregate polyribosomes in several tissues and cell types. They have initiated studies to determine the mechanism by which this inhibition occurs utilizing the hemin-supplemented rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a model system. The inhibition of protein synthesis observed in the presence of heavy metal ions occurs with biphasic kinetics in a concentration dependent manner, which correlates with the biological toxicity of the ion. Highly toxic ions (AsO/sub 2//sup -/, Cd/sup + +/, Hg/sup + +/, Pb/sup + +/) inhibit protein synthesis by 50% at concentrations of 5-10 ..mu..M. In comparison, Cu/sup + +/, Fe/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/ and GSSG inhibited protein synthesis by 50% at concentrations of 60, 250, 300 and 350 ..mu..M, respectively. The inhibition of protein synthesis was accompanied by the phosphorylation of eIF-2..cap alpha.., and was reversed or prevented by the addition of 1 mM DTT, 10 mM cAMP, 2 mM MgGTP, eIF-2 or the reversing factor (RF). Glucose-6-phosphate was found to have no effect. The data indicate that the inhibition of protein synthesis observed with the addition of heavy metal ions to reticulocyte lysates is due to the phosphorylation of eIF-2..cap alpha...

  13. Jet physics in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation: evidence for the running of. cap alpha. /sub s/

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, S.

    1988-03-01

    The energy dependence of the relative production rate of 3-jet events is studied in hadronic e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation events at centre of mass energies between 22 and 56 GeV, using the data of the JADE, MARK-II and AMY collaborations at PETRA, PEP and TRISTAN. Three jet events are defined by a jet finding algorithm which is closely related to the definition of resolvable jets used in O(..cap alpha../sub s//sup 2/) perturbative QCD calculations, where the relative production rate of 3-jet events is roughly proportional to the strong coupling strength, ..cap alpha../sub s/. The observed production rates of 3-jet events decreases significantly with increasing centre of mass energy. The results, which are independent of fragmentation model calculations, can be directly compared to theoretically calculated jet production rates and are in good agreement with the QCD expectations of a running coupling strength, while the hypothesis of an energy independent coupling constant can be excluded with a significance of 5 standard deviations. Based on these results, the presented jet analysis also provides the possibility to detect first signs of the production of new and heavy particles in the early stage of data taking at SLC and LEP.

  14. Radiative corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ reactions to all orders in. cap alpha. using the renormalization group

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Y.S.

    1983-01-01

    Renormalization group technique is used to improve the accuracy of the lowest order radiative corrections in QED. The exponentiation of infrared terms comes automatically. It also leads to exponentiation of the vertex functions. It predicts the existence of conversion of photons into pairs and the result agrees with the Kroll-Wada relation. Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg cancellation of mass singularities occurs to all order in ..cap alpha.. in leading log approximation in the final state if we sum over all the final states. Higher order corrections to the order ..cap alpha../sup 3/ asymmetry is shown to be small. The results are used to derive useful formulas for the radiative corrections to processes such as e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/..gamma.., e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. hadron continuum, e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. very narrow resonance such as phi, and e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. not very narrow resonance such as Z/sup 0/.

  15. Search for P-odd asymmetry in the. cap alpha. emission in the capture of polarized thermal neutrons by /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Vesna, V.A.; Egorov, A.I.; Kolomenskii, A.; Kornyushkin, A.F.; Lobashev, V.M.; Okunev, I.S.; Peskov, B.G.; Pirozhkov, A.N.; Smotritskii, L.M.; Titov, N.A.

    1983-09-10

    Measurements by an integral method in a geometry ruling out an effect of a P-even left-right asymmetry have yielded limitations on the magnitude of the P-odd asymmetry in several reactions: Vertical Bara/sub p/Vertical Bar<1.4 x 10/sup -6/ for the reaction /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 3/H, Vertical Bara/sub p/Vertical Bar<8 x 10/sup -6/ for the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 0/)/sup 7/Li, and Vertical Bara/sub p/Vertical Bar<1.5 x 10/sup -6/ for the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 1/)/sup 7/Li* (90% confidence level).

  16. Primary structure of the. cap alpha. -subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-10-01

    The messenger RNA coding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A/sup +/)-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA.

  17. Centromeric Alpha-Satellite DNA Adopts Dimeric i-Motif Structures Capped by AT Hoogsteen Base Pairs.

    PubMed

    Garavís, Miguel; Escaja, Núria; Gabelica, Valérie; Villasante, Alfredo; González, Carlos

    2015-06-26

    Human centromeric alpha-satellite DNA is composed of tandem arrays of two types of 171 bp monomers; type A and type B. The differences between these types are concentrated in a 17 bp region of the monomer called the A/B box. Here, we have determined the solution structure of the C-rich strand of the two main variants of the human alpha-satellite A box. We show that, under acidic conditions, the C-rich strands of two A boxes self-recognize and form a head-to-tail dimeric i-motif stabilized by four intercalated hemi-protonated C:C(+) base pairs. Interestingly, the stack of C:C(+) base pairs is capped by T:T and Hoogsteen A:T base pairs. The two main variants of the A box adopt a similar three-dimensional structure, although the residues involved in the formation of the i-motif core are different in each case. Together with previous studies showing that the B box (known as the CENP-B box) also forms dimeric i-motif structures, our finding of this non-canonical structure in the A box shows that centromeric alpha satellites in all human chromosomes are able to form i-motifs, which consequently raises the possibility that these structures may play a role in the structural organization of the centromere. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electronic structure of the bcc transition metals: Thermoreflectance studies of bulk V, Nb, Ta, and. cap alpha. TaH/sub x/

    SciTech Connect

    Rosei, R.; Colavita, E.; Franciosi, A.; Weaver, J.H.; Peterson, D.T.

    1980-04-15

    Thermoreflectance studies of bulk samples of V, Nb, Ta, and ..cap alpha..-phase TaH/sub x/ are reported and the results interpreted in terms of recent band calculations. The first interband transition is identified as a transition involving the ..sigma.. band at E/sub F/. An M/sub 3/ critical-point transition is attributed to states at N. Significant changes induced by interstitial hydrogen in solid solution ..cap alpha..-TaH/sub x/ are observed and interpreted as due to hybridization and lowering of the N/sup prime//sub 1/ eigenenergy.

  19. Drosophila casein kinase I alpha regulates homolog pairing and genome organization by modulating condensin II subunit Cap-H2 levels.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Q; Nye, Jonathan; Buster, Daniel W; Klebba, Joseph E; Rogers, Gregory C; Bosco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of chromosomes within interphase nuclei is important for gene expression and epigenetic inheritance. Although the extent of physical interaction between chromosomes and their degree of compaction varies during development and between different cell-types, it is unclear how regulation of chromosome interactions and compaction relate to spatial organization of genomes. Drosophila is an excellent model system for studying chromosomal interactions including homolog pairing. Recent work has shown that condensin II governs both interphase chromosome compaction and homolog pairing and condensin II activity is controlled by the turnover of its regulatory subunit Cap-H2. Specifically, Cap-H2 is a target of the SCFSlimb E3 ubiquitin-ligase which down-regulates Cap-H2 in order to maintain homologous chromosome pairing, chromosome length and proper nuclear organization. Here, we identify Casein Kinase I alpha (CK1α) as an additional negative-regulator of Cap-H2. CK1α-depletion stabilizes Cap-H2 protein and results in an accumulation of Cap-H2 on chromosomes. Similar to Slimb mutation, CK1α depletion in cultured cells, larval salivary gland, and nurse cells results in several condensin II-dependent phenotypes including dispersal of centromeres, interphase chromosome compaction, and chromosome unpairing. Moreover, CK1α loss-of-function mutations dominantly suppress condensin II mutant phenotypes in vivo. Thus, CK1α facilitates Cap-H2 destruction and modulates nuclear organization by attenuating chromatin localized Cap-H2 protein.

  20. Theoretical investigation of the stereochemistry of the polymerization of. cap alpha. -olefins and dienes with the participation of Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, K.S.; Karpasas, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    The processes involved in the formation of the active polymerization sites in heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts have been investigated with consideration of the real structure of the components by the atom-atom potential method, the Monte-Carlo method, a modified diatomics-in-molecules method, and the CNDO/2 method with the aid of the available experimental facts. It has been shown that three types of bimetallic active sites (AS), which differ with respect to the spatial configuration of the coordination sphere, viz., AS-1, AS-2, and AS-3, form, depending on the electronic structure of the homogeneous component R /SUB n/ M, the ionic radius of M (M is a metal from groups I-III), and the unit-cell parameters of the heterogeneous component MeX /SUB m/ (Me is a transition metal from groups IV-VIII). Only the AS-1 sites are stereospecific in the polymerization of ..cap alpha..-olefins and 1,3-dienes (isotactic polyolefins and 1,4-trans-polydienes form); the AS-2 sites are nonstereospecific in the polymerization of ..cap alpha..-olefins, but they form stereoregular 1,4-cis-polydienes; the AS-3 sites are nonstereospecific in the polymerization of both ..cap alpha..-olefins and 1,3-dienes. The phenomenon of stereoregularization in the polymerization of ..cap alpha..-olefins and 1,3-dienes is determined by the steric and electrostatic factors.

  1. Development of a radioiodinated ligand for characterising. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenoceptors. [Pentolamine and 2 BETA-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylaminomethyl)-tetralone

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Jarrott, B.

    1982-03-15

    Two ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor antagonists, phentolamine and 2-(..beta..-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylaminomethyl)-tetralone (BE 2254) which are phenolic derivatives were radioiodinated after chloramine-T oxidation of Na/sup 125/I and the labelled material isolated by chromatography. /sup 125/I-Phentolamine does not bind selectively to ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptors in guinea pig brain whereas the /sup 125/I-BE 2254 derivative binds rapidly, reversibly and with high affinity to these receptors with a K/sub d/ of 230 pM. At low concentrations of /sup 125/I-BE 2254 (< 100 pM) approx. 90% of the bound radioligand is specifically bound and under these conditions drug displacement studies show that the ligand binds predominantly to the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ subclass of adrenoceptors. Binding measurements to kidney and smooth muscle membrane preparations indicate that /sup 125/I-BE 2254 may also be a useful tool in the study of ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptors in peripheral tissues. The high specific activity of /sup 125/I-BE 2254 permits the use of minimal quantities of membrane material for receptor assay and ligand displacement measurements, e.g. 250 ..mu..g per assay tube, and this provides a significant advantage over the use of existing radioligands such as /sup 3/H-prazosin which requires approx. 40 times as much tissue.

  2. Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit gene is mediated by an 18-base-pair element

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, B.J.; Bokar, J.A.; Virgin, J.B.; Vallen, E.A.; Milsted, A.; Nilson, J.H.

    1987-04-01

    cAMP regulates transcription of the gene encoding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo). To define the sequences required for regulation by cAMP, the authors inserted fragments from the 5' flanking region of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene into a test vector containing the simian virus 40 early promoter (devoid of its enhancer) linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Results from transient expression assays in BeWo cells indicated that a 1500-base-pair (bp) fragment conferred cAMP responsiveness on the CAT gene regardless of position or orientation of the insert relative to the viral promoter. A subfragment extending from position -169 to position -100 had the same effect on cAMP-induced expression. Furthermore, the entire stimulatory effect could be achieved with an 18-bp synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a direct repeat between position -146 and -111. In the absence of cAMP, the ..cap alpha..-subunit 5' flanking sequence also enhanced transcription from the simian virus 40 early promoter. They localized this enhancer activity to the same -169/-100 fragment containing the cAMP response element. The 18-bp element alone, however, had no effect on basal expression. Thus, this short DNA sequence serves as a cAMP response element and also functions independently of other promoter-regulatory elements located in the 5' flanking sequence of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene.

  3. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  4. Enhancer and promoter elements directing activation and glucocorticoid repression of the. cap alpha. /sub 1/-fetoprotein gene in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Guertin, M.; La Rue, H.; Bernier, D.; Wrange, O.; Chevrette, M.; Gingras, M.C.; Belanger, L.

    1988-04-01

    Mutations were introduced in 7 kilobases of 5'-flanking rat ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) genomic DNA, linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. AFP promoter activity and its repression by a glucocorticoid hormone were assessed by stable and transient expression assays. Stable transfection assays were more sensitive and accurate than transient expression assays in a Morris 7777 rat hepatoma recipient (Hepa7.6), selected for its strong AFP repression by dexamethasone. The segment of DNA encompassing a hepatocyte-constitutive chromatin DNase I-hypersensitive site at -3.7 kilobases and a liver developmental stage-specific site at -2.5 kilobases contains interacting enhancer elements sufficient for high AFP promoter activity in Hepa7.6 or HepG2 cells. Deletions and point mutations define an upstream promoter domain of AFP gene activation, operating with at least three distinct promoter-activating elements, PEI at -65 base pairs, PEII at -120 base pairs, and DE at -160 base pairs. PEI and PEII share homologies with albumin promoter sequences, PEII is a near-consensus nuclear factor I recognition sequence, and DE overlaps a glucocorticoid receptor recognition sequence. An element conferring glucocorticoid repression of AFP gene activity is located in the upstream AFP promoter domain. Receptor-binding assays indicate that this element is the glucocorticoid receptor recognition sequence which overlaps with promoter-activating element DE.

  5. Coherent neutron scattering study of the vibrations of interstitial deuterium in. cap alpha. -VD/sub 0. 7/

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, J.J.; Rowe, J.M.; Glinka, C.J.; Vagelatos, N.; Flotow, H.E.

    1980-06-15

    The lattice dynamics of a single crystal of ..cap alpha..(bcc)VD/sub 0.7/ have been investigated by coherent inelastic neutron scattering measurements at 295 K. Since the scattering cross section of vanadium is almost entirely incoherent, this study offers a unique opportunity to directly measure the ''band'' modes associated with vibrational displacements of the light atom interstitials as a function of wave vector (xi-bar) and ..omega... Transverse and longitudinal acoustic-phonon groups were observed in the three symmetry directions at energies up to 27 meV. These are generally at higher energies than corresponding modes measured in vanadium by x-ray scattering. The vibrational ''density of states'' for V and VD/sub 0.7/ are also shown to be grossly different. Careful measurement of the ''band-mode'' intensities for several different phonon branches as a function of xi-bar and ..omega.. indicate that the deuterium motions are strongly coupled to the metal lattice. Peaks due to optical vibrations are also observed, which indicate little dispersion of the optic branches in the crystal.

  6. Drosophila Casein Kinase I Alpha Regulates Homolog Pairing and Genome Organization by Modulating Condensin II Subunit Cap-H2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy Q.; Nye, Jonathan; Buster, Daniel W.; Klebba, Joseph E.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Bosco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of chromosomes within interphase nuclei is important for gene expression and epigenetic inheritance. Although the extent of physical interaction between chromosomes and their degree of compaction varies during development and between different cell-types, it is unclear how regulation of chromosome interactions and compaction relate to spatial organization of genomes. Drosophila is an excellent model system for studying chromosomal interactions including homolog pairing. Recent work has shown that condensin II governs both interphase chromosome compaction and homolog pairing and condensin II activity is controlled by the turnover of its regulatory subunit Cap-H2. Specifically, Cap-H2 is a target of the SCFSlimb E3 ubiquitin-ligase which down-regulates Cap-H2 in order to maintain homologous chromosome pairing, chromosome length and proper nuclear organization. Here, we identify Casein Kinase I alpha (CK1α) as an additional negative-regulator of Cap-H2. CK1α-depletion stabilizes Cap-H2 protein and results in an accumulation of Cap-H2 on chromosomes. Similar to Slimb mutation, CK1α depletion in cultured cells, larval salivary gland, and nurse cells results in several condensin II-dependent phenotypes including dispersal of centromeres, interphase chromosome compaction, and chromosome unpairing. Moreover, CK1α loss-of-function mutations dominantly suppress condensin II mutant phenotypes in vivo. Thus, CK1α facilitates Cap-H2 destruction and modulates nuclear organization by attenuating chromatin localized Cap-H2 protein. PMID:25723539

  7. Isophotes of a field in the Cygnus loop photographed in the (O III) and (N II)+H. cap alpha. lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnik, T.G.; Toropova, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    From interference-filter image-tube photographs of a 9' field in the western part of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, taken in the lambda5007 (O III) and lambdalambda 6584, 6563 (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines, sets of isophotes are derived by an equidensitometry technique based on the Sabattier effect. The emission regions in these lines exhibit a relative displacement, interpreted as evidence for radiative cooling of the gas behind the shock generated in the supernova outburst. An explanation is offered for the differing morphology of the nebular filaments in the (O III) and (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines. The anomalously high I/sub Otsi/II/I/sub H/..beta.. intensity ratio may reflect a spatial separation of the corresponding emission zones.

  8. Measuring chlorophyll. cap alpha. and /sup 14/C-labeled photosynthate in aquatic angiosperms by the use of a tissue solubilizer. [/sup 14/C-labelled photosynthate

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, S.; Stewart, A.J.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    A compound that quantitatively correlated with chlorophyll ..cap alpha.. could be measured fluorometrically in the extracts of leaves of three aquatic angiosperms (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx., Potamogeton crispus L., Elodea canadensis Michx.) treated with the tissue solubilizer BTS-450. Fluorescent characteristics of the solubilized plant tissues were stable for several weeks in the dark at temperatures up to 60/sup 0/C but rapidly degraded in sunlight or when acidified. /sup 14/C-Labeled photosynthate, which had been fixed by leaf discs during 1- to 10-hour exposure to H/sup 14/CO/sub 3/, was also readily extracted by the tissue solubilizer. Solubilizer extraction can, therefore, be used to determine both chlorophyll ..cap alpha.. content and /sup 14/C incorporation rates in the same leaf sample. The method is practical, because no grinding is required, the fluorescent characteristics of the extracts are stable, and analyses can be performed with very little plant material (about 3 milligrams).

  9. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptors in platelet membranes of depressed patients: no change in number of /sup 3/H-yohimbine affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Daiguji, M.I.; Meltzer, H.Y.; Tong, C.; U'Pritchard, D.C.; Young, M.; Kravitz, H.

    1981-11-16

    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor density in platelet membranes from normal controls and depressed patients was studied using /sup 3/H-yohimbine, a potent ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic antagonist, as a radioligand. The KD values of /sup 3/H-yohimbine in control and depressed patient samples were 0.92 +/- 0.07 nM and 0.97 +/- 0.06 nM, respectively. The Bmax values of controls and depressed patients were 240 +/- 19 fmoles/mg protein (125 +/- 13 receptor/platelet, R/PL) and 204 +/- 20 fmoles/mg protein (130 +/- 14 R/PL), respectively. There were no significant differences between the KD and Bmax values of the two groups.

  10. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

  11. Chiral effects on the /sup 13/C resonances of. cap alpha. -tocopherol and related compounds. A novel illustration of Newman's rule of six

    SciTech Connect

    Brownstein, S.; Burton, G.W.; Hughes, L.; Ingold, K.U.

    1989-02-03

    The 100-MHz /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of (2R,4'R,8'R)-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) has been completely assigned with the aid of a number of selectively deuteriated (2R,4'R,8'R)-..cap alpha..-tocopherols. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of (2RS,4'RS,8'RS)-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (all-racemic, synthetic vitamin E) has also been measured. Many of the individual carbons in this all-racemic mixture of eight ..cap alpha..-tocopherol stereoisomers give more than one resonance with eight of the carbons (2-CH/sub 3/, 2',3',4',4'-CH/sub 3/, 5', 8', and 9') giving the maximum number of four resonances from each of the four enantiomeric pairs; these resonances have also been assigned. The structurally related 5'-hydroxy-2-(4',8',12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,4,6,7-tetramethyl-2,3,-dihydrobenzofuran (HTDBF) has been synthesized for the first time in the 2R,4'R,8'R and 2S,4'R,8'R configurations and their /sup 13/C resonances have been assigned. In its all-racemic form this compound also shows up to four resonances from a single carbon. Related observations have been made with phytol and isophytol. A careful examination of these chirally induced chemical shift differences for the individual carbon atoms, ..delta.., reveals a bond-alternation effect with maxima at a separation of one, three, and five bonds from the closest chiral center and with the maximum at a five-bond separation being greater than that at a three-bond separation. 32 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Temporary anion states of. pi. -ligand transition-metal carbonyls studied by means of electron transmission spectroscopy and x. cap alpha. calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Modelli, A.; Distefano, G.; Guerra, M.; Jones, D.

    1987-07-22

    The resonances observed in the electron transmission spectra of (benzene)chromium tricarbonyl, (cyclopentadienyl)manganese tricarbonyl, (1,3-butadiene)iron tricarbonyl, and (cyclopentadienyl)cobalt dicarbonyl have been assigned with the aid of MS X..cap alpha.. calculations. In contrast with previous theoretical results, the present calculations on the neutral states show a large net electronic charge transfer from the ..pi.. ligand to the metal.

  13. [Detection of hybrid DQ molecules by the use of T cell clone and 2D-gel analyses].

    PubMed

    Hawkin, S

    1986-11-01

    The HLA-D region incorporates three subregions, DR, DQ and DP, encoding for three sets of Ia molecules. Whereas DR antigens consist of a constant alpha chain and an extremely polymorphic beta chain, both of alpha and beta chain of DQ antigens show moderate polymorphism. This indicated us the existence of hybrid HLA-DQ molecules in HLA-D heterozygous cells, resulting from the association of an alpha chain and a beta chain encoded by genes located on the two separate haplotypes. In this report, hybrid DQ antigens were demonstrated by using cytotoxic T cell-clone. A cytotoxic T cell clone, which was generated by mixed lymphocyte reaction against a lymphoblastoid B cell line, EBV-Fuk (HLA-DR1/4, DQw1/Wa), recognized only heterogenous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (HLA-DR1/4, DQw1/Wa). Cytotoxic T cell clone, however, didn't react with B cell lines which are homozygous for HLA-DR1, DQw1 or DR4/DQWa. This suggests the T cell clone recognized the hybrid DQ molecules expressed only on heterozygous cell lines. Further confirmation was obtained by inhibition test using monoclonal antibody and biochemically by 2-D gel analyses. Biological significance of hybrid DQ antigens were discussed.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin. cap alpha. /sub 1/ and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, P.H.; Naylor, C.W.; Badamchian, M.; Wada, S.; Goldstein, A.L.; Wang, S.S.; Sun, D.K.; Thornton, A.H.; Sarin, P.S.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ (which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus) effectively neutralized the AIDs virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells. Using HPLC and immunoblot analysis, they have identified from a clone B, type III human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-IIIB) extracts a protein with a molecular weight of 17,000 that is immunoreactive with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was found in retroviral extracts from a number of nonhuman species including feline, bovine, simian, gibbon, and murine retroviruses. Heterologous antiserum prepared against a 30-amino acid synthetic peptide analogue (HGP-30) does not cross-react with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ but does react specifically with the p17 protein of the AIDS virus in a manner identical to that seen with an HTLV-IIIB p17-specific monoclonal antibody. The demonstration that this synthetic analogue is immunogenic and that antibodies to HGP-30 cross-react not only with synthetic peptide but also with the HTLV-IIIB p17 viral protein provides an additional, and potentially more specific, candidate for development of a synthetic peptide vaccine for AIDS. In addition, the p17 synthetic peptide (HGP-3) may prove to be useful in a diagnostic assay for the detection of AIDS virus infection in seronegative individuals.

  15. Effects of kinase inhibitors and potassium phosphate (KPi) on site-specific phosphorylation of branched chain. cap alpha. -ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, M.J.; Shimomura, Y.; Ozawa, T.; Harris, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    BCKDH is phosphorylated by a copurifying kinase at two serine residues on the El..cap alpha.. subunit. Phosphorylation of both sites occurs at about the same rate initially, but inactivation is believed associated only with site 1 phosphorylation. The effects of KPi and known inhibitors of BCKDH kinase, ..cap alpha..-chloroisocaproate (CIC) and branched chain ..cap alpha..-ketoacids (BCKA), on the phosphorylation of purified rat liver BCKDH were studied. Site-specific phosphorylation was quantitated by thin-layer electrophoresis of tryptic peptides followed by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms. Addition of 5 mM KPi was found necessary to stabilize the BCKDH activity at 37/sup 0/C. Increasing the KPi to 50 mM dramatically increased the CIC and BCKA inhibition of site 1 and site 2 phosphorylation. The finding of enhanced sensitivity of inhibitors with 50 mM KPi may facilitate identification of physiologically important kinase effectors. Regardless of the KPi concentration, CIC and the BCKA showed much more effective inhibition of site 2 than site 1 phosphorylation. Although site 1 is the primary inactivating site, predominant inhibition of site 2 phosphorylation may provide a means of modulating kinase/phosphatase control of BCKDH activity under steady state conditions.

  16. Human placental Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-11-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approx. = 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) lambdagt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

  17. Association of elongation factor 1 alpha and ribosomal protein L3 with the proline-rich region of yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein CAP.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, C; Shinkai, M; Kariya, K; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Hu, C D; Masuda, T; Kataoka, T

    1997-03-17

    CAP is a multifunctional protein; the N-terminal region binds adenylyl cyclase and controls its response to Ras while the C-terminal region is involved in cytoskeletal regulation. In between the two regions, CAP possesses two proline-rich segments, P1 and P2, resembling a consensus sequence for binding SH3 domains. We have identified two yeast proteins with molecular sizes of 48 and 46 kDa associated specifically with P2. Determination of partial protein sequences demonstrated that the 48-kDa and 46-kDa proteins correspond to EF1 alpha and rL3, respectively, neither of which contains any SH3-domain-like sequence. Deletion of P2 from CAP resulted in loss of the activity to bind the two proteins either in vivo or in vitro. Yeast cells whose chromosomal CAP was replaced by the P2-deletion mutant displayed an abnormal phenotype represented by dissociated localizations of CAP and F-actin, which were colocalized in wild-type cells. These results suggest that these associations may have functional significance.

  18. Internode length in Pisum. Gene na may block gibberellin synthesis between ent-7. cap alpha. -hydroxykaurenoic acid and biggerellin A/sub 12/-aldehyde. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, T.J.; Reid, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    The elongation response of the gibberellin (GA) deficient genotypes na, ls, and lh of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to a range of GA-precursors was examined. Plants possessing gene na did not respond to precursors in the GA biosynthetic pathway prior to GA/sub 12/-aldehyde. In contrast, plants possessing lh and ls responded as well as wild-type plants (dwarfed with AMO-1618) to these compounds. The results suggest that GA biosynthesis is blocked prior to ent-kaurene in the lh and ls mutants and between ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA/sub 12/-aldehyde in the na mutant. Feeds of ent(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid and (/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a range of genotypes supported the above conclusions. The na line WL1766 was shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to metabolize(/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a number of (/sup 2/H)C/sub 19/-GAs including GA/sub 1/. However, there was no indication in na genotypes for the metabolism of ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to these GAs. In contrast, the expanding shoot tissue of all Na genotypes examined metabolized ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to radioactive compounds that co-chromatographed with GA/sub 1/, GA/sub 8/, GA/sub 20/, and GA/sub 29/. However, insufficient material was present for unequivocal identification of the metabolites. The radioactive profiles from HPLC of extracts of the node treated with ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid were similar for both Na and na plants and contained ent-16..cap alpha..,17-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and ent-6..cap alpha..,7..cap alpha..,16..beta..,17-tetrahydroxykaurenoic acid (both characterized by GC-MS), suggesting that the metabolites arose from side branches of the main GA-biosynthetic pathway. Thus, both Na and na plants appear capable of ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  19. The likelihood ratio and frequency of DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes in Iranian patients with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Asghar; Mansouri, Masoume; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ekhlasi, Golnaz; Kalantari, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the likelihood ratio and frequency of DQ2 and DQ8 in Iranian patients with celiac disease (CD). Background: The HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8 are the important mediators in the development of celiac disease. A few studies evaluated the frequency of HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8 haplotypes among the Iranian population with low sample size. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, to predict HLA–DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes, 141(73 male, 78 female) confirmed CD patients compared to 151 healthy controls were enrolled into this study during 2013-2014. HLA DQ2/ DQ8 haplotypes was determined in cases and controls using PCR-SSP technique. Results: DQ2 and DQ8 were positive in 80% (n=111) and 49% (n= 69) of CD patients and 36% (n=61) and 13% (n=21) of control group respectively. Moreover, 32% (n=45) of CD patients and 5.3% (n=8) of the control group were carrier of both haplotypes. In the case group about one-third of patients (32.2%) were positive for carrying both DQ2 and DQ8 heterodimers while only 5.3% (n=8) of the control group were carrier. In addition, the positive likelihood ratio of DQ2 and DQ8 were 1.74 (CI: 1.4- 2.1), and 2.6 (CI: 1.8– 2.7), respectively. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the frequency of DQ8 among our population is higher than those reported by European countries, but it is close to those founded in South America and Middle East. This result suggests that the higher prevalence of HLA DQ8 pattern in Iranian CD patients is similar to non-European patients. PMID:26744610

  20. Structure-function relationships in the Na,K-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine-111 to arginine and asparagine-122 to aspartic acid generates a ouabain-resistant enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Price, E.M.; Lingrel, J.B.

    1988-11-01

    Na,K-ATPases from various species differ greatly in their sensitivity to cardiac glycosides such as ouabain. The sheep and human enzymes are a thousand times more sensitive than the corresponding ones from rat and mouse. To define the region of the ..cap alpha..1 subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity, chimeric cDNAs of sheep and rat were constructed and expressed in ouabain-sensitive HeLa cells. The construct containing the amino-terminal half of the rat ..cap alpha..1 subunit coding region and carboxyl-terminal half of the sheep conferred the ouabain-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells while the reverse construct did not. This indicates that the determinants involved in ouabain sensitivity are located in the amino-terminal half of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, the amino acid sequence of the first extracellular domain (H1-H2) of the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit was changed to that of the rat. When expressed in HeLa cells, this mutated sheep ..cap alpha..1 construct, like the rat/sheep chimera, was able to confer ouabain resistance to these cells. Furthermore, similar results were observed when HeLa cells were transfected with a sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNA containing only two amino acid substitutions. The resistant cells, whether transfected with the rat ..cap alpha..1 cDNA, the rat/sheep chimera, or the mutant sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNAs, exhibited identical biochemical characteristics including ouabain-inhibitable cell growth, /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake, and Na,K-ATPase activity. These results demonstrate that the presence of arginine and aspartic acid on the amino end and carboxyl end, respectively, of the H1-H2 extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit together is responsible for the ouabain-resistant character of the rat enzyme and the corresponding residues in the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit (glutamine and asparagine) are somehow involved in ouabain binding.

  1. Distinct structural features of the. cap alpha. and. beta. subunits of nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein of Clostridium pasteurianum: an analysis of amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.Z.; Chen, J.S.; Johnson, J.L.

    1988-04-19

    Nitrogenase is composed of two separately purified proteins, a molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein and an iron (Fe) protein. Structural genes (nifD and nifK) encoding ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of the MoFe protein of Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp) have been cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed for structures that could be related to the unique properties of the Cp protein, particularly its low capacity to form an active enzyme with a heterologous Fe protein. Cp nifK is located immediately downstream from Cp nifD, with the start codon of nifK overlapping by one base with the stop codon of nifD. An open reading frame following nifK was identified as nifE. The amino acid sequence deduced from nifK encompasses the partial amino acid sequences previously reported from the isolated ..beta.. subunit. Cp nifK encodes a polypeptide of 458 amino acid residues (M/sub r/ 50,115) whose amino-terminal region is about 50 resides shorter than the otherwise conserved corresponding polypeptides from four other organisms. In contrast, Cp ..cap alpha.. subunit (nifD product) contains an additional stretch of 50 amino acid residues in the 380-430 region, which is unique to the Cp protein. It therefore appears that the combined size of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits could be important to nitrogenase function. An analysis of the predicted secondary structure from the amino acid sequence of each subunit from three species (C. pasteurianum, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Rhizobium japonicum) further revealed structural features, including regions adjacent to some of the conserved cysteine resides, differentiating the Cp MoFe protein from others. These different regions may be further tested for correlation with distinct properties of Cp nitrogenase.

  2. Resistance to celiac disease in humanized HLA-DR3-DQ2-transgenic mice expressing specific anti-gliadin CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    de Kauwe, Andrea L; Chen, Zhenjun; Anderson, Robert P; Keech, Catherine L; Price, Jason D; Wijburg, Odilia; Jackson, David C; Ladhams, Jodi; Allison, Janette; McCluskey, James

    2009-06-15

    Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy caused by cellular immunity to dietary gluten. More than 90% of patients carry HLA-DQ2 encoded by HLA-DQA1*05 and DQB1*02, and gluten-specific CD4(+) T cells from intestinal biopsies of these patients are HLA-DQ2-restricted, produce Th1 cytokines and preferentially recognize gluten peptides deamidated by tissue transglutaminase. We generated mice lacking murine MHC class II genes that are transgenic for human CD4 and the autoimmunity and celiac disease-associated HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotype. Immunization with the alpha-gliadin 17-mer that incorporates the overlapping DQ2-alpha-I and DQ2-alpha-II epitopes immunodominant in human celiac disease generates peptide-specific HLA-DQ2-restricted CD4(+) T cells. When exposed to dietary gluten, naive or gliadin-primed mice do not develop pathology. Coincident introduction of dietary gluten and intestinal inflammation resulted in low-penetrance enteropathy and tissue transglutaminase-specific IgA. Two further strains of transgenic mice expressing HLA-DR3-DQ2 and human CD4, one with a NOD background and another TCR transgenic having over 90% of CD4(+) T cells specific for the DQ2-alpha-II epitope with a Th1 phenotype, were also healthy when consuming gluten. These humanized mouse models indicate that gluten ingestion can be tolerated without intestinal pathology even when HLA-DQ2-restricted CD4(+) T cell immunity to gluten is established, thereby implicating additional factors in controlling the penetrance of celiac disease.

  3. Role of exchange effects in elastic scattering of. cap alpha. particles and /sup 3/He ions by /sup 6/Li nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bragin, V.N.; Burtebaev, N.T.; Dui-brevesebaev, A.D.; Ivanov, G.N.; Sakuta, S.B.; Chuev, V.I.; Chulkov, L.V.

    1986-08-01

    Measurements in the entire angular range are carried out for elastic scattering of ..cap alpha.. particles with energies 36.6 and 50.5 MeV and /sup 3/He ions with energies 34, 50, 60, and 72 MeV by /sup 6/Li nuclei. The experimental data obtained have been analyzed within the framework of the optical model. The contribution to the scattering of the mechanism of elastic transfer of clusters was calculated by the distorted-wave method with a finite interaction radius.

  4. Allelic forms of the alpha- and beta-chain genes encoding DQw1-positive heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Turco, E; Care, A; Compagnone-Post, P; Robinson, C; Cascino, I; Trucco, M

    1987-01-01

    On chromosome 6, in the HLA region, the DQ subregion is located immediately centromeric to the DR subregion. Even though only three serological specificities to date have been officially recognized (DQw1, DQw2, and DQw3), it seems likely that the phenotypical polymorphism expressed by DQ molecules is much more complex. There are reasons to believe that fixed alpha-beta combinations exist, each of them associated with a different DR allele. DQw1 is a determinant present on DQ molecules that are found associated with DR1-, DR2-, and DRw6-positive haplotypes. By restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we recognized three allelic DQ-alpha and three allelic DQ-beta patterns associated with DQw1. In addition, one of these alpha/beta pairs associated with DR1, two with DR2, and a fourth with DRw6. We have obtained evidence using nucleotide sequencing that there are as many allelic forms of DQ-alpha and DQ-beta genes as there are different molecular DQ-alpha and DQ-beta patterns. The DQ-alpha and DQ-beta chains of DQw1-positive molecules each are encoded by at least three distinctly different allelic genes, and particular alpha/beta gene combinations are associated with the same DR alleles as their corresponding molecular alpha/beta pairs.

  5. Interference effects between /sup 17/O states populated in the /sup 13/C(/sup 6/Li,d)/sup 17/O*. --> cap alpha. +/sup 13/C reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cardella, G.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Imme, G.; Pappalardo, G.; Raciti, G.; Rizzo, F.; Alamanos, N.; Berthier, B.; Saunier, N.

    1987-12-01

    An analysis of the /sup 13/C(/sup 6/Li,d..cap alpha..)/sup 13/C reaction in the collinear (theta/sub d/ = 0/sup 0/) and noncollinear (theta/sub d/ = 10/sup 0/,8/sup 0/) geometry is made for two peaks observed in the deuteron energy spectrum and corresponding to excitation energies of 16.1 and 13.6 MeV in the /sup 17/O nucleus. It is shown that the reaction proceeds via a direct alpha-transfer process which populates doublets of interfering /sup 17/O levels. Spins, weights, and parities of these levels are obtained by means of a least square procedure.

  6. Presence of DQ2.2 Associated with DQ2.5 Increases the Risk for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Lucas Malta; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; Uenishi, Rosa Harumi; de Almeida, Fernanda Coutinho; Selleski, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background. Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically determined immune-mediated disorder in which gluten immunogenic peptides are presented to CD4 T cells by HLA-DQ2.5, DQ8, DQ2.2, and their combinations. Our aim is to establish a risk gradient for celiac disease based on HLA-DQ profile in a brazilian representative population and the relevance of DQ2.2 in celiac disease development. Materials and Methods. 237 celiac patients and 237 controls (both groups with 164 females and 73 males) were included. All samples were tested for the presence of predisposing HLA-DQ alleles using the PCR-SSP method. Results were considered significant when p < 0.05. Disease risk was expressed as 1 : N for each HLA-DQ category described at this study. Results. DQ2.5 and/or DQ8 were detected in 224 celiac patients (94.5%) and 84 controls (35.4%). Eight celiac patients (3.4%) and 38 controls (16%) disclosed only DQ2.2. Even though DQ2.2 (β2/β2 or β2/x) showed a low CD risk of 1 : 251 and 1 : 550, respectively, the genotype DQ2.5/DQ2.2 (β2/β2) showed high CD risk of 1 : 10 (p < 0.0001). The disease risk gradient ranged from 1 : 3014 to 1 : 7. Conclusion. Our study allowed the determination of a risk gradient for celiac disease development in at-risk population, showing that DQ2.2 variant was relevant when associated with DQ2.5. PMID:28042478

  7. The Rebirth of D-Q University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix is a traditional symbol of rebirth, but for D-Q University, a bolt cutter may be a more appropriate image. After more than 30 years as California's only two-year tribal college, the school lost its accreditation in January 2005. The board of directors tried to keep the school open, but last summer they began packing up student records,…

  8. Tellurium-123m-labeled 23-(isopropyl telluro)-24-nor-5. cap alpha. -cholan-3. beta. -ol: a new potential adrenal imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.

    1980-03-01

    Tellurium-123m-labeled 23-(isopropyl telluro)-24-nor-5..cap alpha..-cholan-3..beta..-ol (24-telluracholestanol, or 23-ITC) has been prepared as a potential adrenal-imaging agent. The new agent was synthesized by the coupling of 3..beta..-acetoxy-23-bromo-24-nor-5..cap alpha..-cholan with Te-123m-labeled sodium isopropyl tellurol. Tissue distribution experiments in both male and female rats indicate a high adrenal concentration of radioactivity following administration of this agent. In female rats the adrenal glands accumulated 4.5% of the injected radioactivity only 1 day after administration of Te-123m-23-ITC. The adrenal-to-liver ratio was 42 after 1 day, and this increased to 100 after 3 days. Chromatographic analyses of lipid extracts from adrenal, ovary, liver, and lungs suggest that this agent is metabolized by these tissues. Examination of the rats' excretory products has indicated that approximately 50% of the administered radioactivity is excreted in the feces with 5 days after injection of Te-123m-23-ITC. Moreover, the adrenals and ovaries of rats have been clearly imaged with this agent, both with a rectilinear scanner and with an RC type of proportional-counter camera.

  9. /sup 45/Ca efflux for myometrial cells: comparison of the effects of prostaglandin F/sub 2/. cap alpha. (PGF/sub 2/), oxytocin (OT) and arachidonate (A)

    SciTech Connect

    Katona, G.; Molnar, M.; Toth, M.; Hertelendy, F.

    1986-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release from uterine cells and to compare this to the actions of OT and A. Smooth muscle cells isolated from the uterus (shell gland) of laying hens were cultured for 7 days in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum. The cells were treated with digitonin (20..mu..M) and preloaded with /sup 45/Ca for 40 min. Addition of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ caused a biphasic /sup 45/Ca-efflux. There was a small but significant /sup 45/Ca-release within 30 sec (rapid phase) followed by a larger one within 7 min (slow phase). In comparison, both OT and A stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux during a single, slow phase. The maximal effect of A was observed at < 7 min, whereas that of OT was slower, peaking after 7 min. Mepacrin, an inhibitor of A release, attenuated the action of OT without having any effect on A promoted /sup 45/Ca-efflux. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG synthase, failed to suppress the Ca-releasing effect of A suggesting the A itself or a lipoxygenase product may have been responsible for the observed effects. Moreover, these results provide suggestive evidence that A release is an important step in the action of various uterotonic agents converging on the mobilization of intracellular Ca.

  10. High-risk genotypes HLA-DR3-DQ2/DR3-DQ2 and DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 in co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Smigoc Schweiger, Darja; Mendez, Andrijana; Kunilo Jamnik, Sabina; Bratanic, Nina; Bratina, Natasa; Battelino, Tadej; Brecelj, Jernej; Vidan-Jeras, Blanka

    2016-06-01

    Shared susceptibility alleles in the HLA region contribute to the co-existence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). The aim of our study was to identify HLA genotype variations that influence co-occurrence of T1D and CD (T1D + CD) and the order of their onset. Totally 244 patients, 67 with T1D, 68 with CD and 69 with T1D + CD, (split into "T1D first" and "CD first"), were analyzed. Control group consisted of 130 healthy unrelated individuals. Two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. The genetic background of Slovenian CD patients resembled more northern than southern European populations with DR3-DQ2/DR3-DQ2 (odds ratio [OR] = 19.68) conferring the highest risk. The T1D + CD was associated with DR3-DQ2/DR3-DQ2 (OR = 45.53) and even more with DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 (OR = 93.76). DR3-DQ2/DR7-DQ2 played a neutral role in susceptibility for T1D + CD. The order of the onset of T1D or CD in patients with co-occurring diseases was not influenced by HLA risk genotype profile. DR3-DQ2/DR3-DQ2 was associated with an increased risk for developing CD in patients with T1D, whereas patients with CD carrying DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 were at higher risk for developing T1D. In addition to other genetic factors including HLA class I alleles present on DR3-DQ2 extended haplotype, the second extended haplotype may moderate the risk for T1D + CD conferred by DR3-DQ2. Our results suggested that individuals carrying high-risk genotypes DR3-DQ2/DR3-DQ2 or DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 would more likely develop both T1D and CD than either disease alone.

  11. A reanalysis of the observed interplanetary hydrogen L. cap alpha. emission profiles and the derived local interstellar gas temperature and velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.M.; Judge, D.L.

    1980-07-01

    An improved model of the interplanetary emission profile is presented. In this model we utilize a new version of the modified Danby-Camm velocity distribution function to calculate emission profiles, and it appears to be very efficient. Using this model, the hydrogen L..cap alpha.. profiles are determined for various viewing directions, and at a solar distance of 1 AU. It is found that the linewidth of the emission profiles and their Doppler shifts depend strongly on the viewing direction, as well as the assumed interstellar temperature. Previous determinations of the interstellar temperature T/sub 0/ and the inflow velocity V/sub b/, using approximate theoretical hydrogen profiles, are found to be inadequate. These values are recalculated and are determined to be T/sub 0/=7000 +- 1200 K and V/sub b/=19 +- 3 km s/sup -1/.

  12. Amide proton exchange in the. cap alpha. -amylase polypeptide inhibitor tendamistat studied by two-dimensional /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, O.; Kline, A.D.; Wuethrich, K.

    1987-10-06

    The individual amide proton exchange rates in Tendamistat at pH 3.0 and 50/sup 0/C were measured by using two-dimensional ..cap alpha..H nuclear magnetic resonance. Overall, it was found that the distribution of exchange rates along the sequence is dominated by the interstrand hydrogen bonds of the ..beta..-sheet structures. The slowly exchanging protons in the core of the two ..beta..-sheets were shown to exchange via an EX2 mechanism. Further analysis of the data indicates that different large-scale structure fluctuations are responsible for the exchange from the two ..beta..-sheets, even though the three-dimensional structure of Tendamistat appears to consist of a single structural domain.

  13. Diagnosis and screening of small hepatocellular carcinomas: comparison of radionuclide imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, hepatic angiography, and. cap alpha. /sub 1/-fetoprotein assay

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, T.; Matsui, O.; Suzuki, M.; Ida, M.

    1982-12-01

    Twenty-nine small (<5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas in 18 patients were examined by radionuclide imaging (RN), ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), hepatic angiography, and serum ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) assay. Sensitivity was 39% with RN, 50% with US, 56% with CT, and 94% with angiography, including infusion hepatic angiography (IHA). Lesions larger than 3 cm could be detected by all of these methods; those between 2 and 3 cm were generally shown by US and CT but not RN. IHA was essential for diagnosis of lesions less than 2 cm, which were otherwise difficult or impossible to detect except with angiography. As a screening method, AFP was best, followed by US and CT. The authors recommend using AFP and US to minimize expense and radiation exposure. In questionable cases, IHA should be performed.

  14. Effect of the filler on the electrophysical properties of the composite system (Pb-PbS)-copolymer of styrene with. cap alpha. -methylstyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Khlystunova, E.V.; Ovchinnikov, A.A.; Saushkina, E.A.; Mardashev, Yu.S.

    1988-08-10

    The results of studies of the effect of a two-phase contact filler (Pb-PbS) on the electrophysical properties of a system based on a copolymer of styrene with ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene (SAM) are reported in this article. The x-ray phase analysis (XPA) was conducted on a DRON-2 diffractometer. The surface of the filler particles was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electric resistance of the samples was measured in a thermostated cell. The complex character of the concentration and temperature dependence of the electric conductivity of the (Pb-PbS)-SAM composite system related to the composition of the filler was thus elucidated and it was shown that materials with different electrophysical properties can be prepared from the same composite system by using different amounts of the starting components.

  15. (I-125) 17. cap alpha. -Iodovinyl 11. beta. -methoxyestradiol: in vivo and in vitro properties of a high-affinity estrogen-receptor radiopharmaceutical

    SciTech Connect

    Jagoda, E.M.; Gibson, R.E.; Goodgold, H.; Ferreira, N.; Francis, B.E.; Reba, R.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1984-04-01

    17 ..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)Iodovinyl 11 ..beta..-methoxyestradiol ((I-125)MIVE/sub 2/) has been prepared with high specific activity (155-2000 Ci/mmol) and a high affinity for the estrogen receptor. In vivo distribution studies using immature rats result in high levels of activity in the uterus (20-30% dose/g) with uterus-to-plasma ratios on the order of 68 to 100. Peak activity in the uterus is obtained between 2 and 4 hr, and by 6 hr 50% of the activity has washed out. The radioactive labeling of MIVE/sub 2/ is sufficiently rapid so that (I-123)MIVE/sub 2/ has been synthesized and is currently in clinical trials. These results suggest that MIVE/sub 2/ would be an excellent agent for the study of estrogen receptors in vivo and in vitro.

  16. Role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein in. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cornett, L.E.; Norris, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    In this study the mechanisms involved in ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization at the level of the plasma membrane were investigated. Stimulation of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from saponin-permeabilized DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 cells was observed with the addition of either the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and guanosine-5'-triphosphate or the nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide guanylyl-imidodiphosphate. In the presence of (/sup 32/P) NAD, pertussis toxin was found to catalyze ADP-ribosylation of a M/sub r/ = 40,500 (n = 8) peptide in membranes prepared from DDT/sub 1/, MF-2 cells, possibly the ..cap alpha..-subunit of N/sub i/. However, stimulation of unidirectional /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux by phenylephrine was not affected by previous treatment of cells with 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. These data suggest that the putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein which couples the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor to Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 cells is not a pertussis toxin substrate and may possibly be an additional member of guanine nucleotide binding protein family.

  17. Effects of gliadin stimulation on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from HLA-DQ8 transgenic MICE.

    PubMed

    Ciccocioppo, R; Rossi, M; Pesce, I; Ricci, G; Millimaggi, D; Maurano, F; Corazza, G R

    2008-12-01

    Gliadin presentation by HLA-DQ2/8 molecules to T cells plays a crucial role in triggering the inflammatory cascade in coeliac disease. We aimed to study the immunological effects of gliadin stimulation on dendritic cells (DCs) from HLA-DQ8 transgenic and BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived DCs were stimulated with alpha-chymotrypsin-digested gliadin or ovoalbumin (100 microg/ml). Modification of DC maturation, through HLA-DQ8 and MHC class II expression, and activation, by CD80 and CD86, was assessed by flow cytometry. The ability of pulsed and unpulsed DCs to prime T cells was evaluated by mixed leucocyte reaction. The expression of interleukin-4, -10, -12p70 and interferon-alpha, as well as of Toll-like receptor-4, -7, -8, -9 was determined by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Gliadin stimulation induced DC maturation (p<0.001 in BALB/c, p<0.01 in DQ8) but not activation, whereas ovoalbumin upregulated all markers (p<0.01 for maturation and p<0.001 for activation in both DC populations). No increase of T proliferation was elicited by pulsed DCs with respect to unpulsed DCs. Only in DQ8 DCs, gliadin induced Toll-like receptor-4 (p<0.001), -7 (p<0.001), -8 (p<0.005) expression and interferon-alpha (p<0.001) secretion. Gliadin resulted unable to activate DC, but stimulated Toll-like receptor expression and interferon-alpha secretion.

  18. Effect of. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic stimulation on phosphoinositide metabolism and protein kinase C (PK-C) in rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, T.; Lakatta, E.; Filburn, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    Alpha/sub 1/-adrenergic stimulation is known to enhance membrane phospholipid metabolism resulting in increases in inositol phosphates (IP's) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Cardiomyocytes prelabeled with /sup 3/H-myo-inositol were treated with norepinephrine (NE) for 1-15 min, acid extracted, and IP's separated by ion exchange chromatography. Addition of NE (10/sup -5/M) in the presence of propranolol (10/sup -5/ M) and LiCl (9 mM) enhanced the accumulation of IP's, linearly with time up to 15 min, and reached 7.3, and 1.5-fold at 15 min for IP/sub 1/, IP/sub 2/, and IP/sub 3/, respectively. KCl at 30 mM had no effect on accumulation of IP's, but augmented the effect of NE. PK-C activity was measured in both cytosol (S) and particulate (P) fractions of treated cells. NE alone had a negligible effect on membrane PK-C, while 30 mM KCl caused a small increase. However, pretreatment with KCl followed by NE produced a significant increase above that seen with KCl alone. Dioctanoylglycerol also stimulated membrane association of PK-C in these cells. These data suggest that ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic stimulation of membrane association of myocardial PK-C is mediated by DAG but may be dependent on membrane potential and/or the extent of Ca/sup 2 +/ loading.

  19. Survey Reflects Student Development at D-Q University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Ann Marie

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study that compared student development at Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University (D-Q U) in California with that at non-tribal institutions. Results indicated higher levels of student satisfaction at D-Q U, lower levels of learning and personal development, somewhat lower rates of degree completion, and similar transfer rates. Recommends…

  20. HLA-DQ Mismatches and Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jeremy R.; Coates, Patrick T.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Russ, Graeme R.; Watson, Narelle; Holdsworth, Rhonda; Wong, Germaine

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The current allocation algorithm for deceased donor kidney transplantation takes into consideration HLA mismatches at the ABDR loci but not HLA mismatches at other loci, including HLA-DQ. However, the independent effects of incompatibilities for the closely linked HLA-DQ antigens in the context of HLA-DR antigen matched and mismatched allografts are uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of HLA-DQ mismatches on renal allograft outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we examined the association between HLA-DQ mismatches and acute rejections in primary live and deceased donor kidney transplant recipients between 2004 and 2012 using adjusted Cox regression models. Results Of the 788 recipients followed for a median of 2.8 years (resulting in 2891 person-years), 321 (40.7%) and 467 (59.3%) received zero and one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, respectively. Compared with recipients who have received zero HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, those who have received one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys experienced greater numbers of any rejection (50 of 321 versus 117 of 467; P<0.01), late rejections (occurring >6 months post-transplant; 8 of 321 versus 27 of 467; P=0.03), and antibody-mediated rejections (AMRs; 12 of 321 versus 38 of 467; P=0.01). Compared with recipients of zero HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, the adjusted hazard ratios for any and late rejections in recipients who had received one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys were 1.54 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 2.19) and 2.85 (95% CI, 1.05 to 7.75), respectively. HLA-DR was an effect modifier between HLA-DQ mismatches and AMR (P value for interaction =0.02), such that the association between HLA-DQ mismatches and AMR was statistically significant in those who have received one or two HLA-DR mismatched kidneys, with adjusted hazard ratio of 2.50 (95% CI, 1.05 to 5.94). Conclusions HLA-DQ

  1. Allele and haplotype frequencies for HLA-DQ in Iranian celiac disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Romanos, Jihane; Rostami, Kamran; Ganji, Azita; Ehsani-Ardakani, Mohammad Javad; Bakhshipour, Ali-Reza; Zojaji, Homayoun; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Zali, Mohammad-Reza; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and -DQ8 in Iranian celiac disease (CD) patients and compare them to healthy Iranian controls. METHODS: To predict the HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes, we used six previously reported HLA-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism to determine HLA genotypes in 59 Iranian patients with ‘biopsy-confirmed’ CD and in 151 healthy Iranian individuals. To test the transferability of the method, 50 cases and controls were also typed using a commercial kit that identifies individual carriers of DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8 alleles. RESULTS: In this pilot study 97% of CD cases (n = 57) and 58% of controls (n = 87) were carriers of HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 heterodimers, either in the homozygous or heterozygous state. The HLA-DQ pattern of these 57 CD patients: heterozygous DQ2.2 (n = 14) and homozygous DQ2.2 (n = 1), heterozygous DQ2.5 (n = 33) and homozygous DQ2.5 (n = 8), heterozygous DQ8 (n = 13) and homozygous DQ8 (n = 2). Two CD patients were negative for both DQ2 and DQ8 (3%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DQ8 in our CD population was higher than that reported in other populations (25.4%). As reported in other populations, our results underline the primary importance of HLA-DQ alleles in the Iranian population’s susceptibility to CD. PMID:24876751

  2. Alpha 1-antitrypsin activates lung cancer cell survival by acting on cap-dependent protein translation, vesicle-mediated transport, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Hong, Seong-Ho; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ah Young; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Somin; Kang, Jeong Won; Chae, Chanhee; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-07-19

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although elevated expression levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) have been reported in lung cancer patients, the precise role of AAT in lung cancer progression and prevention has not yet been fully elucidated. We have explored the mechanisms by which AAT stimulates in lung cancer progression. Here, we used proteomic analyses to compare protein levels following AAT overexpression in normal lung L132 cells containing fundamentally low level of AAT. Overexpression of AAT increased levels of proteins involved in transcription and translation, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha 2 (EEF1A2). Furthermore, dual luciferase activity for cap-dependent protein translation increased a 53% at 24 h and 45% at 48 h in AAT-overexpressing cells compared with control. Overexpression of AAT also increased levels of the vesicular transport protein, GOPC, which inhibited the expression of the autophagy protein, BECN1, thereby possibly increasing cell survival. In addition, overexpression of AAT promoted angiogenesis and cell adhesion through increasing expression of the metastatic protein, thrombospondin 1 (THBS1). In contrast, down-regulation of AAT by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) suppressed cell proliferation, metastasis, and adhesion in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and in the lung tissue of K-rasLA1 lung cancer model mice. These findings strongly suggest that AAT regulation shows promise as an alternative avenue for lung cancer treatment and prevention.

  3. Use of antibodies specific to defined regions of scorpion. cap alpha. -toxin to study its interaction with its receptor site on the sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Rochat, H.

    1986-10-21

    Five antibody populations selected by immunoaffinity chromatography for the specificity toward various regions of toxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector were used to probe the interaction of this protein with its receptor site on the sodium channel. These studies indicate that two antigenic sites, one located around the disulfide bridge 12-63 and one encompassing residues 50-59, are involved in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity neutralization. Fab fragments specific to the region around disulfide bridge 12-63 inhibit binding of the /sup 125/I-labeled toxin to its receptor site. Also, these two antigenic regions are inaccessible to the antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor site. In contrast, the two other antigenic sites encompassing the only ..cap alpha..-helix region (residues 23-32) and a ..beta..-turn structure (residues 32-35) are accessible to the respective antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor. Together, these data support the recent proposal that a region made of residues that are conserved in the scorpion toxin family is involved in the binding of the toxin to the receptor.

  4. Solvent effects on the synthesis of ion-exchange membranes by radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl. cap alpha. ,. beta. ,. beta. -trifluoroacrylate. [Freon 113

    SciTech Connect

    Omichi, H.; Okamoto, J.

    1982-06-01

    Methyl ..cap alpha..,..beta..,..beta..-trifluoroacrylate (MTFA) was grafted onto polyethylene (PE) film and fluorine-containing films to make ion-exchange membranes. In the case of PE the grafting yield was not influenced by the presence of trifluorotrichloroethane (Freon 113) in the reaction mixture, while the presence of methanol decreased the grafting yield. The transversal distribution of graft chains in the film observed by electron-probe x-ray microanalysis showed that when the grafting was carried out in the presence of Freon the amount of graft chains in the central part of PE film was much larger than that at the film surface and that the grafts obtained in the absence of Freon were located mainly at the film surface. The electric resistance of the graft PE film obtained in the presence of Freon decreased more than that of the one obtained in the absence of Freon. The weight loss of the graft films in H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ solution was negligibly small.

  5. Remarks concerning the O(Z. cap alpha. /sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays, conserved-vector-current predictions, and universality

    SciTech Connect

    Sirlin, A.

    1987-06-01

    Finite-nuclear-size contributions to the O(Z..cap alpha../sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays are studied for realistic nuclear-charge distributions. In conjunction with the results of Koslowsky et al. and recent papers by the author and Zucchini and by Jaus and Rasche, these refinements lead to an average value scrFt = 3070.6 +- 1.6 s for the accurately measured superallowed Fermi transitions. Correspondingly, V/sub u//sub d/ = 0.9744 +- 0.0010 and V/sub u//sub d/ /sup 2/+V/sub us/ /sup 2/+V/sub ub/ /sup 2/ = 0.9979 +- 0.0021 in good agreement with the three-generation standard model at the level of its quantum corrections. The agreement with conserved-vector-current predictions is very good, with each of the eight transitions differing from the average by <1sigma. The consequences of using two other calculations of the nuclear mismatch correction delta/sub c/, Wilkinson's microscopic analysis and the recent results of Ormand and Brown, are briefly discussed. A useful upper bound on scrFt, independent of the delta/sub c/ calculation, is given.

  6. Mutations in a gene encoding the. cap alpha. subunit of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein indicate a role in mating pheromone signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, K.Y.; Ferguson, J.; Reed, S.I.

    1988-06-01

    Mutations which allowed conjugation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking a mating pheromone receptor gene were selected. One of the genes defined by such mutations was isolated from a yeast genomic library by complementation of a temperature-sensitive mutation and is identically to the gene GPA1 (also known as SCG1), recently shown to be highly homologous to gene encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunits of mammalian G proteins. Physiological analysis of temperature-sensitive gpal mutations suggests that the encoded G protein is involved in signaling in response to mating pheromones. Mutational disruption of G-protein activity causes cell-cycle arrest in G/sub 1/, deposition of mating-specific cell surface aggultinins, and induction of pheromone-specific mRNa, all of which are responses to pheromone in wild-type cells. In addition, mutants can conjugate without the benefit of mating pheromone or pheromone receptor. A model is presented where the activated G protein has a negative impact on a constitutive signal which normally keeps the pheromone response repressed.

  7. Paediatric celiac patients carrying the HLA-DR7-DQ2 and HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotypes display small clinical differences.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Juan F; Amengual, María J; Veraguas, Ana; Rodríguez, Encarnación; de Los Santos, Mariela M; Guallarte, María P

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of HLA-DR7-DQ2 typing in a prospective cohort of paediatric coeliac disease patients from Southern Europe. This cross-sectional study tested 249 paediatric patients with coeliac disease. HLA-DR3-DQ2 was typed in combination with HLA-DR7-DQ2 to screen for the HLA-DQ2 haplotype. The histological, analytical and clinical characteristics of the subjects were recorded. A total of 91 coeliac patients were diagnosed: 96.7% carried HLA-DQ2 and 4.4% carried HLA-DQ8. In percentage terms, 80.2% of patients carried HLA-DR3-DQ2 and 34.1% carried HLA-DR7-DQ2. We did not find significant differences between HLA-DR7-DQ2 and HLA-DR3-DQ2 paediatric patients with respect to histological damage and clinical characteristics, except for irritability and weight loss. These characteristics were more frequent in HLA-DQ2trans than in HLA-DQ2cis (22.2% vs. 0.0% [p = 0.035] and 55.6% vs. 21.4% [p = 0.017], respectively). Coeliac-specific autoantibody levels were higher in HLA-DQ2cis than one half of HLA-DQ2trans patients (105.5 vs. 19.2 U/mL, p = 0.014). Small clinical differences were found between paediatric coeliac patients carrying HLA-DR7-DQ2 and HLA-DR3-DQ2. For a correct screening of HLA-DQ2, at least in our geographical population, the HLA-DR7-DQ2 haplotype should be typed due to its frequency and clinical presentation. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Origin of Soft X-rays in DQ Herculis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Mukai, K.; Still, M.; Ringwald, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    DQ Herculis (Nova Herculis 1934) is a deeply eclipsing cataclysmic variable containing a magnetic white dwarf primary. The accretion disk is thought to block our line of sight to the white dwarf at all orbital phases due to its extreme inclination angle. Nevertheless, soft X-rays were detected from DQ Her with ROSAT PSPC. To probe the origin of these soft X-rays, we have performed Chandra ACIS observations. We confirm that DQ Her is an X-ray source. The bulk of the X-rays are from a point-like source and exhibit a shallow partial eclipse. We interpret this as due to scattering of the unseen central X-ray source, probably in an accretion disk wind. At the same time, we detect weak extended X-ray features around DQ Her, which we interpret as an X-ray emitting knot in the nova shell.

  9. Interferometric Evidence for Warm Dust in the DQ Tau System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Andrew F.; Sargent, A.; Akeson, R.; Carpenter, J.

    2007-12-01

    We report on near-IR interferometric observations of the double-lined pre-main sequence (PMS) binary system DQ Tau. With these observations and the previous spectroscopic orbit & analysis by Mathieu et al 1997 we have estimated a preliminary visual orbit of the DQ Tau system. DQ Tau exhibits a significant near-IR excess, so modeling our interferometric data requires the inclusion of near-IR light from an 'excess' source. Remarkably this excess source appears compact in our data, similar in physical scale to the binary itself, rather than a significantly larger circumbinary disk. This compact emission appears to support arguments by Mathieu et al 1997 and Carr et al 2001 that there is significant near-IR flux from warm gas and dust near the DQ Tau binary, and that dynamical clearing expected in a binary system has not been completely successful in dispersing this material.

  10. Avian serum. cap alpha. /sub 1/-glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and carbohydrate composition from mammalian (. beta. -glycoprotein) counter parts

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Trimble, R.B.; Falco, M.D.; Liem, H.H.; Metcalfe, S.A.; Wellner, D.; Muller-Eberhard, U.

    1986-10-21

    The physicochemical characteristics of chicken hemopexin, which can be isolated by heme-agarose affinity chromatography, is compared with representative mammalian hemopexins of rat, rabbit, and human. The avian polypeptide chain appears to be slightly longer (52 kDa) than the human, rat, or rabbit forms (49 kDa), and also the glycoprotein differs from the mammalian hemopexins in being an ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoprotein instead of a ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein. The distinct electrophoretic mobility probably arises from significant differences in the amino acid composition of the chicken form, which, although lower in serine and particularly in lysine, has a much higher glutamine/glutamate and agrinine content, and also a higher proline, glycine, and histidine content, than the mammalian hemopexins. Compositional analyses and /sup 125/I concanavalin A and /sup 125/I wheat germ agglutinin binding suggest that chicken hemopexin has a mixture of three fucose-free N-linked bi- and triantennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, human hemopexin has give N-linked oligosaccharides and an additional O-linked glycan blocking the N-terminal threonine residue, while the rabbit form has four N-linked oligosaccharides. In keeping with the finding of a simpler carbohydrate structure, the avian hemopexin shows only a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both nondenaturing and denaturing conditions, whereas the hemopexins of the three mammalian species tested show several bands. In contrast, the isoelectric focusing pattern of chicken hemopexin is very complex, revealing at least nine bands between pH 4.0 and pH band 5.0, while the other hemopexins show a broad smear of multiple ill-defined bands in the same region.Results indicate the hemopexin of avians differs substantially from the hemopexins of mammals, which show a notable similarity with regard to carbohydrate structure and amino acid composition.

  11. Effect of. cap alpha. -tocopherol, butylated-hydroxytoluene and hydroxy-anisole on the activation and binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ to macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ih, J.J.; Biedrzycka, D.; Devlin, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidants, ..cap alpha..-tocopherol(TPA), butylated-hydroxy-toluene(BHT) and hydroxyanisole(BHA) inhibit the carcinogenic and toxic effects of a variety of chemical compounds, their effect on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) activation and binding was examined utilizing rat liver microsomes and cells. With a NADPH generating system, oxygen, microsomes, (/sup 3/H)-AFB/sub 1/, 2.2 pmoles/h/mg protein was activated and bound to macromolecules. In hepatocytes, 3.4 and 1.4 pmoles of AFB/sub 1/ per 10/sup 6/ cells were taken up and bound to macromolecules, whereas the nucleic acid fraction contained 0.19 pmoles of bound AFB/sub 1/. Moderate decreases of AFB/sub 1/ activation and binding were observed when TPA was present in both cell-free and hepatocytes systems. Only in hepatocytes, BHT inhibited the AFB/sub 1/ uptake and binding to nucleic acids. BHA, however, inhibited microsomal activation of AFB/sub 1/ by 73%; maximum inhibition was reached at 1 mM. AFB/sub 1/ uptake, and binding to nucleic acids were inhibited by 65% and 79% by BHA. GSH-transferase activity of cells treated with these agents was not altered. The effect of BHA at various concentrations on AFB activation was compared with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors; the ED/sub 50/ of SKF 525A, BHA and metyrapone was 9 uM, 80 uM and 380 uM respectively. The data suggest that TPA, BHA and BHT exert their effect by different mechanisms.

  12. Hydrogen fluoride saccharification of wood: lignin fluoride content, isolation of. cap alpha. -D-glucopyranosyl fluoride and posthydrolysis of reversion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, H.; Lamport, D.J.A.

    1982-04-01

    Wood chips from bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.) were saccharified by reaction with hydrogen fluoride either anhydrous or containing up to 10% v/v water. The reaction products were separated into a solid lignin fraction and a water-soluble saccharide fraction. The fluoride content of the lignin (determined after alkaline fusion) was initially about 1 mg/g wood, but was lowered to 0.1 mg/g wood by grinding and washing. Thus little or no chemical binding of fluoride to lignin occurred during hydrogen fluoride (HF) solvolysis. Analysis of the water-soluble fraction by gel filtration on Biogel P2 columns showed a range of low-molecular-weight oligosaccharides an only 10-20% sugar monomers. Thus considerable reversion occurred during HF evacuation. Posthydrolysis conditions were optimized for these reversion products by varying temperature and acid concentration. Optimal conditions at 1 h were 140/sup 0/C with 100mN sulfuric acid or 225mN hydrofluoric acid resulting in monomer yields of > 90% for 0.5% sugar solutions and > 80% for 10% sugar solutions. After reaction of pure cellulose (filter paper) with hydrogen fluoride in the absence of water, and terminating the reaction with calcium carbonate, the reaction intermediate ..cap alpha..-D-glucopyranosylfluride was isolated with a maximal yield of 0.2 g/g paper. Upon purification via paper chromatography glucosyfluoride was identified by its specific rotation and also by gas chromotography-mass spectrometer of its tetra-O-trimethylsilyl derivative.

  13. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  14. Alpha-catenin-dependent recruitment of the centrosomal protein CAP350 to adherens junctions allows epithelial cells to acquire a columnar shape.

    PubMed

    Gavilan, Maria P; Arjona, Marina; Zurbano, Angel; Formstecher, Etienne; Martinez-Morales, Juan R; Bornens, Michel; Rios, Rosa M

    2015-03-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. How this complex process is controlled at the molecular level is still largely unknown. Here, we report that the centrosomal microtubule (MT)-binding protein CAP350 localises at adherens junctions in epithelial cells. By two-hybrid screening, we identified a direct interaction of CAP350 with the adhesion protein α-catenin that was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Block of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)-mediated cell-cell adhesion or α-catenin depletion prevented CAP350 localisation at cell-cell junctions. Knocking down junction-located CAP350 inhibited the establishment of an apico-basal array of microtubules and impaired the acquisition of columnar shape in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells grown as polarised epithelia. Furthermore, MDCKII cystogenesis was also defective in junctional CAP350-depleted cells. CAP350-depleted MDCKII cysts were smaller and contained either multiple lumens or no lumen. Membrane polarity was not affected, but cortical microtubule bundles did not properly form. Our results indicate that CAP350 may act as an adaptor between adherens junctions and microtubules, thus regulating epithelial differentiation and contributing to the definition of cell architecture. We also uncover a central role of α-catenin in global cytoskeleton remodelling, in which it acts not only on actin but also on MT reorganisation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  15. Alpha-catenin-Dependent Recruitment of the Centrosomal Protein CAP350 to Adherens Junctions Allows Epithelial Cells to Acquire a Columnar Shape

    PubMed Central

    Zurbano, Angel; Formstecher, Etienne; Martinez-Morales, Juan R.; Bornens, Michel; Rios, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. How this complex process is controlled at the molecular level is still largely unknown. Here, we report that the centrosomal microtubule (MT)-binding protein CAP350 localises at adherens junctions in epithelial cells. By two-hybrid screening, we identified a direct interaction of CAP350 with the adhesion protein α-catenin that was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Block of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)-mediated cell-cell adhesion or α-catenin depletion prevented CAP350 localisation at cell-cell junctions. Knocking down junction-located CAP350 inhibited the establishment of an apico-basal array of microtubules and impaired the acquisition of columnar shape in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells grown as polarised epithelia. Furthermore, MDCKII cystogenesis was also defective in junctional CAP350-depleted cells. CAP350-depleted MDCKII cysts were smaller and contained either multiple lumens or no lumen. Membrane polarity was not affected, but cortical microtubule bundles did not properly form. Our results indicate that CAP350 may act as an adaptor between adherens junctions and microtubules, thus regulating epithelial differentiation and contributing to the definition of cell architecture. We also uncover a central role of α-catenin in global cytoskeleton remodelling, in which it acts not only on actin but also on MT reorganisation during epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25764135

  16. Co-localization of gluten consumption and HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 genotypes, a clue to the history of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Elena; Catassi, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible persons. Despite its detrimental effects on human health, it has not disappeared over time. The current evolutionary theory is that celiac disease is more common in areas reached later by agricultural revolution than in countries that started consumption of wheat earlier, due to negative selection caused by celiac disease. We reviewed data on worldwide prevalence of celiac disease, wheat consumption, and frequencies of HLA-celiac-disease-predisposing-genotypes to investigate their mutual relationship. Studies assessing prevalence of celiac disease were identified through a MEDLINE search. Wheat consumption and frequencies of HLA-DQ2-DQ8 were obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and allelefrequencies.net database. Correlations between celiac disease, wheat consumption, and HLA were analyzed by linear regression. We observed a significant correlation between wheat consumption and HLA DQ2 (p=0.01) and the sum of DQ2 and DQ8 (p=0.01) frequencies. Wheat consumption and HLA-DQ2 tend to co-localize in different continents. The correlation between the prevalence of celiac disease and either DQ2 and/or DQ8, or the product of DQ2+DQ8*wheat consumption was not statistically significant. Co-localization of gluten consumption and HLA-celiac-disease-predisposing-genotypes can be explained by positive selection of HLA-DQ2 genes in wheat-consuming areas, and "demic diffusion" of Middle East farmers into Europe.

  17. Detailed Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of DQ White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, P.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.

    2005-07-01

    We present an analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs based on improved model atmosphere calculations. In particular, we revise the atmospheric parameters of the trigonometric parallax sample of Bergeron, Leggett, & Ruiz and discuss the astrophysical implications on the temperature scale and mean mass, as well as the chemical evolution of these stars. We also analyze 40 new DQ stars discovered in the First Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our analysis confirms that effective temperatures (Teff) derived from model atmospheres including carbon are significantly lower than the temperatures obtained from pure helium models. Similarly, the mean mass of the trigonometric parallax sample, =0.62Msolar, is significantly lower than that obtained from pure helium models, =0.73Msolar, and more consistent with the spectroscopic mean mass of DB stars, =0.59Msolar, the most likely progenitors of DQ white dwarfs. We find that DQ stars form a remarkably well-defined sequence in a carbon abundance versus effective temperature diagram; below Teff~10,000 K, carbon pollution decreases monotonically with decreasing effective temperature. Improved evolutionary models including diffusion and connecting to the PG 1159 phase are used to infer a typical value for the thickness of the helium layer MHe/M* between 10-3 and 10-2, compatible with the predictions of post-AGB models. Several DQ stars in our sample, however, show larger than average carbon abundances. We argue that these DQ stars are all massive white dwarfs and could represent the high-mass tail of the white dwarf mass distribution, with their hotter counterparts corresponding to the hot DQ stars reported recently by Liebert et al. The number distribution of DQ white dwarfs as a function of effective temperature clearly shows a sudden drop at about Teff~7000 K and an abrupt cutoff at Teff~6000 K. The existence of this cutoff is now statistically more significant

  18. Fequency distribution of HLA DQ2 and DQ8 in celiac patients and first-degree relatives in Recife, northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Antunes, Margarida Maria; Crovella, Sergio; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Motta, Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of the HLA genotypes DQ2 and DQ8 and the alleles A1*05, A1*0201, B1*0201 and B1*0302 in individuals with celiac disease in Recife, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: HLA DQ2 and DQ8 genotyping was performed for 73 individuals with celiac disease and 126 first-degree relatives with negative transglutaminase serology. The alleles DQA1*05, DQA1*0201, DQB1*02 and DQB1*0302 were identified by sequencing using specific primers and the EU-DQ kit from the Eurospital Laboratory, Trieste, Italy and double-checked by the All Set SPP kit (Dynal). RESULTS: Among the 73 cases, 50 (68.5%) had the genotype DQ2, 13 (17.8%) had DQ8, 5 (6.8%) had DQ2 and DQ8, and 5 did not have any of these genotypes. Among the 5 negative individuals, four had the B1*02 allele and one did not have any of the alleles studied. B1*02 was the most frequent allele in both groups (94% in the patients and 89% in the control relatives). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, celiac disease was associated with the genotypes DQ2 and DQ8. DQ2 predominated, but the distribution of the frequencies was different from what has been found in European populations and was closer to what has been found in the Americas. The high frequencies of the HLA genotypes DQ2 and DQ8 that were found in first-degree relatives would make it difficult to use these HLA genotypes for routine diagnosis of celiac disease in this group. PMID:21484038

  19. Brief Report: Use of DQ for Estimating Cognitive Ability in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmolino, Lara M.

    2006-01-01

    The utility of Developmental Quotients (DQ) from the Psychoeducational Profile--Revised (PEP-R) to estimate cognitive ability in young children with autism was assessed. DQ scores were compared to scores from the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales--Fourth Edition (SB-FE) for 27 preschool students with autism. Overall and domain DQ's on the PEP-R…

  20. Properties of a specific interleukin 1 (IL 1) receptor on human Epstein Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes. Identity of receptor for IL 1-. cap alpha. and IL 1-. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, K.; Akahoshi, T.; Yamada, M.; Furutani, Y.; Oppenheim, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of specific human interleukin 1 (IL 1) receptors on human Epstein Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes (EBV-B) were studied. Purified human IL 1-..beta.. from a myelomonocytic cell line (THP-1) was labeled with /sup 125/I. Among four EBV-B cell lines tested, a pre-B cell type (VDS-O) specifically bound the highest amount of /sup 125/I-IL 1-..beta... The binding of /sup 125/I-IL 1-..beta.. to VDS-O cells was inhibited by F(ab)'/sub 2/ fragments of anti-human IL 1 and recombinant human IL 1-..cap alpha.., as well as by unlabeled human IL 1-..beta.. but not by recombinant lymphotoxin, recombinant tumor necrosis factor, or phorbol myristic acid, suggesting that IL 1-..cap alpha.. and IL 1-..beta.. bind specifically to the same receptor. The m.w. of IL 1 receptor on human EBV-B cells was estimated to be 60,000 by both the chemical cross-linking method and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isoelectric point of solubilized human IL 1 receptor was 7.3 on HPLC chromatofocusing. The evidence of existence of IL 1 receptor on human EBV-B cells additionally supports the hypothesis that IL 1 may be an autocrine signal for these cells.

  1. Characterization of the temporary anion states of metal carbonyl complexes: an MS-X. cap alpha. and ETS study of Cr(CO)/sub 6/ and Fe(CO)/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, M.; Jones, D.; Distefano, G.; Foffani, A.; Modelli, A.

    1988-01-20

    The electron affinities in the 0-5 eV energy range have been determined for chromium hexacarbonyl and iron pentacarbonyl by means of multiple scattering X..cap alpha.. calculations. The total electron scattering cross sections have been estimated with the continuum MS-X..cap alpha.. method. The computational results are compared with the electron transmission spectra and used for the assignment of the experimental features. The ET spectrum of Fe(CO)/sub 5/ is presented and assigned for the first time and that of Cr(CO)/sub 6/ is reassigned. For both complexes, all the anion states associated with electron capture into the orbitals deriving from the ligand 2..pi..* MOs and into the metal empty d orbitals are assigned to resonances occurring in the 0.4-2.6 eV energy region of the ET spectra. A charge density analysis reveals that a net electronic charge transfer occurs from the ligands to the metal, owing to the acceptor capability of the metal 4s and 4p orbitals. This is consistent with the experimentally observed average stabilization of the anion states localized at the CO ligands with respect to the II anion state of free CO.

  2. De novo DQ donor-specific antibodies are associated with worse outcomes compared to non-DQ de novo donor-specific antibodies following heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Robert Townsend; Gandhi, Jonathan; Bray, Robert A; Gebel, Howard M; Morris, Alanna; McCue, Andrew; Yin, Michael; Laskar, S Raja; Book, Wendy; Jokhadar, Maan; Smith, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc; Vega, J David; Gupta, Divya

    2017-04-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) resulting from de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) leads to adverse outcomes following heart transplantation (HTx). It remains unclear what role dnDSA to specific HLA antigens play in adverse outcomes. This study compares outcomes in patients developing dnDSA to DQ antigens with those developing non-DQ dnDSA and those free from dnDSA. The present study was a single-center, retrospective analysis of 122 consecutive HTx recipients. The primary outcome was a composite of death or graft dysfunction. After 3.3 years of follow-up, 31 (28%) patients developed dnDSA. Mean time to dnDSA was 539 days. Of 31 patients, 19 developed DQ antibodies and 12 developed non-DQ antibodies. Compared to non-DQ dnDSA, DQ antibodies presented with higher MFI values (P=.001) were more likely persistent (P=.001) and appeared later post-HTx (654 vs 359 days, P=.035). In a multivariable analysis, DQ dnDSA was associated with increased risk of the primary endpoint (HR 6.15, 95% CI 2.57-14.75, P=.001), whereas no increased risk was seen with non-DQ dnDSA (P=.749). dnDSA to DQ antigens following HTx are associated with increased risk of death and graft dysfunction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Residual Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-10

    This MOC image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions

  4. Cradle Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hair follicles. Another factor may be a yeast (fungus) called malassezia (mal-uh-SEE-zhuh) that ... ketoconazole, are often effective, supporting the idea that yeast is a contributing factor. Cradle cap isn't ...

  5. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staff The cervical cap is a birth control (contraceptive) device that prevents sperm from entering the uterus. ... more times a week, you've had previous contraceptive failure with vaginal barrier methods or you're ...

  6. Cusp Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A brightening at one or other of the tips—cusps—of the crescent phase of Venus, as seen from Earth. Cusp caps were first reported by the German amateur astronomer Baron Franz Paula von Gruithuisen in 1813, and have been recorded by telescopic observers ever since. They were named by analogy with the Earth's polar caps; early observers fancied they were seeing glimpses of a possibly Earth-like sur...

  7. The production and crystallization of the human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 complexed with deamidated gliadin peptides implicated in coeliac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Kate N.; Reid, Hugh H.; Borg, Natalie A.; Broughton, Sophie E.; Huyton, Trevor; Anderson, Robert P.; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2007-12-01

    The production and crystallization of human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with deamidated gliadin peptides is reported. Crystals of HLA-DQ2{sup PQPELPYPQ} diffracted to 3.9 Å, while the HLA-DQ8{sup EGSFQPSQE} crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å, allowing structure determination by molecular replacement. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are key risk factors in coeliac disease, as they bind deamidated gluten peptides that are subsequently recognized by CD4{sup +} T cells. Here, the production and crystallization of both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with the deamidated gliadin peptides DQ2 α-I (PQPELPYPQ) and DQ8 α-I (EGSFQPSQE), respectively, are reported.

  8. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  9. Interfacial electron-transfer equilibria and flat-band potentials of. cap alpha. -Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and TiO/sub 2/ colloids studied by pulse radiolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrijevic, N.M.; Savic, D.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    1984-09-13

    The kinetics and equilibria of electron transfer between methylviologen cation radicals and ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or TiO/sub 2/ colloidal particles were studied with the pulse-radiolysis technique. The rates of electron transfer to both colloids are lower than those predicted for a diffusion-controlled reaction. For higher pHs (TiO/sub 2/, pH > 2; ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, pH > 9) the established equilibrium MV/sup +/ in equilibrium MV/sup 2 +/ + (e/sup -/)/sub coll/ is strongly influenced by the MV/sup 2 +/ concentration and pH. The MV/sup +/ equilibrium concentration can be exploited to derive the flat-band potential of the semiconductor colloids. The method for determining the flat-band potential of the particles is independent of whether the injected electrons are free or trapped, and whether the electrons raise the bulk Fermi level toward the conduction band or just produce a space charge. The flat-band potentials for both colloids appear to be somewhat more negative (-0.1 to -0.2 V) than the corresponding single-crystal electrodes. Also, the flat-band potentials become slightly more negative with increasing radiation dose (initial MV/sup +/ concentration). The effect of absorbed radiation dose is explained by the corresponding changes in the ratio of oxidized to reduced forms of the redox couple, which in turn changes the adsorbed ionic charge on the semiconductor surface. For colloidal particles of TiO/sub 2/ stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), the flat-band potentials were almost the same as those for PVA-free TiO/sub 2/ sols. The decrease of particle diameter from 800 to 70 A does not affect the value of the flat-band potentials for TiO/sub 2/ and ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ colloids. 28 references, 9 figures.

  10. Limited role of HLA DQ2/8 genotyping in diagnosing coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba P; Hoghton, Matthew; Sandhu, Bhupinder

    2017-02-01

    The European guidelines for diagnosing coeliac disease in children were revised in 2012. These recommend that in symptomatic children, a diagnosis of coeliac disease can be made without small-bowel biopsies provided their anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) titre is >10 times of upper-limit-of-normal (>10×ULN) and anti-endomysial antibody is positive. In order to firm up the diagnosis in these children with very high anti-tTG titre, HLA-DQ2/DQ8 should be checked and be positive. Approximately 25-40% of white Caucasian population has HLA-DQ2/DQ8 haplotype. However, only 0.1-1% of the population will develop coeliac disease. Therefore, HLA-DQ2/DQ8 testing must not be done to 'screen' or 'diagnose' children with coeliac disease. Its use by paediatricians should be limited to children with anti-tTG>10×ULN, where the diagnosis of coeliac disease is being made on serology alone. A review of case referrals made to a tertiary paediatric gastroenterology centre in Southwest England demonstrated that HLA-DQ2/DQ8 testing is being requested inappropriately both in primary and secondary care suggesting a poor understanding of its role in diagnosis of coeliac disease. This article aims to clarify the role of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 testing for clinicians working in non-specialist settings.

  11. A population-wide applicable HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genotyping using DNA from dried blood spots and duplex allele-specific qPCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Aguayo-Patrón, Sandra; Beltrán-Sauceda, Lizbeth; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    2016-11-01

    Genotyping of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes is important for diagnosis or for screening of early risk detection of celiac disease or type 1 diabetes. Usually, venous blood DNA extraction and expensive and time consuming amplification are used, that hinder population-wide studies. We assayed a friendly HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genotyping procedure using a combination of DNA from dried blood spot (DBS) and duplex allele-specific qPCR amplification using SYBR Green. DNA was extracted using home-made buffers and compared to an extraction commercial kit. Duplex reactions by qPCR were designed using each Tm allele amplicon for reference samples (positive HLA-DQ2 or DQ8) with allele-specific primers. DBS samples from 558 children (7.99 ± 2.47 y) were collected. The DNA final yield obtained by the home-made extractive procedure was higher than from the commercial kit (1.11 ± 0.56 vs 0.23 ± 0.14 μg), while the quality was similar for both DNA samples. There was concordance in the amplification profiles for DNA samples obtained with both methods. All of four alleles from DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes were accurately identified in duplex reactions. By using DBS samples and DNA extraction home-made procedure, the costs were reduced by 60%. The whole procedure is cost-effective for HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genotyping.

  12. Synthesis of tritium labeled Ac-(Nle/sup 4/, D-Phe/sup 7/)-. cap alpha. -MSH/sub 4-11/-NH/sub 2/: a superpotent melanotropin with prolonged biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, B.D.; Hruby, V.J.; Yamamura, H.I.; Akiyama, K.; Castrucci, A.M. de; Hadley, M.E.; Andrews, J.R.; Wan, Y.P.

    1984-03-05

    Ac-(Nle/sup 4/, D-Phe/sup 7/)-..cap alpha..-MSH/sub 4-11/-NH/sub 2/ an octapeptide, is a melanotropin analogue (Ac-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH/sub 2/), which is a superpotent agonist of frog and lizard skin melanocytes and mouse S 91 (Cloudman) melanoma cells. This melanotropin possesses ultraprolonged activity on melanocytes, both in vitro and in vivo, and the peptide is resistant to inactivation by serum enzymes. The tritium-labeled congener was prepared by direct incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-labeled norleucine into the peptide. The melanotropic activity of the labeled peptide is identical to the unlabeled analogue. This labeled peptide should be useful for studies on the localization and characterization of melanotropin receptors.

  13. Cytochrome P450c17 (steroid 17. cap alpha. -hydroxylase/17,20 lyase): cloning of human adrenal and testis cDNAs indicates the same gene is expressed in both tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B.; Picado-Leonard, J.; Haniu, M.; Bienkowski, M.; Hall, P.F.; Shively, J.E.; Miller, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (steroid 17..cap alpha..-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. The authors sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence, a 128-fold degenerate 17-mer was synthesized and used to screen a porcine adrenal cDNA library. This yielded a 380-base cloned cDNA, which in turn was used to isolate several human adrenal cDNAs. The longest of these, lambda hac 17-2, is 1754 base pairs long and includes the full-length coding region, the complete 3'-untranslated region, and 41 bases of the 5'-untranslated region. This cDNA encodes a protein of 508 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 57,379.82. High-stringency screening of a human testicular cDNA library yielded a partial clone containing 1303 identical bases. RNA gel blots and nuclease S1-protection experiments confirm that the adrenal and testicular P450c17 mRNAs are indistinguishable. These data indicate that the testis possesses a P450c17 identical to that in the adrenal. The human amino acid sequence is 66.7% homologous to the corresponding regions of the porcine sequence, and the human cDNA and amino acid sequences are 80.1 and 70.3% homologous, respectively, to bovine adrenal P450c17 cDNA. Both comparisons indicate that a central region comprising amino acid residues 160-268 is hypervariable among these species of P450c17.

  14. Cradle cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... known. Doctors think the condition is due to oil glands in the baby's scalp producing too much oil. Cradle cap is not spread from person to ... each day to remove any scales and scalp oil. If scales do not easily loosen and wash ...

  15. Short ragweed allergen induces eosinophilic lung disease in HLA-DQ transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chapoval, Svetlana P.; Nabozny, Gerald H.; Marietta, Eric V.; Raymond, Ernie L.; Krco, Christopher J.; Andrews, Amy G.; David, Chella S.

    1999-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction of the IgE response to different allergens in humans has been a subject of numerous published studies. However, the role and contribution of specific HLA class II molecules in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation are unknown and difficult to assess. HLA-DQ6 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice lacking endogenous mouse class II gene expression were actively immunized and later challenged intranasally with short ragweed (SRW) allergenic extract. The HLA-DQ transgenic mice developed pulmonary eosinophilia and lung tissue damage. We also found an increase in total protein (TP) level and IL-5 production in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and an increase in SRW-specific Th2-type immunoglobulins (IgG1, IgG2b) and total serum IgE levels. Under similar treatment, DQ-negative full-sib control mice were normal. The allergic response could be significantly inhibited or abrogated in HLA-DQ mice by systemic treatment with anti-DQ mAb. The in vivo responses of HLA-DQ6 and HLA-DQ8 mice showed differences in terms of levels of eosinophilia, BAL protein, IL-5 concentration, and lung hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. These findings demonstrate the crucial role for specific HLA-DQ molecules in SRW-specific CD4+ T-cell activation and resulting recruitment of eosinophils into the airways. J. Clin. Invest. 103:1707–1717 (1999). PMID:10377177

  16. HLA-DQ genetic risk gradient for type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mejía-León, M E; Ruiz-Dyck, K M; Calderón de la Barca, A M

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) are the 2 most common autoimmune childhood diseases that share their HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genetic origin. There has currently been an increase in both diseases worldwide. In children from the low-population State of Sonora (15 inhabitants/km(2)) in north-western Mexico, there is no information on their genetic risk or the distribution of the related alleles in the general population. To compare the HLA-DQ allele frequency in a representative sample of newborns from Sonora with that of T1D and CD patients to determine the risk gradient, and to identify the presence of celiac autoimmunity in the T1D group. The study included 397 Sonoran newborns, with 44 cases of T1D, and 25 CD cases. The CD and T1D cases were clinically diagnosed by specialists at the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora, and the autoantibodies were determined by ELISA. Whole blood was collected, gDNA was extracted, and HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 were typed by PCR-SSP. The risk gradient was calculated by comparing the allele frequencies of the cases with those of the newborns. The Sonoran HLA-DQ risk heterodimer proportion was 16.1% for HLA-DQ2 and 13.6% for HLA-DQ8, with an HLA-DQ2:HLA-DQ8 ratio of 1.2:1. The DQ8/DQ2 genotype represented a 1:14 risk for T1D, whereas the DQ8/DQB1*0201 combination showed a 1:6 risk for CD. The prevalence of CD autoimmunity in T1D children was 7%. The Sonoran population has a distinctive HLA-DQ allele distribution due to its ancestry. The HLA-DQ8 combinations with DQ2 or one of its alleles conferred the highest risk for both diseases, and T1D and CD frequently appear together. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Different functions and associations of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ(DC) antigens shown by serological, cellular and DNA assays.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, C; Jaraquemada, D; Hui, K; Awad, J; Okoye, R; Festenstein, H

    1985-03-01

    Two consanguineous Caucasoid HTCs, DHI and FPA, were investigated, the latter having an unusual HLA-DR/DQ(DC) association. Both these HTCs typed clearly as HLA-DRw11. However, while DHI typed as DRw11/DQw3(DC4) as expected, FPA typed as DRw11/DQw1(DC1) instead. Although extremely rare in Caucasoids, DRw11/DQw1 is a common pattern of association in Nigerian Negroids. Southern blots of DNA extracted from EBV cell line derived from FPA, hybridized with HLA-DC alpha and HLA-DC beta probes, confirmed this unusual DRw11/DQw1(DC1) association. In addition the DC alpha probe showed a unique additional restriction fragment length polymorphism (8 kb) attributable to the DX gene in the FPA DNA. When DHI and FPA were used as stimulators in MLC, the patterns to typing responses obtained were not completely concordant although they overlap to some extent. For this reason FPA has been locally designated Dw'F5', distinct from Dw5. Furthermore, the HLA-DQ antigens of the responder cells were not necessarily the same as those of the HTCS to which they gave typing responses (FPA and DHI). Functional studies using these two HTCs showed that the DQ(DC) antigens probably have no direct lymphocyte activating properties but rather have a regulatory role in controlling responses to allodeterminants in MLC.

  18. Apical cap

    SciTech Connect

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-08-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices.

  19. Anti-human leukocyte antigen DQ antibodies in renal transplantation: Are we underestimating the most frequent donor specific alloantibodies?

    PubMed

    Carta, Paolo; Di Maria, Lorenzo; Caroti, Leonardo; Buti, Elisa; Antognoli, Giulia; Minetti, Enrico Eugenio

    2015-07-01

    The role of anti-human leukocyte antigens DQ region (HLA-DQ) in transplantation is historically less studied than HLA-DR and HLA class I regions, but several studies are demonstrating that anti HLA-DQ antibodies are among the most frequent anti HLA antibodies that develop after transplantation and can have great influence on the developing of humoral rejection and graft loss. In this article we review the gene structure and nomenclature of the HLA-DQ region, the role of anti HLA-DQ antibodies after and before transplantation and briefly the associations of particular HLA-DQ alleles and other diseases.

  20. Early onset of diabetes in the proband is the major determinant of risk in HLA DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Kathleen M; Aitken, Rachel J; Wilson, Isabel; Williams, Alistair J K; Bingley, Polly J

    2014-03-01

    Islet autoimmunity is initiated in infancy, and primary prevention trials require children at high genetic risk to be identified before autoantibodies appear. To inform screening strategies, we evaluated risks of autoimmunity and diabetes associated with HLA DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 in U.K. families. Extended HLA haplotypes were determined in 2,134 siblings from the Bart's-Oxford Study followed to a median age of 22 years. Risks of diabetes and islet autoimmunity (more than two antibodies) were estimated by survival analysis. Of 138 informative DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings, 63% shared both haplotypes with their diabetic proband, 29% shared one, and 8% shared neither. In HLA-identical DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings, the cumulative risk of diabetes by age 15 was 17% (vs. 6% in those sharing one haplotype or none; P = 0.095). Risk varied, however, with the age at the onset of diabetes in the proband; the cumulative risk of autoimmunity and/or diabetes by age 15 was 61% in siblings of probands diagnosed when younger than 10 years old compared with only 4.7% in those diagnosed after age 10 years (P < 0.001). The age of the proband at diagnosis, but not HLA haplotype sharing, was an independent determinant of sibling risk. This suggests that non-HLA genes or epigenetic/environmental factors that accelerate the progression of type 1 diabetes in the proband strongly affect risk in siblings.

  1. Sulfur Ylides. Communication 1. Cyclopropanation of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated Ketones with Ethyl (dimethylsulfuranylidene) acetate generated in the presence of phase-transfer catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstikov, G.A.; Galin, F.Z.; Iskandarova V.N.; Khalilov, L.M.; Panasenko, A.A.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents a modified method for the cyclopropanation of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones with ethyl (dimethylsulfuranylidene) acetate, generated in situ from a sulfonium salt with 85% KOH in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst, and studies the sterochemistry of the polysubstituted cyclopropanes. The chemical shifts of the carbon atoms of the cyclopropane rings of the isomer pairs are close together in the C 13 NMR spectra, which makes the assignment of the signals of C/sup 2/ and C/sup 3/ and the sterochemical assignment of each isomer to the cis and the trans series difficult. It is shown that the signals of the carboxyl carbon atoms differ not more than 0.65 ppm in the isomer pairs.

  2. Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin.

    PubMed

    Hubberstey, A; Yu, G; Loewith, R; Lakusta, C; Young, D

    1996-06-01

    We previously identified human CAP, a homolog of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein. Previous studies suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of CAP have distinct functions. We have explored the interactions of human CAP with various proteins. First, by performing yeast two-hybrid screens, we have identified peptides from several proteins that interact with the C-terminal and/or the N-terminal domains of human CAP. These peptides include regions derived from CAP and BAT3, a protein with unknown function. We have further shown that MBP fusions with these peptides can associate in vitro with the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CAP fused to GST. Our observations indicate that CAP contains regions in both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains that are capable of interacting with each other or with themselves. Furthermore, we found that myc-epitope-tagged CAP coimmunoprecipitates with HA-epitope-tagged CAP from either yeast or mammalian cell extracts. Similar results demonstrate that human CAP can also interact with human CAP2. We also show that human CAP interacts with actin, both by the yeast two-hybrid test and by coimmunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged CAP from yeast or mammalian cell extracts. This interaction requires the C-terminal domain of CAP, but not the N-terminal domain. Thus CAP appears to be capable of interacting in vivo with other CAP molecules, CAP2, and actin. We also show that actin co-immunoprecipitates with HA-CAP2 from mammalian cell extracts.

  3. Diabatization based on the dipole and quadrupole: The DQ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Chad E.; Xu, Xuefei; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we present a method, called the DQ scheme (where D and Q stand for dipole and quadrupole, respectively), for transforming a set of adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using the dipole and quadrupole moments to determine the transformation coefficients. It is more broadly applicable than methods based only on the dipole moment; for example, it is not restricted to electron transfer reactions, and it works with any electronic structure method and for molecules with and without symmetry, and it is convenient in not requiring orbital transformations. We illustrate this method by prototype applications to two cases, LiH and phenol, for which we compare the results to those obtained by the fourfold-way diabatization scheme.

  4. Diabatization based on the dipole and quadrupole: The DQ method

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, Chad E.; Xu, Xuefei; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu; Truhlar, Donald G. E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu

    2014-09-21

    In this work, we present a method, called the DQ scheme (where D and Q stand for dipole and quadrupole, respectively), for transforming a set of adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using the dipole and quadrupole moments to determine the transformation coefficients. It is more broadly applicable than methods based only on the dipole moment; for example, it is not restricted to electron transfer reactions, and it works with any electronic structure method and for molecules with and without symmetry, and it is convenient in not requiring orbital transformations. We illustrate this method by prototype applications to two cases, LiH and phenol, for which we compare the results to those obtained by the fourfold-way diabatization scheme.

  5. Waning Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the outer edge of the south polar residual cap of Mars. During summer, the scarps that delineate the sides of the mesas, retreat (on average) by about 3 meters (10 feet) owing to the sublimation of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.6oS, 349.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  6. Waning Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the outer edge of the south polar residual cap of Mars. During summer, the scarps that delineate the sides of the mesas, retreat (on average) by about 3 meters (10 feet) owing to the sublimation of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.6oS, 349.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Upregulation of long non-coding RNA DQ786243 promotes the progression of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ting; Fan, Juanyun; Zhao, Qin; Deng, Kaiyuan; Xia, Jiazeng

    2017-10-01

    Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as key regulatory factors in various biological processes. Their dysregulation has been observed in several types of human cancer, including gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative roles of the lncRNA DQ786243 in the progression of GC, as well as evaluate its diagnostic and therapeutic potential in GC. The expression of DQ786243 in 82 pairs of GC tissues and adjacent healthy tissues, as well as in three GC cell lines and a human normal gastric epithelial cell line, was assessed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the putative correlation between the expression of DQ786243 and various clinicopathological features of GC was investigated. Furthermore, the effects of silencing DQ786243 in GC cells were examined using RNA interference. Colony formation and Cell Counting kit‑8 assays were used to evaluate the effects of DQ786243 on GC cell proliferation, and Transwell and wound healing assays were used to examine GC cell migration and invasion. The results of the present study demonstrated that the expression of DQ786243 was significantly upregulated in GC tissues and cell lines compared with healthy control tissues and cells. Correlation analysis revealed a significant association between the expression of DQ786243 and the TNM stage, tumor size, depth of invasion and presence of lymph node metastasis in patients with GC. Furthermore, silencing the DQ786243 was demonstrated to inhibit proliferation, and impair the migration and invasion of GC cells. The present results suggested that DQ786243 may function as an oncogenic regulator via promoting the proliferation and metastasis of GC cells. Therefore, DQ786243 may have potential as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of GC, and may also be a promising candidate for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of patients with GC.

  8. Polarization of the angular momentum of electrons in calculations of the electronic structure of the NiO/sub 6//sup 10 -/ cluster by the X. cap alpha. -scattered-wave method

    SciTech Connect

    Gagarin, S.G.; Teterin, Yu.A.; Plekhanov, Yu.V.

    1986-05-01

    The x-ray photoelectron spectra of the core 2p/sub 1/2/, 2p/sub 3/2/, 3s/sub 1/2/, 3p/sub 1/2/, and 3/p/sub 3/2/ electrons of nickel in the oxide NiO and in an aluminum - nickel catalyst have been discussed on the basis of the results of a self-consistent calculation of the electronic states of the NiO/sub 6//sup 10 -/ cluster in the spin-polarized variation of the X..cap alpha..-scattered-wave method with complete consideration of the relativistic properties of the core electrons in the angular-momentum-polarized variant. Partial consideration of the relativistic properties of the valence-band electrons (consideration of the Darwin terms and the dependence of the mass on the velocity during the averaging of the wave functions and the density with respect to the angular momentum) does not alter the basic conclusions of the work.

  9. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Novel SLA-DQ alleles and their recombinant molecules in xenogeneic stimulation of human T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuxiang; Xie, Jin; Li, Ningli; Zhou, Yun; Xin, Lijun; Chou, Kuang-Yen

    2005-06-01

    MHC class II antigens DR and DQ are essential for graft rejection both in allo- and xeno-transplantation. The antigens, especially the DQA and DQB gene-coencoded DQ molecules, are also involved in transplantation tolerance induced by activation of regulatory T cells. Here we report six novel DQ alleles from three properly inbred Chinese pig strains Gz, Bm and Yn. In our study, cDNA of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DQA and -DQB were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced for each strain. The ORF-containing SLA-DQA and -DQB genes are composed of 768 (or 765) and 786 nucleotides, encoding antigen molecules of 255 (or 254) and 261 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequences of both SLA-DQA and -DQB alleles showed disparities when compared either among the three pig strains or with available SLA data, which allows our novel alleles receiving their accession numbers from GenBank. The sequence analysis further revealed a phylogenic connection of our SLA-DQ alleles with SLA-DQ(c) haplotype. In addition, the homologies of MHC DQ or DQ-like molecules between Chinese pigs (SLA) and human (HLA) are higher than those between pigs and mice (H-2). By co-transfection of Bm pig DQA and DQB genes into L929 cells, the Bm-DQ heterodimer-expressed cells could effectively stimulate the human lymphoproliferation in presence of human APCs with a mean stimulation index (SI) 9.9+/-1.4. This functional assay indicated that our recombinant DQ antigens are capable of initiating human lymphoproliferation in a xeno-MLR.

  11. Online Tools for Uncovering Data Quality (DQ) Issues in Satellite-Based Global Precipitation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Heo, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Data quality (DQ) has many attributes or facets (i.e., errors, biases, systematic differences, uncertainties, benchmark, false trends, false alarm ratio, etc.)Sources can be complicated (measurements, environmental conditions, surface types, algorithms, etc.) and difficult to be identified especially for multi-sensor and multi-satellite products with bias correction (TMPA, IMERG, etc.) How to obtain DQ info fast and easily, especially quantified info in ROI Existing parameters (random error), literature, DIY, etc.How to apply the knowledge in research and applications.Here, we focus on online systems for integration of products and parameters, visualization and analysis as well as investigation and extraction of DQ information.

  12. Definition of HLA-DQ as a transplantation antigen.

    PubMed

    Petersdorf, E W; Longton, G M; Anasetti, C; Mickelson, E M; Smith, A G; Martin, P J; Hansen, J A

    1996-12-24

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of recipient HLA-DRB1 allele disparity in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated donor marrow transplantation. The role of HLA-DQB1 allele disparity in this clinical setting is unknown. To elucidate the biological importance of HLA-DQB1, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 449 HLA-A, -B, and -DR serologically matched unrelated donor transplants. Molecular typing of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles revealed 335 DRB1 and DQB1 matched pairs; 41 DRB1 matched and DQB1 mismatched pairs; 48 DRB1 mismatched and DQB1 matched pairs; and 25 DRB1 and DQB1 mismatched pairs. The conditional probabilities of grades III-IV acute GVHD were 0.42, 0.61, 0.55, and 0.71, respectively. The relative risk of acute GVHD associated with a single locus HLA-DQB1 mismatch was 1.8 (1.1, 2.7; P = 0.01), and the risk associated with any HLA-DQB1 and/or HLA-DRB1 mismatch was 1.6 (1.2, 2.2; P = 0.003). These results provide evidence that HLA-DQ is a transplant antigen and suggest that evaluation of both HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 is necessary in selecting potential donors.

  13. Quantum phase transition in a Dp-Dq system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Shesansu Sekhar

    2010-10-01

    Using the top-down approach, we study intersecting Dp-Dq brane configuration in string theory and find examples, where there can be a quantum phase transition at zero temperature induced by the violation of the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound at IR, which is done essentially by a combination of charge density and magnetic fields. In particular, there exists a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) type of transition for D3-D5 and D5-D5 systems. The study of the BKT type of transition is initiated by Jensen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 041601 (2010)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.041601] for a D3-D5 system with nonzero charge density and a magnetic field. Here, we show that one can have the BKT transition for a D3-D5 system even in the absence of charge density but requires multiple magnetic fields. In this case the field theory lives in 2+1 dimensions, whereas for the D5-D5 type, the transition requires the presence of both the charge density and magnetic fields and the dual field theory lives on a 3+1 dimensional spacetime. We also study the D3-D7 system but it does not show the BKT type of transition.

  14. INTERFEROMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR RESOLVED WARM DUST IN THE DQ TAU SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, Andrew F.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Carpenter, John M.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R.; Bary, Jeffrey S.; Skrutskie, Michael F.

    2009-05-10

    We report on near-infrared (IR) interferometric observations of the double-lined pre-main sequence binary system DQ Tau. We model these data with a visual orbit for DQ Tau supported by the spectroscopic orbit and analysis of Mathieu et al. Further, DQ Tau exhibits significant near-IR excess; modeling our data requires inclusion of near-IR light from an 'excess' source. Remarkably, the excess source is resolved in our data, similar in scale to the binary itself ({approx}0.2 AU at apastron), rather than the larger circumbinary disk ({approx}0.4 AU radius). Our observations support the Mathieu et al. and Carr et al. inference of significant warm material near the DQ Tau binary.

  15. Interferometric Evidence for Resolved Warm Dust in the DQ Tau System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Andrew F.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Carpenter, John M.; Ciardi, David R.; Bary, Jeffrey S.; Skrutskie, Michael F.

    2009-05-01

    We report on near-infrared (IR) interferometric observations of the double-lined pre-main sequence binary system DQ Tau. We model these data with a visual orbit for DQ Tau supported by the spectroscopic orbit and analysis of Mathieu et al. Further, DQ Tau exhibits significant near-IR excess; modeling our data requires inclusion of near-IR light from an "excess" source. Remarkably, the excess source is resolved in our data, similar in scale to the binary itself (~0.2 AU at apastron), rather than the larger circumbinary disk (~0.4 AU radius). Our observations support the Mathieu et al. and Carr et al. inference of significant warm material near the DQ Tau binary.

  16. Detection of a novel HLA-DQ specificity: serological and immunochemical analyses by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, N; Kojima, H; Nakayama, T; Kunikane, H; Hawkin, S; Fukasawa, Y; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Kasahara, M; Tajima, Y

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a novel human B-cell allospecificity was produced by immunizing a C3H/He mouse with the human B lymphoblastoid cell line EBV-Wa (HLA-DR4/Dw15/DQblank homozygous). The mAb, termed HU-46, reacted with B cells from not only DR4/Dw15-positive individuals but also certain DRw8/Dw8-positive ones whose DQ phenotypes had not yet been defined. Two-dimensional gel analyses indicated that the mAb recognized class II antigens which were encoded by the HLA-DQ locus. Furthermore, in genetic analysis, the gene encoding the class II antigen detected by HU-46 met the Hardy-Weinberg condition as a fourth allele of the DQ locus. We provisionally labeled this novel DQ specificity DQWa.

  17. Hot C-rich white dwarfs: testing the DB-DQ transition through pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Hot DQ white dwarfs are a new class of white dwarf stars that were discovered recently within the framework of the SDSS project. There are nine known hot DQ stars, out of a total of several thousands white dwarfs spectroscopically identified. Three hot DQ white dwarfs have been reported to exhibit photometric variability with periods compatible with pulsation g-modes. Aims: We present a nonadiabatic pulsation analysis of carbon-rich hot DQ white dwarf stars. One of our main aims is to test the convective-mixing scenario for the origin of hot DQs by studying their pulsational properties. Methods: Our pulsation study is based on the full evolutionary models of hot DQ white dwarfs developed by Althaus and collaborators, which consistently cover the entire evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Specifically, we present a stability analysis of white dwarf models from stages before the blue edge of the DBV instability strip (Teff ≈ 30 000 K), until the domain of the hot DQ white dwarfs (18 000-24 000 K), including the transition DB→hot DQ white dwarf. We explore evolutionary models with M* = 0.585 M⊙ and M* = 0.87 M⊙, and two values of the thickness of the He-rich envelope (MHe = 2×10-7 M* and MHe = 10-8 M_*). These envelopes are 4-5 orders of magnitude thinner than those of standard DB white dwarf models resulting from canonical stellar evolution computations. Results: We found that at evolutionary phases in which the models are characterized by He-dominated atmospheres, they exhibit unstable g-mode pulsations typical of DBV stars, and when the models become DQ white dwarfs with carbon-dominated atmospheres, they continue being pulsationally unstable with characteristics similar to DB models, and in agreement with the periods detected in variable hot DQ white dwarfs. In particular, for models with MHe = 10-8 M_*, a narrow gap exists separating the DB from the DQ instability domains. Conclusions: Our calculations provide

  18. Ca/sup 2 +/-stimulated catecholamine release from. cap alpha. -toxin-permeabilized PC12 cells: biochemical evidence for exocytosis and its modulation by protein kinase C and G protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Braeutigam, M.; Gratzl, M.

    1987-12-01

    Two possible cellular pathways of catecholamines from the chromaffin vesicles of PC12 cells to the surrounding medium are explored in this study. The direct one circumventing the cytoplasm can be activated in ..cap alpha..-toxin-permeabilized cells with micromolar levels of free Ca/sup 2 +/. Catecholamine metabolites formed in the cytoplasm (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol) are neither formed nor released from the cells under these conditions. However, when vesicular catecholamines were discharged into the cytoplasm by addition of the ionophore nigericin, such metabolites are formed and released into the medium independent of Ca/sup 2 +/. Both types of experiments provide direct evidence for the operation of Ca/sup 2 +/-induced exocytosis of dopamine and noradrenaline in permeabilized PC12 cells. The Ca/sup 2 +/ dependence of dopamine or noradrenaline release, as measured by the determination of the endogenous catecholamines using the high-performance liquid chromatography technique, exhibits two different phases. One is already activated below ..mu..M free Ca/sup 2 +/ and plateaus at 1-5 ..mu..M free Ca/sup 2 +/, while a second occurs in the presence of larger amounts of free Ca/sup 2 +/ (10-100 ..mu..M). Ca/sup 2 +/-induced catecholamine release from the permeabilized cells can be modulated in different ways: It is enhanced by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and the diacylglycerol 1-oleyl-2-acetylglycerol provided Mg/sup 2 +//ATP is present, and it is inhibited by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). The latter effect is abolished by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin but not by cholera toxin. Thus, it appears that Ca/sup 2 +/-induced exocytosis can be modulated via the protein kinase C system, as well as via GTP binding proteins.

  19. Hot DQ white dwarfs: a pulsational test of the mixing scenario for their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.

    2010-11-01

    Hot DQ white dwarfs constitute a new class of white dwarf stars, uncovered recently within the framework of SDSS project. There exist nine of them, out of a total of several thousands white dwarfs spectroscopically identified. Recently, three hot DQ white dwarfs have been reported to exhibit photometric variability with periods compatible with pulsation g-modes. In this contribution, we presented the results of a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis of the recently discovered carbon-rich hot DQ white dwarf stars. Our study relies on the full evolutionary models of hot DQ white dwarfs recently developed by Althaus et al. (2009), that consistently cover the whole evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Specifically, we performed a stability analysis on white dwarf models from stages before the blue edge of the DBV instability strip (Teff ≈ 30000 K) until the domain of the hot DQ white dwarfs (18000-24000 K), including the transition DB→hot DQ white dwarf. We explore evolutionary models with M*= 0.585M⊙ and M* = 0.87M⊙, and two values of thickness of the He-rich envelope (MHe = 2 × 10-7M* and MHe = 10-8M*).

  20. Effect of human leukocyte antigen-C and -DQ matching on pediatric heart transplant graft survival.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ryan J; Savage, Andrew J; Nietert, Paul J; Kavarana, Minoo; Moussa, Omar; Burnette, Ali L; Atz, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    A higher degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the A, B, and DR loci has been associated with improved long-term survival after pediatric heart transplantation in multiple International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation registry reports. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HLA matching at the C and DQ loci with pediatric graft survival. The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried for isolated heart transplants that occurred from 1988 to 2012 with a recipient age of 17 or younger and at least 1 postoperative follow-up encounter. When HLA matching at the C or DQ loci were analyzed, only transplants with complete typing of donor and recipient at the respective loci were included. Transplants were divided into patients with at least 1 match at the C locus (C-match) vs no match (C-no), and at least 1 match at the DQ (DQ-match) locus vs no match (DQ-no). Primary outcome was graft loss. Univariate analysis was performed with the log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was performed with the following patient factors included in the model: recipient age, ischemic time; recipient on ventilator, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular assist device, or inotropes at transplant; recipient serum bilirubin and creatinine closest to transplant, ratio of donor weight to recipient weight, underlying cardiac diagnosis, crossmatch results, transplant year, and HLA matching at the A, B, and DR loci. Complete typing at the C locus occurred in 2,429 of 4,731 transplants (51%), and complete typing at the DQ locus occurred in 3,498 of 4,731 transplants (74%). Patient factors were similar in C-match and C-no, except for year of transplant (median year, 2007 [interquartile range, 1997-2010] vs year 2005 [interquartile range, 1996-2009], respectively; p = 0.03) and the degree of HLA matching at the A, B, and DR loci (high level of HLA matching in 11.9% vs 3%, respectively; p < 0.01). Matching at the C locus was not

  1. Effect of HLA-C and DQ matching on Pediatric Heart Transplant Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Ryan J.; Savage, Andrew J.; Nietert, Paul J.; Kavarana, Minoo; Moussa, Omar; Burnette, Ali L.; Atz, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher degree of HLA matching at the A, B, and DR-loci has been associated with improved long-term survival after pediatric heart transplantation in multiple ISHLT registry reports. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HLA matching at the C and DQ loci with pediatric graft survival. Methods The UNOS database was queried for isolated heart transplants that occurred from 1988 to 2012 with a recipient age of 17 or less and at least one postoperative follow up encounter. When analyzing HLA matching at the C or DQ loci, only those transplants with complete typing of donor and recipient at the respective loci were included. Transplants were divided into patients with at least one match at the C-locus (C-match) versus no match (C-no), and at least one match at the DQ locus versus no match (DQ-match versus DQ-no). Primary outcome was graft loss. Univariate analysis was performed with log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was performed with following patient factors included in the model: recipient age, ischemic time; recipient on ventilator, ECMO, ventricular assist device or inotropes at transplant; recipient serum bilirubin and creatinine closest to transplant, donor-recipient weight ratio, underlying cardiac diagnosis, crossmatch results, transplant year, and HLA matching at the A, B, and DR loci. Results Complete typing at the C-locus occurred in 2429/4731 (51%) transplants and 3498/4731 (74%) transplants had complete typing at the DQ locus. C-match did not differ from C-no with respect to patient factors, except for year of transplant; [C-match median year 2007 (IQR 1997–2010) vs. C-no median year 2005 (IQR 1996–2009), p=0.03] and degree of HLA matching at A, B, and DR loci (11.9% of C-match with high level of HLA matching v. 3% of C-no, p<0.01). Matching at the C-locus was not associated with decreased risk of graft loss [C-no median graft survival 13.1 yrs (95%CI 11.5–14.8) vs. C-match 15.1 yrs (95%CI 13.5–16.6) p=0.44, log

  2. Posttranslational modification of HLA-DQ binding islet autoantigens in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    van Lummel, Menno; Duinkerken, Gaby; van Veelen, Peter A; de Ru, Arnoud; Cordfunke, Robert; Zaldumbide, Arnaud; Gomez-Touriño, Iria; Arif, Sefina; Peakman, Mark; Drijfhout, Jan W; Roep, Bart O

    2014-01-01

    Posttranslational modification (PTM) of islet autoantigens can cause lack of central tolerance in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), involved in PTM of gluten antigens in celiac disease, creates negatively charged peptides favored by T1D-predisposing HLA-DQ molecules, offering an attractive candidate modifying islet autoantigens in T1D. The highly predisposing HLA-DQ8cis/trans molecules share preferences for negatively charged peptides, as well as distinct peptide-binding characteristics that distinguish their peptide-binding repertoire. We screened islet autoantigens with the tTG substrate motif for candidate-modified epitopes binding to HLA-DQ8cis/trans and identified 31 candidate islet epitopes. Deamidation was confirmed for 28 peptides (90%). Two of these epitopes preferentially bound to HLA-DQ8cis and six to HLA-DQ8trans upon deamidation, whereas all other peptides bound equally to HLA-DQ8cis/trans. HLA-DQ8cis-restricted T cells from a new-onset T1D patient could only be generated against a deamidated proinsulin peptide, but cross-reacted with native proinsulin peptide upon restimulation. The rate of T-cell autoreactivity in recent-onset T1D patients extended from 42% to native insulin to 68% adding responses to modified proinsulin, versus 20% and 37% respectively, in healthy donors. Most patients responded by interferon-γ, whereas most healthy donors produced interleukin-10 only. Thus, T-cell autoreactivity exists to modified islet epitopes that differs in quality and quantity between patients and healthy donors.

  3. Spectral Mapping of the Intermediate Polar DQ Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R. K.; Baptista, R.; Horne, K.; Martell, P.

    2010-06-01

    We report an eclipse-mapping study of the intermediate polar DQ Her based on time-resolved optical spectroscopy (Δλ ~ 3800-5000 Å) covering four eclipses. The spectra were sliced into 295 narrow passbands in the continuum and in the lines, and the corresponding light curves were analyzed to solve for a set of monochromatic maps of the disk brightness distribution and for the flux of an additional uneclipsed component in each band. Eclipse maps of the He II λ4686 line indicate that an azimuthally and vertically extended bright spot at disk rim is an important source of the reprocessing of X-rays from the magnetic poles. The disk spectrum is flat with no Balmer or Helium lines in the inner regions, and shows double-peaked emission lines in the intermediate and outer disk regions, while the slope of the continuum becomes progressively redder with increasing radius. The inferred disk temperatures are in the range T ~= 13500-5000 K and can be reasonably well described by a steady-state disk with mass accretion rate of \\dot{M}=(2.7± 1.0)× 10^{-9} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}. A comparison of the radial intensity distribution for the Balmer lines reveals a linear correlation between the slope of the distribution and the transition energy. The spectrum of the uneclipsed light is dominated by Balmer and He I lines in emission (probably from the extended nova shell) with narrow absorption cores (likely from a collimated and optically thick wind from the accretion disk). The observed narrow and redshifted Ca II λ3934 absorption line in the total light spectra plus the inverse P-Cygni profiles of the Balmer and He II λ4686 emission lines in spectra of the asymmetric component indicate radial inflow of gas in the innermost disk regions and are best explained in terms of magnetically controlled accretion inside the white dwarf magnetosphere. We infer projected radial inflow velocities of ~200-500 km s-1, significantly lower than both the rotational and the free-fall velocities for

  4. SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE INTERMEDIATE POLAR DQ HERCULIS

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, R. K.; Baptista, R.; Horne, K.; Martell, P.

    2010-06-15

    We report an eclipse-mapping study of the intermediate polar DQ Her based on time-resolved optical spectroscopy ({Delta}{lambda} {approx} 3800-5000 A) covering four eclipses. The spectra were sliced into 295 narrow passbands in the continuum and in the lines, and the corresponding light curves were analyzed to solve for a set of monochromatic maps of the disk brightness distribution and for the flux of an additional uneclipsed component in each band. Eclipse maps of the He II {lambda}4686 line indicate that an azimuthally and vertically extended bright spot at disk rim is an important source of the reprocessing of X-rays from the magnetic poles. The disk spectrum is flat with no Balmer or Helium lines in the inner regions, and shows double-peaked emission lines in the intermediate and outer disk regions, while the slope of the continuum becomes progressively redder with increasing radius. The inferred disk temperatures are in the range T {approx_equal} 13500-5000 K and can be reasonably well described by a steady-state disk with mass accretion rate of M-dot =(2.7{+-}1.0)x10{sup -9} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. A comparison of the radial intensity distribution for the Balmer lines reveals a linear correlation between the slope of the distribution and the transition energy. The spectrum of the uneclipsed light is dominated by Balmer and He I lines in emission (probably from the extended nova shell) with narrow absorption cores (likely from a collimated and optically thick wind from the accretion disk). The observed narrow and redshifted Ca II {lambda}3934 absorption line in the total light spectra plus the inverse P-Cygni profiles of the Balmer and He II {lambda}4686 emission lines in spectra of the asymmetric component indicate radial inflow of gas in the innermost disk regions and are best explained in terms of magnetically controlled accretion inside the white dwarf magnetosphere. We infer projected radial inflow velocities of {approx}200-500 km s{sup -1}, significantly

  5. A new model for dermatitis herpetiformis that uses HLA-DQ8 transgenic NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Marietta, Eric; Black, Kay; Camilleri, Michael; Krause, Patricia; Rogers, Roy S.; David, Chella; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an autoimmune blistering skin disorder that is associated with gluten sensitivity. It presents as a papulovesicular rash and is often associated with enteropathy. The rash resolves when the patient is placed on a gluten-free diet and/or dapsone. DH, as well as celiac disease, is tightly associated with DQ2 and DQ8. A novel mouse model for DH is described that utilizes the NOD background and the HLA-DQ8 transgene. The addition of DQ8 contributes sensitivity to gliadin, and the addition of the NOD background contributes to autoimmunity and pathogenesis. Fifteen NOD DQ8+ mice of 90 that were sensitized to gluten developed blistering pathology similar to that seen in DH. Neutrophil infiltration of the dermis, deposition of IgA at the dermal-epidermal junction, and a complete reversal of the blistering phenomenon with the administration of a gluten-free diet with or without dapsone were observed. None of the 3 blistering mice examined had small-bowel pathology. This animal model of DH will be useful to determine the specificity of the IgA deposits, as well as the pathogenic mechanisms that occur in the skin as a result of gluten ingestion. PMID:15489956

  6. Allelic diversity at MHC class II DQ loci in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): evidence for duplication.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Saket K; Deb, Sitangsu M; Kumar, Subodh; Mitra, Abhijit; Sharma, Arjava; Sakaram, Durgam; Naskar, Soumen; Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Sita R

    2010-12-01

    The genetic diversity of MHC class II DQ genes was investigated in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Highly variable regions (exons 2-3) of DQ genes were amplified from 152 buffaloes and genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Alleles identified by differential restriction patterns were sequenced for the characterization. PCR-RFLP was a rapid method to discriminate between DQA1 and duplicated DQA2 genes in buffalo, however, the method appeared to be inadequate for determining the more complicated DQB genotypes. A total of 7 and 10 alleles were identified for DQA and DQB loci, respectively. Nucleotide as well as amino acid variations among DQ alleles particularly at peptide binding regions were high. Such variations were as expected higher in DQB than DQA alleles. The phylogenetic analysis for both genes revealed the grouping of alleles into two major sub-groups with higher genetic divergence. High divergence among DQ allelic families and the isolation of two diverse DQA and DQB sequences from individual samples indicated duplication of DQ loci was similar in buffalo to other ruminants.

  7. [Frequency and linkage disequilibrium of specific HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Xia; Hu, Zhi-Fei; Zu, Qiang; Lu, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Jun

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution feature of HLA-DR/DQ gene linkage disequilibrium in Chinese Han population and to improve the accuracy of HLA matching results. Genotyping of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ gene locus was performed using PCR-SSP typing in Chinese Han population receiving kidney transplantation. The results showed that there were 29 new linkage combinations in 1799 patients, in which DR13-DQ5, DR11-DQ8 and DR8-DQ8 were discovered for 11, 8 and 7 times respectively while DR9-DQ8, DR12-DQ6 and DR14-DQ4 were both discovered for 6 times. The linkage disequilibrium parameters of these haplotypes were negative, showing that these linkages were uncommon. It is concluded that this study not only enriches the classical HLA-DR/DQ linkage combinations, but also indicates the national relevance of combination distribution, and it has great importance in improving the accuracy of HLA matching experiments and reducing unnecessary repeated work.

  8. Search for DQ2.5 and DQ8 alleles using a lower cost technique in patients with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in a population of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Marília D; Kowalski, Thayne W; Puñales, Márcia; Tschiedel, Balduíno; Mariath, Luiza M; Pires, Ana Luiza G; Faccini, Lavínia S; Silveira, Themis R

    2017-07-13

    To evaluate the frequency of DQ2.5 and DQ8 alleles using the Tag-single-nucleotide polymorphism (Tag-SNP) technique in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease (CD) in southern Brazil. In a prospective design, we performed the search for DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0201 alleles for DQ2.5 and DQB1*0302 for DQ8 through Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique, using TaqMan Genotyping Assays (Applied Biosystems, USA). The diagnosis of CD was established by duodenal biopsy and genotypic determination performed by StepOne Software v2.3. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between groups using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and the multiple comparisons using Finner's adjustment. Three hundred and sixty two patients with a median age of 14 years were divided into 3 groups: T1DM without CD (264); T1DM with CD (32) and CD without T1DM (66). In 97% of individuals with T1DM and CD and 76% of individuals with CD without T1DM, respectively, the alleles DQ2.5 and/or DQ8 were identified (p < 0.001). DQ2.5 was more common in individuals with CD (p = 0.004) and DQ8 was more common in individuals with type 1 diabetes (p = 0.008). The evaluation of the alleles for DQ2.5 and DQ8 by Tag-SNP technique showed a high negative predictive value among those with T1DM, similar to that described by the conventional technique. The high frequency of DQ8 alleles in individuals with T1DM did not allow differentiating those at higher risk of developing T1DM.

  9. The cervical cap (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  10. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  11. High Speed Optical Observations of Cataclysmic Variables: FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Gomez, S.; Robinson, E. L.; Andronov, I. L.; Gonzalez, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric data on three cataclysmic variables. Broad-band CCD observations of FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her were obtained with 1-3s integrations at the Otto Struve, 2.1m, Telescope of McDonald Observatory. High speed optical photometry reveals details in these cataclysmic variables not possible using longer time integrations. In FL Ceti, the shortest period eclipsing polar known, the eclipse of two separate well localized accretion regions is resolved. In BY Cam and DQ Her, the spin period of the white dwarf is revealed. We discuss model constrains provided by these observations.

  12. Peroxidation of the dried thin film of lipid by high-energy alpha particles from a cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1984-11-01

    High-energy ..cap alpha.. particles produced a dose-dependent linear increase in different lipid peroxidation products (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes, and hydroperoxides) in the dried thin film state. An inverse dose-rate effect was observed when the dose rate was varied by changing either the ..cap alpha..-particle fluence rate or the ..cap alpha..-particle energy. The antioxidants ..cap alpha..-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) suppressed the ..cap alpha..-particle-induced lipid peroxidation in the dried thin film state, and in this respect ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was found superior to BHT. It was found that ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was equally efficient in inhibiting lipid peroxidations by ..cap alpha.. particles and ultraviolet light.

  13. The cervical cap.

    PubMed

    1988-10-07

    The US Food and Drug Administration has approved marketing of the Prentif cavity-rim cervical cap. This contraceptive device is being distributed in the US and Canada by Cervical Cap Ltd, Los Gatos, California. The Prentif cap is available in 4 sizes: 22, 25, 28, and 31 mm inside diameter, with a length of 1 1/4-1 1/2 inches. In a multicenter trial involving 522 diaphragm users and 581 cap users followed for 2 years, the cap was 82.6% effective and the diaphragm was 83.3% effective in preventing pregnancy. When pregnancies attributable to user failure were excluded, these rates were increased to 93.6% for the cap and 95.4% for the diaphragm. 4% of cap users compared with only 1.7% of diaphragm users in this study developed abnormal Pap smears after 3 months of use; in addition, a higher proportion of cap users became infected with Gardnerella vaginalis and Monilia. Theoretical hazards include toxic shock syndrome and endometriosis due to backflow of menstrual fluids. Cap users are advised to undergo a Pap test after 3 months of use and discontinue cap use if the results are abnormal. The cap should not be used during menstruation. Although the cap can be left in place for up to 48 hours, its position should be checked before and after each episode of intercourse. The cervical cap requires less spermicide than the diaphragm and is not as messy. In addition, it can be left in the vagina twice as long as the diaphragm, without additional spermicide. Since the cap is smaller than the diaphragm and does not cover the vaginal wall, some women find intercourse more pleasurable with this device.

  14. A Disk-based Dynamical Constraint on the Mass of the Young Binary DQ Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekala, I.; Andrews, S. M.; Torres, G.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Stassun, K. G.; Wilner, D. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2016-02-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CO J = 2-1 line emission from the DQ Tau circumbinary disk. These data are used to tomographically reconstruct the Keplerian disk velocity field in a forward-modeling inference framework, and thereby provide a dynamical constraint on the mass of the DQ Tau binary of {M}*={1.27}-0.27+0.46 {M}⊙ . Those results are compared with an updated and improved orbital solution for this double-lined system based on long-term monitoring of its stellar radial velocities. Both of these independent dynamical constraints on the binary mass are in excellent agreement: taken together, they demonstrate that the DQ Tau system mass is 1.21 ± 0.26 M⊙ and that the disk and binary orbital planes are aligned within 3° (at 3σ confidence). The predictions of various theoretical models for pre-main-sequence stellar evolution are also consistent with these masses, though more detailed comparisons are difficult due to lingering uncertainties regarding the photospheric properties of the individual components. DQ Tau is the third, nearly equal-mass, double-lined spectroscopic binary with a circumbinary disk that has been dynamically “weighed” with these two independent techniques: all show consistent results, validating the overall accuracy of the disk-based approach and demonstrating that it can be robustly applied to large samples of young, single stars as ALMA ramps up to operations at full capacity.

  15. FLOYDS Classification of ASASSN-14dq as a Young Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, I.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Sand, D.

    2014-07-01

    We obtained a spectrum of ASASSN-14dq (ATel #6301) on 2014 July 9.5 (UT) with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the Faulkes Telescope North. The spectrum displays a blue continuum with broad hydrogen p-cygni features having absorption minima at ~10000 km/s.

  16. T cell repertoire in DQ5-positive MuSK-positive myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Marino, Mariapaola; Maiuri, Maria Teresa; Di Sante, Gabriele; Scuderi, Flavia; La Carpia, Francesca; Trakas, Nikolaos; Provenzano, Carlo; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Ria, Francesco; Tzartos, Socrates J; Evoli, Amelia; Bartoccioni, Emanuela

    2014-08-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypical antibody-mediated disease characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. Serum antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor and muscle-specific tyrosine kinase receptor (MuSK) are found in about 85% and 8% of patients respectively. We have previously shown that more than 70% of MG patients with MuSK antibodies share the HLA DQ5 allele. The aim of the present study was to analyze the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire specific for recombinant human MuSK protein. We used the CDR3 TRBV-TRBJ spectratyping (immunoscope) to analyze the T cell response to MuSK from 13 DQ5+ MuSK-MG patients and from 7 controls (six DQ5+ MuSK negative subjects and one DQ5- DQ3+ MuSK positive patient). DQ5+ MuSK-MG patients but not controls used a restricted set of TCR VJ rearrangements in response to MuSK stimulation. One semiprivate (TRBV29-TRBJ2.5) rearrangement was found in 5/13 patients, while 4 other semiprivate (one in TRBV28-TRBJ2.1 and in TRBV3-TRBJ1.2, and two in TRBV28-TRBJ1.2) rearrangements were differently shared by 4/13 patients each and were absent in controls. When we sequenced the TRBV29-TRBJ2.5 rearrangement, we obtained 26 different sequences of the expected 130 bp length from 117 samples of the 5 positive patients: two common motifs GXGQET/TEHQET were shared in 4 patients as semiprivate motifs. Thus, the MuSK-specific T-cell response appears to be restricted in DQ5+ MuSK-MG patients, with a semiprivate repertoire including a common motif of TRBV29. This oligoclonal restriction of T cells will allow the identification of immunodominant epitopes in the antigen, providing therefore new tools for diagnosis and targeted therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [High frequency of DQ8 in the celiac population of Chaco province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Motta, Patricía Maria F; López, María A; Marinic, Karina; Picón, Santiago O; Stafuza, Mariana G; Habegger de Sorrentino, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong association between celiac disease (CD) and certain genes of the major histocompatibility complex (HLA). The CD specifically related alleles are those coding for HLA-DQ2 heterodimer and to a lesser degree for HLA-DQ8. OBJECTVE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HLA-DQB1* and HLA-DRB1* alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes in patients diagnosed with CD and in control population of Chaco, in order to establish its distribution and compare it with that observed in other populations. A total of 139 samples from patients diagnosed with CD and 119 healthy controls were typed for HLA-DQ and HLA-DR, using PCR and reverse hybridization (INNO-LiPA or Dynal). Comparing patients with CD vs. controls, the DQBI*0201 (P = 0.0002), DQBJ*0202 (P = 0.0046), DQBI*0302 (P = 0. 0006), DRBl *03 (P = 0.0002), DRBl *04 (P = 0.0199) and DRB1 *07 (P = 0.0062) were significantly increased, while a decrease was observed in HLA-DQB1*0301 (P = 0.0006), HLA-DQBI*0303 (P = 0.0070), DQBI*0501 (P = 0.0023), DQB1*0604 (P = 0.0140) DRB1*01 (P = 0.0023), DRB1*08 (P = 0.0165), DRB1*09 (P = 0.0362) and DRB1*16 (P = 0.0228). Within DQB1* genotypes associated with EC, 65.4% of patients had the DQB1*02 in linkage disequilibrium with DRB1*03 or DRB1*07 (DQ2), and 43.2% presented genotype DQB1*0302 in linkage disequilibrium with DRB1*04 (DQ8). Both genotypes were shared by 15.2% of them. We point out the high frequency of DQ8 associated with CD. Although the DQ2 is still the most common, this finding could be attributed to the Amerindian influence in our population.

  18. HLA-DQ polymorphisms with HBV infection: different outcomes upon infection and prognosis to lamivudine therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Jia, J; Dong, J; Yu, F; Ma, N; Li, M; Liu, X; Liu, W; Li, T; Liu, D

    2014-07-01

    Two recent genome-wide studies showed that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HLA-DQ region (rs2856718 and rs9275572) were associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and chronic hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma in Japanese patients. We tested the effects of the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms for all major HBV outcomes and lamivudine treatment in Han Chinese. A total of 1649 samples were enrolled, and peripheral blood samples were collected in this study. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HLA-DQ region were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Our study demonstrated the clear relevance of HLA-DQ rs2856718 and rs9275572 with HBV susceptibility, natural clearance and HBV-associated HCC. HLA-DQ rs2856718G and rs9275572A were strongly associated with decreased risk of chronic HBV infection (odds ratio = 0.641; P = 2.64 × 10(-4) ; odds ratio = 0.627, P = 7.22 × 10(-5) ) and HBV natural clearance (odds ratio = 0.610; P = 4.80 × 10(-4) ; odds ratio = 0.714, P = 0.013). Moreover, rs9275572A was also associated with development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (odds ratio = 0.632, P = 0.008). In addition, we showed for the first time to our knowledge that rs9275572 was a predictor for lamivudine therapy (viral response: odds ratio = 2.599, P = 4.43 × 10(-4) ; biochemical response: odds ratio = 2.279, P = 4.23 × 10(-4) ). Our study suggested that HLA-DQ loci were associated with both HBV clearance and HBV-related diseases and outcomes of lamivudine treatment in Han Chinese.

  19. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  20. Claymax landfill cap

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1989-12-15

    A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.

  1. Health-care cap.

    PubMed

    1996-05-03

    Dallas Avionics agreed to discontinue its cap on HIV-related medical expenses. The Texas company offered employees $1 million worth of lifetime medical benefits, with the exception of HIV-related expenses. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund intervened, demanding that the cap be removed and the company pay an employee's $82,000 outstanding HIV-related medical bills. According to Lambda, the cap violates the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  2. Reaction of. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. , omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols with phosphorus tribromide

    SciTech Connect

    Krolevets, A.A.; Ragulin, L.I.; Shevchenko, V.I.; Lyubimova, E.I.

    1986-08-20

    The authors investigate the bromination and phosphorylation of the title alkanol by phosphorus tribromide and determine the structure and composition of the resulting phosphorus and bromine compounds using IR and NMR spectroscopy with phosphorus 31, fluorine 19, and hydrogen 1. An extensive analysis of chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants is performed. The reaction of fluorine-containing trialkyl phosphites with sulfuric acid anhydride was found to lead to the formation of the corresponding fluorinated trialkyl phosphates in a quantitative yield.

  3. Synthesis of Leishmania cap-4 intermediates, cap-2 and cap-3.

    PubMed

    Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Stepinski, Janusz; Kierzek, Ryszard; Jemielity, Jacek; Zuberek, Joanna; Yoffe, Yael; Shapira, Michal; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of Leishmania mRNA 5'-cap analogs, m(7)Gpppm(2)(6)AmpAm (cap-2), and m(7)Gpppm(2)(6)AmpAmpCm (cap-3) is reported. Binding affinities of those cap analogs for LeishIF4E proteins were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Cap-3 showed similar affinity to LeishIF4Es compared to the mature trypanosomatids cap structure (cap-4).

  4. Structural aspects of the interaction between heterogeneic human papillomavirus type 1 E4-specific T cell receptors and the same peptide/HLA-DQ8 complex.

    PubMed

    Steele, J C; Young, S P; Goodall, J C; Gallimore, P H

    1998-11-01

    TCR usage has been studied in a panel of Th cell clones specific for the same peptide epitope (P N S Q D R G R P R R S D), derived from the human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV1) E4 protein, and restricted through HLA-DQ8. After identifying the V, D, and J genes used by the TCRs and sequencing across the V(D)J junctions, five different alpha-chain sequences and five different beta-chain sequences, comprising six independent clones, were identified. A structural model of our E4 peptide/HLA-DQ8 complex predicted that the guanidinyl side chain on the arginine residue at position 6 of the peptide could exist in different orientations. An intramolecular interaction between this arginine and the glutamine residue at position four appeared to control this orientation. Interacting HPV1 E4-specific TCRs would therefore have to recognize the complex in different conformations, and molecular modeling of the TCRs suggested that this could be achieved by changing the dimensions of the central pocket formed where the CDR3 loops of the TCR alpha- and beta-chains converge. It is known that interactions between bound peptide and amino acid residues lining the peptide-binding cleft of HLA molecules are important for determining the conformation and orientation of the peptide/MHC complex. The suggestion here that intramolecular interactions between amino acids of close proximity on the bound peptide are also important adds a further level of complexity to the mechanism by which TCRs interact with Ag.

  5. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-02

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  6. HLA DR/DQ type in a Malay population in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azira, N M S; Zeehaida, M; Nurul Khaiza, Y

    2013-06-01

    The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) has been documented to be involved in various disease susceptibilities or in resistance against certain diseases. An important element in susceptibility and resistance to disease is ethnic genetic constitution. Cognizant of this, the present study aimed at studying the prevalence of particular HLA class II in a normal healthy Malay population which may serve as a guide for further genetic and immunological studies related to the Malay Malaysian population. The study involved 40 normal healthy Malay persons in Kelantan. HLA typing was conducted on venous blood samples through a polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method (low resolution Olerup SSP© HLA Typing Kits). The study found HLA DR12 and HLA DQ8 to be the most frequent HLA class II type. HLA DQ5 was significantly associated with female subjects.

  7. High-speed current dq PI controller for vector controlled PMSM drive.

    PubMed

    Marufuzzaman, Mohammad; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    High-speed current controller for vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The controller is developed based on modular design for faster calculation and uses fixed-point proportional-integral (PI) method for improved accuracy. Current dq controller is usually implemented in digital signal processor (DSP) based computer. However, DSP based solutions are reaching their physical limits, which are few microseconds. Besides, digital solutions suffer from high implementation cost. In this research, the overall controller is realizing in field programmable gate array (FPGA). FPGA implementation of the overall controlling algorithm will certainly trim down the execution time significantly to guarantee the steadiness of the motor. Agilent 16821A Logic Analyzer is employed to validate the result of the implemented design in FPGA. Experimental results indicate that the proposed current dq PI controller needs only 50 ns of execution time in 40 MHz clock, which is the lowest computational cycle for the era.

  8. High-Speed Current dq PI Controller for Vector Controlled PMSM Drive

    PubMed Central

    Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    High-speed current controller for vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The controller is developed based on modular design for faster calculation and uses fixed-point proportional-integral (PI) method for improved accuracy. Current dq controller is usually implemented in digital signal processor (DSP) based computer. However, DSP based solutions are reaching their physical limits, which are few microseconds. Besides, digital solutions suffer from high implementation cost. In this research, the overall controller is realizing in field programmable gate array (FPGA). FPGA implementation of the overall controlling algorithm will certainly trim down the execution time significantly to guarantee the steadiness of the motor. Agilent 16821A Logic Analyzer is employed to validate the result of the implemented design in FPGA. Experimental results indicate that the proposed current dq PI controller needs only 50 ns of execution time in 40 MHz clock, which is the lowest computational cycle for the era. PMID:24574913

  9. HLA-DQ6 (DQB1*0601)-restricted T cells protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in HLA-DR3.DQ6 double-transgenic mice by generating anti-inflammatory IFN-gamma.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Ashutosh; Luckey, David; Basal, Eati; Behrens, Marshall; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2008-06-01

    The human MHC class II genes are associated with genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS of presumed autoimmune origin. These genes encode for proteins responsible for shaping immune response. The exact role of HLA-DQ and -DR genes in disease pathogenesis is not well-understood due to the high polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium, and heterogeneity of human populations. The advent of HLA class II-transgenic (Tg) mice has helped in answering some of these questions. Previously, using single-Tg mice (expressing the HLA-DR or -DQ gene), we showed that proteolipid protein (PLP)(91-110) peptide induced classical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis only in DR3.Abeta degrees mice, suggesting that DR3 (DRB1*0301) is a disease susceptible gene in the context of PLP. Human population studies have suggested that HLA-DQ6 (DQB1*0601) may be a protective gene in MS. To test this disease protection in an experimental model, we generated double-Tg mice expressing both HLA-DR3 and -DQ6. Introduction of DQ6 onto DR3-Tg mice led to a decrease in disease incidence on immunization with PLP(91-110) peptide indicating a dominant protective role of DQ6. This protective effect is due to high levels of IFN-gamma produced by DQ6-restricted T cells, which suppressed proliferation of encephalitogenic DR3-restricted T cells by inducing apoptosis. Our study indicates that DQ6 modifies the PLP(91-110)-specific T cell response in DR3 through anti-inflammatory effects of IFN-gamma, which is protective for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, our double-Tg mouse provides a novel model in which to study epistatic interactions between HLA class II molecules in MS.

  10. MHC2NNZ: A novel peptide binding prediction approach for HLA DQ molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiang; Zeng, Xu; Lu, Dongfang; Liu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jiao

    2017-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecule plays a crucial role in immunology. Computational prediction of MHC-II binding peptides can help researchers understand the mechanism of immune systems and design vaccines. Most of the prediction algorithms for MHC-II to date have made large efforts in human leukocyte antigen (HLA, the name of MHC in Human) molecules encoded in the DR locus. However, HLA DQ molecules are equally important and have only been made less progress because it is more difficult to handle them experimentally. In this study, we propose an artificial neural network-based approach called MHC2NNZ to predict peptides binding to HLA DQ molecules. Unlike previous artificial neural network-based methods, MHC2NNZ not only considers sequence similarity features but also captures the chemical and physical properties, and a novel method incorporating these properties is proposed to represent peptide flanking regions (PFR). Furthermore, MHC2NNZ improves the prediction accuracy by combining with amino acid preference at more specific positions of the peptides binding core. By evaluating on 3549 peptides binding to six most frequent HLA DQ molecules, MHC2NNZ is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC-II prediction methods.

  11. Improved Load Compensation using Harmonic Compensator in dq0 Current Controller for DSTATCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddada, Nagesh; Mishra, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) with dq0 current controller and sine pulse width modulation (SPWM) switching for compensation of unbalanced nonlinear load in distribution system. DSTATCOM, connected in parallel to load at the point of common coupling (PCC), is used for supplying reactive and harmonic components of load current demand. This dq0 current controller is implemented in synchronous reference frame (SRF) rotating at fundamental frequency and consists of harmonic compensation (HC) regulator along with proportional integrator (PI) regulator. HC regulator is realized by number of sinusoidal signal integrators (SSIs) in parallel. The SSI provides high gain for tuned harmonic frequency and helps in minimizing filter current tracking error while compensating for load harmonic currents. Zero-axis controller, which compensates load neutral current and helps in obtaining balanced utility currents, is provided along with d, q controllers. SPWM switching generates inverter gating pulses at constant frequency, which reduces stress levels on VSI switches and simplifies the design of interface filter. Simulation studies of DSTATCOM load compensation with dq0 current controller are carried out in Matlab/Simulink and experimental verification is done using dSpace 1104 with Matlab real-time interface (RTI).

  12. On some peculiarities of the UBVRI-light curves of cataclysmic variables DQ Her, AC Cnc, AM Her.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrienko, E. S.

    Results of UBVRI-photometry of the postnova DQ Her (1982 and 1989), the nova-like AC Cnc (1985 and 1989) and the polar AM Her (1989, summer) have been presented. The peculiarities of the variability of the average light level and of the light curves shape of these three systems and "O-C"-time-dependence for DQ Her and AC Cnc have been examined. The value "O-C" of DQ Her is decreasing with velocity Δ(O-C)/Δt ≍ 10-6 and has cyclic variations with the recurrence time of about 5 - 6 years and amplitude 2 - 4 minutes. No "O-C"-variations for AC Cnc have been detected. These facts speak in favour of the existence of some intrinsic difference between secondaries in DQ Her and AC Cnc.

  13. Genotoxicity of alpha particles in human embryonic skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.; Strniste, G.F.; Tokita, N.

    1984-11-01

    Cell inactivation and induced mutation frequencies at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus have been measured in cultured human fibroblasts (GM10) exposed to ..cap alpha.. particles from /sup 238/ Pu and 250 kVp X rays. The survival curves resulting from exposure to ..cap alpha.. particles are exponential. The mean lethal dose, D/sub 0/, is approximately 1.3 Gy for X rays and 0.25 Gy for ..cap alpha.. particles. As a function of radiation dose, mutation induction at the HGPRT locus was linear for ..cap alpha.. particles whereas the X-ray-induced mutation data were better fitted by a quadratic function. When mutation frequencies were plotted against the log of survival, mutation frequency at a given survival level was greater in cells exposed to ..cap alpha.. particles than to X rays.

  14. Determination of the peptide binding motif and high-affinity ligands for HLA-DQ4 using synthetic peptide libraries.

    PubMed

    Volz, Thomas; Schwarz, Gerold; Fleckenstein, Burkhard; Schepp, Carsten P; Haug, Markus; Roth, Johannes; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Dannecker, Günther E

    2004-06-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is considered to be an autoimmune disease. Various human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations for different subgroups of this heterogeneous disease have been found. For early-onset pauciarticular arthritis (now oligoarthritic JIA), a strong association with the HLA class II haplotype DQA1*0401/DQB1*0402 (DQ4) has been described. We determined the peptide-binding specificities of this HLA-DQ molecule by screening a synthetic acetylated nonapeptide amide library with one defined and eight random sequence positions. A characteristic binding motif could be deduced. By use of these data, we designed defined specific nonapeptides and identified high-affinity ligands binding to HLA-DQ4. The peptide binding motif of HLA-DQ4 is very similar to the motif of HLA-DQ7, also associated with oligoarthritic JIA. It is, however, different from binding motifs of neutral or protective HLA-DQ molecules. Our results further support the idea of differential peptide presentation in the pathogenesis of oligoarthritic JIA.

  15. CCiCap: Boeing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with The Boeing Company for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the initia...

  16. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  17. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  18. HLA-DQ8 (DQB1*0302) Restricted Th17 cells Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in HLA-DR3 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mangalam, Ashutosh; Luckey, David; Basal, Eati; Jackson, Megan; Smart, Michelle; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2009-01-01

    Among all the genetic factors associated with MS susceptibility, MHC class II molecules have the strongest association. Although a direct role of DR alleles in MS have been confirmed, it has been difficult to understand the role of DQ alleles in disease pathogenesis, due to strong linkage disequilibrium with certain DR alleles. Population studies have indicated that DQ alleles may play a modulatory role in progression of MS. Using HLA- class II transgenic (Tg) mice we investigated gene complementation between DR and DQ genes in the disease process. Previously, using single Tg mice (expressing HLA-DR or DQ gene), we showed that PLP91–110 peptide induced EAE only in DR3.Aβ° mice, suggesting that DR3 (DRB1*0301) is a disease susceptibility gene in the context of PLP. We also showed that DQ6 protect development of EAE in DQ6/DR3 double Tg mice by production of anti-inflammatory IFN-γ. In this study we investigated the ability of DQ8 to modulate disease in DR3/DQ8 double Tg mice. Introduction of DQ8 onto DR3 Tg mice led to higher disease incidence and increased disease severity on immunization with PLP91–110 indicating that DQ8 had an exacerbating effect on development of EAE. Increased susceptibility in DR3/DQ8 Tg mice was due to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 by DQ8-restricted T-cells. HLA-DR3/DQ8 mice with EAE also demonstrated increased inflammation and demyelination in CNS as compared to single DR3 Tg mice. Thus double Tg mouse provides a novel model to study epistatic interactions between HLA class II molecules in inflammatory and demyelinating disease. PMID:19342694

  19. HLA-DQ8 (DQB1*0302)-restricted Th17 cells exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in HLA-DR3-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Ashutosh; Luckey, David; Basal, Eati; Jackson, Megan; Smart, Michele; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2009-04-15

    Among all of the genetic factors associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, MHC class II molecules have the strongest association. Although a direct role of DR alleles in MS have been confirmed, it has been difficult to understand the role of DQ alleles in disease pathogenesis due to strong linkage disequilibrium with certain DR alleles. Population studies have indicated that DQ alleles may play a modulatory role in progression of MS. Using HLA class II transgenic (Tg) mice, we investigated gene complementation between DR and DQ genes in the disease process. Previously, using single Tg mice (expressing HLA-DR or DQ gene), we showed that PLP(91-110) peptide induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) only in DR3.Abeta degrees mice, suggesting that DR3 (DRB1*0301) is a disease susceptibility gene in the context of PLP. We also showed that DQ6 protects development of EAE in DQ6/DR3 double Tg mice by production of anti-inflammatory IFN-gamma. In this study, we investigated the ability of DQ8 to modulate disease in DR3/DQ8 double Tg mice. Introduction of DQ8 onto DR3 Tg mice led to higher disease incidence and increased disease severity on immunization with PLP(91-110), indicating that DQ8 had an exacerbating effect on the development of EAE. Increased susceptibility in DR3/DQ8 Tg mice was due to increased production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 by DQ8-restricted T cells. HLA-DR3/DQ8 mice with EAE also demonstrated increased inflammation and demyelination in CNS as compared with single DR3 Tg mice. Thus double Tg mouse provides a novel model to study epistatic interactions between HLA class II molecules in inflammatory and demyelinating disease.

  20. [Role of de novo HLA-DQ antibodies in renal transplantation: analysis of a single center data].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lan; Chen, Gang; Xie, Lin; Wang, Xin; Wang, Dawei; Lin, Zhengbin; Ming, Changsheng; Chen, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhishui

    2014-11-18

    To explore the generation pattern and clinical relevance of de novo HLA-DQ antibodies in renal transplantation. A total of 175 primary renal transplant recipients without pre-transplant HLA antibodies were recruited from January 2012 to December 2013. The average follow-up period was 10 (6-18) years. They were divided into control group (n = 94) with normal renal graft function (serum creatinine <120 µmol/L); dysfunction group (n = 54) with continued serum creatinine >150 µmol/L over 6 months; and graft loss group (n = 27) with resumed hemodialysis. The sera were collected and screened for de novo HLA antibodies by flow PRA or Luminex mixed beads. And HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ specific antibodies were identified by HLA single antigen beads. Positive de novo HLA antibodies were detected in 48% (26/54) of patients from dysfunction group and in 52% (14/27) from graft loss group, but only in 17% (16/94) from control group (P < 0.01). The frequency of de novo DQ antibodies among patients with any positive HLA antibody was the highest in all three groups (14/16, 24/26 and 14/14). Additionally, the average mean peak fluorescence intensity of DQ antibodies was almost the highest when compared to other antibodies. Moreover, when those with positive HLA antibodies in each group were analyzed, 10/16 in control group were detected to have DQ antibodies alone. However, 17/26 of patients in dysfunction group and 14/14 in graft loss group were detected to have DQ antibodies plus HLA-DR and/or -A, -B antibodies. It indicated that the combined presence of DQ-and non-DQ- antibodies was associated with chronic renal graft failure. The presence of de novo HLA-DQ antibodies is frequent after renal transplantation. And it is associated with chronic graft failure when co-displaying with other HLA antibodies. The screening and detection of HLA-DQ antibodies after kidney transplantation may aid early warning of donor antigen-specific activation of immune system and subsequent graft

  1. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  2. Clinical Significance of HLA-DQ Antibodies in the Development of Chronic Antibody-Mediated Rejection and Allograft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Min, Ji Won; Kim, Ji-Il; Moon, In-Sung; Park, Ki-Hyun; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2016-03-01

    With the development of the single antigen beads assay, the role of donor specific alloantibody (DSA) against human leukocyte antigens in kidney transplantation (KT) has been highlighted. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of DQ-DSA detected at renal allograft biopsy. We evaluated 263 KT recipients who underwent allograft biopsy and DSA detection at the same time. Among them, 155 patients who were nonsensitized before transplantation were selected to investigate the role of de-novo DQ-DSA. Both the total and nonsensitized subgroup was categorized into 4 groups each according to DSA results as: DQ only, DQ + non-DQ, non-DQ, and no DSA. In the total patient group, post-KT DSA was positive in 79 (30.0%) patients and DQ-DSA was most prevalent (64.6%). In the nonsensitized subgroup, de-novo DSAs were detected in 45 (29.0%) patients and DQ-DSA was also most prevalent (73.3%). The DQ only group showed a significantly longer post-KT duration compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The overall incidence of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) was 17.9%. B-DSA, DR-DSA, and DQ-DSA were associated with AMR (P < 0.05), but in the analysis for chronic AMR, only DQ-DSA showed significance in both the total and the nonsensitized subgroup (P < 0.05). On comparison of Banff scores among groups, those representing humoral immunity were significantly dominant in all DSA positive groups compared to the no DSA group (P < 0.05), and higher scores of markers representing chronic tissue injury were more frequently detected in the groups with DQ-DSA. The worst postbiopsy survival was seen in the DQ + non-DQ group of the total patient group, and patients with de-novo DQ-DSA showed poorer graft survival in the nonsensitized subgroup compared to the no DSA group (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, de-novo DQ-DSA was the only significant risk factor associated with late allograft failure (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to demonstrate

  3. Polymorphism at expressed DQ and DR loci in five common equine MHC haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2017-03-01

    The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.

  4. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  5. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  6. Magnetospheric polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.; Kan, J. R.

    Mount Denali (McKinley), the Alaska Range, and countless glaciers welcomed all 86 participants of the Chapman Conference on the Magnetospheric Polar Cap, which was held on the University of Alaska, Fairbanks campus (UAF), on August 6-9, 1984. The magnetospheric polar cap is the highest latitude region of the earth which is surrounded by the ring of auroras (the auroral oval). This particular region of the earth has become a focus of magnetospheric physicists during the last several years. This is because a number of upper atmospheric phenomena in the polar cap are found to be crucial in understanding the solar wind—magnetosphere interaction. The conference was opened by J. G. Roederer, who was followed by the UAF Chancellor, P. J. O'Rourke, who officially welcomed the participants.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVR photometry of the T Tauri binary DQ Tau (Tofflemire+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, B. M.; Mathieu, R. D.; Ardila, D. R.; Akeson, R. L.; Ciardi, D. R.; Johns-Krull, C.; Herczeg, G. J.; Quijano-Vodniza, A.

    2017-08-01

    The Las Cumbres Observatories Global Telescope (LCOGT) 1m network consists of nine 1m telescopes spread across four international sites: McDonald Observatory (USA), CTIO (Chile), SAAO (South Africa), and Siding Springs Observatory (Australia). Over the 2014-2015 winter observing season, our program requested queued "visits" of DQ Tau 20 times per orbital cycle for 10 continuous orbital periods. Given the orbital period of DQ Tau, the visit cadence corresponded to ~20hr. Each visit consisted of three observations in each of the broadband UBVRIY and narrowband Hα and Hβ filters, requiring ~20 minutes. In this work we present only the UBVR observations, which overlap with our high-cadence observations. Indeed, two eight-night observing runs centered on separate periastron passages of DQ Tau (orbital cycles 3 and 5 in Figure 1) were obtained from the WIYN 0.9m telescope located at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. In addition to our two eight-night observing runs, a synoptic observation program was also in place at the WIYN 0.9m that provided approximately weekly observations of DQ Tau in UBVR during the 2014-B semester. Also, using Apache Point Observatory's ARCSAT 0.5m telescope, we performed observing runs of seven and ten nights centered on two separate periastron passaged of DQ Tau (orbital cycles 2 and 7 in Figure 1). (1 data file).

  8. Genetic variants in human leukocyte antigen/DP-DQ influence both hepatitis B virus clearance and hepatocellular carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingmin; Zhai, Xiangjun; Liu, Jibin; Chu, Minjie; Pan, Shandong; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Hua; Chen, Jianguo; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin

    2012-05-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies showed that four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP (rs3077 and rs9277535) and HLA-DQ (rs2856718 and rs7453920) were associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Japanese populations. More than 75% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are attributable to persistent infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), especially in China. We genotyped these four SNPs in 1,300 HBV-positive HCC patients, 1,344 persistent HBV carriers, and 1,344 persons with HBV natural clearance from Southeast China to further test the associations of HLA-DP/DQ variants and with risk of both HBV clearance and HCC development. Logistic regression analyses showed that HLA-DQ rs2856718 significantly decreased host HCC risk, whereas three SNPs were associated with HBV clearance (HLA-DP rs9277535 as well as HLA-DQ rs7453920 and rs2856718). In addition, HLA-DP rs3077 showed an approaching significant effect on susceptibility to HBV persistent infection and HCC development when considering multiple testing adjustments. Taken together, we report, for the first time, that genetic variants in the HLA-DP and HLA-DQ loci may be marker SNPs for risk of both HBV clearance and HCC development.

  9. Sex and age at diagnosis are correlated with the HLA-DR2, DQ6 haplotype in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Celius, E G; Harbo, H F; Egeland, T; Vartdal, F; Vandvik, B; Spurkiand, A

    2000-09-15

    The HLA-DR2, DQ6 (i.e., HLA-DRB1*1501, DQA1*0102, DQB1*0602) haplotype contributes to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasoids of Northern European heritage. A correlation between the clinical expression of MS and the presence of HLA-DR2, DQ6 has, however, not convincingly been shown. In this study conventional bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to study the relationship between HLA-DR2, DQ6 and four disease variables in a cohort of 286 Norwegian MS patients from the Oslo area. Logistic regression analysis showed that HLA-DR2, DQ6 was significantly more frequent among female than male patients (P=0. 0251), and was negatively correlated with age at diagnosis regardless of sex (P=0.0254). No significant correlation was observed between HLA-DR2, DQ6 and type of disease (relapsing-remitting versus primary chronic progressive MS) or presence/absence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  10. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  11. Ice caps on venus?

    PubMed

    Libby, W F

    1968-03-08

    The data on Venus obtained by Mariner V and Venera 4 are interpreted as evidence of giant polar ice caps holding the water that must have come out of the volcanoes with the observed carbon dioxide, on the assumption that Earth and Venus are of similar composition and volcanic history. The measurements by Venera 4 of the equatorial surface temperature indicate that the microwave readings were high, so that the polar ice caps may be allowed to exist in the face of the 10-centimeter readings of polar temperature. Life seems to be distinctly possible at the edges of the ice sheets.

  12. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  14. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  15. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  16. Immunochemical studies of early alpha chain crosslinking in human fibrin

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Immunochemical studies were conducted to characterize the earliest covalent ..cap alpha.. chain associations catalyzed by Factor XIII/sub a/ during in vitro fibrin formation. Preparations of purified fibrinogen and Factor XIII were incubated under crosslinking conditions for increasing periods of time and the resulting fibrins subjected to immunoblotting using the characterized monoclonal antibodies, F-103 (anti-A..cap alpha.. number259-276) and F-102 /anti-A..cap alpha.. number540-554). Data obtained for the incorporation of monomeric ..cap alpha.. chains into higher molecular weight immunoreactive species indicate that ..cap alpha.. chain crosslinking begins within the first ten minutes of clotting. Early crosslinked ..cap alpha.. chain species that formed within thirty minutes of in vitro crosslinking were isolated from preparations of reduced, /sup 3/H-S-carboxymethylated fibrin by Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration. Cyanogen bromide treatment of this material resulted in the release of crosslinked and non-crosslinked fragments which could be separated from one another by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration. Derivatives of interest were identified in the column effluent by immunoblotting with F-103 and F-102 and by radioimmunoassays in which polyclonal antisera that detect the known (A) ..cap alpha.. chain crosslinking regions, number241-476 (CNRr VIII) and number518-584 (CNBr X), were employed.

  17. The DQ and DQΦ electronic structure diabatization methods: Validation for general applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Chad E.; Parker, Kelsey; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2016-05-01

    We recently proposed the dipole-quadrupole (DQ) method for transforming adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using matrix elements of the dipole and quadrupole operators, and we applied the method to 3-state diabatizations of LiH and phenol. Here we extend the method to also include the electrostatic potential, and we call the resulting method the DQΦ method, which denotes the dipole-quadrupole-electrostatic-potential diabatization method. The electrostatic potential provides extra flexibility, and the goal of the present work is to test and illustrate the robustness of the methods for producing diabatic potential energy curves that tend to the adiabatic curves away from crossings and avoided crossings and are smooth in regions of crossings and avoided crossings. We illustrate the generality of the methods by an application to LiH with four states and by two-state diabatizations of HCl, (H2)2, O3, and the reaction Li + HF → LiF + H. We find that—if enough states are included—the DQ method does not have a significant dependence on the parameter weighting the quadrupole moment, and a geometry-independent value of 10 a0-2 is adequate in all cases tested. We also find that the addition of the electrostatic potential improves the diabatic potentials in some cases and provides an additional property useful for increasing the generality of the method for diabatization.

  18. On the nature of spectral features in peculiar DQ white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gary D.; Bergeron, P.; Fegley, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric measurements are presented for the DQ white dwarfs ESO 439-162, LHS 1126, and G225-68, whose spectroscopic features in the optical have been interpreted in the past as pressure-shifted or magnetically shifted C2 Swan bands. The results convincingly demonstrate that none of these objects is strongly magnetic, with upper limits of 30, 3, and 2 MG respectively. Since Bergeron et al. (B 94) have recently ruled out the pressure-shift interpretation for LHS 1126 as well, we discuss alternative physical mechanisms for displacing the Swan bands. Although possibilities for explaining the observed shifts may exist, a comparison of the optical spectra (and that of a similar DQ star, LP 77-57) indicates that the locations and shapes of the profiles in all four objects are virtually identical. This last result suggests instead that a different molecular species could be responsible. A detailed chemical equilibrium analysis of H/He/C mixtures under the physical conditions encountered in the atmospheres of these peculiar objects reveals that C2H is a molecule preferentially formed in the photospheric regions. The nature and evolution of these objects are discussed.

  19. On the nature of spectral features in peculiar DQ white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gary D.; Bergeron, P.; Fegley, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric measurements are presented for the DQ white dwarfs ESO 439-162, LHS 1126, and G225-68, whose spectroscopic features in the optical have been interpreted in the past as pressure-shifted or magnetically shifted C2 Swan bands. The results convincingly demonstrate that none of these objects is strongly magnetic, with upper limits of 30, 3, and 2 MG respectively. Since Bergeron et al. (B 94) have recently ruled out the pressure-shift interpretation for LHS 1126 as well, we discuss alternative physical mechanisms for displacing the Swan bands. Although possibilities for explaining the observed shifts may exist, a comparison of the optical spectra (and that of a similar DQ star, LP 77-57) indicates that the locations and shapes of the profiles in all four objects are virtually identical. This last result suggests instead that a different molecular species could be responsible. A detailed chemical equilibrium analysis of H/He/C mixtures under the physical conditions encountered in the atmospheres of these peculiar objects reveals that C2H is a molecule preferentially formed in the photospheric regions. The nature and evolution of these objects are discussed.

  20. Association of HLA-DR/DQ polymorphism with myasthenia gravis in Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Klai, Sarra; Zaouali, Jamel; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

    2013-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. MG has been shown to be associated with many human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in different populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable association between HLA-DR/DQ alleles and MG in Tunisian patients. HLA DR/DQ genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) with 48 MG patients and 100 healthy individuals serving as the control group. Myasthenia gravis in Tunisian patients was found to be associated with the following alleles (p(c) denotes Bonferroni corrected probability values): HLA-DRB1*03 (p(c)<10(-3)), DRB1*04 (p(c)=0.005), DQB1*02 (p(c)=0.002) and, DQB1*03 (p(c)=0.007). Our data demonstrated a new HLA-MG predisposition with DRB1*04. The DRB1*03, DRB1*04, DQB1*02, and DQB1*03 alleles also could be predisposing genetic factors for MG in the Tunisian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A deregulated immune response to gliadin causes a decreased villus height in DQ8 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    D'Arienzo, Rossana; Stefanile, Rosita; Maurano, Francesco; Luongo, Diomira; Bergamo, Paolo; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; David, Chella; Rossi, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an enteropathy triggered by gluten and mediated by CD4+ T cells. A complete understanding of CD immunopathogenesis has been hindered due to the lack of adequate in vivo models. Here, we explored the effect of the inhibition of COX by indomethacin in wheat gliadin-sensitized transgenic mice expressing the HLA-DQ8 heterodimer, a molecule associated with CD. Treated mice showed a gliadin-specific immune response with a significant reduction of villus height, not linked to crypt hyperplasia and to expansion of intraepithelial T cells. Notably, treated mice showed increased numbers of CD25+ and apoptotic cells in the lamina propria, whereas high basal levels of IFN-gamma secretion, along with a reduced gliadin-specific IL-2 expression were detected in MLN. Biochemical assessment of the lesion revealed increased mRNA of Lamb3 and Adamts2, encoding for ECM proteins, and enhanced activities of metalloproteinases MMP1, 2 and 7. We conclude that an intestinal sensitivity to gliadin, in connection with COX inhibition, caused a decreased villus height in DQ8 tg mice. The lesion was induced by a deregulated mucosal cell immunity to gliadin, thus triggering activation of a specific ECM protein pathway responsible for lamina propria remodeling.

  2. Gold nanoparticle fluorescent molecular beacon for low-resolution DQ2 gene HLA typing.

    PubMed

    Beni, Valerio; Zewdu, Taye; Joda, Hamdi; Katakis, Ioanis; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2012-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an inflammation of the small intestine triggered by gluten ingestion. We present a fluorescent genosensor, exploiting molecular-beacon-functionalized gold nanoparticles, for the identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 gene, a key genetic factor in coeliac disease. Optimization of sensor performance was achieved by tuning the composition of the oligonucleotide monolayer immobilized on the gold nanoparticle and the molecular beacon design. Co-immobilization of the molecular beacon with a spacing oligonucleotide (thiolated ten-thymine oligonucleotide) in the presence of ten-adenine oligonucleotides resulted in a significant increase of the sensor response owing to improved spacing of the molecular beacons and extension of the distance from the nanoparticle surface, which renders them more available for recognition. Further increase in the response (approximately 40%) was shown to be achievable when the recognition sequence of the molecular beacon was incorporated in the stem. Improvement of the specificity of the molecular beacons was also achieved by the incorporation within their recognition sequence of a one-base mismatch. Finally, gold nanoparticles functionalized with two molecular beacons targeting the DQA1*05* and DQB1*02* alleles allowed the low-resolution typing of the DQ2 gene at the nanomolar level.

  3. 4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE PAIR OF RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; BRAKE WHEEL AND WINDSHAFT - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  4. 3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; ALSO SEEN ARE THE BRAKE WHEEL, WINDSHAFT AND TOP BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  5. Forbidden Line Emission in the Eccentric Spectroscopic Binaries DQ Tauri and UZ Tauri E Monitored over an Orbital Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, M.; Hartigan, P.; White, R. J.

    2005-02-01

    We present echelle spectroscopy of the close pre-main-sequence binary star systems DQ Tau and UZ Tau E. Over a 16 day time interval we acquired 14 nights of spectra for DQ Tau and 12 nights of spectra for UZ Tau E. This represents the entire phase of DQ Tau and 63% of the phase of UZ Tau E. As expected, photospheric lines such as Li I λ6707 clearly split into two components while the primary and secondary orbit one another, as did the permitted line He I λ5876. Unlike the photospheric features, the forbidden lines of [O I] λ6300 and [O I] λ5577 retain the same shape throughout the orbit. Therefore, these lines must originate outside the immediate vicinity of the two stars and any circumstellar disks that participate in the orbital motion of the stars.

  6. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cap will have skin that is a little red or itchy, and some might even have hair loss, though the hair usually grows back after ... parts of the body the rash is causing hair loss or becomes itchy the affected skin becomes firm and red, starts to drain fluid, or feels warm, which ...

  7. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  8. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  9. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  10. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  11. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  12. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  13. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  14. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  15. A functional variant in the CD209 promoter is associated with DQ2-negative celiac disease in the Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, C; Rueda, B; Martínez, A; Maluenda, C; Polanco, I; López-Nevot, MA; Ortega, E; Sierra, E; de la Concha, E Gómez; Urcelay, E; Martín, J

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To address the role of CD209 in celiac disease (CD) patients. Non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic factors in CD predisposition are poorly understood, and environmental factors like infectious pathogens may play a role. CD209 is a dendritic and macrophage surface molecule involved in pathogen recognition and immune activation. Recently, a functional variant in the promoter of the CD209 gene (-336A/G) has been shown to affect the transcriptional CD209 activity in vitro and it has been associated with a higher susceptibility to/or severity of infection. METHODS: The study population was composed of two case-control cohorts of 103 and 386 CD patients and 312 y 419 healthy controls as well as a panel of 257 celiac families. Genotyping for the -336A/G CD209 promoter polymorphism was performed using a TaqMan 5´ allelic discrimination assay. HLA-DQ was determined by hybridization with allele specific probes. RESULTS: Initially, the case-control and familial studies did not find any association of the -336 A/G CD209 genetic variant with CD susceptibility. However, the stratification by HLA-DQ2 did reveal a significant association of CD209 promoter polymorphism in the HLA-DQ2 (-) group (carrier A vs GG in DQ2 (-) vs DQ2 (+) patients (P = 0.026, OR = 3.71). CONCLUSION: The -336G CD209 allele seems to be involved in CD susceptibility in HLA-DQ2 (-) patients. Our results might suggest a possible role of pathogens in the onset of a minor group of CD patients. PMID:16865785

  16. Large-scale characterization of natural ligands explains the unique gluten-binding properties of HLA-DQ2.

    PubMed

    Stepniak, Dariusz; Wiesner, Martina; de Ru, Arnoud H; Moustakas, Antonis K; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Papadopoulos, George K; van Veelen, Peter A; Koning, Frits

    2008-03-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy caused by intolerance to dietary gluten. The disorder is strongly associated with DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 (HLA-DQ2) as approximately 95% of celiac patients express this molecule. HLA-DQ2 has unique Ag-binding properties that allow it to present a diverse set of gluten peptides to gluten-reactive CD4+ T cells so instigating an inflammatory reaction. Previous work has indicated that the presence of negatively charged amino acids within gluten peptides is required for specific binding. This, however, only partly explains the scale of the interaction. We have now characterized 432 natural ligands of HLA-DQ2 representing length variants of 155 distinct sequences. The sequences were aligned and the binding cores were inferred. Analysis of the amino acid distribution of these cores demonstrated that negatively charged residues in HLA-DQ2-bound peptides are favored at virtually all positions. This contrasts with a more restricted presence of such amino acids in T cell epitopes from gluten. Yet, HLA-DQ2 was also found to display a strong preference for proline at several anchor and nonanchor positions that largely match the position of proline in gluten T cell epitopes. Consequently, the bias for proline at p6 and p8 facilitates the enzymatic conversion of glutamine into glutamic acid in gluten peptides at p4 and p6, two important anchor sites. These observations provide new insights in the unique ability of HLA-DQ2 to bind a large repertoire of glutamine- and proline-rich gluten peptides. This knowledge may be an important asset in the development of future treatment strategies.

  17. De Novo DQ Donor-Specific Antibodies Are Associated with Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Jussi M; Singer, Lianne G; Kim, S Joseph; Li, Yanhong; Binnie, Matthew; Chaparro, Cecilia; Chow, Chung-Wai; Martinu, Tereza; Azad, Sassan; Keshavjee, Shaf; Tinckam, Kathryn

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing evidence about the role of donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in transplant outcomes, the incidence and impact of de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) after lung transplantation remains unclear. To describe the incidence, characteristics, and impact of dnDSA after lung transplantation. We investigated a single-center cohort of 340 lung transplant recipients undergoing transplant during 2008 to 2011. All patients underwent HLA-antibody testing quarterly pretransplant and at regular intervals over the first 24 months after transplant. The patients received modified immunosuppression depending on their pretransplant sensitization status. Risk factors for dnDSA development, as well as the associations of dnDSA with patient survival and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), were determined using multivariable analysis. The cumulative incidence of dnDSA was 47% at a median of 86 days (range, 44-185 d) after lung transplantation. Seventy-six percent of recipients with dnDSA had DQ-DSA. Male sex and the use of ex vivo lung perfusion were associated with an increased risk of dnDSA, whereas increased HLA-DQB1 matching was protective. DQ-dnDSA preceded or coincided with the diagnosis of CLAD in all cases. Developing dnDSA (vs. no dnDSA) was associated with a twofold increased risk of CLAD (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.69). This association appeared to be driven by the development of DQ-dnDSA. dnDSA are common after lung transplantation, with the majority being DQ DSA. DQ-dnDSA are associated with an increased risk of CLAD. Strategies to prevent or treat DQ-dnDSA may improve outcomes for lung transplant recipients.

  18. Common immunogenetic profile in children with multiple autoimmune diseases: the signature of HLA-DQ pleiotropic genes.

    PubMed

    Larizza, Daniela; Calcaterra, Valeria; Klersy, Catherine; Badulli, Carla; Caramagna, Claudia; Ricci, Antonio; Brambilla, Paola; Salvaneschi, Laura; Martinetti, Miryam

    2012-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), celiac disease (CD) and autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) are autoimmune conditions relatively common in paediatric age and frequently occur in association in the same subject. This event is not by chance and requires an explanation. Here, we studied the distribution of HLA-DQ αβ heterodimers in 334 Italian children with T1DM, ATD and CD alone or in association and in 224 Italian healthy controls. In particular, 164 patients had T1DM (133 alone, 20+ATD, 7+CD and 4+CD+ATD), 118 had ATD (110 alone, 8+CD) and 52 had CD (40 alone, 11+ATD and 1+T1DM). 51 patients suffered from multiple autoimmune diseases. The risk for multiple autoimmune diseases was significantly associated with the increased number of HLA-DQ markers of susceptibility for both T1DM (p = 0.003) and CD (p = 0.006). The presence of one or more diabetogenic DQ molecules significantly increased the probability of developing not only T1DM (p < 0.001) but also CD (p < 0.001) and ATD (p = 0.001). Similarly, the presence of one or more celiac HLA-DQ heterodimers significantly increased the likelihood of developing not only CD (p < 0.001), but also T1DM (p < 0.001) and ATD (p < 0.001). We confirm that the sharing of the immunogenetic background is responsible for the development of multiple autoimmune diseases although with a different risk according to the number and type of susceptible HLA-DQ heterodimers as reported in the algorithm proposed here. It is likely that combinations of DQA1 and DQB1 alleles are the real culprits of the progression towards multiple autoimmune diseases and HLA-DQ genomic typing will improve the capability to predict associated autoimmune diseases in infancy.

  19. Anisotropic alpha emission from on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Vanneste, L.

    1986-05-05

    A systematic on-line nuclear-orientation study of heavy isotopes using anisotropic ..cap alpha.. emission is reported for the first time. The anisotrophies recorded for /sup 199/At, /sup 201/At, and /sup 203/At are remarkably pronounced and strongly varying. At lower neutron number the ..cap alpha.. particles are more preferentially emitted perpendicularly to the nuclear-spin direction. This may be interpreted in terms of the high sensitivity of the ..cap alpha..-emission probability to changes in the nuclear shape.

  20. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  1. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  2. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    illustrate the concept with a sample model -run incorporating representative data. Title 12: Space weather challenges of the polar cap ionosphere ...located at Oslo and Ny-Ålesund. The primary objective has been to obtain a better understanding solar wind impacts on the polar ionosphere which are of...made no inventions, and Section 8 lists the core UiO personnel during this project. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, ionosphere (polar

  3. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  4. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesas and pits formed by sublimation of carbon dioxide of the south polar cap.

    Location near: 85.8oS, 351.5oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  5. Schaefer's "family cap".

    PubMed

    1994-02-14

    Criticism was directed to Maryland Governor William Donald Shaefer's proposal to put family caps on welfare payments to recipients. The idea was to stop automatic increases in welfare payments if a recipient has an additional child. The objection was that 77%, or the bulk of welfare recipients, have only one or two children, and there is little, if any, evidence that welfare caps influence childbearing. The consequences of such reform would be the penalization of children. The political reality is that symbolism has become more important than facts. Putting a cap on welfare may make people feel better about welfare, and may show fairness to working people who don't get raises when their family size increases, but there are other implications. The messages to welfare recipients to stop having children, but not providing the means to do so, is hypocritical. Medicaid abortions were restricted in 1978 by politicians, but provision for better access to contraceptives was never promoted or achieved. Circumstances limit opportunities. The quality of care in public health clinics is abysmal: long lines and overcrowding, and inadequate proximity to welfare recipients' housing. Transportation, particularly in rural areas, is an impediment to access. It is estimated that only 60% of women eligible for government-funded contraception have access. A sign of serious welfare reform will be budget appropriations for day care, job training, and other reform programs.

  6. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  7. GJ 841B-THE SECOND DQ WHITE DWARF WITH POLARIZED CH MOLECULAR BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vornanen, T.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Piirola, V.; Berdyugina, S. V. E-mail: andber@utu.f E-mail: sveta@kis.uni-freiburg.d

    2010-09-01

    We report a discovery of the circularly polarized CH A {sup 2}{Delta}-X {sup 2}{Pi} and B {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup -}-X {sup 2}{Pi} molecular bands in the spectrum of the DQ white dwarf (WD) GJ 841B. This is only the second such object since the discovery of G99-37 in the 1970s. GJ 841B is also the first WD to unambiguously show polarization in the C{sub 2} Swan bands. By modeling the intensity and circular polarization in the CH bands, we determine the longitudinal magnetic field strength of 1.3 {+-} 0.5 MG and the temperature of 6100 {+-} 200 K in the absorbing region. We also present new observations of G99-37 and obtain estimates of the magnetic field strength 7.3 {+-} 0.3 MG and temperature 6200 {+-} 200 K, in good agreement with previous results.

  8. Anomalous accretion activity and the spotted nature of the DQ Tau binary system

    SciTech Connect

    Bary, Jeffrey S.; Petersen, Michael S.

    2014-09-01

    We report the detection of an anomalous accretion flare in the tight eccentric pre-main-sequence binary system DQ Tau. In a multi-epoch survey consisting of randomly acquired low- to moderate-resolution near-infrared spectra obtained over a period of almost 10 yr, we detect a significant and simultaneous brightening of four standard accretion indicators (Ca II infrared triplet, the Paschen and Brackett series H I lines, and He I 1.083 μm), on back-to-back nights (φ = 0.372 and 0.433) with the flare increasing in strength as the system approached apastron (φ = 0.5). The mass accretion rate measured for the anomalous flare is nearly an order of magnitude stronger than the average quiescent rate. While previous observations established that frequent, periodic accretion flares phased with periastron passages occur in this system, these data provide evidence that orbitally modulated accretion flares occur near apastron, when the stars make their closest approach to the circumbinary disk. The timing of the flare suggests that this outburst is due to interactions of the stellar cores (or the highly truncated circumstellar disks) with material in non-axisymmetric structures located at the inner edge of the circumbinary disk. We also explore the optical/infrared spectral type mismatch previously observed for T Tauri stars (TTSs) and successfully model the shape of the spectra from 0.8 to 1.0 μm and the strengths of the TiO and FeH bands as manifestations of large cool spots on the surfaces of the stellar companions in DQ Tau. These findings illustrate that a complete model of near-infrared spectra of many TTSs must include parameters for spot filling factors and temperatures.

  9. Accretion and Magnetic Reconnection in the Classical T Tauri Binary DQ Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R.; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The theory of binary star formation predicts that close binaries (a < 100 au) will experience periodic pulsed accretion events as streams of material form at the inner edge of a circumbinary disk (CBD), cross a dynamically cleared gap, and feed circumstellar disks or accrete directly onto the stars. The archetype for the pulsed accretion theory is the eccentric, short-period, classical T Tauri binary DQ Tau. Low-cadence (∼daily) broadband photometry has shown brightening events near most periastron passages, just as numerical simulations would predict for an eccentric binary. Magnetic reconnection events (flares) during the collision of stellar magnetospheres near periastron could, however, produce the same periodic, broadband behavior when observed at a one-day cadence. To reveal the dominant physical mechanism seen in DQ Tau’s low-cadence observations, we have obtained continuous, moderate-cadence, multiband photometry over 10 orbital periods, supplemented with 27 nights of minute-cadence photometry centered on four separate periastron passages. While both accretion and stellar flares are present, the dominant timescale and morphology of brightening events are characteristic of accretion. On average, the mass accretion rate increases by a factor of five near periastron, in good agreement with recent models. Large variability is observed in the morphology and amplitude of accretion events from orbit to orbit. We argue that this is due to the absence of stable circumstellar disks around each star, compounded by inhomogeneities at the inner edge of the CBD and within the accretion streams themselves. Quasiperiodic apastron accretion events are also observed, which are not predicted by binary accretion theory.

  10. Associations of HLA DR and DQ molecules with Lyme borreliosis in Latvian patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many autoimmune diseases are associated with variants of HLA genes such as those encoding the MHC complex. This correlation is not absolute, but may help in understanding of the molecular mechanism of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine HLA-DR,-DQ alleles in Latvian patients with Lyme borreliosis and control (healthy) persons. Case patients and control subjects were similar in age, gender and ethnic heritage and differed only as regards the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The study included 25 patients with clinical stage – erythema migrans and 30 control (healthy) persons. HLA genotyping was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers. Results The results show difference in HLA-DRB1 alleles distribution between patients and control subjects. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *04 (OR 11.24; p < 0.007) and HLA-DRB1 *17 (03) (OR 8.05; p < 0.033) were increased in the Lyme disease patients. And the frequency of allele DRB1*13 (OR 0.12; p < 0.017) was lower in Borreliosis patients and higher in control group. But, significant differences in frequencies of HLA-DQ alleles we did not detect. Conclusions HLA predisposition to Lyme borreliosis appears not to be limited to HLA molecules, but some HLA-DR alleles also have a significant influence, and, may have implications in our understanding of pathogenesis of this disease. In particular, HLA-DRB1*04 and DRB1 *17 (03) may contribute to the Lyme borreliosis development in Latvian population PMID:22892251

  11. Associations of HLA DR and DQ molecules with Lyme borreliosis in Latvian patients.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuka, Lilija; Eglite, Jelena; Lucenko, Irina; Zalite, Mara; Viksna, Ludmila; Krumiņa, Angelika

    2012-08-14

    Many autoimmune diseases are associated with variants of HLA genes such as those encoding the MHC complex. This correlation is not absolute, but may help in understanding of the molecular mechanism of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine HLA-DR,-DQ alleles in Latvian patients with Lyme borreliosis and control (healthy) persons. Case patients and control subjects were similar in age, gender and ethnic heritage and differed only as regards the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The study included 25 patients with clinical stage - erythema migrans and 30 control (healthy) persons. HLA genotyping was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers. The results show difference in HLA-DRB1 alleles distribution between patients and control subjects. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *04 (OR 11.24; p < 0.007) and HLA-DRB1 *17 (03) (OR 8.05; p < 0.033) were increased in the Lyme disease patients. And the frequency of allele DRB1*13 (OR 0.12; p < 0.017) was lower in Borreliosis patients and higher in control group. But, significant differences in frequencies of HLA-DQ alleles we did not detect. HLA predisposition to Lyme borreliosis appears not to be limited to HLA molecules, but some HLA-DR alleles also have a significant influence, and, may have implications in our understanding of pathogenesis of this disease. In particular, HLA-DRB1*04 and DRB1 *17 (03) may contribute to the Lyme borreliosis development in Latvian population.

  12. Prevalence of Autoantibodies and HLA DR, DQ in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Usha; Singh, Gyanendra; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Rana Gopal; Kumar, Shashi Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type I diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells of pancreas. Two forms of T1DM are known called as 1A (autoimmune) and 1B (idiopathic). Aim Aim was to study the prevalence of Anti-TTG IgA, Anti-TPO, GADA, ZnT8 and IA-2 autoantibodies and HLA DR and DQ genes and its diagnostic value in T1DM. Materials and Methods Thirty four T1DM patients, 59 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 28 healthy controls were included in study. Antibodies levels were estimated by ELISA and HLA typing was performed by SSP-PCR method. Result The prevalence of various autoantibodies in T1DM were Anti-TTG 14.7%, Anti-TPO 17.65%, GADA 38.23%, ZnT8 11.76% and IA-2 5.88%. Only GADA and ZnT8 were significantly positive in T1DM. GADA (66.67%) and ZnT8 (33.33%) positivity was more in patients below 15 years age while levels of other antibodies were higher after 15 years age. All autoantibodies were detected in higher frequency in T1DM than in T2DM and controls. HLA DR and DQ typing showed highly significant increase in DRB1*0301 (61.76%, p=0.00) and DQB1*0201 (64.71%, p=0.00) in T1DM. Subjects with HLA DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 had 80-100% positive prevalence of GADA, ZnT8, IA-2, Anti-TTG and Anti-TPO autoantibodies. Conclusion Combination of GADA antibody with DRB1 and DQB1 estimation improved diagnosis of T1A than insulin antigen specific antibodies alone. PMID:27630850

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of recombinant α-gliadin conjugated to cholera toxin in DQ8 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Luongo, Diomira; Maurano, Francesco; Bergamo, Paolo; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is characterized by an intestinal lesion sustained by an abnormal mucosal T-cell response to wheat gliadin. An immunological approach that is able to suppress this immune response is a perspective worth pursuing. Several strategies of antigen administration have been aimed at the downregulation of pathogenic T-cells. In particular, we previously reported a significant suppression of the systemic cell-mediated response toward wheat gliadin in DQ8 transgenic mice receiving nasally a recombinant α-gliadin. To gain further insight about the cellular mechanisms underlying the tolerogenic properties of this molecule, we analysed different preparations of the recombinant α-gliadin, alone or conjugated to the adjuvant cholera toxin (CT), by in vitro challenge with spleen CD4(+) T cells from gliadin-sensitized DQ8 tg mice. We found that a partially purified preparation of recombinant α-gliadin (r-gliadin) induced a significantly higher production of IFN-γ than native gliadin as well as HPLC purified r-gliadin. Interestingly, r-gliadin, but not HPLC purified r-gliadin, stimulated the gliadin-specific expression of IL-10 in CD4(+) T cells. No significant cytotoxic effect was induced by r-gliadin in MODE-K cells, a murine model of enterocytes. Notably, a conjugate CT-r-gliadin failed in stimulating IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 secretion was still induced in gliadin-specific CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, our results showed that DCs, pulsed with CT-r-gliadin in vitro, could modulate the ongoing Th1-like T cell response toward wheat gliadin. This finding provides new insight into the design of immunomodulatory protocols potentially useful for CD. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. VARIABILITY IN HOT CARBON-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERE (HOT DQ) WHITE DWARFS: RAPID ROTATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Bierwagen, Michael; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Falcon, Ross E.

    2016-01-20

    Hot white dwarfs (WDs) with carbon-dominated atmospheres (hot DQs) are a cryptic class of WDs. In addition to their deficiency of hydrogen and helium, most of these stars are highly magnetic, and a large fraction vary in luminosity. This variability has been ascribed to nonradial pulsations, but increasing data call this explanation into question. We present studies of short-term variability in seven hot DQ WDs. Three (SDSS J1426+5752, SDSS J2200−0741, and SDSS J2348−0942) were known to be variable. Their photometric modulations are coherent over at least two years, and we find no evidence for variability at frequencies that are not harmonics. We present the first time-series photometry for three additional hot DQs (SDSS J0236−0734, SDSS J1402+3818, and SDSS J1615+4543); none are observed to vary, but the signal-to-noise is low. Finally, we present high speed photometry for SDSS J0005−1002, known to exhibit a 2.1-day photometric variation; we do not observe any short-term variability. Monoperiodicity is rare among pulsating WDs, so we contemplate whether the photometric variability is due to rotation rather than pulsations; similar hypotheses have been raised by other researchers. If the variability is due to rotation, then hot DQ WDs as a class contain many rapid rotators. Given the lack of companions to these stars, the origin of any fast rotation is unclear—both massive progenitor stars and double degenerate merger remnants are possibilities. We end with suggestions of future work that would best clarify the nature of these rare, intriguing objects.

  15. Aspartic acid at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain protects against type I diabetes: a family study.

    PubMed Central

    Morel, P A; Dorman, J S; Todd, J A; McDevitt, H O; Trucco, M

    1988-01-01

    One hundred seventy-two members from 27 randomly selected multiple case Caucasian families of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were studied at the DNA level to ascertain the reliability of codon 57 of the HLA-DQ beta-chain gene as a disease protection/susceptibility marker. The analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA encoding the first domain of the DQ beta chain and by dot blot analysis of the amplified material with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. One hundred twenty-three randomly selected healthy Caucasian donors were also tested. The results demonstrated that haplotypes carrying an aspartic acid in position 57 (Asp-57) of their DQ beta chain were significantly increased in frequency among nondiabetic haplotypes (23/38), while non-Asp-57 haplotypes were significantly increased in frequency among diabetic haplotypes (65/69). Ninety-six percent of the diabetic probands in our study were homozygous non-Asp/non-Asp as compared to 19.5% of healthy unrelated controls. This conferred a relative risk of 107 (chi 2 = 54.97; P = 0.00003) for non-Asp-57 homozygous individuals. Even though the inheritance and genetic features of IDDM are complex and are not necessarily fully explained by DQ beta chain polymorphism, this approach is much more sensitive than HLA serolog in assessing risk for IDDM. PMID:3186714

  16. Serology versus PCR-SSP in typing for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ: a practical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Otten, H G; Tilanus, M G; Barnstijn, M; van Heugten, J G; de Gast, G C

    1995-01-01

    In this study, serological HLA-DR and -DQ typing results were compared to typing results obtained with sequence-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP). HLA-DR typing was performed on a random caucasian population consisting of 31 patients and 73 healthy individuals. Considering HLA-DR1-10, differences in typing results were found in 3 out of 73 healthy individuals and 8 out of 31 patients. When HLA-DR1-16 alleles were taken into account, differences in typing results were found in 11 out of 31 patients and 14 out of 73 healthy individuals. Typing results of PCR-SSP, different from that of serology, were all confirmed by sequencing-based typing of HLA-DRB1 alleles. HLA-DQ1-3 typings were performed on 40 individuals consisting of 17 patients and 23 healthy individuals. Differences in typing results were found in 5 out of 17 patients and 1 out of 23 healthy individuals. From the results of this study it can be concluded that serology is a reliable technique, when restricted to identification of HLA-DR1-10 and HLA-DQ1-3 antigens in healthy individuals. By PCR-SSP, however, reliable HLA-DR1-16 and -DQ1-3 typings can be obtained both in patients and healthy individuals.

  17. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  18. DEAD ZONE IN THE POLAR-CAP ACCELERATOR OF PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Alexander Y.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2013-01-10

    We study plasma flows above pulsar polar caps using time-dependent simulations of plasma particles in the self-consistent electric field. The flow behavior is controlled by the dimensionless parameter {alpha} = j/c{rho}{sub GJ}, where j is the electric current density and {rho}{sub GJ} is the Goldreich-Julian charge density. The region of the polar cap where 0 < {alpha} < 1 is a {sup d}ead zone{sup -}in this zone, particle acceleration is inefficient and pair creation is not expected even for young, rapidly rotating pulsars. Pulsars with polar caps near the rotation axis are predicted to have a hollow-cone structure of radio emission, as the dead zone occupies the central part of the polar cap. Our results apply to charge-separated flows of electrons (j < 0) or ions (j > 0). In the latter case, we consider the possibility of a mixed flow consisting of different ion species, and observe the development of two-stream instability. The dead zone at the polar cap is essential for the development of an outer gap near the null surface {rho}{sub GJ} = 0.

  19. Alpha-decay of light protactinium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Faestermann, T.; Gillitzer, A.; Hartel, K.; Henning, W.; Kienle, P.

    1987-12-10

    Light protactinium isotopes have been produced with /sup 204/Pb (/sup 19/F,xn) reactions. ..cap alpha..-activities with E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.90(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 53(10) ns and E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.65(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 0.78(16) ..mu..s could be attributed to the previously unobserved nuclei /sup 219/Pa and /sup 220/Pa with the help of excitation functions. The peak cross sections for the 4n and 3n evaporation channels are on the order of 10 ..mu..b. The decay energies as well as the halflives fit well into the systematics of these nuclei close to the magic neutron number N = 126. /sup 219/Pa is the shortest lived nuclide known with directly measured halflife.

  20. Mutagenicity of alpha particles in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.

    1984-07-01

    Cell killing and the induction of mutation to thioguanine resistance were measured after exposure of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to 150-kV X rays and /sup 241/Am ..cap alpha.. particles. The curve describing the induction of mutations was almost linear after exposure to ..cap alpha.. particles but upward bending after exposure to X rays, apparently reaching a final slope similar to that obtained after exposure to ..cap alpha.. particles. The number of mutants induced per viable cell by ..cap alpha.. particles at a given level of cell killing was similar to that induced by X rays. The RBE values obtained for cell killing and the induction of mutations are compared with each other, and the possible involvement of repair processes in determining the RBE is discussed.

  1. Spectrochemical series and the dependence of Racah and 10 Dq parameters on the metal-ligand distance: microscopic origin.

    PubMed

    Trueba, A; Garcia-Fernandez, P; García-Lastra, J M; Aramburu, J A; Barriuso, M T; Moreno, M

    2011-03-03

    The origin of the spectrochemical series and the different dependence of crystal-field splitting (10Dq) and Racah parameters on the metal-ligand distance, R, is explored through ab initio calculations on Cr(3+)-doped K2NaScF6, Cs2NaYCl6, Cs2NaYBr6, and Cs2NaYI6 lattices. For this purpose both periodic and cluster calculations have been performed. An analysis of ab initio results proves that 10Dq values mostly come from the small admixture of deep nLs ligand orbitals present in the antibonding eg(∼ x(2)-y(2),3z(2)-r(2)) level and not from the dominant covalency with valence nLp ligand orbitals, which is actually responsible for the reduction of Racah parameters. This study thus reveals the microscopic origin of the stronger dependence upon R of 10Dq when compared to that observed for Racah parameters, thus explaining why electronic transitions which are 10Dq-independent give rise to sharp optical bands. As a salient feature, while the covalency with nLp levels increases significantly on passing from CrF6(3-) to CrI6(3-), the nLs admixture in eg is found to be practically unmodified. This fact helps to understand the progressive decrease of 10Dq through the series of CrF6(3-), CrCl6(3-), CrBr6(3-), and CrI6(3-) complexes embedded in the corresponding host lattices when compared at the corresponding equilibrium distance at zero pressure. The growing importance of the nLs admixture is well-depicted using deformation density diagrams on passing from the ground state (4)A2(t2g(3)) to the (4)T2(t2g(2)eg) excited state depicted at several R values.

  2. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Ksiazek, Dorota; Brandstetter, Hans; Israel, Lars; Bourenkov, Gleb P; Katchalova, Galina; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Bartunik, Hans D; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Holak, Tad A

    2003-09-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are widely distributed and highly conserved proteins that regulate actin remodeling in response to cellular signals. The N termini of CAPs play a role in Ras signaling and bind adenylyl cyclase; the C termini bind to G-actin and thereby alter the dynamic rearrangements of the microfilament system. We report here the X-ray structure of the core of the N-terminal domain of the CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum, which comprises residues 51-226, determined by a combination of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS). The overall structure of this fragment is an alpha helix bundle composed of six antiparallel helices. Results from gel filtration and crosslinking experiments for CAP(1-226), CAP(255-464), and the full-length protein, together with the CAP N-terminal domain structure and the recently determined CAP C-terminal domain structure, provide evidence that the functional structure of CAP is multimeric.

  3. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  4. Polar Cap Retreat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 August 2004 This red wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of the retreating seasonal south polar cap in the most recent spring in late 2003. Bright areas are covered with frost, dark areas are those from which the solid carbon dioxide has sublimed away. The center of this image is located near 76.5oS, 28.2oW. The scene is large; it covers an area about 250 km (155 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  5. Alpha storage regime in high temperature sub-ignited D-T tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Furth, H.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Redi, M.H.; Strachan, J.D.

    1988-07-01

    Alpha particle parameters in sub-ignited D-T tokamaks like TFTR can be optimized in a high temperature ''alpha storage regime '' in which the alpha particle thermalization time /tau//sub ..cap alpha../ is long (approx.1.0 sec) and in which the alpha particle source rate S/sub ..cap alpha../ is enhanced due to a beam-target and beam-beam reactions (by a factor of approx.2-3). Near reactor-level alpha instability parameters ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(0) approx. n/sub ..cap alpha../(0)/n/sub e/(O) approx. 1% are predicted by simulation codes when Q approx. 0.5-1, while present TFTR ''supershots'' already have ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(O) approx. n/sub /alpha/(O)/n/sub e/(O) /approx/ 0.1-0.2%. Plasmas in this regime can be used to test theories of collective alpha instabilities for the first time, and can be used to provide a strong (but transient) alpha heating pulse. An experimental scenario to exploit this regime is described. 28 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.,

  6. Pits in Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This full-frame image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows faults and pits in Mars' north polar residual cap that have not been previously recognized.

    The faults and depressions between them are similar to features seen on Earth where the crust is being pulled apart. Such tectonic extension must have occurred very recently because the north polar residual cap is very young, as indicated by the paucity of impact craters on its surface. Alternatively, the faults and pits may be caused by collapse due to removal of material beneath the surface. The pits are aligned along the faults, either because material has drained into the subsurface along the faults or because gas has escaped from the subsurface through them.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  7. HLA-DQ β1 alleles associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectivity and EBV gp42 binding to cells

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wei; Gabriel, Erin; Aguilar, Fiona; Hoshino, Yo; Miyadera, Hiroko; Hess, Christoph; Hornung, Ronald L.

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects B cells and ~95% of adults are infected. EBV glycoprotein gp42 is essential for entry of virus into B cells. EBV gp42 binds to the β1 chain of HLA-DQ, -DR, and -DP on B cells, and uses these molecules for infection. To investigate if certain HLA-DQ alleles are associated with EBV seronegativity, we recruited ~3,300 healthy adult blood donors, identified 106 EBV-seronegative individuals, and randomly selected a control group of EBV-seropositive donors from the donor pool. A larger than expected proportion of EBV-seronegative subjects were HLA-DQ β1 *04/*05 and *06/*06, and to a lesser extent, *02/*03, compared with the control group, while a larger than expected portion of EBV-seropositive persons were HLA-DQ β1 *02/*02. We examined the ability of EBV gp42 to bind to different HLA-DQ molecules using human and mouse cells stably expressing these alleles. EBV gp42 bound less effectively to cells expressing HLA-DQ β1 *04/*05, *06/*06, or *03/*03 than to cells expressing HLA-DQ β1 *02/*02. These data are consistent with our observations of increased EBV seronegativity with DQ β1 *04/*05 or *06/*06 alleles. These findings emphasize the importance of a single genetic locus (HLA-DQ β1) to influence infectivity with EBV. PMID:28239644

  8. Human leukocyte antigen-DQ2 homozygosity and the development of refractory celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Al-Toma, Abdulbaqi; Goerres, Marije S; Meijer, Jos W R; Peña, A Salvador; Crusius, J Bart A; Mulder, Chris J J

    2006-03-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common gluten-sensitive enteropathy associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. The aim of this study was to determine if a particular HLA-DQ subtype predisposes to complications such as refractory CD with (RCD II) or without aberrant T cells (RCD I), and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphomas (EATL). Molecular HLA-DQ typing was performed on 43 RCD I, 43 RCD II, and 30 EATL patients, and compared with age-matched groups of 121 patients with histologically defined uncomplicated CD and 183 healthy controls. All individuals were Dutch Caucasians and were at least 21 years of age. HLA-DQ2 was present in 79% of RCD I, 97.7% of RCD II, and 96.6% of EATL patients. The differences were significant when compared with 28.9% in controls but not with 91.7% in uncomplicated CD. Homozygosity for HLA-DQ2 was observed in 25.5% of RCD I, 44.1% of RCD II, and 53.3% of EATL patients vs 20.7% of uncomplicated CD patients and 2.1% of controls. HLA-DQ8 was present in 10.7% of CD, 16.2% of RCD I, 9.3% of RCD II, and 6.6% of EATL patients vs 20.2% of controls. Homozygosity for HLA-DQ2 is associated with RCD II and EATL. Early identification of HLA-DQ2 homozygous CD patients may help to recognize CD patients at risk for developing these severe complications.

  9. CARMIL is a bona fide capping protein interactant.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Kirsten; Olszewski, Thomas E; Bowers, M Blair; Dimitrova, Mariana; Ginsburg, Ann; Hammer, John A

    2004-01-23

    CARMIL, also known as Acan 125, is a multidomain protein that was originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of type I myosins from Acanthamoeba. In a subsequent study of CARMIL from Dictyostelium, pull-down assays indicated that the protein also bound capping protein and the Arp2/3 complex. Here we present biochemical evidence that Acanthamoeba CARMIL interacts tightly with capping protein. In biochemical preparations, CARMIL copurified extensively with two polypeptides that were shown by microsequencing to be the alpha- and beta-subunits of Acanthamoeba capping protein. The complex between CARMIL and capping protein, which is readily demonstratable by chemical cross-linking, can be completely dissociated by size exclusion chromatography at pH 5.4. Analytical ultracentrifugation, surface plasmon resonance and SH3 domain pull-down assays indicate that the dissociation constant of capping protein for CARMIL is approximately 0.4 microm or lower. Using CARMIL fusion proteins, the binding site for capping protein was shown to reside within the carboxyl-terminal, approximately 200 residue, proline-rich domain of CARMIL. Finally, chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and rotary shadowed electron microscopy revealed that CARMIL is asymmetric and that it exists in a monomer <--> dimer equilibrium with an association constant of 1.0 x 10(6) m(-1). Together, these results indicate that CARMIL self-associates and interacts with capping protein with affinities that, given the cellular concentrations of the proteins ( approximately 1 and 2 microm for capping protein and CARMIL, respectively), indicate that both activities should be physiologically relevant.

  10. Novel Multipin Electrode Cap System for Dry Electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, P; Pedrosa, P; Griebel, S; Fonseca, C; Vaz, F; Supriyanto, E; Zanow, F; Haueisen, J

    2015-09-01

    Current usage of electroencephalography (EEG) is limited to laboratory environments. Self-application of a multichannel wet EEG caps is practically impossible, since the application of state-of-the-art wet EEG sensors requires trained laboratory staff. We propose a novel EEG cap system with multipin dry electrodes overcoming this problem. We describe the design of a novel 24-pin dry electrode made from polyurethane and coated with Ag/AgCl. A textile cap system holds 97 of these dry electrodes. An EEG study with 20 volunteers compares the 97-channel dry EEG cap with a conventional 128-channel wet EEG cap for resting state EEG, alpha activity, eye blink artifacts and checkerboard pattern reversal visual evoked potentials. All volunteers report a good cap fit and good wearing comfort. Average impedances are below 150 kΩ for 92 out of 97 dry electrodes, enabling recording with standard EEG amplifiers. No significant differences are observed between wet and dry power spectral densities for all EEG bands. No significant differences are observed between the wet and dry global field power time courses of visual evoked potentials. The 2D interpolated topographic maps show significant differences of 3.52 and 0.44% of the map areas for the N75 and N145 VEP components, respectively. For the P100 component, no significant differences are observed. Dry multipin electrodes integrated in a textile EEG cap overcome the principle limitations of wet electrodes, allow rapid application of EEG multichannel caps by non-trained persons, and thus enable new fields of application for multichannel EEG acquisition.

  11. Kinetic role of helix caps in protein folding is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Gregory T; Richardson, Jane S; Oas, Terrence G

    2004-04-06

    Secondary structure punctuation through specific backbone and side chain interactions at the beginning and end of alpha-helices has been proposed to play a key role in hierarchical protein folding mechanisms [Baldwin, R. L., and Rose, G. D. (1999) Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 26-33; Presta, L. G., and Rose, G. D. (1988) Science 240, 1632-1641]. We have made site-specific substitutions in the N- and C-cap motifs of the 5-helix protein monomeric lambda repressor (lambda(6-85)) and have measured the rate constants for folding and unfolding of each variant. The consequences of C-cap changes are strongly context-dependent. When the C-cap was located at the chain terminus, changes had little energetic and no kinetic effect. However, substitutions in a C-cap at the boundary between helix 4 and the subsequent interhelical loop resulted in large changes to the stability and rate constants of the variant, showing a substantial kinetic role for this interior C-cap and suggesting a general kinetic role for interior helix C-caps. Statistical preferences tabulated separately for internal and terminal C-caps also show only weak residue preferences in terminal C-caps. This kinetic distinction between interior and terminal C-caps can explain the discrepancy between the near-absence of stability and kinetic effects seen for C-caps of isolated peptides versus the very strong C-cap effects seen for proteins in statistical sequence preferences and mutational energetics. Introduction of consensus, in-register N-capping motifs resulted in increased stability, accelerated folding, and slower unfolding. The kinetic measurements indicate that some of the new native-state capping interactions remain unformed in the transition state. The accelerated folding rates could result from helix stabilization without invoking a specific role for N-caps in the folding reaction.

  12. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  14. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  15. Recent developments in the theory of AM Her and DQ Her stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory of accreting magnetic white dwarf stars are described and several of the unresolved issues concerning them are discussed. Recently reported Einstein satellite observations are examined and the possibility is considered that the 'soft X-ray puzzle' in the AM Her stars may have disappeared. Based on these observations, the evidence is considered that the region emitting the polarized optical light is separate from the X-ray emission region. Among the theoretical advances described are extensive new calculations of the X-ray emission from accreting magnetic white dwarfs, including soft and hard X-ray pulse profiles and time-dependent behavior; improvements in the treatment of cyclotron emission and the transfer of radiation in magnetoactive plasmas, with application to the polarized optical light from the AM Her stars; new ideas about the stream-magnetosphere interaction region that produces the forest of strong emission lines in the AM Her stars; explanation of the synchronization of the white dwarf in the AM Her stars in terms of an MHD torque; and determination of the magnetic fields in the AM Her and DQ Her stars through analysis of their spin-up behavior.

  16. Recent developments in the theory of AM Her and DQ Her stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory of accreting magnetic white dwarf stars are described and several of the unresolved issues concerning them are discussed. Recently reported Einstein satellite observations are examined and the possibility is considered that the 'soft X-ray puzzle' in the AM Her stars may have disappeared. Based on these observations, the evidence is considered that the region emitting the polarized optical light is separate from the X-ray emission region. Among the theoretical advances described are extensive new calculations of the X-ray emission from accreting magnetic white dwarfs, including soft and hard X-ray pulse profiles and time-dependent behavior; improvements in the treatment of cyclotron emission and the transfer of radiation in magnetoactive plasmas, with application to the polarized optical light from the AM Her stars; new ideas about the stream-magnetosphere interaction region that produces the forest of strong emission lines in the AM Her stars; explanation of the synchronization of the white dwarf in the AM Her stars in terms of an MHD torque; and determination of the magnetic fields in the AM Her and DQ Her stars through analysis of their spin-up behavior.

  17. Genetic response to an environmental pathogenic agent: HLA-DQ and onchocerciasis in northwestern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Garzoli, A; Battistini, A; Iorio, A; De Stefano, G F

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ variability in two populations (Cayapas Amerindians and Afro-Ecuadorians) who live near one another along the Cayapa River and who are exposed to the same environmental stresses, such as infection by Onchocerca volvulus. HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 of 149 unrelated individuals (74 Cayapas and 75 Afro-Ecuadorians) have been analyzed. HLA high-resolution molecular typing was performed by sequence-based typing, sequence-specific oligonucleotides hybridization and sequence-specific primer (SSP) amplification. The comparison between affected (cases) and unaffected people (controls) in both populations shows the key role of several HLA-DQA1 alleles in susceptibility and protection against onchocerciasis. In both populations, there is strong evidence related to the protective role of DQA1*0401 against onchocerciasis. Alleles HLA-DQA1*0102 and *0103 seem to represent risk factors in Afro-Ecuadorians, while HLA-DQA1*0301 is only a suggestive susceptibility allele in Cayapas. These findings represent new positive/negative associations with onchocerciasis in South America, whereas previous findings pertained only to African populations.

  18. HLA class I (A, B) and II (DR, DQ) gene and haplotype frequencies in blood donors from Wales.

    PubMed

    Darke, C; Guttridge, M G; Thompson, J; McNamara, S; Street, J; Thomas, M

    1998-01-01

    Accurate estimates of HLA-A, B, DR and DQ phenotype, gene and haplotype frequencies (HF) in the normal population are of importance in, for example, disease susceptibility studies, platelet transfusion support and transplantation. HLA population genetics studies have been performed on numerous groups, however, no major studies have been carried out on the population of Wales. As part of the validation process for our routine HLA-A and B typing by PCR using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) we examined 1,798 normal, unrelated Caucasoid blood donors living in Wales and recruited onto the Welsh Bone Marrow Donor Registry (WBMDR). Typing was performed by serology (HLA-A, B) and PCR-SSP at low resolution (HLA-A, B, DR, DQ) resulting in a particularly rigorous level of HLA specificity assignment. Four discrepancies were found between the HLA-A and B serological and PCR-SSP specificity assignments: (1) two instances of HLA-A2 by serology were undetected by PCR-SSP and were a new HLA-A2 allele - A*0224; (2) one example of HLA-B*15 by PCR-SSP failed to react by serology, and remained undetectable by serology in subsequent samples, and (3) one example of HLA-B45 by serology was identified as HLA-B*5002 by PCR-SSP. Hardy-Weinberg and homozygosity analysis showed that the goodness-of-fit was excellent (p > 0.05), for both phenotype distribution and the number of homozygotes identified, for all four loci. The phenotype and gene frequencies for the 18 HLA-A, 34 -B, 15 -DR and 8 -DQ specificities identified and two- and three-locus HF, linkage disequilibrium and related values for HLA-A/B, B/DR, DR/DQ and HLA-A/B/DR and B/DR/DQ were essentially typical of a northern European population. HLA-A2, B44, DR4 and DQ2 were the highest frequency phenotypes and HLA-A2403, A34, A74, B42, B75, B2708, B48, B67 and B703 occurred once only. There were no examples of: A36, A43, A69, A80, B46, B54, B59, B73, B76, B77, B7801, B8101 or DR18 specificities. DR17, DQ2 and A1, B8, DR17 were the

  19. Development of Gasless Pyrotechnic Cap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    beam cathode ray oscillo- scope. The caps were ignited by removing the safety pin . This also triggered the oscilloscope. The change in pressure inside...sensitivity. STRIKER SAFETY PIN PERCUSSION CAP FIXED VOLUME / ;PRESSURE TRANSDUCER TO C.R.O. FIG. 8 - Device used to determine pressure time

  20. Assessing high affinity binding to HLA-DQ2.5 by a novel peptide library based approach.

    PubMed

    Jüse, Ulrike; Arntzen, Magnus; Højrup, Peter; Fleckenstein, Burkhard; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2011-04-01

    Here we report on a novel peptide library based method for HLA class II binding motif identification. The approach is based on water soluble HLA class II molecules and soluble dedicated peptide libraries. A high number of different synthetic peptides are competing to interact with a limited amount of HLA molecules, giving a selective force in the binding. The peptide libraries can be designed so that the sequence length, the alignment of binding registers, the numbers and composition of random positions are controlled, and also modified amino acids can be included. Selected library peptides bound to HLA are then isolated by size exclusion chromatography and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry online coupled to liquid chromatography. The MS/MS data are subsequently searched against a library defined database using a search engine such as Mascot, followed by manual inspection of the results. We used two dodecamer and two decamer peptide libraries and HLA-DQ2.5 to test possibilities and limits of this method. The selected sequences which we identified in the fraction eluted from HLA-DQ2.5 showed a higher average of their predicted binding affinity values compared to the original peptide library. The eluted sequences fit very well with the previously described HLA-DQ2.5 peptide binding motif. This novel method, limited by library complexity and sensitivity of mass spectrometry, allows the analysis of several thousand synthetic sequences concomitantly in a simple water soluble format.

  1. Risk conferred by HLA-DR and DQ for type 1 diabetes in 0-35-year age group in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sanjeevi, Carani B; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Kockum, Ingrid; Lernmark, Ake

    2008-12-01

    HLA DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2 haplotypes account for 89% of newly diagnosed cases of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Sweden. The presence of a single copy of DQ6 confers protection. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether the risk conferred by high risk HLA DR and DQ to T1D is similar in all regions of Sweden and see whether there are any significant regional differences. The subjects comprised 799 consecutively diagnosed T1D patients and 585 age-, sex-, and geography-matched healthy controls in the age group 0-35 years. HLA typing for high-risk haplotypes was previously performed using PCR-SSOP and RFLP. The results showed that HLA DR3-DR4 gave an odds ratio of 8.14 for the whole of Sweden. However, when the study group was divided into six geographical regions, subjects from Stockholm had the highest OR, followed by those from Lund, Linköping, Gothenburg, Umeå, and Uppsala. Absolute protection was conferred by the presence of DQ6 in subjects from the Linköping region, but varied in the other regions. The frequency of DR3 and DQ2, DR4 and DQ8, DR15, and DQ6 in patients showed high linkage for each region, but were different between regions. The risk conferred by high-risk HLA varies in different regions for a homogenous population in Sweden. The results highlight the important role played by the various environmental factors in the precipitation of T1D.

  2. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected March 5, 2002 during the southern summer season. Layering in the South polar cap interior is readily visible and may indicate yearly ice/dust deposition.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.6, Longitude 156.8 East (203.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  3. Refilin holds the cap.

    PubMed

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Baudier, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT.

  4. Refilin holds the cap

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2011-01-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT. PMID:22446558

  5. Moroccan study of HLA (-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ) polymorphism in 647 unrelated controls: Updating data.

    PubMed

    Brick, Chehrazade; Atouf, Ouafa; Bouayad, Abdellatif; Essakalli, Malika

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) distribution and polymorphism in a large sample of healthy Moroccans in order to extend and update the available data. 647 unrelated Moroccan controls originating from diverse regions of the country were typed using microlymphocytotoxicity for HLA-A and -B, sequence-specific-primer amplification for -C, -DR, and -DQ and Luminex HD for specific -DR. The most frequent allele groups detected were HLA-A2 (19.2%), -B44 (12.4%), -C*07 (24.4%), -DRB1*03 (16.9%), -DRB1*04 (18.4%), -DQB1*02 (28.7%) and -DQB1*03 (27.8%). The most predominant specific alleles found for DRB1 were: *03:01, *04:02, *04:05, *07:01, *11:01, *13:02 and *15:01. Rare allelic variants were detected, for the first time in Moroccan population, at the DRB1*03 (*03:52, *03:54, *03:56), DRB1*07 (*07:07, *07:11, *07:16) and DRB1*11 (*11:70) locus. The most frequent haplotypes were: A2-B44, A30-B18, A2-C*16, A30-C*06, B14-C*08, B58-C*07, B45-C*06, DRB1*03-DQB1*02, DRB1*04-DQB1*03, DRB1*07-DQB1*02 and DRB1*15-DQB1*06. Comparison of genetic distances and haplotypes with other populations shows that the Moroccans are genetically closer to North Africans and Europeans than to sub-Saharan Africans. Our results reflect the high degree of HLA polymorphism in the Moroccan population and provide a useful baseline of healthy Moroccan controls for disease association and anthropological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Method for determining fast-alpha-particle confinement in tokamak plasmas using resonant nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.; Zweben, S.J.; Medley, S.S.

    1986-03-01

    The resonant nuclear reactions D(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 6/Li, /sup 6/Li(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 10/B, and /sup 7/Li(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 11/B are examined as diagnostics of fast-alpha-particle confinement in tokamak plasmas. Gamma rays from these resonant reactions with energies from 2.1 MeV to 9.2 MeV may be used to infer the alpha-particle population between energies of 0.4 MeV and 2.6 MeV. The ratio of these alpha-burnup reactions to the reactions T(D,..gamma..)/sup 5/He and /sup 3/He(D,..gamma..)/sup 5/Li provides a technique for the measurement of alpha confinement.

  7. Cradle Cap: Symptoms and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp Oily or dry skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales Skin flakes Possibly mild redness Similar scales may also be present on the ears, eyelids, nose and groin. Cradle cap is common in newborns. ...

  8. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  9. Northern Ice Cap of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-26

    This image, combining data from two instruments aboard NASA Mars Global Surveyor, depicts an orbital view of the north polar region of Mars. To the right of center, a large canyon, Chasma Boreale, almost bisects the white ice cap.

  10. Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Swiston, J; Young, D

    1994-06-01

    We previously reported the identification of human CAP, a protein that is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins. The two yeast CAP proteins have similar functions: the N-terminal domains are required for the normal function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains result in morphological and nutritional defects that are unrelated to the cAMP pathways. We have amplified and cloned cDNAs from a human glioblastoma library that encode a second CAP-related protein, CAP2. The human CAP and CAP2 proteins are 64% identical. Expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. cerevisiae cap- strains suppresses phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP, but does not restore hyper-activation of adenylyl cyclase by RAS2val19. Similarly, expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. pombe cap- strains suppresses the morphological and temperature-sensitive phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP in this yeast. In addition, expression of human CAP, but not CAP2, suppresses the propensity to sporulate due to deletion of the N-terminal domain of CAP in S. pombe. This latter observation suggests that human CAP restores normal adenylyl cyclase activity in S. pombe cap- cells. Thus, functional properties of both N-terminal and C-terminal domains are conserved between the human and S. pombe CAP proteins.

  11. Alpha Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions such as high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Find out more about this class of medication. ... these conditions: High blood pressure Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) Though alpha blockers are commonly used to treat ...

  12. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  13. Resistance/susceptibility to Echinococcus multilocularis infection and cytokine profile in humans. II. Influence of the HLA B8, DR3, DQ2 haplotype.

    PubMed

    Godot, V; Harraga, S; Beurton, I; Tiberghien, P; Sarciron, E; Gottstein, B; Vuitton, D A

    2000-09-01

    Differences have been shown between HLA characteristics of patients with different courses of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Notably the HLA B8, DR3, DQ2 haplotype was associated with more severe forms of this granulomatous parasitic disease. We compared IL-10, IL-5, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from eight HLA-DR3+, DQ2+, B8+ AE patients and from 10 HLA-DR3-, DQ2-, B8- patients after non-specific mitogenic and specific Echinococcus multilocularis antigenic in vitro stimulation. PBMC from seven HLA-DR3+, DQ2+, B8+ healthy subjects and nine HLA-DR3-, DQ2-, B8- subjects were also studied as controls. PBMC from AE patients with HLA DR3+, DQ2+ haplotype secreted higher levels of IL-10 without any stimulation and after specific antigenic stimulation than did patients without this haplotype. Higher levels of IL-5 and IFN-gamma were also produced by these patients' PBMC after stimulation with non-purified parasitic antigenic preparations; however, the specific alkaline phosphatase antigen extracted from E. multilocularis induced only Th2-type cytokine secretion. A spontaneous secretion of TNF by HLA DR3+, DQ2+ B8+ AE patients was also found. These results suggest that HLA characteristics of the host can influence immune-mediated mechanisms, and thus the course of AE in humans; specific antigenic components of E. multilocularis could contribute to the preferential Th2-type cytokine production favoured by the genetic background of the host.

  14. 47 CFR 54.623 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.623 Section 54.623 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.623 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall be $400 million per funding...

  15. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF HLA-DQ2 HETERODIMERS ON THE CLINICAL FEATURES AND LABORATORY OF PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Akar, H Haluk; Yıldız, Mikdat; Sevinc, Eylem; Sokucu, Semra

    2015-12-01

    Antecedentes y objetivo: el marcador genético esencial relacionado con la enfermedad celíaca (CD) es la molécula HLA-DQ2 codificada por los genes DQA1*0501 y DQB1*0201. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto de estos alelos en las características clínicas, serológicas e histológicas de los niños turcos que tienen la enfermedad celíaca. Material y métodos: nosotros hemos dividido los 36 pacientes celíacos en 4 grupos de acuerdo con su genotipo HLA-DQ2 basado en la presencia o la ausencia de los alelos DQA1*0501 y DQB1*0201. Grupo 1: 4 pacientes que no tenían los alelos HLA-DQ2A1*0501 y DQ2B1*0201; Grupo 2: 12 pacientes que tenían por lo menos uno de estos alelos con un estado heterocigoto; Grupo 3: 12 pacientes que tenián ambos alelos con un estado heterocigoto; Grupo 4: 8 pacientes que tenían ambos alelos con un estado heterocigoto. Nosotros hemos comparado los grupos de acuerdo con las características clínicas, serológicas, histológicas y bioquímicas. Resultados: no había significación estadística entre los grupos por edad, índice de masa corporal, (IMC), peso por altura y aparición de síntomas. Sin embargo, en los grupos 3 y 4 comparados con los grupos 1 y 2 se observaron unas diferencias menores en IMC y anticuerpos antigliadina (AGA), sin una significación estadística. De acuerdo con los antiendomisios (EMA), la puntuación Marsh, las presentaciones clínicas y los valores hematológicos y bioquímicos, no había una significación estadística entre los grupos sin estreñimiento respecto a los valores más altos observados en el grupo 4 sin significación estadística. Se detectó hipertiroidismo en un paciente (25%) del grupo de carga genética más baja (grupo 1) con significación estadística (p < 0,046). El resultado: en este estudio, las pequeñas diferencias que se encontraton entre los grupos no dilucidaron el impacto de los alelos HLA-DQ2 A1*0501 y DQ2B1*0201 en las manifectaciones clínicas, serológicas y de

  17. Non-HLA type 1 diabetes genes modulate disease risk together with HLA-DQ and islet autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, M; Hagopian, W; Palmer, JP; Sanjeevi, CB; Kockum, I; Breslow, N; Lernmark, Å

    2015-01-01

    The possible interrelations between HLA-DQ, non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and islet autoantibodies were investigated at clinical onset in 1-34 year old type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (n=305) and controls (n=203). Among the non-HLA SNPs reported by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium, 24% were supported in this Swedish replication set including that the increased risk of minor PTPN22 allele and high risk HLA was modified by GAD65 autoantibodies. The association between T1D and the minor AA+AC genotype in ERBB3 gene was stronger among IA-2 autoantibody-positive patients (comparison p=0.047). The association between T1D and the common insulin (AA) genotype was stronger among insulin autoantibody (IAA)-positive patients (comparison p=0.008). In contrast, the association between T1D and unidentified 26471 gene was stronger among IAA-negative (comparison p=0.049) and IA-2 autoantibody-negative (comparison p=0.052) patients. Finally, the association between IL2RA and T1D was stronger among IAA-positive than among IAA-negative patients (comparison p=0.028). These results suggest that the increased risk of T1D by non-HLA genes is often modified by both islet autoantibodies and HLA-DQ. The interactions between non-HLA genes, islet autoantibodies and HLA-DQ should be taken into account in T1D prediction studies as well as in prevention trials aimed at inducing immunological tolerance to islet autoantigens. PMID:26513234

  18. Fine mapping analysis of HLA-DP/DQ gene clusters on chromosome 6 reveals multiple susceptibility loci for HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jingjing; Su, Kunkai; Yu, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Bingxun; Luo, Rui; Yao, Jian; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhan, Yan; Ye, Chao; Yuan, Wenji; Jiang, Xianzhong; Cui, Wenyan; Li, Ming D; Li, Lianjuan

    2015-12-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 as a susceptibility locus for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a finding subsequently replicated in independent samples. However, only limited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in most of these studies, and it remains to be determined which SNPs contribute to the detected association. After genotyping 140 SNPs within this genomic region in a total of 1657 HBV-positive patients and 1456 HBV-negative controls, we conducted a series of genetic epidemiological and bioinformatics analysis, including individual SNP-based association analysis, haplotype-based association analysis, and conditional analysis. We identified 76 SNPs and 5 LD blocks in HLA-DP/DQ clusters that are significantly associated with HBV infection, with the smallest P value being 3.88 × 10(-18) for rs9277535 in HLA-DPB1. With conditional analysis, we further revealed that the genes contributing to the effects of variants in HLA-DP/DQ on infection are independent of each other, and the LD block 5 in the 3'-UTR region of HLA-DPB1 had a predominant effect in the association of HLA-DP with HBV infection. We also found that the SNPs in the 3'-UTR region of HLA-DPB1 were significant between the subgroups of inactive HBV carrier, chronic hepatitis B, or hepatic cirrhosis from the case group and the spontaneous HBV-clearance subgroup from the control group. Finally, we did further association analysis of SNPs in this region with different subgroups from the case group, which revealed no association of these SNPs with the progression of HBV-related diseases. In sum, we showed, for the first time, that the HLA-DP/DQ clusters contribute independently to HBV infection, and the 3'-UTR region of HLA-DPB1 represents an important functional region involved in HBV infection.

  19. Gliadin intake alters the small intestinal mucosa in indomethacin-treated HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; Luongo, Diomira; Rotondi Aufiero, Vera; Bozzella, Giuseppina; Palmieri, Gianna; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; David, Chella; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an enteropathy caused by the ingestion of wheat gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. A complete understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms in CD has been hindered because of the lack of adequate in vivo models. In the present study, we explored the events after the intragastric administration of gliadin and of the albumin/globulin fraction from wheat in human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 transgenic mice (DQ8 mice) treated with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs). After 10 days of treatment, mice showed a significant reduction of villus height, increased crypt depth, increased number of lamina propria-activated macrophages, and high basal interferon-γ secretion in mesenteric lymph nodes, all of which were specifically related to gliadin intake, whereas the albumin/globulin fraction of wheat was unable to induce similar changes. Cotreatment with NS-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, also induced the intestinal lesion. Enteropathy onset was further characterized by high levels of oxidative stress markers, similar to CD. Biochemical assessment of the small intestine revealed the specific activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, high caspase-3 activity, and a significant increase of tissue transglutaminase protein levels associated with the intestinal lesion. Notably, after 30 days of treatment, enteropathic mice developed serum antibodies toward gliadin (IgA) and tissue transglutaminase (IgG). We concluded that gliadin intake in combination with COX inhibition caused a basal inflammatory status and an oxidative stress condition in the small intestine of DQ8 mice, thus triggering the mucosal lesion and, subsequently, an antigen-specific immunity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Efficacy of a Gluten-Free Diet in Subjects With Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Diarrhea Unaware of Their HLA-DQ2/8 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Imran; Trott, Nick; Briggs, Rebecca; North, John R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Sanders, David S

    2016-05-01

    A gluten-containing diet alters bowel barrier function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D), particularly those who are positive for HLA allele DQ2/8. We studied the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with IBS-D who have not previously considered the effects of gluten in their diet and were unaware of their HLA-DQ2/8 genotype. We performed a prospective study of 41 patients with IBS-D (20 HLA-DQ2/8-positive and 21 HLA-DQ2/8-negative) at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, United Kingdom, from September 2012 through July 2015. All subjects were placed on a 6-week GFD following evaluation by a dietician. Subjects completed validated questionnaires at baseline and Week 6 of the GFD. The primary endpoint was mean change in IBS Symptom Severity Score; a 50-point reduction was considered to indicate a clinical response. Secondary endpoints were changes in hospital anxiety and depression score, fatigue impact score, and Short Form-36 results. Clinical responders who chose to continue a GFD after the study period were evaluated on average 18 months later to assess diet durability, symptom scores, and anthropometric and biochemical status. A 6-week GFD reduced IBS Symptom Severity Score by ≥50 points in 29 patients overall (71%). The mean total IBS Symptom Severity Score decreased from 286 before the diet to 131 points after 6 weeks on the diet (P < .001); the reduction was similar in each HLA-DQ group. However, HLA-DQ2/8-negative subjects had a greater reduction in abdominal distention (P = .04). Both groups had marked mean improvements in hospital anxiety and depression scores, fatigue impact score, and Short Form-36 results, although HLA-DQ2/8-positive subjects had a greater reduction in depression score and increase in vitality score than HLA-DQ2/8-negative subjects (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Twenty-one of the 29 subjects with a clinical response (72%) planned to continue the GFD long term; 18 months after the

  1. Creation of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  2. Prevalence of obesity was related to HLA-DQ in 2-4-year-old children at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Lernmark, Å; Uusitalo, U M; Lynch, K F; Veijola, R; Winkler, C; Larsson, H E; Rewers, M; She, J-X; Ziegler, A G; Simell, O G; Hagopian, W A; Akolkar, B; Krischer, J P; Vehik, K

    2014-12-01

    Body size is postulated to modulate type 1 diabetes as either a trigger of islet autoimmunity or an accelerator to clinical onset after seroconversion. As overweight and obesity continue to rise among children, the aim of this study was to determine whether human leukocyte antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) genotypes may be related to body size among children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes. Repeated measures of weight and height were collected from 5969 children 2-4 years of age enrolled in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young prospective study. Overweight and obesity was determined by the International Obesity Task Force cutoff values that correspond to body mass index (BMI) of 25 and 30 kg m(-)(2) at age 18. The average BMI was comparable across specific HLA genotypes at every age point. The proportion of overweight was not different by HL A, but percent obesity varied by age with a decreasing trend among DQ2/8 carriers (P for trend=0.0315). A multivariable regression model suggested DQ2/2 was associated with higher obesity risk at age 4 (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.80) after adjusting for the development of islet autoantibody and/or type 1 diabetes. The HLA-DQ2/2 genotype may predispose to obesity among 2-4-year-old children with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

  3. Effects of recombinant gamma-interferon on HLA-DR and DQ expression by skin cells in short-term organ culture.

    PubMed

    Messadi, D V; Pober, J S; Murphy, G F

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effects of various immunologic and inflammatory mediators on the expression of the class II major histocompatibility antigens, HLA-DR and DQ in short-term organ cultures of newborn human foreskin. Induction of these molecules above baseline was observed preponderantly on microvascular endothelium and epidermal dendritic cells, and among the mediators tested, this induction was caused exclusively by immune interferon. Increased reactivity for HLA-DR and DQ was observed at 24 hours for both cell types. Double labeling confirmed that the HLA-DR/DQ-positive dendritic cell population consisted largely of T6-positive Langerhans cells. Peak endothelial HLA-DR expression was seen at 24 hours and slowly dissipated thereafter. In contrast, endothelial HLA-DQ showed increasing expression over 72 hours of the study. Keratinocytes remained unreactive for HLA-DR and DQ during the entire study period. We conclude that class II major histocompatibility molecules can be modulated on skin microvascular endothelial cells and Langerhans cells in situ by immune interferon with response rates different from those previously described for endothelium in cell culture. Furthermore, the organ culture system has revealed keratinocyte unresponsiveness not anticipated from cell culture experiments. These findings have implications for the effector function and potential targeting of these cells in the cutaneous immune response, and establishes short-term organ culture of human skin as a valuable model for assessment of interactions between cytokines and skin cells.

  4. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  5. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  6. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  7. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis transpeptidase enzyme CapD.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Richter, S.; Zhang, R.; Anderson, V. J.; Missiakas, D.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-09-04

    Bacillus anthracis elaborates a poly-{gamma}-d-glutamic acid capsule that protects bacilli from phagocytic killing during infection. The enzyme CapD generates amide bonds with peptidoglycan cross-bridges to anchor capsular material within the cell wall envelope of B. anthracis. The capsular biosynthetic pathway is essential for virulence during anthrax infections and can be targeted for anti-infective inhibition with small molecules. Here, we present the crystal structures of the {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase CapD with and without {alpha}-l-Glu-l-Glu dipeptide, a non-hydrolyzable analog of poly-{gamma}-d-glutamic acid, in the active site. Purified CapD displays transpeptidation activity in vitro, and its structure reveals an active site broadly accessible for poly-{gamma}-glutamate binding and processing. Using structural and biochemical information, we derive a mechanistic model for CapD catalysis whereby Pro{sup 427}, Gly{sup 428}, and Gly{sup 429} activate the catalytic residue of the enzyme, Thr{sup 352}, and stabilize an oxyanion hole via main chain amide hydrogen bonds.

  8. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  9. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  10. Patchy particles using colloidal caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Christine; Pine, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a method for making patchy particles functionalized with single stranded sticky end DNA only on their patches. This is done by adding ``spherical cap'' particles as patches to spherical colloids using the depletion interaction. The caps are then functionalized with single stranded DNA using copper-free click chemistry. Due to being attached only by depletion, the patches diffuse on the surface of the particle. The patchy particles can then interact with each other in a specific, directional way through the mobile, DNA functionalized patches.

  11. No extreme genetic risk for type 1 diabetes among DR3/4-DQ8 siblings sharing both extended HLA haplotypes with their diabetic proband.

    PubMed

    Eerligh, P; Koeleman, B P C; Lie, B A; Roep, B O; Thorsby, E

    2011-04-01

    An extreme genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) was reported for DR3/4-DQ8 siblings sharing both extended human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes identical-by-descent (IBD) with their diabetic proband. We attempted to replicate this finding in our prospective Dutch T1D cohort and in families from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). Only 2 of the 14 Dutch siblings, sharing both DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 haplotypes IBD with their diabetic proband, developed T1D in a 12-year follow-up period. No differential sharing of HLA haplotypes or significant transmission distortion in parents homozygous for HLA risk alleles was found in T1DGC material. Therefore, we could not confirm the reported extreme risk for T1D, suggesting that the risk conferred by other HLA complex loci is moderate. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Alpha fetoprotein

    MedlinePlus

    ... the liver Liver cancer Malignant teratoma Recovery from hepatitis Problems during pregnancy Alternative Names Fetal alpha globulin; AFP Images Blood ... JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 11. Read More ... cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Malignant teratoma of the ...

  13. Alpha capture into the giant quadrupole resonance in /sup 28/Si

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, E.; Snover, K.A.; Feldman, G.; Hindi, M.

    1983-03-01

    Angular distributions have been studied in the /sup 24/Mg(..cap alpha..,..gamma../sub 0/) /sup 28/Si reaction in fine energy steps for excitation energies 14< or approx. =E/sub x/< or approx. =22 MeV. Absolute cross sections were determined with errors smaller than 10% and were found to be substantially lower than previously determined. A total E2 strength of (3.7 +- 0.4) % of the energy weighted sum rule was observed, in good agreement with results obtained from (..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'..cap alpha../sub 0/) coincidence experiments. Strong interference effects as well as other deviations from statistical model expectations are interpreted as due to nonstatistical preequilibrium effects in both E1 and E2 channels.

  14. Alpha-particle effects on high-n instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.

    1988-06-01

    Hot ..cap alpha..-particles and thermalized helium ash particles in tokamaks can have significant effects on high toroidal mode number instabilities such as the trapped-electron drift mode and the kinetically calculated magnetohydrodynamic ballooning mode. In particular, the effects can be stabilizing, destabilizing, or negligible, depending on the parameters involved. In high-temperature tokamaks capable of producing significant numbers of hot ..cap alpha..-particles, the predominant interaction of the mode with the ..cap alpha..-particles is through resonances of various sorts. In turn, the modes can cause significant anomalous transport of the ..cap alpha..-particles and the helium ash. Here, results of comprehensive linear eigenfrequency-eigenfunction calculations are presented for relevant realistic cases to show these effects. 24 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Enanas blancas post-AGB deficientes en Hidrógeno: su evolución espectral PG1159-DB-DQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Serenelli, A. M.; Scóccola, C. G.; García-Berro, E.

    This work explore the formation and evolution of hydrogen-deficient post-AGB white dwarfs. To this end, we compute the complete evolution of an initially 2.7 M sun star from the ZAMS through the thermally pulsing and mass-loss phases to the white dwarf stage. Particular attention is given to the chemical abundance changes during the whole evolution. The evolution is extended to the domain of the helium-rich, carbon-contaminated DQ white dwarfs to exploring the possible evolutionary connection PG1159-DB-DQ.

  16. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  17. CAP Self-Inventory Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet of Self-Inventory Cards is one of the 14 components of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program (see note), a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  18. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  19. Homozygosity for premature stop codon of the MHC class I chain-related gene A (MIC-A) is associated with early activation of islet autoimmunity of DR3/4-DQ2/8 high risk DAISY relatives.

    PubMed

    Ide, Akane; Babu, Sunanda R; Robles, David T; Wang, Tianbao; Erlich, Henry A; Bugawan, Teodorica L; Rewers, Marian; Fain, Pamela R; Eisenbarth, George S

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesized that homozygosity for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MIC-A)5.1 allele with premature stop codon would increase diabetes risk of individuals followed from infancy in the DAISY study (Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the young). Forty five percent (10/22) of relatives (siblings and offspring cohort, SOC) who developed anti-islet autoantibodies were MIC-A5.1/5.1 homozygous. Of SOC individuals without autoantibodies, 12/58 (19%, p = 0.02) were MIC-A5.1 homozygous. By life table analysis of expression of autoantibodies, DR3-DQ2/ DR4-DQ8 more than 50% of MIC-A5.1 homozygous children became autoantibody positive by 7 years of age, compared to delayed development of autoantibodies for non-MIC-A5.1/5.1 DR3-DQ2/ DR4-DQ8 children (p = 0.005). For DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 nonrelatives, the risk of activating anti-islet autoimmunity remained low even with MIC-A5.1 homozygosity suggesting that there are additional factors contributing to the marked risk of relatives compared to the general population with the DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype.

  20. HLA-DQ2.5 genes associated with celiac disease risk are preferentially expressed with respect to non-predisposing HLA genes: Implication for anti-gluten T cell response.

    PubMed

    Pisapia, Laura; Camarca, Alessandra; Picascia, Stefania; Bassi, Virginia; Barba, Pasquale; Del Pozzo, Giovanna; Gianfrani, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    HLA genes represent the main risk factor in autoimmune disorders. In celiac disease (CD), the great majority of patients carry the HLA DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 alleles, both of which encode the DQ2.5 molecule. The formation of complexes between DQ2.5 and gluten peptides on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is necessary to activate pathogenic CD4(+) T lymphocytes. It is widely accepted that the DQ2.5 genes establish the different intensities of anti-gluten immunity, depending whether they are in a homozygous or a heterozygous configuration. Here, we demonstrated that HLA DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 gene expression is much higher than expression of non-CD-associated genes. This influences the protein levels and causes a comparable cell surface exposure of DQ2.5 heterodimers between DQ2.5 homozygous and heterozygous celiac patients. As a consequence, the magnitude of the anti-gluten CD4(+) T cell response is strictly dependent on the antigen dose and not on the DQ2.5 gene configuration of APCs. Furthermore, our findings support the concept that the expression of DQ2.5 genes is an important risk factor in celiac disease. The preferential expression of DQ2.5 alleles provides a new functional explanation of why these genes are so frequently associated with celiac disease and with other autoimmune disorders.

  1. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): update from the 'CAPS Registry'.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R

    2010-04-01

    Although less than 1% of patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) develop the catastrophic variant, its potentially lethal outcome emphasizes its importance in clinical medicine today. However, the rarity of this variant makes it extraordinarily difficult to study in any systematic way. In order to put together all of the published case reports as well as the new diagnosed cases from all over the world, an international registry of patients with catastrophic APS (CAPS Registry) was created in 2000 by the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (see http://www.med.ub.es/MIMMUN/FORUM/CAPS.HTM). Currently, it documents the entire clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of more than 300 patients whose data has been fully registered.

  2. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  3. Novel TPM3 mutation in a family with cap myopathy and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schreckenbach, T; Schröder, J M; Voit, T; Abicht, A; Neuen-Jacob, E; Roos, A; Bulst, S; Kuhl, C; Schulz, J B; Weis, J; Claeys, K G

    2014-02-01

    Cap myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by the presence of caps within muscle fibres and caused by mutations in ACTA1, TPM2 or TPM3. Thus far, only three cases with TPM3-related cap myopathy have been described. Here, we report on the first autosomal dominant family with cap myopathy in three-generations, caused by a novel heterozygous mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin-slow-encoding gene (TPM3; exon 4; c.445C>A; p.Leu149Ile). The three patients experienced first symptoms of muscle weakness in childhood and followed a slowly progressive course. They presented generalized hypotrophy and mild muscle weakness, elongated face, high arched palate, micrognathia, scoliosis and respiratory involvement. Intrafamilial variability of skeletal deformities, respiratory involvement and mild cardiac abnormalities was noted. Muscle MRI revealed a recognizable pattern of fatty muscle infiltration and masseter muscle hypertrophy. Subsarcolemmal caps were present in 6-10% of the fibres and immunoreactive with anti-tropomyosin antibodies. We conclude that the MRI-pattern of muscle involvement and the presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy in cap myopathy may guide molecular genetic diagnosis towards a mutation in TPM3. Regular respiratory examinations are important, even if patients have no anamnestic clues. We compare our findings to all cases of cap myopathy with identified mutations (n=11), thus far reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of CapZ during myofibrillogenesis alters assembly of actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The actin filaments of myofibrils are highly organized; they are of a uniform length and polarity and are situated in the sarcomere in an aligned array. We hypothesized that the barbed-end actin-binding protein, CapZ, directs the process of actin filament assembly during myofibrillogenesis. We tested this hypothesis by inhibiting the actin- binding activity of CapZ in developing myotubes in culture using two different methods. First, injection of a monoclonal antibody that prevents the interaction of CapZ and actin disrupts the non-striated bundles of actin filaments formed during the early stages of myofibril formation in skeletal myotubes in culture. The antibody, when injected at concentrations lower than that required for disrupting the actin filaments, binds at nascent Z-disks. Since the interaction of CapZ and the monoclonal antibody are mutually exclusive, this result indicates that CapZ binds nascent Z-disks independent of an interaction with actin filaments. In a second approach, expression in myotubes of a mutant form of CapZ that does not bind actin results in a delay in the appearance of actin in a striated pattern in myofibrils. The organization of alpha-actinin at Z-disks also is delayed, but the organization of titin and myosin in sarcomeres is not significantly altered. We conclude that the interaction of CapZ and actin is important for the organization of actin filaments of the sarcomere. PMID:7822423

  5. Importance of the lid and cap domains for the catalytic activity of gastric lipases.

    PubMed

    Miled, N; Bussetta, C; De caro, A; Rivière, M; Berti, L; Canaan, S

    2003-09-01

    Human gastric lipase (HGL) is an enzyme secreted by the stomach, which is stable and active despite the highly acidic environment. It has been clearly established that this enzyme is responsible for 30% of the fat digestion processes occurring in human. This globular protein belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family and its catalytic serine is deeply buried under a domain called the extrusion domain, which is composed of a 'cap' domain and a segment consisting of 58 residues, which can be defined as a lid. The exact roles played by the cap and the lid domains during the catalytic step have not yet been elucidated. We have recently solved the crystal structure of the open form of the dog gastric lipase in complex with a covalent inhibitor. The detergent molecule and the inhibitor were mimicking a triglyceride substrate that would interact with residues belonging to both the cap and the lid domains. In this study, we have investigated the role of the cap and the lid domains, using site-directed mutagenesis procedures. We have produced truncated mutants lacking the lid and the cap. After expressing these mutants and purifying them, their activity was found to have decreased drastically in comparison with the wild type HGL. The lid and the cap domains play an important role in the catalytic reaction mechanism. Based on these results and the structural data (open form of DGL), we have pointed out the cap and the lid residues involved in the binding with the lipidic substrate.

  6. Mammalian CARMIL Inhibits Actin Filament Capping by Capping Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Changsong; Pring, Martin; Wear, Martin A.; Huang, Minzhou; Cooper, John A.; Svitkina, Tatyana M.; Zigmond, Sally H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Actin polymerization in cells occurs via filament elongation at the barbed end. Proteins that cap the barbed end terminate this elongation. Heterodimeric capping protein (CP) is an abundant and ubiquitous protein that caps the barbed end. We find that the mouse homolog of the adaptor protein CARMIL (mCARMIL) binds CP with high affinity and decreases its affinity for the barbed end. Addition of mCARMIL to cell extracts increases the rate and extent of Arp2/3 or spectrin-actin seed-induced polymerization. In cells, GFP-mCARMIL concentrates in lamellipodia and increases the fraction of cells with large lamellipodia. Decreasing mCARMIL levels by siRNA transfection lowers theF-actin level and slows cell migration through a mechanism that includes decreased lamellipodia protrusion. This phenotype is reversed by full-length mCARMIL but not mCARMIL lacking the domain that binds CP. Thus, mCARMIL is a key regulator of CP and has profound effects on cell behavior. PMID:16054028

  7. 47 CFR 54.675 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers General Provisions § 54.675 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The aggregate annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall...

  8. 47 CFR 54.675 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers General Provisions § 54.675 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The aggregate annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  14. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  15. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per... into subsequent funding years for use in the schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance...

  16. Thyrotropin receptor-DNA vaccination of transgenic mice expressing HLA-DR3 or HLA-DQ6b.

    PubMed

    Pichurin, Pavel; Chen, Chun-Rong; Pichurina, Oxana; David, Chella; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2003-10-01

    Graves' disease in Caucasians is associated with the major histocompatibility (MHC) antigen HLA-DR3. One approach to studying the role of susceptibility genes involves the use of mice that lack murine MHC and instead express human HLA antigens. Although Graves' disease does not arise spontaneously in animals, thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies can be induced in mice by vaccination with TSHR-DNA in a plasmid. In the present study, we characterized TSHR antibodies and thyroiditis developing in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice vaccinated with TSHR-DNA. As controls, we used mice transgenic for HLA-DQ6b, an MHC antigen rarely associated with Graves' disease. We observed that approximately 30% of DR3-, but none of DQ6b-transgenic mice, developed TSHR antibodies detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cysteine-rich amino terminal peptide was the dominant linear antibody epitope in DR3 mice, as in other strains vaccinated with TSHR-DNA. Sera from some vaccinated DR3 mice were positive on flow cytometry using intact cells expressing the TSHR, demonstrating recognition of the native TSHR on the cell surface. Although none of the these mice had thyroid stimulating antibodies or were hyperthyroid, a few developed lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. These data, together with information for other mouse strains, demonstrate that MHC (human and murine) and non-MHC genes contribute to the outcome of TSHR-DNA vaccination and indicate the potential value of DR3 transgenic mice for dissecting immune responses to the TSHR.

  17. Mucosal immunity induced by gliadin-presenting spores of Bacillus subtilis in HLA-DQ8-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, Roberta; Isticato, Rachele; Maurano, Francesco; Ricca, Ezio; Rossi, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    The induction of mucosal immunity requires efficient antigen delivery and adjuvant systems. Probiotic bacterial strains are considered to be very promising tools to address both of these needs. In particular, Bacillus subtilis spores are currently under investigation as a long-lived, protease-resistant adjuvant system for different antigens. Furthermore, a non-recombinant approach has been developed based on the stable adsorption of antigen on the spore surface. In the present study, we explored this strategy as a means of modulating the immune response to wheat gliadin, the triggering agent of celiac disease (CD), an enteropathy driven by inflammatory CD4(+) T cells. Gliadin adsorption was tested on untreated or autoclaved wild-type (wt) and mutant (cotH or cotE) spores. We found that gliadin was stably and maximally adsorbed by autoclaved wt spores. We then tested the immune properties of the spore-adsorbed gliadin in HLA-DQ8-transgenic mice, which express one of the two HLA heterodimers associated with CD. In vitro, spore-adsorbed gliadin was efficiently taken up by mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, gliadin-pulsed DCs efficiently stimulated splenic CD4(+) T cells from mice immunised with spore-adsorbed gliadin. Nasal pre-dosing with spore-adsorbed gliadin failed to down-regulate the ongoing cellular response in gliadin-sensitised DQ8 mice. Notably, naïve mice inoculated intranasally with multiple doses of spore-adsorbed gliadin developed an intestinal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell-mediated response. In conclusion, our data highlight the ability of spore-adsorbed gliadin to elicit a T-cell response in the gut that could be exploitable for developing immune strategies in CD. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. FTY720 (Gilenya) treatment prevents spontaneous autoimmune myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in transgenic HLA-DQ8-BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Boldizsar, Ferenc; Tarjanyi, Oktavia; Olasz, Katalin; Hegyi, Akos; Mikecz, Katalin; Glant, Tibor T; Rauch, Tibor A

    2016-01-01

    Although dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is often caused by viral infections, it frequently involves autoimmune mechanisms associated with particular HLA-DR and DQ alleles. Our homozygous HLA-DQ8Ab(0) transgenic mice in the BALB/c background (HLA-DQ8(BALB/c)-Tg) developed early and progressive fatal heart failure from 4 to 5 weeks of age. Clinical signs of the disease included cyanotic eyes, tachycardia with dyspnea (from pale to cyanotic limbs), and terminal whole body edema. Sick mice had extremely dilated hearts, enlarged liver and spleen, and pleural/peritoneal effusion. Histology of the heart showed extensive heart muscle destruction with signs of fibrosis. The autoimmune nature of the disease was shown by high titers of antimyosin antibodies in the sera and IgG deposits in sick heart muscles, as well as focal neutrophil, T cell, and macrophage infiltration of the heart muscle. The sera of the sick mice showed a granular staining pattern on sections of healthy heart muscle. Quantitative analyses of DCM-specific gene expression studies revealed that sets of genes are involved in inflammation, hypoxia, and fibrosis. Treatment with FTY720 (Fingolimod/Gilenya) protected animals from the development of cardiomyopathy. HLA-DQ8(BALB/c)-Tg mice represent a spontaneous autoimmune myocarditis model that may provide a useful tool for studying the autoimmune mechanism of DCM and testing immunosuppressive drugs.

  19. A refractory case of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection due to anti-HLA-DQ antibody in a kidney transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Toshinari; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Izumi; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Tanno, Yudo; Yamada, Hiroki; Miki, Jun; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We herein report a refractory case of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) due to anti-HLA-DQ antibody in a kidney transplant patient. A 45-year-old man was admitted for a protocol biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 1.8 mg/dL 3 years following primary kidney transplantation. Histological examination revealed moderate to severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the peritubular capillaries. Thorough laboratory examination showed that the patient had donor-specific antibodies (DSAbs) to DR9 and DQ9. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed acute antibody-mediated rejection. The patient underwent 3 days of consecutive steroid pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange. We also administered rituximab (200 mg/body). Six months after the treatment, a second allograft biopsy revealed the progression of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and persistence of mild peritubular capillaritis. Further analysis showed that the anti-DR9 antibodies had disappeared, but that the mean fluorescence intensity value of the anti-DQ9 antibodies had increased. Therefore, we repeated the plasma exchange and IVIG. Allograft function was stable throughout the course of treatment, and the S-Cr level remained at 1.8 mg/dL. This case report demonstrates the difficulty of treating AMR due to the presence of anti-DQ DSAbs and the necessity for subsequent therapies in refractory cases.

  20. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  1. Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

  2. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  3. NMR structural characterization of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Israel, Lars; Rehm, Till; Ksiazek, Dorota; Krajewski, Marcin; Popowicz, Grzegorz; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Holak, Tad A

    2004-05-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are highly conserved, ubiquitous actin binding proteins that are involved in microfilament reorganization. The N-termini of CAPs play a role in Ras signaling and bind adenylyl cyclase; the C-termini bind to G-actin. We report here the NMR characterization of the amino-terminal domain of CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum (CAP(1-226)). NMR data, including the steady state (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOE experiments, indicate that the first 50 N-terminal residues are unstructured and that this highly flexible serine-rich fragment is followed by a stable, folded core starting at Ser 51. The NMR structure of the folded core is an alpha-helix bundle composed of six antiparallel helices, in a stark contrast to the recently determined CAP C-terminal domain structure, which is solely built by beta-strands.

  4. In vitro refolding of heterodimeric CapZ expressed in E. coli as inclusion body protein.

    PubMed

    Remmert, K; Vullhorst, D; Hinssen, H

    2000-02-01

    CapZ is a heterodimeric Ca(2+)-independent actin binding protein which plays an important role in organizing the actin filament lattice of cross-striated muscle cells. It caps the barbed end of actin filaments and promotes nucleation of actin polymerization, thereby regulating actin filament length. Here we report the expression of the two muscle-specific isoforms alpha2 and beta1, from chicken in Escherichia coli as individual subunits using the pQE60 expression vector and the subsequent renaturation of the functional CapZ heterodimer from inclusion bodies. Optimal renaturation conditions were obtained both by simultaneous refolding of urea-solubilized subunits and by rapid dilution into a buffer containing 20% glycerol, 5 mM EGTA, 2 mM DTT, 1 mM PMSF, and 100 mM Tris, pH 7.4. The refolding mixture was incubated for 24 h at 15 degrees C and the protein was concentrated by ultrafiltration. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant heterodimer revealed actin binding activities indistinguishable from those of native CapZ as purified from chicken skeletal muscle. Using the same protocol, we were able to refold the beta1, but not the alpha2 isoform as a single polypeptide, indicating a role for beta1 as a molecular template for the folding of alpha2. The reported recombinant approach leads to high yields of active heterodimer and allows the renaturation and characterization of the beta subunit.

  5. Application of alpha spectrometry to the discovery of new elements by heavy-ion-beam bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    Starting with polonium in 1898, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry has played a decisive role in the discovery of new, heavy elements. For even-even nuclei, ..cap alpha..-spectra have proved simple to interpret and exhibit systematic trends that allow extrapolation to unknown isotopes. The early discovery of the natural ..cap alpha..-decay series led to the very powerful method of genetically linking the decay of new elements to the well-established ..cap alpha..-emission of daughter and granddaughter nuclei. This technique has been used for all recent discoveries of new elements including Z = 109. Up to mendelevium (Z = 101), thin samples suitable for ..cap alpha..-spectrometry were prepared by chemical methods. With the advent of heavy-ion accelerators new sample preparation methods emerged. These were based on the large momentum transfer associated with heavy-ion reactions, which produced energetic target recoils that, when ejected from the target, could be thermalized in He gas. Subsequent electrical deposition or a He-jet technique yielded samples that were not only thin enough for ..cap alpha..-spectroscopy, but also for ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-recoil experiments. Many variations of these methods have been developed and are discussed. For the synthesis of element 106 an aerosol-based recoil transport technique was devised. In the most recent experiments, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry has been coupled with the magnetic analysis of the recoils. The time from production to analysis of an isotope has thereby been reduced to 10/sup -6/ s; while it was 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup 0/ s for He-jets and 10/sup 1/ to 10/sup 3/ s for rapid chemical separations. Experiments are now in progress to synthesize super heavy elements (SHE) and to analyze them with these latest techniques. Again, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry will play a major role since the expected signature for the decay of a SHE is a sequence of ..cap alpha..-decays followed by spontaneous fission.

  6. [The acquisition of two silkworm CAPs markers and their use in genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Miao, Xue-Xia; Li, Mu-Wang; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Wei-Guo; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2005-07-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPs) markers are based on PCR amplification of known genes, cDNA sequences or RAPD sequences. The PCR products are digested by restriction enzymes, generating the simple type of data as heterozygotes and homozygotes. Here we designed primers based on silkworm attacin and alpha-amylase genes, then digested the PCR products in silkworm strains P50, C108 and their progeny F1 using 4 different restriction enzymes respectively. Furthermore, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of 12 silkworm strains were investigated using the obtained two CAPs markers.

  7. Damages Caps in Medical Malpractice Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of damages caps and concludes that the better-designed studies show that damages caps reduce liability insurance premiums. The effects of damages caps on defensive medicine, physicians’ location decisions, and the cost of health care to consumers are less clear. The only study of whether consumers benefit from lower health insurance premiums as a result of damages caps found no impact. Some state courts have based decisions declaring damages caps legislation unconstitutional on the lack of evidence of their effectiveness, thereby ignoring the findings of conflicting research studies or discounting their relevance. Although courts should be cautious in rejecting empirical evidence that caps are effective, legislators should consider whether they benefit consumers enough to justify limiting tort recoveries for those most seriously injured by malpractice. PMID:17517115

  8. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  9. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  14. A TPM3 mutation causing cap myopathy.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Andre Maues; Franques, Jerome; Fernandez, Carla; Monnier, Nicole; Lunardi, Joel; Pellissier, Jean-François; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pouget, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Cap disease is a rare congenital myopathy associated with skeletal malformations and respiratory involvement. Abnormally arranged myofibrils taking the appearance of a "cap" are the morphological hallmark of this entity. We report a case of cap disease concerning a 42-year-old man, without any family history and presenting a p.Arg168His mutation on the TPM3 gene. His first biopsy at 7years had only shown selective type I hypotrophy. Mutations of TPM3 gene have been found in nemaline myopathy, congenital fiber type disproportion, but never before in cap disease.

  15. Synthetic Capped mRNAs for Cap-Specific Photo-Cross-Linking Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Joanna; Martin, Franck; Jemielity, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The 7-methylguanosine triphosphate cap present at the 5' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs plays numerous roles in mRNA expression and metabolism. The identification and studies on cap-binding partners can be significantly advanced using tailored chemical tools such as synthetic cap analogues or RNAs carrying modified cap structures. Here we provide protocols for the production of mRNAs specifically labeled within the 5' cap with a nucleoside capable of being photo-activated, either 6-thioguanosine or 7-methyl-6-thioguanosine, which can be used in photo-cross-linking experiments to identify or characterize cap-binding biomolecules. We also describe a protocol for the cross-linking experiments with capped RNAs to map histone H4 cap-binding pocket.

  16. Critical contribution of beta chain residue 57 in peptide binding ability of both HLA-DR and -DQ molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Nepom, B S; Nepom, G T; Coleman, M; Kwok, W W

    1996-01-01

    Position 57 in the beta chain of HLA class II molecules maintains an Asp/non-Asp dimorphism that has been conserved through evolution and is implicated in susceptibility to some autoimmune diseases. The latter effect may be due to the influence of this residue on the ability of class II alleles to bind specific pathogenic peptides. We utilized highly homologous pairs of both DR and DQ alleles that varied at residue 57 to investigate the impact of this dimorphism on binding of model peptides. Using a direct binding assay of biotinylated peptides on whole cells expressing the desired alleles, we report several peptides that bind differentially to the allele pairs depending on the presence or absence of Asp at position 57. Peptides with negatively charged residues at anchor position 9 bind well to alleles not containing Asp at position 57 in the beta chain but cannot bind well to homologous Asp-positive alleles. By changing the peptides at the single residue predicted to interact with this position 57, we demonstrate a drastically altered or reversed pattern of binding. Ala analog peptides confirm these interactions and identify a limited set of interaction sites between the bound peptides and the class II molecules. Clarification of the impact of specific class II polymorphisms on generating unique allele-specific peptide binding "repertoires" will aid in our understanding of the development of specific immune responses and HLA-associated diseases. PMID:8692969

  17. Genetic variants in STAT4 and HLA-DQ genes confer risk of hepatitis B virus–related hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, De-Ke; Sun, Jielin; Cao, Guangwen; Liu, Yao; Lin, Dongxin; Gao, Yu-Zhen; Ren, Wei-Hua; Long, Xi-Dai; Zhang, Hongxing; Ma, Xiao-Pin; Wang, Zhong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Tao-Yang; Gao, Yong; Sun, Liang-Dan; Long, Ji-Rong; Huang, Hui-Xing; Wang, Dan; Yu, Hongjie; Zhang, Pengyin; Tang, Li-Sha; Peng, Bo; Cai, Hao; Liu, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Fang; Lin, Xiaoling; Tao, Sha; Wan, Bo; Sai-Yin, He-Xi Ge; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Yin, Jianhua; Liu, Li; Wu, Chen; Pei, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Feng; Zhai, Yun; Lu, Pei-Xin; Tan, Aihua; Zuo, Xian-Bo; Fan, Jia; Chang, Jiang; Gu, Xiaoli; Wang, Neng-Jin; Li, Yang; Liu, Yin-Kun; Zhai, Kan; Zhang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhibin; Liu, Jun; Yi, Qing; Xiang, Yongbing; Shi, Rong; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Mo, Zengnan; Shugart, Yin Yao; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Zhou, Gangqiao; Shen, Hongbing; Zheng, S Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Yu, Long

    2013-01-01

    To identify genetic susceptibility loci for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Chinese population, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,514 chronic HBV carriers (1,161 HCC cases and 1,353 controls) followed by a 2-stage validation among 6 independent populations of chronic HBV carriers (4,319 cases and 4,966 controls). The joint analyses showed that HCC risk was significantly associated with two independent loci: rs7574865 at STAT4, Pmeta = 2.48 × 10−10, odds ratio (OR) = 1.21; and rs9275319 at HLA-DQ, Pmeta = 2.72 × 10−17, OR = 1.49. The risk allele G at rs7574865 was significantly associated with lower mRNA levels of STAT4 in both the HCC tissues and nontumor tissues of 155 individuals with HBV-related HCC (Ptrend = 0.0008 and 0.0002, respectively). We also found significantly lower mRNA expression of STAT4 in HCC tumor tissues compared with paired adjacent nontumor tissues (P = 2.33 × 10−14). PMID:23242368

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV light curves of DQ Tau and UZ Tau E (Ardila+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, D. R.; Jonhs-Krull, C.; Herczeg, G. J.; Mathieu, R. D.; Quijano-Vodniza, A.

    2016-01-01

    DQ Tau was observed with HST/COS four times per binary orbit, during three consecutive binary orbits, at phases ~0, ~0.2, ~0.5, and ~0.7 (in 2011 Feb, Mar). The original experimental design called for observations of UZ Tau E with the same cadence. However, the NUV observations at phase ~0.7 in the second orbit and both the FUV and NUV observations at phase ~0 in the third orbit failed. They were replaced by observations at phases ~0 and ~0.5 in a fourth binary orbit (in 2011 Feb, Mar, Apr). We obtained contemporaneous ground-based UBV photometry with the 14" telescope from the University of Narino Observatory, optical spectroscopy with the Sandiford Echelle Spectrometer on the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope at McDonald Observatory, near-infrared spectroscopy with the CSHELL spectrograph on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, and near-infrared spectroscopy with GNIRS instrument on Gemini North. In this paper we focus on the U-band photometry only. UBV observations were obtained before and during the HST campaign. See table 3. (1 data file).

  19. Associations among human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ variants, bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, endometritis, and fertility among women with clinical pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Brunham, Robert C; Shen, Caixia; Bass, Debra C

    2004-05-01

    We investigated associations between HLA class II DQ alleles, chlamydial and gonococcal cervicitis, endometritis, and infertility among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Ninety-two women with clinical signs and symptoms of mild-to-moderate PID, enrolled in the PEACH Study, were evaluated. For all HLA class II DQ alleles with a prevalence of 10% or greater in the population, we assessed demographics, cervical infections, endometrial pathology, and fertility outcomes. Chlamydial cervicitis, gonococcal cervicitis, endometritis, and infertility were all more common among women carrying the DQA *0301 allele after adjustment for race. Endometritis and infertility were somewhat less common (or pregnancy more common) among women carrying the DQA *0501 and DQB *0402 alleles. Among women with signs and symptoms of PID, carriage of the DQA *0301, DQA *0501, and DQB *0402 alleles altered the occurrence of lower genital tract infection, upper genital tract inflammation, and infertility.

  20. HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice do not develop ataxia in the presence of high titre anti-gliadin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tarlac, Volga; Kelly, Louise; Nag, Nupur; Allen-Graham, Judy; Anderson, Robert P; Storey, Elsdon

    2013-06-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that anti-gliadin antibodies (αGAb) may produce "gluten ataxia", even in the absence of celiac disease enteropathy. αGAb are reportedly present in 12-50 % of patients with sporadic ataxia, but also in 12 % of the general population, such that the importance of αGAb as a cause of sporadic ataxia is not conclusively settled. We aimed to determine whether mice transgenic for HLA-DR3-DQ2 and immunised with gliadin to achieve high titres of αGAb would develop ataxia and/or cerebellar damage. From 6 weeks of age, HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice were immunised fortnightly with gliadin (n = 10) or a saline control (n = 6) in adjuvant. Serum titres were measured by αGAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 24 weeks of age, mice were tested for locomotor function using the accelerating rotarod, ledged beam, ink-paw gait, and several neurological severity score subtests. Brains were then collected and processed for immunohistochemistry. Sections were analysed for lymphocytic infiltration, changes in morphology and Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic volume and the number of PCs counted via unbiased stereology. Gliadin-immunised mice developed high αGAb titres while controls did not. There was no statistically significant difference between the gliadin and sham-immunised HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice on any of the tests of motor coordination, in lymphocytic infiltration, PC number or in dendritic volume. High levels of αGAb are not sufficient to produce ataxia or cerebellar damage in HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice.

  1. The role of HLA-DQ8 beta57 polymorphism in the anti-gluten T-cell response in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Zaruhi; Weiss, Angela; Martin, Alexandra; Wiesner, Martina; Tollefsen, Stig; Yoshida, Kenji; Ciszewski, Cezary; Curran, Shane A; Murray, Joseph A; David, Chella S; Sollid, Ludvig M; Koning, Frits; Teyton, Luc; Jabri, Bana

    2008-11-27

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles HLA-DQ8 and the mouse homologue I-A(g7) lacking a canonical aspartic acid residue at position beta57 are associated with coeliac disease and type I diabetes. However, the role of this single polymorphism in disease initiation and progression remains poorly understood. The lack of Asp 57 creates a positively charged P9 pocket, which confers a preference for negatively charged peptides. Gluten lacks such peptides, but tissue transglutaminase (TG2) introduces negatively charged residues at defined positions into gluten T-cell epitopes by deamidating specific glutamine residues on the basis of their spacing to proline residues. The commonly accepted model, proposing that HLA-DQ8 simply favours binding of negatively charged peptides, does not take into account the fact that TG2 requires inflammation for activation and that T-cell responses against native gluten peptides are found, particularly in children. Here we show that beta57 polymorphism promotes the recruitment of T-cell receptors bearing a negative signature charge in the complementary determining region 3beta (CDR3beta) during the response against native gluten peptides presented by HLA-DQ8 in coeliac disease. These T cells showed a crossreactive and heteroclitic (stronger) response to deamidated gluten peptides. Furthermore, gluten peptide deamidation extended the T-cell-receptor repertoire by relieving the requirement for a charged residue in CDR3beta. Thus, the lack of a negative charge at position beta57 in MHC class II was met by negatively charged residues in the T-cell receptor or in the peptide, the combination of which might explain the role of HLA-DQ8 in amplifying the T-cell response against dietary gluten.

  2. Definition of High-Risk Type 1 Diabetes HLA-DR and HLA-DQ Types Using Only Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cao; Varney, Michael D.; Harrison, Leonard C.; Morahan, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on determining an individual’s HLA type, especially of the HLA DRB1 and DQB1 alleles. Individuals positive for HLA-DRB1*03 (DR3) or HLA-DRB1*04 (DR4) with DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) have the highest risk of developing T1D. Currently, HLA typing methods are relatively expensive and time consuming. We sought to determine the minimum number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could rapidly define the HLA-DR types relevant to T1D, namely, DR3/4, DR3/3, DR4/4, DR3/X, DR4/X, and DRX/X (where X is neither DR3 nor DR4), and could distinguish the highest-risk DR4 type (DR4-DQ8) as well as the non-T1D–associated DR4-DQB1*03:01 type. We analyzed 19,035 SNPs of 10,579 subjects (7,405 from a discovery set and 3,174 from a validation set) from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium and developed a novel machine learning method to select as few as three SNPs that could define the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ types accurately. The overall accuracy was 99.3%, area under curve was 0.997, true-positive rates were >0.99, and false-positive rates were <0.001. We confirmed the reliability of these SNPs by 10-fold cross-validation. Our approach predicts HLA-DR/DQ types relevant to T1D more accurately than existing methods and is rapid and cost-effective. PMID:23378606

  3. The HLA-DQ2 genotype selects for early intestinal microbiota composition in infants at high risk of developing coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Olivares, M; Neef, A; Castillejo, G; Palma, G De; Varea, V; Capilla, A; Palau, F; Nova, E; Marcos, A; Polanco, I; Ribes-Koninckx, C; Ortigosa, L; Izquierdo, L; Sanz, Y

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with coeliac disease (CD), but whether the alterations are cause or consequence of the disease is unknown. This study investigated whether the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 genotype is an independent factor influencing the early gut microbiota composition of healthy infants at family risk of CD. As part of a larger prospective study, a subset (n=22) of exclusively breastfed and vaginally delivered infants with either high genetic risk (HLA-DQ2 carriers) or low genetic risk (non-HLA-DQ2/8 carriers) of developing CD were selected from a cohort of healthy infants with at least one first-degree relative with CD. Infant faecal microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real time quantitative PCR. Infants with a high genetic risk had significantly higher proportions of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and lower proportions of Actinobacteria compared with low-risk infants. At genus level, high-risk infants had significantly less Bifidobacterium and unclassified Bifidobacteriaceae proportions and more Corynebacterium, Gemella, Clostridium sensu stricto, unclassified Clostridiaceae, unclassified Enterobacteriaceae and Raoultella proportions. Quantitative real time PCR also revealed lower numbers of Bifidobacterium species in infants with high genetic risk than in those with low genetic risk. In high-risk infants negative correlations were identified between Bifidobacterium species and several genera of Proteobacteria (Escherichia/Shigella) and Firmicutes (Clostridium). The genotype of infants at family risk of developing CD, carrying the HLA-DQ2 haplotypes, influences the early gut microbiota composition. This finding suggests that a specific disease-biased host genotype may also select for the first gut colonisers and could contribute to determining disease risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Alpha decay self-damage in cubic and monoclinic zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Land, C.C.; Peterson, D.E.; Rohr, D.L.; Roof, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Samples of primarily-monoclinic /sup 238/Pu-doped zirconolite were stored at ambient temperature to allow accumulation of alpha decay self-damage to a dose of 1 x 10/sup 24/ ..cap alpha../m/sup 3/ (equivalent to a SYNROC age of approx. 10/sup 3/y). Bulk swelling reached 2.3 vol% with no tendency toward saturation, a damage response similar to that observed for cubic Pu-doped zirconolite. X-ray volumetric swelling at 4 x 10/sup 24/ ..cap alpha../m/sup 3/ was 1 vol%, considerably less than that for the cubic material. Changes in cell dimensions differed significantly from those reported by others for a monoclinic natural mineral. Extensive microcracking was observed, and is attributed at least partially to swelling differences between the matrix and minor phases.

  5. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, calcium mobilization and (/sup 3/H), 4-dihydropyridine binding in vascular smooth muscle of rat tail artery

    SciTech Connect

    Su, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pharmacologic characterization of post-synaptic ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptors in rat tail artery was examined by using selective agonists and antagonists. In this tissue, the ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor agonists employed all produced concentration-dependent mechanical responses with rank order of potency, clonidine > norepinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > UK > 14304 > B-HT 920. This order of agonists activities not consistent with a simple classification into ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors in the rat tail artery. Antagonism by prazosin and yohimbine of phenylephrine, norepinephrine and clonidine responses did not reveal the anticipated discrimination between ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors. Potassium depolarization-induced responses were very sensitive to antagonism by the Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists nifedipine and D 600. The sensitivity sequence of ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor agonist induced responses to nifedipine and D 600 is H-HT 920 (> clonidine) > phenylephrine > norepinephrine. This disagrees with the thesis that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor mediated responses in vascular smooth muscle are more sensitive than are ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoceptor mediated responses to Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists. Radioligand binding studies of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine and (/sup 3/H)Bay K 8644 to microsomal preparations of tail artery membrane a single set of high affinity binding sites and there is a good correlation between the pharmacological potencies and binding affinities of these agents. In addition, study of the displacement of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine by Bay K 8644 revealed IC/sub 50/ and K/sub l/ values which are in approximate accord with those determined for pharmacologic experiments.

  6. Assured information flow capping architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, M. D.; Carvin, N. A.

    1985-05-01

    The Tactical Air Control System (TACS) is that set of Tactical Air Force assets used to assess the air and ground situation, and to plan, allocate, commit, and control assigned resources. Previous studies noted that the TACS elements should be more highly distributed to improve survivability in the battlefield of the future. This document reports on the results of the Assured Information Flow Capping Architecture study, which developed governing concepts for communications architectures that can support the information flow requirements of a future, distributed TACS. Architecture comprising existing and planned communications equipment were postulated and compared with a set of goals to identify deficiencies. Architectures using new equipment that resolve many of the deficiencies were then postulated, and areas needing further investigation were identified.

  7. Immune response of HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice to peptides from the third hypervariable region of HLA-DRB1 correlates with predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Zanelli, E; Krco, C J; Baisch, J M; Cheng, S; David, C S

    1996-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II genes play an important role in the genetic predisposition to many autoimmune diseases. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 locus has been implicated in the disease predisposition. The "shared epitope" hypothesis predicts that similar motifs within the third hypervariable (HV3) regions of some HLA-DRB1 alleles are responsible for the class II-associated predisposition to RA. Using a line of transgenic mice expressing the DQB1*0302/DQA1*0301 (DQ8) genes in the absence of endogenous mouse class II molecules, we have analyzed the antigenicity of peptides covering the HV3 regions of RA-associated and nonassociated DRB1 molecules. Our results show that a correlation exists between proliferative response to peptides derived from the HV3 regions of DRB1 chains and nonassociation of the corresponding alleles with RA predisposition. While HV3 peptides derived from nonassociated DRB1 molecules are highly immunogenic in DQ8 transgenic mice, all the HV3 peptides derived from RA-associated DRB1 alleles fail to induce a DQ8-restricted T-cell response. These data suggest that the role of the "shared epitope" in RA predisposition may be through the shaping of the T-cell repertoire. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8700841

  8. BaBa-xy16: robust and broadband homonuclear DQ recoupling for applications in rigid and soft solids up to the highest MAS frequencies.

    PubMed

    Saalwächter, Kay; Lange, Frank; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Huang, Chih-Feng; Graf, Robert

    2011-09-01

    We here present a substantially improved version of the popular Back-to-Back (BaBa) homonuclear double-quantum (DQ) MAS recoupling pulse sequence. By combining the original pulse sequence with a virtual π pulse train with xy-16 phase cycling along with time-reversed DQ reconversion, a truly broadband and exceptionally robust pulse sequence is obtained. The sequence has moderate radio-frequency power requirements, amounting to only one 360° nutation per rotor cycle, it is robust with respect to rf power and tune-up errors, and its broadband performance increases with increasing spinning frequency, here tested up to 63 kHz. The experiment can be applied to many spin-1/2 nuclei in rigid solids with substantial frequency offsets and CSAs, which is demonstrated on the example of 31P NMR of a magnesium ultraphosphate, comparing experimental data with multi-spin simulations, and we also show simulations addressing the performance in 13C NMR of bio(macro)molecules. 1H-based studies of polymer dynamics are highlighted for the example of a rigid solid with strongly anisotropic mobility, represented by a polymer inclusion compound, and for the example of soft materials with weak residual dipole-dipole couplings, represented by homogeneous and inhomogeneous elastomers. We advocate the use of normalized (relaxation-corrected) DQ build-up curves for a quantitative assessment of weak average dipole-dipole couplings and even distributions thereof.

  9. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  10. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  11. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  12. Sunward convection in both polar caps

    SciTech Connect

    Reiff, P.H.

    1982-08-01

    The geomagnetic storm of July 29, 1977 has been the object of concentrated study. The latter part of the day (1800--2300 UT) is particularly interesting because it is a period of extremely strong, almost directly northward interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF). Such northward IMF's have been related to periods of reversed (i.e., sunward) convection in the polar cap, and this day is no exception. Zanetti et al. (1981), using Triad magnetometer data, show magnetic perturbations implying reversed convection in the northern polar cap, while the Birkeland currents in the southern polar cap are very weak. They give two possible interpretations: (1) merging occurs preferentially in the northern cusp region, and therefore reversed convection is restricted to the northern polar cap or (2) the currents flow predominantly in the sunlit northern polar cap because its conductivity is higher. This paper shows convection data from both the northern polar cap (S3-3) and the southern polar cap (AE-C). In both cases, regions of reversed convection are seen. Therefore the asymmetry of the Birkeland currents is more likely caused by a conductivity asymmetry than a convection asymmetry. It is likely that the low-energy ions seen deep in the polar cap may be traped on closed field lines after merging on both tail lobe boundaries.

  13. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  14. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Treesearch

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  15. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  16. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In funding... support for schools and libraries shall be automatically increased annually to take into account increases... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding...

  17. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In funding... support for schools and libraries shall be automatically increased annually to take into account increases... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding...

  18. "Move the cap" technique for ambiguous or impenetrable proximal cap of coronary total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Vo, Minh N; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-03-01

    Antegrade crossing remains the most commonly employed crossing strategy for coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) but can be challenging to perform in cases of ambiguous or impenetrable proximal cap. To successfully treat such cases, we describe a technique named "move the cap," in which the subintimal space is entered proximal to the proximal cap using a stiff coronary guidewire or facilitated by inflating a slightly oversized balloon. Subintimal guidewire entry is followed by standard antegrade dissection and re-entry. The "move the cap" technique can facilitate crossing of CTOs with ambiguous or impenetrable cap, while minimizing the risk of perforation. This technique is also useful for treating balloon uncrossable lesions.

  19. Determination of alpha/sub s/ from energy-energy correlations in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    We have studied the energy-energy correlation in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation into hadrons at ..sqrt..s = 29 GeV using the Mark II detector at PEP. We find to O(..cap alpha../sub s//sup 2/) that ..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.158 +- .003 +- .008 if hadronization is described by string fragmentation. Independent fragmentation schemes give ..cap alpha../sub s/ = .10 - .14, and give poor agreement with the data. A leading-log shower fragmentation model is found to describe the data well.

  20. Nondeletional alpha-thalassemia: first description of alpha Hph alpha and alpha Nco alpha mutations in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ayala, S; Colomer, D; Aymerich, M; Pujades, A; Vives-Corrons, J L

    1996-07-01

    Several different deletions underlie the molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia. The most common alpha-thalassemia determinant in Spain is the rightward deletion (-alpha 3.7). To our knowledge, however, no cases of alpha-thalassemia due to nondeletional mutations have so far been described in this particular Mediterranean area. Here, we report the existence of nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia in ten Spanish families. The alpha 2-globin gene was characterized in ten unrelated patients and their relatives only when the presence of deletional alpha-thalassemia was ruled out. The alpha 2-globin gene analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction enzyme analysis or by allelespecific priming. This allowed the identification of a 5-base pair (bp) deletion at the donor site of IVS I (alpha Hph alpha) in 9 cases and the alpha 2 initiation codon mutation (alpha Nco alpha) in one case. Although these alpha 2-globin gene mutations are found in other mediterranean areas, our results demonstrate their presence in the Spanish population and suggest that the alpha Hph alpha/alpha alpha genotype is probably the most common nondeletional form of alpha-thalassemia in Spain.

  1. A novel route for preparing 5' cap mimics and capped RNAs: phosphate-modified cap analogues obtained via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Sylwia; Nowicka, Anna; Kubacka, Dorota; Fac, Kaja; Wanat, Przemyslaw; Mroczek, Seweryn; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The significant biological role of the mRNA 5' cap in translation initiation makes it an interesting subject for chemical modifications aimed at producing useful tools for the selective modulation of intercellular processes and development of novel therapeutic interventions. However, traditional approaches to the chemical synthesis of cap analogues are time-consuming and labour-intensive, which impedes the development of novel compounds and their applications. Here, we explore a different approach for synthesizing 5' cap mimics, making use of click chemistry (CuAAC) to combine two mononucleotide units and yield a novel class of dinucleotide cap analogues containing a triazole ring within the oligophosphate chain. As a result, we synthesized a library of 36 mRNA cap analogues differing in the location of the triazole ring, the polyphosphate chain length, and the type of linkers joining the phosphate and the triazole moieties. After biochemical evaluation, we identified two analogues that, when incorporated into mRNA, produced transcripts translated with efficiency similar to compounds unmodified in the oligophosphate bridge obtained by traditional synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the triazole-modified cap structures can be generated at the RNA 5' end using two alternative capping strategies: either the typical co-transcriptional approach, or a new post-transcriptional approach based on CuAAC. Our findings open new possibilities for developing chemically modified mRNAs for research and therapeutic applications, including RNA-based vaccinations.

  2. Alpha-irradiation-induced G2 delay: a period of cell recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke-Huhle, C.

    1982-02-01

    Exponentially growing Chinese hamster V79 cells were delayed in G2 very efficiently by 3.4-MeV ..cap alpha.. particles. In comparison with the effect caused by sparsely ionizing /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays, G2 delay after ..cap alpha.. irradiation was greater by a factor of 6.7 and 4.2 for doses <0.5 Gy and >0.5 Gy, respectively, if the slopes of the dose-effect curves are compared. While at low doses (0.03-0.5 Gy) G2 arrest was reversible within 10 hr, increasing doses (0.5-4.38 Gy) of ..cap alpha.. irradiation blocked increasing fractions of cells for more than 16 hr, as determined by flow cytometry, and only some of these were able to complete mitosis. Addition of caffeine, however, reduced G2 arrest considerably if given directly after irradiation and reversed G2 arrest if added 8 hr after 4.38 Gy of ..cap alpha.. particles, a time when most of the cells already had accumulated in G2, caffeine treatment during G2 decreased survival after ..cap alpha.. irradiation by factors of 1.3 and 1.7 for 1 and 2 mM caffeine, respectively.

  3. Creatine kinase and alpha-actin mRNA levels decrease in diabetic rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, B.; Barrieux, A.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac atrophy and isoenzyme redistribution. To determine if tissue specific changes occur in mRNAs coding for ..cap alpha..-actin and creatine kinase (CK), they performed RNA blot analysis. Total ventricular RNA from control (C) and 4 wk old diabetic (D) rats were hybridized with /sup 32/P cDNA probes for ..cap alpha..-actin and CK. A tissue independent cDNA probe, CHOA was also used. Signal intensity was quantified by photodensitometry. D CK mRNA was 47 +/- 16% lower in D vs C. Insulin increases CK mRNA by 20% at 1.5 hs, and completely reverses the deficit after 4 wks. D ..cap alpha..-actin mRNA is 66 +/- 18% lower in D vs C. Insulin normalized ..cap alpha..-actin mRNA by 5 hs. CHOA mRNA is unchanged in D vs C, but D + insulin CHOA mRNA is 30 +/- 2% lower than C. In rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy, muscle specific CK and ..cap alpha..-actin mRNAs are decreased. Insulin treatment reverses these changes.

  4. HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR-restricted epitopes in GRA5 of toxoplasma gondii strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, S.; Sari, Y.; Prasetyo, A. A.; Sariyatun, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dense granular (GRA) proteins of Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) have been demonstrated as potential sources of T. gondii vaccine antigens. However, data of the GRA5 protein are limited. This study analyzed twenty-one complete GRA5 sequences of T. gondii GT1, RH, ME49, VEG, MAS, RUB, FOU, p89, VAND, and GAB2-2007-GAL-DOM2 strains to identify potential epitopes restricted by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHC- II) molecules (human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR) in the protein. In all T. gondii strains, peptides positioned at amino acid (aa) 15-29, 16-30, 17-31, 18-32, 19-33, 83-97, 84-98, 86-100, 87-101, 89-103, and 90-104 were predicted to pose high affinity and binding with HLA-DRB1*0101, HLA-DRB1*0301 (DR17), HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4), HLA-DRB1*0701, HLA-DRB1*1101, HLA-DRB1*1501 (DR2b), and/or HLA-DRB5*0101. Considering the epitope's affinity, ligation strength, and hydrophilicity, LRLLRRRRRRAIQEE sequence (aa 90-104) restricted by HLA-DRB1*0101, HlA- DRB1*0301 (DR17), and HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4) was considered as the most potential MHC-II epitope in GRA5 of T. gondii. These results would be useful for studies concerning in developing T. gondii vaccine and diagnostic method.

  5. Modeling the bound conformation of Pemphigus Vulgaris-associated peptides to MHC Class II DR and DQ Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Joo Chuan; Bramson, Jeff; Kanduc, Darja; Chow, Selwyn; Sinha, Animesh A; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2006-01-01

    Background Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune blistering disorder characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein-3 (Dsg3), involving specific DR4 and DR6 alleles in Caucasians and DQ5 allele in Asians. The development of sequence-based predictive algorithms to identify potential Dsg3 epitopes has encountered limited success due to the paucity of PV-associated allele-specific peptides as training data. Results In this work we constructed atomic models of ten PV associated, non-associated and protective alleles. Nine previously identified stimulatory Dsg3 peptides, Dsg3 96–112, Dsg3 191–205, Dsg3 206–220, Dsg3 252–266, Dsg3 342–356, Dsg3 380–394, Dsg3 763–777, Dsg3 810–824 and Dsg3 963–977, were docked into the binding groove of each model to analyze the structural aspects of allele-specific binding. Conclusion Our docking simulations are entirely consistent with functional data obtained from in vitro competitive binding assays and T cell proliferation studies in DR4 and DR6 PV patients. Our findings ascertain that DRB1*0402 plays a crucial role in the selection of specific self-peptides in DR4 PV. DRB1*0402 and DQB1*0503 do not necessarily share the same core residues, indicating that both alleles may have different binding specificities. In addition, our results lend credence to the hypothesis that the alleles DQB1*0201 and *0202 play a protective role by binding Dsg3 peptides with greater affinity than the susceptible alleles, allowing for efficient deletion of autoreactive T cells. PMID:16426456

  6. Photometric variability in a warm, strongly magnetic DQ white dwarf, SDSS J103655.39+652252.2

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Hermes, J. J.; Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, K. I.; Dufour, Patrick; Kepler, S. O.; Bolte, Michael; Liebert, James E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com

    2013-06-01

    We present the discovery of photometric variability in the DQ white dwarf SDSS J103655.39+652252.2 (SDSS J1036+6522). Time-series photometry reveals a coherent monoperiodic modulation at a period of 1115.64751(67) s with an amplitude 0.442% ± 0.024%; no other periodic modulations are observed with amplitudes ≳ 0.13%. The period, amplitude, and phase of this modulation are constant within errors over 16 months. The spectrum of SDSS J1036+6522 shows magnetic splitting of carbon lines, and we use Paschen-Back formalism to develop a grid of model atmospheres for mixed carbon and helium atmospheres. Our models, while reliant on several simplistic assumptions, nevertheless match the major spectral and photometric properties of the star with a self-consistent set of parameters: T {sub eff} ≈ 15, 500 K, log g ≈ 9, log (C/He) = –1.0, and a mean magnetic field strength of 3.0 ± 0.2 MG. The temperature and abundances strongly suggest that SDSS J1036+6522 is a transition object between the hot, carbon-dominated DQs and the cool, helium-dominated DQs. The variability of SDSS J1036+6522 has characteristics similar to those of the variable hot carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs (DQVs), however, its temperature is significantly cooler. The pulse profile of SDSS J1036+6522 is nearly sinusoidal, in contrast with the significantly asymmetric pulse shapes of the known magnetic DQVs. If the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 is due to the same mechanism as other DQVs, then the pulse shape is not a definitive diagnostic on the absence of a strong magnetic field in DQVs. It remains unclear whether the root cause of the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 and the other hot DQVs is the same.

  7. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  8. Why is the north polar cap on Mars different than the south polar cap?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    One of the most puzzling mysteries about the planet Mars is the hemispherical asymmetry in the polar caps. Every spring the seasonal polar cap of CO2 recedes until the end of summer, when only a small part, the residual polar cap, remains. During the year that Viking observed Mars, the residual polar cap was composed of water ice in the northern hemisphere but was primarily carbon dioxide ice in the southern hemisphere. Scientists have sought to explain this asymmetry by modeling observations of the latitudinal recession of the polar cap and seasonal variations in atmospheric pressure (since the seasonal polar caps are primarily frozen atmosphere, they are directly related to changes in atmospheric mass). These models reproduce most aspects of the observed annual variation in atmospheric pressure fairly accurately. Furthermore, the predicted latitudinal recession of the northern polar cap in the spring agrees well with observations, including the fact that the CO2 ice is predicted to completely sublime away. However, these models all predict that the carbon dioxide ice will also sublime away during the summer in the southern hemisphere, unlike what is observed. This paper will show how the radiative effects of ozone, clouds, airborne dust, light penetration into and through the polar cap, and the dependence of albedo on solar zenith angle affect CO2 ice formation and sublimation, and how they help explain the hemispherical asymmetry in the residual polar caps. These effects have not been studied with prior polar cap models.

  9. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor induces phosphorylation of a 28-kDa mRNA cap-binding protein in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marino, M W; Pfeffer, L M; Guidon, P T; Donner, D B

    1989-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated the phosphorylation of a 28-kDa protein (p28) in the ME-180 line of human cervical carcinoma cells. The effect of TNF-alpha on the phosphorylation state of p28 was rapid (4-fold increase within 15 min) and persistent, remaining above the basal level for at least 2 hr. The specific binding of 125I-labeled TNF-alpha to cell-surface binding sites, the stimulation of p28 phosphorylation by TNF-alpha, and the inhibition of cell proliferation by TNF-alpha occurred with nearly identical dose-response relationships. Two-dimensional SDS/PAGE resolved p28 into two isoforms having pI values of 6.2 and 6.1. A phosphorylated cap-binding protein was substantially enriched from lysates of control or TNF-alpha-treated ME-180 cells by affinity chromatography with 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate-Sepharose. The phosphoprotein recovered from this procedure was the substrate for TNF-alpha-promoted phosphorylation, p28. Thus, TNF-alpha stimulates the phosphorylation of this mRNA cap-binding protein, which may be involved in the transduction of TNF-alpha-receptor binding into cellular responses. Images PMID:2813400

  11. Tumor necrosis factor induces phosphorylation of a 28-kDa mRNA cap-binding protein in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Marino, M W; Pfeffer, L M; Guidon, P T; Donner, D B

    1989-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated the phosphorylation of a 28-kDa protein (p28) in the ME-180 line of human cervical carcinoma cells. The effect of TNF-alpha on the phosphorylation state of p28 was rapid (4-fold increase within 15 min) and persistent, remaining above the basal level for at least 2 hr. The specific binding of 125I-labeled TNF-alpha to cell-surface binding sites, the stimulation of p28 phosphorylation by TNF-alpha, and the inhibition of cell proliferation by TNF-alpha occurred with nearly identical dose-response relationships. Two-dimensional SDS/PAGE resolved p28 into two isoforms having pI values of 6.2 and 6.1. A phosphorylated cap-binding protein was substantially enriched from lysates of control or TNF-alpha-treated ME-180 cells by affinity chromatography with 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate-Sepharose. The phosphoprotein recovered from this procedure was the substrate for TNF-alpha-promoted phosphorylation, p28. Thus, TNF-alpha stimulates the phosphorylation of this mRNA cap-binding protein, which may be involved in the transduction of TNF-alpha-receptor binding into cellular responses.

  12. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  13. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-03

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  14. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  15. At the Edge of a Polar Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-22

    The deep chasm that formed on the polar cap edge is identified as an area of strong down-slope winds and has a clear connection to Mars largest dune field, Olympia Undae as observed by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  16. CCiCap: Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the...

  17. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  18. Regulation of Flavivirus RNA Synthesis and Capping

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Bejan J.; Geiss, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    RNA viruses, such as flaviviruses, are able to efficiently replicate and cap their RNA genomes in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. Flaviviruses use several specialized proteins to first make an uncapped negative strand copy of the viral genome that is used as a template for the synthesis of large numbers of capped genomic RNAs. Despite using relatively simple mechanisms to replicate their RNA genomes, there are significant gaps in our understanding of how flaviviruses switch between negative and positive strand RNA synthesis and how RNA capping is regulated. Recent work has begun to provide a conceptual framework for flavivirus RNA replication and capping and shown some surprising roles for genomic RNA during replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23929625

  19. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  20. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  1. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  2. The Casimir Energy for the Riemann Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palesheva, E. V.; Pecheritsyn, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The Casimir energy of a massive scalar field on a Riemann cap with the Dirichlet boundary conditions is calculated. The problem is considered in the quasi-stationary approximation. Formulas are derived which are suitable for numerical calculations.

  3. The Casimir Energy for the Riemann Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palesheva, E. V.; Pecheritsyn, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The Casimir energy of a massive scalar field on a Riemann cap with the Dirichlet boundary conditions is calculated. The problem is considered in the quasi-stationary approximation. Formulas are derived which are suitable for numerical calculations.

  4. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  5. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  6. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  7. Chemical synthesis of dinucleotide cap analogs.

    PubMed

    Kore, Anilkumar R; Shanmugasundaram, Muthian

    2014-12-19

    This unit describes a reliable, efficient and general method for the synthesis of standard cap analog (mCAP), m(7)G[5']ppp[5']G, and anti-reverse cap analog (ARCA), m(7,3')(O)G[5']ppp[5']G. The synthesis of required intermediate m(7)GDP or m(2)(7,3'O)GDP has been achieved through regioselective methylation of the corresponding diphosphate using dimethyl sulfate under aqueous conditions. Then, the coupling reaction of m(7)GDP or m(2)(7,3'O)GDP with ImGMP using ZnCl(2)/DMF system affords the corresponding cap analog in good yields. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  9. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle-emitting immunoconjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, R.M.; Kinsey, B.M.; Kassis, A.L.; Ferrara, J.L.M.; Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.; Coleman, C.N.; Adelstein, S.J.; Burakoff, S.J.

    1988-05-20

    Alpha particles are energetic short-range ions whose higher linear energy transfer produces extreme cytotoxicity. An ..cap alpha..-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate consisting of a bismuth-212-labeled monoclonal immunoglobulin M specific for the murine T cell/neuroectodermal surface antigen Thy 1.2 was prepared. Analysis in vitro showed that the radioimmunoconjugate was selectively cytotoxic to a Thy 1.2/sup +/ EL-4 murine tumor cell line. Approximately three bismuth-212-labeled immunoconjugates per target cell reduced the uptake of (/sup 3/H)thymidine by the EL-4 target cells to background levels. Mice inoculated intraperitoneally with EL-4 cells were cured of their ascites after intraperitoneal injection of 150 microcuries of the antigen-specific radioimmunoconjugate, suggesting a possible role for such conjugates in intracavitary cancer therapy. 18 references, 3 figures.

  10. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Hou, Lei; Wei, Jingfa; Wu, Jianfeng

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1 σ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  11. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  12. Secondary capping beams for offshore drilling platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E. K.

    1985-08-13

    A pair of I-shaped elongated girders secured to, and extending outwardly from, the capping beams of a four pile platform, to form cantilever secondary capping beams which support modified self-contained drilling rigs of a size and weight normally installed on eight pile platforms. Rig modifications comprise separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe rack extension, and a novel skidding system.

  13. Lost caps in histological counting methods.

    PubMed

    Hedreen, J C

    1998-03-01

    In methods with the goal of counting objects in a sectioned tissue volume by examining their profiles or segments in the sections, lost caps, i.e., small object fragments unnoticed or missing at the section surfaces, are an unavoidable issue. The problem of lost caps is examined as it applies to four methods for counting in histological sections, the method usually referred to as the Abercrombie correction, the empirical method, the optical disector, and the physical disector. Lost caps are an insoluble problem in the Abercrombie method; the lost caps error correction factor should be incorporated into the Abercrombie equation. Lost caps cancel out in the optical disector. The empirical method logically requires, to avoid lost caps error, either a preliminary blind identification of object segments in the serial sections or identification of segments with reference to adjacent sections in the counting sections. Similarly, the physical disector method requires either a preliminary blind identification of object segments in both look-up and sampling sections, or use of three sections rather than two.

  14. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  15. Nephron induction revisited: from caps to condensates.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of mesenchyme to epithelium in the metanephric kidney is clearly a multimolecular, multistep and partly redundant process. The present short review focuses on a neglected morphological aspect of kidney differentiation: the development of two transitory mesenchymal condensations that precede epithelial differentiation of nephrons. The first appearing condensate covers the tips of the collecting ducts and is termed a cap condensate. In the early kidney rudiment this structure has been referred to as a primary or early condensate. A few cells of the cap condensate (maybe only four to six cells), situated at the lateral edge of the cap, start proliferating rapidly and form a pretubular aggregate (or pretubular condensate), which converts to secretory nephron epithelia and finally segregates to different tubule segments. Throughout nephrogenesis, the cap condensates and pretubular aggregates are clearly distinguishable structures that show only partly overlapping gene expression profiles. Apart from being the source for the pretubular aggregates, the role of the cap condensate is unknown. It is now proposed that the cap regulates ureteric branching morphogenesis.

  16. Mating in parents of type 1 diabetes families as a function of the HLA DR-DQ haplotype

    PubMed Central

    Kahles, H.; Kordonouri, O.; Ramos Lopez, E.; Walter, M.; Rosinger, S.; Boehm, B. O.; Badenhoop, K.; Seidl, C.; Ziegler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21 (IDDM1) contributes about half of the familial clustering of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Several studies have revealed that highly polymorphic genes within the MHC may associate with the mating choice. Our study should determine whether a specific mating effect is detectable in T1D families as a function of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DR-DQ, which could contribute to disease susceptibility. Methods We analysed the parental HLA-DR genotypes in 829 diabetic families. The families derive from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) in addition to those of our own centre and the original UK, US and SCAND diabetic families. Results A total of 307 of 829 parental couples (37.0%) were matched for at least one known T1D risk haplotype (DR3 or DR4), which is significantly less than the expected 374.9 (45.2%), derived from population genotype frequencies (p < 0.0009). Parents share less susceptibility haplotypes and rather complement each other as both carry one different risk haplotype (DR3 or DR4). The number of such parental couples was significantly higher than expected (293 vs. 223.4; p < 0.0003). All non-transmitted DR haplotype pairs were also analysed. More often than expected, both parents did not transmit DR1 (94 vs. 59.1; p < 0.003) and DRy (y: not DR1, not DR3, not DR4; 63 vs. 30.3; p < 0.0005). In contrast, the parental non-transmitted pair of haplotypes DR1-DRy was observed to a far lesser extent than expected (26 vs. 84.7; p < 10−8). These observations were only made in multiplex families, whereas in simplex families, no deviation from the expected frequencies was observed. Conclusions Our data are consistent with the conclusion that genes in the HLA region may influence the mating choice in parents of T1D patients, thus contributing to familial clustering of T1D in multiplex families. This may indicate a different parental background of multiplex compared with simplex T1D families

  17. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  18. HLA-DQ:gluten tetramer test in blood gives better detection of coeliac patients than biopsy after 14-day gluten challenge.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Vikas K; Skodje, Gry I; Reims, Henrik M; Risnes, Louise F; Dahal-Koirala, Shiva; Sollid, Ludvig M; Lundin, Knut E A

    2017-08-04

    Initiation of a gluten-free diet without proper diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease is a frequent and demanding problem. Recent diagnostic guidelines suggest a gluten challenge of at least 14 days followed by duodenal biopsy in such patients. The rate of false-negative outcome of this approach remains unclear. We studied responses to 14-day gluten challenge in subjects with treated coeliac disease. We challenged 20 subjects with biopsy-verified coeliac disease, all in confirmed mucosal remission, for 14 days with 5.7 grams per oral gluten daily. Duodenal biopsies were collected. Blood was analysed by multiplex assay for cytokine detection, and by flow cytometry using HLA-DQ:gluten tetramers. Nineteen participants completed the challenge. Villous blunting appeared at end of challenge in 5 of 19 subjects. Villous height to crypt depth ratio reduced with at least 0.4 concomitantly with an increase in intraepithelial lymphocyte count of at least 50% in 9 of 19 subjects. Interleukin-8 plasma concentration increased by more than 100% after 4 hours in 7 of 19 subjects. Frequency of blood CD4(+) effector-memory gut-homing HLA-DQ:gluten tetramer-binding T cells increased by more than 100% on day 6 in 12 of 15 evaluated participants. A 14-day gluten challenge was not enough to establish significant mucosal architectural changes in majority of patients with coeliac disease (sensitivity ≈25%-50%). Increase in CD4(+) effector-memory gut-homing HLA-DQ:gluten tetramer-binding T cells in blood 6 days after gluten challenge is a more sensitive and less invasive biomarker that should be validated in a larger study. NCT02464150. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The OmegaWhite Survey for short-period variable stars - IV. Discovery of the warm DQ white dwarf OW J175358.85-310728.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, S. A.; Woudt, P. A.; Dufour, P.; Ramsay, G.; Groot, P. J.; Toma, R.; Warner, B.; Paterson, K.; Kupfer, T.; van Roestel, J.; Berdnikov, L.; Dagne, T.; Hardy, F.

    2017-09-01

    We present the discovery and follow-up observations of the second known variable warm DQ white dwarf OW J175358.85-310728.9 (OW J1753-3107). OW J1753-3107 is the brightest of any of the currently known warm or hot DQ and was discovered in the OmegaWhite Survey as exhibiting optical variations on a period of 35.5452 (2) min, with no evidence for other periods in its light curves. This period has remained constant over the last 2 yr and a single-period sinusoidal model provides a good fit for all follow-up light curves. The spectrum consists of a very blue continuum with strong absorption lines of neutral and ionized carbon, a broad He i λ4471 line and possibly weaker hydrogen lines. The C i lines are Zeeman split, and indicate the presence of a strong magnetic field. Using spectral Paschen-Back model descriptions, we determine that OW J1753-3107 exhibits the following physical parameters: Teff = 15 430 K, log (g) = 9.0, log (N(C)/N(He)) = -1.2 and the mean magnetic field strength is Bz =2.1 MG. This relatively low temperature and carbon abundance (compared to the expected properties of hot DQs) is similar to that seen in the other warm DQ SDSS J1036+6522. Although OW J1753-3107 appears to be a twin of SDSS J1036+6522, it exhibits a modulation on a period slightly longer than the dominant period in SDSS J1036+6522 and has a higher carbon abundance. The source of variations is uncertain, but they are believed to originate from the rotation of the magnetic white dwarf.

  20. Sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan in a patient with villous atrophy, HLA-DQ2 genotype and antinuclear antibodies.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isidro; Reolid, María; Martínez de Juan, Fernando; Martínez Lapiedra, Carmen; Maia de Alcántara, Fernanda

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new case of enteropathy with villous atrophy in a patient suffering from arterial hypertension treated with olmesartan. The molecular and serological studies showed anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and haplotype HLA-DQ2 positive, as well as negative results for anti-transglutaminase, anti-endomysium and anti-enterocytes antibodies. A duodenal villous atrophy was suspected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which was confirmed by histopathology. The morphological picture was suggestive of sprue-like enteropathy with severe lymphoid infiltration and predominant T lymphoid cells.