Science.gov

Sample records for dragon multicellules dependants

  1. Introductory tail-flick of the Jacky dragon visual display: signal efficacy depends upon duration.

    PubMed

    Peters, Richard A; Evans, Christopher S

    2003-12-01

    Many animal signals have introductory components that alert receivers. Examples from the acoustic and visual domains show that this effect is often achieved with high intensity, a simple structure and a short duration. Quantitative analyses of the Jacky dragon Amphibolurus muricatus visual display reveal a different design: the introductory tail-flick has a lower velocity than subsequent components of the signal, but a longer duration. Here, using a series of video playback experiments with a digitally animated tail, we identify the properties responsible for signal efficacy. We began by validating the use of the computer-generated tail, comparing the responses to digital video footage of a lizard tail-flick with those to a precisely matched 3-D animation (Experiment 1). We then examined the effects of variation in stimulus speed, acceleration, duration and period by expanding and compressing the time scale of the sequence (Experiment 2). The results identified several variables that might mediate recognition. Two follow-up studies assessed the importance of tail-flick amplitude (Experiment 3), movement speed and signal duration (Experiment 4). Lizard responses to this array of stimuli reveal that duration is the most important characteristic of the tail-flick, and that intermittent signalling has the same effect as continuous movement. We suggest that signal design may reflect a trade-off between efficacy and cost.

  2. Taming Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jeff.

    1995-01-01

    A 20-year veteran of alternative education discusses his work with troubled teenagers in a wilderness retreat setting. The generalized learning environment eventually became tailored to suit the needs of the individuals involved, which lead to questioning the concerns that drove those needs. The metaphorical "dragons" are thus embraced,…

  3. Parthenogenesis in Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip C; Buley, Kevin R; Sanderson, Stephanie; Boardman, Wayne; Ciofi, Claudio; Gibson, Richard

    2006-12-21

    Parthenogenesis, the production of offspring without fertilization by a male, is rare in vertebrate species, which usually reproduce after fusion of male and female gametes. Here we use genetic fingerprinting to identify parthenogenetic offspring produced by two female Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) that had been kept at separate institutions and isolated from males; one of these females subsequently produced additional offspring sexually. This reproductive plasticity indicates that female Komodo dragons may switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, depending on the availability of a mate--a finding that has implications for the breeding of this threatened species in captivity. Most zoos keep only females, with males being moved between zoos for mating, but perhaps they should be kept together to avoid triggering parthenogenesis and thereby decreasing genetic diversity.

  4. Dragons as Amulets, Dragons as Talismans, Dragons as Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in diverse historical and cultural settings, dragons have served as protective amulets/powerful talismans to protect/enhance powers of those who possess them. Explores use of such personal symbols in dealing with personal adversity and suggests methods in which dragon symbol can be used to promote discussion of feelings, problems, and…

  5. Dragon Missile Simulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    A brassboard training device that simulates the Dragon missile was developed and tested to evaluate the characteristics that are necessary for...improved training of Dragon gunners. Videotape recording and a full color simulation were found to be valuable as a training aid. An audible signal

  6. Plaster-Wrap Dragons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her students constructed a three-dimensional sculpture of a dragon using plaster wrap and other materials. The dragons were formed from modest means--using only a toilet-paper tube, newsprint, tape and wire.

  7. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  8. Bitten by a Dragon.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Stephen D; Cooper, Jeffrey S; Wadman, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are large lizards known to take down prey even larger than themselves. They rarely attack humans. A 38-year-old woman was bitten by a Komodo dragon on her hand while cleaning its enclosure. She was transiently hypotensive. The wounds were extensively cleaned, and she was started on prophylactic antibiotics. Her wounds healed without any infectious sequelae. Komodo dragon bites are historically thought to be highly infectious and venomous. Based on a literature review, neither of these are likely true. As in any bite, initial stabilization followed by wound management are the main components to therapy.

  9. Drag'on In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Diane

    1983-01-01

    Primary students designed dragons for a billboard advertising activity to promote Youth Art Month. After selecting head, midsection, and tail designs, the students enlarged the drawings for a billboard image. (AM)

  10. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Babitt, Jodie L; Bouley, Richard; Zhang, Ying; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Shanzhuo; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary J; Anderson, Jennifer L; Hong, Charles C; Schneyer, Alan L; Brown, Dennis; Lin, Herbert Y

    2010-04-01

    The neuronal adhesion protein Dragon acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor that enhances BMP signaling. Given the importance of BMP signaling in nephrogenesis and its putative role in the response to injury in the adult kidney, we studied the localization and function of Dragon in the kidney. We observed that Dragon localized predominantly to the apical surfaces of tubular epithelial cells in the thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts of mice. Dragon expression was weak in the proximal tubules and glomeruli. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells, Dragon generated BMP signals in a ligand-dependent manner, and BMP4 is the predominant endogenous ligand for the Dragon coreceptor. In mIMCD3 cells, BMP4 normally signaled through BMPRII, but Dragon enhanced its signaling through the BMP type II receptor ActRIIA. Dragon and BMP4 increased transepithelial resistance (TER) through the Smad1/5/8 pathway. In epithelial cells isolated from the proximal tubule and intercalated cells of collecting ducts, we observed coexpression of ActRIIA, Dragon, and BMP4 but not BMPRII. Taken together, these results suggest that Dragon may enhance BMP signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells and maintain normal renal physiology.

  11. Visual syntax of the DRAGON language

    SciTech Connect

    Parondzhanov, V.D.

    1995-05-01

    A method for flowchart formalization and nonclassical structurization called DRAGON is suggested. The family of DRAGON visual programming languages is presented. The visual language syntax is described.

  12. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  13. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  14. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b) inhibits IL-6 expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Niederkofler, Vera; Salie, Rishard; Chen, Shanzhuo; Samad, Tarek A; Hong, Charles C; Arber, Silvia; Vyas, Jatin M; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J; Lin, Herbert Y

    2011-02-01

    Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family members RGMa, RGMb/Dragon, and RGMc/hemojuvelin were found recently to act as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptors that enhance BMP signaling activity. Although our previous studies have shown that hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression and iron metabolism through the BMP pathway, the role of the BMP signaling mediated by Dragon remains largely unknown. We have shown previously that Dragon is expressed in neural cells, germ cells, and renal epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Dragon is highly expressed in macrophages. Studies with RAW264.7 and J774 macrophage cell lines reveal that Dragon negatively regulates IL-6 expression in a BMP ligand-dependent manner via the p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 pathways but not the Smad1/5/8 pathway. We also generated Dragon knockout mice and found that IL-6 is upregulated in macrophages and dendritic cells derived from whole lung tissue of these mice compared with that in respective cells derived from wild-type littermates. These results indicate that Dragon is an important negative regulator of IL-6 expression in immune cells and that Dragon-deficient mice may be a useful model for studying immune and inflammatory disorders.

  15. ISS Update: Capturing a Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with space station training instructors Jeff Tuxhorn and Graeme Newman, who trained the space station crews on how to capture SpaceX’s Dragon spacecr...

  16. SpaceX Dragon Launches

    NASA Video Gallery

    The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying the Dragon spacecraft lifted off at 10:10 a.m. EST from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, beginning its mission to resupply the International Space St...

  17. ISS Update: Capturing a Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Melanie Miller, Robotics Officer, about the capture of the SpaceX Dragon commercial cargo craft by the Expedition 33 crew of the International Spa...

  18. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  19. Station Crew Opens Dragon Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineer Aki Hoshide opened the hatch to the SpaceX Dragon cargo ship at 1:40 p.m. EDT Wednesday, Oct. 10, marking a milestone for the first commerc...

  20. Victorian Dragons: The Reluctant Brood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ruth

    1984-01-01

    Relates why nineteenth century fantasy writers shied away from the use of dragons in their stories and rejoices over the return and happy transformation of this mythical beast in children's literature. (HOD)

  1. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  2. Towards a more plausible dragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, Costas

    2014-08-01

    Wizards, mermaids, dragons and aliens. Walking, running, flying and space travel. A hi-tech elevator, a computer, a propulsion engine and a black hole. What do all of these things have in common? This might seem like a really hard brainteaser but the answer is simple: they all obey the fundamental laws of our universe.

  3. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  4. 'Chasing the dragon': new knowledge for an old practice.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Juan P; Balan, Sabish; Romero, Jorge; Korniyenko, Aleksandr; Alviar, Carlos L; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Jean, Raymonde

    2014-01-01

    Heroin administration by "chasing the dragon," whereby the user places freebase heroin on aluminum foil, heats it below with a flame, and inhales the pyrolysate through a straw, can be associated with the rare development of a delayed-onset spongiform leukoencephalopathy. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with a psychiatric diagnosis of depression and heroin dependence by "chasing the dragon" admitted with features of altered mental status and later development of catatonia, abulia, and akinetic mutism. A brain magnetic resonance image evidenced bilateral symmetric high-signal lesions in the white matter of the cerebrum and cerebellum on T2-weighted images compatible with toxic leukoencephalopathy. The patient's condition resolved after a hospital stay of 2 months with supportive treatment. Acute onset of neurobehavioral changes, including confusion, apathy, and cerebellar signs in a person with exposure to heroin, should prompt one to consider toxic leukoencephalopathy as a cause of presentation.

  5. Outliers and Extremes: Dragon-Kings or Dragon-Fools?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysics seems full of monsters like Victor Hugo's Court of Miracles and monstrous extremes have been statistically considered as outliers with respect to more normal events. However, a characteristic magnitude separating abnormal events from normal ones would be at odd with the generic scaling behaviour of nonlinear systems, contrary to "fat tailed" probability distributions and self-organized criticality. More precisely, it can be shown [1] how the apparent monsters could be mere manifestations of a singular measure mishandled as a regular measure. Monstrous fluctuations are the rule, not outliers and they are more frequent than usually thought up to the point that (theoretical) statistical moments can easily be infinite. The empirical estimates of the latter are erratic and diverge with sample size. The corresponding physics is that intense small scale events cannot be smoothed out by upscaling. However, based on a few examples, it has also been argued [2] that one should consider "genuine" outliers of fat tailed distributions so monstrous that they can be called "dragon-kings". We critically analyse these arguments, e.g. finite sample size and statistical estimates of the largest events, multifractal phase transition vs. more classical phase transition. We emphasize the fact that dragon-kings are not needed in order that the largest events become predictable. This is rather reminiscent of the Feast of Fools picturesquely described by Victor Hugo. [1] D. Schertzer, I. Tchiguirinskaia, S. Lovejoy et P. Hubert (2010): No monsters, no miracles: in nonlinear sciences hydrology is not an outlier! Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55 (6) 965 - 979. [2] D. Sornette (2009): Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises. International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17.

  6. How not to train your dragon: a case of a Komodo dragon bite.

    PubMed

    Borek, Heather A; Charlton, Nathan P

    2015-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are the world's largest lizards, known for killing prey that exceed their body mass. Reports of bites to humans in the popular press suggest high degrees of morbidity and mortality. Reports in the medical literature are lacking. We describe the case of a zookeeper who was bitten by a Komodo dragon, with a resultant mallet finger. We further discuss the various potential mechanisms of Komodo dragon lethality, including sepsis and venom deposition theories that are useful in guiding management.

  7. Experiments with the Dragon Machine

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Malenfant

    2005-08-12

    The basic characteristics of a self-sustaining chain reaction were demonstrated with the Chicago Pile in 1943, but it was not until early 1945 that sufficient enriched material became available to experimentally verify fast-neutron cross-sections and the kinetic characteristics of a nuclear chain reaction sustained with prompt neutrons alone. However, the demands of wartime and the rapid decline in effort following the cessation of hostilities often resulted in the failure to fully document the experiments or in the loss of documentation as personnel returned to civilian pursuits. When documented, the results were often highly classified. Even when eventually declassified, the data were often not approved for public release until years later.2 Even after declassification and approval for public release, the records are sometimes difficult to find. Through a fortuitous discovery, a set of handwritten notes by ''ORF July 1945'' entitled ''Dragon - Research with a Pulsed Fission Reactor'' was found by William L. Myers in an old storage safe at Pajarito Site of the Los Alamos National Laboratory3. Of course, ORF was identified as Otto R. Frisch. The document was attached to a page in a nondescript spiral bound notebook labeled ''494 Book'' that bore the signatures of Louis Slotin and P. Morrison. The notes also reference an ''Idea LS'' that can only be Louis Slotin. The discovery of the notes led to a search of Laboratory Archives, the negative files of the photo lab, and the Report Library for additional details of the experiments with the Dragon machine that were conducted between January and July 1945. The assembly machine and the experiments were carefully conceived and skillfully executed. The analyses--without the crutch of computers--display real insight into the characteristics of the nuclear chain reaction. The information presented here provides what is believed to be a complete collection of the original documentation of the observations made with the Dragon

  8. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Lead Integration and Systems Engineer Paul Brower about SpaceX Dragon operations as the spacecraft's unberthing approaches. Questions? Ask us ...

  9. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem interviews Mike Horkachuck, NASA's Project Executive for SpaceX, about the progress and milestones leading up to the launch of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Q...

  10. ISS Update: The Role of OSO in Dragon's Demo Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Brandon Moncla, Lead Operations Support Officer (OSO) for the SpaceX Dragon Demo Mission, about preparations for the Dragon berthing and h...

  11. Using Dragon Curves To Learn about Length and Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes dragon curves which are made with three tiles and can be used to create fascinating patterns to help students understand the concepts of length, area, and perimeter of regions as defined by dragon curves. (ASK)

  12. Throw Away Those Erasers! Building Dragons with Basic Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson for second-grade students that uses basic shapes to paint pictures of dragons. Discusses how the students created their dragons and lists the art materials needed. Includes a list of learning objectives. (CMK)

  13. Dragons' Den: promoting healthcare research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Mazhindu, Deborah; Gregory, Siobhan

    2015-07-01

    The changing health and social care landscape, and, in particular, the financial challenges affecting the NHS, can present difficulties for staff looking for funding to support innovation and new ways of working. One method of competitive tendering that is becoming more accepted as a way of allocating funds, encouraging staff engagement and developing innovation for research is a format based the BBC television series, Dragons' Den. This article describes how Hounslow and Richmond Community Healthcare NHS Trust, London, has developed a 'Dragons' Den initiative' of annual competitive research funding allocation to ensure that some of the most dynamic practice in the trust is captured.

  14. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (p<0.05) and both presented the highest viability values. For MTT, the dragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (p<0.05). It was concluded that the dragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  15. Ectopic Six3 expression in the dragon eye goldfish.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For goldfish (Carassius auratus), there are many varieties with different eye phenotypes due to artificial selection and adaptive evolution. Dragon eye is a variant eye characterized by a large-size eyeball protruding out of the socket similar to the eye of dragon in Chinese legends. In this study, anatomical structure of the goldfish dragon eye was compared with that of the common eye, and a stretching of the retina was observed in the enlarged dragon eye. Moreover, the homeobox-containing transcription factor Six3 cDNAs were cloned from the two types of goldfish, and the expression patterns were analyzed in both normal eye and dragon eye goldfish. No amino acid sequence differences were observed between the two deduced peptides, and the expression pattern of Six3 protein in dragon eye is quite similar to common eye during embryogenesis, but from 2 days after hatching, ectopic Six3 expression began to occur in the dragon eye, especially in the outer nuclear layer cells. With eye development, more predominant Six3 distribution was detected in the outer nuclear layer cells of dragon eye than that of normal eye, and fewer cell-layers in outer nuclear layer were observed in dragon eye retina than in normal eye retina. The highlight of this study is that higher Six3 expression occurs in dragon eye goldfish than in normal eye goldfish during retinal development of larvae.

  16. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  17. Thermoregulation and aggregation in neonatal bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Khan, Jameel J; Richardson, Jean M L; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2010-05-11

    Ectothermic vertebrates, such as reptiles, thermoregulate behaviorally by choosing from available temperatures in their environment. As neonates, bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are often observed to aggregate in vertical strata. A proximate mechanism for this behavior is the thermal advantage of heat storage (i.e., grouped lizards benefit through a decreased surface area to volume ratio), although competition for limited thermal resources, or aggregation for social reasons are alternative explanations. This study was designed to gain an understanding of how aggregation and thermoregulation interact. We observed that both isolated and grouped individuals achieved a similar level of thermoregulation (mean T(b) over trial) within a thermal gradient, but that individuals within a group had lower thermoregulatory precision. An experimental design in which light and ambient temperature (T(a)) (20 versus 30 degrees C) were altered established that a light bulb (source of heat) was a limited and valuable resource to both isolated and grouped neonatal lizards. Lizards aggregated more when the light was on at both temperatures, suggesting that individuals were equally attracted to or repelled from the heat source, depending on the ambient temperature. These data suggest aggregation occurs in neonatal bearded dragons through mutual attraction to a common resource. Further, increased variability in thermal preference occurs in groups, demonstrating the potential for agonistic behaviors to compromise optimal thermoregulation in competitive situations, potentially leading to segregation, rather than aggregation.

  18. Dragon Captured and Berthed to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams used the International Space Station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm to install the SpaceX Dragon cargo ship to its docking port on the Earth-facing side of the Harm...

  19. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  20. Chinese Dragons in an American Science Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Lee Yuen; McLure, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Can art and science find a happy home in the same unit? We think the answer is yes, if the central problem interests the students and allows them to try out multiple abilities. The sixth-grade unit described in this article, which we called "The Dragon Project," grew mainly from two roots, a study of ancient China and a later probe into…

  1. Dragon (RGMb) induces oxaliplatin resistance in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Guo-Bin; Wang, Ying; Zhi, Qiang; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Fen; Yang, Bing; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Xing, Hui-Qin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Xia, Yin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2016-07-26

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer mortality. Chemotherapy resistance remains a major challenge for treating advanced CRC. Therefore, the identification of targets that induce drug resistance is a priority for the development of novel agents to overcome resistance. Dragon (also known as RGMb) is a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family. We previously showed that Dragon expression increases with CRC progression in human patients. In the present study, we found that Dragon inhibited apoptosis and increased viability of CMT93 and HCT116 cells in the presence of oxaliplatin. Dragon induced resistance of xenograft tumor to oxaliplatinin treatment in mice. Mechanistically, Dragon inhibited oxaliplatin-induced JNK and p38 MAPK activation, and caspase-3 and PARP cleavages. Our results indicate that Dragon may be a novel target that induces drug resistance in CRC.

  2. Intraerythrocytic iridovirus in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Wellehan, James F X; Owens, Sean D; McGraw, Sabrina; Gaffney, Patricia M; Foley, Janet; Childress, April L; Yun, Susan; Malm, Kirsten; Groff, Joseph M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Weber, E Scott

    2014-05-01

    Three adult central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) originating from a commercial breeding facility presented with clinical signs, including anorexia, dehydration, white multifocal lesions on the dorsal aspect of the tongue, blepharospasm, and weight loss. In 1 of 3 lizards, a marked regenerative anemia was noted, and all 3 bearded dragons had erythrocytic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Nine bearded dragons housed in contact also had identical, but fewer intraerythrocytic inclusions. Inclusion bodies examined by electron microscopy had particles consistent with iridoviruses. Attempts to culture the virus were unsuccessful; however, amplification and sequencing of regions of the viral DNA polymerase by polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of an iridovirus. One of the bearded dragons died, while the 2 others showing clinical signs were euthanized. The remaining 9 infected bearded dragons of the teaching colony were also euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed a moderate, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic or mononuclear adenitis of the tongue in the 3 bearded dragons, and a lymphohistiocytic hepatitis with bacterial granulomas in 2 lizards.

  3. ACCELERATORS: Alignment techniques for DRAGON-I LIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Yu-Tong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Liu, Yun-Long; Pan, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Wen; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2009-09-01

    DRAGON-I designed and manufactured by CAEP is a linear induction accelerator which can produce a 20 MeV-3 kA-60 ns electron beam. The high performance required for the machine is determined by the beam quality and thus is greatly dependent on the accelerator alignment. In order to reduce the chromatic effect of the beam, the stretched wire technique has been developed to measure magnetic axes of the cells precisely, and the dipole steering magnets have been equipped into each cell to correct its magnetic axis misalignment. Finally, the laser tracker has been used to examine the installation error of the accelerator. In this paper, different alignment techniques and the primary results are presented and discussed.

  4. DRAGON - 8U Nanosatellite Orbital Deployer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrowolski, Marcin; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kedziora, Bartosz; Tokarz, Marta; Borys, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS) together with Astronika company have developed an Orbital Deployer called DRAGON for ejection of the Polish scientific nanosatellite BRITE-PL Heweliusz (Fig. 1). The device has three unique mechanisms including an adopted and scaled lock and release mechanism from the ESA Rosetta mission MUPUS instrument. This paper discusses major design restrictions of the deployer, unique design features, and lessons learned from development through testing.

  5. Measuring radiative capture rates at DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, U.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Greife, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Rojas, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2013-04-01

    The DRAGON recoil separator facility is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance in inverse kinematics. The Supernanogan ion source at ISAC provides stable beams of high intensities. The DRAGON collaboration has taken advantage of this over the last years by measuring several reactions requiring high-intensity stable oxygen beams. In particular,the ^17O(p,γ) and ^16O(α,γ) reaction rates were recently measured. The former reaction is part of the hot CNO cycle, and strongly influences the abundance of ^18F in classical novae. Because of its relatively long lifetime, ^18F is a possible target for satellite-based gamma-ray spectroscopy. The ^16O(α,γ) reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the ^12C(α,γ) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In both cases, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. Results from both experiments will be presented.

  6. Force XXI and Sea Dragon - Issues for the Operational Commander.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-14

    that the U. S. Army is developing to fight and win the wars of the next century. The U. S. Marine Corps is developing the vision called Sea Dragon to...differences between Force XXI and Sea Dragon . Both exploit the Information Age’s technologies to accomplish the mission. Both predict smaller force

  7. Establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Hoferer, Marc; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-03-01

    A cell line was established from whole 6-8-week-old central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) embryos. Cells were mid-sized and showed an elongated and polymorphic form. The cell line grew in a monolayer and has been serially passaged for 17 passages at time of publication. This cell line has been used with samples from adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive bearded dragons, and 2 virus isolates have been obtained so far. The isolates show a clear cytopathic effect in inoculated cells. Both virus isolates have been serially passaged on this cell line, and have been identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and show 100% nucleotide identity to the corresponding region of an agamid adenovirus. Electron microscopic examination of supernatant from infected cells demonstrated the presence of nonenveloped particles, with a diameter of approximately 80 nm in both virus isolates.

  8. Life-History and Spatial Determinants of Somatic Growth Dynamics in Komodo Dragon Populations

    PubMed Central

    Laver, Rebecca J.; Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, Jeri; Forsyth, David; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2012-01-01

    Somatic growth patterns represent a major component of organismal fitness and may vary among sexes and populations due to genetic and environmental processes leading to profound differences in life-history and demography. This study considered the ontogenic, sex-specific and spatial dynamics of somatic growth patterns in ten populations of the world’s largest lizard the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). The growth of 400 individual Komodo dragons was measured in a capture-mark-recapture study at ten sites on four islands in eastern Indonesia, from 2002 to 2010. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) and information-theoretic methods were used to examine how growth rates varied with size, age and sex, and across and within islands in relation to site-specific prey availability, lizard population density and inbreeding coefficients. Growth trajectories differed significantly with size and between sexes, indicating different energy allocation tactics and overall costs associated with reproduction. This leads to disparities in maximum body sizes and longevity. Spatial variation in growth was strongly supported by a curvilinear density-dependent growth model with highest growth rates occurring at intermediate population densities. Sex-specific trade-offs in growth underpin key differences in Komodo dragon life-history including evidence for high costs of reproduction in females. Further, inverse density-dependent growth may have profound effects on individual and population level processes that influence the demography of this species. PMID:23028983

  9. Life-history and spatial determinants of somatic growth dynamics in Komodo dragon populations.

    PubMed

    Laver, Rebecca J; Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, Jeri; Forsyth, David; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2012-01-01

    Somatic growth patterns represent a major component of organismal fitness and may vary among sexes and populations due to genetic and environmental processes leading to profound differences in life-history and demography. This study considered the ontogenic, sex-specific and spatial dynamics of somatic growth patterns in ten populations of the world's largest lizard the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). The growth of 400 individual Komodo dragons was measured in a capture-mark-recapture study at ten sites on four islands in eastern Indonesia, from 2002 to 2010. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) and information-theoretic methods were used to examine how growth rates varied with size, age and sex, and across and within islands in relation to site-specific prey availability, lizard population density and inbreeding coefficients. Growth trajectories differed significantly with size and between sexes, indicating different energy allocation tactics and overall costs associated with reproduction. This leads to disparities in maximum body sizes and longevity. Spatial variation in growth was strongly supported by a curvilinear density-dependent growth model with highest growth rates occurring at intermediate population densities. Sex-specific trade-offs in growth underpin key differences in Komodo dragon life-history including evidence for high costs of reproduction in females. Further, inverse density-dependent growth may have profound effects on individual and population level processes that influence the demography of this species.

  10. Argonne News Brief: Here be Dragons! Komodo Dragons Help Understanding of Microbial Health

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-29

    Researchers found that captive Komodo Dragons share microbes with their environment, just as humans and pets do within homes. These observations build our understanding of the impact of captivity on health, which could lead to improvements in the care of animals within our homes and other closed environments.

  11. Mars Sample Return Landed with Red Dragon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. However, an affordable program to carry this out has not been defined. This paper describes a study that examined use of emerging commercial capabilities to land the sample return elements, with the goal of reducing mission cost. A team at NASA Ames examined the feasibility of the following scenario for MSR: A Falcon Heavy launcher injects a SpaceX Dragon crew capsule and trunk onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule is modified to carry all the hardware needed to return samples collected on Mars including a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) and Sample Collection and Storage hardware. The Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using SuperSonic Retro Propulsion (SSRP) as described by Braun and Manning [IEEEAC paper 0076, 2005]. Samples are acquired and deliverd to the MAV by a prelanded asset, possibly the proposed 2020 rover. After samples are obtained and stored in the ERV, the MAV launches the sample-containing ERV from the surface of Mars. We examined cases where the ERV is delivered to either low Mars orbit (LMO), C3 = 0 (Mars escape), or an intermediate energy state. The ERV then provides the rest of the energy (delta V) required to perform trans-Earth injection (TEI), cruise, and insertion into a Moon-trailing Earth Orbit (MTEO). A later mission, possibly a crewed Dragon launched by a Falcon Heavy (not part of the current study) retrieves the sample container, packages the sample, and performs a controlled Earth re-entry to prevent Mars materials from accidentally contaminating Earth. The key analysis methods used in the study employed a set of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) and standard aerospace analysis software codes modified for the MAV class of launch vehicle to determine the range of performance parameters that produced converged

  12. ISS Update: GPS and SpaceX Dragon Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Mike Horkachuck, NASA's Project Executive for SpaceX, who provides an update on the upcoming launch of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, as well as...

  13. ISS Update: Working With SpaceX Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Sean O’Rourke, Lead Visiting Vehicle Officer for SpaceX Dragon, about the coordination between NASA and SpaceX for the upcoming launch and d...

  14. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Launch Update

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Mike Horkachuck, NASA Project Executive for SpaceX, for an update on the SpaceX Dragon's next launch attempt scheduled for Tuesday at 3:44...

  15. Dragon paves the way for new spaceflight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The success of the first private mission to the International Space Station (ISS) has opened up a new era in commercial spaceflight after SpaceX's Dragon capsule splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean on 31 May.

  16. New biflavonoids from dragon's blood of Dracaena cinnabari.

    PubMed

    Masaoud, M; Himmelreich, U; Ripperger, H; Adam, G

    1995-08-01

    The new biflavonoids 2'-methoxysocotrin-5'-ol, socotrin-4'-ol, and homoisosocotrin-4'-ol were isolated from dragon's blood of Dracaena cinnabari and their structures elucidated mainly by NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Animation of Canadarm2 Grappling SpaceX Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    As this computer animation shows, Dragon will approach the International Space Station, with Canadarm2 grappling the capsule in free flight and docking it to the station. Credit: Canadian Space Agency

  18. Cross section measurements of the 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction using DRAGON at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara Singh, B. S.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Davids, B.; Hass, M.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Fallis, J.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.

    2012-02-01

    We present our initial efforts with the DRAGON separator at TRIUMF facility towards obtaining the energy dependence of the astrophysical S-factor for 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction in the energy range of Ecm = 2 to 3 MeV that was recommended by the recent evaluations. A comparison between the existing data and our new complementary Madrid data, together with the recent theoretical calculations, is also given in the context of our ongoing work.

  19. Toxic leucoencephalopathy after 'chasing the dragon'.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Saini, Monica

    2015-06-01

    Toxic leucoencephalopathy (TLE) is a rare neurological complication of heroin abuse. 'Chasing the dragon' is an inhalational mode of heroin abuse that originated in Southeast Asia. Intriguingly, no cases of TLE have been reported from this region, although the inhalational mode of heroin abuse is common. We herein report the case of a middle-aged man with a history of polysubstance abuse who presented with progressive neurological symptoms and progressed to an uncommunicative state. While the initial impression was that of iatrogenic parkinsonism, diffuse leucoencephalopathy with sparing of the cerebellum was noted on magnetic resonance imaging. In view of his history of inhalational heroin abuse close to the onset of the neurological symptoms, a diagnosis of TLE was made. No clinical improvement was noted with administration of a dopaminergic agent. This is the first known case of delayed TLE following heroin inhalation from Southeast Asia with the unusual feature of cerebellar sparing.

  20. Predictors of telomere content in dragon lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Olsson, Mats

    2012-08-01

    Telomeres shorten as a consequence of DNA replication, in particular in cells with low production of telomerase and perhaps in response to physiological stress from exposure to reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide. This process of telomere attrition is countered by innate antioxidation, such as via the production of superoxide dismutase. We studied the inheritance of telomere length in the Australian painted dragon lizard ( Ctenophorus pictus) and the extent to which telomere length covaries with mass-corrected maternal reproductive investment, which reflects the level of circulating yolk precursor and antioxidant, vitellogenin. Our predictors of offspring telomere length explained 72 % of telomere variation (including interstitial telomeres if such are present). Maternal telomere length and reproductive investment were positively influencing offspring telomere length in our analyses, whereas flow cytometry-estimated superoxide level was negatively impacting offspring telomere length. We suggest that the effects of superoxide on hatchling telomere shortening may be partly balanced by transgenerational effects of vitellogenin antioxidation.

  1. 77 FR 23125 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race.... League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is prohibited to... associated with the Jr. League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled...

  2. 78 FR 24065 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races... the Junior League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is... the Junior League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled...

  3. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. DRAGONS - A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. -C.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Burchell, M.; Hamilton, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the millimeter or smaller size regime. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but are still large enough to be a serious safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of a DRAGONS unit is 1 m2, consisting of several independently operated panels. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine different particle impact detection principles to maximize information that can be extracted from detected events. After more than 10 years of concept and technology development, a 1 m2 DRAGONS system has been selected for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2016. The project team achieved a major milestone when the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was completed in May 2015. Once deployed on the ISS, this multi-year mission will provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the MMOD detection capability of the DRAGONS technologies and to collect data to better define the small MMOD environment at the ISS altitude.

  5. MULTIHORMONAL ISLET CELL CARCINOMAS IN THREE KOMODO DRAGONS (VARANUS KOMODOENSIS).

    PubMed

    Eustace, Ronan; Garner, Michael M; Cook, Kimberly; Miller, Christine; Kiupel, Matti

    2017-03-01

      Multihormonal pancreatic islet cell carcinomas were found in one female and two male captive geriatric Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Gross changes in the pancreas were visible in two of the cases. Clinical signs noted in the Komodo dragons were lethargy, weakness, and anorexia. Histologically, the tumors were comprised of nests and cords of well-differentiated neoplastic islet cells with scant amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm and round, euchromatic nuclei, with rare mitoses. Infiltration by the islet cell tumor into the surrounding acinar tissue was observed in all cases, but no metastatic foci were seen. Multihormone expression was observed in all tumors, which labeled strongly positive for glucagon and somatostatin and focally positive for polypeptide. Pancreatic islet cell neoplasms should be considered in the differential diagnosis for geriatric Komodo dragons presenting with weakness, lethargy, and poor appetite.

  6. Chemotherapeutic treatment for leukemia in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Sirninger, Jeffrey; Borne, Jessica; Nevarez, Javier G

    2011-06-01

    A 4.5-yr-old, captive-bred, male bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented for lethargy, anorexia, and increased mucoid salivation with upper respiratory clicks. Diagnostics were declined and the bearded dragon was prescribed ceftazidime 20 mg/kg i.m. q 72 hr. The patient presented again 1 wk later with a marked monocytosis, heterophilia, and lymphocytosis, and a clinical diagnosis of chronic monocytic leukemia was made. Chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside (100 mg/m2 over 48 hr i.v.) was initiated. Forty-four hours into the treatment the dragon became acutely unresponsive and died within 1 hr. Adverse effects as a result of i.v. cytosine arabinoside therapy were not identified despite previous reports suggestive that the drug induces renal failure.

  7. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Ritter, J M; Garner, M M; Chilton, J A; Jacobson, E R; Kiupel, M

    2009-11-01

    This article describes a newly recognized highly malignant neoplastic entity in young bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, which readily metastasize. Ten bearded dragons with histories of anorexia (8), vomiting (3), hyperglycemia (2), and anemia (3) were included in this study. All animals had neoplastic masses in their stomach, with metastasis to the liver. Microscopically, 6 of these neuroendocrine carcinomas were well-differentiated and 4 were poorly differentiated. For further characterization, immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5, neuron-specific enolase, endorphin, chromogranins A and B, synaptophysin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide was performed on 5 animals. Because only immunolabeling for somatostatin was consistently observed in all neoplasms, a diagnosis of somatostatinoma was made for these 5 bearded dragons. Some neoplasms also exhibited multihormonal expression. Electron microscopy performed on 1 tumor confirmed the presence of neuroendocrine granules within neoplastic cells. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, and specifically somatostatinomas, have not been previously reported in bearded dragons, or other reptiles, and may be underdiagnosed due to inconsistent, ambiguous clinical signs. In humans, pancreatic somatostatinomas are associated with a syndrome of hypersomatostatinemia, which includes hyperglycemia, weight loss, and anemia, as observed in some of these bearded dragons. Somatostatinomas in humans are commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (Von Recklinghausen's disease), caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene NF1, which results in decreased expression of neurofibromin. In all 5 animals examined, neoplasms exhibited decreased neurofibromin expression compared with control tissues, suggesting that decreased functional neurofibromin may play a role in the pathogenesis of somatostatinomas in bearded dragons.

  8. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon

  9. Cerebral xanthomatosis in three green water dragons (Physignathus cocincinus).

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya S; Berkvens, Charlene N; Paré, Jean A; Smith, Dale A

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral xanthomatosis was diagnosed in three female green water dragons (Physignathus cocincinus), all of which presented with progressive neurologic signs. No antemortem evidence for xanthomatosis was identified, but on postmortem examination cholesterol granulomas, composed of cholesterol clefts surrounded by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, were found in the forebrain of each animal and were associated with significant displacement and pressure on the adjacent brain. Although the cause of xanthomatosis in these animals is unknown, nutrition and trauma may be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. Cerebrum, cholesterol, green water dragon, Physignathus cocincinus, xanthoma.

  10. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  11. Emotional Stability Pertaining to the Game of Dungeons & Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Armando

    1987-01-01

    Dungeons & Dragons, game involving extensive fantasy role-playing, has been blamed for suicides and homicides. To examine emotional stability of players, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was administered to 68 adolescent and adult game players. Results showed no significant correlation between years of playing the game…

  12. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  13. Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, M. Jeri; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Letnic, Mike; Jessop, Tim S.

    2016-04-01

    Ontogenetic allometries in ecological habits and niche use are key responses by which individuals maximize lifetime fitness. Moreover, such allometries have significant implications for how individuals influence population and community dynamics. Here, we examined how body size variation in Komodo dragons ( Varanus komodoensis) influenced ecological allometries in their: (1) prey size preference, (2) daily movement rates, (3) home range area, and (4) subsequent niche use across ontogeny. With increased body mass, Komodo dragons increased prey size with a dramatic switch from small (≤10 kg) to large prey (≥50 kg) in lizards heavier than 20 kg. Rates of foraging movement were described by a non-linear concave down response with lizard increasing hourly movement rates up until ˜20 kg body mass before decreasing daily movement suggesting reduced foraging effort in larger lizards. In contrast, home range area exhibited a sigmoid response with increased body mass. Intrapopulation ecological niche use and overlap were also strongly structured by body size. Thus, ontogenetic allometries suggest Komodo dragon's transition from a highly active foraging mode exploiting small prey through to a less active sit and wait feeding strategy focused on killing large ungulates. Further, our results suggest that as body size increases across ontogeny, the Komodo dragon exhibited marked ontogenetic niche shifts that enabled it to function as an entire vertebrate predator guild by exploiting prey across multiple trophic levels.

  14. Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, M Jeri; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Letnic, Mike; Jessop, Tim S

    2016-04-01

    Ontogenetic allometries in ecological habits and niche use are key responses by which individuals maximize lifetime fitness. Moreover, such allometries have significant implications for how individuals influence population and community dynamics. Here, we examined how body size variation in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) influenced ecological allometries in their: (1) prey size preference, (2) daily movement rates, (3) home range area, and (4) subsequent niche use across ontogeny. With increased body mass, Komodo dragons increased prey size with a dramatic switch from small (≤10 kg) to large prey (≥50 kg) in lizards heavier than 20 kg. Rates of foraging movement were described by a non-linear concave down response with lizard increasing hourly movement rates up until ∼20 kg body mass before decreasing daily movement suggesting reduced foraging effort in larger lizards. In contrast, home range area exhibited a sigmoid response with increased body mass. Intrapopulation ecological niche use and overlap were also strongly structured by body size. Thus, ontogenetic allometries suggest Komodo dragon's transition from a highly active foraging mode exploiting small prey through to a less active sit and wait feeding strategy focused on killing large ungulates. Further, our results suggest that as body size increases across ontogeny, the Komodo dragon exhibited marked ontogenetic niche shifts that enabled it to function as an entire vertebrate predator guild by exploiting prey across multiple trophic levels.

  15. Phenolic compounds of Dragon's blood from Dracaena draco.

    PubMed

    González, A G; León, F; Sánchez-Pinto, L; Padrón, J I; Bermejo, J

    2000-09-01

    Three new compounds, 2,4,4'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (1), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5,7-dimethoxychroman (2), and 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)chromone (3), were isolated from the resin "Dragon's blood" obtained from Dracaena draco along with 18 known compounds. The structures of 1, 2, and 3 were determined using MS and NMR techniques.

  16. Direct measurements of radiative capture reactions with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Direct measurements of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions are crucial for understanding nucleosynthesis in a variety of astrophysical environments, including classical novae, supernovae, X-Ray bursts, and quiescent stellar burning. Often the most important reactions have very low cross sections or involve unstable targets, making laboratory measurements extremely challenging. The detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions (DRAGON) at TRIUMF is a recoil mass separator designed to measure radiative capture reactions in inverse kinematics, with beam suppression factors as high as 1016. When combined with the intense radioactive beams available at the ISAC-I facility, DRAGON's capabilities are unique and world-leading. In this talk, I will give a brief technical overview of DRAGON before presenting results from recent experiments. Some highlights include the first-ever direct measurement of 38K(p , γ) 39Ca, a crucial reaction for determining the endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis, and measurements of 76Se(α , γ) 80Kr. The latter measurements determine the rate of the reverse reaction, 80Kr(γ , α) 76Se, an important waiting point in the synthesis of the p-nuclei. I will also discuss future (and ongoing) developments at DRAGON, including the commissioning of a new chamber for high-precision elastic scattering measurements and plans to determine the 330 keV resonance strength in 18F(p , γ) 19Ne via measurements of 15O(α , γ) 19Ne and 15O + α elastic scattering.

  17. Clones, Drones and Dragons: Ongoing Uncertainties around School Leader Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a number of key issues around successful school leadership and leader development. Three metaphors are used to frame, track and analyse recent research and commentary in the area--these are clones, drones and dragons. Although development mechanisms rarely fall neatly within one category, the metaphors provide a useful way to…

  18. A Literature Unit for "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Vallens, Mary

    Intended as a an aid to classroom teachers, this 52-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children and young people's book, "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters…

  19. Development of Three-Dimensional DRAGON Grid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yao; Kiou, Meng-Sing; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    1999-01-01

    For a typical three dimensional flow in a practical engineering device, the time spent in grid generation can take 70 percent of the total analysis effort, resulting in a serious bottleneck in the design/analysis cycle. The present research attempts to develop a procedure that can considerably reduce the grid generation effort. The DRAGON grid, as a hybrid grid, is created by means of a Direct Replacement of Arbitrary Grid Overlapping by Nonstructured grid. The DRAGON grid scheme is an adaptation to the Chimera thinking. The Chimera grid is a composite structured grid, composing a set of overlapped structured grids, which are independently generated and body-fitted. The grid is of high quality and amenable for efficient solution schemes. However, the interpolation used in the overlapped region between grids introduces error, especially when a sharp-gradient region is encountered. The DRAGON grid scheme is capable of completely eliminating the interpolation and preserving the conservation property. It maximizes the advantages of the Chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured and while at the same time keeping its weaknesses minimal. In the present paper, we describe the progress towards extending the DRAGON grid technology into three dimensions. Essential and programming aspects of the extension, and new challenges for the three-dimensional cases, are addressed.

  20. We Continue to "Drag-on" the Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    The author's fifth-graders are usually easy to motivate, especially with an assignment as exciting as dragons and mythical beasts! Since many of the author's projects are "typical" subjects such as flowers, animals, still life and so on, the idea of creating mythical creatures really caused a stir in her classroom. In this article, the author…

  1. Flower of the Dragon: An Example of Applied Humanistic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, R. Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Focuses primarily upon the applications of the tools of humanistic psychology with Viet Nam era veterans. The Flower of the Dragon, a self-help project seeking to facilitate the growth of Viet Nam era veterans, is one example of a means by which humanistic psychology can build a stronger foundation for itself and for society at large. (Author)

  2. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT DRAGON SKIN—HOW IT CHANGED BODY ARMOR TESTING IN THE...AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DRAGON SKIN—HOW IT CHANGED BODY ARMOR TESTING IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY 5...Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited DRAGON SKIN—HOW IT

  3. Anion and Cation Ionic Conductivity of Dragon Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, Nadya; Asiah, M. N.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

    2010-07-01

    The separation of all ions in a synthetic solution was achieved with an anion eluent containing 0.3392 g Na2CO3 and 0.084 g NaHCO2 and the run around 20 min. Cation eluent containing 0.60 g Tartaric acid and 0.125 g Dipicolinic acid and the run around 16 min. This method was applied to dragon fruit juice with success and has shown sensitivity. Moreover, sample preparation was a simple 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 ppm with 0.20 mm filtration and direct injection without prior sample clean-up. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of dragon fruit has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- obtained from dragon fruit. For cation, inorganic ions that occurred during the experiment were NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+. Conductivity for anion of F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- were approximately 20, 17, 16, 16 and 20 μS/cm, respectively. Concentration for F- is 1.57 mg/l, NO3- is 1.92 mg/l, NO2- is 0.30 mg/l, Br- is 0.45 mg/l and PO43- is 4.45 mg/l. Conductivity for cation of NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+ were approximately 537, 538 and 531 μS/cm, respectively. Concentration for cation of NH3+ is 0.93 mg/l, Ca+ is 1.15 mg/l, and Mg+ 7.285 is mg/l. The method has successfully applied to the determination of inorganic ions in dragon fruit. An ion chromatography method is described for the simultaneous determination of ionic conductivity for dragon fruit juice using a selected anion and cation eluent. The detection of ionic conductivity in dragon fruit juice has been studied.

  4. Localization and action of Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b), a novel bone morphogenetic protein coreceptor, throughout the reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Sidis, Yisrael; Mukherjee, Abir; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary; Woolf, Clifford J; Lin, Herbert Y; Schneyer, Alan

    2005-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in reproduction including primordial germ cell formation, follicular development, spermatogenesis, and FSH secretion. Dragon, a recently identified glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the repulsive guidance molecule family, is also a BMP coreceptor. In the present study, we determined the tissue and cellular localization of Dragon in reproductive organs using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Among reproductive organs, Dragon was expressed in testis, epididymis, ovary, uterus, and pituitary. In the testis of early postnatal mice, Dragon was found in gonocytes and spermatogonia, whereas in immature testes, Dragon was only weakly expressed in spermatogonia. Interestingly, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment of immature mice robustly induced Dragon production in spermatocytes. In adult testis, Dragon was found in spermatocytes and round spermatids. In the ovary, Dragon was detected exclusively within oocytes and primarily those within secondary follicles. In the pituitary, Dragon-expressing cells overlapped FSH-expressing cells. Dragon was also expressed in a number of cell lines originating from reproductive tissues including Ishikawa, Hela, LbetaT2, MCF-7, and JEG3 cells. Immunocytochemistry and gradient sucrose ultracentrifugation studies showed Dragon was localized in lipid rafts within the plasma membrane. In reproductive cell lines, Dragon expression enhanced signaling of exogenous BMP2 or BMP4. The present studies demonstrate that Dragon expression is dynamically regulated throughout the reproductive tract and that Dragon protein modulates BMP signaling in cells from reproductive tissues. The overlap between Dragon expression and the functional BMP signaling system suggests that Dragon may play a role in mammalian reproduction.

  5. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... the importation into the continental United States of dragon fruit (multiple genera and species) from... noxious weeds via the importation of dragon fruit from Thailand. DATES: Effective Date: October 4,...

  6. 76 FR 38349 - Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... States of dragon fruit from Thailand. Based on this analysis, we believe that the application of one or... disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of dragon fruit from Thailand. We are making...

  7. Response of hatchling Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at Denver Zoo to visual and chemical cues arising from prey.

    PubMed

    Chiszar, David; Krauss, Susan; Shipley, Bryon; Trout, Tim; Smith, Hobart M

    2009-01-01

    Five hatchling Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at Denver Zoo were observed in two experiments that studied the effects of visual and chemical cues arising from prey. Rate of tongue flicking was recorded in Experiment 1, and amount of time the lizards spent interacting with stimuli was recorded in Experiment 2. Our hypothesis was that young V. komodoensis would be more dependent upon vision than chemoreception, especially when dealing with live, moving, prey. Although visual cues, including prey motion, had a significant effect, chemical cues had a far stronger effect. Implications of this falsification of our initial hypothesis are discussed.

  8. A commercial large-vocabulary discrete speech recognition system: DragonDictate.

    PubMed

    Mandel, M A

    1992-01-01

    DragonDictate is currently the only commercially available general-purpose, large-vocabulary speech recognition system. It uses discrete speech and is speaker-dependent, adapting to the speaker's voice and language model with every word. Its acoustic adaptability is based in a three-level phonology and a stochastic model of production. The phonological levels are phonemes, augmented triphones (phonemes-in-context or PICs), and steady-state spectral slices that are concatenated to approximate the spectra of these PICs (phonetic elements or PELs) and thus of words. Production is treated as a hidden Markov process, which the recognizer has to identify from its output, the spoken word. Findings of practical value to speech recognition are presented from research on six European languages.

  9. Evaluation of the DRAGON code for VHTR design analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-12

    This letter report summarizes three activities that were undertaken in FY 2005 to gather information on the DRAGON code and to perform limited evaluations of the code performance when used in the analysis of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. These activities include: (1) Use of the code to model the fuel elements of the helium-cooled and liquid-salt-cooled VHTR designs. Results were compared to those from another deterministic lattice code (WIMS8) and a Monte Carlo code (MCNP). (2) The preliminary assessment of the nuclear data library currently used with the code and libraries that have been provided by the IAEA WIMS-D4 Library Update Project (WLUP). (3) DRAGON workshop held to discuss the code capabilities for modeling the VHTR.

  10. Encephalitozoonosis in two inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Richter, B; Csokai, J; Graner, I; Eisenberg, T; Pantchev, N; Eskens, H U; Nedorost, N

    2013-02-01

    Microsporidiosis is reported rarely in reptiles. Sporadic multisystemic granulomatous disease of captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) has been associated with microsporidia showing Encephalitozoon-like morphology. Two such cases are described herein. Both animals displayed clinical signs suggestive of renal failure. Necropsy examination revealed granulomatous lesions in the liver and adrenal area in both animals, and in several other organs in one animal. The lesions were associated with intracellular protozoa consistent with microsporidia. Ultrastructural examination of the organisms revealed morphology similar to Encephalitozoon spp. Immunohistochemistry and chromogenic in-situ hybridization for Encephalitozoon cuniculi were positive in both animals. Nucleotide sequencing of the partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed high similarity with published E. cuniculi sequences in both animals. However, the ITS region showed a GTTT-repeat pattern distinct from mammalian E. cuniculi strains. This may be a novel E. cuniculi strain associated with multisystemic granulomatous disease in bearded dragons.

  11. [Dragon's blood. A glance into the history of pharmacognosy].

    PubMed

    Bruck, M

    1999-01-01

    Dragon's blood, a red resin, which is often used as a dry powdered "herbal" remedy in traditional medicine, has different origins which are briefly discussed. This contribution however focuses on the species of the genus Dracaena Vand ex L., belonging to the Agavaceae and native to the Old World and the Canary Islands. H.J.N. Crantz, a botanist and medical doctor turned pharmacologist (born in 1722 near Luxembourg), had published a brief and very uncommon treatise on this group of plants, which he only knew from botanical gardens. The pharmacognostical and historical background of dragon's blood use is at the core of this contribution--the drug itself being of no major importance in today's medical care.

  12. Caging the Dragon: The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    Washington Headquarters Services Directorate for informatton Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Technical 881001-951231 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Caging the Dragon The Containment of Underground Explosions 5. FUNDING... mathematics , the charts and graphs that make up the structure of the scientific and engineering practice of the containment of under- ground nuclear

  13. A Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Zheng, Yao

    2002-01-01

    DRAGONFLOW code has been developed to solve three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations over a complex geometry whose flow domain is discretized with the DRAGON grid-a combination of Chimera grid and a collection of unstructured grids. In the DRAGONFLOW suite, both OVERFLOW and USM3D are presented in form of module libraries, and a master module controls the invoking of these individual modules. This report includes essential aspects, programming structures, benchmark tests and numerical simulations.

  14. Systemic microsporidiosis in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Jacobson, E R; Green, D E; Undeen, A H; Cranfield, M; Vaughn, K L

    1998-09-01

    One laboratory-hatched and -reared inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) (No. 1) and two privately owned inland bearded dragons (Nos. 2 and 3) died, showing nonspecific signs of illness. Light microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections from lizard No. 1 revealed severe hepatic necrosis with clusters of light basophilic intracytoplasmic microorganisms packing and distending hepatocytes and free in areas of necrosis. Similar microorganisms were within cytoplasmic vacuoles in distended renal epithelial cells, pulmonary epithelial cells, gastric mucosal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and capillary endothelial cells and ventricular ependymal cells in the brain. In lizard Nos. 2 and 3, microorganisms of similar appearance were in macrophages in granulomatous inflammation in the colon, adrenal glands, and ovaries. The microorganism was gram positive and acid fast and had a small polar granule that stained using the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Electron microscopic examination of deparaffinized liver of lizard No. 1 revealed merogonic and sporogonic stages of a protozoan compatible with members of the phylum Microspora. This report provides the first description of microsporidiosis in bearded dragons and is only the second report of this infection in a lizard.

  15. Devriesea agamarum causes dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Martel, An; Chiers, Koen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2009-03-02

    Devriesea agamarum is frequently isolated from dermatitis in lizards, notably from cheilitis in spiny tailed lizards (genus Uromastyx). It was the aim of the present study to assess the role of this bacterium as a causative agent of dermatitis by fulfilling Koch's postulates. First, its association with diseased lizards was demonstrated. The bacterium was isolated from several, mainly desert dwelling squamate species showing symptoms of dermatitis and/or septicaemia. The affected lizards mainly belonged to the family of the Agamidae (genera Pogona, Uromastyx, Agama) and in one case to the Iguanidae (genus Crotaphytus). Secondly, the occurrence of D. agamarum in 66 clinically healthy bearded dragons, 21 clinically healthy Uromastyx species and 40 squamate eggshells was studied. The bacterium was isolated from the oral cavity of 10 bearded dragons but from none of the healthy Uromastyx species. Hence D. agamarum was found to be part of the oral microbiota in Pogona vitticeps. Finally, bearded dragons (P. vitticeps) were experimentally inoculated with D. agamarum by direct application of a bacterial suspension on intact and abraded skin. At the scarified skin of all inoculated lizards, dermatitis was induced from which D. agamarum was re-isolated. In conclusion, D. agamarum is a facultative pathogenic bacterium, able to cause dermatitis in agamid lizards when the integrity of the skin is breached.

  16. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the West 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to...

  17. JEM-EUSO Design for Accommodation on the SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission has been planned for launch on JAXA's H2 Launch Vehicle. Recently, the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft has emerged as an alternative payload carrier for JEM-EUSO. This paper will discuss a concept for the re-design of JEM-EUSO so that it can be launched on Dragon.

  18. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  19. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  20. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established on the Black...

  1. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  2. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  3. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  4. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  5. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  6. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  7. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  8. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  9. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  10. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  11. 78 FR 57063 - Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival; St. Johns River; Jacksonville, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat... Jacksonville, Florida during the Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival, a series of paddle boat races. The event is... is to ensure safety of life on navigable waters of the United States during the Jacksonville...

  12. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  13. Real-time control for the high order, wide field DRAGON AO test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Bitenc, Urban; Dipper, Nigel; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard; Reeves, Andrew; Younger, Eddy

    2014-07-01

    DRAGON is a high order, wide field AO test-bench at Durham. A key feature of DRAGON is the ability to be operated at real-time rates, i.e. frame rates of up to 1kHz, with low latency to maintain AO performance. Here, we will present the real-time control architecture for DRAGON, which includes two deformable mirrors, eight wavefront sensors and thousands of Shack-Hartmann sub-apertures. A novel approach has been taken to allow access to the wavefront sensor pixel stream, reducing latency and peak computational load, and this technique can be implemented for other similar wavefront sensor cameras with no hardware costs. We report on experience with an ELT-suitable wavefront sensor camera. DRAGON will form the basis for investigations into hardware acceleration architectures for AO real-time control, and recent work on GPU and many-core systems (including the Xeon Phi) will be reported. Additionally, the modular structure of DRAGON, its remote control capabilities, distribution of AO telemetry data, and the software concepts and architecture will be reported. Techniques used in DRAGON for pixel processing, slope calculation and wavefront reconstruction will be presented. This will include methods to handle changes in CN2 profile and sodium layer profile, both of which can be modelled in DRAGON. DRAGON software simulation techniques linking hardware-in-the-loop computer models to the DRAGON real-time system and control software will also be discussed. This tool allows testing of the DRAGON system without requiring physical hardware and serves as a test-bed for ELT integration and verification techniques.

  14. DRAGONS - A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.; Sadilek, Albert; Burchell, Mark; Corsaro, Robert; Giovane, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in-situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the approx.0.2 to 1 mm size regime. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by groundbased radars and optical telescopes, but still large enough to be a safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of DRAGONS is 1 sq m, consisting of four 0.5 m x 0.5 m independently operated panels. The concept of the DRAGONS design is to combine three different detection technologies to maximize information extracted from each detected impact. The first technology is a resistive grid consisting of 62.5-microns-wide resistive lines, coated in parallel and separated by 62.5 micron gaps on a Kapton film. When a particle a few hundred micrometers or larger strikes the grid, it world penetrate the film and sever some resistive lines. The size of the damage area can be estimated from the increased resistance. The second technology employs a dual-layer, 25-microns-thick Kapton film with a 10 cm separation. By measuring the time difference between impacts on the two films, the impact speed can be calculated. The third technology is based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) acoustic impact sensors. Multiple PVDF sensors are attached to the backside of both Kapton films to provide impact timing measurements. The impact location on each film can be identified from the triangulation of signals received at different PVDF sensors and provides an estimate of the impact direction. The development of DRAGONS is supported by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The project is led by the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), with additional collaboration from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the University of Kent at Canterbury in Great Britain, and Virginia Tech (VT). The short-term goal of DRAGONS is to advance its Technology

  15. Extension, single-locus conversion and physical mapping of sex chromosome sequences identify the Z microchromosome and pseudo-autosomal region in a dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Quinn, A E; Ezaz, T; Sarre, S D; Graves, Ja Marshall; Georges, A

    2010-04-01

    Distribution of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD) across the phylogeny of dragon lizards implies multiple independent origins of at least one, and probably both, modes of sex determination. Female Pogona vitticeps are the heterogametic sex, but ZZ individuals reverse to a female phenotype at high incubation temperatures. We used reiterated genome walking to extend Z and W chromosome-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for physical mapping. One extended fragment hybridized to both W and Z microchromosomes, identifying the Z microchromosome for the first time, and a second hybridized to the centromere of all microchromosomes. W-linked sequences were converted to a single-locus PCR sexing assay. P. vitticeps sex chromosome sequences also shared homology with several other Australian dragons. Further physical mapping and isolation of sex-specific bacterial artificial chromosome clones will provide insight into the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosomes in GSD and TSD dragon lizards.

  16. Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) asymptomatically infected with Devriesea agamarum are a source of persistent clinical infection in captive colonies of dab lizards (Uromastyx sp.).

    PubMed

    Devloo, R; Martel, A; Hellebuyck, T; Vranckx, K; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F

    2011-06-02

    Devriesea agamarum causes dermatitis and septicaemia in a variety of lizards, notably those belonging to the genus Uromastyx, whereas other species such as bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) seem to be asymptomatic carriers. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), the relatedness between 69 D. agamarum isolates was examined. The isolates derived from 44 diseased lizards, of which 31 belonged to the genus Uromastyx, and from 25 healthy lizards, of which 21 were bearded dragons. Eight AFLP genotypes were obtained, four of which comprised 93% of the isolates. These four genotypes were each present in 2, 2, 8 and 13 different captive colonies. Up to three genotypes were isolated from a single infected colony simultaneously. On two occasions, the same genotype was found in healthy bearded dragons and diseased Uromastyx lizards from the same colony, confirming the role of the former as an asymptomatic source of infection for the latter. Two genotypes, comprising 12 isolates, were exclusively associated with diseased Uromastyx lizards, suggesting strain dependent host adaptation. Finally, D. agamarum was shown to be able to persist for at least seven years in a lizard colony, persistently causing severe disease in several lizard species.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances.

    PubMed

    Edward, H G; de Oliveira, L F; Quye, A

    2001-12-01

    Dragon's blood is a deep red resin which has been used for centuries by many cultures and much prized for it's rarity, depth of colour and alchemical associations. The original source of dragon's blood resin is believed to be Dracaena cinnabari from Socotra in Africa, but since mediaeval times there have been several alternatives from different geographical locations from the Canary Islands to the East Indies. Here, the Raman spectra of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena draco Liliacae trees growing in several different locations bordering the Mediterranean and Middle East are compared with the resins from alternative botanical sources such as Daemonorops draco, Dracaena cinnabari and Eucalyptus terminalis, which all generically come under the description of dragon's blood. Key vibrational spectroscopic marker bands are identified in the Raman spectra of the resins, which are suggested for adoption as a protocol for the identification of the botanical and possible geographical sources of modern dragon's blood resins. The Raman spectra of materials, which are falsely attributed to dragon's blood resin are also shown for comparison and identification purposes. Changes in the Raman spectra of genuine dragon's blood resin specimens arising from simple processing treatment during the preparation of the resins for sale are also identified, which suggests a possible attribution characteristic for unknown samples.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.; Quye, Anita

    2001-12-01

    Dragon's blood is a deep red resin which has been used for centuries by many cultures and much prized for it's rarity, depth of colour and alchemical associations. The original source of dragon's blood resin is believed to be Dracaena cinnabari from Socotra in Africa, but since mediaeval times there have been several alternatives from different geographical locations from the Canary Islands to the East Indies. Here, the Raman spectra of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena draco Liliacae trees growing in several different locations bordering the Mediterranean and Middle East are compared with the resins from alternative botanical sources such as Daemonorops draco, Dracaena cinnabari and Eucalyptus terminalis, which all generically come under the description of dragon's blood. Key vibrational spectroscopic marker bands are identified in the Raman spectra of the resins, which are suggested for adoption as a protocol for the identification of the botanical and possible geographical sources of modern dragon's blood resins. The Raman spectra of materials, which are falsely attributed to dragon's blood resin are also shown for comparison and identification purposes. Changes in the Raman spectra of genuine dragon's blood resin specimens arising from simple processing treatment during the preparation of the resins for sale are also identified, which suggests a possible attribution characteristic for unknown samples.

  19. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-08-21

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment.

  20. Physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sarah R; Smith, Richard M; Chapman, Philip G; Sinclair, Peter J; Funato, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to profile the physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers, to identify characteristics that predict race performance and to quantify the metabolic energy contributions to simulated 200-m and 500-m dragon boat racing. Eleven, national level, male, Japanese dragon boat paddlers completed a battery of tests on a paddling ergometer including an incremental maximal aerobic capacity test, a 2-minute maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test, and simulated 200-m and 500-m races. A physiological and physical profile of subjects was compiled. Results showed that 200-m race performance correlated with flexed arm girth and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) measured in the 30 minutes after the MAOD test, whereas 500-m race performance correlated with body fat percentage, relaxed and flexed arm girth, MAOD, EPOC, and peak power during the MAOD test. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that flexed arm girth was the most powerful predictor of 200-m and 500-m race performance, followed by EPOC with the combination of these 2 factors able to explain 74% and 68% of the variance in 200-m and 500-m race performance, respectively. Aerobic energy contributions for 200-m (50 seconds) and 500-m (1 minute 50 seconds) races were (mean (95% confidence intervals)) 52.1% (range, 47.4-56.8%) and 67.5% (range, 60.1-77.8%), respectively. In conclusion, coaches should develop training programs targeted at developing upper-body musculature and increasing anaerobic capacity because these factors are the strongest predictors of 200-m and 500-m race performance. Given the substantial aerobic energy contributions even for a 200-m race event, coaches should aim to increase the maximal aerobic capacity of the paddler in preparation for both 200-m and 500-m events.

  1. Periorbital adenocarcinoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Darrow, Brett G; Johnstone McLean, Nancy S; Russman, Shirley E; Schiller, Chris A

    2013-07-01

    A 4.5-year-old female bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented for periorbital swelling affecting the left eye. A well-organized, hypoechoic mass was noted ventral and medial to the globe on ocular ultrasound. The mass continued to grow despite antibiotic therapy, and an exenteration was performed. The mass was diagnosed via histopathology and immunohistochemical staining as a probable lacrimal gland carcinoma, although a Harderian gland origin could not definitively be ruled out. The tumor recurred following removal, and the lizard died 2 months postoperatively.

  2. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  3. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-Xl Dragon Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    On September 26 and September 28,2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 m1 evacuated canisters from the sealed Space-Xl Dragon Module. One sample was also acquired from Space-X Facility near the module at the start of the test. Samples of the module air were taken in triplicate once the module had been sealed, and then taken again in triplicate 1.98 days later. Ofthe triplicate samples, the first served as a line purge, and the last two were analyzed. The results of 5 samples are reported.

  4. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Xie, D Z; Zhang, X Z; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Sha, S; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Lin, S H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Guo, X H; Li, X X; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhao, H Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Li, J Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2012-02-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  5. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  6. SpaceX Dragon, NASA Science Cargo Back On Dry Land

    NASA Video Gallery

    The SpaceX Dragon capsule has returned to California, after splashdown in the Pacific Ocean March 26 a few hundred miles west of Baja California following its International Space Station resupply m...

  7. ISS Update: CCiCap and the SpaceX Dragon -- 08.22.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partner Manager for SpaceX Derek Hassmann discusses the Dragon spacecraft and the CCP following the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability, or CCiCap, announcement earl...

  8. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Davila, A.; Sanders, G.; Glass, Brian; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, Jennifer; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  9. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Davilla, A.; Davis, S.; Glass, B.; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, J.; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  10. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lemke, L. G.; Marinova, M. M.; McKay, C. P.; Stoker, C. R.; Wooster, P. D.; Zarchi, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  11. DRAGON, the Durham real-time, tomographic adaptive optics test bench: progress and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard M.; Morris, Timothy J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Rolt, Stephen; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Younger, Edward J.

    2014-08-01

    DRAGON is a real-time, tomographic Adaptive Optics test bench currently under development at Durham University. Optical and mechanical design work for DRAGON is now complete, and the system is close to becoming fully operational. DRAGON emulates current 4.2 m and 8 m telescopes, and can also be used to investigate ELT scale issues. The full system features 4 Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wavefront Sensors (WFS), 3 Natural Guide Star (NGS) WFSs and one Truth Sensor, all of which are 31 × 31 sub-aperture Shack-Hartmann WFS. Two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), a Boston MEMS Kilo DM and a Xinetics 97 actuator DM, correct for turbulence induced aberrations and these can be configured to be either open or closed loop of the WFS. A novel method of LGS emulation is implemented which includes the effects of uplink turbulence and elongation in real-time. The atmosphere is emulated by 4 rotating phase screens which can be translated in real-time to replicate altitude evolution of turbulent layers. DRAGON will be used to extensively study tomographic AO algorithms, such as those required for Multi-Object AO. As DRAGON has been designed to be compatible with CANARY, the MOAO demonstrator, results can be compared to those from the CANARY MOAO demonstrator on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We present here an overview of the current status of DRAGON and some early results, including investigations into the validity of the LGS emulation method.

  12. Breast cancer survivors' decisions to join a dragon boating team.

    PubMed

    Weisenbach, Beth B; McDonough, Meghan H

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity is associated with psychosocial and physical health benefits for breast cancer survivors. Little is known, however, about survivors' decision-making processes when considering joining group physical activity programs designed for survivors. Guided by interpretive description methodology (Thorne, 2008), N = 15 breast cancer survivors who were considering or had made the decision to join a dragon boating team were interviewed about their decisions to participate. Four patterns of decision making were identified: searching for a way to care for physical and social needs, taking advantage of opportunities created by breast cancer, dove in with little contemplation, and hesitant to connect with other survivors. Results have implications for understanding decisions to participate in physical activity groups in this population and overcoming challenges to participation.

  13. Myelogenous leukemia in a bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Tocidlowski, M E; McNamara, P L; Wojcieszyn, J W

    2001-03-01

    A 3-yr-old bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps) presented with lethargy, a swollen right elbow joint, inability to move its rear limbs normally, and marked leukocytosis. The majority of leukocytes were an abnormal mononuclear lymphoid-type cell with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, a slightly blue cytoplasm, nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin, and some nuclear clefts. Acute leukemia of lymphoid or myeloid origin was tentatively diagnosed. The abnormal mononuclear leukocyte cell population stained positively for the myeloid cytochemical stains: peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and L1-calprotectin. The abnormal cell population of the peripheral blood did not stain with the lymphoid cytochemical stains: alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase, CD3, and CD79a.

  14. Adenoviral hepatitis in a female bearded dragon (Amphibolurus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Julian, A F; Durham, P J

    1982-05-01

    A female bearded dragon (Amphibolurus barbatus) died following intermittent periods of inappetance. No significant gross lesions were found at autopsy, but histological examination revealed disordered liver architecture with numerous foci of coagulative necrosis. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were present in many hepatocytes, some epithelial cells of the bile ductules and occasional epithelial cells of renal tubes and glomeruli. Large numbers of viral particles within many nuclei, associated with the intranuclear inclusion were demonstrated by electronmicroscopy. Similar particles, sometimes in paracrystalline arrays, were also seen within membrane-bound vesicles located next to the nuclei and to a lesser degree within the cytoplasm and extracellular spaces. The virus was considered to be an adenovirus on the basis of its size, morphology, site of formation and lack of envelopment. It was considered to he the cause of the hepatitis.

  15. Slow waves, sharp waves, ripples, and REM in sleeping dragons.

    PubMed

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Ondracek, Janie M; Liaw, Hua-Peng; Reiter, Sam; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-04-29

    Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus.

  16. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    PubMed

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  17. Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator?

    PubMed Central

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site*survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species. PMID:23527027

  18. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule RGMb) inhibits E-cadherin expression and induces apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y; Xia, Yin

    2013-11-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45-66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Molecular marker suggests rapid changes of sex-determining mechanisms in Australian dragon lizards.

    PubMed

    Ezaz, Tariq; Quinn, Alexander E; Sarre, Stephen D; O'Meally, Denis; Georges, Arthur; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of sex-determining mechanisms across Australian agamids shows no clear phylogenetic segregation, suggesting multiple transitions between temperature-dependent (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). These taxa thus present an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of sex chromosomes, and evolutionary transitions between TSD and GSD. Here we report the hybridization of a 3 kb genomic sequence (PvZW3) that marks the Z and W microchromosomes of the Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) to chromosomes of 12 species of Australian agamids from eight genera using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). The probe hybridized to a single microchromosome pair in 11 of these species, but to the tip of the long arm of chromosome pair 2 in the twelfth (Physignathus lesueurii), indicating a micro-macro chromosome rearrangement. Three TSD species shared the marked microchromosome, implying that it is a conserved autosome in related species that determine sex by temperature. C-banding identified the marked microchromosome as the heterochromatic W chromosome in two of the three GSD species. However, in Ctenophorus fordi, the probe hybridized to a different microchromosome from that shown by C-banding to be the heterochromatic W, suggesting an independent origin for the ZW chromosome pair in that species. Given the haphazard distribution of GSD and TSD in this group and the existence of at least two sets of sex microchromosomes in GSD species, we conclude that sex-determining mechanisms in this family have evolved independently, multiple times in a short evolutionary period.

  20. The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ezaz, Tariq; Quinn, Alexander E; Miura, Ikuo; Sarre, Stephen D; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2005-01-01

    The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae: Reptilia) is an agamid lizard endemic to Australia. Like crocodilians and many turtles, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common in agamid lizards, although many species have genotypic sex determination (GSD). P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used molecular cytogenetic and differential banding techniques to reveal sex chromosomes in this species. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), GTG- and C-banding identified a highly heterochromatic microchromosome specific to females, demonstrating female heterogamety (ZZ/ZW) in this species. We isolated the P. vitticeps W chromosome by microdissection, re-amplified the DNA and used it to paint the W. No unpaired bivalents were detected in male synaptonemal complexes at meiotic pachytene, confirming male homogamety. We conclude that P. vitticeps has differentiated previously unidentifable W and Z micro-sex chromosomes, the first to be demonstrated in an agamid lizard. Our finding implies that heterochromatinization of the heterogametic chromosome occurred during sex chromosome differentiation in this species, as is the case in some lizards and many snakes, as well as in birds and mammals. Many GSD reptiles with cryptic sex chromosomes may also prove to have micro-sex chromosomes. Reptile microchromosomes, long dismissed as non-functional minutiae and often omitted from karyotypes, therefore deserve closer scrutiny with new and more sensitive techniques.

  1. Analysis of the first- and second-generation Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts containing methylone and pentedrone.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; ElJordi, Omar I; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of designer drugs sold as "Bath Salts" have appeared on the market. In July of 2011, Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts was obtained over the Internet. This product became unavailable in October of that year coinciding with the DEA issuing a temporarily schedule of mephedrone, methylone, and MDPV. Four months later in February of 2012, a new product was released from the same company under the new name Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust. The contents of both products were identified using spectroscopy methods: nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, UV-visible, tandem mass spectrometry, and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was determined that Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts contained methylone. The replacement product Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust contained the unscheduled drug pentedrone. The Raving Dragon brand of products illustrates the rapid change of ingredients in these products to circumvent laws restricting availability, distribution, and use.

  2. Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei).

  3. First Description of the Karyotype and Sex Chromosomes in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Rovatsos, Michail; Velenský, Petr; Vodička, Roman; Rehák, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest lizard in the world. Surprisingly, it has not yet been cytogenetically examined. Here, we present the very first description of its karyotype and sex chromosomes. The karyotype consists of 2n = 40 chromosomes, 16 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Although the chromosome number is constant for all species of monitor lizards (family Varanidae) with the currently reported karyotype, variability in the morphology of the macrochromosomes has been previously documented within the group. We uncovered highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex microchromosomes with a heterochromatic W chromosome in the Komodo dragon. Sex chromosomes have so far only been described in a few species of varanids including V. varius, the sister species to Komodo dragon, whose W chromosome is notably larger than that of the Komodo dragon. Accumulations of several microsatellite sequences in the W chromosome have recently been detected in 3 species of monitor lizards; however, these accumulations are absent from the W chromosome of the Komodo dragon. In conclusion, although varanids are rather conservative in karyotypes, their W chromosomes exhibit substantial variability at the sequence level, adding further evidence that degenerated sex chromosomes may represent the most dynamic genome part.

  4. Analysis of Fine and Coarse mode Aerosol Distributions from AERONET's mini-DRAGON Set-up at Singapore 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Muller, A.; Liew, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol type and particle size regime. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from industrial and urban areas. However, depending on the time of the year (July-October), there can be a strong bio-mass component originated from uncontrolled forest/plantation fires from the neighboring land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. Unlike urban/fossil fuel aerosols, smoke or bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. Trans-boundary smoke episodes has become an annual phenomenon in this region. Severe episodes were recorded in 1997 and 2006 and other minor episodes happened during 2002, 2004, 2010 and more recently on 2013. On August-September 2012, as part of CRISP participation on the August-September ground campaign of the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS), a Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) set of six CIMEL CE-318A automatic Sun-tracking photometers have been deployed at sites located at North (Yishun ITE), East (Temasek Poly), West (NUS and Pandan Reservoir), Central (NEA) and South (St. John's island) of Singapore. In order to fully discriminate bio-mass burning events over other local sources, we perform a spectral discrimination of fine/coarse mode particle regime to all DRAGON sites; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponent are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set. Spatio-temporal relationship between sites are also investigated.

  5. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  6. Dermatomycosis in three central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) associated with Nannizziopsis chlamydospora.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Ukaj, Silvana; Loncaric, Igor; Spergser, Joachim; Richter, Barbara; Hochleithner, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Chronic dermatomycosis was identified in 3 central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), held as companion animals by the same owner. Clinical signs of dermatomycosis included subcutaneous masses as well as crusty, erosive, and ulcerative skin lesions. The facial region was affected in 2 of the 3 cases. Masses were surgically excised, and histology confirmed necrotizing and granulomatous inflammatory processes associated with fungal hyphae. Two of the bearded dragons were euthanized because of their deteriorating condition. In both cases, postmortem histology confirmed systemic fungal infections despite treatment of 1 animal with itraconazole. In the third bearded dragon, therapy with voriconazole at 10 mg/kg was initially effective, but mycotic lesions reappeared 15 months later. Nannizziopsis chlamydospora was identified by PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing in 2 of these cases.

  7. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  8. Forest Dragon-3: Decadal Trends of Northeastern Forests in China from Earth Observation Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmullius, C.; Balling, J.; Schratz, P.; Thiel, C.; Santoro, M.; Wegmuller, U.; Li, Z.; Yong, P.

    2016-08-01

    In Forest DRAGON 3, synergy of Earth Observation products to derive information of decadal trends of forest in northeast China was investigated. Following up the results of Forest-DRAGON 1 and 2, Growing Stock Volume (GSV) products from different years were investigated to derive information on vegetational in north- east China. The BIOMASAR maps of 2005 and 2010, produced within the previous DRAGON projects, set the base for all analyses. We took a closer look at scale problems regarding GSV derivation, which are introduced by differing landcover within one pixel, to investigate differences throughout pixel classes with varying landcover class percentages. We developed an approach to select pixels containing forest only with the aim of undertaking a detailed analysis on retrieved GSV values for such pixels for the years 2005 and 2010. Using existing land cover products at different scales, the plausibility of changes in the BIOMASAR maps were checked.

  9. Compressive myelopathy of the cervical spine in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Douglass, Michael; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Aguilar, Roberto; Schaftenaar, Willem; Shores, Andy

    2009-03-01

    Cervical subluxation and compressive myelopathy appears to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Four cases of cervical subluxation resulting in nerve root compression or spinal cord compression were identified. Three were presumptively induced by trauma, and one had an unknown inciting cause. Two dragons exhibited signs of chronic instability. Cervical vertebrae affected included C1-C4. Clinical signs on presentation included ataxia, ambulatory paraparesis or tetraparesis to tetraplegia, depression to stupor, cervical scoliosis, and anorexia. Antemortem diagnosis of compression was only confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Treatment ranged from supportive care to attempted surgical decompression. All dragons died or were euthanatized, at 4 days to 12 mo postpresentation. Studies to define normal vertebral anatomy in the species are necessary to determine whether the pathology is linked to cervical malformation, resulting in ligament laxity, subsequent instability, and subluxation.

  10. Feasibility of a Dragon-Derived Mars Lander for Scientific and Human-Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John S.; Davis, Sanford S.; Allen, Gary A.; Glass, Brian J.; Gonzales, Andrew; Heldmann, Jennifer Lynne; Lemke, Lawrence G.; McKay, Chris; Stoker, Carol R.; Wooster, Paul Douglass; Zarchi, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A minimally-modified SpaceX Dragon capsule launched on a Falcon Heavy rocket presents the possibility of a new low-cost, high-capacity Mars lander for robotic missions. We have been evaluating such a "Red Dragon" platform as an option for the Icebreaker Discovery Program mission concept. Dragon is currently in service ferrying cargo to and from the International Space Station, and a crew transport version is in development. The upcoming version, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, exhibits most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant "SuperDraco" engines integrated directly into the capsule that are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters provide the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface, a descent approach which would also scale well to larger future human landers. We will discuss the motivations for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the current results of our analysis of its feasibility and capabilities, and the implications of the platform for the Icebreaker mission concept. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will also describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface. Our analysis to date indicates that a Red Dragon lander is feasible and that it would be capable of delivering more than 1000 kg of payload to sites at elevations three kilometers below the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reference, which includes sites throughout most of the northern plains and Hellas.

  11. Improvements of the DRAGON recoil separator at ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J.; Chen, A. A.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davis, C. A.; Greife, U.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ottewell, D.; Ouellet, C. O.; Parikh, A.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Zylberberg, J.

    2008-10-01

    The DRAGON (Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions) is used to measure radiative proton and alpha capture reaction rates involving both stable and radioactive, heavy-ion reactants at the TRIUMF-ISAC high intensity radioactive beam facility. Completed in 2001 it has been used for several challenging studies for nuclear astrophysics, e.g. 12C(α, γ)16O, 21Na(p, γ)22Mg, 26gAl(p, γ)27Si and 40Ca(α, γ)44Ti. Since initial operation, a number of improvements have been incorporated which are described here. These include a beam centering monitor based on a CCD camera, a mechanical iris to skim of beam halo, a solid state stripper acting as a charge state booster for beams with A ≳ 30, beta and gamma detectors to monitor beam intensity and to determine beam contamination in experiments with radioactive beam and the ionization chamber for both recoil identification and isobar separation.

  12. Sexual selection predicts brain structure in dragon lizards.

    PubMed

    Hoops, D; Ullmann, J F P; Janke, A L; Vidal-Garcia, M; Stait-Gardner, T; Dwihapsari, Y; Merkling, T; Price, W S; Endler, J A; Whiting, M J; Keogh, J S

    2017-02-01

    Phenotypic traits such as ornaments and armaments are generally shaped by sexual selection, which often favours larger and more elaborate males compared to females. But can sexual selection also influence the brain? Previous studies in vertebrates report contradictory results with no consistent pattern between variation in brain structure and the strength of sexual selection. We hypothesize that sexual selection will act in a consistent way on two vertebrate brain regions that directly regulate sexual behaviour: the medial preoptic nucleus (MPON) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). The MPON regulates male reproductive behaviour whereas the VMN regulates female reproductive behaviour and is also involved in male aggression. To test our hypothesis, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging combined with traditional histology of brains in 14 dragon lizard species of the genus Ctenophorus that vary in the strength of precopulatory sexual selection. Males belonging to species that experience greater sexual selection had a larger MPON and a smaller VMN. Conversely, females did not show any patterns of variation in these brain regions. As the volumes of both these regions also correlated with brain volume (BV) in our models, we tested whether they show the same pattern of evolution in response to changes in BV and found that the do. Therefore, we show that the primary brain nuclei underlying reproductive behaviour in vertebrates can evolve in a mosaic fashion, differently between males and females, likely in response to sexual selection, and that these same regions are simultaneously evolving in concert in relation to overall brain size.

  13. Habitat use affects morphological diversification in dragon lizards

    PubMed Central

    COLLAR, D C; SCHULTE, J A; O’MEARA, B C; LOSOS, J B

    2010-01-01

    Habitat use may lead to variation in diversity among evolutionary lineages because habitats differ in the variety of ways they allow for species to make a living. Here, we show that structural habitats contribute to differential diversification of limb and body form in dragon lizards (Agamidae). Based on phylogenetic analysis and ancestral state reconstructions for 90 species, we find that multiple lineages have independently adopted each of four habitat use types: rock-dwelling, terrestriality, semi-arboreality and arboreality. Given these reconstructions, we fit models of evolution to species’ morphological trait values and find that rock-dwelling and arboreality limit diversification relative to terrestriality and semi-arboreality. Models preferred by Akaike information criterion infer slower rates of size and shape evolution in lineages inferred to occupy rocks and trees, and model-averaged rate estimates are slowest for these habitat types. These results suggest that ground-dwelling facilitates ecomorphological differentiation and that use of trees or rocks impedes diversification. PMID:20345808

  14. A Face in the Crowd: A Non-Invasive and Cost Effective Photo-Identification Methodology to Understand the Fine Scale Movement of Eastern Water Dragons

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Riana Zanarivero; Doran, Erik; Strickland, Kasha; Carpenter-Bundhoo, Luke; Frère, Celine

    2014-01-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii) have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females’ home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles. PMID:24835073

  15. A face in the crowd: a non-invasive and cost effective photo-identification methodology to understand the fine scale movement of eastern water dragons.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Riana Zanarivero; Doran, Erik; Strickland, Kasha; Carpenter-Bundhoo, Luke; Frère, Celine

    2014-01-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii) have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females' home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles.

  16. Developing CALL for Heritage Languages: "The 7 Keys of the Dragon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revithiadou, Anthi; Kourtis-Kazoullis, Vasilia; Soukalopoulou, Maria; Konstantoudakis, Konstantinos; Zarras, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present an interactive extensible software, "The 7 Keys of the Dragon," for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students that attend primary and secondary education in Greece with the respective languages as their heritage languages. We address the key challenges we encountered during the conceptualization…

  17. Beam suppression of the DRAGON recoil separator for 3He(α,γ)7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hass, M.; Howell, D.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Triambak, S.

    2013-02-01

    Preliminary studies in preparation for an absolute cross-section measurement of the radiative capture reaction 3He(α,γ)7Be with the DRAGON recoil separator have demonstrated beam suppression >1014 at the 90% confidence level. A measurement of this cross section by observation of 7Be recoils at the focal plane of the separator should be virtually background free.

  18. Commissioning of a new timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Gregory; Akers, Charlie; Connolly, Devin; Fallis, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Dave; Olchanski, Konstantin; Ruiz, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product (γ ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a 20 MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. In this talk, I will discuss the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, focusing specifically on the trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm and live time considerations. I will also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the Ecm = 1113 keV resonance in the 20Ne(p , γ) 21Na radiative proton capture reaction.

  19. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  20. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper…

  1. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  2. Astronomical Orientations Of Dragon Houses (Laka Palli, Kapsala, Oche) And Armena Gate (Euboea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, I.; Artelaris, G.

    The preliminary investigation of the astronomical orientation of monuments at Styra, southern Euboea, includes the triple so called 'dragon house' complex at Laka Palli, one dragon house at Kapsala and one on the summit of Mount Oche, and a monumental gate in the megalithic fortification wall at Armena. Recent luminescence testing dates these remains to approximately the Classical period with apparent re-use in Roman and later times. Thus far no definite astronomical orientation has been determined in the layout of the structures and no celestial stone markers or similar features have been found associated with the dragon houses, however, the relationship of significant stars, constellations and solar stands was well known in antiquity, and the limited results presented here suggests the possibility for further investigation. This study, which considered possible orientations related to sun rise and sun set for the summer and winter solstice, as well as, alignments towards equinoxes and major bright stars and constellations, did observe a general preference for a southern orientation at most of the sites and a possible feature for time observations in the dragon house complex at Laka Palli.

  3. Panda-Huggers and Dragon-Slayers: How to View Modern China Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Panda-hugger and dragon-slayer are phrases used to describe two different kinds of China-watchers, and increasingly, two different types of people in the general public. A panda-hugger is someone who says that almost everything going on in China is good, that China's progress is a great thing for the world, and that any problems are peripheral. A…

  4. The "7 Keys of the Dragon": An E-Learning Gamelike Environment for Albanian and Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revithiadou, Anthi; Kourtis-Kazoullis, Vasilia; Soukalopoulou, Maria; Konstantoudakis, Konstantinos; Zarras, Christos; Pelesoglou, Nestoras

    2014-01-01

    In this article we report on the development of an interactive open source extensible software, dubbed "The 7 Keys of the Dragon," for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students (9-12 years old) with the respective languages as their heritage languages. Based on the assumption that games in language learning are associated…

  5. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, C; Christensen, A; Nielsen, J K; Christensen, H

    2013-11-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator between 2009 and 2011 were included. Upon admission all patients underwent physical and neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale along with non-contrast CT scans and CT angiography. Patients were followed up through the Outpatient Clinic and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.96; p<0.001) and good outcome (mRS 0-2) (AUC-ROC: 0.79; 95% CI 0.73-0.85; p<0.001). When only patients with M1 occlusions were selected the DRAGON scale provided good discriminative capability (AUC-ROC: 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0; p=0.003) for highly unfavourable outcome. We confirmed the validity of the DRAGON scale in predicting outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of a periocular myxosarcoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Gardhouse, Sara; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Foster, Robert A.; Ingrao, Joelle C.; Poirier, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year-old male Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) was presented with a 2-month history of a periocular mass. The clinical evaluation included a physical examination, hematology, biochemistry, and radiographs. The mass was treated surgically and diagnosed as myxosarcoma. Strontium-90 plesiotherapy was attempted, but the mass recurred 5 mo later. PMID:24982518

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of a periocular myxosarcoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gardhouse, Sara; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Foster, Robert A; Ingrao, Joelle C; Poirier, Valerie J

    2014-07-01

    A 5-year-old male Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) was presented with a 2-month history of a periocular mass. The clinical evaluation included a physical examination, hematology, biochemistry, and radiographs. The mass was treated surgically and diagnosed as myxosarcoma. Strontium-90 plesiotherapy was attempted, but the mass recurred 5 mo later.

  8. 77 FR 55436 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... which participants paddle Hong Kong ] style Dragon Boats from International Park to Owens Corning on the...; 083 31'50.54'' W straight across the river to the shore adjacent to the Owens Corning building at... 38'46.62'' N; 083 31'50.54'' W straight across the river to the shore adjacent to the Owens...

  9. Postharvest quality of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) after x-ray irradiation quarantine treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of three dragon fruit clones (Hylocereus sp.) was determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. Fruit were treated with irradiation doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 Gy and stored for 12 days at 10 °C. Irradiation did not affect soluble solids content, ti...

  10. Severe scuticociliate (Philasterides dicentrarchi) infection in a population of sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    PubMed

    Rossteuscher, S; Wenker, C; Jermann, T; Wahli, T; Oldenberg, E; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2008-07-01

    Scuticociliatosis is a disease of fish induced by ciliated parasites of the genus Scuticociliatida. It has been described in sea horses (Hippocampus sp.), flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus), and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus). Here we present a case study of a population of sea dragons chronically infected with scuticociliates identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi by histopathology and PCR. Beginning in 2004, over a period of 19 months, 10 sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) were found dead in an aquarium of the Zoological Garden Basle, Switzerland. Clinically, the animals showed only faint symptoms of disease over a short period of time. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were confined to the skin with multiple, often hemorrhagic, ulcerations. Histologically, epidermal ulcers were associated with necrosis and inflammation of the underlying dermis and musculature. Numerous ciliates, with a morphology consistent with scuticociliates, were present in these lesions. In several animals these ciliates had invaded blood vessels and were detected in gills and internal organs including kidney, thyroid gland, and central nervous system (CNS). In these organs, mild degenerative lesions and inflammatory reactions were evident. The ciliates were identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Our report shows that scuticociliate infections of sea dragons can develop into a systemic infection and that both species of sea dragons can be affected.

  11. Voices from Little Asia: "Blue Dragon" Teens Reflect on Their Experiences as Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Melinda F.; Wilhelm, Ron W.; Cowart, Ronald E.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the response of public agencies to the Asian immigrant community in Dallas, Texas, and problems that exist for these immigrants. Relates the story of the creation of the "Blue Dragons" Explorer Post that provides social support and service opportunities for Asian-American teens. Includes suggestions for educators from "Blue…

  12. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-X Dragon Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 7 April and 11 April 2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 ml evacuated canisters from the sealed Dragon Module at the Space-X facility at KSC. Three samples were taken of facility air (two before the test and one after the test), and a total of 9 samples were taken from the sealed module in triplicate at the following times: 0 hours, 48 hours, and 96 hours. The module contained 470 kg, which was 100% of the mass to be launched. Analytical data contained in the Toxicology Group Report (attached) show that the ambient facility air was clean except for almost 9 milligrams per cubic meter of isopropanol (IPA) in the sample taken at the end of the test. Space-X must ensure that IPA is not introduced into the module before it is sealed for launch. Other minor contaminants in the ambient air included the following: perfluoro(2-methyl)pentane and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane. The first-acquired samples of each triplicate from the module were not analyzed. Analyses of pairs of samples that were taken during the test show excellent agreement between the pairs and a linear increase in the T-values during the 4 days of the test (figure below). The rate of increase averaged 0.124 T units per day. If the time from last purge of the module on the ground to crew first entry on orbit is 10 days, then the T value at first entry should be less than 1.2 units, which is well below the criterion of 3.0 for consideration of additional protection of the crew from offgas products. The primary contributors were as follows: trimethylsilanol (0.057), fluorotrimethylsilane (0.047), acetaldehyde (0.004), hexamethylcyclopentasiloxane (0.003), and toluene (0.002).

  13. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  14. The Oral and Skin Microbiomes of Captive Komodo Dragons Are Significantly Shared with Their Habitat.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Song, Se Jin; Kueneman, Jordan G; Ackermann, Gail; Cardona, Cesar; Humphrey, Gregory; Boyer, Don; Weaver, Tom; Mendelson, Joseph R; McKenzie, Valerie J; Gilbert, Jack A; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Examining the way in which animals, including those in captivity, interact with their environment is extremely important for studying ecological processes and developing sophisticated animal husbandry. Here we use the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) to quantify the degree of sharing of salivary, skin, and fecal microbiota with their environment in captivity. Both species richness and microbial community composition of most surfaces in the Komodo dragon's environment are similar to the Komodo dragon's salivary and skin microbiota but less similar to the stool-associated microbiota. We additionally compared host-environment microbiome sharing between captive Komodo dragons and their enclosures, humans and pets and their homes, and wild amphibians and their environments. We observed similar host-environment microbiome sharing patterns among humans and their pets and Komodo dragons, with high levels of human/pet- and Komodo dragon-associated microbes on home and enclosure surfaces. In contrast, only small amounts of amphibian-associated microbes were detected in the animals' environments. We suggest that the degree of sharing between the Komodo dragon microbiota and its enclosure surfaces has important implications for animal health. These animals evolved in the context of constant exposure to a complex environmental microbiota, which likely shaped their physiological development; in captivity, these animals will not receive significant exposure to microbes not already in their enclosure, with unknown consequences for their health. IMPORTANCE Animals, including humans, have evolved in the context of exposure to a variety of microbial organisms present in the environment. Only recently have humans, and some animals, begun to spend a significant amount of time in enclosed artificial environments, rather than in the more natural spaces in which most of evolution took place. The consequences of this radical change in lifestyle likely extend to the microbes residing in

  15. Flavylium chromophores as species markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A

    2008-10-31

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as species markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among species of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered species of dragon's blood and the species being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Measuring the 16O(α, γ)20Ne Reaction Rate with the Dragon Recoil Separator at Triumf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, U.; Greife, U.; Buchmann, L.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Rojas, A.; Ruiz, C.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Erikson, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Vockenhuber, C.; Brown, J. R.; Irvine, D.

    2013-03-01

    The DRAGON recoil separator facility at TRIUMF measures radiative α and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance in inverse kinematics. This is done employing radioactive and stable ion beams produced and accelerated using the ISAC (Isotope Separator and ACcelerator) facility in conjunction with the DRAGON windowless gas target. Over the last few years, the DRAGON collaboration has embarked on a programme to measure a variety of reactions considered vital to the understanding of various astrophysical scenarios. An overview of DRAGON's separation, beam suppression, and detection capabilities will be given. In addition, examples of recent reaction cross section measurements will be discussed, such as the 16O(α, γ)20Ne reaction, which plays an important part in the He and Ne burning in massive stars.

  17. Psychosocial experiences of breast cancer survivors involved in a dragon boat program: exploring links to positive psychological growth.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2007-08-01

    This study explored psychosocial experiences of breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boat programs. Twenty women (M(age) = 58.69, SD = 6.85) were interviewed for 45-60 min about their experiences as members of survivor dragon boat teams. Interviews were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methods. The dragon boat program facilitated social support from women with common challenges and a shared understanding of survivorship. It also provided opportunities to (re)gain a sense of personal control, develop new identities as athletes, and overcome physical challenges. Together these elements contributed to positive psychological growth and linked to the literature on posttraumatic growth. Future physical activity interventions targeting breast cancer survivors may benefit from developing strategies that share key characteristics of dragon boating.

  18. Dragon boat racing and health-related quality of life of breast cancer survivors: a mixed methods evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer survivors who participate in physical activity (PA) are reported to experience improved health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, the quantitative research exploring the relationship between the team-based activity of dragon boat racing and the HRQOL of breast cancer survivors is limited. Given the rising number of breast cancer survivors, and their growing attraction to dragon boating, further exploration of the influence of this activity on HRQOL is warranted. Methods This study is designed to: 1) quantitatively assess whether and how breast cancer survivors’ participation in a season of dragon boat racing is related to HRQOL and 2) qualitatively explore the survivors’ lived experience of dragon boating and how and why this experience is perceived to influence HRQOL. A mixed methods sequential explanatory design was used with the purpose of complementing quantitative findings with qualitative data. Quantitative data measuring HRQOL were collected at baseline and post-season (N = 100); semi-structured qualitative interviews were used to elicit a personal account of the dragon boat experience (N = 15). Results Statistically significant improvements were shown for HRQOL, physical, functional, emotional and spiritual well-being, breast cancer-specific concerns and cancer-related fatigue. A trend towards significance was shown for social/family well-being. Qualitative data elaborated on the quantitative findings, greatly enhancing the understanding of how and why dragon boat racing influences HRQOL. Conclusions The use of a mixed methods design effectively captured the complex yet positive influence of dragon boating on survivor HRQOL. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature supporting the value of dragon boat racing as a viable PA intervention for enhancing survivor HRQOL. PMID:23915045

  19. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2015-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14–65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood. PMID:26870678

  20. Utilisation de sources et d'adjoints dragon pour les calculs TRIPOLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camand, Corentin

    Numerical simulation is an essential part of reactor physics in order to understand the behaviour of neutrons inside and outside nuclear reactors. The objective is to solve the neutron transport equation in order to know the neutron flux and the interactions between neutrons and materials. We use neutronic simulation codes in order to solve this equation for criticallity problem, where we have a neutron multiplying environment, and shielding problems. There are two different types of numerical simulation techniques. Deterministic methods solve directly the transport equation using some approximations. The energy domain is divided in regions called groups, we use a spatial mesh for the geometry treatment, transport operator may also be simplified. Those approximations invole an inherent error. However these methods provide high computation time performances. Monte Carlo or stochastic methods follow explicitly a large number of neutrons as they travel through materials minimizing approximations. Continuous-energy and multigroup treatment are both available. Quantities calculated are random variables to which are associated statistical error called standard deviations. We have to simulate a very large number of neutrons if we want the calculation to converge and the results to be precise enough. As a matter of fact, computation time of these methods can be excessively large and represent their main weakness. The objective of this study is to set up a chaining method from a deterministic code to a Monte Carlo code, in order to improve the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations performed by the code TRIPOLI. We want to use datas calculated by the deterministic code DRAGON and use them in TRIPOLI. We will develop two methods. The first one will calculate source distribution in DRAGON and implement them in TRIPOLI as initial sources of a criticallity calculation. The objective is to accelerate the convergence of the neutrons sources, and save the first batches that are

  1. Physical therapy as an adjunctive treatment for severe osteoarthritis in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tammy Culpepper; Stringer, Elizabeth; Krauss, Sue; Trout, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions. Although outcomes could not be measured by standardized objective measures, this study provides a reference for treatment of future cases and a foundation for future research substantiating treatment practices in animal physical therapy.

  2. DRAGONS-A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Hamilton, J.; Liolios, S.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Burchell, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the sub-millimeter to millimeter size regime in the near Earth space environment. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but still large enough to be a serious threat to human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of DRAGONS is 1 sq m, consisting of four 0.5 m × 0.5 m independent panels, but the dimensions of the panels can easily be modified to accommodate different payload constraints. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine three particle impact detection concepts to maximize information that can be extracted from each detected impact. The first is a resistive grid consisting of 75-micrometer-wide resistive lines, coated in parallel and separated by 75 micrometer gaps on a 25-micrometer thin film. When a particle a few hundred micrometers or larger strikes the grid, it would penetrate the film and sever some resistive lines. The size of the damage area can be estimated from the increased resistance. The second concept is based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) acoustic impact sensors. Multiple PVDF sensors are attached to the thin film to provide the impact timing information. From the different signal arrival times at different acoustic sensors, the impact location can be calculated via triangulation algorithms. The third concept employs a dual-layer film system where a second 25-micrometer film is placed 15 cm behind the resistive-grid film. Multiple PVDF acoustic sensors are also attached to the second film. The combination of impact timing and location information from the two films allows for direct measurements of the impact direction and speed. The DRAGONS technology development has been funded by several NASA organizations since 2002, first

  3. Structure characteristics of a water-soluble polysaccharide purified from dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) pulp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lishan; Zhang, Yaojie; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    Dragon fruit is a tropical fruit with good taste. It can bring health benefits to human body. As one of the major bioactive components in this fruit, the polysaccharides might contribute to the health benefits. However, the precise structure information remains unknown. A leading polysaccharide of dragon fruit pulp, DFPP, was purified and identified by NMR and GC-MS. →4-β-d-GlcpA-1→, →6-β-d-Galp-1→ and →4-α-l-Rhap-1→ constituted the backbone and α-l-Araf-1→5-α-l-Araf-1→ formed the branch chain. The precise structure was putatively identified as below. The molecular weight was 2.2×10(3)kDa. The structure information of polysaccharides will be helpful to understand this fruit.

  4. Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: I. numerical solver and astrophysical ingredients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Vittino, Andrea; Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Mattia; Ligorini, Arianna; Ullio, Piero; Grasso, Dario

    2017-02-01

    We present version 2 of the DRAGON code designed for computing realistic predictions of the CR densities in the Galaxy. The code numerically solves the interstellar CR transport equation (including inhomogeneous and anisotropic diffusion, either in space and momentum, advective transport and energy losses), under realistic conditions. The new version includes an updated numerical solver and several models for the astrophysical ingredients involved in the transport equation. Improvements in the accuracy of the numerical solution are proved against analytical solutions and in reference diffusion scenarios. The novel features implemented in the code allow to simulate the diverse scenarios proposed to reproduce the most recent measurements of local and diffuse CR fluxes, going beyond the limitations of the homogeneous galactic transport paradigm. To this end, several applications using DRAGON2 are presented as well. This new version facilitates the users to include their own physical models by means of a modular C++ structure.

  5. Geographic divergence and colour change in response to visual backgrounds and illumination intensity in bearded dragons.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Viviana; Smith, Kathleen R; Endler, John A; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-03-15

    Animals may improve camouflage by both dynamic colour change and local evolutionary adaptation of colour but we have little understanding of their relative importance in colour-changing species. We tested for differences in colour change in response to background colour and light intensity in two populations of central bearded dragon lizards (Pogona vitticeps) representing the extremes in body coloration and geographical range. We found that bearded dragons change colour in response to various backgrounds and that colour change is affected by illumination intensity. Within-individual colour change was similar in magnitude in the two populations but varied between backgrounds. However, at the endpoints of colour change, each population showed greater similarity to backgrounds that were representative of the local habitat compared with the other population, indicating local adaptation to visual backgrounds. Our results suggest that even in species that change colour, both phenotypic plasticity and geographic divergence of coloration may contribute to improved camouflage.

  6. Development and manufacture of diacetylmorphine/caffeine sachets for inhalation via 'chasing the dragon' by heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Klous, M G; Nuijen, B; van den Brink, W; van Ree, J M; Beijnen, J H

    2004-08-01

    In 1998, two clinical trials were started in The Netherlands to evaluate the effect of coprescription of heroin and methadone on the mental and physical health and social functioning of chronic, treatment-resistant, heroin-dependent patients. Since 75-85% of the heroin addicts in The Netherlands use their heroin by "chasing the dragon," one of the two study arms concerned the coprescription of inhalable heroin. A pharmaceutical dosage form for inhalable heroin was developed for this trial, consisting of a 3:1 powder mixture of diacetylmorphine base and caffeine anhydrate. We describe the manufacturing process that was developed for filling sachets with this mixture in four dosages using a micro dose auger filler. In order to control product quality, in-process controls were developed to monitor the filling process and quality control tests were performed on the finished product. In-process control results have shown the filling process to be accurate and precise. The diacetylmorphine/caffeine sachets were shown to comply with the specifications for content and uniformity of mass. The finished product was found to be stable for 2 years when stored at 25 degrees C, 60% relative humidity and for 6 months when stored at 40 degrees C, 75% relative humidity.

  7. The influence of hypoxia on the thermal sensitivity of skin colouration in the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    de Velasco, Jesus Barraza; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2008-09-01

    One physiological mechanism used by reptiles to remain within thermal optima is their ability to reversibly alter skin colour, imparting changes in overall reflectance, and influencing the rate of heat gain from incident radiation. The ability to lighten or darken their skin is caused by the movement of pigment within the dermal chromatophore cells. Additionally, lizards, as ectotherms, significantly lower their preferred body temperatures when experiencing stressors such as hypoxia. This decrease in preferred temperature has been proposed to be the result of a downward adjustment of the thermal set-point, the temperature around which the body temperature is typically defended. We tested the hypothesis that lightening of the skin in lizards would be modified by hypoxia in a manner consistent with the known reduction in preferred temperatures. Skin colouration values of the dorsal skin of bearded dragons were analysed at three different levels of oxygen (20.8, 9.9 and 4.9 kPa) and at temperatures spanning the preferred temperature range (30, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 C). Hypoxic lizards lightened their skin at lower ambient temperatures more than normoxic ones, and in an oxygen-dependent fashion. The orchestrated adjustment of skin reflectance suggests that this physiological trait is being regulated at a new and lower set-point. Evidence from this study demonstrates that skin colouration plays a role in body temperature regulation and that the reduction in temperature set-point so prevalent in hypoxia is also manifested in this physiological trait.

  8. The Status of Infantry TOW, LAW, and Dragon Training in USAREUR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    and 100% of squad leaders. On any given day, an estimated one-third of personnel were unavailable for train- ing. Some CONUS-trained TOW gunners were...not assigned to TOW squads . LAW On any given day, an estimated 20% were unavailable for training. Dragon No personnel problems were apparent. Gunners...amount of gunner and squad training. Most gunners received intensive training only in preparation for annual live firing. Most TOW squads had no

  9. Foodborne outbreak of Salmonella subspecies IV infections associated with contamination from bearded dragons.

    PubMed

    Lowther, S A; Medus, C; Scheftel, J; Leano, F; Jawahir, S; Smith, K

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1.4 million Salmonella infections and 400 deaths occur annually in the United States. Approximately 6% of human Salmonella cases are thought to be associated with reptiles; Salmonella enterica subspecies IV is primarily reptile-associated. During 1-4 December, 2009, three isolates of Salmonella IV 6,7:z4,z24:- with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were identified through Minnesota Department of Health laboratory-based surveillance. None of the three patients associated with the isolates reported reptile contact; however, all had attended the same potluck dinner. Dinner attendees were asked questions regarding illness history, foods they prepared for and consumed at the event, and pet ownership. Cases were defined as illness in a person who had eaten potluck food and subsequently experienced fever and diarrhoea (three or more loose stools in 24 h) or laboratory-confirmed infection with Salmonella IV matching the outbreak PFGE subtype. Nineteen days after the event, environmental samples were collected from a food preparer's house where two pet bearded dragons were kept. Sixty-six of 73 potluck food consumers were interviewed; 19 cases were identified; 18 persons reported illness but did not meet the case definition. Median incubation period was 19 h (range: 3-26 h). Median duration of illness was 5 days (range: 1-11 days). Consumption of gravy, prepared by the bearded dragons' asymptomatic owner, was associated with illness (16/32 exposed versus 1/12 unexposed; risk ratio: 6.0; exact P = 0.02). Salmonella Labadi was recovered from 10 samples, including from one bearded dragon, the bathroom door knob and sink drain, and the kitchen sink drain. The outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella subspecies IV was isolated from vacuum-cleaner bag contents. This foodborne outbreak probably resulted from environmental contamination from bearded dragons. Reptiles pose a community threat when food for public consumption is prepared in

  10. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to the Amtrak Bridge at position 41°51′20″ N, 087°38′13″ W. (DATUM: NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations....

  11. Atherosclerosis associated with pericardial effusion in a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Lemberger, Karin; Chai, Norin; Bourgeois, Aude; Charpentier, Maud

    2010-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common disease in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and is frequently found when performing postmortem examinations on adult and old dogs, in which it is mainly associated with endocrine diseases, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. However, atherosclerosis is poorly documented in reptiles and consequently poorly understood. In the current case report, atherosclerosis and pericardial effusion were diagnosed in a 2-year-old male central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) based on ultrasound visualization, necropsy, and histologic examination.

  12. DRAGON Grid: A Three-Dimensional Hybrid Grid Generation Code Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2000-01-01

    Because grid generation can consume 70 percent of the total analysis time for a typical three-dimensional viscous flow simulation for a practical engineering device, payoffs from research and development could reduce costs and increase throughputs considerably. In this study, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field developed a new hybrid grid approach with the advantages of flexibility, high-quality grids suitable for an accurate resolution of viscous regions, and a low memory requirement. These advantages will, in turn, reduce analysis time and increase accuracy. They result from an innovative combination of structured and unstructured grids to represent the geometry and the computation domain. The present approach makes use of the respective strengths of both the structured and unstructured grid methods, while minimizing their weaknesses. First, the Chimera grid generates high-quality, mostly orthogonal meshes around individual components. This process is flexible and can be done easily. Normally, these individual grids are required overlap each other so that the solution on one grid can communicate with another. However, when this communication is carried out via a nonconservative interpolation procedure, a spurious solution can result. Current research is aimed at entirely eliminating this undesired interpolation by directly replacing arbitrary grid overlapping with a nonstructured grid called a DRAGON grid, which uses the same set of conservation laws over the entire region, thus ensuring conservation everywhere. The DRAGON grid is shown for a typical film-cooled turbine vane with 33 holes and 3 plenum compartments. There are structured grids around each geometrical entity and unstructured grids connecting them. In fiscal year 1999, Glenn researchers developed and tested the three-dimensional DRAGON grid-generation tools. A flow solver suitable for the DRAGON grid has been developed, and a series of validation tests are underway.

  13. Analysis of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light Detector Anomalies on WFC3/UVIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Julia; Markwardt, Larissa; Bourque, Matthew; Anderson, Jay

    2017-02-01

    We summarize the examination of the light anomalies known as Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light for the UVIS channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We present three methods for WFC3 users to help avoid these effects during observation planning. We analyzed all of the full-frame wide and long pass filters with exposure times ≥ 300 seconds, comprising ∼13% of WFC3/UVIS on-orbit data (∼20% of all full-frame data, and ∼35% of all full-frame ≥300 second exposures.) We find that stars producing Dragon's Breath peak at specific orientations to the detector and V-band magnitudes. The bulk of these stars fall along the vertical and horizontal edges, within ∼490 pixels of the image frame. The corners of the detector show significantly fewer instances of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light, though still a few occurrences. Furthermore, matching stars outside the field of the image to V-band magnitude data from the Hubble Guide Star Catalog II (GSC-II) shows that stars causing the anomaly consistently peak around a V-band magnitude of 11.9 or 14.6, whereas the general trend of objects lying outside the field instead peaks around a magnitude of 16.5 within our exposure time and filter selection.

  14. Endophytic fungi from Dragon's blood specimens: isolation, identification, phylogenetic diversity and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-long; Guo, Shun-xing; Dong, Hailing; Xiao, Peigen

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic fungi from Dragon's blood specimens of different locations of China were characterized taxonomically and investigated concerning their antimicrobial and antitumor activity against six pathogenic microbes and five tumor cells. A total of 49 endophytic fungi were obtained from Dragon's blood materials of Dracaena spp., 18 taxa were represented by 43 (87.8%) isolates and only six (12.2%) isolates were unknown. Twenty (40.8%) of the isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic microorganism. Three isolates YNDC07, BJDC06 and BJDC09 displayed significant antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigates, respectively. The results of antitumor activity by the MTT assay revealed that 26.5%, 69.4%, 48.9%, 6.1% and 42.9% of isolate fermentation broths displayed growth inhibition on HepG2 cells, SKVO3 cells, MCF7 cells, HL-60 cells and 293-T cells, respectively. HNDC09 and HNDC10 showed very strong antitumor activity against MCF7 and 293-T, respectively. The results showed that endophytic fungi in Dragon's blood samples were valuable in screening antitumor and antimicrobial bioactivity agents.

  15. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  16. DRAGON-NG: a configurable and capable AO test-bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharmal, Nazim A.; Bitenc, Urban; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Reeves, Andrew P.; Dunlop, Colin; Rolt, Stephen; Younger, Eddy J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    An astronomical adaptive optics test-bench, designed to replicate the conditions of a 4 m-class telescope, is presented. Named DRAGON-Next Generation, it is constructed primarily from commercial off-the-shelf components with minimal customization (approximately a 90:10 ratio). This permits an optical design which is modular and this leads to a reconfigurability. DRAGON-NG has been designed for operation for the following modes: (high-order) SCAO, (twin-DM) MOAO, and (twin-DM) MCAO. It is capable of open-loop or closed-loop operation, with (3) natural and (3) laser guide-star emulation at loop rates of up to 200Hz. Field angles of up-to 2.4 arcmin (4m pupil emulation) can pass through the system. The design is dioptric and permits long cable runs to a compact real-time control system which is on-sky compatible. Therefore experimental validation can be carried out on DRAGON-NG before transferring to an on-sky system, which is a significant risk mitigation.

  17. The Oral and Skin Microbiomes of Captive Komodo Dragons Are Significantly Shared with Their Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Kueneman, Jordan G.; Ackermann, Gail; Cardona, Cesar; Humphrey, Gregory; Boyer, Don; Weaver, Tom; Mendelson, Joseph R.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Examining the way in which animals, including those in captivity, interact with their environment is extremely important for studying ecological processes and developing sophisticated animal husbandry. Here we use the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) to quantify the degree of sharing of salivary, skin, and fecal microbiota with their environment in captivity. Both species richness and microbial community composition of most surfaces in the Komodo dragon’s environment are similar to the Komodo dragon’s salivary and skin microbiota but less similar to the stool-associated microbiota. We additionally compared host-environment microbiome sharing between captive Komodo dragons and their enclosures, humans and pets and their homes, and wild amphibians and their environments. We observed similar host-environment microbiome sharing patterns among humans and their pets and Komodo dragons, with high levels of human/pet- and Komodo dragon-associated microbes on home and enclosure surfaces. In contrast, only small amounts of amphibian-associated microbes were detected in the animals’ environments. We suggest that the degree of sharing between the Komodo dragon microbiota and its enclosure surfaces has important implications for animal health. These animals evolved in the context of constant exposure to a complex environmental microbiota, which likely shaped their physiological development; in captivity, these animals will not receive significant exposure to microbes not already in their enclosure, with unknown consequences for their health. IMPORTANCE Animals, including humans, have evolved in the context of exposure to a variety of microbial organisms present in the environment. Only recently have humans, and some animals, begun to spend a significant amount of time in enclosed artificial environments, rather than in the more natural spaces in which most of evolution took place. The consequences of this radical change in lifestyle likely extend to the

  18. SOLARPROP: Charge-sign dependent solar modulation for everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappl, Rolf

    2016-10-01

    We present SOLARPROP, a tool to compute the influence of charge-sign dependent solar modulation for cosmic ray spectra. SOLARPROP is able to use the output of popular tools like GALPROP or DRAGON and offers the possibility to embed new models for solar modulation. We present some examples for proton, antiproton and positron fluxes in the light of the recent PAMELA and AMS-02 data.

  19. Becoming Dragon: a mixed reality durational performance in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, Micha; Head, Christopher; Margolis, Todd; Greco, Kael

    2009-02-01

    The goal for Becoming Dragon was to develop a working, immersive Mixed Reality system by using a motion capture system and head mounted display to control a character in Second Life - a Massively Multiplayer Online 3D environment - in order to examine a number of questions regarding identity, gender and the transformative potential of technology. This performance was accomplished through a collaboration between Micha Cardenas, the performer and technical director, Christopher Head, Kael Greco, Benjamin Lotan, Anna Storelli and Elle Mehrmand. The plan for this project was to model the performer's physical environment to enable them to live in the virtual environment for extended amounts of time, using an approach of Mixed Reality, where the physical world is mapped into the virtual. I remain critical of the concept of Mixed Reality, as it presents an idea of realities as totalities and as objective essences independent of interpretation through the symbolic order. Part of my goal with this project is to explore identity as a process of social feedback, in the sense that Donna Haraway describes "becoming with"iii, as well as to explore the concept of Reality Spectrum that Augmentology.com discusses, thinking about states such as AFK (Away From Keyboard) that are in-between virtual and corporeal presence.iv Both of these ideas are ways of overcoming the dualisms of mind/body, real/virtual and self/other that have been a problematic part of thinking about technology for so long. Towards thinking beyond these binaries, Anna Munster offers a concept of enfolding the body and technologyv, building on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the baroque fold. She says "the superfold... opens up for us a twisted topology of code folding back upon itself without determinate start or end points: we now live in a time and space in which body and information are thoroughly imbricated."vi She elaborates on this notion of body and code as becoming with each other saying "the incorporeal

  20. Control of an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exhibit at a zoo in Florida.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Michael J; Simmons, Leigh-Anne; Condie, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    A protocol was developed to control an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation on three Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at a Florida zoo without direct application of acaricides to the lizards. With the Komodo dragons secured within their indoor pens, their outdoor enclosures and the exhibition area were sprayed with a formulation of permethrin prepared specifically for use with reptiles. Once the acaricide had dried, the Komodo dragons were allowed to return to their outdoor enclosures, whereupon the indoor pens were closed and sprayed with the same formulation. After this initial treatment, the outdoor and indoor areas were retreated every 2 wk and 8-10 wk, respectively, for 6 mo. The initial on-host and off-host tick count of 301 ticks fell to 0 ticks after 6 mo. No adverse effects of the acaricide treatment were observed on the lizards during daily monitoring.

  1. Melt extraction and mantle source at a Southwest Indian Ridge Dragon Bone amagmatic segment on the Marion Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changgui; Dick, Henry J. B.; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2016-03-01

    This paper works on the trace and major element compositions of spatially associated basalts and peridotites from the Dragon Bone amagmatic ridge segment at the eastern flank of the Marion Platform on the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The rare earth element compositions of basalts do not match the pre-alteration Dragon Bone peridotite compositions, but can be modeled by about 5 to 10% non-modal batch equilibrium melting from a DMM source. The Dragon Bone peridotites are clinopyroxene-poor harzburgite with average spinel Cr# 27.7. The spinel Cr# indicates a moderate degree of melting. However, CaO and Al2O3 of the peridotites are lower than other abyssal peridotites at the same Mg# and extent of melting. This requires a pyroxene-poor initial mantle source composition compared to either hypothetical primitive upper mantle or depleted MORB mantle sources. We suggest a hydrous melting of the initial Dragon Bone mantle source, as wet melting depletes pyroxene faster than dry. According to the rare earth element patterns, the Dragon Bone peridotites are divided into two groups. Heavy REE in Group 1 are extremely fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by 7% fractional melting in the garnet stability field and another 12.5 to 13.5% in the spinel stability field from depleted and primitive upper mantle sources, respectively. Heavy REE in Group 2 are slightly fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by 15 to 20% fractional melting in the spinel stability field from a depleted mantle source. Both groups show similar melting degree to other abyssal peridotites. If all the melt extraction occurred at the middle oceanic ridge where the peridotites were dredged, a normal 6 km thick oceanic crust is expected at the Dragon Bone segment. However, the Dragon Bone peridotites are exposed in an amagmatic ridge segment where only scattered pillow basalts lie on a partially serpentinized mantle pavement. Thus their depletion requires an earlier melting

  2. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative. PMID:21329518

  3. Autovaccination Confers Protection against Devriesea agamarum Associated Septicemia but Not Dermatitis in Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Deforce, Dieter; Blooi, Mark; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bullaert, Evelien; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections. PMID:25479609

  4. Autovaccination confers protection against Devriesea agamarum associated septicemia but not dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Blooi, Mark; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bullaert, Evelien; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections.

  5. Radiative capture reactions with heavy beams: extending the capabilities of DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Anna; Fallis, Jennifer; Spyrou, Artemis; Laird, Alison M.; Ruiz, Chris; Buchmann, Lothar; Fulton, Brian R.; Hutcheon, Dave; Martin, Lars; Ottewell, Dave; Rojas, Alex

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the nucleosynthesis of stable proton-rich nuclei requires knowledge of the cross sections for both proton and alpha capture reactions. As some of the nucleosynthesis paths responsible for the production of these nuclei involve reactions on unstable isotopes, it is of particular importance to develop techniques to investigate these reactions. This requires radioactive beams and measurements in inverse kinematics, thus making recoil separators an ideal tool for direct measurements of proton and alpha capture reactions. Here, the application of the DRAGON recoil separator for measurements of capture reactions for heavy beams is presented. The performance of the separator was tested using the 58Ni(p,γ)59Cu reaction.

  6. The origins of dragon-kings and their occurrence in society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Artemy; Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey

    2012-11-01

    A society is a medium with a complex structure of one-to-one relations between people. Those could be relations between friends, wife-husband relationships, relations between business partners, and so on. At a certain level of analysis, a society can be regarded as a gigantic maze constituted of one-to-one relationships between people. From a physical standpoint it can be considered as a highly porous medium. Such media are widely known for their outstanding properties and effects like self-organized criticality, percolation, power-law distribution of network cluster sizes, etc. In these media supercritical events, referred to as dragon-kings, may occur in two cases: when increasing stress is applied to a system (self-organized criticality scenario) or when increasing conductivity of a system is observed (percolation scenario). In social applications the first scenario is typical for negative effects: crises, wars, revolutions, financial breakdowns, state collapses, etc. The second scenario is more typical for positive effects like emergence of cities, growth of firms, population blow-ups, economic miracles, technology diffusion, social network formation, etc. If both conditions (increasing stress and increasing conductivity) are observed together, then absolutely miraculous dragon-king effects can occur that involve most human society. Historical examples of this effect are the emergence of the Mongol Empire, world religions, World War II, and the explosive proliferation of global internet services. This article describes these two scenarios in detail beginning with an overview of historical dragon-king events and phenomena starting from the early human history till the last decades and concluding with an analysis of their possible near future consequences on our global society. Thus we demonstrate that in social systems dragon-king is not a random outlier unexplainable by power-law statistics, but a natural effect. It is a very large cluster in a porous

  7. Mid-Term Results of Terrain Measurements in the Dragon-3 Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Li, Deren

    2014-11-01

    In the project 10569 under the theme “Terrain Measurement” within the ESA-MOST Dragon-3 program, our research focused on topographic mapping and deformation measurements with SAR data acquired by ESA missions as well as third party missions. SAR data was used to map topography in mountainous area using interferometry and stereoscopy. Deformations due to slow landslide movements and urban ground subsidence were measured by PSI and offset tracking techniques. In this paper an overview of the studies undertaken is given and the achievements are summarized.

  8. Mid-Term Results of Terrain Measurements in the Dragon-3 Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Li, Deren

    2014-11-01

    In the project 10569 under the theme “Terrain Measurement" within the ESA-MOST Dragon-3 program, our research focused on topographic mapping and deformation measurements with SAR data acquired by ESA missions as well as third party missions. SAR data was used to map topography in mountainous area using interferometry and stereoscopy. Deformations due to slow landslide movements and urban ground subsidence were measured by PSI and offset tracking techniques. In this paper an overview of the studies undertaken is given and the achievements are summarized.

  9. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  10. Of Magic Carpets, Rolling Snowballs, and Sleeping Dragons: an Energetics-based Classification for Hillslope/channel Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G.; Cashman, K.; O'Connor, J.

    2007-12-01

    Interactions between hillslopes and channels can include a diverse range of geophysical processes, including debris flows, landslides, water floods, and volcanic flows. Each has its own characteristic time-energy trajectory. In some cases the energy of an event increases as it propagates through a landscape, primarily through the addition of mass and momentum; examples of these"rolling snowball" include the initiation and runout phases of volcanic lahars, avalanches, and debris flows. In other cases, loss of both mass and momentum from a moving body or fluid causes the energy of an event to dissipate with distance, similar to the unwinding of a rug; examples of these "magic carpets" include the depositional phases of lahars, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and debris flows. Both snowballs and carpets leave distinctive imprints or tracks on the landscape that reflect the resultant mass flux from hill slope to channel. The efficiency of this mass transfer depends on the width and slope of the receiving channel and the rheological properties of the transported material. At one extreme, the channel easily accommodates mass flux from the slope, sometimes accompanied by fractionation into constituent phases. At the other extreme, mass from the hill slope can inundate and block the channel; these "sleeping dragons" modulate subsequent mass transfer down channel by changing the channel profile and bed properties. They also have the potential to "wake up" suddenly as mass failure and/or outbreak floods. Hazard prediction requires that the time-energy trajectory of each type of event be assessed; here we suggest some first order controls.

  11. Design and commissioning of a timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, G.; Akers, C.; Connolly, D.; Fallis, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Olchanski, K.; Ruiz, C.

    2014-04-01

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product ( γ-ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON, which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a 20 MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. Here we report on the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, including the hardware, trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm, and live time considerations. We also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the E c.m. = 1113 keV resonance in the 20 Ne( p, γ)21 Na radiative proton capture reaction.

  12. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  13. Genotype differentiation of Agamid Adenovirus 1 in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) in the USA by hexon gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Derek B; Archer, Linda L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2009-07-01

    Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are popular pets in the United States. Agamid Adenovirus 1 (AgAdV1) is an important infectious agent of bearded dragons. The only AgAdV1 sequences available to date are from a highly conserved region of the DNA polymerase gene. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify a variable region of the AgAdV1 hexon gene for sequencing. Genetic differences were identified within the hexon gene of 17 bearded dragons from 4 collections. Much less diversity was present in the polymerase gene. Bayesian analysis of the hexon nucleotide alignment identified two larger groups and two isolates that did not tightly cluster with these two groups. Multiple genotypes were identified within collections, and individual genotypes were seen in different collections. Three bearded dragons appeared to be infected by multiple strains. These findings show that this hexon region is useful for AgAdV1 genotyping, which can be used epidemiologically as well as in future investigations of AgAdV1 evolution and clinical implications of strain differences.

  14. 'Wishing for Dragon Children': Ironies and Contradictions in China's Education Reform and the Chinese Diaspora's Disappointments with Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jianguo; Singh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the re-traditionalisation of 'wishing for dragon children' creates difficulties for China's current education reforms and informs the disquiet expressed by Chinese-Australians about Australian education. We develop this argument around three key propositions. First, we explore Confucianism and the civil service examination…

  15. The Dragon in School Backyards: The Influence of Mandated Testing on School Contexts and Educators' Narrative Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2004-01-01

    Researched in the narrative inquiry tradition, this article examines the influence of state-mandated accountability testing on Eagle High School's dramatically shifting context and the embodied knowledge held and expressed by principal, Henry Richards, and the Eagle teachers. Through carefully unpacking Richards's dragon in school backyards…

  16. The ZW sex microchromosomes of an Australian dragon lizard share no homology with those of other reptiles or birds.

    PubMed

    Ezaz, Tariq; Moritz, Benjamin; Waters, Paul; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Georges, Arthur; Sarre, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Reptiles show a diverse array of sex chromosomal systems but, remarkably, the Z sex chromosomes of chicken are homologous to the ZW sex chromosomes of a species of gecko, Gekko hokouensis, suggesting an ancient but common origin. This is in contrast to the ZW sex chromosomes of snakes and a species of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, which are nonhomologous to those of chicken or each other and appear to have been independently derived. In this paper, we determine what homology, if any, the sex chromosomes of the Australian dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps shares with those of snake and chicken by mapping the dragon homologs of five snake Z chromosome genes (WAC, KLF6, TAX1BP1, RAB5A, and CTNNB1) and five chicken Z chromosome genes (ATP5A1, GHR, DMRT1, CHD1, and APTX) to chromosomes in the dragon. The dragon homologs of snake and chicken sex chromosome genes map to chromosomes 6 and chromosome 2, respectively, in the dragon and that DMRT1, the bird sex-determining gene, is not located on the sex chromosomes of P. vitticeps. Indeed, our data show that the dragon homolog to the chicken Z chromosome is likely to be wholly contained within chromosome 2 in P. vitticeps, which suggests that the sex-determining factor in P. vitticeps is not the sex-determining gene of chicken. Homology between chicken Z chromosome and G. hokouensis ZW chromosome pairs has been interpreted as retention of ancient ZW sex chromosomes in which case the nonhomologous sex chromosomes of snake and dragons would be independently derived. Our data add another case of independently derived sex chromosomes in a squamate reptile, which makes retention of ancient sex chromosome homology in the squamates less plausible. Alternatively, the conservation between the bird Z chromosome and the G. hokouensis ZW chromosomes pairs is coincidental, may be an example of convergent evolution, its status as the Z chromosome having been independently derived in birds and G. hokouensis.

  17. Behavior of Salmonella spp. and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hui Li; Hong, Yoon-Ki; Yoon, Won Byong; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine survival or growth of unadapted, acid-adapted and cold-stressed Salmonella spp., and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures. Dragon fruits were sliced and spot inoculated with five-strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. at two inoculum levels (2.5 or 5.5 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruits were stored at 28°C for 48h and at 4°C and 12°C for 96 h. Salmonella population significantly increased by 2.4 to 3.0 log CFU/g at low inoculum level, whereas the numbers increased by 0.4 to 0.7 log CFU/g at the high inoculum level on fruits held at 28°C for 48h. Only unadapted and acid-adapted cells grew with 0.7 to 0.9log increase at the low inoculum level at 12°C for 96h. No significant growth was observed at both inoculum levels during storage at 4°C. Overall, acid, starved and cold adaptation of Salmonella spp. did not show significant difference in survival or growth on fresh-cut dragon fruits during storage compared to unadapted control cells. For natural microbiota on the fruit, mesophilic bacterial counts reached to 5-log CFU/g at 28 and 12°C by 9.9 and 52.9h. Similar with Salmonella spp. there was no growth of natural microbiota at 4°C. These results showed that Salmonella spp. could grow on fresh-cut dragon fruits under inappropriate storage conditions, indicating that fresh-cut dragon fruits could be a potential vehicle for salmonellosis. Thus, this study suggests that fresh-cut dragon fruits should be stored at 4°C to ensure the safety as well as to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut dragon fruits.

  18. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  19. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  20. Deathly drool: evolutionary and ecological basis of septic bacteria in Komodo dragon mouths.

    PubMed

    Bull, J J; Jessop, Tim S; Whiteley, Marvin

    2010-06-21

    Komodo dragons, the world's largest lizard, dispatch their large ungulate prey by biting and tearing flesh. If a prey escapes, oral bacteria inoculated into the wound reputedly induce a sepsis that augments later prey capture by the same or other lizards. However, the ecological and evolutionary basis of sepsis in Komodo prey acquisition is controversial. Two models have been proposed. The "bacteria as venom" model postulates that the oral flora directly benefits the lizard in prey capture irrespective of any benefit to the bacteria. The "passive acquisition" model is that the oral flora of lizards reflects the bacteria found in carrion and sick prey, with no relevance to the ability to induce sepsis in subsequent prey. A third model is proposed and analyzed here, the "lizard-lizard epidemic" model. In this model, bacteria are spread indirectly from one lizard mouth to another. Prey escaping an initial attack act as vectors in infecting new lizards. This model requires specific life history characteristics and ways to refute the model based on these characteristics are proposed and tested. Dragon life histories (some details of which are reported here) prove remarkably consistent with the model, especially that multiple, unrelated lizards feed communally on large carcasses and that escaping, wounded prey are ultimately fed on by other lizards. The identities and evolutionary histories of bacteria in the oral flora may yield the most useful additional insights for further testing the epidemic model and can now be obtained with new technologies.

  1. Deathly Drool: Evolutionary and Ecological Basis of Septic Bacteria in Komodo Dragon Mouths

    PubMed Central

    Bull, J. J.; Jessop, Tim S.; Whiteley, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Komodo dragons, the world's largest lizard, dispatch their large ungulate prey by biting and tearing flesh. If a prey escapes, oral bacteria inoculated into the wound reputedly induce a sepsis that augments later prey capture by the same or other lizards. However, the ecological and evolutionary basis of sepsis in Komodo prey acquisition is controversial. Two models have been proposed. The “bacteria as venom” model postulates that the oral flora directly benefits the lizard in prey capture irrespective of any benefit to the bacteria. The “passive acquisition” model is that the oral flora of lizards reflects the bacteria found in carrion and sick prey, with no relevance to the ability to induce sepsis in subsequent prey. A third model is proposed and analyzed here, the “lizard-lizard epidemic” model. In this model, bacteria are spread indirectly from one lizard mouth to another. Prey escaping an initial attack act as vectors in infecting new lizards. This model requires specific life history characteristics and ways to refute the model based on these characteristics are proposed and tested. Dragon life histories (some details of which are reported here) prove remarkably consistent with the model, especially that multiple, unrelated lizards feed communally on large carcasses and that escaping, wounded prey are ultimately fed on by other lizards. The identities and evolutionary histories of bacteria in the oral flora may yield the most useful additional insights for further testing the epidemic model and can now be obtained with new technologies. PMID:20574514

  2. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted.

  3. Structure and function of visual displays produced by male jacky dragons, Amphibolurus muricatud, during social interactions.

    PubMed

    Watt, Michael J; Joss, Jean M P

    2003-01-01

    Many lizards produce visual displays to mediate social behavior. However, most studies have focused upon displays used by iguanid lizards. We investigated and quantified the displays used by jacky dragons, an agamid lizard from southeastern Australia. By establishing male jacky dragons within individual territories and conducting experimental presentations of male and female intruders, we were able to demonstrate that territorial male Amphibolurus muricatus utilize a fixed action pattern display comprising discrete motor components to indicate territoriality and aggression. Displays directed to intruders contain an extra introductory component and modifying postural elements, whereas non-directed displays given in the absence of intruders lack these features and appear to be used to advertise territory ownership. Although the sequence of display components remained the same across non-directed, male-directed and female-directed displays, resident males differed in pushup duration and the number of pushups per display in relation to individual body size. This display variance might function to provide an honest signal revealing the body size or the physical condition of each individual, permitting opponents to assess each other effectively through their displays. Visual signals produced by intruding lizards were qualitatively distinct from the displays given by residents, and appear to indicate submission. However, male and female intruders differed in the frequency with which each type of submissive gesture was performed, implying that this might convey intruder sex.

  4. DDGui, a new and fast way to analyse DRAGON and DONJON code results

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, R.; Marleau, G.

    2012-07-01

    With the largely increased performance of computer, the results from DRAGON and DONJON have increase in size and complexity. The scroll, copy and paste technique to get the result is not appropriate anymore. Many in-house script, software, macro have been developed to make the data gathering easier. However, the limit of these solutions is their specificity and the difficulty to export them from one place to another. A general tool usable and accessible by everyone was needed. The first bricks for a very fast and intuitive way to analyse the DRAGON and DONJON results have been put together in the graphic user interface DDGUI. Based on the extensive ROOT C++ package, the possible features are numerous. For this first version of the software, we have programmed the fundamental tools which may be the more useful on an everyday basis: view the data structures content, draw the geometry and draw the flux or power from a DONJON computation. The tests show how amazingly fast the user can get the information needed for a general overview or more precise analyses. Several other features will be implemented in the near feature. (authors)

  5. A description of Isospora amphiboluri (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the inland bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Sauria: Agamidae).

    PubMed

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W

    1995-04-01

    Fecal samples from 50 captive inland bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps (Ahl, 1926), bred in California, were examined for coccidian parasites. Sixteen (32%) of the lizards were found to be passing oocysts of Isospora amphiboluri Cannon, 1967, previously described from bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829) from Australia. Sporulated oocytes were spherical to subspherical, 25.3 x 25.1 (23-26 x 23-26) microns, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.0 (1.0-1.1). A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocyts were ovoidal, 17.0 x 11.4 (16-18 x 11-12) microns, with a shape index of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). A sporocyst residuum, Stieda, and substieda bodies were present, but parastieda bodies were absent. Sporozoites were elongated, 13.9 x 3.5 (12-15 x 3-4) microns in situ, containing spherical anterior and posterior refractile bodies. The occurrence of I. amphiboluri in P. vitticeps is a new host and geographic record for the parasite. Photomicrographs of the oocysts and endogenous life cycle stages of I. amphiboluri are presented for the first time.

  6. Neoplasia of captive yellow sea horses (Hippocampus kuda) and weedy sea dragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    PubMed

    LePage, Véronique; Dutton, Christopher J; Kummrow, Maya; McLelland, David J; Young, Karrie; Lumsden, John S

    2012-03-01

    Syngnathidae is the family of fish that includes sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons. To date, only a single publication has described neoplasia in syngnathids, a fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined sea horse (Hippocampus erectus). From 1998 until 2010, the Toronto Zoo submitted 172 syngnathids for postmortem; species included the spotted or yellow sea horse (Hippocampus kuda), the pot-bellied sea horse (Hippocampus abdominalis) and the weedy sea dragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Seven neoplasms and two neoplastic-like lesions were identified from these cases. Under light microscopy, the neoplasms had morphological characteristics of a cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma, renal adenocarcinoma, renal adenoma, renal round cell tumors, which were likely lymphomas, exocrine pancreatic carcinoma, and intestinal carcinoma. Of these neoplasms, four had clear evidence of metastasis: the pancreatic and intestinal carcinomas and both round cell tumors. As syngnathids are highly fastidious animals, they can be difficult to maintain in captivity. In order to improve their husbandry, preventative and palliative care, as well as treatment, it is important to investigate and document the types of diseases affecting syngnathids.

  7. Here There Be Dragons: Characterization of ACS/WFC Scattered Light Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porterfield, Blair; Coe, Dan A.; ACS

    2016-01-01

    We present a study characterizing scattered light anomalies that occur around the edge of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC). The study is based on all full-frame WFC raw images ever produced by ACS. Using the 2MASS catalog, we identified stars outside of the ACS/WFC field of view which cause two particular scattered light artifacts known as "dragon's breath" and edge glow. We determined which regions around the chip the stars must fall in to cause dragons breath to occur and characterized the amount of stellar flux received during an integration (expressed in instrumental magnitudes) needed to cause scattering. We have completed this study for the ACS F606W and F814W filters. We provide a map of risky areas around the ACS chips and an upper limit of magnitudes to be concerned about. We will use these results to develop interactive tools that will aid the astronomical community in the proposal process for ACS/WFC.

  8. Regional and local variations in atmospheric aerosols using ground-based sun photometry during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Nakata, Makiko; Holben, Brent N.

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol mass concentrations are affected by local emissions as well as long-range transboundary (LRT) aerosols. This work investigates regional and local variations of aerosols based on Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON). We constructed DRAGON-Japan and DRAGON-Osaka in spring of 2012. The former network covers almost all of Japan in order to obtain aerosol information in regional scale over Japanese islands. It was determined from the DRAGON-Japan campaign that the values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) decrease from west to east during an aerosol episode. In fact, the highest AOT was recorded at Fukue Island at the western end of the network, and the value was much higher than that of urban areas. The latter network (DRAGON-Osaka) was set as a dense instrument network in the megalopolis of Osaka, with a population of 12 million, to better understand local aerosol dynamics in urban areas. AOT was further measured with a mobile sun photometer attached to a car. This transect information showed that aerosol concentrations rapidly changed in time and space together when most of the Osaka area was covered with moderate LRT aerosols. The combined use of the dense instrument network (DRAGON-Osaka) and high-frequency measurements provides the motion of aerosol advection, which coincides with the wind vector around the layer between 700 and 850 hPa as provided by the reanalysis data of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  9. Deterministic Modeling of the High Temperature Test Reactor with DRAGON-HEXPEDITE

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; R.M. Ferrer; J.J. Cogliati; J.D. Bess; A.M. Ougouag

    2010-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with the development of reactor physics analysis capability of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) project. In order to examine the INL’s current prismatic reactor analysis tools, the project is conducting a benchmark exercise based on modeling the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR). This exercise entails the development of a model for the initial criticality, a 19 fuel column thin annular core, and the fully loaded core critical condition with 30 fuel columns. Special emphasis is devoted to physical phenomena and artifacts in HTTR that are similar to phenomena and artifacts in the NGNP base design. The DRAGON code is used in this study since it offers significant ease and versatility in modeling prismatic designs. DRAGON can generate transport solutions via Collision Probability (CP), Method of Characteristics (MOC) and Discrete Ordinates (Sn). A fine group cross-section library based on the SHEM 281 energy structure is used in the DRAGON calculations. The results from this study show reasonable agreement in the calculation of the core multiplication factor with the MC methods, but a consistent bias of 2–3% with the experimental values is obtained. This systematic error has also been observed in other HTTR benchmark efforts and is well documented in the literature. The ENDF/B VII graphite and U235 cross sections appear to be the main source of the error. The isothermal temperature coefficients calculated with the fully loaded core configuration agree well with other benchmark participants but are 40% higher than the experimental values. This discrepancy with the measurement partially stems from the fact that during the experiments the control rods were adjusted to maintain criticality, whereas in the model, the rod positions were fixed. In addition, this work includes a brief study of a cross section generation approach that seeks to decouple the domain in order to account for neighbor effects. This spectral

  10. Taxonomic examination of longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, "dragon bone") and a related crude drug, longchi (Dens Draconis, "dragon tooth"), from Japanese and Chinese crude drug markets.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazuki; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2017-02-20

    Longgu ("dragon bone," Ryu-kotsu, Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, or Os Draconis) is the only fossil crude drug listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All longgu in the current Japanese market is imported from China, where its resources are being depleted. Therefore, effective countermeasures are urgently needed to prevent resource depletion. One possible solution is the development of a substitute made from bones of contemporary animals that are closely related to the original animal source of the current longgu. However, no research has been conducted on the original animal source of longgu, except for a report on the longgu specimens present in the Shosoin Repository. Taxonomic examination was performed on the fossil specimens related to longgu which are owned by the Museum of Osaka University, Japan. In total, 20,939 fossil fragments were examined, of which 20,886 were mammalian fossils, and 246 of these fossils were classified into nine families. The longgu specimens from the Japanese market belonged to a relatively smaller variety of taxa than those from the Chinese market. Despite the variety of taxa in longgu, medical doctors using Kampo preparations with longgu have not reported any problems due to the presence of impurities in the original animal source. These results suggest that the effect of longgu is independent of its origin as long as it is closely related to the origin of the current longgu. Thus, despite the considerable effects of fossilization, our results could help in developing an optimal substitute for longgu.

  11. Study and orientation of the Mt. Oche `Dragon House' in Euboea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Katsiotis, M.; Papanikolaou, D.

    2009-07-01

    In southern Euboea, Central Greece, there are several megalithic buildings known as ‘drakospita’ (or dragon houses) whose builders and purpose are unknown. On 22 March 2002 and 4 July 2004 we visited the bestpreserved of all drakospita on top of Mt. Oche, measured its dimensions and calculated its orientation based on the azimuth of sunset and moonrise. A Sirius-rise orientation corresponding to ca 1100 B.C., not inconsistent with previous archaeological dating based on artefacts found inside the structure, indicates a religious/astronomical purpose for the building. It could probably be argued that at least the famous drakospito at Mt. Oche was not only a place of worship but also an ancient astronomical observatory.

  12. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.

  13. A gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing somatostatin in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jeremiah A; Newman, Shelley J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Dunlap, John

    2010-03-01

    A metastatic gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 2.5-year-old inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) with a chronic history of anorexia, weight loss, depression, and acute melena is described. Histologic examination of the gastric mass revealed a densely cellular tumor arranged in nests and occasional rosettes of hyperchromatic cells with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei and minimal cytoplasm; the tumor was supported by a moderate fibrovascular stroma. Similar cells invaded through the gastric mucosa, and there were multiple hepatic metastases. The neoplastic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuron-specific enolase and moderately positive for somatostatin but were negative for chromogranin AB and gastrin. Ultrastructural studies revealed scattered neurosecretory granules in the neoplastic cells, confirming the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.

  14. [Myocardiosis in a 6-month-old Lawson's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii)].

    PubMed

    Günther, P; Wohlsein, P; Junginger, J; Dziallas, P; Fehr, M; Mathes, K

    2013-01-01

    In a 6-month-old, chronically inappetent Lawsons's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii) with stunted growth a hyperdense cardiac region was found using radiology and computed tomography. At necropsy a profound necrosis of the myocardium with dystrophic calcification was diagnosed. In contrast to the frequently seen metastatic mineralisation of soft tissues, mainly due to poor husbandry, primary tissue destruction is the cause for dystrophic calcification. In reptiles, this is a rarely described form of calcification. Possible causes are infectious processes, nutritional or metabolic insufficiencies, intoxications or genetic components. In the presented case the aetiology could not be determined. In conclusion, dystrophic calcifications should be considered as a differential diagnosis in reptiles with soft tissue mineralisation.

  15. Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2014-09-01

    Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

  16. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.

  17. Systemic adenovirus infection in Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps): histological, ultrastructural and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Moormann, S; Seehusen, F; Reckling, D; Kilwinski, J; Puff, C; Elhensheri, M; Wohlsein, P; Peters, M

    2009-07-01

    Three Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps) from two breeding groups were humanely destroyed following a period of anorexia. Two of the animals were 8-months old and related and one animal was approximately 2-weeks old. Necropsy examination revealed poor bodily condition but no other gross abnormalities. Microscopically there was non-suppurative hepatitis and interstitial nephritis. Multiple large, amphophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies were present within hepatocytes and epithelial cells of the bile ducts, renal tubules, small and large intestinal mucosa, pancreatic acini and oral mucous membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the inclusions comprised viral particles with morphology consistent with an adenovirus. A fragment of the adenoviral polymerase gene was amplified, sequenced and compared with other reptilian adenoviral sequences.

  18. Isolation of a variant Porphyromonas sp. from polymicrobial infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Bryant, Mary Jean; Jones, Rebekah D; Kania, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria from reptiles have only occasionally been identified to the genus and species level in the veterinary medical literature. In particular, reports identifying Porphyromonas spp. from infections in reptiles are scarce. The present report describes unique Porphyromonas isolates obtained from necrosuppurative infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). The isolates grew in the presence of oxygen, were strongly hemolytic, and did not produce detectable black, iron porphyrin pigment. Biochemical identification kit numeric biocodes gave high but unreliable probabilities (>99.9%) for identification as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the isolates were identical to each other and shared 91% identity with those of Porphyromonas gulae. The isolates may represent a new reptile-associated Porphyromonas species.

  19. Mass-mortality in green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) associated with multiple viral infections.

    PubMed

    Behncke, H; Stöhr, A C; Heckers, K O; Ball, I; Marschang, R E

    2013-09-14

    In spring 2011, high mortality in association with skin lesions, systemic haemorrhages and necrosis occurred in a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) which were imported from southwestern China via Florida to Germany. Infections with various endoparasites were diagnosed in coprological examinations. Different antiparasitic and antibiotic treatments over a period of three months did not reduce the mortality rate. The remaining animals were therefore euthanased and submitted for additional testing. Predominant findings in pathological examination were granulomatous and necrotising inflammation of the skin, vacuolar tubulonephrosis of the distal renal tubules, hyperaemia and liver necrosis. Eosinophilic intranuclear and basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were detected in the liver. Virological testing (PCR and virus isolation methods) demonstrated the presence of ranavirus, adenovirus and invertebrate iridovirus.

  20. Multicentric benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors in two related bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Lemberger, K Y; Manharth, A; Pessier, A P

    2005-07-01

    Multiple subcutaneous masses from two sibling bearded dragons were removed. Nodules were well demarcated, restricted to the subcutis, and soft, white to yellow, resembling adipose tissue. Histologically, the masses were composed of short interlacing streams and bundles of spindle cells, with regions of vague nuclear palisading. Two of the tumors contained a subpopulation of polygonal cells with abundant periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasmic granules. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for S100 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) but negative for desmin and smooth muscle actin. Electron microscopy and reticulin stains demonstrated a continuous basal lamina separating intertwining cells. Histologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features were consistent with a peripheral nerve sheath origin. At 1 year postexcision, local reoccurrence of a single incompletely excised mass from the left shoulder was noted.

  1. A "carbonizing dragon": China's fast growing CO2 emissions revisited.

    PubMed

    Minx, Jan C; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    China's annual CO(2) emissions grew by around 4 billion tonnes between 1992 and 2007. More than 70% of this increase occurred between 2002 and 2007. While growing export demand contributed more than 50% to the CO(2) emission growth between 2002 and 2005, capital investments have been responsible for 61% of emission growth in China between 2005 and 2007. We use structural decomposition analysis to identify the drivers for China's emission growth between 1992 and 2007, with special focus on the period 2002 to 2007 when growth was most rapid. In contrast to previous analysis, we find that efficiency improvements have largely offset additional CO(2) emissions from increased final consumption between 2002 and 2007. The strong increases in emissions growth between 2002 and 2007 are instead explained by structural change in China's economy, which has newly emerged as the third major emission driver. This structural change is mainly the result of capital investments, in particular, the growing prominence of construction services and their carbon intensive supply chain. By closing the model for capital investment, we can now show that the majority of emissions embodied in capital investment are utilized for domestic household and government consumption (35-49% and 19-36%, respectively) with smaller amounts for the production of exports (21-31%). Urbanization and the associated changes in lifestyle are shown to be more important than other socio-demographic drivers like the decreasing household size or growing population. We argue that mitigation efforts will depend on the future development of these key drivers, particularly capital investments which dictate future mitigation costs.

  2. Zebrin II Is Expressed in Sagittal Stripes in the Cerebellum of Dragon Lizards (Ctenophorus sp.).

    PubMed

    Wylie, Douglas R; Hoops, Daniel; Aspden, Joel W; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida. We focused on the central netted dragon (Ctenophorus nuchalis) but also examined cerebellar ZII expression in 5 other dragon species (Ctenophorus spp.). In contrast to what has been observed in snakes and turtles, we found that in these lizards, ZII is heterogeneously expressed. In the posterior part of the cerebellum, on each side of the midline, there were 3 sagittal stripes consisting of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with 2 sagittal stripes with weaker ZII expression (ZIIw). More anteriorly, most of the Purkinje cells were ZII+, except laterally, where the Purkinje cells did not express ZII (ZII-). Finally, all Purkinje cells in the auricle (flocculus) were ZII-. Overall, the parasagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards is similar to that in mammals and birds, and contrasts with the homogenous ZII+ expression seen in snakes and turtles. We suggest that a sagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII represents the ancestral condition in stem reptiles which was lost in snakes and turtles.

  3. Dermatomycosis in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) caused by a Chrysosporium species related to Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    PubMed

    Abarca, M L; Martorell, J; Castellá, G; Ramis, A; Cabañes, F J

    2009-08-01

    A Chrysosporium sp. related to Nannizziopsis vriesii was isolated in pure culture from squames and biopsies of facial lesions in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) in Spain. The presence in histological sections of morphologically consistent fungal elements strongly incriminates this fungus as the aetiological agent of infection. Lesions regressed following treatment with oral ketoconazole and topical chlorhexidine and terbinafine until the lizard was lost to follow up 1 month later. The ITS-5.8S rRNA gene of the isolate was sequenced and a search on the GenBank database revealed a high match with the sequences of two Chrysosporium sp. strains recently isolated from green iguanas (Iguana iguana) with dermatomycosis, also in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed that all these strains are related to N. vriesii. This is the first report of dermatomycoses caused by a Chrysosporium species related to N. vriesii in a bearded dragon outside North America.

  4. HISTOLOGIC, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL, AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A MALIGNANT IRIDOPHOROMA IN A DWARF BEARDED DRAGON (POGONA HENRYLAWSONI).

    PubMed

    de Brot, Simone; Sydler, Titus; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja

    2015-09-01

    A dwarf bearded dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) was presented with a white subcutaneous mandibular mass and multiple nodules in the oral mucosa, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, and visceral fat. Histologically, the tumor consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with brow intracytoplasmic pigment that exhibited white-blue birefringence with polarized light. Immunohistochemical staining was negative for S-100 and weakly positive with melan A. Electron microscopic examination revealed cytoplasmic irregular and oblong empty spaces, laminated and often arranged into short stacks, compatible with reflecting platelet profiles typically seen in iridophores. However, in unstained ultrathin sections, electron-dense crystalline material was present, which filled the empty spaces described for stained sections before. Based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior, a malignant iridophoroma was diagnosed. To the authors' knowledge, iridophoromas in lizards have rarely been characterized by using electronic microscopy. Moreover, this is the first description of an iridophoroma in a dwarf bearded dragon.

  5. An outbreak of adenoviral infection in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) coinfected with dependovirus and coccidial protozoa (Isospora sp.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Young; Mitchell, Mark A; Bauer, Rudy W; Poston, Rob; Cho, Doo-Youn

    2002-07-01

    Thirty of 200 (15%) hatchling inland bearded dragons were found dead after a short period (48 hours) of weakness and lethargy. The most common clinical signs were head tilt and circling. Six bearded dragons with neurological signs were euthanized, and postmortem examination revealed no gross abnormalities. Microscopically, severe, randomly distributed hepatocellular necrosis with large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in numerous hepatocytes was noted. Small-intestinal enterocytes contained intracytoplasmic coccidial protozoa (Isospora sp.) and occasional enterocytes had basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy revealed both 80- and 20-nm-diameter viral particles, which were consistent with adenoviruses and dependoviruses, respectively. Adenoviral outbreaks in groups of animals are uncommon. An adverse synergistic effect of the coccidiosis with the adenoviral infection may have played a critical role in the high morbidity and mortality in this case.

  6. Measurements and effects of backstreaming ions produced at bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Haijun; Zhu Jun; Chen Nan; Xie Yutong; Jiang Xiaoguo; Jian Cheng

    2010-04-15

    Positive ions released from x-ray converter target impacted by electron beam of millimeter spot size can be trapped and accelerated in the incident beam's potential well. As the ions move upstream, the beam will be pinched first and then defocused at the target. Four Faraday cups are used to collect backstreaming ions produced at the bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator (LIA). Experimental and theoretical results show that the backstreaming positive ions density and velocity are about 10{sup 21}/m{sup 3} and 2-3 mm/{mu}s, respectively. The theoretical and experimental results of electron beam envelope with ions and without ions are also presented. The discussions show that the backstreaming positive ions will not affect the electron beam focusing and envelope radius in Dragon-I LIA.

  7. Measurements and effects of backstreaming ions produced at bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Nan; Xie, Yutong; Jiang, Xiaoguo; Jian, Cheng

    2010-04-01

    Positive ions released from x-ray converter target impacted by electron beam of millimeter spot size can be trapped and accelerated in the incident beam's potential well. As the ions move upstream, the beam will be pinched first and then defocused at the target. Four Faraday cups are used to collect backstreaming ions produced at the bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator (LIA). Experimental and theoretical results show that the backstreaming positive ions density and velocity are about 1021/m3 and 2-3 mm/μs, respectively. The theoretical and experimental results of electron beam envelope with ions and without ions are also presented. The discussions show that the backstreaming positive ions will not affect the electron beam focusing and envelope radius in Dragon-I LIA.

  8. Measurements and effects of backstreaming ions produced at bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijun; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Nan; Xie, Yutong; Jiang, Xiaoguo; Jian, Cheng

    2010-04-01

    Positive ions released from x-ray converter target impacted by electron beam of millimeter spot size can be trapped and accelerated in the incident beam's potential well. As the ions move upstream, the beam will be pinched first and then defocused at the target. Four Faraday cups are used to collect backstreaming ions produced at the bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator (LIA). Experimental and theoretical results show that the backstreaming positive ions density and velocity are about 10(21)/m(3) and 2-3 mm/micros, respectively. The theoretical and experimental results of electron beam envelope with ions and without ions are also presented. The discussions show that the backstreaming positive ions will not affect the electron beam focusing and envelope radius in Dragon-I LIA.

  9. The development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth in a dragon boating team for breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: "developing a feisty spirit of survivorship," "I don't want it to be just about me," "it's not about the pink it's about the paddling," and "hard to get close." Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.

  10. The dragon on the gold: myths and realities for data mining in biomedicine and biotechnology using digital and molecular libraries.

    PubMed

    Robson, Barry

    2004-01-01

    To develop bioscience and personalized medicine in the post-genomic era, the biggest problem may be how to extract knowledge from the rich libraries of biomedical data. A particular dragon protects the gold therein: the dragon is the "curse of dimensionality" and its formidable fire weapon, which is burning researchers, is the "combinatorial explosion". This arises because many genomic, proteomic, clinical, and lifestyle factors may interact that cannot necessarily be considered on a simple pairwise or additive basis. A suggested theoretical solution--or at least "road map" that ameliorates management of these problems--borrows from several disciplines. It is undertaken also in the hope might also lead to research with broader impact on several unresolved issues in biotechnology: conversely, mathematical understanding of processes involving molecular libraries, such as cDNA libraries and DNA in the living cell itself, may open the opportunities to use biotechnology to construct nanotechnological storage and query systems.

  11. Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in captive coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata).

    PubMed

    Johnson, R S P; Sangster, C R; Sigler, L; Hambleton, S; Paré, J A

    2011-12-01

    Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was diagnosed in a group of coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata). The outbreak extended over a 6-month period, with four of six lizards from the same zoological outdoor enclosure succumbing to infection. A fifth case of dermatomycosis was identified in a pet lizard originally sourced from the wild. Diagnosis of infection with the CANV was based on similar clinical signs and histopathology in all animals and confirmed by culture and sequencing of the fungus from one animal. This is the first report of the CANV causing disease in a terrestrial reptile species in Australia and the first in the coastal bearded dragon.

  12. Validation of the on-line aerosol retrieval and error characterization algorithm from the OMI Near-UV observations during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, U.; Ahn, C.; Kim, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Holben, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    One of the representative advantages of using ultraviolet channel to retrieve aerosol optical property is that the results are less affected by the uncertainty of surface reflectance database. The retrieved aerosol products have relatively uniform quality at both land and ocean except the ice-snow surface. The near UV technique of aerosol remote sensing has additional merit that it has long period database since TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) including aerosol absorption properties. Thus the retrieved product using the near UV technique using TOMS and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) measurement is quite appropriate for climatological research. For such purposes, assessment of accuracy of the retrieved product is essential to evaluate the radiative forcing of the aerosols. In this study, the error characterizations of the near UV technique using OMI measurements have been performed with the optimal estimation method during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign. In order to avoid the interpolation error, we developed the on-line retrieval scheme based on the traditional near UV method. The retrieval noise and smoothing error of retrieved AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) were compared with the biases between 380 nm AOT from AERONET and retrieved 388 nm AOT. They showed positive correlations which infer the possibility of the estimated errors using the optimal estimation method to be used to evaluate the error of retrieved products. Forward model parameter errors were analyzed separately which depends on the quality of the used database, thus can be reduced by improving the database.

  13. [Identification and analysis on the error of Guanyuan (CV 4) point in Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse)].

    PubMed

    Gang, Wei-juan; Huang, Long-xiang

    2009-02-01

    After investigation on the contents about Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse) and Guanyuan (CV 4) in Chinese ancient medical works of the successive dynasties, the authors of the present paper found some errors of recording on CV4. In fact, Guanyuan (CV 4) in the current edition Yulong Ge should be the extra point Lanmen. The author hold that this error mainly results from similar writing in Chinese character, repeated copy, such as [Chinese characters: see text] etc.

  14. Mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon: efficient sequencing method with reptile-oriented primers and novel gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Yoshinori; Endo, Hideki

    2004-04-30

    The mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) was nearly completely sequenced, except for two highly repetitive noncoding regions. An efficient sequencing method for squamate mitochondrial genomes was established by combining the long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and a set of reptile-oriented primers designed for nested PCR amplifications. It was found that the mitochondrial genome had novel gene arrangements in which genes from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 to proline tRNA were extensively shuffled with duplicate control regions. These control regions had 99% sequence similarity over 700 bp. Although snake mitochondrial genomes are also known to possess duplicate control regions with nearly identical sequences, the location of the second control region suggested independent occurrence of the duplication on lineages leading to snakes and the Komodo dragon. Another feature of the mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon was the considerable number of tandem repeats, including sequences with a strong secondary structure, as a possible site for the slipped-strand mispairing in replication. These observations are consistent with hypotheses that tandem duplications via the slipped-strand mispairing may induce mitochondrial gene rearrangements and may serve to maintain similar copies of the control region.

  15. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  16. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-03-04

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of "dragon kings." Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  17. Triple infection with agamid adenovirus 1, Encephaliton cuniculi-like microsporidium and enteric coccidia in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Mentré, Véronique; Marschang, Rachel E; Nicolier, Alexandra; Richter, Barbara

    2016-10-12

    A 2-month-old juvenile central bearded dragon was presented for anorexia and cachexia. Another specimen from the same cage had died suddenly 2 weeks prior. Fecal analysis revealed a high quantity of Isospora amphiboluri and a few pinworm eggs. Other examinations were not performed and the animal died a few days later despite supportive care. A third individual from the same cage presented with anorexia and a distended cœlom and was euthanized. In this third dragon, histological examination revealed intestinal coccidiosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions compatible with adenovirus infection, acute hepatic necrosis with intrahepatocytic and intraenteritic organisms typical of microsporidia and renal gout. A PCR confirmed the diagnosis of adenovirosis. Sequencing showed that the PCR product was 100% identical to the corresponding portion of the agamid adenovirus 1 genome. A PCR for the detection of Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi was positive. Partial sequencing revealed 100% identity to an E. cuniculi-like organism previously found in bearded dragons. In cases where environmental factors such as poor hygiene or stress can be excluded, the presence of opportunistic pathogens in high numbers can be due to a systemic (viral) infection with temporary immunosuppression.

  18. Lack of consistent hormonal responses to capture during the breeding season of the bearded dragon, Pogona barbata.

    PubMed

    Cree, A; Amey, A P; Whittier, J M

    2000-06-01

    The bearded dragon (Pogona barbata: Agamidae) is a diurnal, oviparous, multi-clutching lizard from Australia. We examined plasma hormonal responses to capture in males and females during the spring breeding season. Corticosterone concentrations at capture (0 h; < or =3 min after capture) were low (males: 1.81+/-0.63 ng/ml; females 2. 23+/-0.47 ng/ml) and within sexes were unrelated to the time of the day, snout-vent length or, in females, reproductive condition (vitellogenic, gravid, assumed spent). Corticosterone concentrations at capture were significantly and inversely correlated with body condition in males, but not in females. Unexpectedly, neither sex showed significant changes in mean concentrations of corticosterone at 3.5 or 24 h after capture compared with 0 h values. Corticosterone concentrations at 3.5 h after capture did not differ between dragons bled at capture or not. Concentrations of progesterone in both the sexes did not change between 0 h and 3.5 or 24 h after capture. Testosterone concentrations in males at capture were moderate (10.1+/-2.2 ng/ml), and unchanged at 3.5 h after capture. The adrenocortical axis of adult bearded dragons in the breeding season seems remarkably unresponsive to capture compared with many other reptiles. Low adrenocortical responses to capture may be a feature of reptiles known to adjust well to captivity.

  19. Claudin-7-positive synchronous spontaneous intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma and adenomas of the gallbladder in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Szabó, Zoltán; Gálfi, Péter; Marosán, Miklós; Kulka, Janina; Gál, János

    2011-03-01

    In this study, synchronous spontaneous, independent liver and gallbladder tumours were detected in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). The multiple tumours consisted of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma as well as in situ adenocarcinoma and two adenomas of the gallbladder. The biliary epithelial cells and the cholangiocarcinoma showed membranous cross-immunoreactivity for claudin-7. The gallbladder epithelial cells, its adenoma and adenocarcinoma showed basolateral cross-reactivity for claudin-7. We think that the humanised anti-claudin-7 antibody is a good marker for the detection of different primary cholangiocellular and gallbladder tumours in Bearded dragons. The cholangiocytes, the cholangiocarcinoma, the endothelial cells of the liver and the epithelial cells and gallbladder tumours all showed claudin-5 cross-reactivity. The humanised anti-cytokeratin AE1-AE3 antibody showed cross-reactivity in the biliary epithelial cells, cholangiocarcinoma cells, epithelial cells and tumour cells of the gallbladder. It seems that this humanised antibody is a useful epithelial marker for the different neoplastic lesions of epithelial cells in reptiles. The humanised anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody showed intense cross-reactivity in the smooth muscle cells of the hepatic vessels and in the muscle layer of the gallbladder. The portal myofibroblasts, the endothelial cells of the sinusoids and the stromal cells of the cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder tumours were positive for α-SMA. The antibovine anti-vimentin and humanised anti-Ki-67 antibodies did not show crossreactivity in the different samples from the Bearded dragon.

  20. Pharmacokinetic comparison of two methods of heroin smoking: 'chasing the dragon' versus the use of a heating device.

    PubMed

    Klous, Marjolein G; Huitema, Alwin D R; Rook, Elisabeth J; Hillebrand, Michel J X; Hendriks, Vincent M; Van den Brink, Wim; Beijnen, Jos H; Van Ree, Jan M

    2005-05-01

    In preparation for a trial on co-prescription of inhalable heroin and methadone, two methods for inhalation of heroin/caffeine tablets were compared: the commonly used method of 'chasing the dragon' and a standardised procedure for inhalation of volatilised heroin, using a heating device. Five male addicts inhaled a tablet of smokable heroin daily for 5 days, alternating the inhalation method. Plasma concentrations of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine and morphine-3- and -6-glucuronide were determined using a liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometric detection. The exposure to heroin and its metabolites (expressed as areas under the concentration-time curve) was significantly lower after smoking via the heating device than after 'chasing the dragon': heroin 80% and 6-acetylmorphine 73% lower (p < 0.05). Maximal concentrations of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine were also 80% and 70% lower (p < 0.05) after using the heating device. 'Chasing the dragon' is a more efficient inhalation method than inhalation via the heating device.

  1. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-03-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  2. "We're All in the Same Boat": A Review of the Benefits of Dragon Boat Racing for Women Living with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Susan R

    2012-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes findings from quantitative and qualitative research literature that has been published over the past 15 years since an initial, community-based pilot study first challenged the long-held medical belief that vigorous, upper-body exercise would lead to lymphedema in women who were at risk due to treatments for breast cancer. Dragon boat racing originated in China more than 2000 years ago and has become a popular recreational and competitive support around the world. From the advent of the world's first breast cancer survivor dragon boat team, Abreast in a Boat launched in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1996, there are now more than 140 breast cancer survivor dragon boat teams paddling and competing in 12 different countries. The wealth of quantitative and qualitative research that has ensued since that pilot study further supports the initial hypothesis that resistance exercise, for example, dragon boat paddling, is not only safe for women recovering from conventional breast cancer therapies but also shows that dragon boating has been embraced as a complementary exercise therapy by the cancer survivors participating in this magical sport.

  3. A seismic anisotropy study of the Dragon Flag hydrothermal field (49°39'E ) on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhao, M.; Tong, V. C. H.; Qiu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Dragon Flag hydrothermal field located at 49°39'E on the Southwest Indian Ridge contains the active hydrothermal vents firstly discovered on the ultraslow spreading ridge (Tao et al, 2012). Anisotropic study in this area will provide important information tectonic activities. 65634 traveltime residuals from the three-dimensional isotropic inversion (Zhao et al., 2013), were divided into three groups, which correspond to quasi ocean crustal Layer 2 (qL2), quasi ocean crustal Layer 3 (qL3) and quasi uppermost mantle (qUM), respectively. Traveltime residuals at different depths show that there are obvious cosine relationships between traveltime residuals and azimuth of qL2, qL3 and qUM, indicating anisotropy existed in both crust and mantle beneath Dragon Flag hydrothermal field. The best fitted cosine curves indicate that the fast directions (negative traveltime residuals) corresponding to the general trend of ridge axis of N104°E. According to these results, we propose that there may be prevalent cracks penetrating into lower crust or even uppermost mantle. We argue that the hydrothermal convection of Dragon Flag hydrothermal field not only occurs perpendicular to ridge axis, but also occurs parallel to ridge axis. We reveal for the first time anisotropic characteristics of the ultraslow spreading ridge, which has profound scientific significance for the future research on global ocean lithospheric anisotropy. This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 41176053, 91428204). Keywords: ultraslow spreading ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge, Dragon Flag hydrothermal field, P wave traveltime residuals, anisotropy References: Tao C H, Lin J, Guo S, et al. First active hydrothermal vents on an ultraslow-spreading center: Southwest Indian Ridge. Geology, 2012, 40(1): 47~50. Zhao M H, Qiu X L, Li J B, et al. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39

  4. Dragon Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that combines Mendel's Postulates with Morgan's Chromosome theory of inheritance. Students pair up the mother's and father's genes and learn how the genes line up with each other. Background information on the theories is provided and tips that can be used to aid student understanding are included. (DDR)

  5. Dragon in Support Harmonizing European and Chinese Marine Monitoring for Environment and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Zmuda, Andy; Li, Zengyuan; Gao, Zhihai

    2008-04-01

    ESA has been cooperating with National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC), Ministry Of Science and Technology of China (MOST) in the development of Earth Observation (EO) applications for the last 15 years. In 2004, this cooperation was reinforced with the creation of a dedicated three-year EO science and exploitation programme called "Dragon". The programme brings together joint Sino-European teams to address 16 identified priority themes investigating land, ocean and atmospheric applications using data from ESA's ERS and Envisat missions. Detailed coordination of all requested acquisitions over China has been performed since the programme started. Consequently a large amount of data has now been delivered.The results of the joint teams' research have been presented at annual Symposia and regular progress meeting with Chinese scientists in Beijing. The mid term results of the programme have been published as a joint ESA and NRSCC publication entitled "Proceedings of Dragon Programme Mid Term Results (SP-611)". Since then, notable results have been achieved in all the thematic areas under investigation exploiting both archive ERS and Envisat instrument data, for example: • Forest cover and forest biomass maps of NE China using ERS SAR tandem data from the 1990s and change detection using up-to-date forest maps based on ASAR AP data• Flood monitoring and mapping and NRT information provision to local and national authorities• Ship cruises for collection of validation data in support of ocean colour studies • Exploitation of the ASAR, RA, MERIS and AA TSR sensors for bio-physical parameter retrieval for China seas• Quantification and modelling of NO2, CO and CH4 levels and their increasing trend since the 1990s •Mixing and modelling and changes in NO2 distribution and concentration in the middle atmospheric layers • Rice mapping and methane modelling exploiting Envisat's optical, SAR and atmospheric sensors• Impact of the Olympic games on the

  6. GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and validation during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myungje; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, Mijin; Park, Young-Je; Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Woogyung; Hong, Hyunkee; Holben, Brent; Eck, Thomas F.; Song, Chul H.; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Song, Chang-Keun

    2016-04-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) is the first multi-channel ocean color imager in geostationary orbit. Hourly GOCI top-of-atmosphere radiance has been available for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over East Asia since March 2011. This study presents improvements made to the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm together with validation results during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks - Northeast Asia 2012 campaign (DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign). The evaluation during the spring season over East Asia is important because of high aerosol concentrations and diverse types of Asian dust and haze. Optical properties of aerosol are retrieved from the GOCI YAER algorithm including aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm, fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm, single-scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm, Ångström exponent (AE) between 440 and 860 nm, and aerosol type. The aerosol models are created based on a global analysis of the Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET) inversion data, and covers a broad range of size distribution and absorptivity, including nonspherical dust properties. The Cox-Munk ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model is used over ocean, and an improved minimum reflectance technique is used over land. Because turbid water is persistent over the Yellow Sea, the land algorithm is used for such cases. The aerosol products are evaluated against AERONET observations and MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products retrieved from Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign conducted from March to May 2012. Comparison of AOD from GOCI and AERONET resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.881 and a linear regression equation with GOCI AOD = 1.083 × AERONET AOD - 0.042. The correlation between GOCI and MODIS AODs is higher over ocean than land. GOCI AOD shows better

  7. Of Disasters and Dragon Kings: A Statistical Analysis of Nuclear Power Incidents and Accidents.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Spencer; Sovacool, Benjamin; Sornette, Didier

    2017-01-01

    We perform a statistical study of risk in nuclear energy systems. This study provides and analyzes a data set that is twice the size of the previous best data set on nuclear incidents and accidents, comparing three measures of severity: the industry standard International Nuclear Event Scale, the Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale of radiation release, and cost in U.S. dollars. The rate of nuclear accidents with cost above 20 MM 2013 USD, per reactor per year, has decreased from the 1970s until the present time. Along the way, the rate dropped significantly after Chernobyl (April 1986) and is expected to be roughly stable around a level of 0.003, suggesting an average of just over one event per year across the current global fleet. The distribution of costs appears to have changed following the Three Mile Island major accident (March 1979). The median cost became approximately 3.5 times smaller, but an extremely heavy tail emerged, being well described by a Pareto distribution with parameter α = 0.5-0.6. For instance, the cost of the two largest events, Chernobyl and Fukushima (March 2011), is equal to nearly five times the sum of the 173 other events. We also document a significant runaway disaster regime in both radiation release and cost data, which we associate with the "dragon-king" phenomenon. Since the major accident at Fukushima (March 2011) occurred recently, we are unable to quantify an impact of the industry response to this disaster. Excluding such improvements, in terms of costs, our range of models suggests that there is presently a 50% chance that (i) a Fukushima event (or larger) occurs every 60-150 years, and (ii) that a Three Mile Island event (or larger) occurs every 10-20 years. Further-even assuming that it is no longer possible to suffer an event more costly than Chernobyl or Fukushima-the expected annual cost and its standard error bracket the cost of a new plant. This highlights the importance of improvements not only immediately following

  8. GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and validation during DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Park, Y. Je; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.

    2015-09-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellites (COMS) is the first multi-channel ocean color imager in geostationary orbit. Hourly GOCI top-of-atmosphere radiance has been available for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over East Asia since March 2011. This study presents improvements to the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm over ocean and land together with validation results during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign. Optical properties of aerosol are retrieved from the GOCI YAER algorithm including aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm, fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm, single scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm, Angstrom exponent (AE) between 440 and 860 nm, and aerosol type from selected aerosol models in calculating AOD. Assumed aerosol models are compiled from global Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET) inversion data, and categorized according to AOD, FMF, and SSA. Nonsphericity is considered, and unified aerosol models are used over land and ocean. Different assumptions for surface reflectance are applied over ocean and land. Surface reflectance over the ocean varies with geometry and wind speed, while surface reflectance over land is obtained from the 1-3 % darkest pixels in a 6 km × 6 km area during 30 days. In the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, significant area is covered persistently by turbid waters, for which the land algorithm is used for aerosol retrieval. To detect turbid water pixels, TOA reflectance difference at 660 nm is used. GOCI YAER products are validated using other aerosol products from AERONET and the MODIS Collection 6 aerosol data from "Dark Target (DT)" and "Deep Blue (DB)" algorithms during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign from March to May 2012. Comparison of AOD from GOCI and AERONET gives a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.885 and a linear regression equation with GOCI AOD =1.086 × AERONET AOD - 0.041. GOCI and MODIS AODs are more highly correlated

  9. Direct measurement of several resonance strengths and energies in 34S(α , γ) 38 Ar within the T = 2 . 2 GK Gamow window with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L. E.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, Ulrike; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiative α capture on 34S can impact nucleosynthesis in several astrophysical environments, including oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning (Type II supernovae), and Type Ia supernovae. However, there exist discrepancies in the literature for the resonance strengths of two strong resonances within the Gamow window for oxygen burning temperatures (E0 +/- Δ / 2 = 3183 +/- 897 keV at T = 2 . 2 GK). Previous measurements suffered from systematic uncertainties inherent in the experimental technique. Furthermore, there are several states in 38Ar in the energy range of interest for which no 34S + α resonance strength/energy measurements have been performed. This measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF in BC, Canada. DRAGON's experimental technique allows direct measurement of quantities such as stopping power and resonance energy, alleviating the need for external inputs and reducing uncertainty. This talk will discuss DRAGON's experimental technique, analysis methods and results.

  10. Aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign, and implications for a single-channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth in spring from Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Hong, H.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.; Lee, S.; Chung, C.-Y.

    2016-02-01

    An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-northeast (NE) Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 ± 0.04) in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA) can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 ± 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May). After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 ± 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 ± 0.40 to 2.14 ± 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show an

  11. The diet of free-roaming Australian Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van Leeuwen, J P; Hendriks, W H; van der Poel, A F B

    2015-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is one of the most popular pet lizards. However, little is known regarding their nutrient requirement, or their natural diet. Therefore, the stomach contents of 14 free-roaming P. vitticeps were determined by flushing. These stomach contents were described taxonomically, and analyzed for crude protein content as well as fatty acid content and composition. Most of the dry matter intake was in the form of animal material (61%) stemming from nine arthropod orders. The most abundant were alates of the termite Drepanotermes sp., accounting for 95% of the total number of prey items and more than half of the total dry matter (DM) intake. Plant material contributed 16% of the total DM intake. The diets were high in crude protein (41-50% DM) and the total fatty acid content was 14-27% of the DM intake. The main fatty acid was C18:1n9c (51-56% of total fatty acids), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3 and n6) comprised 6-8% of the total fat intake. Our data suggest that P. vitticeps is an opportunistic predator, which exploits the seasonal availability of prey. Based on our data and other studies, a diet consisting of several insect species, supplemented with leafy vegetables, rich in n3 FA's, would best resemble the expected natural diet of P. vitticeps.

  12. Sexual selection and the evolution of complex color patterns in dragon lizards.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Ping; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Hugall, Andrew F; Symonds, Matthew R E

    2012-11-01

    Many species have elaborate and complex coloration and patterning, which often differ between the sexes. Sexual selection may increase the size or intensity of color patches (elaboration) in one sex or drive the evolution of novel signal elements (innovation). The latter potentially increases color pattern complexity. Color pattern complexity may also be influenced by ecological factors related to predation and environment; however, very few studies have investigated the effects of both sexual and natural selection on color pattern complexity across species. We used a phylogenetic comparative approach to examine these effects in 85 species and subspecies of Australian dragon lizards (family Agamidae). We quantified color pattern complexity by adapting the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. There were clear sex differences in color pattern complexity, which were positively correlated with both sexual dichromatism and sexual size dimorphism, consistent with the idea that sexual selection plays a significant role in the evolution of color pattern complexity. By contrast, we found little evidence of a link between environmental factors and color pattern complexity on body regions exposed to predators. Our results suggest that sexual selection rather than natural selection has led to increased color pattern complexity in males.

  13. Coinfection of a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, with adenovirus- and dependovirus-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W; Kennedy, F A; Funk, R S

    1996-05-01

    Four neonate bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps, from two collections became ill and died. Multiple tissues were collected and processed for light microscopy. In hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of liver of one lizard, numerous basophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed. In three lizards, intranuclear inclusions were primarily seen within enterocytes in the small intestine. A portion of paraffin-embedded liver of one lizard and small intestine of a second lizard were removed, deparaffinized, and examined by electron microscopy. For the most part, inclusions in the liver consisted of nonenveloped viral particles 60-66 nm in diameter. Smaller nonenveloped virions 15-17 nm in diameter were occasionally seen in association with these particles. In the intestine, inclusions consisted only of 60-70 nm particles. Based on morphology and location, the larger particles were consistent with an adenovirus. Based on size and presence within nuclei of host cells coinfected with the adenovirus-like virus, the smaller viral agent was consistent with members of the genus Dependovirus.

  14. Heroin self-administration by means of 'chasing the dragon': pharmacodynamics and bioavailability of inhaled heroin.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, V M; van den Brink, W; Blanken, P; Bosman, I J; van Ree, J M

    2001-06-01

    In this controlled clinical study, the bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of inhaled heroin are evaluated and compared between 'chasing the dragon' and inhalation from a heating device, and at three dose levels, 25, 50 and 100 mg heroin, in two separate study phases. In study phase 1, no differences between the inhalation methods were detected on any of the physiological or behavioral measures, nor in bioavailability. Subjectively, the participants had a strong preference for the method of chasing, which was therefore used in study phase 2. In phase 2, heroin produced a dose-related increase in subjective drug-liking, body temperature and heart rate, and a clear, dose-related decline in reaction time. Linearly dose-related differences were found in the amount of total morphine in urine, amounting to an average of 45% of the parent heroin base received. Based on these findings, it is concluded that chasing is quite an effective route of heroin administration, producing rapid, dose-related subjective and objective effects and a sufficiently high and reproducible bioavailability.

  15. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana (Baill.) attenuates visceral nociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vietla S; Gurgel, Luilma A; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Martins, Domingos T O; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Santos, Flávia A

    2007-09-05

    Dragon's blood, the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) has a profound history of traditional use in conditions such as inflammation, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal distress. Previous studies established its anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal and analgesic properties and in this study we verified its potential to suppress visceral pain, using capsaicin- and cyclophosphamide-induced models of visceral nociception. Mice that received intra-colonic capsaicin (0.3%, 50 microl/animal) or intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg) manifested spontaneous nociceptive behaviors or crises, which were significantly suppressed in animal groups treated with red sap (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or that received N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), as positive controls. In capsaicin model, the antinociception produced by 200 mg/kg red sap was found to be naloxone-sensitive (2 mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting an opioid mechanism. In tests of open-field and pentobarbital-sleeping time, mice received 200mg/kg red sap showed no significant alterations in either locomotion frequency or on sleeping time, indicating that the observed antinociception is not a consequence of sedation or motor abnormality. These findings highlight the visceral antinociceptive property of Croton urucurana sap and further support its ethno-medical use to alleviate pain associated with gastrointestinal and other related disorders.

  16. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants.

  17. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  18. Nannizziopsis guarroi infection in 2 Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps): clinical, cytologic, histologic, and ultrastructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Viviana; Crossland, Nicholas; Brandão, João; Sokolova, Yuliya; Fowlkes, Natalie; Nevarez, Javier G; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    Chrysosporium-related infections have been increasingly reported in reptiles over the last 2 decades. In this report, we describe clinical, cytologic, histopathologic, and ultrastructural aspects of Chrysosporium-related infection in 2 Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Case 1 was presented for an enlarging raised lesion over the left eye and multiple additional masses over the dorsum. Case 2 was submitted to necropsy by the referring veterinarian for suspected yellow fungus disease. Impression smears of the nodules in case 1 revealed granulomatous to pyogranulomatous inflammation and many septate, variably long, 4-10 μm wide, often undulated hyphae, and very rare conidia. Postmortem impression smears of the superficial lesions of case 2 contained large numbers of solitary conidia and arthroconidia and low numbers of hyphae with similar morphology to case 1. Histopathology of the 2 cases revealed severe, multifocal, chronic, ulcerative, nodular pyogranulomatous dermatitis, with myriad intralesional septate hyphae, and arthroconidia. Fungal culture and molecular sequencing in both cases indicated infection with Nannizziopsis guarroi.

  19. The dragons of inaction: psychological barriers that limit climate change mitigation and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Most people think climate change and sustainability are important problems, but too few global citizens engaged in high-greenhouse-gas-emitting behavior are engaged in enough mitigating behavior to stem the increasing flow of greenhouse gases and other environmental problems. Why is that? Structural barriers such as a climate-averse infrastructure are part of the answer, but psychological barriers also impede behavioral choices that would facilitate mitigation, adaptation, and environmental sustainability. Although many individuals are engaged in some ameliorative action, most could do more, but they are hindered by seven categories of psychological barriers, or "dragons of inaction": limited cognition about the problem, ideological world views that tend to preclude pro-environmental attitudes and behavior, comparisons with key other people, sunk costs and behavioral momentum, discredence toward experts and authorities, perceived risks of change, and positive but inadequate behavior change. Structural barriers must be removed wherever possible, but this is unlikely to be sufficient. Psychologists must work with other scientists, technical experts, and policymakers to help citizens overcome these psychological barriers.

  20. Hypoxia progressively lowers thermal gaping thresholds in bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Gerlach, Rebecca M

    2005-09-01

    Most animals, including reptiles, lower body temperature (Tb) under hypoxic conditions. Numerous physiological and behavioural traits significant to the regulation of Tb are altered by hypoxia in ways that suggest an orchestrated adjustment of Tb at a new and lower regulated level. We examined this matter in bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps, a species of reptile that naturally exhibits open mouth gaping at high temperatures, presumably in order to promote evaporation and thus prevent or avoid further increases in Tb. The threshold for the onset of gaping (assessed as the temperature at which lizards spent 50% of their time gaping) was reduced from 36.9 degrees C in normoxia to 35.5 degrees C at 10% and 34.3 degrees C at 6% O2. The overall magnitude or degree of gaping, measured qualitatively, was more pronounced at lower temperatures in hypoxia. Females consistently had lower gaping threshold temperatures than did males, and this difference was retained throughout exposure to hypoxia. In addition to gaping, evaporative water loss from the cloaca may also play a significant role in temperature regulation, since the ambient temperature at which cloacal discharge occurred was also reduced significantly in hypoxia. The results reported herein strongly support the view that hypoxia reduces temperature set-point in lizards and that such changes are coordinated by specific behavioural thermoeffectors that modulate evaporative water loss and thus facilitate a high potential for controlling or modifying Tb.

  1. There be dragons: effects of unexplored religion on nurses' competence in spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Pesut, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    On ancient maps unexplored lands were simply labeled 'there be dragons' indicating the fear that attends the unknown. Despite three decades of theoretical and empirical work on spirituality in nursing, evidence still suggests that nurses do not feel competent to engage in spiritual care. In this paper I propose that one of the reasons for this is a theory-theory gap between religion and spirituality. Generalized anxiety about the role of religion in society has led to under-theorizing in nursing about religious care. As a result, when religion and spirituality overlap at the point of care, nurses are left without the substantive knowledge required for practice. Robust religious theorizing should include thick accounts of lived religion and integrative work that enables nurses to understand commonalities across religions that are relevant to practice. As a starting point to this integrative work, nurses can be introduced to the nature and lexicon of lived religion, religious perspectives on suffering, and religious reasoning that holds meaning and mystery in tension. Such an approach will better prepare them for the realities of practice where the complexities of spirituality and religion come to play.

  2. Earth Observation in Support of Sustainable Urban Planning: Results of the Dragon-3 Monitor Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Polydoros, A.; Mavrakou, T.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    Sustainable urban planning increasingly demands innovative concepts and techniques to obtain up-to-date and area-wide information on the characteristics and development of the urban system. In this paper, a thorough and conclusive presentation is made in terms of the results of the DRAGON-3 MONITOR project as based on the use of Earth Observation. Results refer in particular to a set of EO based dynamic urban indicators (i.e. urban form and expansion, land use/land cover changes, land surface temperature distribution, the presence and strength of urban heat island) with the capacity to describe the state, dynamic changes and interaction of the land and thermal environment in urban areas. Furthermore results are assessed in terms of their potential to operationally support sustainable urban planning and bridge the gap between EO scientists and urban planners. Constraints related to the spatial resolution and revisit time of satellite sensors are discussed as they influence the accuracy and applicability of the indicators. Methodologies to improve the applicability of the indicators are also discussed along with the presentation of the respective results.

  3. Improvement in AOD retrieval from geostationary measurement over the ASIA with obtained AOP from DRAGON-2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term aerosol monitoring from ground-based sun photometer such as AERONET has variously used to obtain optimized aerosol optical properties (AOPs) for assumed aerosol type and to validate aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from satellite. Additionally, the meso-scale network campaign such as DRAGON ASIA-2012 is suitable to monitor the aerosol characteristic over localized area. Thus, this study focused on the improvement of AOPs over the East Asia by using the DRAGON ASIA-2012 campaign dataset for two geostationary AOD retrieval algorithms. The algorithms were developed for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Meteorological Imager (MI) onboarding the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), which was launched in June, 2010. GOCI has 8 channels in visible and near IR. Using these multi-spectral bands, we retrieved aerosol optical properties such as AOD, fine-mode fraction (FMF), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol type. In this study, we consider dynamic aerosol models categorized by FMF and SSA from East Asia AERONET data including DRAGON campaign data. Using these aerosol data, AOPs are upgraded for LUT calculation and re-retrieved from GOCI. The validation with AERONET shows the improved results after AOP upgrade. On the other hand, a single channel algorithm developed for MI assumed seasonal aerosol property variation due the algorithm has limitation in select aerosol type. The seasonally analyzed SSAs at 675 nm from the AERONET measurement over the East Asia including the campaign data are 0.92, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.91 for spring (MAM), summer (JJA), autumn (SON), and winter (DJF), respectively, and slightly higher then the originally used values. By using those newly analyzed AOP, the comparison result between retrieved AOD and measured value from AERONET shows the increase of correlation coefficient from 0.551 to 0.702 and the increase of regression slope from 0.538 to 0.615 during months from May to Dec. in 2011.

  4. Assessment of platelet-derived growth factor using A splinted full thickness dermal wound model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Keller, Krista A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Weber, E P Scott; Kass, Philip H; Guzman, Sanchez-Migallon David; Park, Shin Ae; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Gustavsen, Kate A; Murphy, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Wounds in reptiles are a common reason for presentation to a veterinarian. At this time there is limited information on effective topical medications to aid in wound closure. The objectives of this study were to translate the splinted, full-thickness dermal wound model, validated in mice, to the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and to determine the effect of topical becaplermin (BP), a platelet-derived growth factor (0.01%), on the rate of wound closure. Ten bearded dragons were anesthetized and two full-thickness cutaneous wounds were made on the dorsum of each lizard. Encircling splints were applied surrounding each wound and subsequently covered by a semi-occlusive dressing. Five lizards had one wound treated with BP and the adjacent wound treated with a vehicle control. Five additional lizards had one wound treated with saline and the second wound treated with a vehicle control. Wounds were imaged daily, and the wound area was measured using digital image analysis. The change in percentage wound closure over 17 days and the time to 50% wound closure was compared among the four treatment groups. There was no significant difference in wound closure rates between BP-treated and saline-treated wounds or in the time to 50% wound closure between any treatments. Vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to saline-treated wounds closed significantly slower than did BP (P < 0.010), saline (P < 0.001), and vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to BP-treated wounds (P < 0.013). Our preliminary study indicates that the splinted wound model, with modifications, may be used to determine wound closure rates in bearded dragons. When compared with saline, BP did not have a significant effect on wound closure rates, while the vehicle alone delayed wound closure. Histologic analysis of experimentally created wounds throughout the wound healing process is needed to further evaluate the effects of these treatments on reptile dermal wound healing.

  5. Long- and/or short-range transportation of local Asian aerosols in DRAGON-Osaka Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles in East Asia, especially around AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) -Osaka site during Dragon Asia period in the spring of 2012, named Dragon-Osaka. It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Thus the precise observations of atmospheric particles in East Asia are desired. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. The population of the region is around 20 millions including neighbor prefectures. Therefore, air quality in the region is slightly bad compared to remote area due to industries and auto mobiles. In recent years, Asian dusts and anthropogenic small particles transported from China and cover those cities throughout year. AERONET Osaka site was established in 2002 on the campus of Kinki University. Nowadays, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), an SPM sampler (SPM-613D, Kimoto Electric, Japan) and others are available on the roof of a building. The site data are useful for algorithm development of aerosol retrieval over busy city. On the other hand, human activities in this region also emit the huge amount of pollutions, thus it is needed to investigate the local distribution of aerosols in this region. In order to investigate change of aerosol properties, PM-individual analysis is made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). SEM/EDX is an effective instrument to observe the surface microstructure and analyze the chemical composition of such materials as metals, powders, biological specimens, etc. We used sampling data from the SPM sampler at AERONET Osaka site. During a period of DRAGON-Asia, high concentrations of air pollutant were observed on the morning of March 11 in Fukue Island in the East China Sea. On the

  6. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  7. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  8. Discovery of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) by Large-Scale Analyses and De-Novo-Assisted Sequencing Using Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Barney M; Juba, Melanie L; Russo, Paul S; Devine, Megan; Barksdale, Stephanie M; Scott, Shaylyn; Settlage, Robert; Michalak, Pawel; Gupta, Kajal; Vliet, Kent; Schnur, Joel M; van Hoek, Monique L

    2017-04-07

    Komodo dragons are the largest living lizards and are the apex predators in their environs. They endure numerous strains of pathogenic bacteria in their saliva and recover from wounds inflicted by other dragons, reflecting the inherent robustness of their innate immune defense. We have employed a custom bioprospecting approach combining partial de novo peptide sequencing with transcriptome assembly to identify cationic antimicrobial peptides from Komodo dragon plasma. Through these analyses, we identified 48 novel potential cationic antimicrobial peptides. All but one of the identified peptides were derived from histone proteins. The antimicrobial effectiveness of eight of these peptides was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), with seven peptides exhibiting antimicrobial activity against both microbes and one only showing significant potency against P. aeruginosa. This study demonstrates the power and promise of our bioprospecting approach to cationic antimicrobial peptide discovery, and it reveals the presence of a plethora of novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides in the plasma of the Komodo dragon. These findings may have broader implications regarding the role that intact histones and histone-derived peptides play in defending the host from infection. Data are available via ProteomeXChange with identifier PXD005043.

  9. Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-06-01

    It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection.

  10. Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.

  11. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  12. Molecular cytogenetic map of the central bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Squamata: Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Young, M J; O'Meally, D; Sarre, S D; Georges, A; Ezaz, T

    2013-07-01

    Reptiles, as the sister group to birds and mammals, are particularly valuable for comparative genomic studies among amniotes. The Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is being developed as a reptilian model for such comparisons, with whole-genome sequencing near completion. The karyotype consists of 6 pairs of macrochromosomes and 10 pairs microchromosomes (2n = 32), including a female heterogametic ZW sex microchromosome pair. Here, we present a molecular cytogenetic map for P. vitticeps comprising 87 anchor bacterial artificial chromosome clones that together span each macro- and microchromosome. It is the first comprehensive cytogenetic map for any non-avian reptile. We identified an active nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the sub-telomeric region of 2q by mapping 18S rDNA and Ag-NOR staining. We identified interstitial telomeric sequences in two microchromosome pairs and the W chromosome, indicating that microchromosome fusion has been a mechanism of karyotypic evolution in Australian agamids within the last 21 to 19 million years. Orthology searches against the chicken genome revealed an intrachromosomal rearrangement of P. vitticeps 1q, identified regions orthologous to chicken Z on P. vitticeps 2q, snake Z on P. vitticeps 6q and the autosomal microchromosome pair in P. vitticeps orthologous to turtle Pelodiscus sinensis ZW and lizard Anolis carolinensis XY. This cytogenetic map will be a valuable reference tool for future gene mapping studies and will provide the framework for the work currently underway to physically anchor genome sequences to chromosomes for this model Australian squamate.

  13. Cyclic Colour Change in the Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps under Different Photoperiods

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12∶12; LD 6∶18; LD 18∶6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles. PMID:25354192

  14. Cyclic colour change in the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps under different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12:12; LD 6:18; LD 18:6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles.

  15. Revision of the Western Australian pebble-mimic dragon species-group (Tympanocryptis cephalus: Reptilia: Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Doughty, Paul; Kealley, Luke; Shoo, Luke P; Melville, Jane

    2015-11-03

    Recent work on species complexes of the pebble-mimic dragons of the Australian genus Tympanocryptis has greatly clarified evolutionary relationships among taxa and also indicated that species diversity has been severely underestimated. Here we provide a morphological and molecular appraisal of variation in the T. cephalus species-group and find evidence for recognizing five species-level lineages from Western Australia. Four species-level lineages are strongly supported with a combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA Bayesian analysis (a fifth population from the Gascoyne region lacked tissue samples). Morphologically, we found subtle, yet consistent, differences among the populations in scalation, color and pattern. True T. cephalus Günther is restricted to the coastal Pilbara region and characterized by five dark blotches on the dorsum, keeled ventrals, and other characters. Two other lineages within the Pilbara, from the Hamersley range and Fortescue/northern Pilbara region, differed from T. cephalus senso stricto by possessing a more elongate body and a plain dorsum. Furthermore, the Hamersley lineage differed from the Fortescue lineage by possessing slightly more reddish coloration and feeble keeling on the snout. Although there are few specimens and no tissue samples available for the Gascoyne population, these individuals are larger, have rugose scales on the snout, and possess scattered enlarged tubercles with three large blotches on the dorsum. The name T. cephalus gigas Mitchell is available for this population. The most widespread lineage, and the one best represented in collections and in field guides, occurs throughout central Western Australia. These Goldfield populations are characterized by a protruding snout, narrow rostral, and uniform reddish-brown coloration, often with a dark wash. Based on the genetic and morphological differences, we redescribe T. cephalus, resurrect and elevate T. gigas to a full species and designate a neotype for this taxon

  16. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    PubMed

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs.

  17. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  18. The Effects of Residency and Body Size on Contest Initiation and Outcome in the Territorial Dragon, Ctenophorus decresii

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Osborne, Louise; Keogh, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies of the determinants of contests have been attempting to unravel the complexity of animal contest behaviour for decades. This complexity requires that experiments incorporate multiple determinants into studies to tease apart their relative effects. In this study we examined the complex contest behaviour of the tawny dragon (Ctenophorus decresii), a territorial agamid lizard, with the specific aim of defining the factors that determine contest outcome. We manipulated the relative size and residency status of lizards in contests to weight their importance in determining contest outcome. We found that size, residency and initiating a fight were all important in determining outcomes of fights. We also tested whether residency or size was important in predicting the status of lizard that initiated a fight. We found that residency was the most important factor in predicting fight initiation. We discuss the effects of size and residency status in context of previous studies on contests in tawny dragons and other animals. Our study provides manipulative behavioural data in support of the overriding effects of residency on initiation fights and winning them. PMID:23077558

  19. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains of hemoglobins from Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis and phylogenetic relationships of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Fushitani, K; Higashiyama, K; Moriyama, E N; Imai, K; Hosokawa, K

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among amniotes and the evolution of alpha globins, hemoglobins were analyzed from the Komodo dragon (Komodo monitor lizard) Varanus komodoensis, the world's largest extant lizard, inhabiting Komodo Islands, Indonesia. Four unique globin chains (alpha A, alpha D, beta B, and beta C) were isolated in an equal molar ratio by high performance liquid chromatography from the hemolysate. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains were determined. The alpha D chain has a glutamine at E7 as does an alpha chain of a snake, Liophis miliaris, but the alpha A chain has a histidine at E7 like the majority of hemoglobins. Phylogenetic analyses of 19 globins including two alpha chains of Komodo dragon and ones from representative amniotes showed the following results: (1) The a chains of squamates (snakes and lizards), which have a glutamine at E7, are clustered with the embryonic alpha globin family, which typically includes the alpha D chain from birds; (2) birds form a sister group with other reptiles but not with mammals; (3) the genes for embryonic and adult types of alpha globins were possibly produced by duplication of the ancestral alpha gene before ancestral amniotes diverged, indicating that each of the present amniotes might carry descendants of the two types of alpha globin genes; (4) squamates first split off from the ancestor of other reptiles and birds.

  20. Contrasting effects of landscape features on genetic structure in different geographic regions in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus.

    PubMed

    Levy, Esther; Tomkins, Joseph L; Lebas, Natasha R; Kennington, W Jason

    2013-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation can have profound effects on the distribution of genetic variation within and between populations. Previously, we showed that in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus, lizards residing on outcrops that are separated by cleared agricultural land are significantly more isolated and hold less genetic variation than lizards residing on neighbouring outcrops connected by undisturbed native vegetation. Here, we extend the fine-scale study to examine the pattern of genetic variation and population structure across the species' range. Using a landscape genetics approach, we test whether land clearing for agricultural purposes has affected the population structure of the ornate dragon lizard. We found significant genetic differentiation between outcrop populations (FST  = 0.12), as well as isolation by distance within each geographic region. In support of our previous study, land clearing was associated with higher genetic divergences between outcrops and lower genetic variation within outcrops, but only in the region that had been exposed to intense agriculture for the longest period of time. No other landscape features influenced population structure in any geographic region. These results show that the effects of landscape features can vary across species' ranges and suggest there may be a temporal lag in response to contemporary changes in land use. These findings therefore highlight the need for caution when assessing the impact of contemporary land use practices on genetic variation and population structure.

  1. Diversification patterns of pebble-mimic dragons are consistent with historical disruption of important habitat corridors in arid Australia.

    PubMed

    Shoo, L P; Rose, R; Doughty, P; Austin, J J; Melville, J

    2008-08-01

    The pebble-mimic dragon lineage of Tympanocryptis is widely distributed in the stony, or 'gibber', deserts of Australia but is noticeably absent from intersecting areas of sand deserts. Past fluctuations in the extent and configuration of sandy desert habitat barriers are likely to have been an import factor promoting genetic differentiation in this group. We sequenced a approximately 1400bp region of mitochondrial DNA and a approximately 1400bp nuclear gene (RAG-1) to investigate phylogeographic structuring of species of pebble-mimic dragons. Our topology indicates an early split in this lineage between eastern and western parts of the arid zone that probably dates to the mid-Miocene. This split corresponds directly with large expanses of contemporary sandy habitat in the form of Great Sandy and Great Victoria Deserts. Our data indicate that this biogeographic barrier established very early on in the development of the arid zone and has persisted to present. Additional genetic structuring in the absence of recognized barriers suggests that an expanded view of potential habitat barriers in the arid zone is required.

  2. Radiographic anatomy and barium sulfate contrast transit time of the gastrointestinal tract of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Daniaux, Lise; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Weber, Ernest Scott; Zwingenberger, Allison; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The positive contrast gastrointestinal study is a common non-invasive diagnostic technique that does not require anesthesia and enables good visualization of the digestive tract. Radiographic anatomy and reference intervals for gastrointestinal contrast transit time in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were established using seven animals administered 15 ml/kg of a 35% w/v suspension of barium by esophageal gavage. Dorso-ventral and lateral radiographic views were performed at 0, 15, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 h, and then every 12 h up to 96 h after barium administration. Gastric emptying was complete at a median time of 10 h (range 4-24 h). Median jejunum and small intestinal emptying times were 1 h (range 30 min-2 h) and 29 h (range 24-48 h), respectively. Median transit time for cecum was 10 h (range 8-12 h). Median time for contrast to reach the colon was 31 h (range 12-72 h) after administration. Results were compared to those obtained in other reptilian species. This technique appeared safe in fasted bearded dragons and would be clinically applicable in other lizard species.

  3. Voriconazole, a safe alternative for treating infections caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Van Waeyenberghe, L; Baert, K; Pasmans, F; van Rooij, P; Hellebuyck, T; Beernaert, L; de Backer, P; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

    2010-09-01

    Dermal and systemic infections caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) are highly prevalent in reptiles and may result in severe disease and high mortality. Due to the high incidence of therapeutic failures, optimizing treatment is required. We first determined in this study the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine against 32 CANV isolates. For voriconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine a monomodal MIC distribution was seen, whereas a bimodal MIC distribution was present for itraconazole, indicating acquired resistance in one isolate. Fourteen naturally-infected bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), from the same owner, were treated orally with either itraconazole (5 mg/kg q24h) or voriconazole (10 mg/kg q24h). The clinical condition, drug plasma concentrations and the presence of CANV in skin samples were followed. The animals were treated until complete clearance of the fungus. The plasma concentrations of voriconazole and itraconazole exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the CANV isolates. Elimination of CANV was achieved on average after 27 and 47 days of treatment with itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Whereas only 2 out of 7 survived after itraconazole treatment, only a single animal died in the voriconazole treated group. In conclusion, based on a limited number of animals, voriconazole applied at a regimen of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) q24h seems to be a safe and effective antimycotic drug to eliminate CANV infections in bearded dragons.

  4. Deep fungal dermatitis in three inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Michelle R; Paré, Jean A; Sigler, Lynne; Naeser, John P; Sladky, Kurt K; Hanley, Chris S; Helmer, Peter; Phillips, Lynette A; Brower, Alexandra; Porter, Robert

    2007-06-01

    The Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), a keratinophilic fungus that naturally and experimentally causes severe and often fatal dermatitis in multiple reptile species, was isolated in pure culture from skin samples of three inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) with deep granulomatous dermatomycosis. The first animal presented with a focal maxillary swelling involving the skin and gingiva. This lizard died while undergoing itraconazole and topical miconazole therapy. The second presented with focally extensive discoloration and thickening of the skin of the ventrum and was euthanized after 10 weeks of itraconazole therapy. A third lizard presented with hyperkeratotic exudative dermatitis on a markedly swollen forelimb. Amputation and itraconazole therapy resulted in a clinical cure. Histopathology of tissue biopsies in all cases demonstrated granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional hyphae morphologically consistent with those produced by the CANV. The second lizard also had granulomatous hepatitis with intralesional hyphae. Evidence in this report suggests that the CANV is the etiologic agent of an emerging condition in captive bearded dragons that has been called 'yellow fungus disease'.

  5. DEVRIESEASIS IN A PLUMED BASILISK (BASILISCUS PLUMIFRONS) AND CHINESE WATER DRAGONS (PHYSIGNATHUS COCINCINUS) IN A ZOOLOGIC COLLECTION.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Christophe; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Brawand, Stefanie Gobeli; Thomann, Andreas; Brodard, Isabelle; Jermann, Thomas; Posthaus, Horst

    2016-03-01

    Devriesea agamarum is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first described in 2008 as a causative agent of disease in lizards. Until today, reports from several countries reported the presence of this bacterium in various lizard species, which suggests a wide distribution among lizard collections. Pathologic lesions ranged from proliferative dermatitis and cheilitis to abscesses in multiple organs and septicemia in single animals, as well as entire groups. Until now, disease caused by D. agamarum has been reported in several lizard species. Because the bacterium is only identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and no commercially available identification systems contain the agent in their database, it may be underdiagnosed. This report describes a series of fatal devrieseasis in plumed basilisks (Basiliscus plumifrons) and Chinese water dragons (Physignathus cocincinus) from a zoologic collection and extends the range of susceptible species. In 3 mo, five animals died with pyogranulomatous lesions in the subcutis, the coelomic cavity, or multiple organs. In all cases, diffuse swelling or focal skin elevations of different body parts were observed. Devriesea agamarum could be isolated from lesions in all animals. A subsequent clinical survey of the lizard collection including bacteriologic investigation of oral cavity swabs indicated that bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were carriers of D. agamarum, which suggests that this species could be a source of infection with this pathogen.

  6. Evaluation of aerosol optical properties of GEOS-Chem over East Asia during the DRAGON-Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, D. S.; Park, R.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    A nested version of 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-02) is evaluated over East Asia during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia 2012 campaign period, focusing on fine-mode aerosol optical depth (fAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). Both are important to assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. We compare the daily mean simulated optical properties of aerosols with the observations from DRAGON-Asia campaign for March-May, 2012 (provided in level 2.0: cloud screened and quality assured). We find that the model reproduces the observed daily variability of fAOD (R=0.67), but overestimates the magnitude by 30%, which is in general consistent with other global model comparisons from ACCMIP. However, a significant high bias in the model is found compared to the observed SSA at 440 nm, which is important for determining the sign of aerosol radiative forcing. In order to understand causes for this gap we conduct several sensitivity tests by changing source magnitudes and input parameters of aerosols, affecting the aerosol optical properties under various atmospheric conditions, which allows us to reduce the gap and to find the optimal values in the model.

  7. Nano-LC-ESI MS/MS analysis of proteins in dried sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii and bioinformatic analysis of its protein expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Li-Xing; Li, Lu; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2016-09-01

    The sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as male impotency. To gain a comprehensive insight into the protein components of the sea dragon, shotgun proteomic analysis of its protein expression profiling was conducted in the present study. Proteins were extracted from dried sea dragon using a trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation method and then separated by SDS-PAGE. The protein bands were cut from the gel and digested by trypsin to generate peptide mixture. The peptide fragments were then analyzed using nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI MS/MS). 810 proteins and 1 577 peptides were identified in the dried sea dragon. The identified proteins exhibited molecular weight values ranging from 1 900 to 3 516 900 Da and pI values from 3.8 to 12.18. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted using the DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 Gene Ontology (GO) analysis tool to explore possible functions of the identified proteins. Ascribed functions of the proteins mainly included intracellular non-membrane-bound organelle, non-membrane-bounded organelle, cytoskeleton, structural molecule activity, calcium ion binding and etc. Furthermore, possible signal networks of the identified proteins were predicted using STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes) database. Ribosomal protein synthesis was found to play an important role in the signal network. The results of this study, to best of our knowledge, were the first to provide a reference proteome profile for the sea dragon, and would aid in the understanding of the expression and functions of the identified proteins.

  8. [Inheritance of organelle genomes of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and flying dragon (Poncirus trifoliata)].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Guo, Wen-Wu; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2002-04-01

    Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) was successfully applied to analyze the organelle composition of three eight-year-old trees of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Flying Dragon (Poncirus trifoliata). Five chloroplast and five mitochondrial universal primer pairs were used. All chloroplast primer pairs (rbcL-rbcL, rbcL-PSA I, TrnH-Trnk, TrnD-TrnT, TrnK-TrnK) and three (nad 1 exon B-nad 1 exon C, 18S rRNA-5S rRNA, nad 4 exon 1-nad 4 exon 2) of the five mitochondrial primer pairs, were efficiently amplified, but no polymorphism was detected, when the PCR products were digested by eleven restriction endonucleases, including, Hin6 I, Bus RI, Taq I, Msp I, HinfI, AluI, Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I respectively, three polymorphic cpDNA-CAPS markers (rbcL-rbcL/Hin 6 I, TrnD-TrnT/BusR I, TrnD-TrnT/Taq I) and one mtDNA-CAPS marker (nad 1-nad1/Msp I) were found. The results showed that cpDNA in the somatic hybrid plants came from Flying Dragon, the mesophyll parent, and mtDNA from Cleopatra mandarin, the embryogenic suspension parent uniformly. In order to prove the reliability of CAPS results, and to get more detailed information about the mtDNA inheritance, RFLP analyses was conducted. Genomic DNA of the somatic hybrids and their corresponding parents were digested by five restriction endonucleases (Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I), and hybridized with five mitochondrial probes (Cob, Pro 2, Pro I, atp 6, 26S rRNA) as well as one chloroplast probe, i.e. the PCR product of Flying Dragon with the primer pair of trnd 1-trnt 1. The results were in line with those of CAPS, and no novel bands were detected, which indicated that no organelle DNA recombination or rearrangement have been detected in the hybrid plants. The research showed that novel pattern of nuclear-mitochondria-chloroplast interaction could be reached via protoplast fusion.

  9. Vertical profiling of Asian dust with multi-wavelength aerosol depolarization Raman lidar in Gwangju, Korea during DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, D.; Mueller, D.; Noh, Y.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) campaign, which was carried out in Korea from March to May 2013, aimed at validating satellite remote sensing data of aerosol optical and microphysical parameters. Anthropogenic pollution and Asian dust from the East Asian Mainland prevailed over the Korean peninsula during the DRAGON campaign. Validation of the data products requires knowledge on the vertical distribution of aerosol pollution and the knowledge of aerosol types, e.g., urban haze and dust. For this purpose we operated a multi-wavelength aerosol depolarization Raman lidar on the campus of the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) in Gwangju, Korea (35.10° N, 126.53° E). The system provides us with particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, and the linear particle depolarization ratio at 532nm. Two upgraded sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) with improved capabilities for dust measurements were also deployed. In our contribution we will present optical properties of Asian dust on the basis of lidar and sun photometer observations. One sun photometer was equipped with a measurement channel at 1640 nm channel and the second sun photometer carried out polarization measurements. Data could be collected on thirty-eight days We analyzed the geometrical and optical properties of Asian dust on the basis of backward trajectories in order to identify the main source regions of the observed dust layers. The height resolved statistical analysis of the DRAGON dataset reveals that the geometrical depth of the Asian dust layers was between 1 km and 4 km in 72% of all cases. Geometrical depths above 4 km were found in 20% of all cases. We found geometrical depths of 10 km in 3.3% of all cases. The vertical distribution of the dust layers was typically located in two different heights. In 51.5% of the measurements we observed Asian dust between 4 and 11km

  10. Application of AERONET Single Scattering Albedo and Absorption Angstrom Exponent to Classify Dominant Aerosol Types during DRAGON Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols can have major implications on human health by inducing respiratory diseases due to inhalation of fine particles from biomass burning smoke or industrial pollution and on radiative forcing whereby the presence of absorbing aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) increases atmospheric heating. Aerosol classification techniques have utilized aerosol loading and aerosol properties derived from multi-spectral and multi-angle observations by ground-based (e.g., AERONET) and satellite instrumentation (e.g., MISR). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data have been utilized to determine aerosol types by implementing various combinations of measured aerosol optical depth or retrieved size and absorption aerosol properties (e.g., Gobbi et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010). Giles et al. [2012] showed single scattering albedo (SSA) relationship with extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) can provide an estimate of the general classification of dominant aerosol types (i.e., desert dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, and mixtures) based on data from ~20 AERONET sites located in known aerosol source regions. In addition, the absorption Angstrom exponent relationship with EAE can provide an indication of the dominant absorbing aerosol type such as dust, black carbon, brown carbon, or mixtures of them. These classification techniques are applied to the AERONET Level 2.0 quality assured data sets collected during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network (DRAGON) campaigns in Maryland (USA), Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Penang (Malaysia), and California (USA). An analysis of aerosol type classification for DRAGON sites is performed as well as an assessment of the spatial variability of the aerosol types for selected DRAGON campaigns. Giles, D. M., B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Sinyuk, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, R. R. Dickerson, A. M. Thompson, and J. S. Schafer (2012), An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications

  11. A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus.

    PubMed

    Fry, Bryan G; Wroe, Stephen; Teeuwisse, Wouter; van Osch, Matthias J P; Moreno, Karen; Ingle, Janette; McHenry, Colin; Ferrara, Toni; Clausen, Phillip; Scheib, Holger; Winter, Kelly L; Greisman, Laura; Roelants, Kim; van der Weerd, Louise; Clemente, Christofer J; Giannakis, Eleni; Hodgson, Wayne C; Luz, Sonja; Martelli, Paolo; Krishnasamy, Karthiyani; Kochva, Elazar; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scanlon, Denis; Karas, John; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C; McNaughtan, Judith E; Norman, Janette A

    2009-06-02

    The predatory ecology of Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) has been a subject of long-standing interest and considerable conjecture. Here, we investigate the roles and potential interplay between cranial mechanics, toxic bacteria, and venom. Our analyses point to the presence of a sophisticated combined-arsenal killing apparatus. We find that the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads. We reject the popular notion regarding toxic bacteria utilization. Instead, we demonstrate that the effects of deep wounds inflicted are potentiated through venom with toxic activities including anticoagulation and shock induction. Anatomical comparisons of V. komodoensis with V. (Megalania) priscus fossils suggest that the closely related extinct giant was the largest venomous animal to have ever lived.

  12. Four colorful new species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from northern Thailand (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Srisonchai, Ruttapon; Enghoff, Henrik; Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Panha, Somsak

    2016-09-22

    Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga. The coloration of all new species is clearly aposematic: ranging from purple-pink to red. The new species are discussed in relation to their congeners, and a distribution map is provided.

  13. A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Bryan G.; Wroe, Stephen; Teeuwisse, Wouter; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Moreno, Karen; Ingle, Janette; McHenry, Colin; Ferrara, Toni; Clausen, Phillip; Scheib, Holger; Winter, Kelly L.; Greisman, Laura; Roelants, Kim; van der Weerd, Louise; Clemente, Christofer J.; Giannakis, Eleni; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Luz, Sonja; Martelli, Paolo; Krishnasamy, Karthiyani; Kochva, Elazar; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scanlon, Denis; Karas, John; Citron, Diane M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Mcnaughtan, Judith E.; Norman, Janette A.

    2009-01-01

    The predatory ecology of Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) has been a subject of long-standing interest and considerable conjecture. Here, we investigate the roles and potential interplay between cranial mechanics, toxic bacteria, and venom. Our analyses point to the presence of a sophisticated combined-arsenal killing apparatus. We find that the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads. We reject the popular notion regarding toxic bacteria utilization. Instead, we demonstrate that the effects of deep wounds inflicted are potentiated through venom with toxic activities including anticoagulation and shock induction. Anatomical comparisons of V. komodoensis with V. (Megalania) priscus fossils suggest that the closely related extinct giant was the largest venomous animal to have ever lived. PMID:19451641

  14. [Evaluation of a number of commercial diets for iguana (Iguana iguana), bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), and land and marsh tortoises].

    PubMed

    Kik, M J; Beynen, A C

    2003-09-15

    Fifteen commercially available, complete diets for iguanas, bearded dragons, and chelonians were analysed and compared with the ideal composition of a diet formulated by the authors. The clinical risks of feeding with a too high or a too low content of specific nutrients are described. Nutrient deficiencies are not expected if these diets are the sole source of nutrients. However, one diet had only a marginally adequate protein content, five diets for herbivorous reptiles contained a too low percentage of crude fibre, three diets contained an undesirably high percentage of calcium, and three diets had an extremely high iron content. As a rule, the calcium and iron contents of diets are not declared on the food label, which complicates evaluation of the diets.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  16. Required Operational Capability (ROC) Number INS 211.3.1 for the Medium Assault/Antitank Weapon (MAAW) M47 Dragon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-14

    II AD-AI69 682 REQUIRED OPERATIONAL CAPASILITY (RRC) NUMSER INS 21131 lf FOR THE NEDIUM ASSAULT/ANTITANK HERPON CNAAN ) N4? DRAGON(U) NAINE CORPS...tracked vehicles over rough terrain and be capable of airdrop in resupply bundles. (8) Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability- Durability ( RAM -D...designed to facilitate use of automatic test equipment. The RAM -D requirements over the life of the system are: (a) Operational availability of the

  17. Post-Flight Evaluation of PICA and PICA-X - Comparisons of the Stardust SRC and Space-X Dragon 1 Forebody Heatshield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, M.; Kao, D.; Qu, V.; Gonzales, G.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. As a thermal protection material, PICA has the advantages of being able to withstand high heat fluxes with a relatively low density. This ablative material was used as the forebody heat shield material for the Stardust sample return capsule, which re-entered the Earths atmosphere in 2006. Based on PICA, SpaceX developed a variant, PICA-X, and used it as the heat shield material for its Dragon spacecraft, which successfully orbited the Earth and re-entered the atmosphere during the COTS Demo Flight 1 in 2010. Post-flight analysis was previously performed on the Stardust PICA heat shield material. Similarly, a near-stagnation core was obtained from the post-flight Dragon 1 heat shield, which was retrieved from the Pacific Ocean. Materials testing and analyses were performed on the core to evaluate its ablation performance and post-flight properties. Comparisons between PICA and PICA-X are made where applicable. Stardust and Dragon offer rare opportunities to evaluate materials post-flight - this data is beneficial in understanding material performance and also improves modeling capabilities.

  18. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  19. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked

  20. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ruokun; Wang, Rui; Sun, Peng; Zhao, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked

  1. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality.

  2. Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, L C; Stevens, M; Stuart-Fox, D

    2013-05-01

    Intraspecific colour variation is common in nature and can vary from the coexistence of discrete colour variants in polymorphic species to continuous variation. Whether coloration is continuous or discrete is often ambiguous and many species exhibit a combination of the two. The nature of the variation (discrete or continuous) has implications for both the genetic basis of the colour variation and the evolutionary processes generating and maintaining it. Consequently, it is important to qualify the existence of discrete morphs, particularly in relation to the animal's visual system. In this study, we quantified male throat colour variation in Ctenophorus decresii tawny dragon lizard and tested for morphological and ecological correlates of the colour variants. We confirmed that discrete throat colour morphs can be defined based on colour and pattern analyses independent of the human visual system. We also found that the colour variants differed in their conspicuousness from the background, to the lizard's visual system, which has implications for signalling. However, the morphs did not differ in morphology or microhabitat use, which suggests that these characteristics are not involved in the evolutionary maintenance of the polymorphism.

  3. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D’Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate ‘space-frame’ skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503

  4. The effects of biting and pulling on the forces generated during feeding in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Domenic C; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics.

  5. The Effects of Biting and Pulling on the Forces Generated during Feeding in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

    PubMed Central

    D'Amore, Domenic C.; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R.; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics. PMID:22028837

  6. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-06-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics.

  7. The 9 September 2010 torrential rain and flash flood in the Dragone catchment, Atrani, Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, C.; Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Tranfaglia, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we use a multi-hazard approach to analyse the 9 September 2010 flash-flood occurred in the Dragone basin, a 9 km2 catchment located along the Amalfi rocky coastal range, Southern Italy. In this area, alluvial-fan-flooding is the most frequent and destructive geologic hazards since Roman time. Sudden torrent of waters (flash flood) are caused by high-intensity and very localized cloudbursts of short duration inducing slope erosion and sediment delivery from slope-to-stream. The elevated bed load transport produces fast-moving hyperconcentrated flows with significant catastrophic implications for communities living at stream mouth. The 9 September 2010 rainstorm event lasted 1 h with an intensity rainfall peak nearly to 120 mm h-1. High topographic relief of the Amalfi coastal range and positive anomalies of the coastal waters conditioned the character of the convective system. Based on geological data and post-event field evidence and surveys, as well as homemade-videos, and eyewitness accounts the consequent flash-flood mobilized some 25 000 m3 of materials with a total (water and sediment) peak flow of 80 m3 s-1. The estimated peak discharge of only clear water was about 65 m3 s-1. This leads to a sediment bulking factor of 1.2 that corresponds to a flow with velocities similar to those of water during a flood.

  8. The 9 September 2010 torrential rain and flash flood in the Dragone catchment, Atrani, Amalfi Coast (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, C.; Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Tranfaglia, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we use a multi-hazard approach to analyse the 9 September 2010 flash flood in the Dragone basin, a 9 km2 catchment located along the Amalfi rocky coastal range, southern Italy. In this area, alluvial fan flooding has been the most frequent and destructive geologic hazard since Roman times. Sudden torrents of water (flash floods) are caused by high-intensity and very localized cloudbursts of short duration, inducing slope erosion and sediment delivery from slope to stream. The elevated bed load transport produces fast-moving hyperconcentrated flows with significant catastrophic implications for communities living at the stream mouth. The 9 September 2010 rainstorm event lasted 1 h with an intensity rainfall peak of nearly 120 mm h-1. High topographic relief of the Amalfi coastal range and positive anomalies of the coastal waters conditioned the character of the convective system. Based on geological data and post-event field evidence and surveys, as well as homemade videos and eyewitness accounts, it is reported that the flash flood mobilized some 25 000 m3 of materials with a total (water and sediment) peak flow of 80 m3 s-1. The estimated peak discharge of only clear water was about 65 m3 s-1. This leads to a sediment bulking factor of 1.2 that corresponds to a flow with velocities similar to those of water during a flood.

  9. The effect of thermal quality on the thermoregulatory behavior of the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps: influences of methodological assessment.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Viviana; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic functions are generally optimized within a narrow range of body temperatures (T(b)'s), conferring thermoregulation great importance to the survival and fitness of an animal. In lizards, T(b) regulation is mainly behavioral, and the metabolic costs associated with behavioral thermoregulation are primarily locomotory. In reptiles, however, it has been proposed that they thermoregulate less precisely when the associated costs, metabolic or otherwise, are high. Such a strategy enhances fitness by allowing lizards to be more flexible to changing environmental conditions while maximizing the benefits of maintaining a high T(b) and minimizing energy expenditure. We evaluated the behavioral thermoregulation of inland bearded dragons Pogona vitticeps under various thermal quality conditions requiring different locomotory investment for thermoregulation. The selected ambient temperature and preferred T(b) ranges increased at lower environmental thermal qualities, indicating a decrease in thermoregulatory precision in environments where the costs associated with thermoregulation were high. The level of thermoregulation was also affected, exhibiting a decrease in preferred T(b) of approximately 2 degrees C at the lowest-thermal-quality treatment. These data provide important implications for the procedural assessment of preferred T(b) and a better understanding of thermal set points in reptiles in general. Our results emphasize that the precise maintenance and assessment of preferred T(b) is contingent on the quality of the environment, laboratory or natural, that the animal inhabits.

  10. Plasma level monitoring of the major metabolites of diacetylmorphine (heroin) by the "chasing the dragon" route in severe heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Dubois, N; Demaret, I; Ansseau, M; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Charlier, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify if severe physical health problems frequently encountered in heroin addicts and the concomitant use of alcohol and legal or illegal drugs other than heroin influenced the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of heroin. We conducted a 90 minutes follow-up of the plasma concentrations of the pharmaceutical heroin, named diacetylmorphine (DAM), in patients recruited in a DAM assisted treatment centre. TADAM (Traitement Assisté par DiAcétylMorphine) aimed to compare the efficacy of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for heroin users considered as treatment resistant patients and who have severe physical and mental health problems. Eleven patients were recruited. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 45 and 90 minutes after DAM administration. All patients received DAM by the "chasing the dragon" route. Plasma samples were analyzed by a previously described ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) method. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and 8 metabolite concentrations ratios were calculated to evaluate the influence of various factors (DAM dose, patient pathologies, concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin, alcohol and cocaine) on heroin metabolite pharmacokinetics. It seemed to be not affected by the DAM dose, patient pathologies and the concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin and alcohol. Cocaine use was the only parameter which showed differences in heroin pharmacokinetics.

  11. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  12. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION AND RECOVERY PARAMETERS IN BEARDED DRAGONS (POGONA VITTICEPS): COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE DELIVERED IN 100% OXYGEN VERSUS 21% OXYGEN.

    PubMed

    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs.

  13. Renal myxozoanosis in weedy sea dragons, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède), caused by Sinuolinea phyllopteryxa n. sp.

    PubMed

    Garner, M M; Atkinson, S D; Hallett, S L; Bartholomew, J L; Nordhausen, R W; Reed, H; Adams, L; Whitaker, B

    2008-01-01

    Renal myxozoanosis was diagnosed histologically in 11 captive, wild caught, adult weedy (common) sea dragons, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, from three separate public aquaria in the United States. Myxozoan spores were visible in wet mounts of kidney tissue and were associated with renal tubular dilatation and tubular epithelial cell hypertrophy. Light and electron microscopy revealed spore morphology consistent with the genus Sinuolinea. Spores were spheroidal, slightly dorso-ventrally compressed, length (L) 17.1 x width (W) 16.4 x thickness (T) 15.6 microm, with two shell valves joined at a distinct, sinuous sutural ridge, and had two nearly spherical polar capsules, L 5.5 x W 5.0 microm, with five to seven turns of the polar filament. There were no extra-valvular ridges or protrusions. DNA sequencing required the design of three new primers that yielded 1740 bp of 18S ribosomal DNA sequence. The parasite was determined to be novel based on morphological and molecular data, and was given the name Sinuolinea phyllopteryxa after its vertebrate host.

  14. Optimization of processing parameters for extraction of amylase enzyme from dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Zohdi, Norkhanani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1:2 to 1:6, w/w), temperature (-18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%).

  15. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Extraction of Amylase Enzyme from Dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Zohdi, Norkhanani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1 : 2 to 1 : 6, w/w), temperature (−18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%). PMID:25050403

  16. Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation and UVb exposure on the growth and plasma concentration of vitamin D3 metabolites in juvenile bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; Stevens, Y; van den Borne, J J G C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of dietary vitamin D3 and UVb exposure on plasma vitamin D metabolites in growing bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was studied. A total of 84 (40 males and 44 females) newly hatched bearded dragons were allocated to six levels of oral vitamin D3 supplementation (0 to 400%) or six UVb exposure times (2 to 12 h). At 3 and 6 months of age, blood samples were obtained from each animal and analysed for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3. At 3 months of age, plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 did not increase with increasing vitamin D3 supplementation unlike the 1,25(OH)2D3. At 6 months of age, plasma concentrations of both 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)2D3 increased with increasing vitamin D(3) supplementation. Plasma concentrations in UVb-exposed animals were 18 times higher for 25(OH)D3 (178.4+/-9.0 vs. 9.9+/-1.3 nmol/L) and 5.3 times higher for 1,25(OH)2D3 (1.205+/-0.100 vs. 0.229+/-0.025 nmol/L) than in vitamin D(3) supplemented animals at 6 months of age. This study shows that 2h of UVb exposure enables adequate physiological concentrations of plasma vitamin D metabolites to be maintained in growing bearded dragons. Oral supplementation of vitamin D(3) is ineffective in raising plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 to concentrations observed in UVb-exposed animals.

  17. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha < or = 0.05). No significant differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities at any of the three time points were found. All variables significantly increased from T1 to T3 (CIRC10: difference, d = 0.49 cm, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.25-0.73, P = 0.000; CIRC15: d = 1.33 cm, CI = 0.78-1.88, P = 0.000; VOL: d = 100 mL, CI = 69-130, P = 0.000). As well, 1-RM significantly increased from T1 to T3 (d = 10.8 kg, CI = 5.6-16.1; P = 0.000). In summary, participation in a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume.

  18. Dragon pulse information management system (DPIMS): A unique model-based approach to implementing domain agnostic system of systems and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    The Global Information Network Architecture is an information technology based on Vector Relational Data Modeling, a unique computational paradigm, DoD network certified by USARMY as the Dragon Pulse Informa- tion Management System. This network available modeling environment for modeling models, where models are configured using domain relevant semantics and use network available systems, sensors, databases and services as loosely coupled component objects and are executable applications. Solutions are based on mission tactics, techniques, and procedures and subject matter input. Three recent ARMY use cases are discussed a) ISR SoS. b) Modeling and simulation behavior validation. c) Networked digital library with behaviors.

  19. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components.

  20. Techniques for Sea Ice Characteristics Extraction and Sea Ice Monitoring Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data in the Bohai Sea-Dragon 3 Programme Final Report (2012-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of Dragon-3 programme (ID: 10501) are to develop methods for classification sea ice types and retrieving ice thickness based on multi-sensor data. In this final results paper, we give a briefly introduction for our research work and mainly results. Key words: the Bohai Sea ice, Sea ice, optical and

  1. Testosterone-Induced Expression of Male Colour Morphs in Females of the Polymorphic Tawny Dragon Lizard, Ctenophorus decresii.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Katrina; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2015-01-01

    Many colour polymorphisms are present only in one sex, usually males, but proximate mechanisms controlling the expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms have received little attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that artificial elevation of testosterone in females of the colour polymorphic tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, can induce them to express the same colour morphs, in similar frequencies, to those found in males. Male C. decresii, express four discrete throat colour morphs (orange, yellow, grey and an orange central patch surrounded by yellow). We used silastic implants to experimentally elevate testosterone levels in mature females to induce colour expression. Testosterone elevation resulted in a substantial increase in the proportion and intensity of orange but not yellow colouration, which was present in a subset of females prior to treatment. Consequently, females exhibited the same set of colour morphs as males, and we confirmed that these morphs are objectively classifiable, by using digital image analyses and spectral reflectance measurements, and occur in similar frequencies as in males. These results indicate that the influence of testosterone differs for different colours, suggesting that their expression may be governed by different proximate hormonal mechanisms. Thus, caution must be exercised when using artificial testosterone manipulation to induce female expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms. Nevertheless, the ability to express sex-limited colours (in this case orange) to reveal the same, objectively classifiable morphs in similar frequencies to males suggests autosomal rather than sex-linked inheritance, and can facilitate further research on the genetic basis of colour polymorphism, including estimating heritability and selection on colour morphs from pedigree data.

  2. Testosterone-Induced Expression of Male Colour Morphs in Females of the Polymorphic Tawny Dragon Lizard, Ctenophorus decresii

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Katrina; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2015-01-01

    Many colour polymorphisms are present only in one sex, usually males, but proximate mechanisms controlling the expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms have received little attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that artificial elevation of testosterone in females of the colour polymorphic tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, can induce them to express the same colour morphs, in similar frequencies, to those found in males. Male C. decresii, express four discrete throat colour morphs (orange, yellow, grey and an orange central patch surrounded by yellow). We used silastic implants to experimentally elevate testosterone levels in mature females to induce colour expression. Testosterone elevation resulted in a substantial increase in the proportion and intensity of orange but not yellow colouration, which was present in a subset of females prior to treatment. Consequently, females exhibited the same set of colour morphs as males, and we confirmed that these morphs are objectively classifiable, by using digital image analyses and spectral reflectance measurements, and occur in similar frequencies as in males. These results indicate that the influence of testosterone differs for different colours, suggesting that their expression may be governed by different proximate hormonal mechanisms. Thus, caution must be exercised when using artificial testosterone manipulation to induce female expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms. Nevertheless, the ability to express sex-limited colours (in this case orange) to reveal the same, objectively classifiable morphs in similar frequencies to males suggests autosomal rather than sex-linked inheritance, and can facilitate further research on the genetic basis of colour polymorphism, including estimating heritability and selection on colour morphs from pedigree data. PMID:26485705

  3. Characterization of Metarhizium viride Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus), Panther Chameleons (Furcifer pardalis), and Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Klasen, Linus; Schneider, Juliane; Hübel, Jens; Pees, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Metarhizium viride has been associated with fatal systemic mycoses in chameleons, but subsequent data on mycoses caused by this fungus in reptiles are lacking. The aim of this investigation was therefore to obtain information on the presence of M. viride in reptiles kept as pets in captivity and its association with clinical signs and pathological findings as well as improvement of diagnostic procedures. Beside 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (small subunit [SSU]) and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1), a fragment of the large subunit (LSU) of 28S rDNA, including domain 1 (D1) and D2, was sequenced for the identification of the fungus and phylogenetic analysis. Cultural isolation and histopathological examinations as well as the pattern of antifungal drug resistance, determined by using agar diffusion testing, were additionally used for comparison of the isolates. In total, 20 isolates from eight inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), six veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus), and six panther chameleons (Furcifer pardalis) were examined. Most of the lizards suffered from fungal glossitis, stomatitis, and pharyngitis or died due to visceral mycosis. Treatment with different antifungal drugs according to resistance patterns in all three different lizard species was unsuccessful. Sequence analysis resulted in four different genotypes of M. viride based on differences in the LSU fragment, whereas the SSU and ITS-1 were identical in all isolates. Sequence analysis of the SSU fragment revealed the first presentation of a valid large fragment of the SSU of M. viride According to statistical analysis, genotypes did not correlate with differences in pathogenicity, antifungal susceptibility, or species specificity.

  4. Fueling the dragon: Alternative Chinese oil futures and their implications for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberling, George G.

    This study examines how Chinese oil energy will likely shape future Sino-American relations under conditions of dependency and non-dependency. The study will list and describe three possible Chinese oil energy futures or scenarios (Competitive Dependency, Competitive Surplus and Cooperative Surplus) using Scenario Analysis to subsequently estimate their associated likelihoods using the PRINCE forecasting system and discuss and evaluate their strategic implications for the United States. Further, this study will determine the most likely oil energy future or scenario. Finally, the study will list and describe the most likely United States political, economic and/or military policy responses for each future or scenario. The study contributes to the literature on Chinese and United States energy security, foreign policy, political economy and political risk analysis by showing how China will most likely address its growing oil energy dependence and by determining what will be the most likely U.S. foreign policy consequences based on the most current literature available on energy security and foreign policy.

  5. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes.

  6. A simple non-invasive protocol to establish primary cell lines from tail and toe explants for cytogenetic studies in Australian dragon lizards (Squamata: Agamidae)

    PubMed Central

    O’Meally, Denis; Quinn, Alexander E.; Sarre, Stephen D.; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary cell lines were established from cultures of tail and toe clips of five species of Australian dragon lizards: Tympanocryptis pinguicolla, Tympanocryptis sp., Ctenophorus fordi, Amphibolurus norrisi and Pogona vitticeps. The start of exponential cell growth ranged from 1 to 5 weeks. Cultures from all specimens had fibroblastic morphology. Cell lines were propagated continuously up to ten passages, cryopreserved and recovered successfully. We found no reduction in cell viability after short term (<6 months) storage at −80 °C. Mitotic metaphase chromosomes were harvested from these cell lines and used in differential staining, banding and fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Cell lines maintained normal diploidy in all species. This study reports a simple non-invasive method for establishing primary cell lines from Australian dragon lizards without sacrifice. The method is likely to be applicable to a range of species. Such cell lines provide a virtually unlimited source of material for cytogenetic, evolutionary and genomic studies. PMID:19199067

  7. Development and validation of a novel hydrolysis probe real-time polymerase chain reaction for agamid adenovirus 1 in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-03-01

    Agamid adenovirus 1 (AgAdv-1) is a significant cause of disease in bearded dragons (Pogona sp.). Clinical manifestations of AgAdv-1 infection are variable and often nonspecific; the manifestations range from lethargy, weight loss, and inappetence, to severe enteritis, hepatitis, and sudden death. Currently, diagnosis of AgAdv-1 infection is achieved through a single published method: standard nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing. Standard nPCR with sequencing provides reliable sensitivity, specificity, and validation of PCR products. However, this process is comparatively expensive, laborious, and slow. Probe hybridization, as used in a TaqMan assay, represents the best option for validating PCR products aside from the time-consuming process of sequencing. This study developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using a TaqMan probe-based assay, targeting a highly conserved region of the AgAdv-1 genome. Standard curves were generated, detection results were compared with the gold standard conventional PCR and sequencing assay, and limits of detection were determined. Additionally, the qPCR assay was run on samples known to be positive for AgAdv-1 and samples known to be positive for other adenoviruses. Based on the results of these evaluations, this assay allows for a less expensive, rapid, quantitative detection of AgAdv-1 in bearded dragons.

  8. Decommissioning of the Dragon High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Located at the Former United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Research Site at Winfrith - 13180

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Anthony A.

    2013-07-01

    The Dragon Reactor was constructed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset through the late 1950's and into the early 1960's. It was a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR) with helium gas coolant and graphite moderation. It operated as a fuel testing and demonstration reactor at up to 20 MW (Thermal) from 1964 until 1975, when international funding for this project was terminated. The fuel was removed from the core in 1976 and the reactor was put into Safestore. To meet the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) objective to 'drive hazard reduction' [1] it is necessary to decommission and remediate all the Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) facilities. This includes the Dragon Reactor where the activated core, pressure vessel and control rods and the contaminated primary circuit (including a {sup 90}Sr source) still remain. It is essential to remove these hazards at the appropriate time and return the area occupied by the reactor to a safe condition. (author)

  9. The Sea Dragon Network: Implications of the International Expansion of China’s Maritime Shipping Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    cooperation with other developing nations in the economic, trade, scientific and technological sectors ... and the establishment of a new fair and equitable...terms compared to consumption. As a result, China’s consumer and industrial economic sectors are dependent on foreign imports of oil, gas, minerals...market share for China’s exports of military hardware, chemicals, textiles, and machinery. China’s civilian and military industrial sectors require

  10. Hygroscopic Measurements of Aerosol Particles in the San Joaquin Valley California during the DRAGON and Discover AQ Campaign 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, D.; Delgado, R.; Hoff, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    (RH), showed relatively low hygroscopic growth in the aerosol particles, especially in comparison to a similar experiment conducted in 2012 in the Baltimore-Washington area. In average, during January and early February, the f(RH=85%) was 1.57×0.16 in the sampling site, which leads to the conclusion that the particle loading was dominated by black carbon and remnants of biomass burning. We refer to concurrent speciation measurements by Zhang et al. (private communication) in Fresno, during the study. The implications for sunphotometer measurements in DRAGON are discussed.

  11. Fueling the dragon: Energy security in China -- Is there a role for US policy

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    Many authors talk about the rising power of China and the `China threat.` One area where conflict has frequently been predicted is in China`s pursuit of energy security. This thesis explores China`s energy situation, options available to meet rising demand, environmental impact of these options, and possible ways to mitigate these effects. The thesis then determines to what extent China will be unable to meet its needs from domestic sources and have to look overseas. Then, a review of China`s most likely overseas suppliers will explain where China`s actions could be threatening to US interests, and where fears are overblown. The areas where concern is most warranted is in China`s increasing dependence on imports for its oil needs, and its continued reliance on coal usage. The desire to ensure secure oil supplies has led China to deal with Iran and Iraq, despite US desires to isolate these nations. China is also increasing its influence throughout the Middle East, Central Asia, South America, and retains claims in the South China Sea. While actions in these regions are not necessarily threatening, US policy can play a role in keeping it that way.

  12. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Risco, Ester; Ghia, Felipe; Vila, Roser; Iglesias, José; Alvarez, Elida; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2003-09-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of the latex from Croton lechleri (sangre de drago) was determined by in vitro assays. Classical (CP) and alternative (AP) complement pathways activities were determined in human serum. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, and phagocytosis of opsonised fluorescent microspheres were measured by flow cytometry. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Activity on proliferation of murine lymphocytes was also investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assayed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Some of the activities were compared with those of the isolated alkaloid taspine. Sangre de drago from Croton lechleri showed immunomodulatory activity. It exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on CP and AP of complement system and inhibited the proliferation of activated T-cells. The latex showed free radical scavenging capacity. Depending on the concentration, it showed antioxidant or prooxidant properties, and stimulated or inhibited the phagocytosis. Moreover, the latex has strong anti-inflammatory activity when administered i. p. Taspine cannot be considered the main responsible for these activities, and other constituents, probably proanthocyanidins, should be also involved.

  13. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  14. Integration of the DRAGON5/DONJON5 codes in the SALOME platform for performing multi-physics calculations in nuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Alain

    2014-06-01

    We are presenting the computer science techniques involved in the integration of codes DRAGON5 and DONJON5 in the SALOME platform. This integration brings new capabilities in designing multi-physics computational schemes, with the possibility to couple our reactor physics codes with thermal-hydraulics or thermo-mechanics codes from other organizations. A demonstration is presented where two code components are coupled using the YACS module of SALOME, based on the CORBA protocol. The first component is a full-core 3D steady-state neuronic calculation in a PWR performed using DONJON5. The second component implement a set of 1D thermal-hydraulics calculations, each performed over a single assembly.

  15. Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} at the Dragon Products, Inc. Cement Plant located in Thomaston, Maine. 1990 Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The background and process of the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} are described. The Scrubber was developed for Dragon Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine and facilitates a number of process improvements. The exhaust gas is scrubbed of SO{sub 2} with better than 90% efficiency. The kiln dust is cleaned of alkalines and so can be returned to kiln feed instead of dumped to landfill. Potassium sulfate in commercial quantity and purity can be recovered. Distilled water is recovered which also has commercial potential. Thus, various benefits are accrued and no waste streams remain for disposal. The process is applicable to both wet and dry process cement kilns and appears to have potential in any industry which generates acidic gaseous exhausts and/or basic solid or liquid wastes.

  16. Characterization of synthetic routes to 'Bromo-DragonFLY' and benzodifuranyl isopropylamine homologues utilizing ketone intermediates. Part 1: synthesis of ketone precursors.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard E; Keating, John J

    2014-01-01

    Bromo-DragonFLY (BDF) and many of its analogues are misused as recreational drugs due to their potency as psychoactive substances. To date, none of the published routes to these designer amphetamines have exploited a ketone intermediate. It is well known that benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) can be employed as a precursor in the synthesis of amphetamine. Similarly, it is reasonable to assume that ketone precursors may potentially be utilized in the clandestine synthesis of BDF and its homologues. This paper describes the multifaceted synthesis of novel precursor ketones structurally related to BDF, namely benzodifuranyl propanone 16, its tetrahydrobenzodifuranyl homologue 8, and their brominated analogues 12 and 20. Their characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13) C-NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is also described.

  17. Five Dragons Stirring Up the Sea: Challenge and Opportunity in China’s Improving Maritime Enforcement Capabilities (China Maritime Study, Number 5)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Carrying and Use of AIS Equipment aboard Chinese Ships], 中 国海事 [China Maritime Affairs] (July 2006), pp. 35–37; 张哲, 卢言朋, 邓霞 [Zhang Zhe , Lu Yanpeng, and...Regarding typhoon preparedness and response, see, for example, 王海潮 [ Wang Haichao], “台 风: 考验海上灾害预警机制” [Typhoon: A Test for the Maritime Disaster...Aquaculture Country Profiles: five dragons stirring up the sea 37 China,” and also from 李德水, 王曙光 [Li Deshui and Wang Shugang], 中国海洋统计年鉴 2004 [China

  18. Aerosol properties measured by MAX-DOAS in Gwangju during the DRAGON NE-Asia Campaign and comparison with AERONET and MODIS data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Shin, D.; Kim, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.; Song, C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol interacts both directly and indirectly with the Earth's radiation budget and cause climate change. Aerosols also can act as sites for chemical reactions to take place (heterogeneous chemistry). In Asia, the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) campaign for validation of satellite aerosol products and comparison/validation of ground-based aerosol retrievals had been conducted in Korea (DRAGON-Korea) from March to May 2012 for three months with 21 CIMEL sunphotometers, 2 Pandoras, a MAX-DOAS and a multichannel Raman Lidar system. Level 2.0 sunphotometer data (cloud screened and quality assured) at the Gwangju AERONET 321 site (35.2°N, 126.8°E, 52 m above sea level) were used for comparing aerosol optical depths (AODs) derived from the GIST MAX-DOAS observations. Information on O4 slant column densities at several different elevation angles is used to determine the atmospheric aerosol optical depth within the lower troposphere using the MAX-DOAS measurement data. Also, in order to evaluate satellite aerosol products, MODIS Terra satellite aerosol products were compared with the ground-based AERONET aerosol data at the 550 nm spectral wavelength. Significant linear relationship was resulted with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.66 between the sunphotometer measured AODs and GIST MAX-DOAS retrieved AODs values at 476 nm. There is significant linear relationship with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.79 between the sunphotometer measured AODs and MODIS Terra AODs at 550 nm. Aerosol extinction coefficient values from MAX-DOAS and Lidar system were compared. Results from sunphotometer and MAX-DOAS measurements can be used for validation of geostationary satellite measurement in the near future.

  19. Dragon Plant Biology Explorer. A Text-Mining Tool for Integrating Associations between Genetic and Biochemical Entities with Genome Annotation and Biochemical Terms Lists[w

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Veronika, Merlin; Veladandi, Pardha Sarathi; Meka, Archana; Heng, Mok-Wei; Rajaraman, Kanagasabai; Pan, Hong; Swarup, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a tool for text mining, Dragon Plant Biology Explorer (DPBE) that integrates information on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes with their functions, based on gene ontologies and biochemical entity vocabularies, and presents the associations as interactive networks. The associations are based on (1) user-provided PubMed abstracts; (2) a list of Arabidopsis genes compiled by The Arabidopsis Information Resource; (3) user-defined combinations of four vocabulary lists based on the ones developed by the general, plant, and Arabidopsis GO consortia; and (4) three lists developed here based on metabolic pathways, enzymes, and metabolites derived from AraCyc, BRENDA, and other metabolism databases. We demonstrate how various combinations can be applied to fields of (1) gene function and gene interaction analyses, (2) plant development, (3) biochemistry and metabolism, and (4) pharmacology of bioactive compounds. Furthermore, we show the suitability of DPBE for systems approaches by integration with “omics” platform outputs. Using a list of abiotic stress-related genes identified by microarray experiments, we show how this tool can be used to rapidly build an information base on the previously reported relationships. This tool complements the existing biological resources for systems biology by identifying potentially novel associations using text analysis between cellular entities based on genome annotation terms. Thus, it allows researchers to efficiently summarize existing information for a group of genes or pathways, so as to make better informed choices for designing validation experiments. Last, DPBE can be helpful for beginning researchers and graduate students to summarize vast information in an unfamiliar area. DPBE is freely available for academic and nonprofit users at http://research.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/DRAGON/ME2/. PMID:16172098

  20. Establishing a New Species Encephalitozoon pogonae for the Microsporidian Parasite of Inland Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps Ahl 1927 (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Sakaguchi, Kanako; Paulsen, Daniel B

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium parasitizing Inland Bearded Dragons Pogona vitticeps, and developing primarily in macrophages within foci of granulomatous inflammation of different organs, is described as a new species Encephalitozoon pogonae. Establishing the new species was based on sequencing the ITS-SSUrDNA region of the ribosomal gene and consequent SSUrDNA-inferred phylogenetic analyses, as well as on comparison of pathogenesis, host specificity, and ultrastructure among Encephalitozoon species and isolates. The new species is closely related to E. lacertae and E. cuniculi. Analysis of the literature suggests that this microsporidium has been reported previously as an unidentified microsporidian species or isolate of E. cuniculi and may represent a common infection in bearded dragons. All stages of E. pogonae develop in parasitophorous vacuoles. Uninucleate spores on methanol-fixed smears measured 2.1 × 1.1 μm, range 1.7-2.6 × 0.9-1.7 μm; on ultrathin sections spores measured 0.8-1.1 × 1.8-2.2 μm. Ultrastructural study revealed 3-6 polar filament coils, a mushroom-shaped polar disk, and a polar sac embracing half of the volume occupied by the lamellar polaroplast. In activated spores, polar filament everted eccentrically. The overall morphology and intracellular development of E. pogonae were similar to other Encepahalitozoon spp. We also review the existing data on microsporidia infecting reptiles.

  1. Analysis of the Interaction and Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog in East Asia from AERONET and Satellite Remote Sensing: 2012 DRAGON Campaigns and Climatological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Lynch, P.; Schafer, J.; Giles, D. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sano, I.; Arola, A. T.; Munchak, L. A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Lyapustin, A.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Govindaraju, R.; Hyer, E. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. Major Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) field campaigns involving multiple AERONET sites in Japan and South Korea during Spring of 2012 have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AODf) signal from AERONET data for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Satellite retrievals of AOD from MODIS sensors (from Dark Target, Deep Blue and MAIAC algorithms) were also investigated to assess the issue of detectability of high AOD events associated with high cloud fraction. Underestimation of fine mode AOD by the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) and by the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis For Research And Applications Aerosol Re-analysis (MERRAaero) models at very high AOD at sites in China and Korea was observed, especially for observations that are cloud screened by AERONET (Level 2 data). Additionally, multi-year monitoring at several AERONET sites are examined for climatological statistics of cloud screening of fine mode aerosol events. Aerosol that has been affected by clouds or the near-cloud environment may be more prevalent than AERONET data suggest due to inherent difficulty in

  2. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  3. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  4. Twelve Year of Water Resource Monitoring over the Yangtze Middle Reaches Exploiting Dragon Time Series and Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Claire; Li, Jiren; Daillet, Sylviane; Chen, Xiaoling; Lai, Xijun; Cretaux, Jean Francois; Zhang, Wei; Uribe, Carlos; Stuber, Mathias; Huang, Shifeng; Averty, Stephane; Burnham, James; Yesou, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the DRAGON program, a relative long term surveillance, 12 years, of the Poyang and Dongting lakes, considered as key elements of the Yangtze watershed in terms of water resource, flood redaction and for biodiversity maintain has been realized. This was done combing altimetry, in situ measurements, SAR and optical MR and HR time series with a high revisiting frequency of 10 days. A first major output corresponds, particularly within the context of lost of Envisat and Sentinels’ data availability expected in 2014,corresponds to the potential’sanalysis of a large range of MR and HR optical and SAR data for water bodies monitoring in term of quality, potential and accuracy. Over the years, changes in the type of data used are very indicative of a share of the resource available, and also of technological improvement over the years. It can be noticed since 2008, that, the part of HR optical data, Beijing1, DEIMOS, HJ1 A-B has increased significantly. In regards to the two years gap in term of data resource before the availability of the first Sentinel data, some recommendations can be given to insure the monitoring of large water bodies. Thematically specking, major outputs is the characterization of the important inter annual, and intra annual variations in term of water height and water extent of both lakes, variations that are linked with rainfall variations at sub basins and Yangtze basin scales. This 12 years period is marked by general non linear tendencies of water resources decreasing even if two major flood events occurred in 2002 and 2010. Drought tendency and drought intensity has been precised. During winter 2011-2012, EO data analysis allowed given the real size of the water surface extent as 720 km2 when Medias were speaking about 200 km2; the driest winter for the latest decade being the 2003-2004 as shown by the time series comparison. These analysis also highlight the very fast change from extreme stage to another as in June

  5. Opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dependence on opioids is a multifactorial condition involving genetic and psychosocial factors. There are three approaches to treating opioid dependence. Stabilisation is usually by opioid substitution treatments, and aims to ensure that the drug use becomes independent of mental state (such as craving and mood) and independent of circumstances (such as finance and physical location). The next stage is to withdraw (detox) from opioids. The final aim is relapse prevention. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for stabilisation (maintenance) in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for withdrawal in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for relapse prevention in people with opioid dependence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 23 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: buprenorphine; clonidine; lofexidine; methadone; naltrexone; and ultra-rapid withdrawal regimes. PMID:21696648

  6. Opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dependence on opioids is a multifactorial condition involving genetic and psychosocial factors. There are three stages to treating opioid dependence. Stabilisation is usually by opioid substitution treatments, and aims to ensure that the drug use becomes independent of mental state (such as craving and mood) and independent of circumstances (such as finance and physical location). The next stage is to withdraw (detox) from opioids. The final stage is relapse prevention. This treatment process contributes to recovery of the individual, which also includes improved overall health and wellbeing, as well as engagement in society. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for stabilisation (maintenance) in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for withdrawal in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for relapse prevention in people with opioid dependence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: buprenorphine; clonidine; lofexidine; methadone; naltrexone; and ultra-rapid withdrawal regimens. PMID:21929827

  7. Resurrect the "Dragon Grammaticus."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jeanne M.

    1990-01-01

    Surveys 40 middle-school language-arts teachers in 3 local public school districts. Finds that (1) most teachers believed it was important for their students to master grammar; and (2) teachers spend considerable time teaching grammar. Argues that grammar deserves a prominent place in the middle school curriculum. (RS)

  8. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  9. The hidden dragons.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming; Williamson, Peter J

    2003-10-01

    Most multinational corporations are fascinated with China. Carried away by the number of potential customers and the relatively cheap labor, firms seeking a presence in China have traditionally focused on selling products, setting up manufacturing facilities, or both. But they've ignored an important development: the emergence of Chinese firms as powerful rivals--in China and also in the global market. In this article, Ming Zeng and Peter Williamson describe how Chinese companies like Haier, Legend, and Pearl River Piano have quietly managed to grab market share from older, bigger, and financially stronger rivals in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Global managers tend to offer the usual explanations for why Chinese companies don't pose a threat: They aren't big enough or profitable enough to compete overseas, the managers say, and these primarily state-owned companies are ill-financed and ill-equipped for global competition. As the government's policies about the private ownership of companies changed from forbidding the practice to encouraging it, a new breed of Chinese companies evolved. The authors outline the four types of hybrid Chinese companies that are simultaneously tackling the global market. China's national champions are using their advantages as domestic leaders to build global brands. The dedicated exporters are entering foreign markets on the strength of their economies of scale. The competitive networks have taken on world markets by bringing together small, specialized companies that operate in close proximity. And the technology upstarts are using innovations developed by China's government-owned research institutes to enter emerging sectors such as biotechnology. Zeng and Williamson identify these budding multinationals, analyze their strategies, and evaluate their weaknesses.

  10. The Dragon Enters Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    1950s. China’s establishment of modern relations with Africa started with the 1955 Bandung Conference where 29 developing nations, including China and a...few Af1ican nations, met to show solidarity by denouncing neocolonialism and pledging to stand up to the western powers. 2 The Bandung Conference ...problems; The report caused western banks and loan agencies to bail on a donor’s conference scheduled for July of 2002. The collapse of the donor’s

  11. Exploring the "Dragon's Graveyard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Most schools visit Magna Science Adventure Centre on the back of careful planning and preparation. Magna is a fairly unique environment. "Steelos", the local name for the former Templeborough steelworks in Rotherham, West Yorkshire, was a vast plant. It became home to Magna in 2001. The building is over half a kilometre long and 45…

  12. Paper Dragon No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Humanistic Psychology, San Francisco, CA.

    Seven educators, teaching undergraduate courses in a variety of subject areas, describe their experiences in implementing ideas from humanistic psychology. One activates students in large classes by beginning with small group skills. A psychology teacher practices encounter methods in a class for terminal students. An English instructor describes…

  13. China: The Awakened Dragon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    over many nations well before then.2 To address China’s meteoric rise, both economic and military, rather than taking a piecemeal approach, the United...detention of Japanese Fuji Corps workers and the possible PRC disruption of Japan’s access to rare earth materials, Japan and the United States omitted...believe the Chinese may interrupt the flow of rare earth metals as a tactic to pressure Japan. The PRC also arrested four Japanese Fuji Corps worker

  14. Riding the red dragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadwell, Ian

    2009-05-01

    Imagine a climate like that of the Canary Islands, a lab overlooking a golden beach, and a dramatic mountain coastline dotted with pagodas and forests of new skyscrapers. It sounds incredible, but in December 2008 I swapped the grey, winter skyline of the UK for just that. In the space of a few short days, I found myself leaving Nottingham for a job as a postdoc more than 5000 miles away at Xiamen University in Fujian province, China.

  15. Here Be Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Based on an annual endowment study, experts at the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) Endowment Forum examine today's uncertain financial picture and discuss the pros and cons of hedge funds, private equity, and fund of funds. (EV)

  16. Does the "sleeping Dragon" Really Sleep?: the Case for Continuous Long-Term Monitoring at a Gulf of Mexico Cold Seep Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. M.; Lapham, L.; Farr, N.; Lutken, C.; MacDonald, I. R.; Macelloni, L.; Riedel, M.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous porewater monitoring indicates that the methane flux away from exposed hydrate mounds can vary considerably over time. Recently, we retrieved a Pore Fluid Array instrument pack from a hydrate outcrop adjacent to a NEPTUNE Canada observatory node. The sampler was designed to continuously collect and store sediment pore fluids over the course of 9 months. On analysis, we observed a 35mM variation in methane concentrations corresponding with an abrupt shift in current direction at the site. Video and resistivity data have led to previous speculation that hydrate growth and dissolution/dissociation may be seasonally variable. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that the persistence of hydrate outcrops may be extremely dynamic, driven by fluctuations in physical conditions on short time scales. Short-term monitoring in the Gulf of Mexico within Mississippi Canyon lease block 118 (MC118), a known hydrate-bearing site, indicates that physical conditions even at these depths (~540-890m) may be highly variable. Pressure can vary within hours, and recorded temperature changes of ~1.5°C have been associated with passing storms. Moreover, increased particle abundance was observed at the site in 2007 suggesting that organic matter flux to the sediments may vary on the scale of months to years. These inputs have the potential to alter the chemical environment surrounding the hydrate, thereby affecting dissolution rates. Continuous, long-term observations of physical conditions at MC118 could provide information about the potential for natural perturbations to impact hydrate dynamics on the scale of weeks or even days necessary for assessing the long-term persistence of hydrate outcrops. Sleeping Dragon is a massive hydrate outcrop at MC118 that has been monitored since 2006. Three years ago, researchers returning to the site found it visibly diminished relative to previous observations. This apparent shift toward net dissolution of the mound may have been

  17. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    PubMed

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-02

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change.

  18. Phenibut dependence.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-02-06

    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3-4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut.

  19. Phenibut dependence

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3–4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut. PMID:23391959

  20. The Role of Integrative Taxonomy in the Conservation Management of Cryptic Species: The Taxonomic Status of Endangered Earless Dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the Grasslands of Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered ‘species’ of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  1. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  2. Identification of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko by phenotypic and genotypic properties

    PubMed Central

    Ülbegi-Mohyla, H.; Hijazin, M.; Alber, J.; Hassan, A. A.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Prenger-Berninghoff, E.; Weiß, R.; Zschöck, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify phenotypically and genotypically two Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes strains isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko. The A. pyogenes strains showed the typical biochemical properties and displayed CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities with various indicator strains. The species identity could be confirmed genotypically by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and, as novel target gene, by sequencing of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB, of both strains and of reference strains representing nine species of the genus Arcanobacterium. The species identity of the two A. pyogenes strains could additionally be confirmed by PCR mediated amplification of species specific parts of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, the pyolysin encoding gene plo and by amplification of the collagen-binding protein encoding gene cbpA. All these molecular targets might help to improve the future identification and further characterization of A. pyogenes which, as demonstrated in the present study, could also be isolated from reptile specimens. PMID:20706035

  3. Identification of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko by phenotypic and genotypic properties.

    PubMed

    Ulbegi-Mohyla, H; Hijazin, M; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Hassan, A A; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Weiss, R; Zschöck, M

    2010-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify phenotypically and genotypically two Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes strains isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko. The A. pyogenes strains showed the typical biochemical properties and displayed CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities with various indicator strains. The species identity could be confirmed genotypically by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and, as novel target gene, by sequencing of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB, of both strains and of reference strains representing nine species of the genus Arcanobacterium. The species identity of the two A. pyogenes strains could additionally be confirmed by PCR mediated amplification of species specific parts of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, the pyolysin encoding gene plo and by amplification of the collagen-binding protein encoding gene cbpA. All these molecular targets might help to improve the future identification and further characterization of A. pyogenes which, as demonstrated in the present study, could also be isolated from reptile specimens.

  4. Effects of sublethal fenitrothion ingestion on cholinesterase inhibition, standard metabolism, thermal preference, and prey-capture ability in the Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Bain, David; Buttemer, William A; Astheimer, Lee; Fildes, Karen; Hooper, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is a medium-sized lizard that is common in semiarid habitats in Australia and that potentially is at risk of fenitrothion exposure from use of the chemical in plague locust control. We examined the effects of single sublethal doses of this organophosphate (OP; low dose = 2.0 mg/kg; high dose = 20 mg/kg; control = vehicle alone) on lizard thermal preference, standard metabolic rate, and prey-capture ability. We also measured activities of plasma total cholinesterase (ChE) and acetylcholinesterase before and at 0, 2, 8, 24, 120, and 504 h after OP dosing. Predose plasma total ChE activity differed significantly between sexes and averaged 0.66 +/- 0.06 and 0.45 +/- 0.06 micromol/min/ml for males and females, respectively. Approximately 75% of total ChE activity was attributable to butyrylcholinesterase. Peak ChE inhibition reached 19% 2 h after OP ingestion in the low-dose group, and 68% 8 h after ingestion in high-dose animals. Neither OP doses significantly affected diurnal body temperature, standard metabolic rate, or feeding rate. Plasma total ChE levels remained substantially depressed up to 21 d after dosing in the high-dose group, making this species a useful long-term biomonitor of OP exposure in its habitat.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, 1989, Paperna and Landsberg) in a western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. is described from a Western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 48) were cylindroidal in shape. Oocyst length, 27.0 (26.0-28.3) μm, oocyst width, 15.2 (14.0-16.5) μm, oocyst length/width ratio (L/W) 1.8 (1.6-1.9), each with 4 sporocysts (Eimeria-like) and a polar granule, but lacking a micropyle and oocyst residuum. Sporocysts are ovoidal in shape, sporocyst length, 10.0 (9.0-11.0) μm, sporocyst width 8.5 (7.0-9.5) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.2 (1.1-1.3). Stieda, substieda and parasubstieda bodies were all absent. Molecular analysis was conducted at the 18S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) loci. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S sequences revealed that C. pogonae n. sp. grouped together with another four Choleoeimeria spp. and exhibited 99.1%-99.4% genetic similarity. At the COI locus, C. pogonae n. sp. was in an independent clade and had the highest similarity (80.4%) to Eimeria cf. mivati from a chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). According to the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite. This study further supports the taxonomy of Choleoeimeria spp. as a new genus based on molecular phylogenetic analysis.

  6. Study of optimal temperature, pH and stability of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for use as potential natural colorant.

    PubMed

    Harivaindaran, K V; Rebecca, O P S; Chandran, S

    2008-09-15

    The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100 degrees C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100 degrees C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye.

  7. 2D MI-DRAGON: a new predictor for protein-ligands interactions and theoretic-experimental studies of US FDA drug-target network, oxoisoaporphine inhibitors for MAO-A and human parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Prado-Prado, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Escobar, Manuel; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Yañez, Matilde; Riera-Fernandez, Pablo; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2011-12-01

    There are many pairs of possible Drug-Proteins Interactions that may take place or not (DPIs/nDPIs) between drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different proteins. This fact makes expensive in terms of time and resources, for instance, the determination of all possible ligands-protein interactions for a single drug. In this sense, we can use Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models to carry out rational DPIs prediction. Unfortunately, almost all QSAR models predict activity against only one target. To solve this problem we can develop multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) models. In this work, we introduce the technique 2D MI-DRAGON a new predictor for DPIs based on two different well-known software. We use the software MARCH-INSIDE (MI) to calculate 3D structural parameters for targets and the software DRAGON was used to calculated 2D molecular descriptors all drugs showing known DPIs present in the Drug Bank (US FDA benchmark dataset). Both classes of parameters were used as input of different Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to seek an accurate non-linear mt-QSAR predictor. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 21:21-31-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 303 out of 339 DPIs (Sensitivity = 89.38%) and 480 out of 510 nDPIs (Specificity = 94.12%), corresponding to training Accuracy = 92.23%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series with Sensitivity = 92.18% (625/678 DPIs; Specificity = 90.12% (730/780 nDPIs) and Accuracy = 91.06%. 2D MI-DRAGON offers a good opportunity for fast-track calculation of all possible DPIs of one drug enabling us to re-construct large drug-target or DPIs Complex Networks (CNs). For instance, we reconstructed the CN of the US FDA benchmark dataset with 855 nodes 519 drugs+336 targets). We predicted CN with similar topology (observed and predicted values of average distance are equal to 6.7 vs. 6.6). These CNs can be used to explore

  8. The Dragon’s Reach: An Assessment of the People’s Republic of China’s Expeditionary Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    varies depending on the specific purpose of the operation and the near certainty of enemy opposition. The US raid on Grenada shows the limited duration......attachment_data/file/43340/jdp3522nded.pdf. Cole, Ronald H. Operation Urgent Fury: Grenada . Washington, DC: Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of

  9. Direct effects of incubation temperature on morphology, thermoregulatory behaviour and locomotor performance in jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus).

    PubMed

    Esquerré, Damien; Keogh, J Scott; Schwanz, Lisa E

    2014-07-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the most studied factors driving phenotypic plasticity in oviparous reptiles. We examined how incubation temperature influenced hatchling morphology, thermal preference and temperature-dependent running speed in the small Australian agamid lizard Amphibolurus muricatus. Hatchlings incubated at 32 °C grew more slowly than those incubated at 25 and 28 °C during their first month after hatching, and tended to be smaller at one month. These differences were no longer significant by three months of age due to selective mortality of the smallest hatchlings. The cooler incubation treatments (25 °C and 28 °C) produced lizards that had deeper and wider heads. Hatchlings from 28 °C had cooler and more stable temperature preferences, and also had lower body temperatures during a 2-h thermoregulatory behaviour trial. Locomotor performance was enhanced at higher body temperatures, but incubation temperature had no measurable effect either independently or in interaction with body temperature. Our study demonstrates that incubation temperature has direct effects on morphology and thermoregulatory behaviour that appears to be independent of any size-dependent effects. We postulate a mechanistic link between these two effects.

  10. Measurement and ANN prediction of pH-dependent solubility of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feifei; Yu, Qingni; Zhu, Jingke; Lei, Lecheng; Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang

    2015-09-01

    Based on the solubility of 25 nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) measured by saturation shake-flask method, artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to the study of the quantitative relationship between the structure and pH-dependent solubility of NHCs. With genetic algorithm-multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR) approach, five out of the 1497 molecular descriptors computed by Dragon software were selected to describe the molecular structures of NHCs. Using the five selected molecular descriptors as well as pH and the partial charge on the nitrogen atom of NHCs (QN) as inputs of ANN, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model without using Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH) equation was successfully developed to predict the aqueous solubility of NHCs in different pH water solutions. The prediction model performed well on the 25 model NHCs with an absolute average relative deviation (AARD) of 5.9%, while HH approach gave an AARD of 36.9% for the same model NHCs. It was found that QN played a very important role in the description of NHCs and, with QN, ANN became a potential tool for the prediction of pH-dependent solubility of NHCs.

  11. Intercomparison of aerosol physical and physical properties derived from surface radiometers and in-situ aircraft profiles over six Maryland sites during the DRAGON and DISCOVER-AQ campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, J. S.; Thornhill, K. L.; Holben, B. N.; Anderson, B. E.; Eck, T. F.; Giles, D. M.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Sinyuk, A.; Kenny, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) project and international collaborators deployed more than 40 Cimel sunphotometers in the Baltimore-Washington, DC region for the summer 2011 DRAGON-USA (Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network) campaign. This unprecedented mesoscale network was comprised of automatic sun/sky radiometers distributed with roughly 10km grid spacing (covering an area of ~60km x 120km) which operated continuously for more than two months. The DRAGON-USA campaign was concurrent with the NASA sponsored DISCOVER-AQ air quality experiment which performed 14 days of research flights in July concentrating on repeated multiple daily profile measurements of gaseous and particulate pollution over 6 primary sun photometer sites. Atmospheric conditions varied from clean and dry to extremely hazy and humid on flight days with corresponding aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm ranging from ~0.06 to ~0.90 and precipitable water (PW) ranging from ~1.5 cm to ~4.5 cm. In-situ aerosol properties were measured on the NASA P-3B by the NASA Langley Aerosol Group Experiment (LARGE) team using a suite of instruments to characterize ambient aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Size distributions were made with a custom scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an Ultrahigh Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) from Droplet Measurement Technologies, and Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS) from TSI. Aerosol optical measurements were made with a TSI-3563 3-wavelength integrating nephelometer and a 3-wavelength Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). We present preliminary comparisons of coincident single scattering albedo (at three wavelengths) and column integrated size distributions retrieved from the surface Cimel sunphotometer almucantar sky radiances and from aircraft in-situ observations during flight profiles at key sites.

  12. Dependency, Empathy, and Altruism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shirley Matile

    This study examined the relationship of dependency, empathy, and altruism. It was hypothesized that: (1) dependency would be related in a curvilinear manner to empathy, with children who are moderate in dependency scoring highest in empathy; (2) dependency would be positively related to visible altruism when such prosocial behavior results in…

  13. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  14. Quantum gravity as Escher's Dragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilga, A. V.

    2003-11-01

    The main obstacle in attempts to construct a consistent quantum gravity is the absence of independent flat time. This can in principle be cured by going out to higher dimensions. The modern paradigm assumes that the fundamental theory of everything is some form of string theory living in space of more than four dimensions. We advocate another possibility that the fundamental theory is a form of D=4 higher-derivative gravity. This class of theories has a nice feature of renormalizability so that perturbative calculations are feasible. There are also finite N=4 supersymmetric conformal supergravity theories. This possibility is particularly attractive. Einstein's gravity is obtained in a natural way as an effective low-energy theory. The N=1 supersymmetric version of the theory has a natural higher-dimensional interpretation due to Ogievetsky and Sokatchev, which involves embedding of our curved Minkowsky space-time manifold into flat 8-dimensional space. Assuming that a variant of the finite N=4 theory also admit a similar interpretation, this may eventually allow one to construct consistent quantum theory of gravity. We argue, however, that even though future gravity theory will probably use higher dimensions as construction scaffolds, its physical content and meaning should refer to 4 dimensions where observer lives.

  15. Learning Genetics with Computer Dragons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decades, genetics has remained a difficult topic in school science. This paper presents an interactive multimedia program, "BioLogica", used to teach Grade 10 (14- and 15-year-olds) Australian students about genetics. Over six weeks, the teacher used different representations in the teaching and engaged students in computer…

  16. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  17. [Evaluating tobacco dependance].

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-11-29

    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  18. Effects of Statistical Dependence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Some research being carried on deals with concepts of dependence for multicomponent systems. Such dependence arises naturally in reliability work...because of common environmental factors and common sources of material. This article mainly explores modes of positive dependence for bivariate and

  19. Dependency Tree Annotation Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Features 5 Distribution List 12 iv List of Figures Fig. 1 Manually created dependency tree for the sentence, “The little cat ate the pie...with a dependency relation label. Fig. 1 Manually created dependency tree for the sentence, “The little cat ate the pie” The user can easily

  20. 3D MI-DRAGON: new model for the reconstruction of US FDA drug- target network and theoretical-experimental studies of inhibitors of rasagiline derivatives for AChE.

    PubMed

    Prado-Prado, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Escobar, Manuel; Alonso, Nerea; Caamaño, Olga; Yañez, Matilde; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    The number of neurodegenerative diseases has been increasing in recent years. Many of the drug candidates to be used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases present specific 3D structural features. An important protein in this sense is the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is the target of many Alzheimer's dementia drugs. Consequently, the prediction of Drug-Protein Interactions (DPIs/nDPIs) between new drug candidates and specific 3D structure and targets is of major importance. To this end, we can use Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models to carry out a rational DPIs prediction. Unfortunately, many previous QSAR models developed to predict DPIs take into consideration only 2D structural information and codify the activity against only one target. To solve this problem we can develop some 3D multi-target QSAR (3D mt-QSAR) models. In this study, using the 3D MI-DRAGON technique, we have introduced a new predictor for DPIs based on two different well-known software. We have used the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) and DRAGON software to calculate 3D structural parameters for drugs and targets respectively. Both classes of 3D parameters were used as input to train Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) algorithms using as benchmark dataset the complex network (CN) made up of all DPIs between US FDA approved drugs and their targets. The entire dataset was downloaded from the DrugBank database. The best 3D mt-QSAR predictor found was an ANN of Multi-Layer Perceptron-type (MLP) with profile MLP 37:37-24-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 274 out of 321 DPIs (Sensitivity = 85.35%) and 1041 out of 1190 nDPIs (Specificity = 87.48%), corresponding to training Accuracy = 87.03%. We have validated the model with external predicting series with Sensitivity = 84.16% (542/644 DPIs; Specificity = 87.51% (2039/2330 nDPIs) and Accuracy = 86.78%. The new CNs of DPIs reconstructed from US FDA can be used to explore large DPI databases in order to discover both new drugs

  1. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H

    1999-01-01

    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  2. Development of pharmaceutical heroin preparations for medical co-prescription to opioid dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Klous, Marjolein G; Van den Brink, Wim; Van Ree, Jan M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2005-12-12

    Presently, there is a considerable interest in heroin-assisted treatment: co-prescription of heroin to certain subgroups of chronic, treatment-resistant, opioid dependent patients. In 2002, nine countries had planned (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Spain) or ongoing (Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom) clinical trials on this subject. These trials (and the routine heroin-assisted treatment programs that might result) will need pharmaceutical heroin (diacetylmorphine) to prescribe to the patients. Research into the development of pharmaceutical forms of heroin for prescription to addicts can benefit from the large amount of knowledge that already exists regarding this substance. Therefore, in this paper we review the physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of diacetylmorphine and the clinically investigated routes of administration, as well as routes of administration utilised on the street in the context of developing pharmaceutical heroin formulations for prescription to addicts. Patient acceptability of the formulation is essential, because heroin-assisted treatment is aimed at treatment-resistant addicts, who often have to be encouraged to participate (or to maintain participation) in a treatment program. This means that the most suitable products would have pharmacokinetic profiles mimicking that of diacetylmorphine for injection, with rapid peak concentrations of diacetylmorphine and 6-acetylmorphine, ensuring the 'rush effect' and the sustained presence of morphine(-6-glucuronide) creating the prolonged euphoria. Diacetylmorphine for inhalation after volatilisation (via 'chasing the dragon') seems to be a suitable candidate, while intranasal and oral diacetylmorphine are currently thought to be unsuitable. However, oral and intranasal delivery systems might be improved and become suitable for use by heroin dependent patients.

  3. Spatial-dependent Propagation of Cosmic Rays Results in the Spectrum of Proton, Ratios of P/P, and B/C, and Anisotropy of Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yi-Qing; Tian, Zhen; Jin, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Recent precise measurements of cosmic ray spectra revealed an anomalous hardening at ∼200 GV, observed by the ATIC, CREAM, PAMELA, and AMS02 experiments. Particularly, the latest observation of the \\bar{p}/p ratio by AMS02 demonstrated a flat distribution, which further validated the spectral anomalies of secondary particles. All those new phenomena indicated that the conventional propagation model of cosmic rays meets a challenge. In this work, the spatial-dependent diffusion coefficient D(r,z,p) is employed by tracing the source distribution under the physical picture of the two-halo model in the DRAGON package. Under such a scenario, the model calculation will result in two-component spectra for primary nuclei. Due to the smaller rigidity dependence of D(r,z,p) in the galactic disk, the ratios secondary-to-primary will inevitably be flatter and the expected anisotropy of cosmic rays will be much more attenuated than in the conventional model. As a result, we can reproduce the spectral hardening of protons, the flat ratios of \\bar{p}/p and B/C, and consistent anisotropy from ∼100 GeV to ∼100 TeV by only adopting one set of spatial-dependent diffusion coefficients D(r,z,p) in a galactic disk.

  4. Validation of updated neutronic calculation models proposed for Atucha-II PHWR. Part I: Benchmark comparisons of WIMS-D5 and DRAGON cell and control rod parameters with MCNP5

    SciTech Connect

    Mollerach, R.; Leszczynski, F.; Fink, J.

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure-vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels, and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO{sub 2} rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update calculation methods and models (cell, supercell and reactor) was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. As a validation of the new models some benchmark comparisons were done with Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP5. This paper presents comparisons of cell and supercell benchmark problems based on a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the WIMS-D5 and DRAGON codes with MCNP5 results. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, and more symmetric than Atucha-II Cell parameters compared include cell k-infinity, relative power levels of the different rings of fuel rods, and some two-group macroscopic cross sections. Supercell comparisons include supercell k-infinity changes due to the control rods (tubes) of steel and hafnium. (authors)

  5. A Systems Biology-Based Approach to Uncovering the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Dragon's Blood Tablet in Colitis, Involving the Integration of Chemical Analysis, ADME Prediction, and Network Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiumei; Zhai, Huaqiang; Lin, Na; Tang, Shihuan; Liang, Rixin; Ma, Yan; Li, Defeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Guangrong; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest East Asian medical systems. The present study adopted a systems biology-based approach to provide new insights relating to the active constituents and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dragon's blood (DB) tablets for the treatment of colitis. This study integrated chemical analysis, prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), and network pharmacology. Firstly, a rapid, reliable, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was employed to identify 48 components of DB tablets. In silico prediction of the passive absorption of these compounds, based on Caco-2 cell permeability, and their P450 metabolism enabled the identification of 22 potentially absorbed components and 8 metabolites. Finally, networks were constructed to analyze interactions between these DB components/metabolites absorbed and their putative targets, and between the putative DB targets and known therapeutic targets for colitis. This study provided a great opportunity to deepen the understanding of the complex pharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of DB in colitis treatment. PMID:25068885

  6. Dependent Probability Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  7. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  8. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  9. Adam Smith and dependency.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing.

  10. High Performance, Dependable Multiprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, Jeremy; Samson, John R.; Troxel, Ian; Subramaniyan, Rajagopal; Jacobs, Adam; Greco, James; Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Curreri, John; Fischer, Michael; Grobelny, Eric; George, Alan; Aggarwal, Vikas; Patel, Minesh; Some, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    With the ever increasing demand for higher bandwidth and processing capacity of today's space exploration, space science, and defense missions, the ability to efficiently apply commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processors for on-board computing is now a critical need. In response to this need, NASA's New Millennium Program office has commissioned the development of Dependable Multiprocessor (DM) technology for use in payload and robotic missions. The Dependable Multiprocessor technology is a COTS-based, power efficient, high performance, highly dependable, fault tolerant cluster computer. To date, Honeywell has successfully demonstrated a TRL4 prototype of the Dependable Multiprocessor [I], and is now working on the development of a TRLS prototype. For the present effort Honeywell has teamed up with the University of Florida's High-performance Computing and Simulation (HCS) Lab, and together the team has demonstrated major elements of the Dependable Multiprocessor TRLS system.

  11. Visual dependence and BPPV.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, K; Bronstein, A M; Faldon, M E; Mandalà, M; Murray, K; Silove, Y

    2012-06-01

    The increased visual dependence noted in some vestibular patients may be secondary to their vertigo. We examine whether a single, brief vertigo attack, such as in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), modifies visual dependency. Visual dependency was measured before and after the Hallpike manoeuvre with (a) the Rod and Frame and the Rod and Disc techniques whilst seated and (b) the postural sway induced by visual roll-motion stimulation. Three subject groups were studied: 20 patients with BPPV (history and positive Hallpike manoeuvre; PosH group), 20 control patients (history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre; NegH group) and 20 normal controls. Our findings show that while both patient groups showed enhanced visual dependency, the PosH and the normal control group decreased visual dependency on repetition of the visual tasks after the Hallpike manoeuvre. NegH patients differed from PosH patients in that their high visual dependency did not diminish on repetition of the visual stimuli; they scored higher on the situational characteristic questionnaire ('visual vertigo' symptoms) and showed higher incidence of migraine. We conclude that long term vestibular symptoms increase visual dependence but a single BPPV attack does not increase it further. Repetitive visual motion stimulation induces adaptation in visual dependence in peripheral vestibular disorders such as BPPV. A positional form of vestibular migraine may underlie the symptoms of some patients with a history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre. The finding that they have non adaptable increased visual dependency may explain visuo-vestibular symptoms in this group and, perhaps more widely, in patients with migraine.

  12. Chemical dependence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.drugabuse.gov Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration -- www.samhsa.gov

  13. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Dependent personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;675-678. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  14. Tilidine abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Trojan, A; Beil, H W

    1978-11-01

    Tilidine (Valoron) is a new strong analgesic which was introduced into the market in West Germany in 1970. In February 1978 tilidine was placed under the regulations of the German Narcotics Act because it had rapidly become an easily acquired substitute for opiates on the drug scene. Cases have become known where tilidine dependence developed during the treatment of pain in patients without any preceding addiction to other drugs. The relevant literature on tilidine is reviewed in regard to pharmacological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of tilidine dependence and abuse.

  15. Dependability and performability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivedi, Kishor S.; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Malhotra, Manish; Sahner, Robin A.

    1993-01-01

    Several practical issues regarding specifications and solution of dependability and performability models are discussed. Model types with and without rewards are compared. Continuous-time Markov chains (CTMC's) are compared with (continuous-time) Markov reward models (MRM's) and generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPN's) are compared with stochastic reward nets (SRN's). It is shown that reward-based models could lead to more concise model specifications and solution of a variety of new measures. With respect to the solution of dependability and performability models, three practical issues were identified: largeness, stiffness, and non-exponentiality, and a variety of approaches are discussed to deal with them, including some of the latest research efforts.

  16. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  17. ARL Arabic Dependency Treebank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    facilitate additional Arabic language processing research by the greater community. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arabic, treebank, parsing 16. SECURITY...linguistics, and, by releasing this dependency treebank back to them for redistribution, we hope to facilitate Arabic natural language processing...format with one or more blank lines between sentences. All files are UTF-8 encoded. An example is presented below. Approved for public release

  18. Evolution of Metabolic Dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying

    Microbes are often found to have lost their ability to make essential metabolites (auxotrophs) and instead rely on other individuals for these metabolites. How might metabolic dependency evolve to be so common? When microbes live inside a host (endosymbionts), amply host metabolites support auxotrophic endosymbionts. If the host transmits only a small number of endosymbionts to its offspring, then auxotrophic endosymbionts can rise to high frequency simply by chance. On the other hand, auxotrophs have also been observed in abundant free-living bacteria found in ocean water where nutrient supply is low. How might auxotrophs rise to an appreciable frequency in a large population when nutrient supply is low? We have found commonly-encountered conditions that facilitate the evolution of metabolic dependency. Metabolic interactions can in turn shape spatial organization of microbial communities (Momeni et al. (2013) eLife 2, 00230; Momeni et al. (2013) eLife 2, 00960; Estrela and Brown (2013) PLoS Comput Biol 9, e1003398; Muller et al. (2014) PNAS 111, 1037-1042). Rapid evolution of metabolic dependency can contribute to the complexity of microbial communities. Evolution of metabolic dependency.

  19. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  20. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  1. Myofilament length dependent activation.

    PubMed

    de Tombe, Pieter P; Mateja, Ryan D; Tachampa, Kittipong; Ait Mou, Younss; Farman, Gerrie P; Irving, Thomas C

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca(2+) ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the "Frank-Starling law of the heart" constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  2. Comparing dependent robust correlations.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2016-11-01

    Let r1 and r2 be two dependent estimates of Pearson's correlation. There is a substantial literature on testing H0  : ρ1  = ρ2 , the hypothesis that the population correlation coefficients are equal. However, it is well known that Pearson's correlation is not robust. Even a single outlier can have a substantial impact on Pearson's correlation, resulting in a misleading understanding about the strength of the association among the bulk of the points. A way of mitigating this concern is to use a correlation coefficient that guards against outliers, many of which have been proposed. But apparently there are no results on how to compare dependent robust correlation coefficients when there is heteroscedasicity. Extant results suggest that a basic percentile bootstrap will perform reasonably well. This paper reports simulation results indicating the extent to which this is true when using Spearman's rho, a Winsorized correlation or a skipped correlation.

  3. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  4. Dependence, Risk, and Vulnerability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    B2 has a great deal. The measurement strategy outlined here will gauge A’s import depen- dence on B2 as greater than A’s import dependence on B1 . One...pp 25 Doctrines: One More Time." 43 pp., Jan 1960. Glee. Devid V.; Hsoi. Ih-Chses: Nu,n, Welter A. AD AOIl 192 PP 283 mnd Penn, David A.. "A Clas of

  5. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  6. Is extinction age dependent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, N.A.; Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Huffer, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent extinction is an observation with important biological implications. Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis triggered three decades of research testing its primary implication: that age is independent of extinction. In contrast to this, later studies with species-level data have indicated the possible presence of age dependence. Since the formulation of the Red Queen hypothesis, more powerful tests of survivorship models have been developed. This is the first report of the application of the Cox Proportional Hazards model to paleontological data. Planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies allow the taxonomic and precise stratigraphic resolution necessary for the Cox model. As a whole, planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies clearly show age-dependent extinction. In particular, the effect is attributable to the presence of shorter-ranged species (range < 4 myr) following extinction events. These shorter-ranged species also possess tests with unique morphological architecture. The morphological differences are probably epiphenomena of underlying developmental and heterochronic processes of shorter-ranged species that survived various extinction events. Extinction survivors carry developmental and morphological characteristics into postextinction recovery times, and this sets them apart from species populations established independently of extinction events. Copyright ?? 2006, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  7. Butterflies, Black swans and Dragon kings: How to use the Dynamical Systems Theory to build a "zoology" of mid-latitude circulation atmospheric extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, D.; Yiou, P.; Alvarez-Castro, M. C. M.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of dynamical systems and statistical techniques allows for a robust assessment of the dynamical properties of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. Extremes at different spatial and time scales are not only associated to exceptionally intense weather structures (e.g. extra-tropical cyclones) but also to rapid changes of circulation regimes (thunderstorms, supercells) or the extreme persistence of weather structure (heat waves, cold spells). We will show how the dynamical systems theory of recurrence combined to the extreme value theory can take into account the spatial and temporal dependence structure of the mid-latitude circulation structures and provide information on the statistics of extreme events.

  8. Time dependent holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Diptarka

    One of the most important results emerging from string theory is the gauge gravity duality (AdS/CFT correspondence) which tells us that certain problems in particular gravitational backgrounds can be exactly mapped to a particular dual gauge theory a quantum theory very similar to the one explaining the interactions between fundamental subatomic particles. The chief merit of the duality is that a difficult problem in one theory can be mapped to a simpler and solvable problem in the other theory. The duality can be used both ways. Most of the current theoretical framework is suited to study equilibrium systems, or systems where time dependence is at most adiabatic. However in the real world, systems are almost always out of equilibrium. Generically these scenarios are described by quenches, where a parameter of the theory is made time dependent. In this dissertation I describe some of the work done in the context of studying quantum quench using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We recover certain universal scaling type of behavior as the quenching is done through a quantum critical point. Another question that has been explored in the dissertation is time dependence of the gravity theory. Present cosmological observations indicate that our universe is accelerating and is described by a spacetime called de-Sitter(dS). In 2011 there had been a speculation over a possible duality between de-Sitter gravity and a particular field theory (Euclidean SP(N) CFT). However a concrete realization of this proposition was still lacking. Here we explicitly derive the dS/CFT duality using well known methods in field theory. We discovered that the time dimension emerges naturally in the derivation. We also describe further applications and extensions of dS/CFT. KEYWORDS: Holography, AdS/CFT correspondence, Quantum Quench, dS/CFT correspondence, Chaos.

  9. Treatment of nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Haxby, D G

    1995-02-01

    Drug and nondrug interventions used in treating nicotine dependence are reviewed. Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Risks of smoking-related disease and death decline sharply when smokers quit, but 26% of Americans continue to smoke. Most smokers find it extremely difficult to quit smoking because of their nicotine addiction. Nonpharmacologic interventions used to promote smoking cessation include behavioral therapy, setting a specific date for quitting, receiving advice to quit from a health care professional, follow-up visits to review progress, self-help approaches, group counseling, filtration devices, hypnosis, and acupuncture. The efficacy of these approaches ranges from substantial to almost nil. The only pharmacologic agent with FDA-approved labeling for use in smoking-cessation therapy is nicotine. When used in conjunction with appropriate nonpharmacologic interventions, nicotine-replacement therapy roughly doubles the rate of quitting obtained with placebo. Nicotine-replacement therapies consist of nicotine transdermal (patch) systems and nicotine chewing gum. The nicotine patch is the first-line replacement therapy because it is effective when accompanied by only minimal (as opposed to more intensive) nonpharmacologic interventions and because it is easier to use and comply with than gum. Clonidine, antidepressants, and buspirone require further study to determine what role, if any, they should play in the treatment of nicotine dependence. The stages of smoking cessation are precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance; interventions are selected on the basis of the stage the smoker is in. Nicotine dependence is difficult to treat, but there are aids that boost a smoker's chances of quitting. Nicotine patches and chewing gum offer the most effective pharmacologic options, especially when combined with behavioral interventions and counseling.

  10. Dependent rational providers.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Kyle B

    2011-04-01

    Provider claims to conscientious objection have generated a great deal of heated debate in recent years. However, the conflicts that arise when providers make claims to the "conscience" are only a subset of the more fundamental challenges that arise in health care practice when patients and providers come into conflict. In this piece, the author provides an account of patient-provider conflict from within the moral tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas. He argues that the practice of health care providers should be understood as a form of practical reasoning and that this practical reasoning must necessarily incorporate both "moral" and "professional" commitments. In order to understand how the practical reasoning of provider should account for the needs and commitments of the patient and vice versa, he explores the account of dependence provided by Alasdair MacIntyre in his book Dependent Rational Animals. MacIntyre argues that St. Thomas' account of practical reasoning should be extended and adapted to account for the embodied vulnerability of all humans. In light of this insight, providers must view patients not only as the subjects of their moral reflection but also as fellow humans upon whom the provider depends for feedback on the effectiveness and relevance of her practical reasoning. The author argues that this account precludes responsive providers from adopting either moral or professional conclusions on the appropriateness of interventions outside the individual circumstances that arise in particular situations. The adoption of this orientation toward patients will neither eradicate provider-patient conflict nor compel providers to perform interventions to which they object. But this account does require that providers attend meaningfully to the suffering of patients and seek feedback on whether their intervention has effectively addressed that suffering.

  11. Portage and Path Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  12. Excitability dependent pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Kaumudi; Gholami, Azam; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    On starvation, the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum emit the chemo-attractant cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at specific frequencies. The neighboring amoebae sense cAMP through membrane receptors and produce their own cAMP. Soon the cells synchronize and move via chemotaxis along the gradient of cAMP. The response of the amoebae to the emission of cAMP is seen as spiral waves or target patterns under a dark field microscope. The causal reasons for the selection of one or the other patterns are still unclear. Here we present a possible explanation based on excitability. The excitability of the amoebae depends on the starvation time because the gene expression changes with starvation. Cells starved for longer times are more excitable. In this work, we mix cells of different excitabilities to study the dependence of the emergent patterns on the excitability. Preliminary results show a transition from spirals to target patterns for specific excitabilities. A phase map of the patterns for different combinations of excitability and number densities is obtained. We compare our findings with numerical simulations of existing theoretical models.

  13. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  14. Spatial dependence of thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Hari Hara Sudhan; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; McCarty, Owen; Maddala, Jeevan

    2016-11-01

    Thrombolysis under hemodynamic conditions is affected by both transport processes and reactions, thus profoundly dependent on the geometry of blood vessels or vasculature. Although thrombosis has long been observed clinically, a systematic and quantitative understanding has not been established in complex geometries such as vasculature, where various factors would affect thrombogenesis and its stability. A thrombus's location determines the effect of hydrodynamic forces on it and rate of tPA diffusion, that would result in either embolization or formation of micro-aggregates. Preliminary experiments have shown that thrombolysis is not uniform across an entire network with different locations lysing at different rates. Numerical simulations of thrombolysis under hemodynamics in a microfluidic geometry such as a ladder network with a focus on parameters such as reaction rate, shear gradient, velocity and diffusion established the lysis's dependence on geometry. Finite element simulations of blood flow coupled with reactions have been performed in COMSOL and the results were used to develop quantifiable metrics for thrombolysis in a complex geometry.

  15. Development and validation of burnup dependent computational schemes for the analysis of assemblies with advanced lattice codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    The main aim of this research is the development and validation of computational schemes for advanced lattice codes. The advanced lattice code which forms the primary part of this research is "DRAGON Version4". The code has unique features like self shielding calculation with capabilities to represent distributed and mutual resonance shielding effects, leakage models with space-dependent isotropic or anisotropic streaming effect, availability of the method of characteristics (MOC), burnup calculation with reaction-detailed energy production etc. Qualified reactor physics codes are essential for the study of all existing and envisaged designs of nuclear reactors. Any new design would require a thorough analysis of all the safety parameters and burnup dependent behaviour. Any reactor physics calculation requires the estimation of neutron fluxes in various regions of the problem domain. The calculation goes through several levels before the desired solution is obtained. Each level of the lattice calculation has its own significance and any compromise at any step will lead to poor final result. The various levels include choice of nuclear data library and energy group boundaries into which the multigroup library is cast; self shielding of nuclear data depending on the heterogeneous geometry and composition; tracking of geometry, keeping error in volume and surface to an acceptable minimum; generation of regionwise and groupwise collision probabilities or MOC-related information and their subsequent normalization thereof, solution of transport equation using the previously generated groupwise information and obtaining the fluxes and reaction rates in various regions of the lattice; depletion of fuel and of other materials based on normalization with constant power or constant flux. Of the above mentioned levels, the present research will mainly focus on two aspects, namely self shielding and depletion. The behaviour of the system is determined by composition of resonant

  16. Water Resource Monitoring Based n EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze River Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathias; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  17. Water Resource Monitoring Based on EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze Middle Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathais; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  18. [Frequency dependance of compliance].

    PubMed

    Gayrard, P

    1975-01-01

    Resistance of peripheral or "small" airways is only a small part of the total pulmonary resistance (Raw). Even considerable obstruction in these airways will have little effect on total resistance. Conversely this will lead to inequality in the time constants of units in parallel, and dynamic lung compliance (C dyn) shall fall as respiratory frequence increases. C dyn is measured from simultaneous recordings of transpulmonary pressure (esophageal balloon) and volume obtained from a volume displacement plethysmograph. If Raw and static compliance are found to be normal, the frequency dependance of compliance will result from peripheral airway obstruction only. Early stages of chronic airway obstruction can be established by this method. However this appear not suitable for wide-scale studies.

  19. Solar Diameter Latitude Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Laclare, F.

    The observing programs of the Sun for determining the fundamental system of reference enable, as a by-product, to measure the apparent solar diameter (Poppe, P.C.R. et al. 1996; Leister et al. 1996; Laclare et al. 1991). The diameter obtained at the Calern Observatory (φ = 43-circ 44' 55''.9; λ = -0h 27m 42s.44) and at Abrahao de Moraes Observatory (OAM) (φ = -23-circ 00'6''.0; λ = 3h 07m 52s.22) was analyzed searching for periodicity evidences. For this we utilized the temporal methods CLEAN and CLEANEST. The analysis in function of heliographic latitude shows a dependence that may be correlated to mode of pulsation non-radial gravity. A discussion is made in terms of physical parameters like temperature luminosity and magnetic field involving the solar radius (Emilio M. 1997; Laclare et al. 1996).

  20. Density dependent neurodynamics.

    PubMed

    Halnes, Geir; Liljenström, Hans; Arhem, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of a neural network depends on density parameters at (at least) two different levels: the subcellular density of ion channels in single neurons, and the density of cells and synapses at a network level. For the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley (FH) neural model, the density of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) channels determines the behaviour of a single neuron when exposed to an external stimulus. The features of the onset of single neuron oscillations vary qualitatively among different regions in the channel density plane. At a network level, the density of neurons is reflected in the global connectivity. We study the relation between the two density levels in a network of oscillatory FH neurons, by qualitatively distinguishing between three regions, where the mean network activity is (1) spiking, (2) oscillating with enveloped frequencies, and (3) bursting, respectively. We demonstrate that the global activity can be shifted between regions by changing either the density of ion channels at the subcellular level, or the connectivity at the network level, suggesting that different underlying mechanisms can explain similar global phenomena. Finally, we model a possible effect of anaesthesia by blocking specific inhibitory ion channels.

  1. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  2. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  3. Field dependence and distraction revisited.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G H

    1976-02-01

    An attempt is made to replicate a former study of the relationship of field dependence as measured by rod-and-frame errors to distraction in an RT paradigm. For two groups of Ss (n = 14) who differed specifically in their dependence upon the tilted frame and were classified as frame-dependent and frame-independent, no relationship of frame (or field) dependence to susceptibility to distraction was found.

  4. Texting Dependence, iPod Dependence, and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F Richard; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. These are the first data to show that delay discounting relates to certain aspects of social media, namely iPod and texting dependence. These data also show that across these 2 dependencies, both psychological and behavioral symptoms and relationship disruptions are affected.

  5. Analyse de l'impact de l'environnement dans un schema de calcul a deux etapes avec DRAGON et DONJON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Christophe

    The calculation of the neutron flux is an important data that is used to determine the dynamic of the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). However the transport equation which gives the neutron flux, cannot be solved in three dimensions over the whole core, in evolution because of the power of the current computers, which are too slow. So some simplifications are necessary to calculate this flux. Two-levels schemes are used, where, in a first step, some macroscopic cross sections libraries are generated by solving the transport equation using infinite lattice calculations on two dimensions assemblies. These sections are generally homogenized on the whole assembly and condensed to two energy groups. In a second step, the whole core calculation is carried out using the diffusion equation, with the cross sections of the libraries previously generated, interpolated at the values of the different parameters. However the core of a PWR is made up of many assemblies, that can contain two types of fuel : Uranium OXyde (UOX) or plutonium and uranium Mixed OXyde (MOX). Moreover all these assemblies have different burnup because each one can be used for three or four cycles depending on the PWR. So that imply some burnup gradients. Thus the hypothesis of the infinite lattice used to generate the cross sections libraries can be highly inaccurate. The first goal of this project is to generate cross sections libraries that take into account the environment and to evaluate the impact of this heterogeneous environment on the core calculation. The flux obtained with the diffusion equation at the end of the core calculation is not accurate enough, du to the homogenization by assembly, to determine and to locate the hotspot factor, which represents an important industrial problematic. The principle of the power reconstruction method (PRM) is to reconstruct the more accurately possible the flux in the pins, with a combination of the diffusion flux and some microscopic flux which

  6. Dextropropoxyphene dependence: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Edwin, T; Nammalvar, N; Ramanujam, V

    2001-05-01

    Drug abuse and dependence is common in patients with chronic pain. Of concern are the opioid analgesics prescribed commonly, and its availability over the counter. Often the cause of dependence is iatrogenic. We report a case of a patient with chronic back pain and dextropropoxyphene dependence. With chronic pain being a significant risk factor for drug dependence, increased caution by the prescribing physicians is advisable while treating such patients using opioid analgesics. The dangers of opioid dependence, associated risk factors, and issues regarding the prescription of such medication are discussed to aid prevention of prescription drug abuse seen in general practice.

  7. Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

    Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

  8. Agitated Depression in Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711

  9. A rare case modafinil dependence.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Raman; Chary, Krishnan Vengadaragava

    2015-01-01

    Modafinil, a non-amphetamine psychostimulant, is indicated for narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Modafinil is prescribed at the dose of 100 mg once in a day or as two doses, 12 h apart in a day. It has also been found that it reduces cocaine dependence and withdrawal phenomenon. Modafinil is claimed to have very low liability for abuse and dependence. Here we report a rare case of modafinil dependence.

  10. Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity depends on dendritic location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froemke, Robert C.; Poo, Mu-ming; Dan, Yang

    2005-03-01

    In the neocortex, each neuron receives thousands of synaptic inputs distributed across an extensive dendritic tree. Although postsynaptic processing of each input is known to depend on its dendritic location, it is unclear whether activity-dependent synaptic modification is also location-dependent. Here we report that both the magnitude and the temporal specificity of spike-timing-dependent synaptic modification vary along the apical dendrite of rat cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. At the distal dendrite, the magnitude of long-term potentiation is smaller, and the window of pre-/postsynaptic spike interval for long-term depression (LTD) is broader. The spike-timing window for LTD correlates with the window of action potential-induced suppression of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors; this correlation applies to both their dendritic location-dependence and pharmacological properties. Presynaptic stimulation with partial blockade of NMDA receptors induced LTD and occluded further induction of spike-timing-dependent LTD, suggesting that NMDA receptor suppression underlies LTD induction. Computer simulation studies showed that the dendritic inhomogeneity of spike-timing-dependent synaptic modification leads to differential input selection at distal and proximal dendrites according to the temporal characteristics of presynaptic spike trains. Such location-dependent tuning of inputs, together with the dendritic heterogeneity of postsynaptic processing, could enhance the computational capacity of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  11. The dependency paradox in close relationships: accepting dependence promotes independence.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Brooke C

    2007-02-01

    Using multiple methods, this investigation tested the hypothesis that a close relationship partner's acceptance of dependence when needed (e.g., sensitive responsiveness to distress cues) is associated with less dependence, more autonomous functioning, and more self-sufficiency (as opposed to more dependence) on the part of the supported individual. In two studies, measures of acceptance of dependency needs and independent functioning were obtained through couple member reports, by observing couple members' behaviors during laboratory interactions, by observing responses to experimentally manipulated partner assistance provided during an individual laboratory task, and by following couples over a period of 6 months to examine independent goal striving as a function of prior assessments of dependency acceptance. Results provided converging evidence in support of the proposed hypothesis. Implications of the importance of close relationships for optimal individual functioning are discussed.

  12. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  13. Some Concepts of Negative Dependence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    The theory of positive dependence notions cannot yield useful results for some widely used distributions such as the multinomial, Dirichlet and the...multivariate hypergeometric. Some conditions of negative dependence that are satisfied by these distributions and which have practical meaning are

  14. [Alcohol dependence, temper and personality].

    PubMed

    Lejoyeux, Michel

    2004-12-01

    This review focuses on classical and recent research work in the field of alcohol dependence. Data from psychopathological studies trying to determine a "pre-addictive" personality are exposed. More recent studies assess personality disorders and dimensions of temperament associated to alcohol dependence. Sensation seeking, antisocial personality and novelty seeking appear as the main psychological parameters involved in dependence. Sensation seeking is a dimension of personality often associated to behavioral dependence. Sensation seeking is assessed with a five-component scale including general factor, thrill and adventure seeking, experience-seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility. Patients presenting alcohol dependence have a higher level of sensation seeking. Neurophysiological and genetic studies try to correlate these personality features to biological parameters. Preliminary results of these works are presented and discussed.

  15. Take Flight with Dragons and Damsels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Dwight

    1993-01-01

    Describes a field study of dragonflies and damselflies. After a bit of background reading and equipped with paper, pencil, insect net, and work sheet in hand, students will come to appreciate the behaviors of these insects as they gain a deeper understanding of the natural world. (PR)

  16. Rising Dragon: Deterring China in 2035

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    prepared to lower these costs through the use of a protective ensemble (chemical masks, charcoal lined uniforms, etc.) and proper training. Deterrence...that if country X attacks the U.S. with a massive cyber, bio, space, or nano attack that we will respond with nuclear weapons. Threats like that

  17. How a Dragon Gets Its Wings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of activities that help students form accurate conceptions of meiosis and how its process and purpose differ greatly from mitosis. Discusses the concept of crossing over. Uses a small plastic egg to engage students in a fertilization activity. (SAH)

  18. Donkeys and Dragons: Recollections of Schoolteachers' Nicknames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2002-01-01

    Explores characteristics of using nicknames for teachers as recalled by a sample of university students (n=103) who completed a questionnaire. Reports that most nicknames expressed contempt or dislike, attempted to get even, and drew upon physical characteristics of the person. Includes references. (CMK)

  19. The Return of the Sun Dragon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses types of solar eclipses and the frequency of their occurrence. Emphasis is placed on the May 30, 1984 solar eclipse. Ideas for building a pinhole camera to view the eclipse, to determine if the sun is changing size, and to report scientific findings are provided. (BC)

  20. Coexistence under positive frequency dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Molofsky, J.; Bever, J. D.; Antonovics, J.

    2001-01-01

    Negative frequency dependence resulting from interspecific interactions is considered a driving force in allowing the coexistence of competitors. While interactions between species and genotypes can also result in positive frequency dependence, positive frequency dependence has usually been credited with hastening the extinction of rare types and is not thought to contribute to coexistence. In the present paper, we develop a stochastic cellular automata model that allows us to vary the scale of frequency dependence and the scale of dispersal. The results of this model indicate that positive frequency dependence will allow the coexistence of two species at a greater rate than would be expected from chance. This coexistence arises from the generation of banding patterns that will be stable over long time-periods. As a result, we found that positive frequency-dependent interactions over local spatial scales promote coexistence over neutral interactions. This result was robust to variation in boundary conditions within the simulation and to variation in levels of disturbance. Under all conditions, coexistence is enhanced as the strength of positive frequency-dependent interactions is increased. PMID:11217898

  1. Time-dependent drift Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-03-01

    The lowest-order drift equations are given in a canonical magnetic coordinate form for time-dependent magnetic and electric fields. The advantages of the canonical Hamiltonian form are also discussed.

  2. Drug dependence: some research issues*

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    This paper examines some problems of drug dependence, stressing the importance of a balanced approach. Consideration must be given to the demand for, as well as the supply of, drugs. Without a demand, there would be no continuing supply of man-made agents and no need to control the availability of naturally occurring agents. To achieve a balanced approach, increased research is needed into the effects on man of taking various dependence-producing drugs (particularly when these are used for long periods of time), the natural history of drug taking, the relative effectiveness of various preventive, therapeutic and restorative approaches and techniques, and means of identifying substances that, because of their dependence-producing properties, are apt to induce individual or public health problems. Attention is also called to some problems that may inhibit, but do not preclude, the initiation of studies in the field of drug dependence. PMID:5313071

  3. Scale-dependent halo bias from scale-dependent growth

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Hui, Lam; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-03-15

    We derive a general expression for the large-scale halo bias, in theories with a scale-dependent linear growth, using the excursion set formalism. Such theories include modified-gravity models, and models in which the dark energy clustering is non-negligible. A scale dependence is imprinted in both the formation and evolved biases by the scale-dependent growth. Mergers are accounted for in our derivation, which thus extends earlier work which focused on passive evolution. There is a simple analytic form for the bias for those theories in which the nonlinear collapse of perturbations is approximately the same as in general relativity. As an illustration, we apply our results to a simple Yukawa modification of gravity, and use Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the clustering of luminous red galaxies to constrain the theory's parameters.

  4. Frequency-Dependent Changes in NMDAR-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Mehta, Mayank R.

    2011-01-01

    The NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity is thought to mediate several forms of learning, and can be induced by spike trains containing a small number of spikes occurring with varying rates and timing, as well as with oscillations. We computed the influence of these variables on the plasticity induced at a single NMDAR containing synapse using a reduced model that was analytically tractable, and these findings were confirmed using detailed, multi-compartment model. In addition to explaining diverse experimental results about the rate and timing dependence of synaptic plasticity, the model made several novel and testable predictions. We found that there was a preferred frequency for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) such that higher frequency stimuli induced lesser LTP, decreasing as 1/f when the number of spikes in the stimulus was kept fixed. Among other things, the preferred frequency for inducing LTP varied as a function of the distance of the synapse from the soma. In fact, same stimulation frequencies could induce LTP or long-term depression depending on the dendritic location of the synapse. Next, we found that rhythmic stimuli induced greater plasticity then irregular stimuli. Furthermore, brief bursts of spikes significantly expanded the timing dependence of plasticity. Finally, we found that in the ∼5–15-Hz frequency range both rate- and timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms work synergistically to render the synaptic plasticity most sensitive to spike timing. These findings provide computational evidence that oscillations can have a profound influence on the plasticity of an NMDAR-dependent synapse, and show a novel role for the dendritic morphology in this process. PMID:21994493

  5. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  6. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

  7. Developing Tests of Visual Dependency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindrat, Alexandra N.

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts develop neural adaptive responses to microgravity during space flight. Consequently these adaptive responses cause maladaptive disturbances in balance and gait function when astronauts return to Earth and are re-exposed to gravity. Current research in the Neuroscience Laboratories at NASA-JSC is focused on understanding how exposure to space flight produces post-flight disturbances in balance and gait control and developing training programs designed to facilitate the rapid recovery of functional mobility after space flight. In concert with these disturbances, astronauts also often report an increase in their visual dependency during space flight. To better understand this phenomenon, studies were conducted with specially designed training programs focusing on visual dependency with the aim to understand and enhance subjects ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. The Rod and Frame test (RFT) was used first to assess an individual s visual dependency, using a variety of testing techniques. Once assessed, subjects were asked to perform two novel tasks under transformation (both the Pegboard and Cube Construction tasks). Results indicate that head position cues and initial visual test conditions had no effect on an individual s visual dependency scores. Subjects were also able to adapt to the manual tasks after several trials. Individual visual dependency correlated with ability to adapt manual to a novel visual distortion only for the cube task. Subjects with higher visual dependency showed decreased ability to adapt to this task. Ultimately, it was revealed that the RFT may serve as an effective prediction tool to produce individualized adaptability training prescriptions that target the specific sensory profile of each crewmember.

  8. Fault trees and sequence dependencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Boyd, Mark A.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the frequently cited shortcomings of fault-tree models, their inability to model so-called sequence dependencies, is discussed. Several sources of such sequence dependencies are discussed, and new fault-tree gates to capture this behavior are defined. These complex behaviors can be included in present fault-tree models because they utilize a Markov solution. The utility of the new gates is demonstrated by presenting several models of the fault-tolerant parallel processor, which include both hot and cold spares.

  9. [Dependent seniors: families and caregivers].

    PubMed

    Karsch, Ursula M

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on health care for dependent seniors in relation to chronic illnesses. Expectations about family support for the dependent elderly are related to the role of family caregivers, but care requires support from the public and private sectors. Governments throughout the developed countries are examining their role in the provision of social welfare programs, especially in the public health sector. To recommend home care and family assistance, the context of changing family structures, the type of care needed, and professional follow-up must be taken into account.

  10. The Study of Curricular Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiu, Dragos

    2006-01-01

    In the educational process, the disciplines D1, D2,...,Dn have a succession which is generated by the content and the final objective--the student formation. In this work, the disciplines are presented as structured text entities. The graph associated to the disciplines is established. A method for dependencies evaluation is proposed. The testing…

  11. We Depend on Illinois' Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

    This teachers guide contains information and activities to provide 5th-grade students with a hands-on experience with air, land, and water pollution in Illinois. This booklet incorporates previous documents entitled: "Water the Liquid of Life,""The Land We Depend On," and "The Air We Breathe." The materials are…

  12. Dependency Structures and Transformational Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jane J.

    In this paper the author shows that dependency grammars are not only equivalent to structure-free phrase-structure grammars (i.e., equally adequate), but are even more informative: they express both the "is a" relation which phrase-structure grammars express and the "governs" relation which phrase-structure grammars obscure. It…

  13. [Preventing dependency: the longevity challenge].

    PubMed

    Forette, Françoise

    2009-02-01

    Longevity can only be considered a privilege if the majority of the elderly population is active and in good health. In contrast to certain statistical interpretations, the HID study gives cause for optimism. It showed that only 7% of subjects aged 60 years and over suffer from dependency and, therefore, that 93% of the population remains independent. Of course, the rate of dependency increases with age, particularly in women and after 90 years of age. Dependency is mostly due to age-related diseases. The second cause is "frailty" and the third is inactivity, or more generally, lifestyle. All age-related diseases have modifiable risk factors and are thus accessible to prevention. Prevention must be started as soon as possible. It has been demonstrated that a mother's educational level influences her children's health in adulthood. It is never too late. The Hyvet study recently showed that the treatment of hypertension after 80 years of age is still able to significantly reduce the risk of death, stroke, heart failure and other cardiovascular complications. Inadequate disease management may also lead to avoidable dependency. This is the case of congestive heart failure and osteoporosis, which are not always treated in very old patients according to evidence-based principles. Another means of prevention is the detection and management of the frailty syndrome, which carries a measurable risk of loss of independence. In addition to these medical approaches, occupational activity involving strong cognitive stimulation has been shown to postpone the onset of cognitive impairment.

  14. Network-timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.

  15. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  16. Time dependent view factor methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence.

  17. A User- Dependent SDI System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Hilary D.

    1973-01-01

    A large-scale selective dissemination of information (SDI) system which is in operation at the Agricultural Research Service is described. The unique characteristic of this system is that the users develop and modify their own profiles. The implications of this user-dependent approach for information system planners are discussed. (2 references)…

  18. Directional Dependence in Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and propose methods that may be of use to determine direction of dependence in non-normally distributed variables. First, it is shown that standard regression analysis is unable to distinguish between explanatory and response variables. Then, skewness and kurtosis are discussed as tools to assess deviation from…

  19. Dependency Ordering of Atomic Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cīrulis, Jānis

    2015-12-01

    The notion of atomic observable was introduced by S.Gudder for effect test spaces in 1997. In this paper an observable is a σ-homomorphism from the Borel algebra on a line to some logic. Roughly, an observable on a logic is atomic, if it is completely determined by its restriction to one-element subsets of its point spectrum. In particular, every discrete observable is atomic. We study some elementary properties of such observables, and discuss a possible notion of functional dependency between them. Algebraically, a dependency is a certain preorder relation on the set of all atomic observables, which induces an order relation on the set of all maximal orthogonal subsets of the logic. Several properties, as well as characteristics in terms of the underlying logic, of these relations are stated.

  20. Link Dependent Adaptive Radio Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    14. ABSTRACT This paper shows the optimized Link Dependent Adaptive Radio (LDAR) using the variable QAM OFDM modulation size which adapts to channel...bit error rate (BER), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...using the variable QAM OFDM modulation size which adapts to channel conditions. The LDAR enhanced performance is illustrated by use of a flight path

  1. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  2. Nicotine dependence and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Linxiang; Tang, Quansheng; Hao, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death, disability and disease in the world and is projected to be the leading cause of death and disability across all developed and developing countries by 2020. Nicotine, the primary active ingredient of cigarettes that contributes to physical dependence, acts on nicotine receptors in the central nervous system and leads to the release of neurotransmitters (such as dopamine). Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine is thought to produce reinforcing effect by activating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. A wide variety of cessation treatments of nicotine dependence is commercially available, yet only 2 general approaches have received empirical validation: behavioral intervention (including 5 As brief intervention) and pharmacotherapy. The evidences show that 5 As brief intervention is one of the most cost-effective treatments in clinical work for busy physicians. Three types of medications have been available in market for smoking cessation treatment: nicotine replacement treatment (NRT, i.e., transdermal patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, and lozenge), sustained release bupropion and varenicline. Varenicline, a novel alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is effective for tobacco dependence. Phase III trials suggest that it is more effective than NRT and bupropion SR. The safety profile of varenicline is excellent, with the most commonly occurring adverse events, nausea, typically mild and well tolerated. However, new safety warnings are added to the varenicline label because of post-marketing report including agitation, depression and suicidality. A causal connection between varenicline use and these symptoms has not been established.

  3. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias

    PubMed Central

    Musallam, Khaled M.; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (β)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration. PMID:23729725

  4. Time dependence of PEB effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagishita, Yuichiro; Shigematsu, Kazumasa; Yanagida, Kimio

    1990-06-01

    Though simulations of PEB (Post Exposure Bake) on the basis of PAC diffusion mode! have been carried out by a number of researchers '' (2) , it has never been confirmed that those could predict experimental data caused by PEB' s effects accurately . Because no details of chemical reactions thernlly induced by PEB are known, fundamental parameters which determine PEB' s effects must be obtained experimentally. We have acquired the volume of changes of development rate function, RATE(M) by PEB with DRM monitoring for some types of photoresist . The values of diffusion length have been obtained by means of compareing experimental B (exposure ener) vs T (development time to clear) curves with simulated ones which is based on RATEOA) data. Their dependence on the baking time has been investigated with fixed FEB temperature and it has been proved that a progress of the diffusion saturates only in less than a few seconds when the diffusion length is about lO'-l5ncn, which is much shorter than the standing wave length(= 66nm, for G-line). Profiles of low contrast resist patterns can be improved by the decrease in development rate of slightly exposed areas by PEB. The effects on these resists depend on the baking time because the volume of the decrease grows with increasing FEB time. On the other hands, for high contrast resists PEB' s diffusion enhances their resolution while the decreases in development rate have little effect on them. Time dependence cannot be observed for these resists because the diffusion length remains constant with increasing FEB time.

  5. Time-Dependent Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Natta, Antonella

    1995-01-01

    We present theoretical models of the time-dependent thermal and chemical structure of molecular gas suddenly exposed to far-ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) radiation fields and the consequent time- dependent infrared emission of the gas. We focus on the response of molecular hydrogen for cloud densities ranging from n = 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 6)/cu cm and FUV fluxes G(sub 0) = 10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) times the local FUV interstellar flux. For G(sub 0)/n greater than 10(exp -2) cu cm, the emergent H(sub 2) vibrational line intensities are initially larger than the final equilibrium values. The H(sub 2) lines are excited by FUV fluorescence and by collisional excitation in warm gas. Most of the H(sub 2) intensity is generated at a characteristic hydrogen column density of N approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, which corresponds to an FUV optical depth of unity caused by dust opacity. The time dependence of the H(sub 2) intensities arises because the initial abundances of H(sub 2) at these depths is much higher than the equilibrium values, so that H(sub 2) initially competes more effectively with dust in absorbing FUV photons. Considerable column densities of warm (T approximately 1000) K H(sub 2) gas can be produced by the FUV pumping of H(sub 2) vibrational levels followed by collisional de-excitation, which transfers the energy to heat. In dense (n greater than or approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm) gas exposed to high (G(sub 0) greater than or approximately 10(exp 4)) fluxes, this warm gas produces a 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(l) H(sub 2) line ratio of approximately 0.1, which mimics the ratio found in shocked gas. In lower density regions, the FUV pumping produces a pure-fluorescent ratio of approximately 0.5. We also present calculations of the time dependence of the atomic hydrogen column densities and of the intensities of 0 I 6300 A, S II 6730 A, Fe II 1.64 microns, and rotational OH and H20 emission. Potential applications include star-forming regions, clouds

  6. Frequency dependence of organic magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemans, W.; Janssen, P.; van der Heijden, E. H. M.; Kemerink, M.; Koopmans, B.

    2010-09-01

    To identify the microscopic mechanisms of organic magnetoresistance (OMAR), the dependency on the frequency of the applied magnetic field is explored, which consists of a dc and ac component. The measured magnetoconductance decreases when the frequency is increased. The decrease is stronger for lower voltages, which is shown to be linked to the presence of a negative capacitance, as measured with admittance spectroscopy. The negative capacitance disappears when the frequency becomes comparable to the inverse transit time of the minority carriers. These results are in agreement with recent interpretations that magnetic field effects on minority carrier mobility dominate OMAR.

  7. Dependent video coding using a tree representation of pixel dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Luca; Valenzise, Giuseppe; Ortega, Antonio; Tubaro, Stefano

    2011-09-01

    Motion-compensated prediction induces a chain of coding dependencies between pixels in video. In principle, an optimal selection of encoding parameters (motion vectors, quantization parameters, coding modes) should take into account the whole temporal horizon of a GOP. However, in practical coding schemes, these choices are made on a frame-by-frame basis, thus with a possible loss of performance. In this paper we describe a tree-based model for pixelwise coding dependencies: each pixel in a frame is the child of a pixel in a previous reference frame. We show that some tree structures are more favorable than others from a rate-distortion perspective, e.g., because they entail a large descendance of pixels which are well predicted from a common ancestor. In those cases, a higher quality has to be assigned to pixels at the top of such trees. We promote the creation of these structures by adding a special discount term to the conventional Lagrangian cost adopted at the encoder. The proposed model can be implemented through a double-pass encoding procedure. Specifically, we devise heuristic cost functions to drive the selection of quantization parameters and of motion vectors, which can be readily implemented into a state-of-the-art H.264/AVC encoder. Our experiments demonstrate that coding efficiency is improved for video sequences with low motion, while there are no apparent gains for more complex motion. We argue that this is due to both the presence of complex encoder features not captured by the model, and to the complexity of the source to be encoded.

  8. Time Dependent Nuclear Scattering Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, David

    2005-04-01

    A new time dependent method for calculating scattering matrix elements of two and three body nuclear collisions below 50 Mev is being developed. The procedure closely follows the channel packet method (CPM) used to compute scattering matrix elements for non-adiabatic molecular reactions.ootnotetextT.A.Niday and D.E.Weeks, Chem. Phys. Letters 308 (1999) 106 Currently, one degree of freedom calculations using a simple square well have been completed and a two body scattering calculation using the Yukawa potential is anticipated. To perform nuclear scattering calculations with the CPM that will incorporate the nucleon-nucleon tensor force, we plan to position initial reactant and product channel packets in the asymptotic limit on single coupled potential energy surfaces labeled by the spin, isospin, and total angular momentum of the reactant nucleons. The wave packets will propagated numerically using the split operator method augmented by a coordinate dependant unitary transformation used to diagonalize the potential. Scattering matrix elements will be determined by the Fourier transform of the correlation function between the evolving reactant and product wave packets. A brief outline of the Argonne v18 nucleon-nucleon potentialootnotetextR.B.Wiringa, V.G.J.Stoks, and R.Schiavilla, Physical Review C 51(1995) 38 and the proposed wave packet calculations will be presented.

  9. State-Dependent Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Juliane; Michel, Christoph M.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal dynamics and anatomical correlates underlying human visual cognition are traditionally assessed as a function of stimulus properties and task demands. Any non-stimulus related activity is commonly dismissed as noise and eliminated to extract an evoked signal that is only a small fraction of the magnitude of the measured signal. We review studies that challenge this view by showing that non-stimulus related activity is not mere noise but that it has a well-structured organization which can largely determine the processing of upcoming stimuli. We review recent evidence from human electrophysiology that shows how different aspects of pre-stimulus activity such as pre-stimulus EEG frequency power and phase and pre-stimulus EEG microstates can determine qualitative and quantitative properties of both lower and higher-level visual processing. These studies show that low-level sensory processes depend on the momentary excitability of sensory cortices whereas perceptual processes leading to stimulus awareness depend on momentary pre-stimulus activity in higher-level non-visual brain areas. Also speed and accuracy of stimulus identification have likewise been shown to be modulated by pre-stimulus brain states. PMID:22203809

  10. Temperature dependency of quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pocock, N A; Babichev, A; Culton, N; Graney, K; Rooney, J; Bell, D; Chu, J

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are temperature dependent. We examined the effect of temperature on QUS using Lunar Achilles+ and Hologic Sahara units. In vivo studies were performed in a cadaveric foot and in 5 volunteers. QUS scans were performed in the cadaveric foot, using both machines, at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 degrees C. To assess the effect of change in water bath temperature in the Achilles+, independently of foot temperature, 5 volunteers were studied at water temperatures ranging from 10 to 42 degrees C. In the cadaveric foot there were strong negative correlations between temperature and speed of sound (SOS) but a moderately positive correlation between temperature and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Stiffness and the Quantitative Ultrasound Index (QUI) in the cadaveric foot showed strong negative correlations with temperature, reflecting their high dependence on SOS. In the 5 volunteers, in whom foot temperature was assumed to be constant, there was a small change in Stiffness in the Achilles+, with variation in water temperature. In conclusion, while there are opposite effects of temperature on SOS and BUA in vivo, there is still a significant effect of temperature variation on Stiffness and the QUI. This may have clinical significance in particular subjects. The precision of QUS may be affected by temperature variation of the environment or of the patient's limb. Instruments utilizing a water bath may be able partly to compensate for changes in environmental temperature, but standardization of water bath temperature is crucial to maximize precision.

  11. Viscosity-dependent protein dynamics.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Ilya J; Massari, Aaron M; Fayer, M D

    2007-05-15

    Spectrally resolved stimulated vibrational echo spectroscopy is used to investigate the dependence of fast protein dynamics on bulk solution viscosity at room temperature in four heme proteins: hemoglobin, myoglobin, a myoglobin mutant with the distal histidine replaced by a valine (H64V), and a cytochrome c552 mutant with the distal methionine replaced by an alanine (M61A). Fructose is added to increase the viscosity of the aqueous protein solutions over many orders of magnitude. The fast dynamics of the four globular proteins were found to be sensitive to solution viscosity and asymptotically approached the dynamical behavior that was previously observed in room temperature sugar glasses. The viscosity-dependent protein dynamics are analyzed in the context of a viscoelastic relaxation model that treats the protein as a deformable breathing sphere. The viscoelastic model is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data but does not capture sufficient system detail to offer a quantitative description of the underlying fluctuation amplitudes and relaxation rates. A calibration method based on the near-infrared spectrum of water overtones was constructed to accurately determine the viscosity of small volumes of protein solutions.

  12. Issues and Conflicts in Male Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Roberta C.

    Dependence is a salient quality in both sexes, although it has been culturally more acceptable for women than for men to acknowledge and accept dependency. The conflict men experience with regard to dependency and the manifestations of such conflict in dependent adult behaviors were examined. Subjects were divided into a "most…

  13. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  14. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  15. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Frederic; Verner, Duane; Brannegan, David; Buehring, William; Dickinson, David; Guziel, Karen; Haffenden, Rebecca; Phillips, Julia; Peerenboom, James

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  16. Geometry dependence of stellarator turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A. H.

    2009-11-01

    Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST [F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M. Kotschenreuther, and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000); P. Xanthopoulos, W. A. Cooper, F. Jenko, Yu. Turkin, A. Runov, and J. Geiger, Phys. Plasmas 16, 082303 (2009)], we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the two-dimensional structure of the microturbulence over that surface and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrödinger-like equation governing linear drift modes.

  17. Your Morals Depend on Language

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis. PMID:24760073

  18. Mass dependence of nitride sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elovikov, S. S.; Khrustachev, I. K.; Mosunov, A. S.; Yurasova, V. E.

    2003-08-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the sputtering yield Y for BN, AlN and GaN polycrystals of wurtzite structure as a function of the masses m 1 of bombarding ions with energies from 200 to 2000 eV. A nonmonotonic behavior of the Y ( m 1 ) curve was obtained for the irradiation by low-energy ions, the curve having a maximum with a position being dependent on m 2 / m 1 ( m 2 is the average mass of atoms in a compound). For AlN and GaN the maximum was observed at m 2 / m 1 = 2, and for BN at m 2 / m 1 = 1. The effect of the mass of bombarding ions on the mean energies and energy spectra of sputtered particles, the depth of sputtering origin, and the generation of emitted atoms for nitrides was also investigated and discussed.

  19. Your morals depend on language.

    PubMed

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  20. Irradiance-dependent UVB Photocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Cheng-Che E.; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Huang, Shu-Mei; Wu, Chin-Han; Lai, Hsiao-Chi; Peng, Yu-Ting; Hou, Pao-Sheng; Yang, Hui-Jun; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from the sun may lead to photocarcinogenesis of the skin. Sunscreens were used to protect the skin by reducing UVB irradiance, but sunscreen use did not reduce sunburn episodes. It was shown that UVB-induced erythema depends on surface exposure but not irradiance of UVB. We previously showed that irradiance plays a critical role in UVB-induced cell differentiation. This study investigated the impact of irradiance on UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis. For hairless mice receiving equivalent exposure of UVB radiation, the low irradiance (LI) UVB treated mice showed more rapid tumor development, larger tumor burden, and more keratinocytes harboring mutant p53 in the epidermis as compared to their high irradiance (HI) UVB treated counterpart. Mechanistically, using cell models, we demonstrated that LI UVB radiation allowed more keratinocytes harboring DNA damages to enter cell cycle via ERK-related signaling as compared to its HI UVB counterpart. These results indicated that at equivalent exposure, UVB radiation at LI has higher photocarcinogenic potential as compared to its HI counterpart. Since erythema is the observed sunburn at moderate doses and use of sunscreen was not found to associate with reduced sunburn episodes, the biological significance of sunburn with or without sunscreen use warrants further investigation. PMID:27869214