Science.gov

Sample records for dragon multicellules dependants

  1. Parthenogenesis in Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip C; Buley, Kevin R; Sanderson, Stephanie; Boardman, Wayne; Ciofi, Claudio; Gibson, Richard

    2006-12-21

    Parthenogenesis, the production of offspring without fertilization by a male, is rare in vertebrate species, which usually reproduce after fusion of male and female gametes. Here we use genetic fingerprinting to identify parthenogenetic offspring produced by two female Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) that had been kept at separate institutions and isolated from males; one of these females subsequently produced additional offspring sexually. This reproductive plasticity indicates that female Komodo dragons may switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, depending on the availability of a mate--a finding that has implications for the breeding of this threatened species in captivity. Most zoos keep only females, with males being moved between zoos for mating, but perhaps they should be kept together to avoid triggering parthenogenesis and thereby decreasing genetic diversity.

  2. Dragons as Amulets, Dragons as Talismans, Dragons as Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in diverse historical and cultural settings, dragons have served as protective amulets/powerful talismans to protect/enhance powers of those who possess them. Explores use of such personal symbols in dealing with personal adversity and suggests methods in which dragon symbol can be used to promote discussion of feelings, problems, and…

  3. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  4. Plaster-Wrap Dragons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her students constructed a three-dimensional sculpture of a dragon using plaster wrap and other materials. The dragons were formed from modest means--using only a toilet-paper tube, newsprint, tape and wire.

  5. Bitten by a Dragon.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Stephen D; Cooper, Jeffrey S; Wadman, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are large lizards known to take down prey even larger than themselves. They rarely attack humans. A 38-year-old woman was bitten by a Komodo dragon on her hand while cleaning its enclosure. She was transiently hypotensive. The wounds were extensively cleaned, and she was started on prophylactic antibiotics. Her wounds healed without any infectious sequelae. Komodo dragon bites are historically thought to be highly infectious and venomous. Based on a literature review, neither of these are likely true. As in any bite, initial stabilization followed by wound management are the main components to therapy.

  6. Bitten by a Dragon.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Stephen D; Cooper, Jeffrey S; Wadman, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are large lizards known to take down prey even larger than themselves. They rarely attack humans. A 38-year-old woman was bitten by a Komodo dragon on her hand while cleaning its enclosure. She was transiently hypotensive. The wounds were extensively cleaned, and she was started on prophylactic antibiotics. Her wounds healed without any infectious sequelae. Komodo dragon bites are historically thought to be highly infectious and venomous. Based on a literature review, neither of these are likely true. As in any bite, initial stabilization followed by wound management are the main components to therapy. PMID:27161437

  7. Drag'on In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Diane

    1983-01-01

    Primary students designed dragons for a billboard advertising activity to promote Youth Art Month. After selecting head, midsection, and tail designs, the students enlarged the drawings for a billboard image. (AM)

  8. DRAGON, a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Samad, Tarek A; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Bell, Esther; Zhang, Ying; Sidis, Yisrael; Jeong, Sung-Jin; Campagna, Jason A; Perusini, Stephen; Fabrizio, David A; Schneyer, Alan L; Lin, Herbert Y; Brivanlou, Ali H; Attisano, Liliana; Woolf, Clifford J

    2005-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)beta superfamily of ligands that regulate many crucial aspects of embryonic development and organogenesis. Unlike other TGFbeta ligands, co-receptors for BMP ligands have not been described. Here we show that DRAGON, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the repulsive guidance molecule family, which is expressed early in the developing nervous system, enhances BMP but not TGFbeta signaling. DRAGON binds directly to BMP2 and BMP4 but not to BMP7 or other TGFbeta ligands. The enhancing action of DRAGON on BMP signaling is also reduced by administration of Noggin, a soluble BMP antagonist, indicating that the action of DRAGON is ligand-dependent. DRAGON associates directly with BMP type I (ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6) and type II (ActRII and ActRIIB) receptors, and its signaling is reduced by dominant negative Smad1 and ALK3 or -6 receptors. In the Xenopus embryo, DRAGON both reduces the threshold of the ability of Smad1 to induce mesodermal and endodermal markers and alters neuronal and neural crest patterning. The direct interaction of DRAGON with BMP ligands and receptors indicates that it is a BMP co-receptor that potentiates BMP signaling.

  9. Nuclear astrophysics at DRAGON

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, U.

    2014-05-02

    The DRAGON recoil separator is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance. Over the last years, the DRAGON collaboration has measured several reactions using both radioactive and high-intensity stable beams. For example, the 160(a, g) cross section was recently measured. The reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the 12C(a, g) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In this measurement, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. In addition, results from other recent measurements will be presented.

  10. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Babitt, Jodie L; Bouley, Richard; Zhang, Ying; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Shanzhuo; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary J; Anderson, Jennifer L; Hong, Charles C; Schneyer, Alan L; Brown, Dennis; Lin, Herbert Y

    2010-04-01

    The neuronal adhesion protein Dragon acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor that enhances BMP signaling. Given the importance of BMP signaling in nephrogenesis and its putative role in the response to injury in the adult kidney, we studied the localization and function of Dragon in the kidney. We observed that Dragon localized predominantly to the apical surfaces of tubular epithelial cells in the thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts of mice. Dragon expression was weak in the proximal tubules and glomeruli. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells, Dragon generated BMP signals in a ligand-dependent manner, and BMP4 is the predominant endogenous ligand for the Dragon coreceptor. In mIMCD3 cells, BMP4 normally signaled through BMPRII, but Dragon enhanced its signaling through the BMP type II receptor ActRIIA. Dragon and BMP4 increased transepithelial resistance (TER) through the Smad1/5/8 pathway. In epithelial cells isolated from the proximal tubule and intercalated cells of collecting ducts, we observed coexpression of ActRIIA, Dragon, and BMP4 but not BMPRII. Taken together, these results suggest that Dragon may enhance BMP signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells and maintain normal renal physiology.

  11. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  12. Dragon Boat Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English and designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. This booklet describes the celebration of the Dragon Boat Festival, which marks the beginning of summer. A brief background to the festival is…

  13. Visual syntax of the DRAGON language

    SciTech Connect

    Parondzhanov, V.D.

    1995-05-01

    A method for flowchart formalization and nonclassical structurization called DRAGON is suggested. The family of DRAGON visual programming languages is presented. The visual language syntax is described.

  14. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b) inhibits IL-6 expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Niederkofler, Vera; Salie, Rishard; Chen, Shanzhuo; Samad, Tarek A; Hong, Charles C; Arber, Silvia; Vyas, Jatin M; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J; Lin, Herbert Y

    2011-02-01

    Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family members RGMa, RGMb/Dragon, and RGMc/hemojuvelin were found recently to act as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptors that enhance BMP signaling activity. Although our previous studies have shown that hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression and iron metabolism through the BMP pathway, the role of the BMP signaling mediated by Dragon remains largely unknown. We have shown previously that Dragon is expressed in neural cells, germ cells, and renal epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Dragon is highly expressed in macrophages. Studies with RAW264.7 and J774 macrophage cell lines reveal that Dragon negatively regulates IL-6 expression in a BMP ligand-dependent manner via the p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 pathways but not the Smad1/5/8 pathway. We also generated Dragon knockout mice and found that IL-6 is upregulated in macrophages and dendritic cells derived from whole lung tissue of these mice compared with that in respective cells derived from wild-type littermates. These results indicate that Dragon is an important negative regulator of IL-6 expression in immune cells and that Dragon-deficient mice may be a useful model for studying immune and inflammatory disorders.

  15. Station Crew Opens Dragon Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineer Aki Hoshide opened the hatch to the SpaceX Dragon cargo ship at 1:40 p.m. EDT Wednesday, Oct. 10, marking a milestone for the first commerc...

  16. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  17. Victorian Dragons: The Reluctant Brood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ruth

    1984-01-01

    Relates why nineteenth century fantasy writers shied away from the use of dragons in their stories and rejoices over the return and happy transformation of this mythical beast in children's literature. (HOD)

  18. SpaceX Dragon Launches

    NASA Video Gallery

    The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying the Dragon spacecraft lifted off at 10:10 a.m. EST from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, beginning its mission to resupply the International Space St...

  19. ISS Update: Capturing a Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Melanie Miller, Robotics Officer, about the capture of the SpaceX Dragon commercial cargo craft by the Expedition 33 crew of the International Spa...

  20. ISS Update: Capturing a Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with space station training instructors Jeff Tuxhorn and Graeme Newman, who trained the space station crews on how to capture SpaceX’s Dragon spacecr...

  1. Injuries in Competitive Dragon Boating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. Purpose: To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. Results: A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Conclusion: Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport. PMID:26535280

  2. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  3. Towards a more plausible dragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, Costas

    2014-08-01

    Wizards, mermaids, dragons and aliens. Walking, running, flying and space travel. A hi-tech elevator, a computer, a propulsion engine and a black hole. What do all of these things have in common? This might seem like a really hard brainteaser but the answer is simple: they all obey the fundamental laws of our universe.

  4. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  5. 'Chasing the dragon': new knowledge for an old practice.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Juan P; Balan, Sabish; Romero, Jorge; Korniyenko, Aleksandr; Alviar, Carlos L; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Jean, Raymonde

    2014-01-01

    Heroin administration by "chasing the dragon," whereby the user places freebase heroin on aluminum foil, heats it below with a flame, and inhales the pyrolysate through a straw, can be associated with the rare development of a delayed-onset spongiform leukoencephalopathy. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with a psychiatric diagnosis of depression and heroin dependence by "chasing the dragon" admitted with features of altered mental status and later development of catatonia, abulia, and akinetic mutism. A brain magnetic resonance image evidenced bilateral symmetric high-signal lesions in the white matter of the cerebrum and cerebellum on T2-weighted images compatible with toxic leukoencephalopathy. The patient's condition resolved after a hospital stay of 2 months with supportive treatment. Acute onset of neurobehavioral changes, including confusion, apathy, and cerebellar signs in a person with exposure to heroin, should prompt one to consider toxic leukoencephalopathy as a cause of presentation.

  6. Outliers and Extremes: Dragon-Kings or Dragon-Fools?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysics seems full of monsters like Victor Hugo's Court of Miracles and monstrous extremes have been statistically considered as outliers with respect to more normal events. However, a characteristic magnitude separating abnormal events from normal ones would be at odd with the generic scaling behaviour of nonlinear systems, contrary to "fat tailed" probability distributions and self-organized criticality. More precisely, it can be shown [1] how the apparent monsters could be mere manifestations of a singular measure mishandled as a regular measure. Monstrous fluctuations are the rule, not outliers and they are more frequent than usually thought up to the point that (theoretical) statistical moments can easily be infinite. The empirical estimates of the latter are erratic and diverge with sample size. The corresponding physics is that intense small scale events cannot be smoothed out by upscaling. However, based on a few examples, it has also been argued [2] that one should consider "genuine" outliers of fat tailed distributions so monstrous that they can be called "dragon-kings". We critically analyse these arguments, e.g. finite sample size and statistical estimates of the largest events, multifractal phase transition vs. more classical phase transition. We emphasize the fact that dragon-kings are not needed in order that the largest events become predictable. This is rather reminiscent of the Feast of Fools picturesquely described by Victor Hugo. [1] D. Schertzer, I. Tchiguirinskaia, S. Lovejoy et P. Hubert (2010): No monsters, no miracles: in nonlinear sciences hydrology is not an outlier! Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55 (6) 965 - 979. [2] D. Sornette (2009): Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises. International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17.

  7. How not to train your dragon: a case of a Komodo dragon bite.

    PubMed

    Borek, Heather A; Charlton, Nathan P

    2015-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are the world's largest lizards, known for killing prey that exceed their body mass. Reports of bites to humans in the popular press suggest high degrees of morbidity and mortality. Reports in the medical literature are lacking. We describe the case of a zookeeper who was bitten by a Komodo dragon, with a resultant mallet finger. We further discuss the various potential mechanisms of Komodo dragon lethality, including sepsis and venom deposition theories that are useful in guiding management.

  8. Experiments with the Dragon Machine

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Malenfant

    2005-08-12

    The basic characteristics of a self-sustaining chain reaction were demonstrated with the Chicago Pile in 1943, but it was not until early 1945 that sufficient enriched material became available to experimentally verify fast-neutron cross-sections and the kinetic characteristics of a nuclear chain reaction sustained with prompt neutrons alone. However, the demands of wartime and the rapid decline in effort following the cessation of hostilities often resulted in the failure to fully document the experiments or in the loss of documentation as personnel returned to civilian pursuits. When documented, the results were often highly classified. Even when eventually declassified, the data were often not approved for public release until years later.2 Even after declassification and approval for public release, the records are sometimes difficult to find. Through a fortuitous discovery, a set of handwritten notes by ''ORF July 1945'' entitled ''Dragon - Research with a Pulsed Fission Reactor'' was found by William L. Myers in an old storage safe at Pajarito Site of the Los Alamos National Laboratory3. Of course, ORF was identified as Otto R. Frisch. The document was attached to a page in a nondescript spiral bound notebook labeled ''494 Book'' that bore the signatures of Louis Slotin and P. Morrison. The notes also reference an ''Idea LS'' that can only be Louis Slotin. The discovery of the notes led to a search of Laboratory Archives, the negative files of the photo lab, and the Report Library for additional details of the experiments with the Dragon machine that were conducted between January and July 1945. The assembly machine and the experiments were carefully conceived and skillfully executed. The analyses--without the crutch of computers--display real insight into the characteristics of the nuclear chain reaction. The information presented here provides what is believed to be a complete collection of the original documentation of the observations made with the Dragon

  9. Dragon Released for Departure, Prepares for Splashdown

    NASA Video Gallery

    The SpaceX Dragon's release from Canadarm2 occurred at Tuesday 6:56 a.m. EDT. Now the Expedition 35 crew will command the spacecraft to slowly depart from the International Space Station. Ground co...

  10. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem interviews Mike Horkachuck, NASA's Project Executive for SpaceX, about the progress and milestones leading up to the launch of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Q...

  11. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Lead Integration and Systems Engineer Paul Brower about SpaceX Dragon operations as the spacecraft's unberthing approaches. Questions? Ask us ...

  12. Station Crew Talks To Reporters About Dragon Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Joe Acaba discuss Dragon’s mission with reporters during a crew news conference. Dragon is scheduled to spend six days berthed to the ...

  13. Using Dragon Curves To Learn about Length and Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes dragon curves which are made with three tiles and can be used to create fascinating patterns to help students understand the concepts of length, area, and perimeter of regions as defined by dragon curves. (ASK)

  14. ISS Update: The Role of OSO in Dragon's Demo Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Brandon Moncla, Lead Operations Support Officer (OSO) for the SpaceX Dragon Demo Mission, about preparations for the Dragon berthing and h...

  15. Throw Away Those Erasers! Building Dragons with Basic Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson for second-grade students that uses basic shapes to paint pictures of dragons. Discusses how the students created their dragons and lists the art materials needed. Includes a list of learning objectives. (CMK)

  16. How not to train your dragon: a case of a Komodo dragon bite.

    PubMed

    Borek, Heather A; Charlton, Nathan P

    2015-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are the world's largest lizards, known for killing prey that exceed their body mass. Reports of bites to humans in the popular press suggest high degrees of morbidity and mortality. Reports in the medical literature are lacking. We describe the case of a zookeeper who was bitten by a Komodo dragon, with a resultant mallet finger. We further discuss the various potential mechanisms of Komodo dragon lethality, including sepsis and venom deposition theories that are useful in guiding management. PMID:25772822

  17. Dragon's Blood incense: misbranded as a drug of abuse?

    PubMed

    Ford, S L; Steiner, R R; Thiericke, R; Young, R; Soine, W H

    2001-01-01

    An unknown red substance was being sold and used with other drugs of abuse in Virginia (often being used in conjunction with marihuana). The red substance was identified as Dragon's Blood incense from Daemonorops draco. In bioassays, Dragon's Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) produced a dose-related decline in mouse performance on the rotorod test. The combination of Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood with delta(9)-THC did not contribute further to the impairment of the mice on the rotorod. This data suggests that the abuse potential for Dragon's Blood incense alone or in combination with marihuana is minimal.

  18. Nuclear Astrophysics At ISAC With DRAGON

    SciTech Connect

    D'Auria, John M.

    2005-05-24

    The unique DRAGON (recoil mass separator) facility is now available to provide measurements of radiative capture reactions involving short-lived exotic reactants which are considered important in explosive stellar scenarios such as novae and X-ray bursts. A description of the first study completed, the 1H(21Na,22Mg){gamma} reaction, will be summarized and updated. In addition, the planned program for DRAGON will be presented along with a summary of the upgrade of the ISAC Radioactive Beams laboratory.

  19. Dragons' Den: promoting healthcare research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Mazhindu, Deborah; Gregory, Siobhan

    2015-07-01

    The changing health and social care landscape, and, in particular, the financial challenges affecting the NHS, can present difficulties for staff looking for funding to support innovation and new ways of working. One method of competitive tendering that is becoming more accepted as a way of allocating funds, encouraging staff engagement and developing innovation for research is a format based the BBC television series, Dragons' Den. This article describes how Hounslow and Richmond Community Healthcare NHS Trust, London, has developed a 'Dragons' Den initiative' of annual competitive research funding allocation to ensure that some of the most dynamic practice in the trust is captured. PMID:26135194

  20. Ectopic Six3 expression in the dragon eye goldfish.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For goldfish (Carassius auratus), there are many varieties with different eye phenotypes due to artificial selection and adaptive evolution. Dragon eye is a variant eye characterized by a large-size eyeball protruding out of the socket similar to the eye of dragon in Chinese legends. In this study, anatomical structure of the goldfish dragon eye was compared with that of the common eye, and a stretching of the retina was observed in the enlarged dragon eye. Moreover, the homeobox-containing transcription factor Six3 cDNAs were cloned from the two types of goldfish, and the expression patterns were analyzed in both normal eye and dragon eye goldfish. No amino acid sequence differences were observed between the two deduced peptides, and the expression pattern of Six3 protein in dragon eye is quite similar to common eye during embryogenesis, but from 2 days after hatching, ectopic Six3 expression began to occur in the dragon eye, especially in the outer nuclear layer cells. With eye development, more predominant Six3 distribution was detected in the outer nuclear layer cells of dragon eye than that of normal eye, and fewer cell-layers in outer nuclear layer were observed in dragon eye retina than in normal eye retina. The highlight of this study is that higher Six3 expression occurs in dragon eye goldfish than in normal eye goldfish during retinal development of larvae.

  1. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  2. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals. PMID:12238371

  3. Dragon Captured and Berthed to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams used the International Space Station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm to install the SpaceX Dragon cargo ship to its docking port on the Earth-facing side of the Harm...

  4. Dragon Boat Festival (Dyun Ngh Jit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Julia; Quan, Ella Y.

    This bilingual-bicultural reader in Cantonese and English is intended for elementary school children in a bilingual education setting. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the story of the traditional dragon boat festival. Each page of the text is written in Chinese characters, Romanized form, and in English. (NCR)

  5. Chinese Dragons in an American Science Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Lee Yuen; McLure, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Can art and science find a happy home in the same unit? We think the answer is yes, if the central problem interests the students and allows them to try out multiple abilities. The sixth-grade unit described in this article, which we called "The Dragon Project," grew mainly from two roots, a study of ancient China and a later probe into anatomy…

  6. DRAGON - 8U Nanosatellite Orbital Deployer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrowolski, Marcin; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kedziora, Bartosz; Tokarz, Marta; Borys, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS) together with Astronika company have developed an Orbital Deployer called DRAGON for ejection of the Polish scientific nanosatellite BRITE-PL Heweliusz (Fig. 1). The device has three unique mechanisms including an adopted and scaled lock and release mechanism from the ESA Rosetta mission MUPUS instrument. This paper discusses major design restrictions of the deployer, unique design features, and lessons learned from development through testing.

  7. Stick balancing, falls and Dragon-Kings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. L.; Milton, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly.

  8. Life-History and Spatial Determinants of Somatic Growth Dynamics in Komodo Dragon Populations

    PubMed Central

    Laver, Rebecca J.; Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, Jeri; Forsyth, David; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2012-01-01

    Somatic growth patterns represent a major component of organismal fitness and may vary among sexes and populations due to genetic and environmental processes leading to profound differences in life-history and demography. This study considered the ontogenic, sex-specific and spatial dynamics of somatic growth patterns in ten populations of the world’s largest lizard the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). The growth of 400 individual Komodo dragons was measured in a capture-mark-recapture study at ten sites on four islands in eastern Indonesia, from 2002 to 2010. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) and information-theoretic methods were used to examine how growth rates varied with size, age and sex, and across and within islands in relation to site-specific prey availability, lizard population density and inbreeding coefficients. Growth trajectories differed significantly with size and between sexes, indicating different energy allocation tactics and overall costs associated with reproduction. This leads to disparities in maximum body sizes and longevity. Spatial variation in growth was strongly supported by a curvilinear density-dependent growth model with highest growth rates occurring at intermediate population densities. Sex-specific trade-offs in growth underpin key differences in Komodo dragon life-history including evidence for high costs of reproduction in females. Further, inverse density-dependent growth may have profound effects on individual and population level processes that influence the demography of this species. PMID:23028983

  9. Life-history and spatial determinants of somatic growth dynamics in Komodo dragon populations.

    PubMed

    Laver, Rebecca J; Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, Jeri; Forsyth, David; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2012-01-01

    Somatic growth patterns represent a major component of organismal fitness and may vary among sexes and populations due to genetic and environmental processes leading to profound differences in life-history and demography. This study considered the ontogenic, sex-specific and spatial dynamics of somatic growth patterns in ten populations of the world's largest lizard the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). The growth of 400 individual Komodo dragons was measured in a capture-mark-recapture study at ten sites on four islands in eastern Indonesia, from 2002 to 2010. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) and information-theoretic methods were used to examine how growth rates varied with size, age and sex, and across and within islands in relation to site-specific prey availability, lizard population density and inbreeding coefficients. Growth trajectories differed significantly with size and between sexes, indicating different energy allocation tactics and overall costs associated with reproduction. This leads to disparities in maximum body sizes and longevity. Spatial variation in growth was strongly supported by a curvilinear density-dependent growth model with highest growth rates occurring at intermediate population densities. Sex-specific trade-offs in growth underpin key differences in Komodo dragon life-history including evidence for high costs of reproduction in females. Further, inverse density-dependent growth may have profound effects on individual and population level processes that influence the demography of this species.

  10. Life-history and spatial determinants of somatic growth dynamics in Komodo dragon populations.

    PubMed

    Laver, Rebecca J; Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, Jeri; Forsyth, David; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2012-01-01

    Somatic growth patterns represent a major component of organismal fitness and may vary among sexes and populations due to genetic and environmental processes leading to profound differences in life-history and demography. This study considered the ontogenic, sex-specific and spatial dynamics of somatic growth patterns in ten populations of the world's largest lizard the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). The growth of 400 individual Komodo dragons was measured in a capture-mark-recapture study at ten sites on four islands in eastern Indonesia, from 2002 to 2010. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) and information-theoretic methods were used to examine how growth rates varied with size, age and sex, and across and within islands in relation to site-specific prey availability, lizard population density and inbreeding coefficients. Growth trajectories differed significantly with size and between sexes, indicating different energy allocation tactics and overall costs associated with reproduction. This leads to disparities in maximum body sizes and longevity. Spatial variation in growth was strongly supported by a curvilinear density-dependent growth model with highest growth rates occurring at intermediate population densities. Sex-specific trade-offs in growth underpin key differences in Komodo dragon life-history including evidence for high costs of reproduction in females. Further, inverse density-dependent growth may have profound effects on individual and population level processes that influence the demography of this species. PMID:23028983

  11. Material basis for inhibition of dragon's blood on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Si; Chen, Su; Huang, Xian-Ju; Yao, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Ming

    2013-02-28

    The effects of dragon's blood and its components cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, loureirin B as well as various combinations of the three components on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents were studied in acutely dissociated DRG neurons using both voltage and current whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results indicated that dragon's blood and its three components concentration-dependently reduce the peak amplitudes of capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents. There was no significant difference between the effects of dragon's blood and the combination wherein the three components were present in respective mass fractions in dragon's blood. The respective concentrations of the three components used alone were all higher than the total concentration of three components used in combination when the percentage inhibition of the peak amplitude was 50%. The proportion of three components was adjusted and the total concentration reduced, the resulting combination still inhibit the currents with a lower IC50 value, and inhibit capsaicin-induced membrane depolarization on current clamp. The combination of three components not only increase the capsaicin IC50 value, but also reduce the capsaicin maximal response. These result suggested that analgesic effect of dragon's blood may be partly explained on the basis of silencing pain signaling pathways caused by the inhibition of dragon's blood on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents in DRG neurons and could be due to the synergistic effect of the three components. Antagonism of the capsaicin response by the combination of three components is not competitive. The analgesic effect of dragon's blood was also confirmed using animal models.

  12. Hospital response during the Red Dragon drill.

    PubMed

    Martz, Marcum D; Moulder, John E; Knight-Wiegert, Kimberly

    2011-05-01

    From March 2009 to June 2009, a series of drills involving a hypothetical radiological dispersal device (RDD) detonation were conducted in the metropolitan area of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Named Red Dragon, the drill constituted the largest multi-agency RDD scenario attempted to date in the United States. Froedtert Hospital and the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin comprise the Level One trauma center that served as the site for triage, decontamination, and treatment of approximately 80 victims who participated in the exercise. Examined are hospital resources, plans, interaction with external agencies, communications, and lessons learned.

  13. Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma

  14. Mars Sample Return Landed with Red Dragon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. However, an affordable program to carry this out has not been defined. This paper describes a study that examined use of emerging commercial capabilities to land the sample return elements, with the goal of reducing mission cost. A team at NASA Ames examined the feasibility of the following scenario for MSR: A Falcon Heavy launcher injects a SpaceX Dragon crew capsule and trunk onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule is modified to carry all the hardware needed to return samples collected on Mars including a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) and Sample Collection and Storage hardware. The Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using SuperSonic Retro Propulsion (SSRP) as described by Braun and Manning [IEEEAC paper 0076, 2005]. Samples are acquired and deliverd to the MAV by a prelanded asset, possibly the proposed 2020 rover. After samples are obtained and stored in the ERV, the MAV launches the sample-containing ERV from the surface of Mars. We examined cases where the ERV is delivered to either low Mars orbit (LMO), C3 = 0 (Mars escape), or an intermediate energy state. The ERV then provides the rest of the energy (delta V) required to perform trans-Earth injection (TEI), cruise, and insertion into a Moon-trailing Earth Orbit (MTEO). A later mission, possibly a crewed Dragon launched by a Falcon Heavy (not part of the current study) retrieves the sample container, packages the sample, and performs a controlled Earth re-entry to prevent Mars materials from accidentally contaminating Earth. The key analysis methods used in the study employed a set of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) and standard aerospace analysis software codes modified for the MAV class of launch vehicle to determine the range of performance parameters that produced converged

  15. Detail view to show the stylized "dragon" bracket feature that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to show the stylized "dragon" bracket feature that stands guard by the outside door to the kitchen (north elevation of the main house) - Death Valley Ranch, Main House, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. 28. November 1969 CASTIRON DRAGON GROTESQUE BELOW BASE OF COLUMN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. November 1969 CAST-IRON DRAGON GROTESQUE BELOW BASE OF COLUMN SEPARATING WINDOWS ON NORTH SIDE OF RIGGS LIBRARY - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Animation of Canadarm2 Grappling SpaceX Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    As this computer animation shows, Dragon will approach the International Space Station, with Canadarm2 grappling the capsule in free flight and docking it to the station. Credit: Canadian Space Agency

  18. ISS Update: GPS and SpaceX Dragon Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Mike Horkachuck, NASA's Project Executive for SpaceX, who provides an update on the upcoming launch of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, as well as...

  19. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Launch Update

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Mike Horkachuck, NASA Project Executive for SpaceX, for an update on the SpaceX Dragon's next launch attempt scheduled for Tuesday at 3:44...

  20. ISS Update: Working With SpaceX Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Sean O’Rourke, Lead Visiting Vehicle Officer for SpaceX Dragon, about the coordination between NASA and SpaceX for the upcoming launch and d...

  1. Dragon paves the way for new spaceflight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The success of the first private mission to the International Space Station (ISS) has opened up a new era in commercial spaceflight after SpaceX's Dragon capsule splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean on 31 May.

  2. Dragon Training and Changing Culture: A Review of DreamWorks' How to Train Your Dragon

    PubMed Central

    Wilhite, Chelsea J; Wilhite, Criss; Williams, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    DreamWorks' How to Train Your Dragon is an animated coming-of-age story in which the hero uses behavioral techniques to befriend and then to train an adversary. This movie provides an example of the successful dissemination of behavioral principles and technologies to the general population. Although it does not represent best practices in every instance, the movie may be an indication of a broader social acceptance of behavioral approaches to conflict resolution. PMID:22532721

  3. Three new flavans in dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qian; Saito, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Yosuke; Li, Hai-Zhou; Takashi, Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Three new flavans were isolated from chloroform extracts of dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco, together with eight known compounds. The structures of the new flavans were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. These compounds are the first examples of 2-methoxyflavans from D. draco and regarded as derivatives of biogenetic intermediates from flavans to chalcones, which are characteristic of the dragon's blood. PMID:25601087

  4. Three new flavans in dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qian; Saito, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Yosuke; Li, Hai-Zhou; Takashi, Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Three new flavans were isolated from chloroform extracts of dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco, together with eight known compounds. The structures of the new flavans were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. These compounds are the first examples of 2-methoxyflavans from D. draco and regarded as derivatives of biogenetic intermediates from flavans to chalcones, which are characteristic of the dragon's blood.

  5. Toxic leucoencephalopathy after 'chasing the dragon'.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Saini, Monica

    2015-06-01

    Toxic leucoencephalopathy (TLE) is a rare neurological complication of heroin abuse. 'Chasing the dragon' is an inhalational mode of heroin abuse that originated in Southeast Asia. Intriguingly, no cases of TLE have been reported from this region, although the inhalational mode of heroin abuse is common. We herein report the case of a middle-aged man with a history of polysubstance abuse who presented with progressive neurological symptoms and progressed to an uncommunicative state. While the initial impression was that of iatrogenic parkinsonism, diffuse leucoencephalopathy with sparing of the cerebellum was noted on magnetic resonance imaging. In view of his history of inhalational heroin abuse close to the onset of the neurological symptoms, a diagnosis of TLE was made. No clinical improvement was noted with administration of a dopaminergic agent. This is the first known case of delayed TLE following heroin inhalation from Southeast Asia with the unusual feature of cerebellar sparing.

  6. Predictors of telomere content in dragon lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Olsson, Mats

    2012-08-01

    Telomeres shorten as a consequence of DNA replication, in particular in cells with low production of telomerase and perhaps in response to physiological stress from exposure to reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide. This process of telomere attrition is countered by innate antioxidation, such as via the production of superoxide dismutase. We studied the inheritance of telomere length in the Australian painted dragon lizard ( Ctenophorus pictus) and the extent to which telomere length covaries with mass-corrected maternal reproductive investment, which reflects the level of circulating yolk precursor and antioxidant, vitellogenin. Our predictors of offspring telomere length explained 72 % of telomere variation (including interstitial telomeres if such are present). Maternal telomere length and reproductive investment were positively influencing offspring telomere length in our analyses, whereas flow cytometry-estimated superoxide level was negatively impacting offspring telomere length. We suggest that the effects of superoxide on hatchling telomere shortening may be partly balanced by transgenerational effects of vitellogenin antioxidation.

  7. Dragon 2 Programme Achievements and Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Li, Zengyuan; Zmuda, Andy; Gao, Zhihai

    2013-01-01

    The cooperation between ESA and National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC) / Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) in the development of Earth Observation (EO) applications started 17 years ago. In 2004, a new phase in cooperation began with the start of the Dragon Programme which focused on science and application using ESA ERS and Envisat satellite data. The programme was completed in 2008. Following on, the cooperation took on greater momentum with the start of a four-year EO science and exploitation programme called “Dragon 2”. The programme formally closed in June at the 2012 Beijing Symposium. The programme brought together joint Sino-European teams to investigate land, ocean and atmospheric applications in P.R. China using EO data from ESA, Third Party Mission (TPM) and Chinese satellites. The teams were led by principal EO scientists. Young European and Chinese scientists were also engaged on the projects. Advanced training courses in land, ocean and atmospheric applications were held in each year of the programme in China. Altogether, two courses on land, one course on atmospheric applications and one course on oceanographic applications were held. Here-in provided is an overview of the achievements, cooperation, reporting and training activities at the completion of the programme. The Sino-European teams have delivered world-class scientific results across a wide range of disciplines. The programme provided a platform for the joint exploitation of ESA, TPM and Chinese EO data from optical, thermal and microwave sensors for geo-science application and development in China.

  8. Cross section measurements of the 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction using DRAGON at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara Singh, B. S.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Davids, B.; Hass, M.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Fallis, J.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.

    2012-02-01

    We present our initial efforts with the DRAGON separator at TRIUMF facility towards obtaining the energy dependence of the astrophysical S-factor for 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction in the energy range of Ecm = 2 to 3 MeV that was recommended by the recent evaluations. A comparison between the existing data and our new complementary Madrid data, together with the recent theoretical calculations, is also given in the context of our ongoing work.

  9. 77 FR 23125 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race.... League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is prohibited to... associated with the Jr. League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled...

  10. 76 FR 27284 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ..., Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... during the Dragon Boat Races which take place during the third or fourth weekend in July each year. This... from other vessel traffic. The Captain of the Port Detroit has determined dragon boat races in...

  11. 78 FR 57063 - Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival; St. Johns River; Jacksonville, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Jacksonville, Florida during the Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival, a series of paddle boat races. The event is..., Inc. will host the Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival, a series of boat races. The Race Area will be...: Sec. 100.35T07-0652 Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival; St. Johns......

  12. 77 FR 55436 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Special Local Regulations, Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Festival, Toledo, OH. (a) Regulated Area..., Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... River during the annual Dragon Boat Races. This special local regulated area is necessary to...

  13. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11180411

  15. Single and Multi-channel Quantum Dragons from Rectangular Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhou; Novotny, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Recently quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostructures with correlated disorder that permit energy-independent total quantum transmission of electrons. Hence the electrical conductance G in a two-terminal measurement should be the conductance quantum G0 = 2e2 / h . The single-band tight banding model is used. An example of a single-channel quantum dragon is a rectangular nanotube with disorder along the direction z of the electron propagation. Quantum dragons are obtained by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation to obtain the electrical transmission calT as a function of the incoming electron energy E. A quantum dragon has calT (E) =1 for all energies. This work generalizes the solution of the time-independent Schrödinger equation to the case of more than one open channel, and applies the method to nanotubes formed from rectangular lattices. One can envision such single-walled rectangular nanotubes for iron starting from free-standing single-atom-thick Fe membranes which have recently been obtained experimentally. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  16. How Ubiquitous is Total Electron Transmission through Nanostructures (Quantum Dragons)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In transport through nanostructures connected to two semi-infinite leads, the transmission probability calT (E) as a function of the energy E of the incoming electron plays a central role in the Landauer calculation of the electrical conductance G. A quantum dragon nanostructure is one which when connected to appropriate leads has total electron transmission for all energies, calT (E) =1. In two-lead measurements of single-channel quantum dragons, the quantum of conductance, G0 = 2e2 / h , should be observed. A quantum dragon may have strong scattering. In the disorder was along the axis of electron propagation, the z axis. We show that quantum dragon nanostructures can be found for strong disorder perpendicular to the z axis. In select types of nanostructures, we find the ratio of the dimension of the parameter space where quantum dragons exist to that of the complete parameter space. The results use the single-band tight-binding model, and are for the case with only one open channel and homogeneous leads. One type of nanostructure with calT (E) =1 has completely disordered slices perpendicular to the z axis, but identical slices along the z direction. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  17. DRAGONS - A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. -C.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Burchell, M.; Hamilton, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the millimeter or smaller size regime. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but are still large enough to be a serious safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of a DRAGONS unit is 1 m2, consisting of several independently operated panels. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine different particle impact detection principles to maximize information that can be extracted from detected events. After more than 10 years of concept and technology development, a 1 m2 DRAGONS system has been selected for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2016. The project team achieved a major milestone when the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was completed in May 2015. Once deployed on the ISS, this multi-year mission will provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the MMOD detection capability of the DRAGONS technologies and to collect data to better define the small MMOD environment at the ISS altitude.

  18. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon

  19. Clones, Drones and Dragons: Ongoing Uncertainties around School Leader Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a number of key issues around successful school leadership and leader development. Three metaphors are used to frame, track and analyse recent research and commentary in the area--these are clones, drones and dragons. Although development mechanisms rarely fall neatly within one category, the metaphors provide a useful way to…

  20. Direct measurements of radiative capture reactions with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Direct measurements of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions are crucial for understanding nucleosynthesis in a variety of astrophysical environments, including classical novae, supernovae, X-Ray bursts, and quiescent stellar burning. Often the most important reactions have very low cross sections or involve unstable targets, making laboratory measurements extremely challenging. The detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions (DRAGON) at TRIUMF is a recoil mass separator designed to measure radiative capture reactions in inverse kinematics, with beam suppression factors as high as 1016. When combined with the intense radioactive beams available at the ISAC-I facility, DRAGON's capabilities are unique and world-leading. In this talk, I will give a brief technical overview of DRAGON before presenting results from recent experiments. Some highlights include the first-ever direct measurement of 38K(p , γ) 39Ca, a crucial reaction for determining the endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis, and measurements of 76Se(α , γ) 80Kr. The latter measurements determine the rate of the reverse reaction, 80Kr(γ , α) 76Se, an important waiting point in the synthesis of the p-nuclei. I will also discuss future (and ongoing) developments at DRAGON, including the commissioning of a new chamber for high-precision elastic scattering measurements and plans to determine the 330 keV resonance strength in 18F(p , γ) 19Ne via measurements of 15O(α , γ) 19Ne and 15O + α elastic scattering.

  1. A Literature Unit for "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Vallens, Mary

    Intended as a an aid to classroom teachers, this 52-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children and young people's book, "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters of…

  2. Single and Multi-Channel Carbon-based Quantum Dragons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Abdurazakov, Omadillo; Novotny, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In the coherent regime for electrical conductance measurements, two semi-infinite leads are connected to a finite nanostructure, and the nano-device conductance is calculated using the Landauer formula. Any channel k that has transmission for electrons with energy E, \\calTk (E) =1 contributes the conductance quantum G0 = 2e2 / h . Any nano-device with at least one \\calTk (E) =1 is called a quantum dragon. The transmission probability \\calTk (E) can be obtained from the solution of the time-independent Schrödinger equation. Uniform leads connected to armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have calT (E) =1, while when connected to zigzag SWCNT the calT (E) is less than unity. Appropriately dimerized leads connected to zigzag SWCNTs are quantum dragons, while when connected to armchair SWCNTs calT (E) is less than unity. We have generalized the matrix method and mapping methods of in order to investigate SWCNTs that can be multi-channel quantum dragons. For example, one can use armchair SWCNT leads to connect to an armchair SWCNT to try to produce a multi-channel quantum dragon. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  3. Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, M. Jeri; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Letnic, Mike; Jessop, Tim S.

    2016-04-01

    Ontogenetic allometries in ecological habits and niche use are key responses by which individuals maximize lifetime fitness. Moreover, such allometries have significant implications for how individuals influence population and community dynamics. Here, we examined how body size variation in Komodo dragons ( Varanus komodoensis) influenced ecological allometries in their: (1) prey size preference, (2) daily movement rates, (3) home range area, and (4) subsequent niche use across ontogeny. With increased body mass, Komodo dragons increased prey size with a dramatic switch from small (≤10 kg) to large prey (≥50 kg) in lizards heavier than 20 kg. Rates of foraging movement were described by a non-linear concave down response with lizard increasing hourly movement rates up until ˜20 kg body mass before decreasing daily movement suggesting reduced foraging effort in larger lizards. In contrast, home range area exhibited a sigmoid response with increased body mass. Intrapopulation ecological niche use and overlap were also strongly structured by body size. Thus, ontogenetic allometries suggest Komodo dragon's transition from a highly active foraging mode exploiting small prey through to a less active sit and wait feeding strategy focused on killing large ungulates. Further, our results suggest that as body size increases across ontogeny, the Komodo dragon exhibited marked ontogenetic niche shifts that enabled it to function as an entire vertebrate predator guild by exploiting prey across multiple trophic levels.

  4. Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, M Jeri; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Letnic, Mike; Jessop, Tim S

    2016-04-01

    Ontogenetic allometries in ecological habits and niche use are key responses by which individuals maximize lifetime fitness. Moreover, such allometries have significant implications for how individuals influence population and community dynamics. Here, we examined how body size variation in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) influenced ecological allometries in their: (1) prey size preference, (2) daily movement rates, (3) home range area, and (4) subsequent niche use across ontogeny. With increased body mass, Komodo dragons increased prey size with a dramatic switch from small (≤10 kg) to large prey (≥50 kg) in lizards heavier than 20 kg. Rates of foraging movement were described by a non-linear concave down response with lizard increasing hourly movement rates up until ∼20 kg body mass before decreasing daily movement suggesting reduced foraging effort in larger lizards. In contrast, home range area exhibited a sigmoid response with increased body mass. Intrapopulation ecological niche use and overlap were also strongly structured by body size. Thus, ontogenetic allometries suggest Komodo dragon's transition from a highly active foraging mode exploiting small prey through to a less active sit and wait feeding strategy focused on killing large ungulates. Further, our results suggest that as body size increases across ontogeny, the Komodo dragon exhibited marked ontogenetic niche shifts that enabled it to function as an entire vertebrate predator guild by exploiting prey across multiple trophic levels.

  5. Heroin smoking by 'chasing the dragon': origins and history.

    PubMed

    Strang, J; Griffiths, P; Gossop, M

    1997-06-01

    The history of heroin smoking and the subsequent development and spread of 'chasing the dragon' are examined. The first heroin smoking originated in Shanghai in the 1920s and involved use of porcelain bowls and bamboo tubes, thereafter spreading across much of Eastern Asia and to the United States over the next decade. 'Chasing the dragon' was a later refinement of this form of heroin smoking, originating in or near Hong Kong in the 1950s, and refers to the ingestion of heroin by inhaling the vapours which result when the drug is heated-typically on tin-foil above a flame. Subsequent spread of 'chasing the dragon' included spread to other parts of South East Asia during the 1960s and 1970s, to some parts of Europe during the late 1970s and early 1980s, and to much of the Indian sub-continent during the 1980s. At the time of writing, 'chasing the dragon' has now been reliably reported from many parts of the world but not from others with an established heroin problem-such as the United States and Australia. The significance of this new form of heroin use is examined, including consideration of the role of the different effect with this new form of use, the different types of heroin, and changing public attitudes to injecting.

  6. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  7. Development of Three-Dimensional DRAGON Grid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yao; Kiou, Meng-Sing; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    1999-01-01

    For a typical three dimensional flow in a practical engineering device, the time spent in grid generation can take 70 percent of the total analysis effort, resulting in a serious bottleneck in the design/analysis cycle. The present research attempts to develop a procedure that can considerably reduce the grid generation effort. The DRAGON grid, as a hybrid grid, is created by means of a Direct Replacement of Arbitrary Grid Overlapping by Nonstructured grid. The DRAGON grid scheme is an adaptation to the Chimera thinking. The Chimera grid is a composite structured grid, composing a set of overlapped structured grids, which are independently generated and body-fitted. The grid is of high quality and amenable for efficient solution schemes. However, the interpolation used in the overlapped region between grids introduces error, especially when a sharp-gradient region is encountered. The DRAGON grid scheme is capable of completely eliminating the interpolation and preserving the conservation property. It maximizes the advantages of the Chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured and while at the same time keeping its weaknesses minimal. In the present paper, we describe the progress towards extending the DRAGON grid technology into three dimensions. Essential and programming aspects of the extension, and new challenges for the three-dimensional cases, are addressed.

  8. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25523446

  9. We Continue to "Drag-on" the Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    The author's fifth-graders are usually easy to motivate, especially with an assignment as exciting as dragons and mythical beasts! Since many of the author's projects are "typical" subjects such as flowers, animals, still life and so on, the idea of creating mythical creatures really caused a stir in her classroom. In this article, the author…

  10. Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, M Jeri; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Letnic, Mike; Jessop, Tim S

    2016-04-01

    Ontogenetic allometries in ecological habits and niche use are key responses by which individuals maximize lifetime fitness. Moreover, such allometries have significant implications for how individuals influence population and community dynamics. Here, we examined how body size variation in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) influenced ecological allometries in their: (1) prey size preference, (2) daily movement rates, (3) home range area, and (4) subsequent niche use across ontogeny. With increased body mass, Komodo dragons increased prey size with a dramatic switch from small (≤10 kg) to large prey (≥50 kg) in lizards heavier than 20 kg. Rates of foraging movement were described by a non-linear concave down response with lizard increasing hourly movement rates up until ∼20 kg body mass before decreasing daily movement suggesting reduced foraging effort in larger lizards. In contrast, home range area exhibited a sigmoid response with increased body mass. Intrapopulation ecological niche use and overlap were also strongly structured by body size. Thus, ontogenetic allometries suggest Komodo dragon's transition from a highly active foraging mode exploiting small prey through to a less active sit and wait feeding strategy focused on killing large ungulates. Further, our results suggest that as body size increases across ontogeny, the Komodo dragon exhibited marked ontogenetic niche shifts that enabled it to function as an entire vertebrate predator guild by exploiting prey across multiple trophic levels. PMID:26936625

  11. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Flower of the Dragon: An Example of Applied Humanistic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, R. Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Focuses primarily upon the applications of the tools of humanistic psychology with Viet Nam era veterans. The Flower of the Dragon, a self-help project seeking to facilitate the growth of Viet Nam era veterans, is one example of a means by which humanistic psychology can build a stronger foundation for itself and for society at large. (Author)

  13. Anion and Cation Ionic Conductivity of Dragon Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, Nadya; Asiah, M. N.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

    2010-07-01

    The separation of all ions in a synthetic solution was achieved with an anion eluent containing 0.3392 g Na2CO3 and 0.084 g NaHCO2 and the run around 20 min. Cation eluent containing 0.60 g Tartaric acid and 0.125 g Dipicolinic acid and the run around 16 min. This method was applied to dragon fruit juice with success and has shown sensitivity. Moreover, sample preparation was a simple 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 ppm with 0.20 mm filtration and direct injection without prior sample clean-up. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of dragon fruit has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- obtained from dragon fruit. For cation, inorganic ions that occurred during the experiment were NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+. Conductivity for anion of F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- were approximately 20, 17, 16, 16 and 20 μS/cm, respectively. Concentration for F- is 1.57 mg/l, NO3- is 1.92 mg/l, NO2- is 0.30 mg/l, Br- is 0.45 mg/l and PO43- is 4.45 mg/l. Conductivity for cation of NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+ were approximately 537, 538 and 531 μS/cm, respectively. Concentration for cation of NH3+ is 0.93 mg/l, Ca+ is 1.15 mg/l, and Mg+ 7.285 is mg/l. The method has successfully applied to the determination of inorganic ions in dragon fruit. An ion chromatography method is described for the simultaneous determination of ionic conductivity for dragon fruit juice using a selected anion and cation eluent. The detection of ionic conductivity in dragon fruit juice has been studied.

  14. Localization and action of Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b), a novel bone morphogenetic protein coreceptor, throughout the reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Sidis, Yisrael; Mukherjee, Abir; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary; Woolf, Clifford J; Lin, Herbert Y; Schneyer, Alan

    2005-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in reproduction including primordial germ cell formation, follicular development, spermatogenesis, and FSH secretion. Dragon, a recently identified glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the repulsive guidance molecule family, is also a BMP coreceptor. In the present study, we determined the tissue and cellular localization of Dragon in reproductive organs using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Among reproductive organs, Dragon was expressed in testis, epididymis, ovary, uterus, and pituitary. In the testis of early postnatal mice, Dragon was found in gonocytes and spermatogonia, whereas in immature testes, Dragon was only weakly expressed in spermatogonia. Interestingly, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment of immature mice robustly induced Dragon production in spermatocytes. In adult testis, Dragon was found in spermatocytes and round spermatids. In the ovary, Dragon was detected exclusively within oocytes and primarily those within secondary follicles. In the pituitary, Dragon-expressing cells overlapped FSH-expressing cells. Dragon was also expressed in a number of cell lines originating from reproductive tissues including Ishikawa, Hela, LbetaT2, MCF-7, and JEG3 cells. Immunocytochemistry and gradient sucrose ultracentrifugation studies showed Dragon was localized in lipid rafts within the plasma membrane. In reproductive cell lines, Dragon expression enhanced signaling of exogenous BMP2 or BMP4. The present studies demonstrate that Dragon expression is dynamically regulated throughout the reproductive tract and that Dragon protein modulates BMP signaling in cells from reproductive tissues. The overlap between Dragon expression and the functional BMP signaling system suggests that Dragon may play a role in mammalian reproduction.

  15. 76 FR 38349 - Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... States of dragon fruit from Thailand. Based on this analysis, we believe that the application of one or... disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of dragon fruit from Thailand. We are making...

  16. Evaluation of the DRAGON code for VHTR design analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-12

    This letter report summarizes three activities that were undertaken in FY 2005 to gather information on the DRAGON code and to perform limited evaluations of the code performance when used in the analysis of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. These activities include: (1) Use of the code to model the fuel elements of the helium-cooled and liquid-salt-cooled VHTR designs. Results were compared to those from another deterministic lattice code (WIMS8) and a Monte Carlo code (MCNP). (2) The preliminary assessment of the nuclear data library currently used with the code and libraries that have been provided by the IAEA WIMS-D4 Library Update Project (WLUP). (3) DRAGON workshop held to discuss the code capabilities for modeling the VHTR.

  17. Steroidal saponins from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Ying; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2014-04-01

    Six new steroidal saponins, cambodianosides A-F (1-6), together with seven known ones, were isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities. PMID:24480383

  18. Steroidal saponins from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Ying; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2014-04-01

    Six new steroidal saponins, cambodianosides A-F (1-6), together with seven known ones, were isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities.

  19. A Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Zheng, Yao

    2002-01-01

    DRAGONFLOW code has been developed to solve three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations over a complex geometry whose flow domain is discretized with the DRAGON grid-a combination of Chimera grid and a collection of unstructured grids. In the DRAGONFLOW suite, both OVERFLOW and USM3D are presented in form of module libraries, and a master module controls the invoking of these individual modules. This report includes essential aspects, programming structures, benchmark tests and numerical simulations.

  20. Voices from Little Asia: "Blue Dragon" Teens Reflect on Their Experiences as Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Melinda F.; Wilhelm, Ron W.; Cowart, Ronald E.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the response of public agencies to the Asian immigrant community in Dallas, Texas, and problems that exist for these immigrants. Relates the story of the creation of the "Blue Dragons" Explorer Post that provides social support and service opportunities for Asian-American teens. Includes suggestions for educators from "Blue Dragon"…

  1. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  2. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  3. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  4. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  5. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  6. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  7. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  8. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  9. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  10. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established on the Black...

  11. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  12. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  13. JEM-EUSO Design for Accommodation on the SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission has been planned for launch on JAXA's H2 Launch Vehicle. Recently, the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft has emerged as an alternative payload carrier for JEM-EUSO. This paper will discuss a concept for the re-design of JEM-EUSO so that it can be launched on Dragon.

  14. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  15. DRAGONS - A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.; Sadilek, Albert; Burchell, Mark; Corsaro, Robert; Giovane, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in-situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the approx.0.2 to 1 mm size regime. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by groundbased radars and optical telescopes, but still large enough to be a safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of DRAGONS is 1 sq m, consisting of four 0.5 m x 0.5 m independently operated panels. The concept of the DRAGONS design is to combine three different detection technologies to maximize information extracted from each detected impact. The first technology is a resistive grid consisting of 62.5-microns-wide resistive lines, coated in parallel and separated by 62.5 micron gaps on a Kapton film. When a particle a few hundred micrometers or larger strikes the grid, it world penetrate the film and sever some resistive lines. The size of the damage area can be estimated from the increased resistance. The second technology employs a dual-layer, 25-microns-thick Kapton film with a 10 cm separation. By measuring the time difference between impacts on the two films, the impact speed can be calculated. The third technology is based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) acoustic impact sensors. Multiple PVDF sensors are attached to the backside of both Kapton films to provide impact timing measurements. The impact location on each film can be identified from the triangulation of signals received at different PVDF sensors and provides an estimate of the impact direction. The development of DRAGONS is supported by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The project is led by the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), with additional collaboration from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the University of Kent at Canterbury in Great Britain, and Virginia Tech (VT). The short-term goal of DRAGONS is to advance its Technology

  16. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-08-21

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.; Quye, Anita

    2001-12-01

    Dragon's blood is a deep red resin which has been used for centuries by many cultures and much prized for it's rarity, depth of colour and alchemical associations. The original source of dragon's blood resin is believed to be Dracaena cinnabari from Socotra in Africa, but since mediaeval times there have been several alternatives from different geographical locations from the Canary Islands to the East Indies. Here, the Raman spectra of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena draco Liliacae trees growing in several different locations bordering the Mediterranean and Middle East are compared with the resins from alternative botanical sources such as Daemonorops draco, Dracaena cinnabari and Eucalyptus terminalis, which all generically come under the description of dragon's blood. Key vibrational spectroscopic marker bands are identified in the Raman spectra of the resins, which are suggested for adoption as a protocol for the identification of the botanical and possible geographical sources of modern dragon's blood resins. The Raman spectra of materials, which are falsely attributed to dragon's blood resin are also shown for comparison and identification purposes. Changes in the Raman spectra of genuine dragon's blood resin specimens arising from simple processing treatment during the preparation of the resins for sale are also identified, which suggests a possible attribution characteristic for unknown samples.

  18. Physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sarah R; Smith, Richard M; Chapman, Philip G; Sinclair, Peter J; Funato, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to profile the physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers, to identify characteristics that predict race performance and to quantify the metabolic energy contributions to simulated 200-m and 500-m dragon boat racing. Eleven, national level, male, Japanese dragon boat paddlers completed a battery of tests on a paddling ergometer including an incremental maximal aerobic capacity test, a 2-minute maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test, and simulated 200-m and 500-m races. A physiological and physical profile of subjects was compiled. Results showed that 200-m race performance correlated with flexed arm girth and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) measured in the 30 minutes after the MAOD test, whereas 500-m race performance correlated with body fat percentage, relaxed and flexed arm girth, MAOD, EPOC, and peak power during the MAOD test. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that flexed arm girth was the most powerful predictor of 200-m and 500-m race performance, followed by EPOC with the combination of these 2 factors able to explain 74% and 68% of the variance in 200-m and 500-m race performance, respectively. Aerobic energy contributions for 200-m (50 seconds) and 500-m (1 minute 50 seconds) races were (mean (95% confidence intervals)) 52.1% (range, 47.4-56.8%) and 67.5% (range, 60.1-77.8%), respectively. In conclusion, coaches should develop training programs targeted at developing upper-body musculature and increasing anaerobic capacity because these factors are the strongest predictors of 200-m and 500-m race performance. Given the substantial aerobic energy contributions even for a 200-m race event, coaches should aim to increase the maximal aerobic capacity of the paddler in preparation for both 200-m and 500-m events.

  19. Periorbital adenocarcinoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Darrow, Brett G; Johnstone McLean, Nancy S; Russman, Shirley E; Schiller, Chris A

    2013-07-01

    A 4.5-year-old female bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented for periorbital swelling affecting the left eye. A well-organized, hypoechoic mass was noted ventral and medial to the globe on ocular ultrasound. The mass continued to grow despite antibiotic therapy, and an exenteration was performed. The mass was diagnosed via histopathology and immunohistochemical staining as a probable lacrimal gland carcinoma, although a Harderian gland origin could not definitively be ruled out. The tumor recurred following removal, and the lizard died 2 months postoperatively.

  20. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D. L.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons ( Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  1. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-Xl Dragon Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    On September 26 and September 28,2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 m1 evacuated canisters from the sealed Space-Xl Dragon Module. One sample was also acquired from Space-X Facility near the module at the start of the test. Samples of the module air were taken in triplicate once the module had been sealed, and then taken again in triplicate 1.98 days later. Ofthe triplicate samples, the first served as a line purge, and the last two were analyzed. The results of 5 samples are reported.

  2. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Xie, D Z; Zhang, X Z; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Sha, S; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Lin, S H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Guo, X H; Li, X X; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhao, H Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Li, J Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2012-02-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  3. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Lin, S. H.; Xie, D. Z.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sha, S.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Guo, X. H.; Li, X. X.; Ma, H. Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Zhu, Y. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Li, J. Q.; and others

    2012-02-15

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  4. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  5. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  6. Physical and physiological profiles of Malaysian dragon boat rowers.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R; Singh, H J; Sirisinghe, R G

    1995-01-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximal workload attained (WLmax) were determined in 28 Malaysian dragon boat rowers who were exercised to exhaustion on an arm ergometer. Mean VO2max was 2.75 l min-1 at a mean WLmax of 195.5 W. Anaerobic endurance power of the arms, determined by cranking at 100 RPM at a workload of 400 W and the time taken to maintain the cadence until it fell to 75 RPM, was 34.9(+/- 2.3) s. Leg performance, as determined by standing long jump and vertical jump, was 140.0(+/- 4.5) kg m and 100.3(+/- 3.1) kg m s-1 respectively. Right hand grip strength was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the left hand. Percentage body fat of the rowers was 11.8(+/- 0.6)%. These values represent the first measurements of their kind performed on dragon boat rowers in Malaysia. PMID:7788209

  7. Physical and physiological profiles of Malaysian dragon boat rowers.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Singh, H J; Sirisinghe, R G

    1995-03-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximal workload attained (WLmax) were determined in 28 Malaysian dragon boat rowers who were exercised to exhaustion on an arm ergometer. Mean VO2max was 2.75 l min-1 at a mean WLmax of 195.5 W. Anaerobic endurance power of the arms, determined by cranking at 100 RPM at a workload of 400 W and the time taken to maintain the cadence until it fell to 75 RPM, was 34.9(+/- 2.3) s. Leg performance, as determined by standing long jump and vertical jump, was 140.0(+/- 4.5) kg m and 100.3(+/- 3.1) kg m s-1 respectively. Right hand grip strength was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the left hand. Percentage body fat of the rowers was 11.8(+/- 0.6)%. These values represent the first measurements of their kind performed on dragon boat rowers in Malaysia.

  8. Physical and physiological profiles of Malaysian dragon boat rowers.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Singh, H J; Sirisinghe, R G

    1995-03-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximal workload attained (WLmax) were determined in 28 Malaysian dragon boat rowers who were exercised to exhaustion on an arm ergometer. Mean VO2max was 2.75 l min-1 at a mean WLmax of 195.5 W. Anaerobic endurance power of the arms, determined by cranking at 100 RPM at a workload of 400 W and the time taken to maintain the cadence until it fell to 75 RPM, was 34.9(+/- 2.3) s. Leg performance, as determined by standing long jump and vertical jump, was 140.0(+/- 4.5) kg m and 100.3(+/- 3.1) kg m s-1 respectively. Right hand grip strength was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the left hand. Percentage body fat of the rowers was 11.8(+/- 0.6)%. These values represent the first measurements of their kind performed on dragon boat rowers in Malaysia. PMID:7788209

  9. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring.

    PubMed

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother-offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection.

  10. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Davila, A.; Sanders, G.; Glass, Brian; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, Jennifer; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  11. ISS Update: CCiCap and the SpaceX Dragon -- 08.22.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partner Manager for SpaceX Derek Hassmann discusses the Dragon spacecraft and the CCP following the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability, or CCiCap, announcement earl...

  12. SpaceX Dragon, NASA Science Cargo Back On Dry Land

    NASA Video Gallery

    The SpaceX Dragon capsule has returned to California, after splashdown in the Pacific Ocean March 26 a few hundred miles west of Baja California following its International Space Station resupply m...

  13. "Living in the dragon's shadow" fathers' experiences of a child's life-limiting illness.

    PubMed

    Davies, Betty; Gudmundsdottir, Maria; Worden, Bill; Orloff, Stacy; Sumner, Liz; Brenner, Paul

    2004-03-01

    Grounded theory methods were used to study the experiences of 8 bereaved fathers whose children received care in a home-based hospice program. In-depth, unstructured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for themes and categories. Every aspect of fathers' lives was affected by their experiences, which were described in metaphoric terms as living in a dragon's shadow. Fathers dealt with life in the dragon's shadow by battling the dragon (the illness)--the core social process. Battling was a conscious, active, continuous process that required strength, willpower, and work. Battling occurred within the context of fathers' experiences with fathering and fatherhood and was characterized by 3 aspects: battling with uncertainty, battling with responsibility, and battling with everyday disruption. Fathers were assisted by supportive work environments and by supportive relationships with health care providers. Unsatisfactory relationships with medical personnel compounded fathers' battling with life in the dragon's shadow.

  14. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Davilla, A.; Davis, S.; Glass, B.; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, J.; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  15. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lemke, L. G.; Marinova, M. M.; McKay, C. P.; Stoker, C. R.; Wooster, P. D.; Zarchi, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  16. DRAGON, the Durham real-time, tomographic adaptive optics test bench: progress and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard M.; Morris, Timothy J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Rolt, Stephen; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Younger, Edward J.

    2014-08-01

    DRAGON is a real-time, tomographic Adaptive Optics test bench currently under development at Durham University. Optical and mechanical design work for DRAGON is now complete, and the system is close to becoming fully operational. DRAGON emulates current 4.2 m and 8 m telescopes, and can also be used to investigate ELT scale issues. The full system features 4 Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wavefront Sensors (WFS), 3 Natural Guide Star (NGS) WFSs and one Truth Sensor, all of which are 31 × 31 sub-aperture Shack-Hartmann WFS. Two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), a Boston MEMS Kilo DM and a Xinetics 97 actuator DM, correct for turbulence induced aberrations and these can be configured to be either open or closed loop of the WFS. A novel method of LGS emulation is implemented which includes the effects of uplink turbulence and elongation in real-time. The atmosphere is emulated by 4 rotating phase screens which can be translated in real-time to replicate altitude evolution of turbulent layers. DRAGON will be used to extensively study tomographic AO algorithms, such as those required for Multi-Object AO. As DRAGON has been designed to be compatible with CANARY, the MOAO demonstrator, results can be compared to those from the CANARY MOAO demonstrator on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We present here an overview of the current status of DRAGON and some early results, including investigations into the validity of the LGS emulation method.

  17. Progress and Achievements at the Mid Term Stage of the Dragon 3 Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Li, Zengyuan; Zmuda, Andy; Gao, Zhihai

    2014-11-01

    The Dragon Programme is a joint undertaking between ESA and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China and the National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC). Its purpose is to encourage increased exploitation of ESA and Chinese space resources within China as well as stimulate increased scientific cooperation in the field of Earth Observation (EO) science and applications between China and Europe. Since 2004, this pioneering programme has become a model for scientific and technological cooperation between China and Europe. By successfully encouraging joint research using ESA, Third Party Missions and Chinese EO data across a range of thematic areas, Dragon continues to deliver outstanding scientific results. The programme has successfully completed two phases, Dragon 1 from 2004 to 2008, Dragon 2 from 2008 to 2012. The third phase of Dragon was started in 2012 and will be completed in 2016. The Dragon 3 project teams are led by leading EO scientists and young scientists are also engaged on the projects. Advanced training in land, ocean and atmospheric applications is a feature of the programme and a course on land and one course on ocean applications have been successfully held in 2012 and 2013 in China. Here-in provided is an overview of the results, reporting and training activities at the mid-term stage of the programme.

  18. Power law scaling and ``Dragon-Kings'' in distributions of intraday financial drawdowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Vladimir; Sornette, Didier

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the distributions of epsilon-drawdowns and epsilon-drawups of the most liquid futures financial contracts of the world at time scales of 30 seconds. The epsilon-drawdowns (resp. epsilon- drawups) generalise the notion of runs of negative (resp. positive) returns so as to capture the risks to which investors are arguably the most concerned with. Similarly to the distribution of returns, we find that the distributions of epsilon-drawdowns and epsilon-drawups exhibit power law tails, albeit with exponents significantly larger than those for the return distributions. This paradoxical result can be attributed to (i) the existence of significant transient dependence between returns and (ii) the presence of large outliers (dragon-kings) characterizing the extreme tail of the drawdown/drawup distributions deviating from the power law. The study of the tail dependence between the sizes, speeds and durations of drawdown/drawup indicates a clear relationship between size and speed but none between size and duration. This implies that the most extreme drawdown/drawup tend to occur fast and are dominated by a few very large returns. We discuss both the endogenous and exogenous origins of these extreme events.

  19. Slow waves, sharp waves, ripples, and REM in sleeping dragons.

    PubMed

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Ondracek, Janie M; Liaw, Hua-Peng; Reiter, Sam; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-04-29

    Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus. PMID:27126045

  20. A DRAGON-MCNP comparison of axial diffusion subcoefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, G.; Milgram, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Most reactor core calculations rely on the solution of the diffusion equation, which requires, in addition to few-group regional cross sections, knowledge of the homogenized diffusion tensor associated with a given cell in the core usually generated using a lattice code. In most cases, the diffusion tensor is assumed to be direction independent and is replaced by a uniform diffusion coefficient. However, it has been shown that such models generally underestimate the cell leakage rates, particularly in the case where coolant voiding is being studied. Heterogeneous leakage models, which permit the evaluation of directional diffusion coefficients have been proposed, but the experimental validation of these models is only fragmentary. In this paper we compare the axial diffusion coefficients generated using the simplified B{sub 1} model implemented in the DRAGON lattice code with those generated using the Monte Carlo MCNP4 code.

  1. [Antibacterial components from artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana].

    PubMed

    Jiang, He-mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jun; Dai, Hao-fu; Luo, Yan-ping; Mei, Wen-li

    2015-10-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana by various column chromatographies on silica and sephadex LH-20 gel. Based on spectral analysis of NMR and MS, their structures were identified as 3, 4-dihydroxyallylbenzene (1), 3', 4', 5'-trimethoxycinnamylalcohol (2), pinoresinol (3), (2R)-7, 4'-dihydroxy-8-methylflavane (4), (2R)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-methylflavane(5),(2S)-7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavane(6) ,(2S)-4',7-dihydroxy-6, 8-dimethylflavane(7), 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone(8), 4,4'-dihydroxy-2-methoxydihydrochalcon(9) and Cambodianin E (10). Antibacterial activity assay showed that compounds 1, 4 and 10 have inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cuben, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:27062817

  2. Slow waves, sharp waves, ripples, and REM in sleeping dragons.

    PubMed

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Ondracek, Janie M; Liaw, Hua-Peng; Reiter, Sam; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-04-29

    Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus.

  3. Myelogenous leukemia in a bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Tocidlowski, M E; McNamara, P L; Wojcieszyn, J W

    2001-03-01

    A 3-yr-old bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps) presented with lethargy, a swollen right elbow joint, inability to move its rear limbs normally, and marked leukocytosis. The majority of leukocytes were an abnormal mononuclear lymphoid-type cell with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, a slightly blue cytoplasm, nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin, and some nuclear clefts. Acute leukemia of lymphoid or myeloid origin was tentatively diagnosed. The abnormal mononuclear leukocyte cell population stained positively for the myeloid cytochemical stains: peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and L1-calprotectin. The abnormal cell population of the peripheral blood did not stain with the lymphoid cytochemical stains: alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase, CD3, and CD79a.

  4. Breast cancer survivors' decisions to join a dragon boating team.

    PubMed

    Weisenbach, Beth B; McDonough, Meghan H

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity is associated with psychosocial and physical health benefits for breast cancer survivors. Little is known, however, about survivors' decision-making processes when considering joining group physical activity programs designed for survivors. Guided by interpretive description methodology (Thorne, 2008), N = 15 breast cancer survivors who were considering or had made the decision to join a dragon boating team were interviewed about their decisions to participate. Four patterns of decision making were identified: searching for a way to care for physical and social needs, taking advantage of opportunities created by breast cancer, dove in with little contemplation, and hesitant to connect with other survivors. Results have implications for understanding decisions to participate in physical activity groups in this population and overcoming challenges to participation.

  5. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    PubMed

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  6. Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator?

    PubMed Central

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site*survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species. PMID:23527027

  7. Dragon exploratory system on hepatitis C virus (DESHCV).

    PubMed

    Kwofie, Samuel K; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S; Maqungo, Monique; Christoffels, Alan; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2011-06-01

    Even though hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA was characterized about 20 years ago, there is insufficient understanding of the molecular etiology underlying HCV infections. Current global rates of infection and its increasingly chronic character are causes of concern for health policy experts. Vast amount of data accumulated from biochemical, genomic, proteomic, and other biological analyses allows for novel insights into the HCV viral structure, life cycle and functions of its proteins. Biomedical text-mining is a useful approach for analyzing the increasing corpus of published scientific literature on HCV. We report here the first comprehensive HCV customized biomedical text-mining based online web resource, dragon exploratory system on hepatitis C virus (DESHCV), a biomedical text-mining and relationship exploring knowledge base was developed by exploring literature on HCV. The pre-compiled dictionaries existing in the dragon exploratory system (DES) were enriched with biomedical concepts pertaining to HCV proteins, their name variants and symbols to make it suitable for targeted information exploration and knowledge extraction as focused on HCV. A list of 32,895 abstracts retrieved via PubMed database using specific keywords searches related to HCV were processed based on concept recognition of terms from several dictionaries. The web query interface enables retrieval of information using specified concepts, keywords and phrases, generating text-derived association networks and hypotheses, which could be tested to identify potentially novel relationship between different concepts. Such an approach could also augment efforts in the search for diagnostic or even therapeutic targets. DESHCV thus represents online literature-based discovery resource freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/DESHCV/ and its mirror site http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deshcv/.

  8. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    PubMed

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species. PMID:23527027

  9. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule RGMb) inhibits E-cadherin expression and induces apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y; Xia, Yin

    2013-11-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45-66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Early endocytosis pathways in SSN-1 cells infected by dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wangta; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Hong, Yi-Ren; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Wu, Yi-Min; Chao, Chia-Ben; Lin, Chan-Shing

    2005-09-01

    Many fish undergo betanodavirus infection. To study the infection process of dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV), native virus and virus-like particles (VLPs) were used to analyse the binding and internalization in SSN-1 cells. The binding of DGNNV and VLPs to SSN-1 cells was demonstrated using Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. As estimated by indirect ELISA, the DGNNV particles bound SSN-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner up to 8 x 10(4) particles per cell. The binding of VLPs was sensitive to neuraminidase and tunicamycin, suggesting that cell-surface sialic acid is involved in binding. The penetration of DGNNV into cells, which was monitored by electron microscopy, appeared to occur mainly via the spherical pit and membrane ruffling pathways. Occasionally, a spherical pit was engulfed by membrane ruffling so as to form a large figure-of-eight-shaped vesicle with an open connection. Our observations suggest that DGNNV utilizes both micro- and macropinocytosis pathways to enter SSN-1 cells.

  11. First Description of the Karyotype and Sex Chromosomes in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Rovatsos, Michail; Velenský, Petr; Vodička, Roman; Rehák, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest lizard in the world. Surprisingly, it has not yet been cytogenetically examined. Here, we present the very first description of its karyotype and sex chromosomes. The karyotype consists of 2n = 40 chromosomes, 16 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Although the chromosome number is constant for all species of monitor lizards (family Varanidae) with the currently reported karyotype, variability in the morphology of the macrochromosomes has been previously documented within the group. We uncovered highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex microchromosomes with a heterochromatic W chromosome in the Komodo dragon. Sex chromosomes have so far only been described in a few species of varanids including V. varius, the sister species to Komodo dragon, whose W chromosome is notably larger than that of the Komodo dragon. Accumulations of several microsatellite sequences in the W chromosome have recently been detected in 3 species of monitor lizards; however, these accumulations are absent from the W chromosome of the Komodo dragon. In conclusion, although varanids are rather conservative in karyotypes, their W chromosomes exhibit substantial variability at the sequence level, adding further evidence that degenerated sex chromosomes may represent the most dynamic genome part.

  12. First Description of the Karyotype and Sex Chromosomes in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Rovatsos, Michail; Velenský, Petr; Vodička, Roman; Rehák, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest lizard in the world. Surprisingly, it has not yet been cytogenetically examined. Here, we present the very first description of its karyotype and sex chromosomes. The karyotype consists of 2n = 40 chromosomes, 16 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Although the chromosome number is constant for all species of monitor lizards (family Varanidae) with the currently reported karyotype, variability in the morphology of the macrochromosomes has been previously documented within the group. We uncovered highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex microchromosomes with a heterochromatic W chromosome in the Komodo dragon. Sex chromosomes have so far only been described in a few species of varanids including V. varius, the sister species to Komodo dragon, whose W chromosome is notably larger than that of the Komodo dragon. Accumulations of several microsatellite sequences in the W chromosome have recently been detected in 3 species of monitor lizards; however, these accumulations are absent from the W chromosome of the Komodo dragon. In conclusion, although varanids are rather conservative in karyotypes, their W chromosomes exhibit substantial variability at the sequence level, adding further evidence that degenerated sex chromosomes may represent the most dynamic genome part. PMID:27450879

  13. Analysis of the first- and second-generation Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts containing methylone and pentedrone.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; ElJordi, Omar I; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of designer drugs sold as "Bath Salts" have appeared on the market. In July of 2011, Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts was obtained over the Internet. This product became unavailable in October of that year coinciding with the DEA issuing a temporarily schedule of mephedrone, methylone, and MDPV. Four months later in February of 2012, a new product was released from the same company under the new name Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust. The contents of both products were identified using spectroscopy methods: nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, UV-visible, tandem mass spectrometry, and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was determined that Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts contained methylone. The replacement product Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust contained the unscheduled drug pentedrone. The Raving Dragon brand of products illustrates the rapid change of ingredients in these products to circumvent laws restricting availability, distribution, and use. PMID:25470207

  14. In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon's Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Pieters, L; De Bruyne, T; Van Poel, B; Vingerhoets, R; Totté, J; Vanden Berghe, D; Vlietinck, A

    1995-07-01

    The wound healing activity of dragon'sblood (Croton spp.), in Spanish 'sangre de drago‛ or 'sangre de grado‛, a traditional South American drug, and some of its constituents, including the alkaloid taspine (1), the dihydrobenzufuran lignan 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin (2) and proantho-cyanidins, was evaluated in vivo on rats, and compared with the wound healing actitivy of synthetic proanthocyanidins. The beneficial effect of dragon's blood on wound healing was confirmed. Dragon's blood stimulated contraction of the wound, formation of a crust, formation of new collagen, and regeneration of the epithelial layer. 3',4-O-Dimethylcedrusin also improved wound healing in vivo by stimulating the formation of fibroblasts and collagen, but crude dragon's blood was more effective. This was due to the proanthocyanidins, present in dragon's blood, which stimulate contraction of the wound and precipitate with proteins forming a dark crust covering the wound, but which delay wound repair by a decreased formation of new fibroblasts.

  15. Analysis of the first- and second-generation Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts containing methylone and pentedrone.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; ElJordi, Omar I; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of designer drugs sold as "Bath Salts" have appeared on the market. In July of 2011, Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts was obtained over the Internet. This product became unavailable in October of that year coinciding with the DEA issuing a temporarily schedule of mephedrone, methylone, and MDPV. Four months later in February of 2012, a new product was released from the same company under the new name Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust. The contents of both products were identified using spectroscopy methods: nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, UV-visible, tandem mass spectrometry, and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was determined that Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts contained methylone. The replacement product Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust contained the unscheduled drug pentedrone. The Raving Dragon brand of products illustrates the rapid change of ingredients in these products to circumvent laws restricting availability, distribution, and use.

  16. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  17. Bias Correction of high resolution MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth in urban areas using the Dragon AERONET Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, N. K.; Atia, A.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.; Lary, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is widely used parameter used to quantify aerosol abundance. Satellite retrievals of aerosols over land is fundamentally more complex than aerosol retrieval over oceans. Due to wide coverage and the extensive validation the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is the workhorse instrument used to retrieve AOD from space. However, satellite algorithms of AOD are extremely complex and depends strongly on sun/view geometry, spectral surface albedo, aerosol model assumptions and surface heterogeneity. This issue becomes even more severe when considering the new MODIS 3 km aerosol retrieval products within version 6. To assess satellite retrievals of these high resolution 3 km products, we use the summer 2011 Dragon AERONET data to assess accuracy as well as major retrieval bias that can occur in MODIS measurements. In this study, we explore in detail the factors that can drive these biases statistically. As discussed above, our considers multiple conditions such as surface reflectivity at various wavelengths, solar and sensor zenith angles, the solar and sensor azimuth, scattering angles as well as meteorological factors and aerosol type (angstrom coefficient) etc which are used inputs are used to train neural network in regression mode to compensate for biases against the Dragon AERONET AOD values. In particular, we confirm the results of previous studies where the land cover (urban fraction) appears to be a strong factor in AOD bias and develop a NN estimator which includes land cover directly. The algorithm will be tested not only in the Baltimore/Washington area but assessed in the general North East US where urban biases in the NYC area have been previously identified.

  18. Analysis of Fine and Coarse mode Aerosol Distributions from AERONET's mini-DRAGON Set-up at Singapore 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Muller, A.; Liew, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol type and particle size regime. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from industrial and urban areas. However, depending on the time of the year (July-October), there can be a strong bio-mass component originated from uncontrolled forest/plantation fires from the neighboring land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. Unlike urban/fossil fuel aerosols, smoke or bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. Trans-boundary smoke episodes has become an annual phenomenon in this region. Severe episodes were recorded in 1997 and 2006 and other minor episodes happened during 2002, 2004, 2010 and more recently on 2013. On August-September 2012, as part of CRISP participation on the August-September ground campaign of the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS), a Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) set of six CIMEL CE-318A automatic Sun-tracking photometers have been deployed at sites located at North (Yishun ITE), East (Temasek Poly), West (NUS and Pandan Reservoir), Central (NEA) and South (St. John's island) of Singapore. In order to fully discriminate bio-mass burning events over other local sources, we perform a spectral discrimination of fine/coarse mode particle regime to all DRAGON sites; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponent are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set. Spatio-temporal relationship between sites are also investigated.

  19. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  20. Feasibility of a Dragon-Derived Mars Lander for Scientific and Human-Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John S.; Davis, Sanford S.; Allen, Gary A.; Glass, Brian J.; Gonzales, Andrew; Heldmann, Jennifer Lynne; Lemke, Lawrence G.; McKay, Chris; Stoker, Carol R.; Wooster, Paul Douglass; Zarchi, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A minimally-modified SpaceX Dragon capsule launched on a Falcon Heavy rocket presents the possibility of a new low-cost, high-capacity Mars lander for robotic missions. We have been evaluating such a "Red Dragon" platform as an option for the Icebreaker Discovery Program mission concept. Dragon is currently in service ferrying cargo to and from the International Space Station, and a crew transport version is in development. The upcoming version, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, exhibits most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant "SuperDraco" engines integrated directly into the capsule that are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters provide the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface, a descent approach which would also scale well to larger future human landers. We will discuss the motivations for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the current results of our analysis of its feasibility and capabilities, and the implications of the platform for the Icebreaker mission concept. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will also describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface. Our analysis to date indicates that a Red Dragon lander is feasible and that it would be capable of delivering more than 1000 kg of payload to sites at elevations three kilometers below the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reference, which includes sites throughout most of the northern plains and Hellas.

  1. Habitat use affects morphological diversification in dragon lizards

    PubMed Central

    COLLAR, D C; SCHULTE, J A; O’MEARA, B C; LOSOS, J B

    2010-01-01

    Habitat use may lead to variation in diversity among evolutionary lineages because habitats differ in the variety of ways they allow for species to make a living. Here, we show that structural habitats contribute to differential diversification of limb and body form in dragon lizards (Agamidae). Based on phylogenetic analysis and ancestral state reconstructions for 90 species, we find that multiple lineages have independently adopted each of four habitat use types: rock-dwelling, terrestriality, semi-arboreality and arboreality. Given these reconstructions, we fit models of evolution to species’ morphological trait values and find that rock-dwelling and arboreality limit diversification relative to terrestriality and semi-arboreality. Models preferred by Akaike information criterion infer slower rates of size and shape evolution in lineages inferred to occupy rocks and trees, and model-averaged rate estimates are slowest for these habitat types. These results suggest that ground-dwelling facilitates ecomorphological differentiation and that use of trees or rocks impedes diversification. PMID:20345808

  2. Raytracing, chopper, and guideline for double-headed Dragon monochromators (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The raytracing of the double-headed Dragon, a recently proposed monochromator for producing two simultaneous left and right circularly polarized soft x-ray beams, is presented. The energy resolution and wavelength of these two beams are confirmed to be identical, and the high performance of the original Dragon is found to be preserved in the double-headed configuration. A compact ultra-high vacuum compatible chopper for rapid alternation between left and right helicities is presented, and a guideline for collecting circularly polarized light from bending magnet sources is given.

  3. A Face in the Crowd: A Non-Invasive and Cost Effective Photo-Identification Methodology to Understand the Fine Scale Movement of Eastern Water Dragons

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Riana Zanarivero; Doran, Erik; Strickland, Kasha; Carpenter-Bundhoo, Luke; Frère, Celine

    2014-01-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii) have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females’ home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles. PMID:24835073

  4. The "7 Keys of the Dragon": An E-Learning Gamelike Environment for Albanian and Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revithiadou, Anthi; Kourtis-Kazoullis, Vasilia; Soukalopoulou, Maria; Konstantoudakis, Konstantinos; Zarras, Christos; Pelesoglou, Nestoras

    2014-01-01

    In this article we report on the development of an interactive open source extensible software, dubbed "The 7 Keys of the Dragon," for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students (9-12 years old) with the respective languages as their heritage languages. Based on the assumption that games in language learning are associated…

  5. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, C; Christensen, A; Nielsen, J K; Christensen, H

    2013-11-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator between 2009 and 2011 were included. Upon admission all patients underwent physical and neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale along with non-contrast CT scans and CT angiography. Patients were followed up through the Outpatient Clinic and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.96; p<0.001) and good outcome (mRS 0-2) (AUC-ROC: 0.79; 95% CI 0.73-0.85; p<0.001). When only patients with M1 occlusions were selected the DRAGON scale provided good discriminative capability (AUC-ROC: 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0; p=0.003) for highly unfavourable outcome. We confirmed the validity of the DRAGON scale in predicting outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

  6. Postharvest quality of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) after x-ray irradiation quarantine treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of three dragon fruit clones (Hylocereus sp.) was determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. Fruit were treated with irradiation doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 Gy and stored for 12 days at 10 °C. Irradiation did not affect soluble solids content, ti...

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of a periocular myxosarcoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gardhouse, Sara; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Foster, Robert A; Ingrao, Joelle C; Poirier, Valerie J

    2014-07-01

    A 5-year-old male Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) was presented with a 2-month history of a periocular mass. The clinical evaluation included a physical examination, hematology, biochemistry, and radiographs. The mass was treated surgically and diagnosed as myxosarcoma. Strontium-90 plesiotherapy was attempted, but the mass recurred 5 mo later.

  8. Beam suppression of the DRAGON recoil separator for 3He(α,γ)7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hass, M.; Howell, D.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Triambak, S.

    2013-02-01

    Preliminary studies in preparation for an absolute cross-section measurement of the radiative capture reaction 3He(α,γ)7Be with the DRAGON recoil separator have demonstrated beam suppression >1014 at the 90% confidence level. A measurement of this cross section by observation of 7Be recoils at the focal plane of the separator should be virtually background free.

  9. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper demonstrates eight…

  10. Astronomical Orientations Of Dragon Houses (Laka Palli, Kapsala, Oche) And Armena Gate (Euboea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, I.; Artelaris, G.

    The preliminary investigation of the astronomical orientation of monuments at Styra, southern Euboea, includes the triple so called 'dragon house' complex at Laka Palli, one dragon house at Kapsala and one on the summit of Mount Oche, and a monumental gate in the megalithic fortification wall at Armena. Recent luminescence testing dates these remains to approximately the Classical period with apparent re-use in Roman and later times. Thus far no definite astronomical orientation has been determined in the layout of the structures and no celestial stone markers or similar features have been found associated with the dragon houses, however, the relationship of significant stars, constellations and solar stands was well known in antiquity, and the limited results presented here suggests the possibility for further investigation. This study, which considered possible orientations related to sun rise and sun set for the summer and winter solstice, as well as, alignments towards equinoxes and major bright stars and constellations, did observe a general preference for a southern orientation at most of the sites and a possible feature for time observations in the dragon house complex at Laka Palli.

  11. Severe scuticociliate (Philasterides dicentrarchi) infection in a population of sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    PubMed

    Rossteuscher, S; Wenker, C; Jermann, T; Wahli, T; Oldenberg, E; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2008-07-01

    Scuticociliatosis is a disease of fish induced by ciliated parasites of the genus Scuticociliatida. It has been described in sea horses (Hippocampus sp.), flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus), and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus). Here we present a case study of a population of sea dragons chronically infected with scuticociliates identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi by histopathology and PCR. Beginning in 2004, over a period of 19 months, 10 sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) were found dead in an aquarium of the Zoological Garden Basle, Switzerland. Clinically, the animals showed only faint symptoms of disease over a short period of time. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were confined to the skin with multiple, often hemorrhagic, ulcerations. Histologically, epidermal ulcers were associated with necrosis and inflammation of the underlying dermis and musculature. Numerous ciliates, with a morphology consistent with scuticociliates, were present in these lesions. In several animals these ciliates had invaded blood vessels and were detected in gills and internal organs including kidney, thyroid gland, and central nervous system (CNS). In these organs, mild degenerative lesions and inflammatory reactions were evident. The ciliates were identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Our report shows that scuticociliate infections of sea dragons can develop into a systemic infection and that both species of sea dragons can be affected. PMID:18587104

  12. Developing CALL for Heritage Languages: "The 7 Keys of the Dragon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revithiadou, Anthi; Kourtis-Kazoullis, Vasilia; Soukalopoulou, Maria; Konstantoudakis, Konstantinos; Zarras, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present an interactive extensible software, "The 7 Keys of the Dragon," for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students that attend primary and secondary education in Greece with the respective languages as their heritage languages. We address the key challenges we encountered during the conceptualization…

  13. Panda-Huggers and Dragon-Slayers: How to View Modern China Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Panda-hugger and dragon-slayer are phrases used to describe two different kinds of China-watchers, and increasingly, two different types of people in the general public. A panda-hugger is someone who says that almost everything going on in China is good, that China's progress is a great thing for the world, and that any problems are peripheral. A…

  14. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  15. 78 FR 24065 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... as being available in the docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov , type the docket number in the... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP Captain of the Port A. Regulatory... the Junior League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled...

  16. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  17. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-X Dragon Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 7 April and 11 April 2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 ml evacuated canisters from the sealed Dragon Module at the Space-X facility at KSC. Three samples were taken of facility air (two before the test and one after the test), and a total of 9 samples were taken from the sealed module in triplicate at the following times: 0 hours, 48 hours, and 96 hours. The module contained 470 kg, which was 100% of the mass to be launched. Analytical data contained in the Toxicology Group Report (attached) show that the ambient facility air was clean except for almost 9 milligrams per cubic meter of isopropanol (IPA) in the sample taken at the end of the test. Space-X must ensure that IPA is not introduced into the module before it is sealed for launch. Other minor contaminants in the ambient air included the following: perfluoro(2-methyl)pentane and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane. The first-acquired samples of each triplicate from the module were not analyzed. Analyses of pairs of samples that were taken during the test show excellent agreement between the pairs and a linear increase in the T-values during the 4 days of the test (figure below). The rate of increase averaged 0.124 T units per day. If the time from last purge of the module on the ground to crew first entry on orbit is 10 days, then the T value at first entry should be less than 1.2 units, which is well below the criterion of 3.0 for consideration of additional protection of the crew from offgas products. The primary contributors were as follows: trimethylsilanol (0.057), fluorotrimethylsilane (0.047), acetaldehyde (0.004), hexamethylcyclopentasiloxane (0.003), and toluene (0.002).

  18. Dragon exploration system on marine sponge compounds interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural products are considered a rich source of new chemical structures that may lead to the therapeutic agents in all major disease areas. About 50% of the drugs introduced in the market in the last 20 years were natural products/derivatives or natural products mimics, which clearly shows the influence of natural products in drug discovery. Results In an effort to further support the research in this field, we have developed an integrative knowledge base on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions (Dragon Exploration System on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions - DESMSCI) as a web resource. This knowledge base provides information about the associations of the sponge compounds with different biological concepts such as human genes or proteins, diseases, as well as pathways, based on the literature information available in PubMed and information deposited in several other databases. As such, DESMSCI is aimed as a research support resource for problems on the utilization of marine sponge compounds. DESMSCI allows visualization of relationships between different chemical compounds and biological concepts through textual and tabular views, graphs and relational networks. In addition, DESMSCI has built in hypotheses discovery module that generates potentially new/interesting associations among different biomedical concepts. We also present a case study derived from the hypotheses generated by DESMSCI which provides a possible novel mode of action for variolins in Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusion DESMSCI is the first publicly available (http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/desmsci) comprehensive resource where users can explore information, compiled by text- and data-mining approaches, on biological and chemical data related to sponge compounds. PMID:23415072

  19. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  20. Land of the thunder dragon is on the move. Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Molitor, C

    1992-08-01

    A small and landlocked country in the Himalayas, the size of Switzerland, Bhutan or Druk Yul, Land of the Thunder Dragon, had for centuries been isolated from the outside world. Finally, its tradition-bound people are beginning to pick up new trades and vocations. Penjore Timber Industries & Exports Ltd. is one of the 1st modern wood-processing complexes in Bhutan still with a predominantly subsistence and barter agriculture economy. The company, set up with the financial support of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is producing broomsticks, handles for tools, wooden doors, and window frames mainly for export. The industrial sector is small and accounts for only 4% of GDP. Most of the 125 private enterprises in the country are small. A development bank, the Bhutan Development Finance Corporation (BDFC), was established in 1988 with ADB support for the development of private industry. A general education system was established and schools were opened only in the early 1960s. The government had given the development of trained manpower high priority in its 5th Economic and Social Development Plan (FY 1981/82-FY 1986/87). The Royal Institute of Management (RIM) was established in 1986. About 40 trainees each in secretarial, accounting, and basic management training programs and 150 managerial personnel from public and private agencies are trained each year by RIM which the ADB supports under the Second Multiproject Loan to Bhutan with cofinancing by the Norwegian Development Agency. So far RIM has designed 12 different training courses, 92 students graduated in 1989, and by 1995 about 30 training courses are envisioned. According to 1987 data in a recent UN report Bhutan is the only one of the world's 42 least-developed countries with a more than 10% agricultural production growth rate where real GDP growth has outspaced population growth.

  1. Flavylium chromophores as species markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A

    2008-10-31

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as species markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among species of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered species of dragon's blood and the species being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine.

  2. Flavylium chromophores as species markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A

    2008-10-31

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as species markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among species of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered species of dragon's blood and the species being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:18817913

  3. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... accordance with that process, we published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on June 30, 2011 (76 FR 38349... noxious weeds via the importation of dragon fruit from Thailand. DATES: Effective Date: October 4,...

  4. Psychosocial experiences of breast cancer survivors involved in a dragon boat program: exploring links to positive psychological growth.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2007-08-01

    This study explored psychosocial experiences of breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boat programs. Twenty women (M(age) = 58.69, SD = 6.85) were interviewed for 45-60 min about their experiences as members of survivor dragon boat teams. Interviews were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methods. The dragon boat program facilitated social support from women with common challenges and a shared understanding of survivorship. It also provided opportunities to (re)gain a sense of personal control, develop new identities as athletes, and overcome physical challenges. Together these elements contributed to positive psychological growth and linked to the literature on posttraumatic growth. Future physical activity interventions targeting breast cancer survivors may benefit from developing strategies that share key characteristics of dragon boating.

  5. Dragon boat racing and health-related quality of life of breast cancer survivors: a mixed methods evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer survivors who participate in physical activity (PA) are reported to experience improved health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, the quantitative research exploring the relationship between the team-based activity of dragon boat racing and the HRQOL of breast cancer survivors is limited. Given the rising number of breast cancer survivors, and their growing attraction to dragon boating, further exploration of the influence of this activity on HRQOL is warranted. Methods This study is designed to: 1) quantitatively assess whether and how breast cancer survivors’ participation in a season of dragon boat racing is related to HRQOL and 2) qualitatively explore the survivors’ lived experience of dragon boating and how and why this experience is perceived to influence HRQOL. A mixed methods sequential explanatory design was used with the purpose of complementing quantitative findings with qualitative data. Quantitative data measuring HRQOL were collected at baseline and post-season (N = 100); semi-structured qualitative interviews were used to elicit a personal account of the dragon boat experience (N = 15). Results Statistically significant improvements were shown for HRQOL, physical, functional, emotional and spiritual well-being, breast cancer-specific concerns and cancer-related fatigue. A trend towards significance was shown for social/family well-being. Qualitative data elaborated on the quantitative findings, greatly enhancing the understanding of how and why dragon boat racing influences HRQOL. Conclusions The use of a mixed methods design effectively captured the complex yet positive influence of dragon boating on survivor HRQOL. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature supporting the value of dragon boat racing as a viable PA intervention for enhancing survivor HRQOL. PMID:23915045

  6. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2016-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14-65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood. PMID:26870678

  7. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2016-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14-65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood.

  8. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2015-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14–65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood. PMID:26870678

  9. Utilisation de sources et d'adjoints dragon pour les calculs TRIPOLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camand, Corentin

    Numerical simulation is an essential part of reactor physics in order to understand the behaviour of neutrons inside and outside nuclear reactors. The objective is to solve the neutron transport equation in order to know the neutron flux and the interactions between neutrons and materials. We use neutronic simulation codes in order to solve this equation for criticallity problem, where we have a neutron multiplying environment, and shielding problems. There are two different types of numerical simulation techniques. Deterministic methods solve directly the transport equation using some approximations. The energy domain is divided in regions called groups, we use a spatial mesh for the geometry treatment, transport operator may also be simplified. Those approximations invole an inherent error. However these methods provide high computation time performances. Monte Carlo or stochastic methods follow explicitly a large number of neutrons as they travel through materials minimizing approximations. Continuous-energy and multigroup treatment are both available. Quantities calculated are random variables to which are associated statistical error called standard deviations. We have to simulate a very large number of neutrons if we want the calculation to converge and the results to be precise enough. As a matter of fact, computation time of these methods can be excessively large and represent their main weakness. The objective of this study is to set up a chaining method from a deterministic code to a Monte Carlo code, in order to improve the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations performed by the code TRIPOLI. We want to use datas calculated by the deterministic code DRAGON and use them in TRIPOLI. We will develop two methods. The first one will calculate source distribution in DRAGON and implement them in TRIPOLI as initial sources of a criticallity calculation. The objective is to accelerate the convergence of the neutrons sources, and save the first batches that are

  10. Structure characteristics of a water-soluble polysaccharide purified from dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) pulp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lishan; Zhang, Yaojie; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    Dragon fruit is a tropical fruit with good taste. It can bring health benefits to human body. As one of the major bioactive components in this fruit, the polysaccharides might contribute to the health benefits. However, the precise structure information remains unknown. A leading polysaccharide of dragon fruit pulp, DFPP, was purified and identified by NMR and GC-MS. →4-β-d-GlcpA-1→, →6-β-d-Galp-1→ and →4-α-l-Rhap-1→ constituted the backbone and α-l-Araf-1→5-α-l-Araf-1→ formed the branch chain. The precise structure was putatively identified as below. The molecular weight was 2.2×10(3)kDa. The structure information of polysaccharides will be helpful to understand this fruit.

  11. Physical therapy as an adjunctive treatment for severe osteoarthritis in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tammy Culpepper; Stringer, Elizabeth; Krauss, Sue; Trout, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions. Although outcomes could not be measured by standardized objective measures, this study provides a reference for treatment of future cases and a foundation for future research substantiating treatment practices in animal physical therapy.

  12. DRAGONS-A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Hamilton, J.; Liolios, S.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Burchell, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the sub-millimeter to millimeter size regime in the near Earth space environment. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but still large enough to be a serious threat to human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of DRAGONS is 1 sq m, consisting of four 0.5 m × 0.5 m independent panels, but the dimensions of the panels can easily be modified to accommodate different payload constraints. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine three particle impact detection concepts to maximize information that can be extracted from each detected impact. The first is a resistive grid consisting of 75-micrometer-wide resistive lines, coated in parallel and separated by 75 micrometer gaps on a 25-micrometer thin film. When a particle a few hundred micrometers or larger strikes the grid, it would penetrate the film and sever some resistive lines. The size of the damage area can be estimated from the increased resistance. The second concept is based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) acoustic impact sensors. Multiple PVDF sensors are attached to the thin film to provide the impact timing information. From the different signal arrival times at different acoustic sensors, the impact location can be calculated via triangulation algorithms. The third concept employs a dual-layer film system where a second 25-micrometer film is placed 15 cm behind the resistive-grid film. Multiple PVDF acoustic sensors are also attached to the second film. The combination of impact timing and location information from the two films allows for direct measurements of the impact direction and speed. The DRAGONS technology development has been funded by several NASA organizations since 2002, first

  13. Physical therapy as an adjunctive treatment for severe osteoarthritis in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tammy Culpepper; Stringer, Elizabeth; Krauss, Sue; Trout, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions. Although outcomes could not be measured by standardized objective measures, this study provides a reference for treatment of future cases and a foundation for future research substantiating treatment practices in animal physical therapy. PMID:25831594

  14. Evaluation of High-Resolution MAIAC Aerosol Retrievals Using DRAGON Field Campaign Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Korkin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) is a new generation algorithm which uses time series analysis and processing of groups of pixels for advanced cloud masking and retrieval of aerosol and surface reflectance properties. MAIAC makes aerosol retrievals from MODIS data at high 1km resolution providing information about the fine scale aerosol variability. This information is required in different applications such as urban air quality analysis, aerosol source identification etc. The DRAGON field campaign data present a unique spatially distributed array of in-situ aerosol measurements for a comprehensive assessment and validation of MAIAC aerosol retrievals from MODIS. We will provide spatial/temporal comparison statistics between MAIAC and AERONET DRAGON for several different field campaigns including USA 2011 (Washington-Baltimore) and 2012-2013 (San Joaquin Valley, CA) and 2013 (Houston).

  15. DRAGON Grid: A Three-Dimensional Hybrid Grid Generation Code Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2000-01-01

    Because grid generation can consume 70 percent of the total analysis time for a typical three-dimensional viscous flow simulation for a practical engineering device, payoffs from research and development could reduce costs and increase throughputs considerably. In this study, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field developed a new hybrid grid approach with the advantages of flexibility, high-quality grids suitable for an accurate resolution of viscous regions, and a low memory requirement. These advantages will, in turn, reduce analysis time and increase accuracy. They result from an innovative combination of structured and unstructured grids to represent the geometry and the computation domain. The present approach makes use of the respective strengths of both the structured and unstructured grid methods, while minimizing their weaknesses. First, the Chimera grid generates high-quality, mostly orthogonal meshes around individual components. This process is flexible and can be done easily. Normally, these individual grids are required overlap each other so that the solution on one grid can communicate with another. However, when this communication is carried out via a nonconservative interpolation procedure, a spurious solution can result. Current research is aimed at entirely eliminating this undesired interpolation by directly replacing arbitrary grid overlapping with a nonstructured grid called a DRAGON grid, which uses the same set of conservation laws over the entire region, thus ensuring conservation everywhere. The DRAGON grid is shown for a typical film-cooled turbine vane with 33 holes and 3 plenum compartments. There are structured grids around each geometrical entity and unstructured grids connecting them. In fiscal year 1999, Glenn researchers developed and tested the three-dimensional DRAGON grid-generation tools. A flow solver suitable for the DRAGON grid has been developed, and a series of validation tests are underway.

  16. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to the Amtrak Bridge at position 41°51′20″ N, 087°38′13″ W. (DATUM: NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations....

  17. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to the Amtrak Bridge at position 41°51′20″ N, 087°38′13″ W. (DATUM: NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations....

  18. Foodborne outbreak of Salmonella subspecies IV infections associated with contamination from bearded dragons.

    PubMed

    Lowther, S A; Medus, C; Scheftel, J; Leano, F; Jawahir, S; Smith, K

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1.4 million Salmonella infections and 400 deaths occur annually in the United States. Approximately 6% of human Salmonella cases are thought to be associated with reptiles; Salmonella enterica subspecies IV is primarily reptile-associated. During 1-4 December, 2009, three isolates of Salmonella IV 6,7:z4,z24:- with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were identified through Minnesota Department of Health laboratory-based surveillance. None of the three patients associated with the isolates reported reptile contact; however, all had attended the same potluck dinner. Dinner attendees were asked questions regarding illness history, foods they prepared for and consumed at the event, and pet ownership. Cases were defined as illness in a person who had eaten potluck food and subsequently experienced fever and diarrhoea (three or more loose stools in 24 h) or laboratory-confirmed infection with Salmonella IV matching the outbreak PFGE subtype. Nineteen days after the event, environmental samples were collected from a food preparer's house where two pet bearded dragons were kept. Sixty-six of 73 potluck food consumers were interviewed; 19 cases were identified; 18 persons reported illness but did not meet the case definition. Median incubation period was 19 h (range: 3-26 h). Median duration of illness was 5 days (range: 1-11 days). Consumption of gravy, prepared by the bearded dragons' asymptomatic owner, was associated with illness (16/32 exposed versus 1/12 unexposed; risk ratio: 6.0; exact P = 0.02). Salmonella Labadi was recovered from 10 samples, including from one bearded dragon, the bathroom door knob and sink drain, and the kitchen sink drain. The outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella subspecies IV was isolated from vacuum-cleaner bag contents. This foodborne outbreak probably resulted from environmental contamination from bearded dragons. Reptiles pose a community threat when food for public consumption is prepared in

  19. The influence of hypoxia on the thermal sensitivity of skin colouration in the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    de Velasco, Jesus Barraza; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2008-09-01

    One physiological mechanism used by reptiles to remain within thermal optima is their ability to reversibly alter skin colour, imparting changes in overall reflectance, and influencing the rate of heat gain from incident radiation. The ability to lighten or darken their skin is caused by the movement of pigment within the dermal chromatophore cells. Additionally, lizards, as ectotherms, significantly lower their preferred body temperatures when experiencing stressors such as hypoxia. This decrease in preferred temperature has been proposed to be the result of a downward adjustment of the thermal set-point, the temperature around which the body temperature is typically defended. We tested the hypothesis that lightening of the skin in lizards would be modified by hypoxia in a manner consistent with the known reduction in preferred temperatures. Skin colouration values of the dorsal skin of bearded dragons were analysed at three different levels of oxygen (20.8, 9.9 and 4.9 kPa) and at temperatures spanning the preferred temperature range (30, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 C). Hypoxic lizards lightened their skin at lower ambient temperatures more than normoxic ones, and in an oxygen-dependent fashion. The orchestrated adjustment of skin reflectance suggests that this physiological trait is being regulated at a new and lower set-point. Evidence from this study demonstrates that skin colouration plays a role in body temperature regulation and that the reduction in temperature set-point so prevalent in hypoxia is also manifested in this physiological trait.

  20. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. PMID:24051215

  1. Characteristics of aerosol at a lower atmospheric layer in DRAGON field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUJI, M.; Azuma, Y.; Kitakoga, S.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution arises severely over East Asia with the rapid economic development nowadays. Monitoring the atmospheric environment, as one of the purposes, an intensive field campaign, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON), was carried out in the spring of year 2012, led by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At that time, atmospheric phenomena such as Yellow sand and haze events were observed at Nara in the western part of Japan, as one of the DRAGON observation sites. The atmospheric events were characterized with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. As a result of the data analysis, it was found that more light-absorbing and smaller particles dominated at the lower than upper atmospheric layer for the Kosa event in particular. A backward trajectory analysis suggested that the Yellow sand event traveled over the East Asian industrial cities, which could lead to a mixture of sand and air pollutants with moderate particle size and light-absorptivity. In addition, visibility observation was evaluated quantitatively with AERONET data in the DRAGON campaign since eye observation was inherently semi-quantitative. The extinction coefficient estimated from visibility was compared to that from AERONET. As a result, it was found that the extinction coefficients were generally consistent to each other. But there were some discrepancies, which could be caused with the atmospheric phenomena or aerosol types. It is confirmed that visibility is strongly influenced with aerosols in the case of severe atmospheric phenomena in particular.

  2. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  3. Estimation of PM10 concentrations over Seoul using multiple empirical models with AERONET and MODIS data collected during the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, S.-W.; Song, C. H.; Lim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of various empirical linear models to estimate the concentrations of surface-level particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) was evaluated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data collected in Seoul during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from March to May 2012. An observed relationship between the PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was accounted for by several parameters in the empirical models, including boundary layer height (BLH), relative humidity (RH), and effective radius of the aerosol size distribution (Reff), which was used here for the first time in empirical modeling. Among various empirical models, the model which incorporates both BLH and Reff showed the highest correlation, which indicates the strong influence of BLH and Reff on the PM10 estimations. Meanwhile, the effect of RH on the relationship between AOD and PM10 appeared to be negligible during the campaign period (spring), when RH is generally low in northeast Asia. A large spatial dependency of the empirical model performance was found by categorizing the locations of the collected data into three different site types, which varied in terms of the distances between instruments and source locations. When both AERONET and MODIS data sets were used in the PM10 estimation, the highest correlations between measured and estimated values (R = 0.76 and 0.76 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the residential area (RA) site type, while the poorest correlations (R = 0.61 and 0.68 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the near-source (NS) site type. Significant seasonal variations of empirical model performances for PM10 estimation were found using the data collected at Yonsei University (one of the DRAGON campaign sites) over a period of 17 months including the DRAGON campaign

  4. Becoming Dragon: a mixed reality durational performance in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, Micha; Head, Christopher; Margolis, Todd; Greco, Kael

    2009-02-01

    The goal for Becoming Dragon was to develop a working, immersive Mixed Reality system by using a motion capture system and head mounted display to control a character in Second Life - a Massively Multiplayer Online 3D environment - in order to examine a number of questions regarding identity, gender and the transformative potential of technology. This performance was accomplished through a collaboration between Micha Cardenas, the performer and technical director, Christopher Head, Kael Greco, Benjamin Lotan, Anna Storelli and Elle Mehrmand. The plan for this project was to model the performer's physical environment to enable them to live in the virtual environment for extended amounts of time, using an approach of Mixed Reality, where the physical world is mapped into the virtual. I remain critical of the concept of Mixed Reality, as it presents an idea of realities as totalities and as objective essences independent of interpretation through the symbolic order. Part of my goal with this project is to explore identity as a process of social feedback, in the sense that Donna Haraway describes "becoming with"iii, as well as to explore the concept of Reality Spectrum that Augmentology.com discusses, thinking about states such as AFK (Away From Keyboard) that are in-between virtual and corporeal presence.iv Both of these ideas are ways of overcoming the dualisms of mind/body, real/virtual and self/other that have been a problematic part of thinking about technology for so long. Towards thinking beyond these binaries, Anna Munster offers a concept of enfolding the body and technologyv, building on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the baroque fold. She says "the superfold... opens up for us a twisted topology of code folding back upon itself without determinate start or end points: we now live in a time and space in which body and information are thoroughly imbricated."vi She elaborates on this notion of body and code as becoming with each other saying "the incorporeal

  5. Control of an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exhibit at a zoo in Florida.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Michael J; Simmons, Leigh-Anne; Condie, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    A protocol was developed to control an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation on three Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at a Florida zoo without direct application of acaricides to the lizards. With the Komodo dragons secured within their indoor pens, their outdoor enclosures and the exhibition area were sprayed with a formulation of permethrin prepared specifically for use with reptiles. Once the acaricide had dried, the Komodo dragons were allowed to return to their outdoor enclosures, whereupon the indoor pens were closed and sprayed with the same formulation. After this initial treatment, the outdoor and indoor areas were retreated every 2 wk and 8-10 wk, respectively, for 6 mo. The initial on-host and off-host tick count of 301 ticks fell to 0 ticks after 6 mo. No adverse effects of the acaricide treatment were observed on the lizards during daily monitoring.

  6. Control of an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exhibit at a zoo in Florida.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Michael J; Simmons, Leigh-Anne; Condie, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    A protocol was developed to control an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation on three Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at a Florida zoo without direct application of acaricides to the lizards. With the Komodo dragons secured within their indoor pens, their outdoor enclosures and the exhibition area were sprayed with a formulation of permethrin prepared specifically for use with reptiles. Once the acaricide had dried, the Komodo dragons were allowed to return to their outdoor enclosures, whereupon the indoor pens were closed and sprayed with the same formulation. After this initial treatment, the outdoor and indoor areas were retreated every 2 wk and 8-10 wk, respectively, for 6 mo. The initial on-host and off-host tick count of 301 ticks fell to 0 ticks after 6 mo. No adverse effects of the acaricide treatment were observed on the lizards during daily monitoring. PMID:15305524

  7. Aggressive Transition between Alternative Male Social Tactics in a Long-Lived Australian Dragon (Physignathus lesueurii) Living at High Density

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Troy A.; Baird, Teresa D.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Theory predicts the evolution of alternative male social tactics when intense competition coupled with the superior competitive ability of some individuals limits access to reproductive opportunities by others. How selection has shaped alternative social tactics may be especially interesting in long-lived species where size among sexually mature males varies markedly. We conducted experimental studies on long-lived eastern Australian water dragons living where competition was intense to test the hypotheses that mature males adopt alternative social tactics that are plastic, and that large size and body condition determine resource-holding potential. Approximately one-half of mature males (N = 14) defended territories using high rates of patrol and advertisement display, whereas 16 smaller mature males having lower body condition indices utilized non-territorial social tactics. Although territorial males were larger in absolute size and head dimensions, their heads were not allometrically larger. Territorial males advertised very frequently using displays involving stereotypical movements of the head and dewlap. More aggressive displays were given infrequently during baseline social conditions, but increased during periods of social instability. Female home ranges overlapped those of several territorial and non-territorial males, but females interacted more frequently with territorial males. The extreme plasticity of social tactics in this species that are dependent on body size was confirmed by two instances when relatively large non-territorial males spontaneously evicted territory owners, and by marked shifts in tactics by non-territorial males in response to temporary experimental removals of territory owners, followed (usually) by their expulsion when original owners were reinstated. The high level of social plasticity in this population where same-sex competitors are densely concentrated in preferred habitat suggests that chronic high energetic costs of

  8. Melt extraction and mantle source at a Southwest Indian Ridge Dragon Bone amagmatic segment on the Marion Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changgui; Dick, Henry J. B.; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2016-03-01

    This paper works on the trace and major element compositions of spatially associated basalts and peridotites from the Dragon Bone amagmatic ridge segment at the eastern flank of the Marion Platform on the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The rare earth element compositions of basalts do not match the pre-alteration Dragon Bone peridotite compositions, but can be modeled by about 5 to 10% non-modal batch equilibrium melting from a DMM source. The Dragon Bone peridotites are clinopyroxene-poor harzburgite with average spinel Cr# ~ 27.7. The spinel Cr# indicates a moderate degree of melting. However, CaO and Al2O3 of the peridotites are lower than other abyssal peridotites at the same Mg# and extent of melting. This requires a pyroxene-poor initial mantle source composition compared to either hypothetical primitive upper mantle or depleted MORB mantle sources. We suggest a hydrous melting of the initial Dragon Bone mantle source, as wet melting depletes pyroxene faster than dry. According to the rare earth element patterns, the Dragon Bone peridotites are divided into two groups. Heavy REE in Group 1 are extremely fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 7% fractional melting in the garnet stability field and another ~ 12.5 to 13.5% in the spinel stability field from depleted and primitive upper mantle sources, respectively. Heavy REE in Group 2 are slightly fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 15 to 20% fractional melting in the spinel stability field from a depleted mantle source. Both groups show similar melting degree to other abyssal peridotites. If all the melt extraction occurred at the middle oceanic ridge where the peridotites were dredged, a normal ~ 6 km thick oceanic crust is expected at the Dragon Bone segment. However, the Dragon Bone peridotites are exposed in an amagmatic ridge segment where only scattered pillow basalts lie on a partially serpentinized mantle pavement. Thus their depletion requires an

  9. The origins of dragon-kings and their occurrence in society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Artemy; Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey

    2012-11-01

    A society is a medium with a complex structure of one-to-one relations between people. Those could be relations between friends, wife-husband relationships, relations between business partners, and so on. At a certain level of analysis, a society can be regarded as a gigantic maze constituted of one-to-one relationships between people. From a physical standpoint it can be considered as a highly porous medium. Such media are widely known for their outstanding properties and effects like self-organized criticality, percolation, power-law distribution of network cluster sizes, etc. In these media supercritical events, referred to as dragon-kings, may occur in two cases: when increasing stress is applied to a system (self-organized criticality scenario) or when increasing conductivity of a system is observed (percolation scenario). In social applications the first scenario is typical for negative effects: crises, wars, revolutions, financial breakdowns, state collapses, etc. The second scenario is more typical for positive effects like emergence of cities, growth of firms, population blow-ups, economic miracles, technology diffusion, social network formation, etc. If both conditions (increasing stress and increasing conductivity) are observed together, then absolutely miraculous dragon-king effects can occur that involve most human society. Historical examples of this effect are the emergence of the Mongol Empire, world religions, World War II, and the explosive proliferation of global internet services. This article describes these two scenarios in detail beginning with an overview of historical dragon-king events and phenomena starting from the early human history till the last decades and concluding with an analysis of their possible near future consequences on our global society. Thus we demonstrate that in social systems dragon-king is not a random outlier unexplainable by power-law statistics, but a natural effect. It is a very large cluster in a porous

  10. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  11. DRAGON: Monte Carlo generator of particle production from a fragmented fireball in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomášik, Boris

    2009-09-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. Program summaryProgram title: DRAGON Catalogue identifier: AEDK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6383 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 32 756 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed Operating system: Linux; the program has been successfully run on Gentoo Linux 2.6, RedHat Linux 9, Debian Linux 4.0, all with g++ compiler. It also ran successfully on MS Windows under Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition as well as under cygwin/g++ RAM: 100 Mbytes Supplementary material: Sample output files from the test run, provided in the distribution, are available. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: Deconfined matter produced in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions expands and cools down and eventually returns into the confined phase. If the expansion is fast, the fireball could fragment either due to spinodal decomposition or due to suddenly arising bulk viscous force. Particle abundances are reasonably well described with just a few parameters

  12. Measurement of the 21Na(p,{gamma})22Mg Reaction with the Dragon Facility at TRIUMF-ISAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.A.; Bishop, S.; D'Auria, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Lamey, M.; Liu, W.; Wrede, C.; Buchmann, L.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Laird, A.; Ottewell, D.; Rogers, J.; Chatterjee, M. L.; Engel, S.; Strieder, F.; Gigliotti, D.; Hussein, A.; Greife, U.; Jewett, C.; King, J.

    2003-08-26

    The DRAGON recoil separator facility, designed to measure the rates of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions important for nuclear astrophysics, is now operational at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beam facility in Vancouver, Canada. We report on first measurements of the 21Na(p,{gamma})22Mg reaction rate with radioactive beams of 21Na.

  13. The Dragon in School Backyards: The Influence of Mandated Testing on School Contexts and Educators' Narrative Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2004-01-01

    Researched in the narrative inquiry tradition, this article examines the influence of state-mandated accountability testing on Eagle High School's dramatically shifting context and the embodied knowledge held and expressed by principal, Henry Richards, and the Eagle teachers. Through carefully unpacking Richards's dragon in school backyards…

  14. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  15. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  16. 'Wishing for Dragon Children': Ironies and Contradictions in China's Education Reform and the Chinese Diaspora's Disappointments with Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jianguo; Singh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the re-traditionalisation of 'wishing for dragon children' creates difficulties for China's current education reforms and informs the disquiet expressed by Chinese-Australians about Australian education. We develop this argument around three key propositions. First, we explore Confucianism and the civil service examination…

  17. The ZW sex microchromosomes of an Australian dragon lizard share no homology with those of other reptiles or birds.

    PubMed

    Ezaz, Tariq; Moritz, Benjamin; Waters, Paul; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Georges, Arthur; Sarre, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Reptiles show a diverse array of sex chromosomal systems but, remarkably, the Z sex chromosomes of chicken are homologous to the ZW sex chromosomes of a species of gecko, Gekko hokouensis, suggesting an ancient but common origin. This is in contrast to the ZW sex chromosomes of snakes and a species of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, which are nonhomologous to those of chicken or each other and appear to have been independently derived. In this paper, we determine what homology, if any, the sex chromosomes of the Australian dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps shares with those of snake and chicken by mapping the dragon homologs of five snake Z chromosome genes (WAC, KLF6, TAX1BP1, RAB5A, and CTNNB1) and five chicken Z chromosome genes (ATP5A1, GHR, DMRT1, CHD1, and APTX) to chromosomes in the dragon. The dragon homologs of snake and chicken sex chromosome genes map to chromosomes 6 and chromosome 2, respectively, in the dragon and that DMRT1, the bird sex-determining gene, is not located on the sex chromosomes of P. vitticeps. Indeed, our data show that the dragon homolog to the chicken Z chromosome is likely to be wholly contained within chromosome 2 in P. vitticeps, which suggests that the sex-determining factor in P. vitticeps is not the sex-determining gene of chicken. Homology between chicken Z chromosome and G. hokouensis ZW chromosome pairs has been interpreted as retention of ancient ZW sex chromosomes in which case the nonhomologous sex chromosomes of snake and dragons would be independently derived. Our data add another case of independently derived sex chromosomes in a squamate reptile, which makes retention of ancient sex chromosome homology in the squamates less plausible. Alternatively, the conservation between the bird Z chromosome and the G. hokouensis ZW chromosomes pairs is coincidental, may be an example of convergent evolution, its status as the Z chromosome having been independently derived in birds and G. hokouensis.

  18. Behavior of Salmonella spp. and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hui Li; Hong, Yoon-Ki; Yoon, Won Byong; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine survival or growth of unadapted, acid-adapted and cold-stressed Salmonella spp., and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures. Dragon fruits were sliced and spot inoculated with five-strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. at two inoculum levels (2.5 or 5.5 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruits were stored at 28°C for 48h and at 4°C and 12°C for 96 h. Salmonella population significantly increased by 2.4 to 3.0 log CFU/g at low inoculum level, whereas the numbers increased by 0.4 to 0.7 log CFU/g at the high inoculum level on fruits held at 28°C for 48h. Only unadapted and acid-adapted cells grew with 0.7 to 0.9log increase at the low inoculum level at 12°C for 96h. No significant growth was observed at both inoculum levels during storage at 4°C. Overall, acid, starved and cold adaptation of Salmonella spp. did not show significant difference in survival or growth on fresh-cut dragon fruits during storage compared to unadapted control cells. For natural microbiota on the fruit, mesophilic bacterial counts reached to 5-log CFU/g at 28 and 12°C by 9.9 and 52.9h. Similar with Salmonella spp. there was no growth of natural microbiota at 4°C. These results showed that Salmonella spp. could grow on fresh-cut dragon fruits under inappropriate storage conditions, indicating that fresh-cut dragon fruits could be a potential vehicle for salmonellosis. Thus, this study suggests that fresh-cut dragon fruits should be stored at 4°C to ensure the safety as well as to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut dragon fruits.

  19. Training methodologies for dependent Speech Recognition (SR) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard L.

    1991-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether a dependent (SR) system would perform with different accuracies given different ways in which it was trained. The experiment used an SR system (Voice Navigator) which is based on Dragon Systems, Inc. (proprietary) technology. Fifteen subjects trained three different voice patterns each and conducted four tests to compile statistics about the recognition accuracy for each pattern. The experiment was successful and demonstrated that the training method used can have significant impact on the performance of a dependent SR system. This thesis discusses the research methodology, reviews and analyzes the data collected, and states conclusions drawn about the particular dependent SR system used in the experiment.

  20. DDGui, a new and fast way to analyse DRAGON and DONJON code results

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, R.; Marleau, G.

    2012-07-01

    With the largely increased performance of computer, the results from DRAGON and DONJON have increase in size and complexity. The scroll, copy and paste technique to get the result is not appropriate anymore. Many in-house script, software, macro have been developed to make the data gathering easier. However, the limit of these solutions is their specificity and the difficulty to export them from one place to another. A general tool usable and accessible by everyone was needed. The first bricks for a very fast and intuitive way to analyse the DRAGON and DONJON results have been put together in the graphic user interface DDGUI. Based on the extensive ROOT C++ package, the possible features are numerous. For this first version of the software, we have programmed the fundamental tools which may be the more useful on an everyday basis: view the data structures content, draw the geometry and draw the flux or power from a DONJON computation. The tests show how amazingly fast the user can get the information needed for a general overview or more precise analyses. Several other features will be implemented in the near feature. (authors)

  1. Here There Be Dragons: Characterization of ACS/WFC Scattered Light Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porterfield, Blair; Coe, Dan A.; ACS

    2016-01-01

    We present a study characterizing scattered light anomalies that occur around the edge of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC). The study is based on all full-frame WFC raw images ever produced by ACS. Using the 2MASS catalog, we identified stars outside of the ACS/WFC field of view which cause two particular scattered light artifacts known as "dragon's breath" and edge glow. We determined which regions around the chip the stars must fall in to cause dragons breath to occur and characterized the amount of stellar flux received during an integration (expressed in instrumental magnitudes) needed to cause scattering. We have completed this study for the ACS F606W and F814W filters. We provide a map of risky areas around the ACS chips and an upper limit of magnitudes to be concerned about. We will use these results to develop interactive tools that will aid the astronomical community in the proposal process for ACS/WFC.

  2. Deathly drool: evolutionary and ecological basis of septic bacteria in Komodo dragon mouths.

    PubMed

    Bull, J J; Jessop, Tim S; Whiteley, Marvin

    2010-06-21

    Komodo dragons, the world's largest lizard, dispatch their large ungulate prey by biting and tearing flesh. If a prey escapes, oral bacteria inoculated into the wound reputedly induce a sepsis that augments later prey capture by the same or other lizards. However, the ecological and evolutionary basis of sepsis in Komodo prey acquisition is controversial. Two models have been proposed. The "bacteria as venom" model postulates that the oral flora directly benefits the lizard in prey capture irrespective of any benefit to the bacteria. The "passive acquisition" model is that the oral flora of lizards reflects the bacteria found in carrion and sick prey, with no relevance to the ability to induce sepsis in subsequent prey. A third model is proposed and analyzed here, the "lizard-lizard epidemic" model. In this model, bacteria are spread indirectly from one lizard mouth to another. Prey escaping an initial attack act as vectors in infecting new lizards. This model requires specific life history characteristics and ways to refute the model based on these characteristics are proposed and tested. Dragon life histories (some details of which are reported here) prove remarkably consistent with the model, especially that multiple, unrelated lizards feed communally on large carcasses and that escaping, wounded prey are ultimately fed on by other lizards. The identities and evolutionary histories of bacteria in the oral flora may yield the most useful additional insights for further testing the epidemic model and can now be obtained with new technologies.

  3. Deathly Drool: Evolutionary and Ecological Basis of Septic Bacteria in Komodo Dragon Mouths

    PubMed Central

    Bull, J. J.; Jessop, Tim S.; Whiteley, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Komodo dragons, the world's largest lizard, dispatch their large ungulate prey by biting and tearing flesh. If a prey escapes, oral bacteria inoculated into the wound reputedly induce a sepsis that augments later prey capture by the same or other lizards. However, the ecological and evolutionary basis of sepsis in Komodo prey acquisition is controversial. Two models have been proposed. The “bacteria as venom” model postulates that the oral flora directly benefits the lizard in prey capture irrespective of any benefit to the bacteria. The “passive acquisition” model is that the oral flora of lizards reflects the bacteria found in carrion and sick prey, with no relevance to the ability to induce sepsis in subsequent prey. A third model is proposed and analyzed here, the “lizard-lizard epidemic” model. In this model, bacteria are spread indirectly from one lizard mouth to another. Prey escaping an initial attack act as vectors in infecting new lizards. This model requires specific life history characteristics and ways to refute the model based on these characteristics are proposed and tested. Dragon life histories (some details of which are reported here) prove remarkably consistent with the model, especially that multiple, unrelated lizards feed communally on large carcasses and that escaping, wounded prey are ultimately fed on by other lizards. The identities and evolutionary histories of bacteria in the oral flora may yield the most useful additional insights for further testing the epidemic model and can now be obtained with new technologies. PMID:20574514

  4. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted.

  5. Digit Ratio, Color Polymorphism and Egg Testosterone in the Australian Painted Dragon

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Michael; Healey, Mo; Olsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Variation in exposure to sex hormones during early development contributes to phenotypic plasticity in vertebrate offspring. As a proposed marker for prenatal sex hormone exposure and because of their association with various physiological and behavioral characteristics, digit ratio and/or digit length have received notable interest within the field of evolutionary ecology. However, the validity of digit measures as a proxy of prenatal sex hormone exposure is controversial and only few studies have provided direct evidence for the link between digit development and prenatal sex hormones. Here, we report morph- and sex-specific variation in digit ratio in wild painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus). Lizards expressing a yellow bib have significantly larger third-to-fourth toe ratios (3D:4D) than lizards without a bib. Males have significantly smaller 3D:4D than females. Furthermore, we show that experimental elevation of yolk testosterone significantly increases 3D:4D in hatchling painted dragon lizards, but has no influence on hatchling size. Our results provide direct and indirect evidence for the involvement of prenatal sex steroids in digit development and it is suggested that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker for prenatal steroid exposure in this reptilian species. As such, digit ratio may provide a useful tool to study temporal or spatial differences in the proximate hormonal mechanisms modulating physiological and behavioural phenotypes. PMID:21283539

  6. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  7. DRAGON: Monte Carlo Generator of Particle Production from a Fragmented Fireball in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasik, Boris

    2010-11-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. DRAGON's purpose is to produce artificial data sets which resemble those coming from real nuclear collisions provided fragmentation occurs at hadronisation and hadrons are emitted from fragments without any further scattering. Its name, DRAGON, stands for DRoplet and hAdron GeneratOr for Nuclear collisions. In a way, the model is similar to THERMINATOR, with the crucial difference that emission from fragments is included.

  8. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted. PMID:10703549

  9. Deathly drool: evolutionary and ecological basis of septic bacteria in Komodo dragon mouths.

    PubMed

    Bull, J J; Jessop, Tim S; Whiteley, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Komodo dragons, the world's largest lizard, dispatch their large ungulate prey by biting and tearing flesh. If a prey escapes, oral bacteria inoculated into the wound reputedly induce a sepsis that augments later prey capture by the same or other lizards. However, the ecological and evolutionary basis of sepsis in Komodo prey acquisition is controversial. Two models have been proposed. The "bacteria as venom" model postulates that the oral flora directly benefits the lizard in prey capture irrespective of any benefit to the bacteria. The "passive acquisition" model is that the oral flora of lizards reflects the bacteria found in carrion and sick prey, with no relevance to the ability to induce sepsis in subsequent prey. A third model is proposed and analyzed here, the "lizard-lizard epidemic" model. In this model, bacteria are spread indirectly from one lizard mouth to another. Prey escaping an initial attack act as vectors in infecting new lizards. This model requires specific life history characteristics and ways to refute the model based on these characteristics are proposed and tested. Dragon life histories (some details of which are reported here) prove remarkably consistent with the model, especially that multiple, unrelated lizards feed communally on large carcasses and that escaping, wounded prey are ultimately fed on by other lizards. The identities and evolutionary histories of bacteria in the oral flora may yield the most useful additional insights for further testing the epidemic model and can now be obtained with new technologies. PMID:20574514

  10. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  11. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  12. Deterministic Modeling of the High Temperature Test Reactor with DRAGON-HEXPEDITE

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; R.M. Ferrer; J.J. Cogliati; J.D. Bess; A.M. Ougouag

    2010-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with the development of reactor physics analysis capability of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) project. In order to examine the INL’s current prismatic reactor analysis tools, the project is conducting a benchmark exercise based on modeling the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR). This exercise entails the development of a model for the initial criticality, a 19 fuel column thin annular core, and the fully loaded core critical condition with 30 fuel columns. Special emphasis is devoted to physical phenomena and artifacts in HTTR that are similar to phenomena and artifacts in the NGNP base design. The DRAGON code is used in this study since it offers significant ease and versatility in modeling prismatic designs. DRAGON can generate transport solutions via Collision Probability (CP), Method of Characteristics (MOC) and Discrete Ordinates (Sn). A fine group cross-section library based on the SHEM 281 energy structure is used in the DRAGON calculations. The results from this study show reasonable agreement in the calculation of the core multiplication factor with the MC methods, but a consistent bias of 2–3% with the experimental values is obtained. This systematic error has also been observed in other HTTR benchmark efforts and is well documented in the literature. The ENDF/B VII graphite and U235 cross sections appear to be the main source of the error. The isothermal temperature coefficients calculated with the fully loaded core configuration agree well with other benchmark participants but are 40% higher than the experimental values. This discrepancy with the measurement partially stems from the fact that during the experiments the control rods were adjusted to maintain criticality, whereas in the model, the rod positions were fixed. In addition, this work includes a brief study of a cross section generation approach that seeks to decouple the domain in order to account for neighbor effects. This spectral

  13. A "carbonizing dragon": China's fast growing CO2 emissions revisited.

    PubMed

    Minx, Jan C; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    China's annual CO(2) emissions grew by around 4 billion tonnes between 1992 and 2007. More than 70% of this increase occurred between 2002 and 2007. While growing export demand contributed more than 50% to the CO(2) emission growth between 2002 and 2005, capital investments have been responsible for 61% of emission growth in China between 2005 and 2007. We use structural decomposition analysis to identify the drivers for China's emission growth between 1992 and 2007, with special focus on the period 2002 to 2007 when growth was most rapid. In contrast to previous analysis, we find that efficiency improvements have largely offset additional CO(2) emissions from increased final consumption between 2002 and 2007. The strong increases in emissions growth between 2002 and 2007 are instead explained by structural change in China's economy, which has newly emerged as the third major emission driver. This structural change is mainly the result of capital investments, in particular, the growing prominence of construction services and their carbon intensive supply chain. By closing the model for capital investment, we can now show that the majority of emissions embodied in capital investment are utilized for domestic household and government consumption (35-49% and 19-36%, respectively) with smaller amounts for the production of exports (21-31%). Urbanization and the associated changes in lifestyle are shown to be more important than other socio-demographic drivers like the decreasing household size or growing population. We argue that mitigation efforts will depend on the future development of these key drivers, particularly capital investments which dictate future mitigation costs. PMID:21888374

  14. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.

  15. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet. PMID:26181697

  16. Genetic divergence and units for conservation in the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis

    PubMed Central

    Ciofi, C.; Beaumont, M. A.; Swingland, I. R.; Bruford, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade much attention has focused on the role that genetics can play in the formation of management strategies in conservation. Here, we describe genetic diversity in the world's largest lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), examining the evolutionary relationships and population genetic history of the four islands in south-east Indonesia, which form the vast majority of its range. We identify distinct genetic groups for conservation. The population on the island of Komodo shows by far the largest values of genetic divergence and is proposed that it should be a separate conservation management unit. Other populations, surviving either on small islands with substantially reduced genetic variability, or in isolated patches, are identified as particularly vulnerable to stochastic threats and habitat loss. Our results provide an example of how data defining intraspecific levels of genetic divergence can provide information to help management plans, ensure the maintenance of genetic variability across populations and identify evolutionary potential within endangered species.

  17. Dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood).

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Qin; Song, Yue-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Huo, Hui-Xia; Huang, Zheng; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Xiao, Wei; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-12-01

    Two new dihydrochalcones, 4-hydroxy-2,4'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) and 3,4'-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (2), and a new homoisoflavane, 7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyhomoisoflavane (3), along with 12 known compounds (4-15), were isolated from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood). Their structures were assigned by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Diversity of cleavage pathways were proposed for dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes based on the mass spectroscopic behaviors of those identified compounds using hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compound 9 exhibited mild inhibition of NO production in this assay with IC₅₀ value of 50.3 μM. PMID:25218969

  18. Dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood).

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Qin; Song, Yue-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Huo, Hui-Xia; Huang, Zheng; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Xiao, Wei; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-12-01

    Two new dihydrochalcones, 4-hydroxy-2,4'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) and 3,4'-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (2), and a new homoisoflavane, 7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyhomoisoflavane (3), along with 12 known compounds (4-15), were isolated from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood). Their structures were assigned by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Diversity of cleavage pathways were proposed for dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes based on the mass spectroscopic behaviors of those identified compounds using hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compound 9 exhibited mild inhibition of NO production in this assay with IC₅₀ value of 50.3 μM.

  19. The ^40Ca( α,γ )^44Ti Reaction Using DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet, C.; Vockenhuber, C.; The, L. S.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J.; Chen, A.; Crawford, H.; D'Auria, J.; Davids, B.; Frekers, D.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D.; Kutschera, W.; Laird, A.; Lewis, R.; O'Connor, E.; Ottewell, D.; Paul, M.; Pavan, M.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Wales, B.; Wallner, A.

    2007-10-01

    ^44Ti is one a handful of short lived nuclei believed to be a signature of explosive nucleosynthesis, a product of α-rich freezeout following a core collapse supernova. To understand the production of 44Ti a key reaction, ^40Ca( α,γ )^44Ti, has been studied in inverse kinematics using the DRAGON recoil separator located at ISAC/TRIUMF in Vancouver B.C. The coincidence detection of the recoils and γ-rays coupled with a time of flight technique provided an accurate determination of the excitation function over a range of beam energies of 0.6 -- 1.14 MeV/u. Direct measurement of the stopping power permitted an accurate measure of the stellar reaction rate. The excitation function hints towards previously undiscovered resonances and the new rate results in increased ^44Ti production from supernovae judging from prompt γ-ray studies alone.

  20. Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2014-09-01

    Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

  1. Ageing and the cost of maintaining coloration in the Australian painted dragon.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Friesen, Christopher R; Sudyka, Joanna; Rollings, Nicky; Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Mark R; Olsson, Mats

    2016-07-01

    There is now good evidence in several taxa that animal coloration positively reflects an individual's antioxidant capacity. However, even though telomeres, a marker of ageing, are known to be vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks, no studies have ever assessed whether colour fading reflects the rate of biological ageing in any taxa. Here, we measured colour fading, telomere erosion (a measure of biological ageing) and ROS levels in painted dragons. We show that individuals that were better at maintaining their coloration during the three months of the study suffered a higher cost in terms of telomere erosion, but overall ROS levels measured at the start of the study were not significantly related to colour maintenance and telomere shortening. We therefore suggest that colour maintenance is a costly phenomenon in terms of telomere erosion, and that overall ROS levels do not seem to be a crucial component linking ornamental coloration and telomere erosion in our study system.

  2. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.

  3. On the identification of Dragon Kings among extreme-valued outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Neuman, S. P.; Guadagnini, A.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme values of earth, environmental, ecological, physical, biological, financial and other variables often form outliers to heavy tails of empirical frequency distributions. Quite commonly such tails are approximated by stretched exponential, log-normal or power functions. Recently there has been an interest in distinguishing between extreme-valued outliers that belong to the parent population of most data in a sample and those that do not. The first type, called Gray Swans by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (often confused in the literature with Taleb's totally unknowable Black Swans), is drawn from a known distribution of the tails which can thus be extrapolated beyond the range of sampled values. However, the magnitudes and/or space-time locations of unsampled Gray Swans cannot be foretold. The second type of extreme-valued outliers, termed Dragon Kings by Didier Sornette, may in his view be sometimes predicted based on how other data in the sample behave. This intriguing prospect has recently motivated some authors to propose statistical tests capable of identifying Dragon Kings in a given random sample. Here we apply three such tests to log air permeability data measured on the faces of a Berea sandstone block and to synthetic data generated in a manner statistically consistent with these measurements. We interpret the measurements to be, and generate synthetic data that are, samples from α-stable sub-Gaussian random fields subordinated to truncated fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn). All these data have frequency distributions characterized by power-law tails with extreme-valued outliers about the tail edges.

  4. Measurements and effects of backstreaming ions produced at bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Haijun; Zhu Jun; Chen Nan; Xie Yutong; Jiang Xiaoguo; Jian Cheng

    2010-04-15

    Positive ions released from x-ray converter target impacted by electron beam of millimeter spot size can be trapped and accelerated in the incident beam's potential well. As the ions move upstream, the beam will be pinched first and then defocused at the target. Four Faraday cups are used to collect backstreaming ions produced at the bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator (LIA). Experimental and theoretical results show that the backstreaming positive ions density and velocity are about 10{sup 21}/m{sup 3} and 2-3 mm/{mu}s, respectively. The theoretical and experimental results of electron beam envelope with ions and without ions are also presented. The discussions show that the backstreaming positive ions will not affect the electron beam focusing and envelope radius in Dragon-I LIA.

  5. HISTOLOGIC, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL, AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A MALIGNANT IRIDOPHOROMA IN A DWARF BEARDED DRAGON (POGONA HENRYLAWSONI).

    PubMed

    de Brot, Simone; Sydler, Titus; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja

    2015-09-01

    A dwarf bearded dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) was presented with a white subcutaneous mandibular mass and multiple nodules in the oral mucosa, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, and visceral fat. Histologically, the tumor consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with brow intracytoplasmic pigment that exhibited white-blue birefringence with polarized light. Immunohistochemical staining was negative for S-100 and weakly positive with melan A. Electron microscopic examination revealed cytoplasmic irregular and oblong empty spaces, laminated and often arranged into short stacks, compatible with reflecting platelet profiles typically seen in iridophores. However, in unstained ultrathin sections, electron-dense crystalline material was present, which filled the empty spaces described for stained sections before. Based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior, a malignant iridophoroma was diagnosed. To the authors' knowledge, iridophoromas in lizards have rarely been characterized by using electronic microscopy. Moreover, this is the first description of an iridophoroma in a dwarf bearded dragon.

  6. HISTOLOGIC, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL, AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A MALIGNANT IRIDOPHOROMA IN A DWARF BEARDED DRAGON (POGONA HENRYLAWSONI).

    PubMed

    de Brot, Simone; Sydler, Titus; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja

    2015-09-01

    A dwarf bearded dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) was presented with a white subcutaneous mandibular mass and multiple nodules in the oral mucosa, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, and visceral fat. Histologically, the tumor consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with brow intracytoplasmic pigment that exhibited white-blue birefringence with polarized light. Immunohistochemical staining was negative for S-100 and weakly positive with melan A. Electron microscopic examination revealed cytoplasmic irregular and oblong empty spaces, laminated and often arranged into short stacks, compatible with reflecting platelet profiles typically seen in iridophores. However, in unstained ultrathin sections, electron-dense crystalline material was present, which filled the empty spaces described for stained sections before. Based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior, a malignant iridophoroma was diagnosed. To the authors' knowledge, iridophoromas in lizards have rarely been characterized by using electronic microscopy. Moreover, this is the first description of an iridophoroma in a dwarf bearded dragon. PMID:26352965

  7. Petrology, sedimentology and stratigraphic implications of Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.A. ); Ochs, S.

    1990-01-01

    Deposition was partly controlled by paleotopographic relief of underlying Permian strata. Triassic Black Dragon sediments filled lowlands on an erosion surface (unconformity) cut into the Permian White Rim Sandstone and Kaibab Limestone. The Black Dragon Member consists of four distinct facies containing a wide variety of sedimentary structures that characterize both fluvial and tidal environments. The facies are: (1) a Chert Pebble Conglomerate (CPC) facies, characterized by calcite-cemented channel-fills of nodular and banded chert pebbles; (2) an Interbedded Sandstone, Siltstone, and Shale (SSS) facies, containing oscillation ripples and flaser bedding; (3) a large-scale Trough Cross-Stratified Sandstone (TXS) facies, consisting of 6.6-13.1 ft (2-4 m) thick sets of fine- to medium-grained sandstone; and (4) an Oolitic and Algal Limestone (OAL) facies, with cross-stratified oolitic beds, fenestral fabric, and laminated algal rip-up clasts. The CPC facies and the TXS facies were deposited by braided streams when the shoreline lay west of the San Rafael Swell. Rivers drained off and eroded localized Permian highlands, located most likely within a 62 mi (100 km) distance to the south and southeast of the study area. The SSS facies which constitutes the bulk of the Black Dragon Member, and the OAL facies are inter- and supratidal deposits formed during relative sea level highstands, when the shoreline lay within or east of the San Rafael Swell. A decrease in continent-derived sand supply and a corresponding increase in carbonate production within the OAL facies characterizes the end of Black Dragon deposition and the gradation into the overlying Sinbad Limestone Member.

  8. [Identification and analysis on the error of Guanyuan (CV 4) point in Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse)].

    PubMed

    Gang, Wei-juan; Huang, Long-xiang

    2009-02-01

    After investigation on the contents about Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse) and Guanyuan (CV 4) in Chinese ancient medical works of the successive dynasties, the authors of the present paper found some errors of recording on CV4. In fact, Guanyuan (CV 4) in the current edition Yulong Ge should be the extra point Lanmen. The author hold that this error mainly results from similar writing in Chinese character, repeated copy, such as [Chinese characters: see text] etc.

  9. Validation of the on-line aerosol retrieval and error characterization algorithm from the OMI Near-UV observations during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, U.; Ahn, C.; Kim, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Holben, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    One of the representative advantages of using ultraviolet channel to retrieve aerosol optical property is that the results are less affected by the uncertainty of surface reflectance database. The retrieved aerosol products have relatively uniform quality at both land and ocean except the ice-snow surface. The near UV technique of aerosol remote sensing has additional merit that it has long period database since TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) including aerosol absorption properties. Thus the retrieved product using the near UV technique using TOMS and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) measurement is quite appropriate for climatological research. For such purposes, assessment of accuracy of the retrieved product is essential to evaluate the radiative forcing of the aerosols. In this study, the error characterizations of the near UV technique using OMI measurements have been performed with the optimal estimation method during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign. In order to avoid the interpolation error, we developed the on-line retrieval scheme based on the traditional near UV method. The retrieval noise and smoothing error of retrieved AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) were compared with the biases between 380 nm AOT from AERONET and retrieved 388 nm AOT. They showed positive correlations which infer the possibility of the estimated errors using the optimal estimation method to be used to evaluate the error of retrieved products. Forward model parameter errors were analyzed separately which depends on the quality of the used database, thus can be reduced by improving the database.

  10. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-03-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  11. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-03-04

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of "dragon kings." Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  12. Mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon: efficient sequencing method with reptile-oriented primers and novel gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Yoshinori; Endo, Hideki

    2004-04-30

    The mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) was nearly completely sequenced, except for two highly repetitive noncoding regions. An efficient sequencing method for squamate mitochondrial genomes was established by combining the long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and a set of reptile-oriented primers designed for nested PCR amplifications. It was found that the mitochondrial genome had novel gene arrangements in which genes from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 to proline tRNA were extensively shuffled with duplicate control regions. These control regions had 99% sequence similarity over 700 bp. Although snake mitochondrial genomes are also known to possess duplicate control regions with nearly identical sequences, the location of the second control region suggested independent occurrence of the duplication on lineages leading to snakes and the Komodo dragon. Another feature of the mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon was the considerable number of tandem repeats, including sequences with a strong secondary structure, as a possible site for the slipped-strand mispairing in replication. These observations are consistent with hypotheses that tandem duplications via the slipped-strand mispairing may induce mitochondrial gene rearrangements and may serve to maintain similar copies of the control region.

  13. Lack of consistent hormonal responses to capture during the breeding season of the bearded dragon, Pogona barbata.

    PubMed

    Cree, A; Amey, A P; Whittier, J M

    2000-06-01

    The bearded dragon (Pogona barbata: Agamidae) is a diurnal, oviparous, multi-clutching lizard from Australia. We examined plasma hormonal responses to capture in males and females during the spring breeding season. Corticosterone concentrations at capture (0 h; < or =3 min after capture) were low (males: 1.81+/-0.63 ng/ml; females 2. 23+/-0.47 ng/ml) and within sexes were unrelated to the time of the day, snout-vent length or, in females, reproductive condition (vitellogenic, gravid, assumed spent). Corticosterone concentrations at capture were significantly and inversely correlated with body condition in males, but not in females. Unexpectedly, neither sex showed significant changes in mean concentrations of corticosterone at 3.5 or 24 h after capture compared with 0 h values. Corticosterone concentrations at 3.5 h after capture did not differ between dragons bled at capture or not. Concentrations of progesterone in both the sexes did not change between 0 h and 3.5 or 24 h after capture. Testosterone concentrations in males at capture were moderate (10.1+/-2.2 ng/ml), and unchanged at 3.5 h after capture. The adrenocortical axis of adult bearded dragons in the breeding season seems remarkably unresponsive to capture compared with many other reptiles. Low adrenocortical responses to capture may be a feature of reptiles known to adjust well to captivity. PMID:10936767

  14. Mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon: efficient sequencing method with reptile-oriented primers and novel gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Yoshinori; Endo, Hideki

    2004-04-30

    The mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) was nearly completely sequenced, except for two highly repetitive noncoding regions. An efficient sequencing method for squamate mitochondrial genomes was established by combining the long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and a set of reptile-oriented primers designed for nested PCR amplifications. It was found that the mitochondrial genome had novel gene arrangements in which genes from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 to proline tRNA were extensively shuffled with duplicate control regions. These control regions had 99% sequence similarity over 700 bp. Although snake mitochondrial genomes are also known to possess duplicate control regions with nearly identical sequences, the location of the second control region suggested independent occurrence of the duplication on lineages leading to snakes and the Komodo dragon. Another feature of the mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon was the considerable number of tandem repeats, including sequences with a strong secondary structure, as a possible site for the slipped-strand mispairing in replication. These observations are consistent with hypotheses that tandem duplications via the slipped-strand mispairing may induce mitochondrial gene rearrangements and may serve to maintain similar copies of the control region. PMID:15449544

  15. Lack of consistent hormonal responses to capture during the breeding season of the bearded dragon, Pogona barbata.

    PubMed

    Cree, A; Amey, A P; Whittier, J M

    2000-06-01

    The bearded dragon (Pogona barbata: Agamidae) is a diurnal, oviparous, multi-clutching lizard from Australia. We examined plasma hormonal responses to capture in males and females during the spring breeding season. Corticosterone concentrations at capture (0 h; < or =3 min after capture) were low (males: 1.81+/-0.63 ng/ml; females 2. 23+/-0.47 ng/ml) and within sexes were unrelated to the time of the day, snout-vent length or, in females, reproductive condition (vitellogenic, gravid, assumed spent). Corticosterone concentrations at capture were significantly and inversely correlated with body condition in males, but not in females. Unexpectedly, neither sex showed significant changes in mean concentrations of corticosterone at 3.5 or 24 h after capture compared with 0 h values. Corticosterone concentrations at 3.5 h after capture did not differ between dragons bled at capture or not. Concentrations of progesterone in both the sexes did not change between 0 h and 3.5 or 24 h after capture. Testosterone concentrations in males at capture were moderate (10.1+/-2.2 ng/ml), and unchanged at 3.5 h after capture. The adrenocortical axis of adult bearded dragons in the breeding season seems remarkably unresponsive to capture compared with many other reptiles. Low adrenocortical responses to capture may be a feature of reptiles known to adjust well to captivity.

  16. Intercomparison of Aerosol Optical Properties Derived from PREDE Skyradiometer and CIMEL Sunphotometer Measurements for the DRAGON-Korea Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    The Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) campaign for validation of satellite aerosol products and comparison/validation of ground-based aerosol retrievals has been launched in Asia. It was conducted in Korea (DRAGON-Korea) between March and May 2012, with CIMEL sunphotometers being operated at around 20 sites throughout the country. The Hankuk University of Foreign Studies site (Hankuk_UFS, 37.02oN, 127.16oE, 167 m above sea level) is located about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul. A PREDE skyradiometer (POM-02) is operated along with CIMEL sunphotometer (CE 318-1) to compare the aerosol optical properties derived from the two instruments. The operation for intercomparison study started with the DRAGON-Korea campaign and will continue for a year. POM-02 and CE 318-1 measure diffuse radiation at 6-minute intervals and 11 wavelengths and at 1-hour intervals and 4 wavelengths, respectively. Aerosol optical depths from these two instruments are compared at 440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm when the measurement time coincides within 3 minutes. Other aerosol optical properties such as Angstrom exponent and single scattering albedo (SSA) from the two instruments are also compared in a similar way. It is reported that SSA from the skyradiometer tends to be larger than that from sunphotometer. Factors causing the difference are closely examined.

  17. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  18. Dragon Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that combines Mendel's Postulates with Morgan's Chromosome theory of inheritance. Students pair up the mother's and father's genes and learn how the genes line up with each other. Background information on the theories is provided and tips that can be used to aid student understanding are included. (DDR)

  19. A seismic anisotropy study of the Dragon Flag hydrothermal field (49°39'E ) on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhao, M.; Tong, V. C. H.; Qiu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Dragon Flag hydrothermal field located at 49°39'E on the Southwest Indian Ridge contains the active hydrothermal vents firstly discovered on the ultraslow spreading ridge (Tao et al, 2012). Anisotropic study in this area will provide important information tectonic activities. 65634 traveltime residuals from the three-dimensional isotropic inversion (Zhao et al., 2013), were divided into three groups, which correspond to quasi ocean crustal Layer 2 (qL2), quasi ocean crustal Layer 3 (qL3) and quasi uppermost mantle (qUM), respectively. Traveltime residuals at different depths show that there are obvious cosine relationships between traveltime residuals and azimuth of qL2, qL3 and qUM, indicating anisotropy existed in both crust and mantle beneath Dragon Flag hydrothermal field. The best fitted cosine curves indicate that the fast directions (negative traveltime residuals) corresponding to the general trend of ridge axis of N104°E. According to these results, we propose that there may be prevalent cracks penetrating into lower crust or even uppermost mantle. We argue that the hydrothermal convection of Dragon Flag hydrothermal field not only occurs perpendicular to ridge axis, but also occurs parallel to ridge axis. We reveal for the first time anisotropic characteristics of the ultraslow spreading ridge, which has profound scientific significance for the future research on global ocean lithospheric anisotropy. This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 41176053, 91428204). Keywords: ultraslow spreading ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge, Dragon Flag hydrothermal field, P wave traveltime residuals, anisotropy References: Tao C H, Lin J, Guo S, et al. First active hydrothermal vents on an ultraslow-spreading center: Southwest Indian Ridge. Geology, 2012, 40(1): 47~50. Zhao M H, Qiu X L, Li J B, et al. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39

  20. "We're All in the Same Boat": A Review of the Benefits of Dragon Boat Racing for Women Living with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Susan R

    2012-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes findings from quantitative and qualitative research literature that has been published over the past 15 years since an initial, community-based pilot study first challenged the long-held medical belief that vigorous, upper-body exercise would lead to lymphedema in women who were at risk due to treatments for breast cancer. Dragon boat racing originated in China more than 2000 years ago and has become a popular recreational and competitive support around the world. From the advent of the world's first breast cancer survivor dragon boat team, Abreast in a Boat launched in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1996, there are now more than 140 breast cancer survivor dragon boat teams paddling and competing in 12 different countries. The wealth of quantitative and qualitative research that has ensued since that pilot study further supports the initial hypothesis that resistance exercise, for example, dragon boat paddling, is not only safe for women recovering from conventional breast cancer therapies but also shows that dragon boating has been embraced as a complementary exercise therapy by the cancer survivors participating in this magical sport.

  1. “We're All in the Same Boat”: A Review of the Benefits of Dragon Boat Racing for Women Living with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes findings from quantitative and qualitative research literature that has been published over the past 15 years since an initial, community-based pilot study first challenged the long-held medical belief that vigorous, upper-body exercise would lead to lymphedema in women who were at risk due to treatments for breast cancer. Dragon boat racing originated in China more than 2000 years ago and has become a popular recreational and competitive support around the world. From the advent of the world's first breast cancer survivor dragon boat team, Abreast in a Boat launched in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1996, there are now more than 140 breast cancer survivor dragon boat teams paddling and competing in 12 different countries. The wealth of quantitative and qualitative research that has ensued since that pilot study further supports the initial hypothesis that resistance exercise, for example, dragon boat paddling, is not only safe for women recovering from conventional breast cancer therapies but also shows that dragon boating has been embraced as a complementary exercise therapy by the cancer survivors participating in this magical sport. PMID:22811743

  2. GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and validation during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myungje; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, Mijin; Park, Young-Je; Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Woogyung; Hong, Hyunkee; Holben, Brent; Eck, Thomas F.; Song, Chul H.; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Song, Chang-Keun

    2016-04-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) is the first multi-channel ocean color imager in geostationary orbit. Hourly GOCI top-of-atmosphere radiance has been available for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over East Asia since March 2011. This study presents improvements made to the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm together with validation results during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks - Northeast Asia 2012 campaign (DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign). The evaluation during the spring season over East Asia is important because of high aerosol concentrations and diverse types of Asian dust and haze. Optical properties of aerosol are retrieved from the GOCI YAER algorithm including aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm, fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm, single-scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm, Ångström exponent (AE) between 440 and 860 nm, and aerosol type. The aerosol models are created based on a global analysis of the Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET) inversion data, and covers a broad range of size distribution and absorptivity, including nonspherical dust properties. The Cox-Munk ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model is used over ocean, and an improved minimum reflectance technique is used over land. Because turbid water is persistent over the Yellow Sea, the land algorithm is used for such cases. The aerosol products are evaluated against AERONET observations and MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products retrieved from Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign conducted from March to May 2012. Comparison of AOD from GOCI and AERONET resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.881 and a linear regression equation with GOCI AOD = 1.083 × AERONET AOD - 0.042. The correlation between GOCI and MODIS AODs is higher over ocean than land. GOCI AOD shows better

  3. GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and validation during DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Park, Y. Je; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.

    2015-09-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellites (COMS) is the first multi-channel ocean color imager in geostationary orbit. Hourly GOCI top-of-atmosphere radiance has been available for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over East Asia since March 2011. This study presents improvements to the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm over ocean and land together with validation results during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign. Optical properties of aerosol are retrieved from the GOCI YAER algorithm including aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm, fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm, single scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm, Angstrom exponent (AE) between 440 and 860 nm, and aerosol type from selected aerosol models in calculating AOD. Assumed aerosol models are compiled from global Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET) inversion data, and categorized according to AOD, FMF, and SSA. Nonsphericity is considered, and unified aerosol models are used over land and ocean. Different assumptions for surface reflectance are applied over ocean and land. Surface reflectance over the ocean varies with geometry and wind speed, while surface reflectance over land is obtained from the 1-3 % darkest pixels in a 6 km × 6 km area during 30 days. In the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, significant area is covered persistently by turbid waters, for which the land algorithm is used for aerosol retrieval. To detect turbid water pixels, TOA reflectance difference at 660 nm is used. GOCI YAER products are validated using other aerosol products from AERONET and the MODIS Collection 6 aerosol data from "Dark Target (DT)" and "Deep Blue (DB)" algorithms during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign from March to May 2012. Comparison of AOD from GOCI and AERONET gives a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.885 and a linear regression equation with GOCI AOD =1.086 × AERONET AOD - 0.041. GOCI and MODIS AODs are more highly correlated

  4. Direct measurement of several resonance strengths and energies in 34S(α , γ) 38 Ar within the T = 2 . 2 GK Gamow window with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L. E.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, Ulrike; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiative α capture on 34S can impact nucleosynthesis in several astrophysical environments, including oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning (Type II supernovae), and Type Ia supernovae. However, there exist discrepancies in the literature for the resonance strengths of two strong resonances within the Gamow window for oxygen burning temperatures (E0 +/- Δ / 2 = 3183 +/- 897 keV at T = 2 . 2 GK). Previous measurements suffered from systematic uncertainties inherent in the experimental technique. Furthermore, there are several states in 38Ar in the energy range of interest for which no 34S + α resonance strength/energy measurements have been performed. This measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF in BC, Canada. DRAGON's experimental technique allows direct measurement of quantities such as stopping power and resonance energy, alleviating the need for external inputs and reducing uncertainty. This talk will discuss DRAGON's experimental technique, analysis methods and results.

  5. Aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign, and implications for a single-channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth in spring from Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Hong, H.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.; Lee, S.; Chung, C.-Y.

    2016-02-01

    An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-northeast (NE) Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 ± 0.04) in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA) can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 ± 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May). After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 ± 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 ± 0.40 to 2.14 ± 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show an

  6. Analysis on surface nanostructures present in hindwing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Karuppanan, Karthikeyan K; Pezhinkattil, Radhakrishnan

    2012-12-01

    The present study involves the analysis of surface nanostructures and its variation present in the hind wing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hindwing was dissected into 4 parts (D1-D4) and each dissected section was analyzed using AFM in tapping mode at different locations. The AFM analysis revealed the presence of irregular shaped nanostructures on the surface of the wing membrane with size varying between 83.25±1.79 nm to 195.08±10.25 nm. The size and shape of the nanostructure varied from tip (pterostigma) to the costa part. The membrane surface of the wing showed stacked arrangement leading to increase in size of the nanostructure. Such arrangement of the nanostructures has lead to the formation of nanometer sized valleys of different depth and length on the membrane surface giving them ripple wave morphology. The average roughness of the surface nanostructures varied from 18.58±3.12 nm to 24.25±8.33 nm. Surfaces of the wings had positive skewness in D1, D2 and D4 regions and negative skewness in D3 region. These surface nanostructures may contribute asymmetric resistance under mechanical loading during the flight by increasing the bending and torsional resistance of the wing. PMID:22099389

  7. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants.

  8. Analysis on surface nanostructures present in hindwing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Karuppanan, Karthikeyan K; Pezhinkattil, Radhakrishnan

    2012-12-01

    The present study involves the analysis of surface nanostructures and its variation present in the hind wing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hindwing was dissected into 4 parts (D1-D4) and each dissected section was analyzed using AFM in tapping mode at different locations. The AFM analysis revealed the presence of irregular shaped nanostructures on the surface of the wing membrane with size varying between 83.25±1.79 nm to 195.08±10.25 nm. The size and shape of the nanostructure varied from tip (pterostigma) to the costa part. The membrane surface of the wing showed stacked arrangement leading to increase in size of the nanostructure. Such arrangement of the nanostructures has lead to the formation of nanometer sized valleys of different depth and length on the membrane surface giving them ripple wave morphology. The average roughness of the surface nanostructures varied from 18.58±3.12 nm to 24.25±8.33 nm. Surfaces of the wings had positive skewness in D1, D2 and D4 regions and negative skewness in D3 region. These surface nanostructures may contribute asymmetric resistance under mechanical loading during the flight by increasing the bending and torsional resistance of the wing.

  9. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. PMID:22440551

  10. There be dragons: effects of unexplored religion on nurses' competence in spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Pesut, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    On ancient maps unexplored lands were simply labeled 'there be dragons' indicating the fear that attends the unknown. Despite three decades of theoretical and empirical work on spirituality in nursing, evidence still suggests that nurses do not feel competent to engage in spiritual care. In this paper I propose that one of the reasons for this is a theory-theory gap between religion and spirituality. Generalized anxiety about the role of religion in society has led to under-theorizing in nursing about religious care. As a result, when religion and spirituality overlap at the point of care, nurses are left without the substantive knowledge required for practice. Robust religious theorizing should include thick accounts of lived religion and integrative work that enables nurses to understand commonalities across religions that are relevant to practice. As a starting point to this integrative work, nurses can be introduced to the nature and lexicon of lived religion, religious perspectives on suffering, and religious reasoning that holds meaning and mystery in tension. Such an approach will better prepare them for the realities of practice where the complexities of spirituality and religion come to play.

  11. There be dragons: effects of unexplored religion on nurses' competence in spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Pesut, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    On ancient maps unexplored lands were simply labeled 'there be dragons' indicating the fear that attends the unknown. Despite three decades of theoretical and empirical work on spirituality in nursing, evidence still suggests that nurses do not feel competent to engage in spiritual care. In this paper I propose that one of the reasons for this is a theory-theory gap between religion and spirituality. Generalized anxiety about the role of religion in society has led to under-theorizing in nursing about religious care. As a result, when religion and spirituality overlap at the point of care, nurses are left without the substantive knowledge required for practice. Robust religious theorizing should include thick accounts of lived religion and integrative work that enables nurses to understand commonalities across religions that are relevant to practice. As a starting point to this integrative work, nurses can be introduced to the nature and lexicon of lived religion, religious perspectives on suffering, and religious reasoning that holds meaning and mystery in tension. Such an approach will better prepare them for the realities of practice where the complexities of spirituality and religion come to play. PMID:27045984

  12. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  13. Hypoxia progressively lowers thermal gaping thresholds in bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Gerlach, Rebecca M

    2005-09-01

    Most animals, including reptiles, lower body temperature (Tb) under hypoxic conditions. Numerous physiological and behavioural traits significant to the regulation of Tb are altered by hypoxia in ways that suggest an orchestrated adjustment of Tb at a new and lower regulated level. We examined this matter in bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps, a species of reptile that naturally exhibits open mouth gaping at high temperatures, presumably in order to promote evaporation and thus prevent or avoid further increases in Tb. The threshold for the onset of gaping (assessed as the temperature at which lizards spent 50% of their time gaping) was reduced from 36.9 degrees C in normoxia to 35.5 degrees C at 10% and 34.3 degrees C at 6% O2. The overall magnitude or degree of gaping, measured qualitatively, was more pronounced at lower temperatures in hypoxia. Females consistently had lower gaping threshold temperatures than did males, and this difference was retained throughout exposure to hypoxia. In addition to gaping, evaporative water loss from the cloaca may also play a significant role in temperature regulation, since the ambient temperature at which cloacal discharge occurred was also reduced significantly in hypoxia. The results reported herein strongly support the view that hypoxia reduces temperature set-point in lizards and that such changes are coordinated by specific behavioural thermoeffectors that modulate evaporative water loss and thus facilitate a high potential for controlling or modifying Tb.

  14. Long- and/or short-range transportation of local Asian aerosols in DRAGON-Osaka Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles in East Asia, especially around AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) -Osaka site during Dragon Asia period in the spring of 2012, named Dragon-Osaka. It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Thus the precise observations of atmospheric particles in East Asia are desired. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. The population of the region is around 20 millions including neighbor prefectures. Therefore, air quality in the region is slightly bad compared to remote area due to industries and auto mobiles. In recent years, Asian dusts and anthropogenic small particles transported from China and cover those cities throughout year. AERONET Osaka site was established in 2002 on the campus of Kinki University. Nowadays, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), an SPM sampler (SPM-613D, Kimoto Electric, Japan) and others are available on the roof of a building. The site data are useful for algorithm development of aerosol retrieval over busy city. On the other hand, human activities in this region also emit the huge amount of pollutions, thus it is needed to investigate the local distribution of aerosols in this region. In order to investigate change of aerosol properties, PM-individual analysis is made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). SEM/EDX is an effective instrument to observe the surface microstructure and analyze the chemical composition of such materials as metals, powders, biological specimens, etc. We used sampling data from the SPM sampler at AERONET Osaka site. During a period of DRAGON-Asia, high concentrations of air pollutant were observed on the morning of March 11 in Fukue Island in the East China Sea. On the

  15. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  16. Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-06-01

    It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection.

  17. Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-06-01

    It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection. PMID:23805543

  18. Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.

  19. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  20. Cyclic Colour Change in the Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps under Different Photoperiods

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12∶12; LD 6∶18; LD 18∶6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles. PMID:25354192

  1. Dragon's blood and its extracts attenuate radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ran; Gao, Qian; Jia, Qiutian; Hasan, Murtaza; Awan, Muhammad Umer Farooq; Tang, Bo; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yiming; Wang, Xiao; Li, Qiang; Ma, Hong; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dragon's blood (DB) possesses great medicinal values due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effects of DB and its extracts (DBEs) on oxidative stress in mice exposed to whole body (60)Co-γ irradiation (4 Gy). DB and DBEs were intragastrically administered to mice for 5 d prior to radiation. The antioxidant activities, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and spleen were measured using kits. Furthermore, DB and DBE effects were determined by organ indices and histology of liver and spleen. Our results indicated that the DB and DBE-treated groups showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in levels of MDA in liver and spleen compared with the irradiation-only group. Moreover, the activity of SOD, CAT and the level of GSH in liver and spleen tissue were enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) in the DB and DBE groups. DB and DBE also had a significant effect on the recovery of thymus indices. The histological observations of groups having treatment with DB and DBE indicated significant reduction in the radiation-induced damage to the liver and spleen, together with improvement in the morphology of the liver and spleen. These results suggest that DB and DBE treatment prevents radiation-induced oxidative stress injury and restores antioxidant status and histopathological changes in the liver and spleen, but there is need for further study to explore the precise molecular mechanism and strategy for optimal practical application of DB and DBE. PMID:24634306

  2. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  3. Dragon's blood and its extracts attenuate radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ran; Gao, Qian; Jia, Qiutian; Hasan, Murtaza; Awan, Muhammad Umer Farooq; Tang, Bo; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yiming; Wang, Xiao; Li, Qiang; Ma, Hong; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Dragon's blood (DB) possesses great medicinal values due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effects of DB and its extracts (DBEs) on oxidative stress in mice exposed to whole body 60Co-γ irradiation (4 Gy). DB and DBEs were intragastrically administered to mice for 5 d prior to radiation. The antioxidant activities, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and spleen were measured using kits. Furthermore, DB and DBE effects were determined by organ indices and histology of liver and spleen. Our results indicated that the DB and DBE-treated groups showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in levels of MDA in liver and spleen compared with the irradiation-only group. Moreover, the activity of SOD, CAT and the level of GSH in liver and spleen tissue were enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) in the DB and DBE groups. DB and DBE also had a significant effect on the recovery of thymus indices. The histological observations of groups having treatment with DB and DBE indicated significant reduction in the radiation-induced damage to the liver and spleen, together with improvement in the morphology of the liver and spleen. These results suggest that DB and DBE treatment prevents radiation-induced oxidative stress injury and restores antioxidant status and histopathological changes in the liver and spleen, but there is need for further study to explore the precise molecular mechanism and strategy for optimal practical application of DB and DBE. PMID:24634306

  4. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    PubMed

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs.

  5. Revision of the Western Australian pebble-mimic dragon species-group (Tympanocryptis cephalus: Reptilia: Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Doughty, Paul; Kealley, Luke; Shoo, Luke P; Melville, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Recent work on species complexes of the pebble-mimic dragons of the Australian genus Tympanocryptis has greatly clarified evolutionary relationships among taxa and also indicated that species diversity has been severely underestimated. Here we provide a morphological and molecular appraisal of variation in the T. cephalus species-group and find evidence for recognizing five species-level lineages from Western Australia. Four species-level lineages are strongly supported with a combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA Bayesian analysis (a fifth population from the Gascoyne region lacked tissue samples). Morphologically, we found subtle, yet consistent, differences among the populations in scalation, color and pattern. True T. cephalus Günther is restricted to the coastal Pilbara region and characterized by five dark blotches on the dorsum, keeled ventrals, and other characters. Two other lineages within the Pilbara, from the Hamersley range and Fortescue/northern Pilbara region, differed from T. cephalus senso stricto by possessing a more elongate body and a plain dorsum. Furthermore, the Hamersley lineage differed from the Fortescue lineage by possessing slightly more reddish coloration and feeble keeling on the snout. Although there are few specimens and no tissue samples available for the Gascoyne population, these individuals are larger, have rugose scales on the snout, and possess scattered enlarged tubercles with three large blotches on the dorsum. The name T. cephalus gigas Mitchell is available for this population. The most widespread lineage, and the one best represented in collections and in field guides, occurs throughout central Western Australia. These Goldfield populations are characterized by a protruding snout, narrow rostral, and uniform reddish-brown coloration, often with a dark wash. Based on the genetic and morphological differences, we redescribe T. cephalus, resurrect and elevate T. gigas to a full species and designate a neotype for this taxon

  6. Dragon's blood and its extracts attenuate radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ran; Gao, Qian; Jia, Qiutian; Hasan, Murtaza; Awan, Muhammad Umer Farooq; Tang, Bo; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yiming; Wang, Xiao; Li, Qiang; Ma, Hong; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dragon's blood (DB) possesses great medicinal values due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effects of DB and its extracts (DBEs) on oxidative stress in mice exposed to whole body (60)Co-γ irradiation (4 Gy). DB and DBEs were intragastrically administered to mice for 5 d prior to radiation. The antioxidant activities, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and spleen were measured using kits. Furthermore, DB and DBE effects were determined by organ indices and histology of liver and spleen. Our results indicated that the DB and DBE-treated groups showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in levels of MDA in liver and spleen compared with the irradiation-only group. Moreover, the activity of SOD, CAT and the level of GSH in liver and spleen tissue were enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) in the DB and DBE groups. DB and DBE also had a significant effect on the recovery of thymus indices. The histological observations of groups having treatment with DB and DBE indicated significant reduction in the radiation-induced damage to the liver and spleen, together with improvement in the morphology of the liver and spleen. These results suggest that DB and DBE treatment prevents radiation-induced oxidative stress injury and restores antioxidant status and histopathological changes in the liver and spleen, but there is need for further study to explore the precise molecular mechanism and strategy for optimal practical application of DB and DBE.

  7. Revision of the Western Australian pebble-mimic dragon species-group (Tympanocryptis cephalus: Reptilia: Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Doughty, Paul; Kealley, Luke; Shoo, Luke P; Melville, Jane

    2015-11-03

    Recent work on species complexes of the pebble-mimic dragons of the Australian genus Tympanocryptis has greatly clarified evolutionary relationships among taxa and also indicated that species diversity has been severely underestimated. Here we provide a morphological and molecular appraisal of variation in the T. cephalus species-group and find evidence for recognizing five species-level lineages from Western Australia. Four species-level lineages are strongly supported with a combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA Bayesian analysis (a fifth population from the Gascoyne region lacked tissue samples). Morphologically, we found subtle, yet consistent, differences among the populations in scalation, color and pattern. True T. cephalus Günther is restricted to the coastal Pilbara region and characterized by five dark blotches on the dorsum, keeled ventrals, and other characters. Two other lineages within the Pilbara, from the Hamersley range and Fortescue/northern Pilbara region, differed from T. cephalus senso stricto by possessing a more elongate body and a plain dorsum. Furthermore, the Hamersley lineage differed from the Fortescue lineage by possessing slightly more reddish coloration and feeble keeling on the snout. Although there are few specimens and no tissue samples available for the Gascoyne population, these individuals are larger, have rugose scales on the snout, and possess scattered enlarged tubercles with three large blotches on the dorsum. The name T. cephalus gigas Mitchell is available for this population. The most widespread lineage, and the one best represented in collections and in field guides, occurs throughout central Western Australia. These Goldfield populations are characterized by a protruding snout, narrow rostral, and uniform reddish-brown coloration, often with a dark wash. Based on the genetic and morphological differences, we redescribe T. cephalus, resurrect and elevate T. gigas to a full species and designate a neotype for this taxon

  8. Cyclic colour change in the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps under different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12:12; LD 6:18; LD 18:6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles.

  9. Evaluation of aerosol optical properties of GEOS-Chem over East Asia during the DRAGON-Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, D. S.; Park, R.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    A nested version of 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-02) is evaluated over East Asia during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia 2012 campaign period, focusing on fine-mode aerosol optical depth (fAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). Both are important to assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. We compare the daily mean simulated optical properties of aerosols with the observations from DRAGON-Asia campaign for March-May, 2012 (provided in level 2.0: cloud screened and quality assured). We find that the model reproduces the observed daily variability of fAOD (R=0.67), but overestimates the magnitude by 30%, which is in general consistent with other global model comparisons from ACCMIP. However, a significant high bias in the model is found compared to the observed SSA at 440 nm, which is important for determining the sign of aerosol radiative forcing. In order to understand causes for this gap we conduct several sensitivity tests by changing source magnitudes and input parameters of aerosols, affecting the aerosol optical properties under various atmospheric conditions, which allows us to reduce the gap and to find the optimal values in the model.

  10. Contrasting effects of landscape features on genetic structure in different geographic regions in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus.

    PubMed

    Levy, Esther; Tomkins, Joseph L; Lebas, Natasha R; Kennington, W Jason

    2013-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation can have profound effects on the distribution of genetic variation within and between populations. Previously, we showed that in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus, lizards residing on outcrops that are separated by cleared agricultural land are significantly more isolated and hold less genetic variation than lizards residing on neighbouring outcrops connected by undisturbed native vegetation. Here, we extend the fine-scale study to examine the pattern of genetic variation and population structure across the species' range. Using a landscape genetics approach, we test whether land clearing for agricultural purposes has affected the population structure of the ornate dragon lizard. We found significant genetic differentiation between outcrop populations (FST  = 0.12), as well as isolation by distance within each geographic region. In support of our previous study, land clearing was associated with higher genetic divergences between outcrops and lower genetic variation within outcrops, but only in the region that had been exposed to intense agriculture for the longest period of time. No other landscape features influenced population structure in any geographic region. These results show that the effects of landscape features can vary across species' ranges and suggest there may be a temporal lag in response to contemporary changes in land use. These findings therefore highlight the need for caution when assessing the impact of contemporary land use practices on genetic variation and population structure.

  11. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  12. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains of hemoglobins from Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis and phylogenetic relationships of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Fushitani, K; Higashiyama, K; Moriyama, E N; Imai, K; Hosokawa, K

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among amniotes and the evolution of alpha globins, hemoglobins were analyzed from the Komodo dragon (Komodo monitor lizard) Varanus komodoensis, the world's largest extant lizard, inhabiting Komodo Islands, Indonesia. Four unique globin chains (alpha A, alpha D, beta B, and beta C) were isolated in an equal molar ratio by high performance liquid chromatography from the hemolysate. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains were determined. The alpha D chain has a glutamine at E7 as does an alpha chain of a snake, Liophis miliaris, but the alpha A chain has a histidine at E7 like the majority of hemoglobins. Phylogenetic analyses of 19 globins including two alpha chains of Komodo dragon and ones from representative amniotes showed the following results: (1) The a chains of squamates (snakes and lizards), which have a glutamine at E7, are clustered with the embryonic alpha globin family, which typically includes the alpha D chain from birds; (2) birds form a sister group with other reptiles but not with mammals; (3) the genes for embryonic and adult types of alpha globins were possibly produced by duplication of the ancestral alpha gene before ancestral amniotes diverged, indicating that each of the present amniotes might carry descendants of the two types of alpha globin genes; (4) squamates first split off from the ancestor of other reptiles and birds.

  13. Bias Correction of MODIS AOD using DragonNET to obtain improved estimation of PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, B.; Malakar, N. K.; Atia, A.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.; Oo, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    MODIS AOD retreivals using the Dark Target algorithm is strongly affected by the underlying surface reflection properties. In particular, the operational algorithms make use of surface parameterizations trained on global datasets and therefore do not account properly for urban surface differences. This parameterization continues to show an underestimation of the surface reflection which results in a general over-biasing in AOD retrievals. Recent results using the Dragon-Network datasets as well as high resolution retrievals in the NYC area illustrate that this is even more significant at the newest C006 3 km retrievals. In the past, we used AERONET observation in the City College to obtain bias-corrected AOD, but the homogeneity assumptions using only one site for the region is clearly an issue. On the other hand, DragonNET observations provide ample opportunities to obtain better tuning the surface corrections while also providing better statistical validation. In this study we present a neural network method to obtain bias correction of the MODIS AOD using multiple factors including surface reflectivity at 2130nm, sun-view geometrical factors and land-class information. These corrected AOD's are then used together with additional WRF meteorological factors to improve estimates of PM2.5. Efforts to explore the portability to other urban areas will be discussed. In addition, annual surface ratio maps will be developed illustrating that among the land classes, the urban pixels constitute the largest deviations from the operational model.

  14. The Effects of Residency and Body Size on Contest Initiation and Outcome in the Territorial Dragon, Ctenophorus decresii

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Osborne, Louise; Keogh, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies of the determinants of contests have been attempting to unravel the complexity of animal contest behaviour for decades. This complexity requires that experiments incorporate multiple determinants into studies to tease apart their relative effects. In this study we examined the complex contest behaviour of the tawny dragon (Ctenophorus decresii), a territorial agamid lizard, with the specific aim of defining the factors that determine contest outcome. We manipulated the relative size and residency status of lizards in contests to weight their importance in determining contest outcome. We found that size, residency and initiating a fight were all important in determining outcomes of fights. We also tested whether residency or size was important in predicting the status of lizard that initiated a fight. We found that residency was the most important factor in predicting fight initiation. We discuss the effects of size and residency status in context of previous studies on contests in tawny dragons and other animals. Our study provides manipulative behavioural data in support of the overriding effects of residency on initiation fights and winning them. PMID:23077558

  15. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains of hemoglobins from Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis and phylogenetic relationships of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Fushitani, K; Higashiyama, K; Moriyama, E N; Imai, K; Hosokawa, K

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among amniotes and the evolution of alpha globins, hemoglobins were analyzed from the Komodo dragon (Komodo monitor lizard) Varanus komodoensis, the world's largest extant lizard, inhabiting Komodo Islands, Indonesia. Four unique globin chains (alpha A, alpha D, beta B, and beta C) were isolated in an equal molar ratio by high performance liquid chromatography from the hemolysate. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains were determined. The alpha D chain has a glutamine at E7 as does an alpha chain of a snake, Liophis miliaris, but the alpha A chain has a histidine at E7 like the majority of hemoglobins. Phylogenetic analyses of 19 globins including two alpha chains of Komodo dragon and ones from representative amniotes showed the following results: (1) The a chains of squamates (snakes and lizards), which have a glutamine at E7, are clustered with the embryonic alpha globin family, which typically includes the alpha D chain from birds; (2) birds form a sister group with other reptiles but not with mammals; (3) the genes for embryonic and adult types of alpha globins were possibly produced by duplication of the ancestral alpha gene before ancestral amniotes diverged, indicating that each of the present amniotes might carry descendants of the two types of alpha globin genes; (4) squamates first split off from the ancestor of other reptiles and birds. PMID:8752011

  16. DEVRIESEASIS IN A PLUMED BASILISK (BASILISCUS PLUMIFRONS) AND CHINESE WATER DRAGONS (PHYSIGNATHUS COCINCINUS) IN A ZOOLOGIC COLLECTION.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Christophe; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Brawand, Stefanie Gobeli; Thomann, Andreas; Brodard, Isabelle; Jermann, Thomas; Posthaus, Horst

    2016-03-01

    Devriesea agamarum is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first described in 2008 as a causative agent of disease in lizards. Until today, reports from several countries reported the presence of this bacterium in various lizard species, which suggests a wide distribution among lizard collections. Pathologic lesions ranged from proliferative dermatitis and cheilitis to abscesses in multiple organs and septicemia in single animals, as well as entire groups. Until now, disease caused by D. agamarum has been reported in several lizard species. Because the bacterium is only identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and no commercially available identification systems contain the agent in their database, it may be underdiagnosed. This report describes a series of fatal devrieseasis in plumed basilisks (Basiliscus plumifrons) and Chinese water dragons (Physignathus cocincinus) from a zoologic collection and extends the range of susceptible species. In 3 mo, five animals died with pyogranulomatous lesions in the subcutis, the coelomic cavity, or multiple organs. In all cases, diffuse swelling or focal skin elevations of different body parts were observed. Devriesea agamarum could be isolated from lesions in all animals. A subsequent clinical survey of the lizard collection including bacteriologic investigation of oral cavity swabs indicated that bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were carriers of D. agamarum, which suggests that this species could be a source of infection with this pathogen.

  17. Nano-LC-ESI MS/MS analysis of proteins in dried sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii and bioinformatic analysis of its protein expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Li-Xing; Li, Lu; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2016-09-01

    The sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as male impotency. To gain a comprehensive insight into the protein components of the sea dragon, shotgun proteomic analysis of its protein expression profiling was conducted in the present study. Proteins were extracted from dried sea dragon using a trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation method and then separated by SDS-PAGE. The protein bands were cut from the gel and digested by trypsin to generate peptide mixture. The peptide fragments were then analyzed using nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI MS/MS). 810 proteins and 1 577 peptides were identified in the dried sea dragon. The identified proteins exhibited molecular weight values ranging from 1 900 to 3 516 900 Da and pI values from 3.8 to 12.18. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted using the DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 Gene Ontology (GO) analysis tool to explore possible functions of the identified proteins. Ascribed functions of the proteins mainly included intracellular non-membrane-bound organelle, non-membrane-bounded organelle, cytoskeleton, structural molecule activity, calcium ion binding and etc. Furthermore, possible signal networks of the identified proteins were predicted using STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes) database. Ribosomal protein synthesis was found to play an important role in the signal network. The results of this study, to best of our knowledge, were the first to provide a reference proteome profile for the sea dragon, and would aid in the understanding of the expression and functions of the identified proteins.

  18. Nano-LC-ESI MS/MS analysis of proteins in dried sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii and bioinformatic analysis of its protein expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Li-Xing; Li, Lu; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2016-09-01

    The sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as male impotency. To gain a comprehensive insight into the protein components of the sea dragon, shotgun proteomic analysis of its protein expression profiling was conducted in the present study. Proteins were extracted from dried sea dragon using a trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation method and then separated by SDS-PAGE. The protein bands were cut from the gel and digested by trypsin to generate peptide mixture. The peptide fragments were then analyzed using nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI MS/MS). 810 proteins and 1 577 peptides were identified in the dried sea dragon. The identified proteins exhibited molecular weight values ranging from 1 900 to 3 516 900 Da and pI values from 3.8 to 12.18. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted using the DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 Gene Ontology (GO) analysis tool to explore possible functions of the identified proteins. Ascribed functions of the proteins mainly included intracellular non-membrane-bound organelle, non-membrane-bounded organelle, cytoskeleton, structural molecule activity, calcium ion binding and etc. Furthermore, possible signal networks of the identified proteins were predicted using STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes) database. Ribosomal protein synthesis was found to play an important role in the signal network. The results of this study, to best of our knowledge, were the first to provide a reference proteome profile for the sea dragon, and would aid in the understanding of the expression and functions of the identified proteins. PMID:27667517

  19. Improvements in AOD retrieval from geostationary measurements over Asia with aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.; Lee, S.

    2015-04-01

    An aerosol model optimized for East Asia is improved by applying inversion data from both long-term monitoring of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from 2012. This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite-based measurements. In particular, the performance of a single visible channel algorithm, limited to a specific aerosol type, from real-time measurements is strongly affected by the assumed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) for the measured scene. In sensitivity tests, a 4% difference in single scattering albedo (SSA) between modeled and measured values can cause a retrieval error in AOD of over 20%, and the overestimation of SSA leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AERONET inversion datasets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed AOPs can be summarized by SSAs (measured at 675 nm) of 0.92, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.91 for spring (March, April, and May), summer (June, July, and August), autumn (September, October, and November), and winter (December, January, and February), respectively. After DRAGON-Asia 2012, the SSA during spring shows a slight increase to 0.93. The large volume of data and spatially concentrated measurements from this campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the AOD datasets retrieved from a single channel algorithm, which uses a pre-calculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show an improved correlation with the measured AOD during the DRAGON-Asia campaign (March to May 2012). Compared with the correlation of the AOD retrieved using the original aerosol model, the regression slope between the new AOD and the AERONET values is reduced from 1.08 to 1.00, while the change of the y-offset of -0.08 is significant. The correlation coefficients for the comparisons are 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. The

  20. [Inheritance of organelle genomes of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and flying dragon (Poncirus trifoliata)].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Guo, Wen-Wu; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2002-04-01

    Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) was successfully applied to analyze the organelle composition of three eight-year-old trees of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Flying Dragon (Poncirus trifoliata). Five chloroplast and five mitochondrial universal primer pairs were used. All chloroplast primer pairs (rbcL-rbcL, rbcL-PSA I, TrnH-Trnk, TrnD-TrnT, TrnK-TrnK) and three (nad 1 exon B-nad 1 exon C, 18S rRNA-5S rRNA, nad 4 exon 1-nad 4 exon 2) of the five mitochondrial primer pairs, were efficiently amplified, but no polymorphism was detected, when the PCR products were digested by eleven restriction endonucleases, including, Hin6 I, Bus RI, Taq I, Msp I, HinfI, AluI, Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I respectively, three polymorphic cpDNA-CAPS markers (rbcL-rbcL/Hin 6 I, TrnD-TrnT/BusR I, TrnD-TrnT/Taq I) and one mtDNA-CAPS marker (nad 1-nad1/Msp I) were found. The results showed that cpDNA in the somatic hybrid plants came from Flying Dragon, the mesophyll parent, and mtDNA from Cleopatra mandarin, the embryogenic suspension parent uniformly. In order to prove the reliability of CAPS results, and to get more detailed information about the mtDNA inheritance, RFLP analyses was conducted. Genomic DNA of the somatic hybrids and their corresponding parents were digested by five restriction endonucleases (Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I), and hybridized with five mitochondrial probes (Cob, Pro 2, Pro I, atp 6, 26S rRNA) as well as one chloroplast probe, i.e. the PCR product of Flying Dragon with the primer pair of trnd 1-trnt 1. The results were in line with those of CAPS, and no novel bands were detected, which indicated that no organelle DNA recombination or rearrangement have been detected in the hybrid plants. The research showed that novel pattern of nuclear-mitochondria-chloroplast interaction could be reached via protoplast fusion.

  1. Application of AERONET Single Scattering Albedo and Absorption Angstrom Exponent to Classify Dominant Aerosol Types during DRAGON Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols can have major implications on human health by inducing respiratory diseases due to inhalation of fine particles from biomass burning smoke or industrial pollution and on radiative forcing whereby the presence of absorbing aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) increases atmospheric heating. Aerosol classification techniques have utilized aerosol loading and aerosol properties derived from multi-spectral and multi-angle observations by ground-based (e.g., AERONET) and satellite instrumentation (e.g., MISR). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data have been utilized to determine aerosol types by implementing various combinations of measured aerosol optical depth or retrieved size and absorption aerosol properties (e.g., Gobbi et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010). Giles et al. [2012] showed single scattering albedo (SSA) relationship with extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) can provide an estimate of the general classification of dominant aerosol types (i.e., desert dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, and mixtures) based on data from ~20 AERONET sites located in known aerosol source regions. In addition, the absorption Angstrom exponent relationship with EAE can provide an indication of the dominant absorbing aerosol type such as dust, black carbon, brown carbon, or mixtures of them. These classification techniques are applied to the AERONET Level 2.0 quality assured data sets collected during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network (DRAGON) campaigns in Maryland (USA), Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Penang (Malaysia), and California (USA). An analysis of aerosol type classification for DRAGON sites is performed as well as an assessment of the spatial variability of the aerosol types for selected DRAGON campaigns. Giles, D. M., B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Sinyuk, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, R. R. Dickerson, A. M. Thompson, and J. S. Schafer (2012), An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications

  2. A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus.

    PubMed

    Fry, Bryan G; Wroe, Stephen; Teeuwisse, Wouter; van Osch, Matthias J P; Moreno, Karen; Ingle, Janette; McHenry, Colin; Ferrara, Toni; Clausen, Phillip; Scheib, Holger; Winter, Kelly L; Greisman, Laura; Roelants, Kim; van der Weerd, Louise; Clemente, Christofer J; Giannakis, Eleni; Hodgson, Wayne C; Luz, Sonja; Martelli, Paolo; Krishnasamy, Karthiyani; Kochva, Elazar; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scanlon, Denis; Karas, John; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C; McNaughtan, Judith E; Norman, Janette A

    2009-06-01

    The predatory ecology of Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) has been a subject of long-standing interest and considerable conjecture. Here, we investigate the roles and potential interplay between cranial mechanics, toxic bacteria, and venom. Our analyses point to the presence of a sophisticated combined-arsenal killing apparatus. We find that the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads. We reject the popular notion regarding toxic bacteria utilization. Instead, we demonstrate that the effects of deep wounds inflicted are potentiated through venom with toxic activities including anticoagulation and shock induction. Anatomical comparisons of V. komodoensis with V. (Megalania) priscus fossils suggest that the closely related extinct giant was the largest venomous animal to have ever lived.

  3. Comparison of the crossed and the Gregorian Mizuguchi-Dragone for wide-field millimeter-wave astronomy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Huan; Lee, Adrian; Hanany, Shaul; Milligan, Michael; Renbarger, Tom

    2008-01-10

    We compare the geometric and physical-optics performance of two configurations of offset dual-reflector antennas that obey the Mizuguchi-Dragone condition. The traditional Gregorian configuration is compared with the larger crossed configuration. These configurations are candidates for experiments that measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Particular attention is given to wide-field performance and polarization fidelity. Both a ray tracer and a physical optics simulation package are used to conclude that the crossed configuration has a larger diffraction-limited field of view, but within this limit both configurations have roughly the same instrumental polarization and both show excellent cross-polarization levels, with the crossed configuration showing approximately 10 dB better performance. PMID:18188189

  4. Comparison of the crossed and the Gregorian Mizuguchi-Dragone for wide-field millimeter-wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Huan; Lee, Adrian; Hanany, Shaul; Milligan, Michael; Renbarger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    We compare the geometric and physical-optics performance of two configurations of offset dual-reflector antennas that obey the Mizuguchi-Dragone condition. The traditional Gregorian configuration is compared with the larger crossed configuration. These configurations are candidates for experiments that measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Particular attention is given to wide-field performance and polarization fidelity. Both a ray tracer and a physical optics simulation package are used to conclude that the crossed configuration has a larger diffraction-limited field of view, but within this limit both configurations have roughly the same instrumental polarization and both show excellent cross-polarization levels, with the crossed configuration showing ~10 dB better performance.

  5. A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus.

    PubMed

    Fry, Bryan G; Wroe, Stephen; Teeuwisse, Wouter; van Osch, Matthias J P; Moreno, Karen; Ingle, Janette; McHenry, Colin; Ferrara, Toni; Clausen, Phillip; Scheib, Holger; Winter, Kelly L; Greisman, Laura; Roelants, Kim; van der Weerd, Louise; Clemente, Christofer J; Giannakis, Eleni; Hodgson, Wayne C; Luz, Sonja; Martelli, Paolo; Krishnasamy, Karthiyani; Kochva, Elazar; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scanlon, Denis; Karas, John; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C; McNaughtan, Judith E; Norman, Janette A

    2009-06-01

    The predatory ecology of Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) has been a subject of long-standing interest and considerable conjecture. Here, we investigate the roles and potential interplay between cranial mechanics, toxic bacteria, and venom. Our analyses point to the presence of a sophisticated combined-arsenal killing apparatus. We find that the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads. We reject the popular notion regarding toxic bacteria utilization. Instead, we demonstrate that the effects of deep wounds inflicted are potentiated through venom with toxic activities including anticoagulation and shock induction. Anatomical comparisons of V. komodoensis with V. (Megalania) priscus fossils suggest that the closely related extinct giant was the largest venomous animal to have ever lived. PMID:19451641

  6. A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Bryan G.; Wroe, Stephen; Teeuwisse, Wouter; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Moreno, Karen; Ingle, Janette; McHenry, Colin; Ferrara, Toni; Clausen, Phillip; Scheib, Holger; Winter, Kelly L.; Greisman, Laura; Roelants, Kim; van der Weerd, Louise; Clemente, Christofer J.; Giannakis, Eleni; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Luz, Sonja; Martelli, Paolo; Krishnasamy, Karthiyani; Kochva, Elazar; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scanlon, Denis; Karas, John; Citron, Diane M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Mcnaughtan, Judith E.; Norman, Janette A.

    2009-01-01

    The predatory ecology of Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) has been a subject of long-standing interest and considerable conjecture. Here, we investigate the roles and potential interplay between cranial mechanics, toxic bacteria, and venom. Our analyses point to the presence of a sophisticated combined-arsenal killing apparatus. We find that the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads. We reject the popular notion regarding toxic bacteria utilization. Instead, we demonstrate that the effects of deep wounds inflicted are potentiated through venom with toxic activities including anticoagulation and shock induction. Anatomical comparisons of V. komodoensis with V. (Megalania) priscus fossils suggest that the closely related extinct giant was the largest venomous animal to have ever lived. PMID:19451641

  7. Comparison of the crossed and the Gregorian Mizuguchi-Dragone for wide-field millimeter-wave astronomy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Huan; Lee, Adrian; Hanany, Shaul; Milligan, Michael; Renbarger, Tom

    2008-01-10

    We compare the geometric and physical-optics performance of two configurations of offset dual-reflector antennas that obey the Mizuguchi-Dragone condition. The traditional Gregorian configuration is compared with the larger crossed configuration. These configurations are candidates for experiments that measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Particular attention is given to wide-field performance and polarization fidelity. Both a ray tracer and a physical optics simulation package are used to conclude that the crossed configuration has a larger diffraction-limited field of view, but within this limit both configurations have roughly the same instrumental polarization and both show excellent cross-polarization levels, with the crossed configuration showing approximately 10 dB better performance.

  8. Eruptive Process, Geochemical Variation, and Weathering Controls on the Hyperspectral Reflectance Properties of the Blue Dragon Lava Flow, Craters of the Moon National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, J.; Chadwick, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    About 60 eruptive events have occurred at the Craters of the Moon volcanic field (Idaho, US), ranging in age from 15 to 2 ka. The Blue Dragon flow is one of the youngest, a large (280 sq. km) hawaiite flow which erupted from a dike-fed central rift zone, the Great Rift. Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery (224-bands, 0.4 to 2.5 micron spectral range, and 15.3 m spatial resolution) shows at least five distinct regions within the Blue Dragon flow that exhibit different spectral reflectance properties. Field observations show these regions to be associated with different eruptive phases of the flow, and in some cases, different flow morphologies (e.g. aa, and ropey, sheet, and hummocky pahoehoe). Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) imagery of the study area also shows average roughness variability among the different spectral regions. We performed petrographic and laboratory spectral analyses on samples from each spectral region to investigate variation in primary surface properties and the effects of weathering and lichen growth on surface reflectance. We also analyzed bulk major elements for several samples from each spectral region to investigate a possible connection between the observed spectral variability and chemical variability in the Blue Dragon eruption over time. Analyses using hydrologic flow accumulation and solar irradiance models provide further information about the effects of post-eruptive processes on spectral reflectance of the flow.

  9. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  10. Post-Flight Evaluation of PICA and PICA-X - Comparisons of the Stardust SRC and Space-X Dragon 1 Forebody Heatshield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, M.; Kao, D.; Qu, V.; Gonzales, G.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. As a thermal protection material, PICA has the advantages of being able to withstand high heat fluxes with a relatively low density. This ablative material was used as the forebody heat shield material for the Stardust sample return capsule, which re-entered the Earths atmosphere in 2006. Based on PICA, SpaceX developed a variant, PICA-X, and used it as the heat shield material for its Dragon spacecraft, which successfully orbited the Earth and re-entered the atmosphere during the COTS Demo Flight 1 in 2010. Post-flight analysis was previously performed on the Stardust PICA heat shield material. Similarly, a near-stagnation core was obtained from the post-flight Dragon 1 heat shield, which was retrieved from the Pacific Ocean. Materials testing and analyses were performed on the core to evaluate its ablation performance and post-flight properties. Comparisons between PICA and PICA-X are made where applicable. Stardust and Dragon offer rare opportunities to evaluate materials post-flight - this data is beneficial in understanding material performance and also improves modeling capabilities.

  11. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39'E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Qiu, Xuelin; Li, Jiabiao; Sauter, Daniel; Ruan, Aiguo; Chen, John; Cannat, Mathilde; Singh, Satish; Zhang, Jiazheng; Wu, Zhenli; Niu, Xiongwei

    2013-10-01

    The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is an ultraslow spreading end-member of mid-ocean ridge system. We use air gun shooting data recorded by ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and multibeam bathymetry to obtain a detailed three-dimensional (3-D) P wave tomographic model centered at 49°39'E near the active hydrothermal "Dragon Flag" vent. Results are presented in the form of a 3-D seismic traveltime inversion over the center and both ends of a ridge segment. We show that the crustal thickness, defined as the depth to the 7 km/s isovelocity contour, decreases systematically from the center (˜7.0-8.0 km) toward the segment ends (˜3.0-4.0 km). This variation is dominantly controlled by thickness changes in the lower crustal layer. We interpret this variation as due to focusing of the magmatic activity at the segment center. The across-axis velocity model documents a strong asymmetrical structure involving oceanic detachment faulting. A locally corrugated oceanic core complex (Dragon Flag OCC) on the southern ridge flank is characterized by high shallow crustal velocities and a strong vertical velocity gradient. We infer that this OCC may be predominantly made of gabbros. We suggest that detachment faulting is a prominent process of slow spreading oceanic crust accretion even in magmatically robust ridge sections. Hydrothermal activity at the Dragon Flag vents is located next to the detachment fault termination. We infer that the detachment fault system provides a pathway for hydrothermal convection.

  12. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked

  13. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality.

  14. The 9 September 2010 torrential rain and flash flood in the Dragone catchment, Atrani, Amalfi Coast (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, C.; Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Tranfaglia, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we use a multi-hazard approach to analyse the 9 September 2010 flash flood in the Dragone basin, a 9 km2 catchment located along the Amalfi rocky coastal range, southern Italy. In this area, alluvial fan flooding has been the most frequent and destructive geologic hazard since Roman times. Sudden torrents of water (flash floods) are caused by high-intensity and very localized cloudbursts of short duration, inducing slope erosion and sediment delivery from slope to stream. The elevated bed load transport produces fast-moving hyperconcentrated flows with significant catastrophic implications for communities living at the stream mouth. The 9 September 2010 rainstorm event lasted 1 h with an intensity rainfall peak of nearly 120 mm h-1. High topographic relief of the Amalfi coastal range and positive anomalies of the coastal waters conditioned the character of the convective system. Based on geological data and post-event field evidence and surveys, as well as homemade videos and eyewitness accounts, it is reported that the flash flood mobilized some 25 000 m3 of materials with a total (water and sediment) peak flow of 80 m3 s-1. The estimated peak discharge of only clear water was about 65 m3 s-1. This leads to a sediment bulking factor of 1.2 that corresponds to a flow with velocities similar to those of water during a flood.

  15. The effects of biting and pulling on the forces generated during feeding in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Domenic C; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics.

  16. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-06-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics.

  17. The Effects of Biting and Pulling on the Forces Generated during Feeding in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

    PubMed Central

    D'Amore, Domenic C.; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R.; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics. PMID:22028837

  18. The effect of thermal quality on the thermoregulatory behavior of the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps: influences of methodological assessment.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Viviana; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic functions are generally optimized within a narrow range of body temperatures (T(b)'s), conferring thermoregulation great importance to the survival and fitness of an animal. In lizards, T(b) regulation is mainly behavioral, and the metabolic costs associated with behavioral thermoregulation are primarily locomotory. In reptiles, however, it has been proposed that they thermoregulate less precisely when the associated costs, metabolic or otherwise, are high. Such a strategy enhances fitness by allowing lizards to be more flexible to changing environmental conditions while maximizing the benefits of maintaining a high T(b) and minimizing energy expenditure. We evaluated the behavioral thermoregulation of inland bearded dragons Pogona vitticeps under various thermal quality conditions requiring different locomotory investment for thermoregulation. The selected ambient temperature and preferred T(b) ranges increased at lower environmental thermal qualities, indicating a decrease in thermoregulatory precision in environments where the costs associated with thermoregulation were high. The level of thermoregulation was also affected, exhibiting a decrease in preferred T(b) of approximately 2 degrees C at the lowest-thermal-quality treatment. These data provide important implications for the procedural assessment of preferred T(b) and a better understanding of thermal set points in reptiles in general. Our results emphasize that the precise maintenance and assessment of preferred T(b) is contingent on the quality of the environment, laboratory or natural, that the animal inhabits.

  19. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D’Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate ‘space-frame’ skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503

  20. Plasma level monitoring of the major metabolites of diacetylmorphine (heroin) by the "chasing the dragon" route in severe heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Dubois, N; Demaret, I; Ansseau, M; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Charlier, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify if severe physical health problems frequently encountered in heroin addicts and the concomitant use of alcohol and legal or illegal drugs other than heroin influenced the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of heroin. We conducted a 90 minutes follow-up of the plasma concentrations of the pharmaceutical heroin, named diacetylmorphine (DAM), in patients recruited in a DAM assisted treatment centre. TADAM (Traitement Assisté par DiAcétylMorphine) aimed to compare the efficacy of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for heroin users considered as treatment resistant patients and who have severe physical and mental health problems. Eleven patients were recruited. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 45 and 90 minutes after DAM administration. All patients received DAM by the "chasing the dragon" route. Plasma samples were analyzed by a previously described ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) method. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and 8 metabolite concentrations ratios were calculated to evaluate the influence of various factors (DAM dose, patient pathologies, concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin, alcohol and cocaine) on heroin metabolite pharmacokinetics. It seemed to be not affected by the DAM dose, patient pathologies and the concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin and alcohol. Cocaine use was the only parameter which showed differences in heroin pharmacokinetics. PMID:24579243

  1. Sex steroid correlates of female-specific colouration, behaviour and reproductive state in Lake Eyre dragon lizards, Ctenophorus maculosus.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Tim S; Chan, Rita; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2009-07-01

    In some species, females develop bright colouration to signal reproductive status and exhibit behavioural repertoires to incite male courtship and/or reduce male harassment and forced copulation. Sex steroids, including progesterone and testosterone, potentially mediate female reproductive colouration and reproductive behaviour. We measured associations among plasma profiles of testosterone and progesterone with variation in colour expression and reproductive behaviour, including unique courtship rejection behaviours, in female Lake Eyre dragon lizards, (Ctenophorus maculosus). At onset of breeding, progesterone and testosterone increased with vitellogenesis, coincident with colour intensification and sexual receptivity, indicated by acceptance of copulations. As steroid levels peaked around the inferred ovulation time, maximal colour development occurred and sexual receptivity declined. When females were gravid and exhibited maximal mate rejection behaviours, progesterone levels remained consistently high, while testosterone exhibited a discrete second peak. At oviposition, significant declines in plasma steroid levels, fading of colouration and a dramatic decrease in male rejection behaviours co-occurred. Our results indicate a generally concordant association among steroid levels, colouration, behaviour and reproductive events. However, the prolonged elevation in progesterone and a second peak of testosterone was unrelated to reproductive state or further colour change, possibly suggesting selection on females to retain high steroid levels for inducing rejection behaviours. PMID:19363614

  2. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-06-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503

  3. The effects of biting and pulling on the forces generated during feeding in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Domenic C; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics. PMID:22028837

  4. Plasma level monitoring of the major metabolites of diacetylmorphine (heroin) by the "chasing the dragon" route in severe heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Dubois, N; Demaret, I; Ansseau, M; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Charlier, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify if severe physical health problems frequently encountered in heroin addicts and the concomitant use of alcohol and legal or illegal drugs other than heroin influenced the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of heroin. We conducted a 90 minutes follow-up of the plasma concentrations of the pharmaceutical heroin, named diacetylmorphine (DAM), in patients recruited in a DAM assisted treatment centre. TADAM (Traitement Assisté par DiAcétylMorphine) aimed to compare the efficacy of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for heroin users considered as treatment resistant patients and who have severe physical and mental health problems. Eleven patients were recruited. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 45 and 90 minutes after DAM administration. All patients received DAM by the "chasing the dragon" route. Plasma samples were analyzed by a previously described ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) method. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and 8 metabolite concentrations ratios were calculated to evaluate the influence of various factors (DAM dose, patient pathologies, concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin, alcohol and cocaine) on heroin metabolite pharmacokinetics. It seemed to be not affected by the DAM dose, patient pathologies and the concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin and alcohol. Cocaine use was the only parameter which showed differences in heroin pharmacokinetics.

  5. Sex steroid correlates of female-specific colouration, behaviour and reproductive state in Lake Eyre dragon lizards, Ctenophorus maculosus.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Tim S; Chan, Rita; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2009-07-01

    In some species, females develop bright colouration to signal reproductive status and exhibit behavioural repertoires to incite male courtship and/or reduce male harassment and forced copulation. Sex steroids, including progesterone and testosterone, potentially mediate female reproductive colouration and reproductive behaviour. We measured associations among plasma profiles of testosterone and progesterone with variation in colour expression and reproductive behaviour, including unique courtship rejection behaviours, in female Lake Eyre dragon lizards, (Ctenophorus maculosus). At onset of breeding, progesterone and testosterone increased with vitellogenesis, coincident with colour intensification and sexual receptivity, indicated by acceptance of copulations. As steroid levels peaked around the inferred ovulation time, maximal colour development occurred and sexual receptivity declined. When females were gravid and exhibited maximal mate rejection behaviours, progesterone levels remained consistently high, while testosterone exhibited a discrete second peak. At oviposition, significant declines in plasma steroid levels, fading of colouration and a dramatic decrease in male rejection behaviours co-occurred. Our results indicate a generally concordant association among steroid levels, colouration, behaviour and reproductive events. However, the prolonged elevation in progesterone and a second peak of testosterone was unrelated to reproductive state or further colour change, possibly suggesting selection on females to retain high steroid levels for inducing rejection behaviours.

  6. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26290674

  7. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26290674

  8. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Extraction of Amylase Enzyme from Dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Zohdi, Norkhanani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1 : 2 to 1 : 6, w/w), temperature (−18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%). PMID:25050403

  9. Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, L C; Stevens, M; Stuart-Fox, D

    2013-05-01

    Intraspecific colour variation is common in nature and can vary from the coexistence of discrete colour variants in polymorphic species to continuous variation. Whether coloration is continuous or discrete is often ambiguous and many species exhibit a combination of the two. The nature of the variation (discrete or continuous) has implications for both the genetic basis of the colour variation and the evolutionary processes generating and maintaining it. Consequently, it is important to qualify the existence of discrete morphs, particularly in relation to the animal's visual system. In this study, we quantified male throat colour variation in Ctenophorus decresii tawny dragon lizard and tested for morphological and ecological correlates of the colour variants. We confirmed that discrete throat colour morphs can be defined based on colour and pattern analyses independent of the human visual system. We also found that the colour variants differed in their conspicuousness from the background, to the lizard's visual system, which has implications for signalling. However, the morphs did not differ in morphology or microhabitat use, which suggests that these characteristics are not involved in the evolutionary maintenance of the polymorphism.

  10. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION AND RECOVERY PARAMETERS IN BEARDED DRAGONS (POGONA VITTICEPS): COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE DELIVERED IN 100% OXYGEN VERSUS 21% OXYGEN.

    PubMed

    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs.

  11. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  12. Optimization of processing parameters for extraction of amylase enzyme from dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Zohdi, Norkhanani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1:2 to 1:6, w/w), temperature (-18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%).

  13. Observations of the Interaction and/or Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog during DRAGON Campaigns from AERONET Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, Thomas; Holben, Brent; Schafer, Joel; Giles, David; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Young; Sano, Itaru; Reid, Jeffrey; Pickering, Kenneth; Crawford, James; Sinyuk, Alexander; Trevino, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. AERONET has established Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) during field campaigns that are short-term (~2-3 months) relatively dense spatial networks of ~15 to 45 sun and sky scanning photometers. Recent major DRAGON field campaigns in Japan and South Korea (Spring 2012) and California (Winter 2013) have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth signal for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Additionally, extensive fog that was coincident with aerosol layer height on some days in both Korea and California resulted in large increases in fine mode aerosol radius, with a mode of cloud-processed or residual aerosol of radius ~0.4-0.5 micron sometimes observed. Cloud processed aerosol may occur much more frequently than AERONET data suggest due to inherent difficulty in observing aerosol properties near clouds from remote sensing observations. These biases of aerosols associated with clouds would likely be even greater for satellite remote sensing retrievals of aerosol properties near clouds due to 3-D effects and sub-pixel cloud contamination issues.

  14. Dragon pulse information management system (DPIMS): A unique model-based approach to implementing domain agnostic system of systems and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    The Global Information Network Architecture is an information technology based on Vector Relational Data Modeling, a unique computational paradigm, DoD network certified by USARMY as the Dragon Pulse Informa- tion Management System. This network available modeling environment for modeling models, where models are configured using domain relevant semantics and use network available systems, sensors, databases and services as loosely coupled component objects and are executable applications. Solutions are based on mission tactics, techniques, and procedures and subject matter input. Three recent ARMY use cases are discussed a) ISR SoS. b) Modeling and simulation behavior validation. c) Networked digital library with behaviors.

  15. Testosterone-Induced Expression of Male Colour Morphs in Females of the Polymorphic Tawny Dragon Lizard, Ctenophorus decresii.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Katrina; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2015-01-01

    Many colour polymorphisms are present only in one sex, usually males, but proximate mechanisms controlling the expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms have received little attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that artificial elevation of testosterone in females of the colour polymorphic tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, can induce them to express the same colour morphs, in similar frequencies, to those found in males. Male C. decresii, express four discrete throat colour morphs (orange, yellow, grey and an orange central patch surrounded by yellow). We used silastic implants to experimentally elevate testosterone levels in mature females to induce colour expression. Testosterone elevation resulted in a substantial increase in the proportion and intensity of orange but not yellow colouration, which was present in a subset of females prior to treatment. Consequently, females exhibited the same set of colour morphs as males, and we confirmed that these morphs are objectively classifiable, by using digital image analyses and spectral reflectance measurements, and occur in similar frequencies as in males. These results indicate that the influence of testosterone differs for different colours, suggesting that their expression may be governed by different proximate hormonal mechanisms. Thus, caution must be exercised when using artificial testosterone manipulation to induce female expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms. Nevertheless, the ability to express sex-limited colours (in this case orange) to reveal the same, objectively classifiable morphs in similar frequencies to males suggests autosomal rather than sex-linked inheritance, and can facilitate further research on the genetic basis of colour polymorphism, including estimating heritability and selection on colour morphs from pedigree data. PMID:26485705

  16. Testosterone-Induced Expression of Male Colour Morphs in Females of the Polymorphic Tawny Dragon Lizard, Ctenophorus decresii.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Katrina; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2015-01-01

    Many colour polymorphisms are present only in one sex, usually males, but proximate mechanisms controlling the expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms have received little attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that artificial elevation of testosterone in females of the colour polymorphic tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, can induce them to express the same colour morphs, in similar frequencies, to those found in males. Male C. decresii, express four discrete throat colour morphs (orange, yellow, grey and an orange central patch surrounded by yellow). We used silastic implants to experimentally elevate testosterone levels in mature females to induce colour expression. Testosterone elevation resulted in a substantial increase in the proportion and intensity of orange but not yellow colouration, which was present in a subset of females prior to treatment. Consequently, females exhibited the same set of colour morphs as males, and we confirmed that these morphs are objectively classifiable, by using digital image analyses and spectral reflectance measurements, and occur in similar frequencies as in males. These results indicate that the influence of testosterone differs for different colours, suggesting that their expression may be governed by different proximate hormonal mechanisms. Thus, caution must be exercised when using artificial testosterone manipulation to induce female expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms. Nevertheless, the ability to express sex-limited colours (in this case orange) to reveal the same, objectively classifiable morphs in similar frequencies to males suggests autosomal rather than sex-linked inheritance, and can facilitate further research on the genetic basis of colour polymorphism, including estimating heritability and selection on colour morphs from pedigree data.

  17. Testosterone-Induced Expression of Male Colour Morphs in Females of the Polymorphic Tawny Dragon Lizard, Ctenophorus decresii

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Katrina; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2015-01-01

    Many colour polymorphisms are present only in one sex, usually males, but proximate mechanisms controlling the expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms have received little attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that artificial elevation of testosterone in females of the colour polymorphic tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, can induce them to express the same colour morphs, in similar frequencies, to those found in males. Male C. decresii, express four discrete throat colour morphs (orange, yellow, grey and an orange central patch surrounded by yellow). We used silastic implants to experimentally elevate testosterone levels in mature females to induce colour expression. Testosterone elevation resulted in a substantial increase in the proportion and intensity of orange but not yellow colouration, which was present in a subset of females prior to treatment. Consequently, females exhibited the same set of colour morphs as males, and we confirmed that these morphs are objectively classifiable, by using digital image analyses and spectral reflectance measurements, and occur in similar frequencies as in males. These results indicate that the influence of testosterone differs for different colours, suggesting that their expression may be governed by different proximate hormonal mechanisms. Thus, caution must be exercised when using artificial testosterone manipulation to induce female expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms. Nevertheless, the ability to express sex-limited colours (in this case orange) to reveal the same, objectively classifiable morphs in similar frequencies to males suggests autosomal rather than sex-linked inheritance, and can facilitate further research on the genetic basis of colour polymorphism, including estimating heritability and selection on colour morphs from pedigree data. PMID:26485705

  18. Estimation of coolant void reactivity for CANDU-NG lattice using DRAGON and validation using MCNP5 and TRIPOLI-4.3

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, R.; Tellier, R. L.; Hebert, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Coolant Void Reactivity (CVR) is an important safety parameter that needs to be estimated at the design stage of a nuclear reactor. It helps to have an a priori knowledge of the behavior of the system during a transient initiated by the loss of coolant. In the present paper, we have attempted to estimate the CVR for a CANDU New Generation (CANDU-NG) lattice, as proposed at an early stage of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) development. We have attempted to estimate the CVR with development version of the code DRAGON, using the method of characteristics. DRAGON has several advanced self-shielding models incorporated in it, each of them compatible with the method of characteristics. This study will bring to focus the performance of these self-shielding models, especially when there is voiding of such a tight lattice. We have also performed assembly calculations in 2 x 2 pattern for the CANDU-NG fuel, with special emphasis on checkerboard voiding. The results obtained have been validated against Monte Carlo codes MCNP5 and TRIPOLI-4.3. (authors)

  19. Decommissioning of the Dragon High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Located at the Former United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Research Site at Winfrith - 13180

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Anthony A.

    2013-07-01

    The Dragon Reactor was constructed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset through the late 1950's and into the early 1960's. It was a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR) with helium gas coolant and graphite moderation. It operated as a fuel testing and demonstration reactor at up to 20 MW (Thermal) from 1964 until 1975, when international funding for this project was terminated. The fuel was removed from the core in 1976 and the reactor was put into Safestore. To meet the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) objective to 'drive hazard reduction' [1] it is necessary to decommission and remediate all the Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) facilities. This includes the Dragon Reactor where the activated core, pressure vessel and control rods and the contaminated primary circuit (including a {sup 90}Sr source) still remain. It is essential to remove these hazards at the appropriate time and return the area occupied by the reactor to a safe condition. (author)

  20. Development and validation of a novel hydrolysis probe real-time polymerase chain reaction for agamid adenovirus 1 in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-03-01

    Agamid adenovirus 1 (AgAdv-1) is a significant cause of disease in bearded dragons (Pogona sp.). Clinical manifestations of AgAdv-1 infection are variable and often nonspecific; the manifestations range from lethargy, weight loss, and inappetence, to severe enteritis, hepatitis, and sudden death. Currently, diagnosis of AgAdv-1 infection is achieved through a single published method: standard nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing. Standard nPCR with sequencing provides reliable sensitivity, specificity, and validation of PCR products. However, this process is comparatively expensive, laborious, and slow. Probe hybridization, as used in a TaqMan assay, represents the best option for validating PCR products aside from the time-consuming process of sequencing. This study developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using a TaqMan probe-based assay, targeting a highly conserved region of the AgAdv-1 genome. Standard curves were generated, detection results were compared with the gold standard conventional PCR and sequencing assay, and limits of detection were determined. Additionally, the qPCR assay was run on samples known to be positive for AgAdv-1 and samples known to be positive for other adenoviruses. Based on the results of these evaluations, this assay allows for a less expensive, rapid, quantitative detection of AgAdv-1 in bearded dragons.

  1. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes. PMID:26799977

  2. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes.

  3. Analysis of the Interaction and Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog during DRAGON Campaigns in Asia from AERONET and Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, Thomas; Holben, Brent; Reid, Jeffrey; Lynch, Peng; Schafer, Joel; Giles, David; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Young; Sano, Itaru; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, George; Lyapustin, Alexei; Pickering, Kenneth; Crawford, James; Siniuk, Alexander; Smirnov, Alexander; Wang, Pucai; Xia, Xiangao; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-04-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. AERONET has established Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) during field campaigns that are short-term (~2-3 months) relatively dense spatial networks of ~15 to 45 sun and sky scanning photometers. Major DRAGON field campaigns in Japan and South Korea during Spring of 2012 have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) signal from AERONET data for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Satellite retrievals of AOD from MODIS sensors (from both dark target and MAIAC algorithms) were also investigated to assess the issue of detectability of high AOD events associated with high cloud fraction. Cloud properties retrieved from MODIS are also investigated in relation to the AERONET and satellite measurements of AOD. Underestimation of AOD by the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) model at very high AOD at sites in China and Korea was observed, especially for observations that are cloud screened by AERONET (L2 data). Additionally, extensive fog that was coincident with aerosol layer height on some days in Korea resulted in large increases in fine mode aerosol radius, with a mode of cloud

  4. Analysis of the Interaction and Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog during Dragon Campaigns from Aeronet and Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Schafer, J.; Giles, D. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sano, I.; Lynch, P.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Trevino, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. AERONET has established Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) during field campaigns that are short-term (~2-3 months) relatively dense spatial networks of ~15 to 45 sun and sky scanning photometers. Recent major DRAGON field campaigns in Japan and South Korea (Spring 2012) and California (Winter 2013) have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth signal for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Satellite retrievals of AOD from MODIS sensors were also investigated to assess the issue of detectability of high AOD events associated with high cloud fraction. AERONET is updating the cloud-screening algorithm applied to AOD data in the upcoming Version 3 database. Comparisons of cloud screening from Versions 2 and 3 of cases with high AOD associated with clouds will be studied. Additionally, extensive fog that was coincident with aerosol layer height on some days in both Korea and California resulted in large increases in fine mode aerosol radius, with a mode of cloud-processed or residual aerosol of radius ~0.4-0.5 micron sometimes observed. Cloud processed aerosol may occur much more frequently than AERONET

  5. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Risco, Ester; Ghia, Felipe; Vila, Roser; Iglesias, José; Alvarez, Elida; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2003-09-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of the latex from Croton lechleri (sangre de drago) was determined by in vitro assays. Classical (CP) and alternative (AP) complement pathways activities were determined in human serum. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, and phagocytosis of opsonised fluorescent microspheres were measured by flow cytometry. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Activity on proliferation of murine lymphocytes was also investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assayed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Some of the activities were compared with those of the isolated alkaloid taspine. Sangre de drago from Croton lechleri showed immunomodulatory activity. It exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on CP and AP of complement system and inhibited the proliferation of activated T-cells. The latex showed free radical scavenging capacity. Depending on the concentration, it showed antioxidant or prooxidant properties, and stimulated or inhibited the phagocytosis. Moreover, the latex has strong anti-inflammatory activity when administered i. p. Taspine cannot be considered the main responsible for these activities, and other constituents, probably proanthocyanidins, should be also involved.

  6. Fueling the dragon: Energy security in China -- Is there a role for US policy

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    Many authors talk about the rising power of China and the `China threat.` One area where conflict has frequently been predicted is in China`s pursuit of energy security. This thesis explores China`s energy situation, options available to meet rising demand, environmental impact of these options, and possible ways to mitigate these effects. The thesis then determines to what extent China will be unable to meet its needs from domestic sources and have to look overseas. Then, a review of China`s most likely overseas suppliers will explain where China`s actions could be threatening to US interests, and where fears are overblown. The areas where concern is most warranted is in China`s increasing dependence on imports for its oil needs, and its continued reliance on coal usage. The desire to ensure secure oil supplies has led China to deal with Iran and Iraq, despite US desires to isolate these nations. China is also increasing its influence throughout the Middle East, Central Asia, South America, and retains claims in the South China Sea. While actions in these regions are not necessarily threatening, US policy can play a role in keeping it that way.

  7. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  8. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  9. Characterization of synthetic routes to 'Bromo-DragonFLY' and benzodifuranyl isopropylamine homologues utilizing ketone intermediates. Part 1: synthesis of ketone precursors.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard E; Keating, John J

    2014-01-01

    Bromo-DragonFLY (BDF) and many of its analogues are misused as recreational drugs due to their potency as psychoactive substances. To date, none of the published routes to these designer amphetamines have exploited a ketone intermediate. It is well known that benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) can be employed as a precursor in the synthesis of amphetamine. Similarly, it is reasonable to assume that ketone precursors may potentially be utilized in the clandestine synthesis of BDF and its homologues. This paper describes the multifaceted synthesis of novel precursor ketones structurally related to BDF, namely benzodifuranyl propanone 16, its tetrahydrobenzodifuranyl homologue 8, and their brominated analogues 12 and 20. Their characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13) C-NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is also described. PMID:23794359

  10. Integration of the DRAGON5/DONJON5 codes in the SALOME platform for performing multi-physics calculations in nuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Alain

    2014-06-01

    We are presenting the computer science techniques involved in the integration of codes DRAGON5 and DONJON5 in the SALOME platform. This integration brings new capabilities in designing multi-physics computational schemes, with the possibility to couple our reactor physics codes with thermal-hydraulics or thermo-mechanics codes from other organizations. A demonstration is presented where two code components are coupled using the YACS module of SALOME, based on the CORBA protocol. The first component is a full-core 3D steady-state neuronic calculation in a PWR performed using DONJON5. The second component implement a set of 1D thermal-hydraulics calculations, each performed over a single assembly.

  11. Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} at the Dragon Products, Inc. Cement Plant located in Thomaston, Maine. 1990 Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The background and process of the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} are described. The Scrubber was developed for Dragon Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine and facilitates a number of process improvements. The exhaust gas is scrubbed of SO{sub 2} with better than 90% efficiency. The kiln dust is cleaned of alkalines and so can be returned to kiln feed instead of dumped to landfill. Potassium sulfate in commercial quantity and purity can be recovered. Distilled water is recovered which also has commercial potential. Thus, various benefits are accrued and no waste streams remain for disposal. The process is applicable to both wet and dry process cement kilns and appears to have potential in any industry which generates acidic gaseous exhausts and/or basic solid or liquid wastes.

  12. [Nicotine dependence].

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Shingo; Shinkai, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Smoking is the most widespread addictive behavior in the world, and it causes physical and psychological dependence on nicotine. As for physical nicotine dependence, nicotine produces rewarding effects by interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurons in the brain's reward system. Psychological dependence on nicotine comes with a complex psychological procedure that is based on distorted cognition which justifies their smoking behavior. Clinicians should support smokers with willingness to quit smoking comprehensively with this knowledge, although the success rate of smoking cessation is no ideal in general. PMID:26394514

  13. Dragon Plant Biology Explorer. A text-mining tool for integrating associations between genetic and biochemical entities with genome annotation and biochemical terms lists.

    PubMed

    Bajic, Vladimir B; Veronika, Merlin; Veladandi, Pardha Sarathi; Meka, Archana; Heng, Mok-Wei; Rajaraman, Kanagasabai; Pan, Hong; Swarup, Sanjay

    2005-08-01

    We introduce a tool for text mining, Dragon Plant Biology Explorer (DPBE) that integrates information on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes with their functions, based on gene ontologies and biochemical entity vocabularies, and presents the associations as interactive networks. The associations are based on (1) user-provided PubMed abstracts; (2) a list of Arabidopsis genes compiled by The Arabidopsis Information Resource; (3) user-defined combinations of four vocabulary lists based on the ones developed by the general, plant, and Arabidopsis GO consortia; and (4) three lists developed here based on metabolic pathways, enzymes, and metabolites derived from AraCyc, BRENDA, and other metabolism databases. We demonstrate how various combinations can be applied to fields of (1) gene function and gene interaction analyses, (2) plant development, (3) biochemistry and metabolism, and (4) pharmacology of bioactive compounds. Furthermore, we show the suitability of DPBE for systems approaches by integration with "omics" platform outputs. Using a list of abiotic stress-related genes identified by microarray experiments, we show how this tool can be used to rapidly build an information base on the previously reported relationships. This tool complements the existing biological resources for systems biology by identifying potentially novel associations using text analysis between cellular entities based on genome annotation terms. Thus, it allows researchers to efficiently summarize existing information for a group of genes or pathways, so as to make better informed choices for designing validation experiments. Last, DPBE can be helpful for beginning researchers and graduate students to summarize vast information in an unfamiliar area. DPBE is freely available for academic and nonprofit users at http://research.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/DRAGON/ME2/.

  14. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  15. Establishing a New Species Encephalitozoon pogonae for the Microsporidian Parasite of Inland Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps Ahl 1927 (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Sakaguchi, Kanako; Paulsen, Daniel B

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium parasitizing Inland Bearded Dragons Pogona vitticeps, and developing primarily in macrophages within foci of granulomatous inflammation of different organs, is described as a new species Encephalitozoon pogonae. Establishing the new species was based on sequencing the ITS-SSUrDNA region of the ribosomal gene and consequent SSUrDNA-inferred phylogenetic analyses, as well as on comparison of pathogenesis, host specificity, and ultrastructure among Encephalitozoon species and isolates. The new species is closely related to E. lacertae and E. cuniculi. Analysis of the literature suggests that this microsporidium has been reported previously as an unidentified microsporidian species or isolate of E. cuniculi and may represent a common infection in bearded dragons. All stages of E. pogonae develop in parasitophorous vacuoles. Uninucleate spores on methanol-fixed smears measured 2.1 × 1.1 μm, range 1.7-2.6 × 0.9-1.7 μm; on ultrathin sections spores measured 0.8-1.1 × 1.8-2.2 μm. Ultrastructural study revealed 3-6 polar filament coils, a mushroom-shaped polar disk, and a polar sac embracing half of the volume occupied by the lamellar polaroplast. In activated spores, polar filament everted eccentrically. The overall morphology and intracellular development of E. pogonae were similar to other Encepahalitozoon spp. We also review the existing data on microsporidia infecting reptiles.

  16. Analysis of the Interaction and Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog in East Asia from AERONET and Satellite Remote Sensing: 2012 DRAGON Campaigns and Climatological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Lynch, P.; Schafer, J.; Giles, D. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sano, I.; Arola, A. T.; Munchak, L. A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Lyapustin, A.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Govindaraju, R.; Hyer, E. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. Major Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) field campaigns involving multiple AERONET sites in Japan and South Korea during Spring of 2012 have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AODf) signal from AERONET data for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Satellite retrievals of AOD from MODIS sensors (from Dark Target, Deep Blue and MAIAC algorithms) were also investigated to assess the issue of detectability of high AOD events associated with high cloud fraction. Underestimation of fine mode AOD by the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) and by the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis For Research And Applications Aerosol Re-analysis (MERRAaero) models at very high AOD at sites in China and Korea was observed, especially for observations that are cloud screened by AERONET (Level 2 data). Additionally, multi-year monitoring at several AERONET sites are examined for climatological statistics of cloud screening of fine mode aerosol events. Aerosol that has been affected by clouds or the near-cloud environment may be more prevalent than AERONET data suggest due to inherent difficulty in

  17. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  18. Twelve Year of Water Resource Monitoring over the Yangtze Middle Reaches Exploiting Dragon Time Series and Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Claire; Li, Jiren; Daillet, Sylviane; Chen, Xiaoling; Lai, Xijun; Cretaux, Jean Francois; Zhang, Wei; Uribe, Carlos; Stuber, Mathias; Huang, Shifeng; Averty, Stephane; Burnham, James; Yesou, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the DRAGON program, a relative long term surveillance, 12 years, of the Poyang and Dongting lakes, considered as key elements of the Yangtze watershed in terms of water resource, flood redaction and for biodiversity maintain has been realized. This was done combing altimetry, in situ measurements, SAR and optical MR and HR time series with a high revisiting frequency of 10 days. A first major output corresponds, particularly within the context of lost of Envisat and Sentinels’ data availability expected in 2014,corresponds to the potential’sanalysis of a large range of MR and HR optical and SAR data for water bodies monitoring in term of quality, potential and accuracy. Over the years, changes in the type of data used are very indicative of a share of the resource available, and also of technological improvement over the years. It can be noticed since 2008, that, the part of HR optical data, Beijing1, DEIMOS, HJ1 A-B has increased significantly. In regards to the two years gap in term of data resource before the availability of the first Sentinel data, some recommendations can be given to insure the monitoring of large water bodies. Thematically specking, major outputs is the characterization of the important inter annual, and intra annual variations in term of water height and water extent of both lakes, variations that are linked with rainfall variations at sub basins and Yangtze basin scales. This 12 years period is marked by general non linear tendencies of water resources decreasing even if two major flood events occurred in 2002 and 2010. Drought tendency and drought intensity has been precised. During winter 2011-2012, EO data analysis allowed given the real size of the water surface extent as 720 km2 when Medias were speaking about 200 km2; the driest winter for the latest decade being the 2003-2004 as shown by the time series comparison. These analysis also highlight the very fast change from extreme stage to another as in June

  19. Water Resource Monitoring over the Yangtze Middle Reaches Exploiting Dragon Time Series, Envisat, Beijing 1, Altimetric Data and Field easements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Yésou; Claire, Huber; Xijun, Lai; Stéphane, Averty; Jiren, Li; Sylviane, Daillet; Muriel, Bergé-Nguyen; Xiaoling, Chen; Shifeng, Huang; Burnham, James; Jean-François, Crétaux; Tiphanie, Marie; Jinggang, Li; Rémi, Andreoli; Carlos, Uribe

    2010-10-01

    Dongting and Poyang Lakes can be considered as key natural flood control and reduction elements within the Yangtze middle basin. As part of the Wetland Flood DRAGON Project, Poyang and Dongting lakes water extent was monitored with a revisiting period of about ten days over a 9 years period, 2000-2008.. For Poyang Lake, ENVISAT ASAR and MERIS data that have been mostly exploited from 2003 to 2008, completed from 2000-2003 by MODIS timers series. For the Dongting Lake it is MODIS decade synthesis products that have been exploited. In addition, a set of 16 large, Beijing 1 time series was exploited for validation purposes. During the same data span, water level has been measured using Topex, and/or ENVISAT RA2 and also Jason 2 for Dongting Lake. In parallel, to derive regional meteorological indicators, GPCP and TRMM, times series were exploited for the derivation of monthly averaged rainfall, residues analysis and global precipitations trends. At lake's scale, the obtained results allowed the characterization of lakes behaviors and identification of lakes sub divisions behaviors. Even if Dongting and Poyang lakes' mechanism are substantially different, theirs water extent and water level variations show very good concordance. For example 2002 corresponds to the largest flood extents for the analyzed period whereas 2001 year to the lowest extent of inundated waters. Both lakes present a global decrease of the amplitude tendency of minimum and maximum water surfaces and level. The two lakes present also astonishing low levels and low surfaces of water in summer 2006 assocaited with a very early draw off. Few reasons could be advanced to explain this event such as 1) deficit of rain fall at sub watershed level, 2) event in the upper stream part, a possible closing of the Three Gorges Dam gates in 2003, in order to infill the reservoir, 3) a more global climate change effect at regional scale. For the 2006 astonishing drop down of on Dongting and Poyang lakes, carried

  20. SOLARPROP: Charge-sign dependent solar modulation for everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappl, Rolf

    2016-10-01

    We present SOLARPROP, a tool to compute the influence of charge-sign dependent solar modulation for cosmic ray spectra. SOLARPROP is able to use the output of popular tools like GALPROP or DRAGON and offers the possibility to embed new models for solar modulation. We present some examples for proton, antiproton and positron fluxes in the light of the recent PAMELA and AMS-02 data. Catalogue identifier: AFAP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFAP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: MIT licence (MIT) No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15347 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 125635 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ll. Computer: PC. Operating system: Linux. Classification: 1.1, 1.6. External routines: cfitsio, CCFITS Nature of problem: Calculation of the influence on cosmic rays by the heliosphere including drift effects. Solution method: Stochastic differential equations. Additional comments: Simple interface for text and FITS format input and output. Running time: Between a few seconds and a few minutes depending on the physical model.

  1. Chasing the Silver Dragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Occurring on only a few dozen rivers around the world, tidal bores are as rare as they are intriguing. Michael Berry outlines the science behind this natural phenomenon and describes his sighting in China of one of the most spectacular bores of them all.

  2. Here Be Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Based on an annual endowment study, experts at the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) Endowment Forum examine today's uncertain financial picture and discuss the pros and cons of hedge funds, private equity, and fund of funds. (EV)

  3. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  4. The hidden dragons.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming; Williamson, Peter J

    2003-10-01

    Most multinational corporations are fascinated with China. Carried away by the number of potential customers and the relatively cheap labor, firms seeking a presence in China have traditionally focused on selling products, setting up manufacturing facilities, or both. But they've ignored an important development: the emergence of Chinese firms as powerful rivals--in China and also in the global market. In this article, Ming Zeng and Peter Williamson describe how Chinese companies like Haier, Legend, and Pearl River Piano have quietly managed to grab market share from older, bigger, and financially stronger rivals in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Global managers tend to offer the usual explanations for why Chinese companies don't pose a threat: They aren't big enough or profitable enough to compete overseas, the managers say, and these primarily state-owned companies are ill-financed and ill-equipped for global competition. As the government's policies about the private ownership of companies changed from forbidding the practice to encouraging it, a new breed of Chinese companies evolved. The authors outline the four types of hybrid Chinese companies that are simultaneously tackling the global market. China's national champions are using their advantages as domestic leaders to build global brands. The dedicated exporters are entering foreign markets on the strength of their economies of scale. The competitive networks have taken on world markets by bringing together small, specialized companies that operate in close proximity. And the technology upstarts are using innovations developed by China's government-owned research institutes to enter emerging sectors such as biotechnology. Zeng and Williamson identify these budding multinationals, analyze their strategies, and evaluate their weaknesses. PMID:14521101

  5. Taming the dragon

    SciTech Connect

    Magagnini, S.

    1993-12-31

    Can China be persuaded to stop construction of the world`s biggest dam? On its 3,500-mile journey from Tibet to Shanghai, the Yangtze River carves its way through the Three Gorges, a mystical 120-mile long gallery of fog-enshrouded peaks, sheer cliffs, and huge whirlpools. Three Gorges, which has inspired Chinese poets from Li Po (701-762 A.D.) to Chairman Mao, is so revered that its dramatic beauty appears on Chinese $5 and $10 bill. Despite its beauty and cultural significance, however, the gorges area could be destroyed should the Chinese carry out their plans to construct he world`s most powerful hydroelectric dam, and a war is being waged on three continents to keep the steel-and-concrete behemoth from going ahead. If built, the dam will electrify remote areas of China and supply power to 150 million Chineses as far away as Shanghae and hold back the floodwaters of the Yangtze which have killed millions. However critics content it will be an environmental and social disaster of epic proportions. The dam will also force the relocation of more than a million Chinese, the largest resettlement in world history.

  6. Exploring the "Dragon's Graveyard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Most schools visit Magna Science Adventure Centre on the back of careful planning and preparation. Magna is a fairly unique environment. "Steelos", the local name for the former Templeborough steelworks in Rotherham, West Yorkshire, was a vast plant. It became home to Magna in 2001. The building is over half a kilometre long and 45 metres high.…

  7. The Dragon Tamer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Terry S.; Wise, Phillip C.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines to keep conflicts from wreaking havoc at staff meetings, parent conferences, team meetings, and PTA functions include confronting tensions early, attacking problems not people, examining oneself, choosing issues carefully, requesting feedback, building trust, working together, and being prepared. (SM)

  8. The hidden dragons.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming; Williamson, Peter J

    2003-10-01

    Most multinational corporations are fascinated with China. Carried away by the number of potential customers and the relatively cheap labor, firms seeking a presence in China have traditionally focused on selling products, setting up manufacturing facilities, or both. But they've ignored an important development: the emergence of Chinese firms as powerful rivals--in China and also in the global market. In this article, Ming Zeng and Peter Williamson describe how Chinese companies like Haier, Legend, and Pearl River Piano have quietly managed to grab market share from older, bigger, and financially stronger rivals in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Global managers tend to offer the usual explanations for why Chinese companies don't pose a threat: They aren't big enough or profitable enough to compete overseas, the managers say, and these primarily state-owned companies are ill-financed and ill-equipped for global competition. As the government's policies about the private ownership of companies changed from forbidding the practice to encouraging it, a new breed of Chinese companies evolved. The authors outline the four types of hybrid Chinese companies that are simultaneously tackling the global market. China's national champions are using their advantages as domestic leaders to build global brands. The dedicated exporters are entering foreign markets on the strength of their economies of scale. The competitive networks have taken on world markets by bringing together small, specialized companies that operate in close proximity. And the technology upstarts are using innovations developed by China's government-owned research institutes to enter emerging sectors such as biotechnology. Zeng and Williamson identify these budding multinationals, analyze their strategies, and evaluate their weaknesses.

  9. Does the "sleeping Dragon" Really Sleep?: the Case for Continuous Long-Term Monitoring at a Gulf of Mexico Cold Seep Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. M.; Lapham, L.; Farr, N.; Lutken, C.; MacDonald, I. R.; Macelloni, L.; Riedel, M.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous porewater monitoring indicates that the methane flux away from exposed hydrate mounds can vary considerably over time. Recently, we retrieved a Pore Fluid Array instrument pack from a hydrate outcrop adjacent to a NEPTUNE Canada observatory node. The sampler was designed to continuously collect and store sediment pore fluids over the course of 9 months. On analysis, we observed a 35mM variation in methane concentrations corresponding with an abrupt shift in current direction at the site. Video and resistivity data have led to previous speculation that hydrate growth and dissolution/dissociation may be seasonally variable. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that the persistence of hydrate outcrops may be extremely dynamic, driven by fluctuations in physical conditions on short time scales. Short-term monitoring in the Gulf of Mexico within Mississippi Canyon lease block 118 (MC118), a known hydrate-bearing site, indicates that physical conditions even at these depths (~540-890m) may be highly variable. Pressure can vary within hours, and recorded temperature changes of ~1.5°C have been associated with passing storms. Moreover, increased particle abundance was observed at the site in 2007 suggesting that organic matter flux to the sediments may vary on the scale of months to years. These inputs have the potential to alter the chemical environment surrounding the hydrate, thereby affecting dissolution rates. Continuous, long-term observations of physical conditions at MC118 could provide information about the potential for natural perturbations to impact hydrate dynamics on the scale of weeks or even days necessary for assessing the long-term persistence of hydrate outcrops. Sleeping Dragon is a massive hydrate outcrop at MC118 that has been monitored since 2006. Three years ago, researchers returning to the site found it visibly diminished relative to previous observations. This apparent shift toward net dissolution of the mound may have been

  10. Phenibut dependence

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3–4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut. PMID:23391959

  11. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    PubMed

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change.

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, 1989, Paperna and Landsberg) in a western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. is described from a Western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 48) were cylindroidal in shape. Oocyst length, 27.0 (26.0-28.3) μm, oocyst width, 15.2 (14.0-16.5) μm, oocyst length/width ratio (L/W) 1.8 (1.6-1.9), each with 4 sporocysts (Eimeria-like) and a polar granule, but lacking a micropyle and oocyst residuum. Sporocysts are ovoidal in shape, sporocyst length, 10.0 (9.0-11.0) μm, sporocyst width 8.5 (7.0-9.5) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.2 (1.1-1.3). Stieda, substieda and parasubstieda bodies were all absent. Molecular analysis was conducted at the 18S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) loci. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S sequences revealed that C. pogonae n. sp. grouped together with another four Choleoeimeria spp. and exhibited 99.1%-99.4% genetic similarity. At the COI locus, C. pogonae n. sp. was in an independent clade and had the highest similarity (80.4%) to Eimeria cf. mivati from a chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). According to the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite. This study further supports the taxonomy of Choleoeimeria spp. as a new genus based on molecular phylogenetic analysis.

  13. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  14. The Role of Integrative Taxonomy in the Conservation Management of Cryptic Species: The Taxonomic Status of Endangered Earless Dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the Grasslands of Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered ‘species’ of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  15. Study of optimal temperature, pH and stability of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for use as potential natural colorant.

    PubMed

    Harivaindaran, K V; Rebecca, O P S; Chandran, S

    2008-09-15

    The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100 degrees C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100 degrees C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye.

  16. 2D MI-DRAGON: a new predictor for protein-ligands interactions and theoretic-experimental studies of US FDA drug-target network, oxoisoaporphine inhibitors for MAO-A and human parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Prado-Prado, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Escobar, Manuel; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Yañez, Matilde; Riera-Fernandez, Pablo; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2011-12-01

    There are many pairs of possible Drug-Proteins Interactions that may take place or not (DPIs/nDPIs) between drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different proteins. This fact makes expensive in terms of time and resources, for instance, the determination of all possible ligands-protein interactions for a single drug. In this sense, we can use Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models to carry out rational DPIs prediction. Unfortunately, almost all QSAR models predict activity against only one target. To solve this problem we can develop multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) models. In this work, we introduce the technique 2D MI-DRAGON a new predictor for DPIs based on two different well-known software. We use the software MARCH-INSIDE (MI) to calculate 3D structural parameters for targets and the software DRAGON was used to calculated 2D molecular descriptors all drugs showing known DPIs present in the Drug Bank (US FDA benchmark dataset). Both classes of parameters were used as input of different Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to seek an accurate non-linear mt-QSAR predictor. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 21:21-31-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 303 out of 339 DPIs (Sensitivity = 89.38%) and 480 out of 510 nDPIs (Specificity = 94.12%), corresponding to training Accuracy = 92.23%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series with Sensitivity = 92.18% (625/678 DPIs; Specificity = 90.12% (730/780 nDPIs) and Accuracy = 91.06%. 2D MI-DRAGON offers a good opportunity for fast-track calculation of all possible DPIs of one drug enabling us to re-construct large drug-target or DPIs Complex Networks (CNs). For instance, we reconstructed the CN of the US FDA benchmark dataset with 855 nodes 519 drugs+336 targets). We predicted CN with similar topology (observed and predicted values of average distance are equal to 6.7 vs. 6.6). These CNs can be used to explore

  17. The Blue DRAGON--a system for monitoring the kinematics and the dynamics of endoscopic tools in minimally invasive surgery for objective laparoscopic skill assessment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jacob; Brown, Jeffrey D; Barreca, Marco; Chang, Lily; Hannaford, Blake; Sinanan, Mika

    2002-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgeiy (MIS) involves a multi-dimensional series of tasks requiring a synthesis between visual information and the kinematics and dynamics of the surgical tools. Analysis of these sources of information is a key step in mastering MIS surgery but may also be used to define objective criteria for characterizing surgical performance. The BIueDRAGON is a new system for acquiring the kinematics and the dynamics of two endoscopic tools along with the visual view of the surgical scene. It includes two four-bar mechanisms equipped with position and force torque sensors for measuring the positions and the orientations (P/O) of two endoscopic tools along with the forces and torques applied by the surgeons hands. The methodology of decomposing the surgical task is based on a fully connected, finite-states (28 states) Markov model where each states corresponded to a fundamental tool/tissue interaction based on the tool kinematics and associated with unique F/T signatures. The experimental protocol included seven MIS tasks performed on an animal model (pig) by 30 surgeons at different levels of their residency training. Preliminary analysis of these data showed that major differences between residents at different skill levels were: (i) the types of tool/tissue interactions being used, (ii) the transitions between tool/tissue interactions being applied by each hand, (iii) time spent while perfonning each tool/tissue interaction, (iv) the overall completion time, and (v) the variable F/T magnitudes being applied by the subjects through the endoscopic tools. Systems like surgical robots or virtual reality simulators that inherently measure the kinematics and the dynamics of the surgical tool may benefit from inclusion of the proposed methodology for analysis of efficacy and objective evaluation of surgical skills during training. PMID:15458124

  18. Measurement and ANN prediction of pH-dependent solubility of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feifei; Yu, Qingni; Zhu, Jingke; Lei, Lecheng; Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang

    2015-09-01

    Based on the solubility of 25 nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) measured by saturation shake-flask method, artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to the study of the quantitative relationship between the structure and pH-dependent solubility of NHCs. With genetic algorithm-multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR) approach, five out of the 1497 molecular descriptors computed by Dragon software were selected to describe the molecular structures of NHCs. Using the five selected molecular descriptors as well as pH and the partial charge on the nitrogen atom of NHCs (QN) as inputs of ANN, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model without using Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH) equation was successfully developed to predict the aqueous solubility of NHCs in different pH water solutions. The prediction model performed well on the 25 model NHCs with an absolute average relative deviation (AARD) of 5.9%, while HH approach gave an AARD of 36.9% for the same model NHCs. It was found that QN played a very important role in the description of NHCs and, with QN, ANN became a potential tool for the prediction of pH-dependent solubility of NHCs.

  19. Yangtze River's Connecting Lakes' Hydrological Conditions Analysis Exploiting 14 Years of Dragon Time Series and Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Stuber, Mathias; Daillet-Rochette, Sylviane; Yesou, Herve

    2014-11-01

    Yangtze reaches, particularly on the middle and lower ones as the human population, few hundred millions of inhabitants downstream of 3 Gorges dam, depend directly on the services that wetlands provide: regulating services such as flood storage; provisioning services such as fishing, and being biodiversity holders. The two largest fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting Lakes, which are very valuable ecosystems in term of biodiversity maintain but also threaded by epidemics, are the core of the monitored area since 2000. In complement a monitoring of small lakes of Anhui province has begun. This monitoring has allowed characterizing trends on an intra and interring annual basis. A key result is the increase of years with water default since the mid 2000, ie near one year every two years. Results of the dynamic analysis of water height and water surfaces can be now analyzed in term of climatic variations and human activities. Obtained results shown that the meteorology, ie rainfall, at Yangtze’s basin scale rather than lakes’ basin scale, has a significant impact on water resources. In addition, and this for the first time, the effects management mode of the 3 Gorges reservoir, ie infilling of the reservoir rapidly in October at the beginning of the dry period followed by a slow release of the stocked water appears to reinforce the trends observed in recent drought years.

  20. Chemical dependence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd.org National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.drugabuse.gov ...

  1. Development and validation of burnup dependent computational schemes for the analysis of assemblies with advanced lattice codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    The main aim of this research is the development and validation of computational schemes for advanced lattice codes. The advanced lattice code which forms the primary part of this research is "DRAGON Version4". The code has unique features like self shielding calculation with capabilities to represent distributed and mutual resonance shielding effects, leakage models with space-dependent isotropic or anisotropic streaming effect, availability of the method of characteristics (MOC), burnup calculation with reaction-detailed energy production etc. Qualified reactor physics codes are essential for the study of all existing and envisaged designs of nuclear reactors. Any new design would require a thorough analysis of all the safety parameters and burnup dependent behaviour. Any reactor physics calculation requires the estimation of neutron fluxes in various regions of the problem domain. The calculation goes through several levels before the desired solution is obtained. Each level of the lattice calculation has its own significance and any compromise at any step will lead to poor final result. The various levels include choice of nuclear data library and energy group boundaries into which the multigroup library is cast; self shielding of nuclear data depending on the heterogeneous geometry and composition; tracking of geometry, keeping error in volume and surface to an acceptable minimum; generation of regionwise and groupwise collision probabilities or MOC-related information and their subsequent normalization thereof, solution of transport equation using the previously generated groupwise information and obtaining the fluxes and reaction rates in various regions of the lattice; depletion of fuel and of other materials based on normalization with constant power or constant flux. Of the above mentioned levels, the present research will mainly focus on two aspects, namely self shielding and depletion. The behaviour of the system is determined by composition of resonant

  2. Interactions among thermal parameters determine offspring sex under temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-22

    In many animals, temperatures experienced by developing embryos determine offspring sex (e.g. temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD), but most studies focus strictly on the effects of mean temperature, with little emphasis on the importance of thermal fluctuations. In the jacky dragon (Amphibolurus muricatus), an Australian lizard with TSD, data from nests in the field demonstrate that offspring sex ratios are predictable from thermal fluctuations but not from mean nest temperatures. To clarify this paradox, we incubated eggs in a factorial experiment with two levels of mean temperature and three levels of diel fluctuation. We show that offspring sex is determined by an interaction between these critical thermal parameters. Intriguingly, because these two thermal descriptors shift in opposing directions throughout the incubation season, this interactive effect inhibits seasonal shifts in sex ratio. Hence, our results suggest that TSD can yield offspring sex ratios that resemble those produced under genotypic sex-determining systems. These findings raise important considerations for understanding the diversity of TSD reaction norms, for designing experiments that evaluate the evolutionary significance of TSD, and for predicting sex ratios under past and future climate change scenarios.

  3. Interactions among thermal parameters determine offspring sex under temperature-dependent sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A.; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In many animals, temperatures experienced by developing embryos determine offspring sex (e.g. temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD), but most studies focus strictly on the effects of mean temperature, with little emphasis on the importance of thermal fluctuations. In the jacky dragon (Amphibolurus muricatus), an Australian lizard with TSD, data from nests in the field demonstrate that offspring sex ratios are predictable from thermal fluctuations but not from mean nest temperatures. To clarify this paradox, we incubated eggs in a factorial experiment with two levels of mean temperature and three levels of diel fluctuation. We show that offspring sex is determined by an interaction between these critical thermal parameters. Intriguingly, because these two thermal descriptors shift in opposing directions throughout the incubation season, this interactive effect inhibits seasonal shifts in sex ratio. Hence, our results suggest that TSD can yield offspring sex ratios that resemble those produced under genotypic sex-determining systems. These findings raise important considerations for understanding the diversity of TSD reaction norms, for designing experiments that evaluate the evolutionary significance of TSD, and for predicting sex ratios under past and future climate change scenarios. PMID:20685704

  4. Dependency, Empathy, and Altruism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shirley Matile

    This study examined the relationship of dependency, empathy, and altruism. It was hypothesized that: (1) dependency would be related in a curvilinear manner to empathy, with children who are moderate in dependency scoring highest in empathy; (2) dependency would be positively related to visible altruism when such prosocial behavior results in…

  5. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  6. Learning Genetics with Computer Dragons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decades, genetics has remained a difficult topic in school science. This paper presents an interactive multimedia program, "BioLogica", used to teach Grade 10 (14- and 15-year-olds) Australian students about genetics. Over six weeks, the teacher used different representations in the teaching and engaged students in computer…

  7. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP). PMID:12278008

  8. The Year of the Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Margaret Young

    1976-01-01

    Author used her childhood memories to help her kindergartners in Honolulu, Hawaii, many of whom are Chinese, to further understand and enjoy the Chinese New Year and its customs. Perhaps her experiences will become a springboard for individual or group investigations of other ethnic-centered festivals. (Editor/RK)

  9. Risk Management: Defusing the Dragon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan; Boone, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    Discusses risk-management planning from the perspectives of the current state of risk-management, assumption of risk defense, participant and public attitudes, and specific techniques for constructing a risk-management plan. Offers practical suggestions for limiting risk and liability. Provides sample assumption of risk/liability release form.…

  10. 3D MI-DRAGON: new model for the reconstruction of US FDA drug- target network and theoretical-experimental studies of inhibitors of rasagiline derivatives for AChE.

    PubMed

    Prado-Prado, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Escobar, Manuel; Alonso, Nerea; Caamaño, Olga; Yañez, Matilde; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    The number of neurodegenerative diseases has been increasing in recent years. Many of the drug candidates to be used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases present specific 3D structural features. An important protein in this sense is the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is the target of many Alzheimer's dementia drugs. Consequently, the prediction of Drug-Protein Interactions (DPIs/nDPIs) between new drug candidates and specific 3D structure and targets is of major importance. To this end, we can use Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models to carry out a rational DPIs prediction. Unfortunately, many previous QSAR models developed to predict DPIs take into consideration only 2D structural information and codify the activity against only one target. To solve this problem we can develop some 3D multi-target QSAR (3D mt-QSAR) models. In this study, using the 3D MI-DRAGON technique, we have introduced a new predictor for DPIs based on two different well-known software. We have used the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) and DRAGON software to calculate 3D structural parameters for drugs and targets respectively. Both classes of 3D parameters were used as input to train Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) algorithms using as benchmark dataset the complex network (CN) made up of all DPIs between US FDA approved drugs and their targets. The entire dataset was downloaded from the DrugBank database. The best 3D mt-QSAR predictor found was an ANN of Multi-Layer Perceptron-type (MLP) with profile MLP 37:37-24-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 274 out of 321 DPIs (Sensitivity = 85.35%) and 1041 out of 1190 nDPIs (Specificity = 87.48%), corresponding to training Accuracy = 87.03%. We have validated the model with external predicting series with Sensitivity = 84.16% (542/644 DPIs; Specificity = 87.51% (2039/2330 nDPIs) and Accuracy = 86.78%. The new CNs of DPIs reconstructed from US FDA can be used to explore large DPI databases in order to discover both new drugs

  11. [Cannabis: Use and dependence].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific. PMID:23040955

  12. Validation of updated neutronic calculation models proposed for Atucha-II PHWR. Part I: Benchmark comparisons of WIMS-D5 and DRAGON cell and control rod parameters with MCNP5

    SciTech Connect

    Mollerach, R.; Leszczynski, F.; Fink, J.

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure-vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels, and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO{sub 2} rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update calculation methods and models (cell, supercell and reactor) was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. As a validation of the new models some benchmark comparisons were done with Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP5. This paper presents comparisons of cell and supercell benchmark problems based on a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the WIMS-D5 and DRAGON codes with MCNP5 results. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, and more symmetric than Atucha-II Cell parameters compared include cell k-infinity, relative power levels of the different rings of fuel rods, and some two-group macroscopic cross sections. Supercell comparisons include supercell k-infinity changes due to the control rods (tubes) of steel and hafnium. (authors)

  13. Dependent Probability Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  14. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  15. Adam Smith and dependency.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing. PMID:22712591

  16. Adam Smith and dependency.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing.

  17. Spatial-dependent Propagation of Cosmic Rays Results in the Spectrum of Proton, Ratios of P/P, and B/C, and Anisotropy of Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yi-Qing; Tian, Zhen; Jin, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Recent precise measurements of cosmic ray spectra revealed an anomalous hardening at ∼200 GV, observed by the ATIC, CREAM, PAMELA, and AMS02 experiments. Particularly, the latest observation of the \\bar{p}/p ratio by AMS02 demonstrated a flat distribution, which further validated the spectral anomalies of secondary particles. All those new phenomena indicated that the conventional propagation model of cosmic rays meets a challenge. In this work, the spatial-dependent diffusion coefficient D(r,z,p) is employed by tracing the source distribution under the physical picture of the two-halo model in the DRAGON package. Under such a scenario, the model calculation will result in two-component spectra for primary nuclei. Due to the smaller rigidity dependence of D(r,z,p) in the galactic disk, the ratios secondary-to-primary will inevitably be flatter and the expected anisotropy of cosmic rays will be much more attenuated than in the conventional model. As a result, we can reproduce the spectral hardening of protons, the flat ratios of \\bar{p}/p and B/C, and consistent anisotropy from ∼100 GeV to ∼100 TeV by only adopting one set of spatial-dependent diffusion coefficients D(r,z,p) in a galactic disk.

  18. Mephentermine dependence with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gehlawat, Pratibha; Singh, Priti; Gupta, Rajiv; Arya, Sidharth

    2013-01-01

    Mephentermine misuse or dependence has been rarely reported in the literature. This is surprising as mephentermine bears a close structural similarity to methamphetamine. Here we report a case of mephentermine dependence with induced psychosis. A 23-year-old professional weightlifter used to administer mephentermine (60 mg) for improving performance in tournaments. The patient became dependent on mephentermine in 2009, and his consumption increased to 100-150 mg every 2-3 days since August 2012 until his presentation in clinic in mid-October 2012. He developed psychosis and had persecutory delusions. Remission of psychosis was seen with stopping use of mephentermine and use of antipsychotic medication. PMID:23759255

  19. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disapproval Becoming overly focused on fears of being abandoned Becoming very passive in relationships Feeling very upset ... a mental health professional if you or your child has symptoms of dependent personality disorder.

  20. Measurement of Tanning Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, C.J.; Darlow, S.; Kloss, J.D.; Cohen-Filipic, J.; Manne, S.L.; Munshi, T.; Yaroch, A.L.; Perlis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indoor tanning has been found to be addictive. However, the most commonly-used tanning dependence measures have not been well-validated. Objective The study’s purpose was to explore the psychometric characteristics of and compare the mCAGE (modified Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener Scale), mDSM-IV-TR (modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition - Text Revised), and TAPS (Tanning Pathology Scale) measures of tanning dependence and provide recommendations for research and practice. Methods This study was a cross-sectional online survey with 18–25 year old female university students. The main outcome variable was tanning dependence measured by the mCAGE, mDSM-IV-TR, and TAPS. Results Internal consistency of the TAPS subscales was good but was poor for the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR, except when their items were combined. Agreement between the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR was fair. Factor analysis of the TAPS confirmed the current four-factor structure. All of the tanning dependence scales were significantly correlated with one another. Likewise, most of the tanning dependence scales were significantly correlated with other measures of tanning attitudes and behaviors. However, the tolerance to tanning TAPS subscale was not significantly correlated with any measure of tanning attitudes or behaviors and had the lowest subscale internal reliability and eigenvalues. Conclusion Based on the data and existing literature, we make recommendations for the continued use of tanning dependence measures. Intervention may be needed for the approximately 5% of college women who tend to be classified as tanning dependent across measures. Monitoring of individuals reporting tanning dependence symptoms is warranted. PMID:23980870

  1. Medication dependence and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    von Moltke, Lisa L.; Greenblatt, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common and costly psychiatric illnesses. Pharmacological treatment was enhanced with the introduction of benzodiazepines, which proved safer and more effective than older drugs. The risk of dependence, however, has made clinicians reluctant to use these medications. In fact, few patients appear to develop significant difficulties with these drugs, given how widely they are used. Careful planning for discontinuation of therapy is important. In addition, for some individuals, there appears to be a complex and as yet unelucidaied relationship between dependence on drugs or alcohol and anxiety. The newer antidepressants offer efficacy without abuse or dependence liability, but are expensive and have side effects that are intolerable for some patients. Pharmacological therapy for anxiety should be prescribed and managed so as to minimize any existing risk, while aiming to restore the patient to wellness in terms of symptoms and function. PMID:22033703

  2. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  3. Dependability and performability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivedi, Kishor S.; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Malhotra, Manish; Sahner, Robin A.

    1993-01-01

    Several practical issues regarding specifications and solution of dependability and performability models are discussed. Model types with and without rewards are compared. Continuous-time Markov chains (CTMC's) are compared with (continuous-time) Markov reward models (MRM's) and generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPN's) are compared with stochastic reward nets (SRN's). It is shown that reward-based models could lead to more concise model specifications and solution of a variety of new measures. With respect to the solution of dependability and performability models, three practical issues were identified: largeness, stiffness, and non-exponentiality, and a variety of approaches are discussed to deal with them, including some of the latest research efforts.

  4. Gifted Military Dependents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Bess M.; Walters, Debbie

    1985-01-01

    Two articles address problems and issues in serving gifted military dependents. The first offers suggestions for parents, including handcarrying records, involving themselves in schools, and maintaining a positive attitude toward service life. The second article describes TAG (talented and gifted) programs at the Department of Defense Dependents…

  5. Epilepsy and dependence.

    PubMed

    Martinove, Mária

    2010-03-01

    Epilepsy is relatively frequent neurological condition. Its prevalence is assumed to be about 1%, and it would be interesting to see how many of these people have comorbid substance dependence disorder. The manifestation of epilepsy exhibits a seizure-like condition with typical neurological and psychical symptoms, which are induced by pathological electric discharges in brain. The population of addicts is known to have higher prevalence of seizures, found not only in alcohol abusers, but also in illicit drug users. The aim of our paper is to give an overview of the prevalence rates of this serious health condition in patients with substance dependence treated at the OLUP NPO, Predná Hora. The author compares two groups of patients: with and without the epileptic seizures. Alcohol addicts prevailed in both groups. Each 8th treated dependent patient had at least one epileptic seizure. Nearly the same percent of dependent patients in both groups (43,6% vs. 40,9%) holds a driving license, thus they probably also drive a motor vehicle. Is there any person who would initiate withdrawal of driving license from such patients? Frequent somatic diseases in more than one half of the group with seizures (more than 62%) highlight the fact that this group of patients requires thorough and financially probably more demanding health care. PMID:20305305

  6. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  7. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  8. Measurement dependent locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütz, Gilles; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration and use of Bell-nonlocality, a concept that is fundamentally striking and is at the core of applications in device independent quantum information processing, relies heavily on the assumption of measurement independence, also called the assumption of free choice. The latter cannot be verified or guaranteed. In this paper, we consider a relaxation of the measurement independence assumption. We briefly review the results of Pütz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 190402), which show that with our relaxation, the set of so-called measurement dependent local (MDL) correlations is a polytope, i.e. it can be fully described using a finite set of linear inequalities. Here we analyze this polytope, first in the simplest case of two parties with binary inputs and outputs, for which we give a full characterization. We show that partially entangled states are preferable to the maximally entangled state when dealing with measurement dependence in this scenario. We further present a method which transforms any Bell-inequality into an MDL inequality and give valid inequalities for the case of arbitrary number of parties as well as one for arbitrary number of inputs. We introduce the assumption of independent sources in the measurement dependence scenario and give a full analysis for the bipartite scenario with binary inputs and outputs. Finally, we establish a link between measurement dependence and another strong hindrance in certifying nonlocal correlations: nondetection events.

  9. Evolution of Metabolic Dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying

    Microbes are often found to have lost their ability to make essential metabolites (auxotrophs) and instead rely on other individuals for these metabolites. How might metabolic dependency evolve to be so common? When microbes live inside a host (endosymbionts), amply host metabolites support auxotrophic endosymbionts. If the host transmits only a small number of endosymbionts to its offspring, then auxotrophic endosymbionts can rise to high frequency simply by chance. On the other hand, auxotrophs have also been observed in abundant free-living bacteria found in ocean water where nutrient supply is low. How might auxotrophs rise to an appreciable frequency in a large population when nutrient supply is low? We have found commonly-encountered conditions that facilitate the evolution of metabolic dependency. Metabolic interactions can in turn shape spatial organization of microbial communities (Momeni et al. (2013) eLife 2, 00230; Momeni et al. (2013) eLife 2, 00960; Estrela and Brown (2013) PLoS Comput Biol 9, e1003398; Muller et al. (2014) PNAS 111, 1037-1042). Rapid evolution of metabolic dependency can contribute to the complexity of microbial communities. Evolution of metabolic dependency.

  10. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Malerød, Lene; Berg, Trond; Kjeken, Rune

    2004-01-01

    The process by which clathrin-coated vesicles are produced involves interactions of multifunctional adaptor proteins with the plasma membrane, as well as with clathrin and several accessory proteins and phosphoinositides. Here we review recent findings highlighting new insights into mechanisms underlying clathrin-dependent endocytosis. PMID:14505490

  11. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  12. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  13. [Tobacco dependence treatment guidelines].

    PubMed

    Králíková, Eva; Češka, Richard; Pánková, Alexandra; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco dependence causes every sixth death in the Czech Republic and is associated with diseases of the whole body. Treatment of tobacco dependence should be a standard part of clinical care to the extent of time available--from brief intervention at each clinical contact with patients up to intensive treatment. It includes psycho-socio-behavioural support and pharmacotherapy. It should apply to all professions in clinical medicine--as recommended by WHO mainly doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists, and should be covered within health care systems. Economically, it is one of the most cost-effective interventions in medicine. In our population over 15 years about 30% smokes (about 2.2 million people), diagnosis F17 relates to approximately 1.75 million people (about 80% of smokers). PMID:26955915

  14. Lokiarchaeon is hydrogen dependent.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Neukirchen, Sinje; Allen, John F; Lane, Nick; Martin, William F

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the host that acquired the mitochondrion at the eukaryote origin is an important microbial evolutionary issue. Modern phylogenetics indicates that the host was an archaeon. The metagenome sequence of Candidatus Lokiarchaeon has identified it as being the closest relative of the host yet known. Here, we report comparative genomic evidence indicating that Lokiarchaeon is hydrogen dependent, as one theory for the eukaryote origin-the hydrogen hypothesis-predicts for the host lineage. PMID:27572645

  15. Is extinction age dependent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, N.A.; Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Huffer, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent extinction is an observation with important biological implications. Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis triggered three decades of research testing its primary implication: that age is independent of extinction. In contrast to this, later studies with species-level data have indicated the possible presence of age dependence. Since the formulation of the Red Queen hypothesis, more powerful tests of survivorship models have been developed. This is the first report of the application of the Cox Proportional Hazards model to paleontological data. Planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies allow the taxonomic and precise stratigraphic resolution necessary for the Cox model. As a whole, planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies clearly show age-dependent extinction. In particular, the effect is attributable to the presence of shorter-ranged species (range < 4 myr) following extinction events. These shorter-ranged species also possess tests with unique morphological architecture. The morphological differences are probably epiphenomena of underlying developmental and heterochronic processes of shorter-ranged species that survived various extinction events. Extinction survivors carry developmental and morphological characteristics into postextinction recovery times, and this sets them apart from species populations established independently of extinction events. Copyright ?? 2006, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  16. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  17. Butterflies, Black swans and Dragon kings: How to use the Dynamical Systems Theory to build a "zoology" of mid-latitude circulation atmospheric extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, D.; Yiou, P.; Alvarez-Castro, M. C. M.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of dynamical systems and statistical techniques allows for a robust assessment of the dynamical properties of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. Extremes at different spatial and time scales are not only associated to exceptionally intense weather structures (e.g. extra-tropical cyclones) but also to rapid changes of circulation regimes (thunderstorms, supercells) or the extreme persistence of weather structure (heat waves, cold spells). We will show how the dynamical systems theory of recurrence combined to the extreme value theory can take into account the spatial and temporal dependence structure of the mid-latitude circulation structures and provide information on the statistics of extreme events.

  18. Portage and Path Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  19. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  20. Water Resource Monitoring Based on EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze Middle Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathais; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  1. Development and validation of burnup dependent computational schemes for the analysis of assemblies with advanced lattice codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    The main aim of this research is the development and validation of computational schemes for advanced lattice codes. The advanced lattice code which forms the primary part of this research is "DRAGON Version4". The code has unique features like self shielding calculation with capabilities to represent distributed and mutual resonance shielding effects, leakage models with space-dependent isotropic or anisotropic streaming effect, availability of the method of characteristics (MOC), burnup calculation with reaction-detailed energy production etc. Qualified reactor physics codes are essential for the study of all existing and envisaged designs of nuclear reactors. Any new design would require a thorough analysis of all the safety parameters and burnup dependent behaviour. Any reactor physics calculation requires the estimation of neutron fluxes in various regions of the problem domain. The calculation goes through several levels before the desired solution is obtained. Each level of the lattice calculation has its own significance and any compromise at any step will lead to poor final result. The various levels include choice of nuclear data library and energy group boundaries into which the multigroup library is cast; self shielding of nuclear data depending on the heterogeneous geometry and composition; tracking of geometry, keeping error in volume and surface to an acceptable minimum; generation of regionwise and groupwise collision probabilities or MOC-related information and their subsequent normalization thereof, solution of transport equation using the previously generated groupwise information and obtaining the fluxes and reaction rates in various regions of the lattice; depletion of fuel and of other materials based on normalization with constant power or constant flux. Of the above mentioned levels, the present research will mainly focus on two aspects, namely self shielding and depletion. The behaviour of the system is determined by composition of resonant

  2. Parenthood and opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    Pihkala, Heljä; Sandlund, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many patients in maintenance treatment programs for opioid dependence are parents to underage children. Objective The aim of this study was to explore how parents who are regular patients in maintenance treatment perceive their parenthood. Methods The study used a qualitative approach. The informants were recruited by staff at a substance abuse clinic in Sweden. Criteria for inclusion were participation in the local maintenance treatment program, having a child or children younger than 18 years, and being in contact with the child or children. Data were collected in 2012–2013 by in-depth interviews of seven fathers and five mothers and analyzed using concepts and procedures of qualitative content analysis. Results The central findings of the study were: 1) the parents’ concerns about possible future discrimination against their children, ie, stigma by association; and 2) the patients’ own parents’ role as the most important support in parenthood. Conclusion The issue of anticipated discrimination against the children of parents undergoing maintenance treatment might be an aspect to consider in the development of interventions and support. Considering the role of the patients’ own parents also seems important. PMID:25709518

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  4. Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert J C

    2010-01-01

    The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are part of a large family of pore-forming proteins that include the human proteins perforin and the complement membrane attack complex. The activity of all family members is focused on membranes, but the proteins are themselves involved in a diverse range of phenomena. An overview of some of these phenomena is provided here, along with an historical perspective of CDCs themselves and how our understanding of their mechanism of action has developed over the years. The way in which pore formation depends on specific characteristics of the membrane under attack as well as of the protein doing the attacking is emphasised. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) have been the focus of a renewed keen research interest for over ten years now. Their importance has been even further enhanced by the homology now identified between them and the membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) family of proteins, which includes several components of the complement cascade as well as perforin itself. In this chapter I aim to provide an overview of our understanding of the interaction between CDCs and other members of what is now called the MACPF/CDC superfamily, with their target membranes. CDCs (also in the past known as thiol-activated toxins or cholesterol-binding toxins) were originally identified from four Gram-positive bacterial genera (Clostridium, Listeria, Bacillus and Streptococcus). Well-known examples include listeriolysin, perfringolysin, streptolysin and pneumoysin. Listeriolysin from L. monocytogenes is responsible for the escape of bacteria from the phagosome to colonise the cytoplasm and has been applied as a protein adjuvant in the development of vaccines against cancer and tuberculosis, for example. Perfringolysin from C. perfringens (Fig. 1A) has become perhaps the most studied CDC4 and has an important role in pathology associated with infection (gangrene). Streptolysin from S. pyogenes is another intensely studied

  5. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  6. Context-dependent generalization

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jordan A.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization. PMID:23653603

  7. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  8. Texting Dependence, iPod Dependence, and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F Richard; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. These are the first data to show that delay discounting relates to certain aspects of social media, namely iPod and texting dependence. These data also show that across these 2 dependencies, both psychological and behavioral symptoms and relationship disruptions are affected. PMID:27424418

  9. Texting Dependence, iPod Dependence, and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F Richard; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. These are the first data to show that delay discounting relates to certain aspects of social media, namely iPod and texting dependence. These data also show that across these 2 dependencies, both psychological and behavioral symptoms and relationship disruptions are affected.

  10. Analyse de l'impact de l'environnement dans un schema de calcul a deux etapes avec DRAGON et DONJON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Christophe

    The calculation of the neutron flux is an important data that is used to determine the dynamic of the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). However the transport equation which gives the neutron flux, cannot be solved in three dimensions over the whole core, in evolution because of the power of the current computers, which are too slow. So some simplifications are necessary to calculate this flux. Two-levels schemes are used, where, in a first step, some macroscopic cross sections libraries are generated by solving the transport equation using infinite lattice calculations on two dimensions assemblies. These sections are generally homogenized on the whole assembly and condensed to two energy groups. In a second step, the whole core calculation is carried out using the diffusion equation, with the cross sections of the libraries previously generated, interpolated at the values of the different parameters. However the core of a PWR is made up of many assemblies, that can contain two types of fuel : Uranium OXyde (UOX) or plutonium and uranium Mixed OXyde (MOX). Moreover all these assemblies have different burnup because each one can be used for three or four cycles depending on the PWR. So that imply some burnup gradients. Thus the hypothesis of the infinite lattice used to generate the cross sections libraries can be highly inaccurate. The first goal of this project is to generate cross sections libraries that take into account the environment and to evaluate the impact of this heterogeneous environment on the core calculation. The flux obtained with the diffusion equation at the end of the core calculation is not accurate enough, du to the homogenization by assembly, to determine and to locate the hotspot factor, which represents an important industrial problematic. The principle of the power reconstruction method (PRM) is to reconstruct the more accurately possible the flux in the pins, with a combination of the diffusion flux and some microscopic flux which

  11. Tobacco Dependence Among Intermittent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Stuart G.; Dunbar, Michael S.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Intermittent smokers (ITS) are an increasingly prevalent segment of smokers, yet it is unknown whether or how dependence severity may vary across ITS. Methods: Participants were 217 ITS (70 never daily ITS [NITS], 138 converted ITS [CITS], and 9 unknown), who smoked 4–27 days per month, and 197 daily smokers (DS), recruited for a study on smoking patterns. Participants completed questionnaires on dependence (time to first cigarette after waking, Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence [FTND], Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale [NDSS], Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives [WISDM], and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist [HONC]) and recorded each cigarette in real time over 3 weeks using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Logistic regression assessed differences in dependence between groups (DS vs. ITS; CITS vs. NITS), and least squares regression examined associations between dependence and smoking behavior (mean, maximum cigarettes per day; proportion of days smoked; longest period of abstinence) within ITS. Results: As expected, DS were significantly more dependent than ITS: FTND, NDSS, and WISDM discriminated between ITS and DS with greater than 90% accuracy. Similarly, among ITS, NITS demonstrated lower dependence than CITS. Within ITS, dependence measures also correlated with observed smoking rate and duration of abstinence. Conclusions: The study confirmed that DS are more dependent than ITS and that CITS are more dependent than NITS. Importantly, ITS exhibit features of dependence, and there is meaningful variation in dependence within ITS, suggesting that some aspects of dependence may appear with very infrequent smoking. Future work should examine implications for ITS’ potential progression to daily smoking and cessation outcome. PMID:22529224

  12. Study designs for dependent happenings.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M E; Struchiner, C J

    1991-09-01

    In 1916, Sir Ronald Ross defined "dependent happenings" as events where the number affected in a unit of time depends on the number already affected. That is, the incidence depends on the prevalence, a characteristic of many infectious diseases. Because of this dependence, interventions against infectious diseases can have not only direct protective effects for the person receiving an intervention, but also indirect effects resulting from changes in the intensity of transmission in the population. This paper develops the conceptual framework for four types of study designs that differentiate and account for direct and indirect effects of intervention programs in dependent happenings.

  13. Mexican oil and dependent development

    SciTech Connect

    Gentleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The developmet of Mexico's enormous hydrocarbon resources during the latter part of the 1970's provides an opportunity to examine the impact of Mexico's dependent-state status upon the use of the resource. Specifically, this study examines the hypothesis, drawn from the dependency literature, that the development of this resource within the context of dependency would lead to a greater internationalization of the Mexican economy and, in general, a deepening of Mexico's dependence rather than a lessening of that dependence as Mexico's political leaders suggest. The study also examines the impact of hydrocarbon development upon the growth of the Mexican state and state capitalism. Finally, the study examines the extent to which Mexico has sought to and has been able to modify the conditions of its dependence at the level of international exchange in the specific areas of trade, labor, and energy. Has the ''oil weapon'' been sufficiently powerful to modify substantially and fundamentally the terms of Mexico's dependence as some would argue should be able to do and as Mexico's leaders believed it would. Essentially, the study finds that Mexico's dependence has been exacerbated by the program of hydrocarbon development. Not only has the specific profile of oil, gas, and petrochemicals development been substantially impacted upon by Mexico's dependence, but the program for general economic development based upon the utilization of new oil revenues initiated a new era of dependent development for Mexico.

  14. Detecting Mood-Dependent Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Bower, Gordon H.

    The mood-dependent retrieval hypothesis states that mood will enhance recall by acting as a recall cue if the stimuli have been learned initially in the same mood. Material learned in a happy mood will be best recalled when the person returns to a happy mood; the same holds for a sad mood. Mood-dependent retrieval effect has been regulary…

  15. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  16. How a Dragon Gets Its Wings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of activities that help students form accurate conceptions of meiosis and how its process and purpose differ greatly from mitosis. Discusses the concept of crossing over. Uses a small plastic egg to engage students in a fertilization activity. (SAH)

  17. The Return of the Sun Dragon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses types of solar eclipses and the frequency of their occurrence. Emphasis is placed on the May 30, 1984 solar eclipse. Ideas for building a pinhole camera to view the eclipse, to determine if the sun is changing size, and to report scientific findings are provided. (BC)

  18. Donkeys and Dragons: Recollections of Schoolteachers' Nicknames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2002-01-01

    Explores characteristics of using nicknames for teachers as recalled by a sample of university students (n=103) who completed a questionnaire. Reports that most nicknames expressed contempt or dislike, attempted to get even, and drew upon physical characteristics of the person. Includes references. (CMK)

  19. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year (n=167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful. PMID:24761264

  20. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  1. The Cost of Technological Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Surendra J.

    1973-01-01

    Technological transfer often exacts a definite price, with the developing countries in an obvious situation of dependency. But today it is possible to appraise the economic and social cost of transference. (BL)

  2. Dependence of maxima in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, H.; Pereira, L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the dependence among large values of a spatial process of maxima trough a coefficient that can be applied in natural, technical and societal extreme phenomena. Its main properties are: a) k locations can be taken into account; b) it takes values in [0,1] and higher values indicate stronger dependence; c) it is independent of the univariate marginal distributions of the random field; d) it can be related with other coefficients in the literature such as the tail dependence and the extremal coefficients; e) it agrees with the concordance property for multivariate distributions; f) it has as a particular case the variogram from geostatistics; g) it can be easily estimated. We illustrate the application of the introduced coefficient with the estimation of the degree of dependence among large values of the amount of tritium in drinking water for tree cities.

  3. Scale-dependent halo bias from scale-dependent growth

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Hui, Lam; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-03-15

    We derive a general expression for the large-scale halo bias, in theories with a scale-dependent linear growth, using the excursion set formalism. Such theories include modified-gravity models, and models in which the dark energy clustering is non-negligible. A scale dependence is imprinted in both the formation and evolved biases by the scale-dependent growth. Mergers are accounted for in our derivation, which thus extends earlier work which focused on passive evolution. There is a simple analytic form for the bias for those theories in which the nonlinear collapse of perturbations is approximately the same as in general relativity. As an illustration, we apply our results to a simple Yukawa modification of gravity, and use Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the clustering of luminous red galaxies to constrain the theory's parameters.

  4. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  5. [Drug dependence and psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Giraud, M J; Lemonnier, E; Bigot, T

    1994-11-01

    Although the utility of psychotropic drugs has been well demonstrated, caution must still be exercised in their use. Among their potential risks, drug dependency must be kept in mind. This risk is well accepted with regard to benzodiazepines, and it appeared useful to study the potential risk for antidepressants, neuroleptics and thymoregulatory agents. Whatever the drug, the predominant factor appears to be psychological dependency. Prevention of drug dependency is most often achieved by informing the patient, limiting the length of use of the drug, making regular reevaluation of symptoms and of drug indication, and frequently be establishing a "treatment contract". The importance of the patient-physician relationship in the prescription of such treatment must be underlined. PMID:7984941

  6. Developing Tests of Visual Dependency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindrat, Alexandra N.

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts develop neural adaptive responses to microgravity during space flight. Consequently these adaptive responses cause maladaptive disturbances in balance and gait function when astronauts return to Earth and are re-exposed to gravity. Current research in the Neuroscience Laboratories at NASA-JSC is focused on understanding how exposure to space flight produces post-flight disturbances in balance and gait control and developing training programs designed to facilitate the rapid recovery of functional mobility after space flight. In concert with these disturbances, astronauts also often report an increase in their visual dependency during space flight. To better understand this phenomenon, studies were conducted with specially designed training programs focusing on visual dependency with the aim to understand and enhance subjects ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. The Rod and Frame test (RFT) was used first to assess an individual s visual dependency, using a variety of testing techniques. Once assessed, subjects were asked to perform two novel tasks under transformation (both the Pegboard and Cube Construction tasks). Results indicate that head position cues and initial visual test conditions had no effect on an individual s visual dependency scores. Subjects were also able to adapt to the manual tasks after several trials. Individual visual dependency correlated with ability to adapt manual to a novel visual distortion only for the cube task. Subjects with higher visual dependency showed decreased ability to adapt to this task. Ultimately, it was revealed that the RFT may serve as an effective prediction tool to produce individualized adaptability training prescriptions that target the specific sensory profile of each crewmember.

  7. ROS-dependent signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Colleen R; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are no longer viewed as just a toxic by-product of mitochondrial respiration, but are now appreciated for their role in regulating a myriad of cellular signaling pathways. H2O2, a type of ROS, is a signaling molecule that confers target specificity through thiol oxidation. Although redox-dependent signaling has been implicated in numerous cellular processes, the mechanism by which the ROS signal is transmitted to its target protein in the face of highly reactive and abundant antioxidants is not fully understood. In this review of redox-signaling biology, we discuss the possible mechanisms for H2O2-dependent signal transduction. PMID:25305438

  8. Waveform-Dependent Absorbing Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Kim, Sanghoon; Rushton, Jeremiah J.; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first use of a waveform-dependent absorbing metasurface for high-power pulsed surface currents. The new type of nonlinear metasurface, composed of circuit elements including diodes, is capable of storing high-power pulse energy to dissipate it between pulses, while allowing propagation of small signals. Interestingly, the absorbing performance varies for high-power pulses but not for high-power continuous waves (CW’s), since the capacitors used are fully charged up. Thus, the waveform dependence enables us to distinguish various signal types (i.e., CW or pulse) even at the same frequency, which potentially creates new kinds of microwave technologies and applications.

  9. We Depend on Illinois' Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

    This teachers guide contains information and activities to provide 5th-grade students with a hands-on experience with air, land, and water pollution in Illinois. This booklet incorporates previous documents entitled: "Water the Liquid of Life,""The Land We Depend On," and "The Air We Breathe." The materials are designed to develop research,…

  10. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  11. The Study of Curricular Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiu, Dragos

    2006-01-01

    In the educational process, the disciplines D1, D2,...,Dn have a succession which is generated by the content and the final objective--the student formation. In this work, the disciplines are presented as structured text entities. The graph associated to the disciplines is established. A method for dependencies evaluation is proposed. The testing…

  12. Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    1999-10-27

    FRANTIC-3 was developed to evaluate system unreliability using time-dependent techniques. The code provides two major options: to evaluate standby system unavailability or, in addition to the unavailability to calculate the total system failure probability by including both the unavailability of the system on demand as well as the probability that it will operate for an arbitrary time period following the demand. The FRANTIC-3 time dependent reliability models provide a large selection of repair and testingmore » policies applicable to standby or continously operating systems consisting of periodically tested, monitored, and non-repairable (non-testable) components. Time-dependent and test frequency dependent failures, as well as demand stress related failure, test-caused degradation and wear-out, test associated human errors, test deficiencies, test override, unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, component renewal and replacement policies, and test strategies can be prescribed. The conditional system unavailabilities associated with the downtimes of the user specified failed component are also evaluated. Optionally, the code can perform a sensitivity study for system unavailability or total failure probability to the failure characteristics of the standby components.« less

  13. Time dependent view factor methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence.

  14. Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, Enrico

    1999-10-27

    FRANTIC-3 was developed to evaluate system unreliability using time-dependent techniques. The code provides two major options: to evaluate standby system unavailability or, in addition to the unavailability to calculate the total system failure probability by including both the unavailability of the system on demand as well as the probability that it will operate for an arbitrary time period following the demand. The FRANTIC-3 time dependent reliability models provide a large selection of repair and testing policies applicable to standby or continously operating systems consisting of periodically tested, monitored, and non-repairable (non-testable) components. Time-dependent and test frequency dependent failures, as well as demand stress related failure, test-caused degradation and wear-out, test associated human errors, test deficiencies, test override, unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, component renewal and replacement policies, and test strategies can be prescribed. The conditional system unavailabilities associated with the downtimes of the user specified failed component are also evaluated. Optionally, the code can perform a sensitivity study for system unavailability or total failure probability to the failure characteristics of the standby components.

  15. Nalmefene. Alcohol dependence: no advance.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic, severe and sometimes fatal disease. Psychological and social support is a crucial element of patient management. Acamprosate and naltrexone are the drugs of choice to help patients remain abstinent, but they are only moderately effective. Nalmefene, an opioid receptor antagonist related to naltrexone, has been authorised in the European Union to help alcohol-dependent patients reduce their alcohol consumption. Nalmefene has not been compared with naltrexone or acamprosate in clinical trials. Clinical evaluation is mainly based on two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials in which nalmefene was taken "on demand" at a dose of one tablet per day. The trials lasted 6 months and included a total of 1322 patients. During an initial two-week period in which all patients received medical and psychosocial support, about one-third of patients in both trials reduced their alcohol consumption without medication. Depending on the subgroup and the trial, about one-third to one-half of patients discontinued medical treatment before the end of the study period. In both trials, patients taking nalmefene had two fewer "heavy drinking days" per month than patients in the placebo groups. However, at the end of the study, they continued to drink heavily at least one week per month on average. Daily alcohol consumption was 5 to 9 grams lower with nalmefene than with placebo. The most frequent adverse effects observed in clinical trials were insomnia, dizziness, headache and nausea, which were severe in more than 10% of patients. Other serious but less frequent adverse effects included confusion, hallucinations and dissociation, usually at the beginning of treatment. These adverse effects affected about 3% of patients treated with nalmefene, a proportion three times higher than in the placebo groups. The consequences of mixing nalmefene with large amounts of alcohol are not known. In practice, the effects of nalmefene in alcohol-dependent

  16. State-dependent molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ciann-Dong; Weng, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new mixed quantum mechanics (QM)-molecular mechanics (MM) approach, where MM is replaced by quantum Hamilton mechanics (QHM), which inherits the modeling capability of MM, while preserving the state-dependent nature of QM. QHM, a single mechanics playing the roles of QM and MM simultaneously, will be employed here to derive the three-dimensional quantum dynamics of diatomic molecules. The resulting state-dependent molecular dynamics including vibration, rotation and spin are shown to completely agree with the QM description and well match the experimental vibration-rotation spectrum. QHM can be incorporated into the framework of a mixed quantum-classical Bohmian method to enable a trajectory interpretation of orbital-spin interaction and spin entanglement in molecular dynamics.

  17. Serial dependence in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2014-05-01

    Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable; objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical environment over time? We found that visual perception in humans is serially dependent, using both prior and present input to inform perception at the present moment. Using an orientation judgment task, we found that, even when visual input changed randomly over time, perceived orientation was strongly and systematically biased toward recently seen stimuli. Furthermore, the strength of this bias was modulated by attention and tuned to the spatial and temporal proximity of successive stimuli. These results reveal a serial dependence in perception characterized by a spatiotemporally tuned, orientation-selective operator-which we call a continuity field-that may promote visual stability over time.

  18. Spike-timing-dependent construction.

    PubMed

    Lightheart, Toby; Grainger, Steven; Lu, Tien-Fu

    2013-10-01

    Spike-timing-dependent construction (STDC) is the production of new spiking neurons and connections in a simulated neural network in response to neuron activity. Following the discovery of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), significant effort has gone into the modeling and simulation of adaptation in spiking neural networks (SNNs). Limitations in computational power imposed by network topology, however, constrain learning capabilities through connection weight modification alone. Constructive algorithms produce new neurons and connections, allowing automatic structural responses for applications of unknown complexity and nonstationary solutions. A conceptual analogy is developed and extended to theoretical conditions for modeling synaptic plasticity as network construction. Generalizing past constructive algorithms, we propose a framework for the design of novel constructive SNNs and demonstrate its application in the development of simulations for the validation of developed theory. Potential directions of future research and applications of STDC for biological modeling and machine learning are also discussed.

  19. Nuclear dependence of charm production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A. G.; Ayan, A. S.; Balatz, M. Y.; Bondar, N. F.; Cooper, P. S.; Dauwe, L. J.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dersch, U.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Dzyubenko, G. B.; Edelstein, R.; Emediato, L.; Endler, A. M. F.; Eschrich, I.; Escobar, C. O.; Estrada, N.; Evdokimov, A. V.; Filimonov, I. S.; Flores-Castillo, A.; Garcia, F. G.; Golovtsov, V. L.; Gouffon, P.; Gülmez, E.; Iori, M.; Jun, S. Y.; Kaya, M.; Kilmer, J.; Kim, V. T.; Kochenda, L. M.; Konorov, I.; Kozhevnikov, A. P.; Krivshich, A. G.; Krüger, H.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Kubarovsky, V. P.; Kulyavtsev, A. I.; Kuropatkin, N. P.; Kurshetsov, V. F.; Kushnirenko, A.; Lach, J.; Landsberg, L. G.; Larin, I.; Leikin, E. M.; López-Hinojosa, G.; Lungov, T.; Maleev, V. P.; Mao, D.; Mathew, P.; Mattson, M.; Matveev, V.; McCliment, E.; Moinester, M. A.; Molchanov, V. V.; Morelos, A.; Nemitkin, A. V.; Neoustroev, P. V.; Newsom, C.; Nilov, A. P.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ocherashvili, A.; Onel, Y.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Penzo, A.; Petrenko, S. V.; Procario, M.; Prutskoi, V. A.; Razmyslovich, B. V.; Rud, V. I.; Russ, J.; Sánchez-López, J. L.; Simon, J.; Sitnikov, A. I.; Smith, V. J.; Srivastava, M.; Steiner, V.; Stepanov, V.; Stutte, L.; Svoiski, M.; Terentyev, N. K.; Torres, I.; Uvarov, L. N.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vavilov, D. V.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Verebryusov, V. S.; Victorov, V. A.; Vishnyakov, V. E.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorwalter, K.; You, J.; Zukanovich-Funchal, R.

    2009-12-01

    Using data taken by SELEX during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, we study the production of charmed hadrons on copper and carbon targets with Σ -, p, π -, and π + beams. Parametrizing the dependence of the inclusive production cross section on the atomic number A as A α , we determine α for D +, D 0, D {/s +}, D +(2010), Λ {/c +}, and their respective anti-particles, as a function of their transverse momentum p t and scaled longitudinal momentum x F . Within our statistics there is no dependence of α on x F for any charm species for the interval 0.1< x F <1.0. The average value of α for charm production by pion beams is α meson=0.850±0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average α baryon=0.755±0.016 for charm production by baryon beams ( Σ -, p).

  20. Mexican oil and dependent development

    SciTech Connect

    Gentlemen, J.

    1984-01-01

    This study was conceived as an opportunity to examine the impact that the condition of dependency would have upon Mexico's effort to develop its huge petroleum resources in the mid 1970s. It is hardly a pleasant tale and one that provides little encouragement for those searching for solutions to underdevelopment within the contemporary Mexican political setting. Despite the fact that the study details a failed development project, the alternative to the model in place is far from obvious, as painful as that observation may be. Indeed, the failure of the development project and the analysis presented here of that failure is not directly suggestive of a preferable development alternative. While a ''socialist'' model is usually implied by dependence analysis, the socialist alternative frankly provides little guarantee of a prospect of long term viability, self-directed development and essential political and human rights to oppressed people.

  1. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  2. Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    H.E. Mynick, P. Xanthopoulos and A.H. Boozer

    2009-08-10

    Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes.

  3. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  4. Dopamine-dependent responses to morphine depend on glucocorticoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Michela; Aouizerate, Bruno; Barrot, Michel; Le Moal, Michel; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has shown that glucocorticoid hormones facilitate the behavioral and dopaminergic effects of morphine. In this study we examined the possible role in these effects of the two central corticosteroid receptor types: mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). To accomplish this, specific antagonists of these receptors were infused intracerebroventricularly and 2 hr later we measured: (i) locomotor activity induced by a systemic injection of morphine (2 mg/kg); (ii) locomotor activity induced by an infusion of morphine (1 μg per side) into the ventral tegmental area, which is a dopamine-dependent behavioral response to morphine; (iii) morphine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, a dopaminergic projection site mediating the locomotor and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Blockade of MRs by spironolactone had no significant effects on locomotion induced by systemic morphine. In contrast, blockade of GRs by either RU38486 or RU39305, which is devoid of antiprogesterone effects, reduced the locomotor response to morphine, and this effect was dose dependent. GR antagonists also reduced the locomotor response to intraventral tegmental area morphine as well as the basal and morphine-induced increase in accumbens dopamine, as measured by microdialysis in freely moving rats. In contrast, spironolactone did not modify dopamine release. In conclusion, glucocorticoids, via GRs, facilitate the dopamine-dependent behavioral effects of morphine, probably by facilitating dopamine release. The possibility of decreasing the behavioral and dopaminergic effects of opioids by an acute administration of GR antagonists may open new therapeutic strategies for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:9636221

  5. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in ...

  6. Scale-Dependent Dispersivity Explained Without Scale-Dependent Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, P.; Engdahl, N. B.; Fogg, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    The observed scale-dependence of dispersivity has often been attributed to the scale-dependence of porous media heterogeneity. However, mass transfer between areas of high and low hydraulic conductivity and preferential solute migration may provide an alternative explanation for this phenomenon. To illustrate this point, we used geostatistical models representing the heterogeneity and interconnectedness of a typical aquifer system and plume modeling via a highly accurate random walk particle tracking method. The apparent dispersivity values were calculated using the statistical moments of the plumes. Apparent dispersivity was seen to grow from 0.01(m)to 100(m) over length scales of 0.06(m) to 500(m) even though heterogeneity scales and facies proportions were stationary and invariant with scale in the simulations. The results suggest that the increase in dispersivity was due solely to a stretching of the plume by two mechanisms. The first mechanism results from the diffusion of solute into areas of low conductivity and the second comes from the movement of solute through well-connected high K zone channels. Under such conditions, an "asymptotic dispersivity" may never be reached.

  7. Nicotine dependence and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Linxiang; Tang, Quansheng; Hao, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death, disability and disease in the world and is projected to be the leading cause of death and disability across all developed and developing countries by 2020. Nicotine, the primary active ingredient of cigarettes that contributes to physical dependence, acts on nicotine receptors in the central nervous system and leads to the release of neurotransmitters (such as dopamine). Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine is thought to produce reinforcing effect by activating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. A wide variety of cessation treatments of nicotine dependence is commercially available, yet only 2 general approaches have received empirical validation: behavioral intervention (including 5 As brief intervention) and pharmacotherapy. The evidences show that 5 As brief intervention is one of the most cost-effective treatments in clinical work for busy physicians. Three types of medications have been available in market for smoking cessation treatment: nicotine replacement treatment (NRT, i.e., transdermal patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, and lozenge), sustained release bupropion and varenicline. Varenicline, a novel alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is effective for tobacco dependence. Phase III trials suggest that it is more effective than NRT and bupropion SR. The safety profile of varenicline is excellent, with the most commonly occurring adverse events, nausea, typically mild and well tolerated. However, new safety warnings are added to the varenicline label because of post-marketing report including agitation, depression and suicidality. A causal connection between varenicline use and these symptoms has not been established. PMID:19952392

  8. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  9. Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Rosewell, Amanda; Vetrini, Francesco; Ng, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors are devoid of all viral coding sequences, possess a large cloning capacity, and can efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types from various species independent of the cell cycle to mediate long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. These non-integrating vectors hold tremendous potential for a variety of gene transfer and gene therapy applications. Here, we review the production technologies, applications, obstacles to clinical translation and their potential resolutions, and the future challenges and unanswered questions regarding this promising gene transfer technology. PMID:24533227

  10. Amplitude-dependent station magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzyner, Yael; Ben Horin, Yochai; Steinberg, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Magnitude, a concept first presented by Gutenberg and Richter, adjusts measurements of ground motion for epicentral distance and source depth. Following this principle, the IDC defines the j'th station body wave magnitude for event i as mb(stai,j) = log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i) + V C(Δj,i,hi) , where VC is the Veith-Clawson (VC) correction to compensate for the epicentral distance of the station and the depth of the source. The network magnitude is calculated as the average of station magnitudes. The IDC magnitude estimation is used for event characterization and discrimination and it should be as accurate as possible. Ideally, the network magnitude should be close in value to the station magnitudes. In reality, it is observed that the residuals range between -1 and 1 mu or ±25% of a given mb(neti) value. We show that the residual, mb(neti) -mb(staj,i), depends linearly on log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i), and we correct for this dependence using the following procedure: Calculate a "jackknifed" network magnitude, mbj,n(neti), i.e. an average over all participating stations except station n. Using all measurements at station n, calculate the parameters an, bn of the linear fit of the residual mbj,n(neti) - mb(stan,i to log 10(An,i/Tn,i). For each event i at station n calculate the new station magnitude mbnew(stan,i) = (an + 1)log(An,i/Tn,i) + V C(Δn,i,hi) + bn Calculate the new network magnitude: mbnew(neti) = 1N- ∑ n=1nmbnew(stan,i) The procedure was used on more than two million station-event pairs. Correcting for the station-specific dependence on log amplitude reduces the residuals by roughly a third. We have calculated the spread of the distributions, and compared the original values and those for the corrected magnitudes. The spread is the ratio between the variance of the network magnitudes, and the variance of the residual. Calculations show an increase in the ratio of the variance, meaning that the correction process presented in this document did not lead to loss of variance

  11. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch.

    PubMed

    Peña, Jeremy Ryan; Fitzpatrick, Donna; Saidman, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    The complement-dependent cytotoxic crossmatch is an informative test that detects alloantibodies in pre- and post-transplant patients, which may dictate clinical management of transplant patients. While challenging to perform, the cytotoxic crossmatch represents the only assay that provides direct evidence for the presence of potentially pathologic (i.e., cytotoxic) alloantibodies. The cytotoxic crossmatch combines patient (recipient) serum and donor cells. If donor-reactive alloantibodies are present in patient serum, these antibodies can bind donor cells. Antibody-antigen complexes, in turn, can activate the complement cascade, leading to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. Two commonly performed cytotoxic crossmatches, using donor lymphocytes as target cells, are described.

  12. Dependent video coding using a tree representation of pixel dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Luca; Valenzise, Giuseppe; Ortega, Antonio; Tubaro, Stefano

    2011-09-01

    Motion-compensated prediction induces a chain of coding dependencies between pixels in video. In principle, an optimal selection of encoding parameters (motion vectors, quantization parameters, coding modes) should take into account the whole temporal horizon of a GOP. However, in practical coding schemes, these choices are made on a frame-by-frame basis, thus with a possible loss of performance. In this paper we describe a tree-based model for pixelwise coding dependencies: each pixel in a frame is the child of a pixel in a previous reference frame. We show that some tree structures are more favorable than others from a rate-distortion perspective, e.g., because they entail a large descendance of pixels which are well predicted from a common ancestor. In those cases, a higher quality has to be assigned to pixels at the top of such trees. We promote the creation of these structures by adding a special discount term to the conventional Lagrangian cost adopted at the encoder. The proposed model can be implemented through a double-pass encoding procedure. Specifically, we devise heuristic cost functions to drive the selection of quantization parameters and of motion vectors, which can be readily implemented into a state-of-the-art H.264/AVC encoder. Our experiments demonstrate that coding efficiency is improved for video sequences with low motion, while there are no apparent gains for more complex motion. We argue that this is due to both the presence of complex encoder features not captured by the model, and to the complexity of the source to be encoded.

  13. The genetics of nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming D

    2006-04-01

    Despite almost two decades of intensive tobacco-control efforts, approximately 23% of American adults continue to smoke, and 13% are nicotine-dependent. Cigarette smoking is the greatest preventable cause of cancer, accounting for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and 87% of lung cancer deaths. Smoking behavior is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Many years of twin and adoption studies have demonstrated that the heritability of liability for nicotine dependence (ND) is at least 50%. During the past several years, significant efforts have been made to identify susceptibility genes for ND using both genome-wide linkage and association analysis approaches. It is expected that identification of susceptibility genes for ND will allow the development and tailoring of both prevention strategies for individuals at risk and effective treatment programs and medicines for individuals who use tobacco products. This review summarizes the recent progress in genetic studies of ND. As genotyping technology is being improved and well-characterized clinical samples on smoking behavior become available, more and more genes and genetic variants responsible for ND will be identified in the near future. PMID:16539894

  14. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  15. Dependence receptors and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehlen, Patrick; Tauszig-Delamasure, Servane

    2014-11-01

    The research on colorectal cancer (CRC) biology has been leading the oncology field since the early 1990s. The search for genetic alterations has allowed the identification of the main tumour suppressors or oncogenes. Recent work obtained in CRC has unexpectedly proposed the existence of novel category of tumour suppressors, the so-called 'dependence receptors'. These transmembrane receptors behave as Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde with two opposite sides: they induce a positive signalling (survival, proliferation, differentiation) in presence of their ligand, but are not inactive in the absence of their ligand and rather trigger apoptosis when unbound. This trait confers them a conditional tumour suppressor activity: they eliminate cells that grow abnormally in an environment offering a limited quantity of ligand. This review will describe how receptors such as deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), uncoordinated 5 (UNC5), rearranged during transfection (RET) or TrkC constrain CRC progression and how this dependence receptor paradigm may open up therapeutical perspectives. PMID:25163468

  16. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  17. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course. PMID:26394503

  18. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  19. Your morals depend on language.

    PubMed

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  20. Your morals depend on language.

    PubMed

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis. PMID:24760073

  1. Reprogramming Roadblocks Are System Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Chantzoura, Eleni; Skylaki, Stavroula; Menendez, Sergio; Kim, Shin-Il; Johnsson, Anna; Linnarsson, Sten; Woltjen, Knut; Chambers, Ian; Kaji, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the first generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), several reprogramming systems have been used to study its molecular mechanisms. However, the system of choice largely affects the reprogramming efficiency, influencing our view on the mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming triggered by less efficient polycistronic reprogramming cassettes not only highlights mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) as a roadblock but also faces more severe difficulties to attain a pluripotent state even post-MET. In contrast, more efficient cassettes can reprogram both wild-type and Nanog−/− fibroblasts with comparable efficiencies, routes, and kinetics, unlike the less efficient reprogramming systems. Moreover, we attribute a previously reported variation in the N terminus of KLF4 as a dominant factor underlying these critical differences. Our data establish that some reprogramming roadblocks are system dependent, highlighting the need to pursue mechanistic studies with close attention to the systems to better understand reprogramming. PMID:26278041

  2. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Frederic; Verner, Duane; Brannegan, David; Buehring, William; Dickinson, David; Guziel, Karen; Haffenden, Rebecca; Phillips, Julia; Peerenboom, James

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  3. Interpersonal dependency in alcoholic and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mills, J K

    1995-06-01

    While psychological conflict about dependency needs of alcoholic and obese persons has been widely observed, few studies have examined differences in dependency characteristics between these clinical groups. The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory was administered to 22 alcoholic and 8 morbidly obese men in intensive treatment for alcohol and obesity. The original hypothesis that alcoholic and obese men would show similar dependency needs was supported. Dependency correlates of personality may serve as useful predictor variables in the clinical treatment of alcoholic and obese persons.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Cesium Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John David

    The gamma-ray excited, temperature dependent scintillation characteristics of CsI(T1) are reported over the temperature range of -100 to +50^circ C. The modified Bollinger-Thomas and shaped square wave methods were used to measure the rise and decay times. Emission spectra were measured using a monochromator and corrected for monochromator and photocathode spectral efficiencies. The shaped square wave method was also used to determine the scintillation yield as was a current mode method. The thermoluminescence emission of CsI(T1) were measured using the same current mode method. At room temperature, CsI(T1) was found to have two primary decay components with decay time constants of tau_1 = 679 +/- 9 ns (63.7%) and tau_2 = 3.34 +/- 0.10 mus (36.1%), an absolute scintillation yield of 65,500 +/- 4,100 photons/MeV, and emission bands at about 400 and 560 nm. The tau_1 luminescent state was observed to be populated by an exponential process with a resulting rise time constant of 19.6 +/- 1.9 ns at room temperature. An ultra-fast decay component with a <0.5 ns decay time was found to emit about 0.2% of the total scintillation light (about 100 photons/MeV). Except for the ultra-fast decay time, the rise and decay time constants were observed to increase exponentially with inverse temperature. At -80 ^circC, tau_1 and tau_2 were determined to be 2.22 +/- 0.31 mu s and 18.0 +/- 1.44 mus, respectively, while the 400 nm emission band was not observed below -50 ^circC. At +50^circ C, the decay constants were found to be 628 +/- 3 ns (70.5%) and 2.63 +/- 0.03 mus (29.3%) and both emission bands are present. The scintillation yield of CsI(T1) was observed to be only slightly temperature dependent between -40 and +50^circ C, peaking at about -30 ^circC (about 6% above the room temperature yield). Four different commercially-available CsI(T1) crystals were used. Minimal variations in the measured scintillation characteristics were observed among these four crystals

  5. Temperature dependence of basalt weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from basaltic catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of basaltic rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on basalt weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that basalt weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.

  6. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  7. Nuclear Dependence of Charm Production

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Ayan, A.S.; Balatz, M.Y.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, P.S.; Dauwe, Loretta J.; /Michigan U., Flint /Moscow, ITEP

    2009-02-01

    With data taken by SELEX, which accumulated data during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, we study the production of charmed hadrons on copper and carbon targets with {Sigma}{sup -}, p, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +} beams. Parameterizing the production cross section {infinity} A{sup {alpha}}, A being the atomic number, we determine {alpha} for D{sup +}, D{sup 0}, D{sub s}{sup +}, D{sup +}(2010), {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}, and their respective anti-particles, as a function of their transverse momentum p{sub t} and scaled longitudinal momentum x{sub F}. Within our statistics there is no dependence of {alpha} on x{sub F} for any charm species for the interval 0.1 < x{sub F} < 1.0. The average value of {alpha} for charm production by pion beams is {alpha}{sub meson} = 0.850 {+-} 0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average {alpha}{sub baryon} = 0.755 {+-} 0.016 for charm production by baryon beams ({Sigma}{sup -}, p).

  8. Psychobiological mechanisms of exercise dependence.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise dependence (ED) is characterised by an obsessive and unhealthy preoccupation with exercise. Previous research has focused largely on identifying behavioural aspects of ED, although the biological mechanisms remain unknown and are under researched. We review various ED hypotheses including affect regulation, anorexia analogue, sympathetic arousal and beta-endorphin. We also present a novel hypothesis pertaining to ED and interleukin (IL)-6, which combines previous hypotheses with literature from the field of psycho-neuroimmunology. We explore the notion that IL-6 provides a link from the periphery to the brain, which may mediate the underlying features of ED. We propose a conceptual model indicating that, in individuals prone to ED, exercise results in a transient reduction in negative affect, but concurrently results in excessive production of IL-6 and the activation of neuroendocrine pathways, which are associated with behavioural and psychological disturbances of exercise withdrawal. Our intention is for this model to serve as a basis for further research in the area of ED, which may eventually lead to the development of successful treatment strategies. Recent developments in methods to reliably assess these biological markers from blood and saliva samples should encourage such research to be undertaken in exercise settings. PMID:17503874

  9. Bioinspired orientation-dependent friction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Longjian; Iturri, Jagoba; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; del Campo, Aránzazu

    2014-09-23

    Spatular terminals on the toe pads of a gecko play an important role in directional adhesion and friction required for reversible attachment. Inspired by the toe pad design of a gecko, we study friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars terminated with asymmetric (spatular-shaped) overhangs. Friction forces in the direction of and against the spatular end were evaluated and compared to friction forces on symmetric T-shaped pillars and pillars without overhangs. The shape of friction curves and the values of friction forces on spatula-terminated pillars were orientation-dependent. Kinetic friction forces were enhanced when shearing against the spatular end, while static friction was stronger in the direction toward the spatular end. The overall friction force was higher in the direction against the spatula end. The maximum value was limited by the mechanical stability of the overhangs during shear. The aspect ratio of the pillar had a strong influence on the magnitude of the friction force, and its contribution surpassed and masked that of the spatular tip for aspect ratios of >2.

  10. Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159815.html Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence: Study Doctors should explore alternatives for pain ... have an elevated risk of growing dependent on opioid painkillers, a new study finds. These prescription painkillers ...

  11. Indicators of Dependency in Participatory Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Hargrove, Tasha M.

    Participatory adult education programs assist individuals to substitute interdependent, mutually beneficial relationships for unrewarding, dependent relationships. Indicators of changes in dependency, however, are absent or imprecise in evaluations of participatory projects. A study explored facets of dependency by relating practitioners'…

  12. Dependency and Education: Reproduction or Conspiracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velloso, Jacques

    1985-01-01

    The origins and meaning of dependency are examined, how the dependency approach as an analytical tool can be used to advance research in comparative education is illustrated, and two issues raised by the critics of dependency--the issues of reproduction and of conspiracy--are discussed. (RM)

  13. 25 CFR 700.57 - Dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dependent. 700.57 Section 700.57 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.57 Dependent. A dependent is a person who either derives more than one-half...

  14. 25 CFR 700.57 - Dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dependent. 700.57 Section 700.57 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.57 Dependent. A dependent is a person who either derives more than one-half...

  15. 25 CFR 700.57 - Dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dependent. 700.57 Section 700.57 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.57 Dependent. A dependent is a person who either derives more than one-half...

  16. 25 CFR 700.57 - Dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dependent. 700.57 Section 700.57 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.57 Dependent. A dependent is a person who either derives more than one-half...

  17. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  18. Community Stability and Timber-Dependent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlis, Gary E.; Force, Jo Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Critically evaluates the literature on timber-dependent communities. Examines methodological and theoretical concerns with concepts of community and resource-based economies. Suggests timber dependency may represent a special case of resource dependency and that study of forest-based communities can contribute to sociological knowledge of rural…

  19. Minimization of Dependency Length in Written English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2007-01-01

    Gibson's Dependency Locality Theory (DLT) [Gibson, E. 1998. "Linguistic complexity: locality of syntactic dependencies." "Cognition," 68, 1-76; Gibson, E. 2000. "The dependency locality theory: A distance-based theory of linguistic complexity." In A. Marantz, Y. Miyashita, & W. O'Neil (Eds.), "Image, Language, Brain" (pp. 95-126). Cambridge, MA:…

  20. Motivational and psychological correlates of bodybuilding dependence

    PubMed Central

    EMINI, NEIM N.; BOND, MALCOLM J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Exercise may become physically and psychologically maladaptive if taken to extremes. One example is the dependence reported by some individuals who engage in weight training. The current study explored potential psychological, motivational, emotional and behavioural concomitants of bodybuilding dependence, with a particular focus on motives for weight training. Using a path analysis paradigm, putative causal models sought to explain associations among key study variables. Methods: A convenience sample of 101 men aged between 18 and 67 years was assembled from gymnasia in Adelaide, South Australia. Active weight trainers voluntarily completed a questionnaire that included measures of bodybuilding dependence (social dependency, training dependency, and mastery), anger, hostility and aggression, stress and motivations for weight training. Results: Three motives for weight training were identified: mood control, physique anxiety and personal challenge. Of these, personal challenge and mood control were the most directly salient to dependence. Social dependency was particularly relevant to personal challenge, whereas training dependency was associated with both personal challenge and mood control. Mastery demonstrated a direct link with physique anxiety, thus reflecting a unique component of exercise dependence. Conclusions: While it was not possible to determine causality with the available data, the joint roles of variables that influence, or are influenced by, bodybuilding dependence are identified. Results highlight unique motivations for bodybuilding and suggest that dependence could be a result of, and way of coping with, stress manifesting as aggression. A potential framework for future research is provided through the demonstration of plausible causal linkages among these variables. PMID:25317342