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Sample records for drevs tiit raid

  1. RAID 7 disk array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Lloyd

    1993-01-01

    Each RAID level reflects a different design architecture. Associated with each is a backdrop of imposed limitations, as well as possibilities which may be exploited within the architectural constraints of that level. There are three unique features that differentiate RAID 7 from all other levels. RAID 7 is asynchronous with respect to usage of I/O data paths. Each I/O drive (includes all data and one parity drives) as well as each host interface (there may be multiple host interfaces) has independent control and data paths. This means that each can be accessed completely, independently, of the other. This is facilitated by a separate device cache for each device/interface as well. RAID 7 is asynchronous with respect to device hierarchy and data bus utilization. Each drive and each interface is connected to a high speed data bus controlled by the embedded operating system to make independent transfers to and from central cache. RAID 7 is asynchronous with respect to the operation of an embedded real time process oriented operating system. This means that exclusive and independent of the host, or multiple host paths, the embedded OS manages all I/O transfers asynchronously across the data and parity drives. A key factor to consider is that of the RAID 7's ability to anticipate and match host I/O usage patterns. This yields the following benefits over RAID's built around micro-code based architectures. RAID 7 appears to the host as a normally connected Big Fast Disk (BFD). RAID 7 appears, from the perspective of the individual disk devices, to minimize the total number of accesses and optimize read/write transfer requests. RAID 7 smoothly integrates the random demands of independent users with the principles of spatial and temporal locality. This optimizes small, large, and time sequenced I/O requests which results in users having an I/O performance which approaches performance to that of main memory.

  2. Commando Raids: 1946-1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    commando and commando- type forces in response to terrorist threats or attacks. One hundred raids by irregular forces (guerrilla groups, terrorist...focuses on the effectiveness of commando and commando- type raids mounted during the period from 1946 to 1983 in response to terrorist attacks. Future...SUMMARY This Note assesses the effectiveness of a selected sample of raids executed by small (and relatively small) commando and commando- type forces

  3. An overview of DREV's activities on pulsed CO2 laser transmitters: Frequency stability and lifetime aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruickshank, James; Pace, Paul; Mathieu, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    After introducing the desired features in a transmitter for laser radar applications, the output characteristics of several configurations of frequency-stable TEA-CO2 lasers are reviewed. Based on work carried out at the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV), output pulses are examined from short cavity lasers, CW-TEA hybrid lasers, and amplifiers for low power pulses. It is concluded that the technique of injecting a low-power laser beam into a TEA laser resonator with Gaussian reflectivity mirrors should be investigated because it appears well adapted to producing high energy, single mode, low chirp pulses. Finally, a brief report on tests carried out on catalysts composed of stannic oxide and noble metals demonstrates the potential of these catalysts, operating at close to room temperature, to provide complete closed-cycle laser operation.

  4. Optimizing raid performance with cache

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouzari, Alex

    1994-01-01

    We live in a world of increasingly complex applications and operating systems. Information is increasing at a mind-boggling rate. The consolidation of text, voice, and imaging represents an even greater challenge for our information systems. Which forced us to address three important questions: Where do we store all this information? How do we access it? And, how do we protect it against the threat of loss or damage? Introduced in the 1980s, RAID (Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks) represents a cost-effective solution to the needs of the information age. While fulfilling expectations for high storage, and reliability, RAID is sometimes subject to criticisms in the area of performance. However, there are design elements that can significantly enhance performance. They can be subdivided into two areas: (1) RAID levels or basic architecture. And, (2) enhancement schemes such as intelligent caching, support of tagged command queuing, and use of SCSI-2 Fast and Wide features.

  5. Teaching the Dieppe Raid: Some Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ian

    1983-01-01

    Mapwork, a film, a debate, a machine-gun demonstration, and a box of primary source materials can be used in a World War II unit for 12th graders to supplement conventional analyses of the Dieppe Raid. (RM)

  6. RAID/C90 Technology Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciotti, Bob; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In March 1993, NAS was the first to connect a Maximum Strategy RAID disk to the C90 using standard Cray provided software. This paper discusses the problems encountered, lessons learned, and performance achieved.

  7. RAID Disk Arrays for High Bandwidth Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moren, Bill

    1996-01-01

    High bandwidth applications require large amounts of data transferred to/from storage devices at extremely high data rates. Further, these applications often are 'real time' in which access to the storage device must take place on the schedule of the data source, not the storage. A good example is a satellite downlink - the volume of data is quite large and the data rates quite high (dozens of MB/sec). Further, a telemetry downlink must take place while the satellite is overhead. A storage technology which is ideally suited to these types of applications is redundant arrays of independent discs (RAID). Raid storage technology, while offering differing methodologies for a variety of applications, supports the performance and redundancy required in real-time applications. Of the various RAID levels, RAID-3 is the only one which provides high data transfer rates under all operating conditions, including after a drive failure.

  8. Improvement in HPC performance through HIPPI RAID storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Blake

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, RAID (redundant array of inexpensive (or independent) disks) technology was introduced as a viable solution to the I/O bottleneck. A number of different RAID levels were defined in 1987 by the Computer Science Division (EECS) University of California, Berkeley, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. With multiple RAID options available, taking advantage of RAID technology required matching particular RAID levels with specific applications. It was not possible to use one RAID device to address all applications. Maximum Strategy's Gen 4 Storage Server addresses this issue with a new capability called programmable RAID level partitioning. This capability enables users to have multiple RAID levels coexist on the same disks, thereby providing the versatility necessary for multiple concurrent applications.

  9. RAID-S Technical Overview: Raid 4 and 5-Compliant Hardware and Software Functionality Improves Data Availability Through Use of XOR-Capable Disks in an Integrated Cached Disk Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Brett

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical description of redundant array of independent disks - Symmetrix (RAID-S). It is intended to give the reader an understanding of how RAID-S is architected and implemented in the EMC Symmetrix 3000/5000 series integrated cached disk array. Topics include RAID-S taxonomy, configuration considerations, operational characteristics, performance, and implementation guidelines.

  10. Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: insights into human warfare?

    PubMed

    Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathryn; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Raids into neighboring territories may occur for different reasons, including the increase of foraging and mating opportunities directly or indirectly through the killing of neighboring rivals. Lethal raids have been mainly observed in humans and chimpanzees, with raiding males being reported to search purposefully for neighbors. Here we report on the first cases ever witnessed of raiding parties of male spider monkeys, a species expected to show such a behavioral tendency, given its similarity with humans and chimpanzees in critical socio-ecological characteristics, such as fission-fusion social dynamics and male-male bonding. Despite the high degree of arboreality of spider monkeys, all seven witnessed raids involved the males progressing single file on the ground in unusual silence. This is remarkably similar to the behavior of chimpanzees. The circumstances around the raids suggest that factors such as reduced mating opportunities, number of males relative to that in the neighboring community, and the strength of bonds among males could play a role in the timing of such actions. The raids did not appear to be aimed at finding food, whereas there is some indication that they may directly or indirectly increase reproductive opportunities. Although no killing was observed, we cannot exclude the possibility that spider monkey raids may be aimed at harming rivals if a vulnerable individual were encountered. The similarity of spider monkey raids with those of chimpanzees and humans supports the notion that lethal raiding is a convergent response to similar socio-ecological conditions.

  11. Terabyte IDE RAID-5 Disk Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Sanders et al.

    2003-09-30

    High energy physics experiments are currently recording large amounts of data and in a few years will be recording prodigious quantities of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. We examine some techniques that exploit recent developments in commodity hardware. We report on tests of redundant arrays of integrated drive electronics (IDE) disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. IDE redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) prices now are less than the cost per terabyte of million-dollar tape robots! The arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to institutions without robots and used when fast random access at low cost is important.

  12. Is the bang worth the buck? A RAID performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Berman, Lewis E.; Thoma, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Expecting a high data delivery rate as well as data protection, the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications procured a RAID system to house image files for image delivery applications. A study was undertaken to determine the configuration of the RAID system that would provide for the fastest retrieval of image files. Average retrieval times with single and with concurrent users were measured for several stripe widths and several numbers of disks for RAID levels 0, 0+1 and 5. These are compared to each other and to average retrieval times for non-RAID configurations of the same hardware. Although the study in ongoing, a few conclusions have emerged regarding the tradeoffs among the different configurations with respect to file retrieval speed and cost.

  13. Crop Damage by Primates: Quantifying the Key Parameters of Crop-Raiding Events

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Graham E.; Hill, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and duration of raid as the primary parameters determining crop loss. Secondary factors include distance travelled onto farm, age composition of the raiding group, and whether raids are in series. Regression models accounted for greater proportions of variation in crop loss when increasingly crop and species specific. Parameter values varied across primate species, probably reflecting differences in raiding tactics or perceptions of risk, and thereby providing indices of how comfortable primates are on-farm. Median raiding-group sizes were markedly smaller than the typical sizes of social groups. The research suggests that key parameters of raiding events can be used to measure the behavioural impacts of deterrents to raiding. Furthermore, farmers will benefit most from methods that discourage raiding by multiple individuals, reduce the size of raiding groups, or decrease the amount of time primates are on-farm. This study demonstrates the importance of directly relating crop loss to the parameters of raiding events, using systematic observations of the behaviour of multiple primate species. PMID:23056378

  14. Performance measurements of the first RAID prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, Ann L.

    1990-01-01

    The performance is examined of Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) the First, a prototype disk array. A hierarchy of bottlenecks was discovered in the system that limit overall performance. The most serious is the memory system contention on the Sun 4/280 host CPU, which limits array bandwidth to 2.3 MBytes/sec. The array performs more successfully on small random operations, achieving nearly 300 I/Os per second before the Sun 4/280 becomes CPU limited. Other bottlenecks in the system are the VME backplane, bandwidth on the disk controller, and overheads associated with the SCSI protocol. All are examined in detail. The main conclusion is that to achieve the potential bandwidth of arrays, more powerful CPU's alone will not suffice. Just as important are adequate host memory bandwidth and support for high bandwidth on disk controllers. Current disk controllers are more often designed to achieve large numbers of small random operations, rather than high bandwidth. Operating systems also need to change to support high bandwidth from disk arrays. In particular, they should transfer data in larger blocks, and should support asynchronous I/O to improve sequential write performance.

  15. A fibre channel RAID supporting multiple protocol disk interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruifang; Xie, Changsheng; Dong, Xiaoming

    2005-09-01

    The paper describes a kind of fibre channel RAID that support multiple protocol disk interfaces. It can manage many kinds of disk storage devices with different physical interfaces in the same time, and it can bind different kinds of disks in one logical RAID group. The interfaces can be parallel SCSI, SATA, FC, SAS, iSCSI and etc. So it can help to consolidate enterprise storage, and reduce storage management cost. The fibre channel RAID comprises of SCSI target, SCSI initiator, RAID kernel and management modules. It implements target-mode fibre channel protocol that decides the host interface type of RAID in SCSI target module. The SCSI initiator module includes SCSI initiator mid-layer(SIML), SCSI front-end initiator drivers(FEIDs). There are many kinds of disk interfaces, but the disk devices using different protocol can understand the same block level access protocol such as the traditional parallel SCSI. So we encapsulate all the common processing operations of SCSI commands and responses in one SIML. And we implement specific SCSI transport protocol in one FEID, which supports a specified kind of disk interface. In the SCSI initiator module, there can be more than one FEID. It can bring SATA, parallel SCSI, fibre channel and other kind of disks into SAN environment in the same time. It can accelerate storage consolidation, and reduce storage management cost.

  16. Multi-terabyte EIDE disk arrays running Linux RAID5

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, D.A.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Joy, M.D.; Summers, D.J.; Petravick, D.L.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    High-energy physics experiments are currently recording large amounts of data and in a few years will be recording prodigious quantities of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. Grid Computing is one method; however, the data must be cached at the various Grid nodes. We examine some storage techniques that exploit recent developments in commodity hardware. Disk arrays using RAID level 5 (RAID-5) include both parity and striping. The striping improves access speed. The parity protects data in the event of a single disk failure, but not in the case of multiple disk failures. We report on tests of dual-processor Linux Software RAID-5 arrays and Hardware RAID-5 arrays using a 12-disk 3ware controller, in conjunction with 250 and 300 GB disks, for use in offline high-energy physics data analysis. The price of IDE disks is now less than $1/GB. These RAID-5 disk arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to small institutions and used when fast random access at low cost is important.

  17. II Murahaleen Raids on the Dinka, 1985-89.

    PubMed

    Mawson, A N

    1991-06-01

    Successive Sudanese governments have used proxy forces, so-called militias, as an integral part of their war with the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). The Rizeiqat and Misseriya of South Darfur and South Kordofan created armed bands, known as Murahaleen, in order to raid cattle from the Dinka to their south. Massive raids have depopulated swathes of territory south of the Bahr al-Arab, killing tens of thousands of people and leading to the destruction and displacement of unknown numbers of others. Famine in western Sudan fuelled the early raids, but the scale of the devastation wrought from 1985 onwards was the result of government complicity and assistance. More recently, since the coming to power of the current military government in Khartoum in June 1989, the relationship between the army and the Murahleen has been formalized through the creation of Popular Defence Forces.

  18. Operational Raids: Cavalry in the Vicksburg Campaign, 1862-1863

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Thesis Committee Chairman LTC Edward P. Shanahan, M.S. Member, Graduate Faculty John I. Boxberger, IqA. COL.Dvid..S gMember, Consulting FacultyCOL...NOPERATIONAL RAIDS: tD CAVALRY IN THE VICKSBURG CAMPAIGN, 1862-1863 I, OTIC FILE COPY =I: A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command...Master’s Thesis . Aua 1989 to Jun 1990 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Operational Raids: Cavalry in the Vicksburg Campaign, 1862-1863 6. AUTHOR(S

  19. Engineering the object-relation database model in O-Raid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewan, Prasun; Vikram, Ashish; Bhargava, Bharat

    1989-01-01

    Raid is a distributed database system based on the relational model. O-raid is an extension of the Raid system and will support complex data objects. The design of O-Raid is evolutionary and retains all features of relational data base systems and those of a general purpose object-oriented programming language. O-Raid has several novel properties. Objects, classes, and inheritance are supported together with a predicate-base relational query language. O-Raid objects are compatible with C++ objects and may be read and manipulated by a C++ program without any 'impedance mismatch'. Relations and columns within relations may themselves be treated as objects with associated variables and methods. Relations may contain heterogeneous objects, that is, objects of more than one class in a certain column, which can individually evolve by being reclassified. Special facilities are provided to reduce the data search in a relation containing complex objects.

  20. A model for collective dynamics in ant raids.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Shawn D

    2016-05-01

    Ant raiding, the process of identifying and returning food to the nest or bivouac, is a fascinating example of collective motion in nature. During such raids ants lay pheromones to form trails for others to find a food source. In this work a coupled PDE/ODE model is introduced to study ant dynamics and pheromone concentration. The key idea is the introduction of two forms of ant dynamics: foraging and returning, each governed by different environmental and social cues. The model accounts for all aspects of the raiding cycle including local collisional interactions, the laying of pheromone along a trail, and the transition from one class of ants to another. Through analysis of an order parameter measuring the orientational order in the system, the model shows self-organization into a collective state consisting of lanes of ants moving in opposite directions as well as the transition back to the individual state once the food source is depleted matching prior experimental results. This indicates that in the absence of direct communication ants naturally form an efficient method for transporting food to the nest/bivouac. The model exhibits a continuous kinetic phase transition in the order parameter as a function of certain system parameters. The associated critical exponents are found, shedding light on the behavior of the system near the transition.

  1. Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Isakov, Alexander; Wrangham, Richard W.; McDermott, Rose; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup violence is common among humans worldwide. To assess how within-group social dynamics contribute to risky, between-group conflict, we conducted a 3-y longitudinal study of the formation of raiding parties among the Nyangatom, a group of East African nomadic pastoralists currently engaged in small-scale warfare. We also mapped the social network structure of potential male raiders. Here, we show that the initiation of raids depends on the presence of specific leaders who tend to participate in many raids, to have more friends, and to occupy more central positions in the network. However, despite the different structural position of raid leaders, raid participants are recruited from the whole population, not just from the direct friends of leaders. An individual’s decision to participate in a raid is strongly associated with the individual’s social network position in relation to other participants. Moreover, nonleaders have a larger total impact on raid participation than leaders, despite leaders’ greater connectivity. Thus, we find that leaders matter more for raid initiation than participant mobilization. Social networks may play a role in supporting risky collective action, amplify the emergence of raiding parties, and hence facilitate intergroup violence in small-scale societies. PMID:27790996

  2. ZFS on RBODs - Leveraging RAID Controllers for Metrics and Enclosure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stearman, D. M.

    2015-03-30

    Traditionally, the Lustre file system has relied on the ldiskfs file system with reliable RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage underneath. As of Lustre 2.4, ZFS was added as a backend file system, with built-in software RAID, thereby removing the need of expensive RAID controllers. ZFS was designed to work with JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks) storage enclosures under the Solaris Operating System, which provided a rich device management system. Long time users of the Lustre file system have relied on the RAID controllers to provide metrics and enclosure monitoring and management services, with rich APIs and command line interfaces. This paper will study a hybrid approach using an advanced full featured RAID enclosure which is presented to the host as a JBOD, This RBOD (RAIDed Bunch Of Disks) allows ZFS to do the RAID protection and error correction, while the RAID controller handles management of the disks and monitors the enclosure. It was hoped that the value of the RAID controller features would offset the additional cost, and that performance would not suffer in this mode. The test results revealed that the hybrid RBOD approach did suffer reduced performance.

  3. RAID Unbound: Storage Fault Tolerance in a Distributed Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Mirroring, data replication, backup, and more recently, redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID) are all technologies used to protect and ensure access to critical company data. A new set of problems has arisen as data becomes more and more geographically distributed. Each of the technologies listed above provides important benefits; but each has failed to adapt fully to the realities of distributed computing. The key to data high availability and protection is to take the technologies' strengths and 'virtualize' them across a distributed network. RAID and mirroring offer high data availability, which data replication and backup provide strong data protection. If we take these concepts at a very granular level (defining user, record, block, file, or directory types) and them liberate them from the physical subsystems with which they have traditionally been associated, we have the opportunity to create a highly scalable network wide storage fault tolerance. The network becomes the virtual storage space in which the traditional concepts of data high availability and protection are implemented without their corresponding physical constraints.

  4. Visualization tools for the processing of airglow data from RAIDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gordon J.; Thonnard, Stefan; Picone, Michael; Meesuk, Carolyn

    1995-01-01

    In anticipation of large data sets associated with a number of atmospheric imaging instruments being prepared for long term global coverage, NRL is developing graphical interfaces for all aspects of the program. For the first of these projects, RAIDS (the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System), a graphical approach to data handling, visualization, and analysis is envisioned and will set the stage for the satellites that follow. An overall system of hardware and a set of software 'tools,' that will allow for both the routine handling of all data and the analysis of large data sets assembled by scientists and instrument engineers, are currently being developed. The software for standard processing and visualization of instrument data is independent of computer platform and will allow for easy adaptation from one experiment to another. The processing will produce data sets that have similar characteristics, allowing for easy comparison of data obtained under similar circumstances. The visualization of both the engineering and scientific data is an important part of the system. By creating graphical environments for engineering evaluations and for scientific analysis data sets can be viewed and analyzed rapidly. This rapid analysis of data will contribute towards a greater portion of the RAIDS data being utilized.

  5. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding

    PubMed Central

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human–wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions. PMID:25035800

  6. Army ants in four forests: geographic variation in raid rates and species composition.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sean; Lattke, John; Powell, Scott; Kaspari, Michael

    2007-05-01

    1. The New World army ants are top predators in the litter of tropical forest, but no comprehensive studies exist on variation in assemblage-wide activity and species composition. We used standardized protocols to estimate foraging raid rates and species composition of army ant communities in four Neotropical forests. The study sites spanned approximately 10 degrees latitude, with two sites each in Central and South America. 2. We recorded a total of 22 species of army ants. The four sites varied in observed and estimated species richness. Species overlap was highest between the Central American sites, and lowest between the South American sites. 3. Raid activity varied significantly among sites. Raid activity per kilometre of trail walks was over four times higher at the most active site (Sta. Maria, Venezuela) than at the least active site (Barro Colorado Island, Panama). Furthermore, each site showed a different diel pattern of activity. For example, raid activity was higher during daylight hours in Costa Rica, and higher at night in Venezuela. Raid activity relationships with ambient temperature also varied significantly among sites. 4. The overall rate of army ant raids passing through 1 m(2) plots was 0.73 raids per day, but varied among sites, from 0 raids per day (Panama) to 1.2 raids per day (Venezuela). 5. Primarily subterranean species were significantly more abundant in Venezuela, and above-ground foragers that form large swarm fronts were least abundant in Panama. The site heterogeneity in species abundance and diel activity patterns has implications for army ant symbionts, including ant-following birds, and for the animals hunted by these top predators.

  7. An invasive ant species able to counterattack marabunta raids.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the Neotropics where it was introduced, the invasive ant Pheidole megacephala counterattacked raids by the army ants Eciton burchellii or E. hamatum. The Eciton workers that returned to their bivouac were attacked and spread-eagled and most of them killed by their outgoing colony mates. Little by little the zone where returning and outgoing Eciton workers encountered one another moved away from the Pheidole nest which was no longer attacked, so that most of the colony was spared. Using a water-based technique rounded out by bioassays, we show that Pheidole compounds were transferred onto the Eciton cuticle during the counterattacks, so that outgoing workers do not recognize returning colony mates, likely perceived as potential prey. Because P. megacephala is an introduced African species, this kind of protection, which cannot be the result of coevolutive processes, corresponds to a kind of by-product due to its aggressiveness during colony defence.

  8. Design and implementation of reliability evaluation of SAS hard disk based on RAID card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shaohua; Han, Sen

    2015-10-01

    Because of the huge advantage of RAID technology in storage, it has been widely used. However, the question associated with this technology is that the hard disk based on the RAID card can not be queried by Operating System. Therefore how to read the self-information and log data of hard disk has been a problem, while this data is necessary for reliability test of hard disk. In traditional way, this information can be read just suitable for SATA hard disk, but not for SAS hard disk. In this paper, we provide a method by using LSI RAID card's Application Program Interface, communicating with RAID card and analyzing the feedback data to solve the problem. Then we will get the necessary information to assess the SAS hard disk.

  9. RAID: a comprehensive resource for human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Deng; Chen, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinxurong; Fan, Dandan; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Mingyue; Tan, Puwen; Xu, Jintian; Yi, Ying; Wang, Yuting; Zou, Hua; Hu, Yongfei; Fan, Kaili; Kang, Juanjuan; Huang, Yan; Miao, Zhengqiang; Bi, Miaoman; Jin, Nana; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA-RNA interactions and 1619 RNA-protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network. © 2014 Zhang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Determinants of intracolonial relatedness in Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera; Formicidae): mating frequency and brood raids.

    PubMed

    Gadau, J; Strehl, C-P; Oettler, J; Hölldobler, B

    2003-07-01

    The genus Pogonomyrmex is one of three ant genera with an effective mating frequency (me) > 2.0. We developed microsatellites to determine me for P. rugosus because mating frequency of P. rugosus was known only from observational data which do not allow an estimate of me. We genotyped 474 workers from 20 colonies for two microsatellite loci. Observed mating frequencies ranged from 3 to 12 and me for P. rugosus was 4.71. Observed patriline frequencies were significantly different from the expected patriline frequencies generated with a simulated data set under the assumption of equal patriline representation. The available mating frequency data and phylogenetic information of the genus Pogonomyrmex suggest that multiple mating is the ancestral state in the North American Pogonomyrmex sensu stricto. Established P. rugosus colonies raid and destroy smaller conspecific colonies. During these raids ant workers were observed carrying pupae and larvae from the raided colony into the nest of the raiding colony. However, it was not clear whether raided brood emerged in the raiding colony and were subsequently recruited into the work force (intraspecific slavery) or were used as food (predation). Our analyses indicate 6 of 14 field colonies contained foreign P. rugosus workers (43%). The range of the intracolonial frequency of foreign workers collected directly from the nest entrance was between 4 and 28%.

  11. The raw disk i/o performance of compaq storage works RAID arrays under tru64 unix

    SciTech Connect

    Uselton, A C

    2000-10-19

    We report on the raw disk i/o performance of a set of Compaq StorageWorks RAID arrays connected to our cluster of Compaq ES40 computers via Fibre Channel. The best cumulative peak sustained data rate is l17MB/s per node for reads and 77MB/s per node for writes. This value occurs for a configuration in which a node has two Fibre Channel interfaces to a switch, which in turn has two connections to each of two Compaq StorageWorks RAID arrays. Each RAID array has two HSG80 RAID controllers controlling (together) two 5+p RAID chains. A 10% more space efficient arrangement using a single 1l+p RAID chain in place of the two 5+P chains is 25% slower for reads and 40% slower for writes.

  12. Reproductive health clinic raided and closed in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    1995-01-27

    On December 17, armed criminal investigative forces acting under the direction of Colombia's secretary and deputy secretary of health, brutally raided the main clinic of the Orientame reproductive health care federation in Bogota, Colombia. Allegedly responding to charges that the clinic was providing abortions, investigators entered the clinic without warning, brandishing automatic weapons. Once inside, they threatened and physically assaulted patients and clinic staff, destroyed office equipment, broke down doors, and ordered the clinic to close. Since its founding in 1977, Orientame has become Colombia's second largest non-governmental family planning organization. The federation, consisting of three clinics, provides a full range of obstetric, gynecological, and information services, including family planning counseling, cancer screening, treatment for sexually transmitted diseases, prenatal care, adoption placement and counseling, and treatment of incomplete abortion. Serving approximately 250,000 women in its 17 years of operation, Orientame has a sliding fee scale and often waives costs for women who are unable to pay. Were Orientame to close its doors permanently, women facing complications from unsafe abortions but unable to pay private doctors would be forced to go to public hospitals and risk arrest. Despite the country's prohibition of abortions not necessary to save a woman's life, an estimated 288,400 Colombian women underwent abortions in 1989; 57,680 were hospitalized for complications from unsafe or incomplete procedures. full text

  13. Specializations of birds that attend army ant raids: an ecological approach to cognitive and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sean; Logan, Corina J; Clayton, Nicola S

    2012-11-01

    Tropical birds forage at army ant raids on several continents. Obligate foraging at army ant raids evolved several times in the Neotropical true antbird family (Thamnophilidae), and recent evidence suggests a diversity of bird species from other families specialize to varying degrees on army ant exploitation. Army ant raids offer access to high prey densities, but the ant colonies are mobile and widely spaced. Successful army ant exploitation requires solving a complex foraging problem because army ant raids are unpredictable in space and time. Birds can counteract the challenges posed by the ants by using strategies that raise their chances of detecting army ant raids, and birds can use additional strategies to track army ant colonies they have located. Some features of army ant biology, such as their conspicuous swarms and columns, above-ground activity, and regular cycles of behavior, provide opportunities for birds to increase their effectiveness at exploiting raids. Changes in sensory, cognitive and behavioral systems may all contribute to specialized army ant exploitation in a bird population. The combination of specializations that are employed may vary independently among bird species and populations. The degree of army ant exploitation by birds varies geographically with latitude and elevation, and with historical patterns such as centers of distribution of obligate thamnophilid antbirds. We predict the set of specializations a given bird population exhibits will depend on local ecology, as well as phylogenetic history. Comparative approaches that focus on these patterns may indicate ecological and evolutionary factors that have shaped the costs and benefits of this foraging strategy. The development of army ant exploitation in individual birds is poorly understood, and individual expression of these specializations may depend on a combination of genetic adaptation with cognitive plasticity, possibly including social and experiential learning. Future

  14. On the Use of GPUs in Realizing Cost-Effective Distributed RAID

    SciTech Connect

    Khasymski, Aleksandr; Rafique, Mustafa; Butt, Ali R; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The exponential growth in user and application data entails new means for providing fault tolerance and protection against data loss. High Performance Computing (HPC) storage systems, which are at the forefront of handling the data deluge, typically employ hardware RAID at the backend. However, such solutions are costly, do not ensure end-to-end data integrity, and can become a bottleneck during data reconstruction. In this paper, we design an innovative solution to achieve a flexible, fault-tolerant, and high-performance RAID-6 solution for a parallel file system (PFS). Our system utilizes low-cost, strategically placed GPUs - both on the client and server sides - to accelerate parity computation. In contrast to hardware-based approaches, we provide full control over the size, length and location of a RAID array on a per file basis, end-to-end data integrity checking, and parallelization of RAID array reconstruction. We have deployed our system in conjunction with the widely-used Lustre PFS, and show that our approach is feasible and imposes acceptable overhead.

  15. Establishing the Rhetorical Presidency through Presidential Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt and the Brownsville Raid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt was an important figure in the development of the presidency as a primary and authoritative source for definitions of national identity. Through an analysis of three specific rhetorical moves Roosevelt made in arguments over the "proper" interpretation of the Brownsville Raid, this essay examines how Roosevelt both justified his…

  16. ICE Raids, Children, Media, and Making Sense of Latino Newcomers in Flyover Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Reeves, Jenelle

    2012-01-01

    Extant cultural models articulated in "Flyover Country" print media responses to ICE workplace raids showed a welcome of sorts of Latino newcomers. These models suggest a place for Latino students at school and more broadly for Latino children and parents in these communities. Thus, they index an unwillingness to see Latino newcomers in…

  17. Establishing the Rhetorical Presidency through Presidential Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt and the Brownsville Raid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt was an important figure in the development of the presidency as a primary and authoritative source for definitions of national identity. Through an analysis of three specific rhetorical moves Roosevelt made in arguments over the "proper" interpretation of the Brownsville Raid, this essay examines how Roosevelt both justified his…

  18. Contemporary Deportation Raids and Historical Memory: Mexican Expulsions in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the United States with respect to Mexican migrants has reached a level of intensity that harkens back to the mass expulsions of the 1930s and the 1950s, when millions were forcefully removed south across the border. Recent deportation raids have targeted food processing plants and other large businesses hiring migrant…

  19. Contemporary Deportation Raids and Historical Memory: Mexican Expulsions in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the United States with respect to Mexican migrants has reached a level of intensity that harkens back to the mass expulsions of the 1930s and the 1950s, when millions were forcefully removed south across the border. Recent deportation raids have targeted food processing plants and other large businesses hiring migrant…

  20. ICE Raids, Children, Media, and Making Sense of Latino Newcomers in Flyover Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Reeves, Jenelle

    2012-01-01

    Extant cultural models articulated in "Flyover Country" print media responses to ICE workplace raids showed a welcome of sorts of Latino newcomers. These models suggest a place for Latino students at school and more broadly for Latino children and parents in these communities. Thus, they index an unwillingness to see Latino newcomers in…

  1. HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Mike

    2009-01-01

    HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager For The Coastal Ocean (HREP-HICO) will operate a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Maritime Hyperspectral Imaging (MHSI) system, to detect, identify and quantify coastal geophysical features from the International Space Station.

  2. Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Simanjorang, Hubert V P; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Linkie, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts, such as crop-raiding, increase as people expand their agricultural activities into wildlife habitats. Crop-raiding can reduce tolerance toward species that are already threatened, whereas potential dangers posed by conflicts with large-bodied species may also negatively influence local attitudes. Across Asia, wild pigs and primates, such as macaques, tend to be the most commonly reported crop raiders. To date, reports of crop-raiding incidents involving great apes have been less common, but incidents involving orangutans are increasingly emerging in Indonesia. To investigate the interplay of factors that might explain attitudes toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii), focal group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among 822 farmers from 2 contrasting study areas in North Sumatra. The first study area of Batang Serangan is an agroforest system containing isolated orangutans that crop-raid. In contrast, the second area of Sidikalang comprises farmlands bordering extensive primary forest where orangutans are present but not reported to crop-raid. Farmers living in Batang Serangan thought that orangutans were dangerous, irrespective of earlier experience of crop-raiding. Farmers placed orangutans as the third most frequent and fourth most destructive crop pest, after Thomas' leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Although most (57%) farmers across both study areas were not scared of wildlife species, more than a quarter (28%) of the farmers' feared orangutans. Farmers in Batang Serangan were generally more tolerant toward crop-raiding orangutans, if they did not perceive them to present a physical threat. Most (67%) Batang Serangan farmers said that the local Forestry Department staff should handle crop-raiding orangutans, and most (81%) said that these officials did not care about such problems. Our results suggest that efforts to mitigate human

  3. RAId_DbS: mass-spectrometry based peptide identification web server with knowledge integration.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2008-10-27

    Existing scientific literature is a rich source of biological information such as disease markers. Integration of this information with data analysis may help researchers to identify possible controversies and to form useful hypotheses for further validations. In the context of proteomics studies, individualized proteomics era may be approached through consideration of amino acid substitutions/modifications as well as information from disease studies. Integration of such information with peptide searches facilitates speedy, dynamic information retrieval that may significantly benefit clinical laboratory studies. We have integrated from various sources annotated single amino acid polymorphisms, post-translational modifications, and their documented disease associations (if they exist) into one enhanced database per organism. We have also augmented our peptide identification software RAId_DbS to take into account this information while analyzing a tandem mass spectrum. In principle, one may choose to respect or ignore the correlation of amino acid polymorphisms/modifications within each protein. The former leads to targeted searches and avoids scoring of unnecessary polymorphism/modification combinations; the latter explores possible polymorphisms in a controlled fashion. To facilitate new discoveries, RAId_DbS also allows users to conduct searches permitting novel polymorphisms as well as to search a knowledge database created by the users. We have finished constructing enhanced databases for 17 organisms. The web link to RAId_DbS and the enhanced databases is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBResearch/qmbp/RAId_DbS/index.html. The relevant databases and binaries of RAId_DbS for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available for download from the same web page.

  4. The Influence of Life History Milestones and Association Networks on Crop-Raiding Behavior in Male African Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Chiyo, Patrick I.; Moss, Cynthia J.; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human-wildlife conflict. PMID:22347468

  5. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    PubMed

    Chiyo, Patrick I; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human-wildlife conflict.

  6. Multi-Phase Defense by the Big-Headed Ant, Pheidole obtusospinosa, Against Raiding Army Ants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming H.

    2010-01-01

    Army ants are well known for their destructive raids of other ant colonies. Some known defensive strategies include nest evacuation, modification of nest architecture, blockade of nest entrances using rocks or debris, and direct combat outside the nest. Since army ants highly prefer Pheidole ants as prey in desert habitats, there may be strong selective pressure on Pheidole to evolve defensive strategies to better survive raids. In the case of P. obtusospinosa Pergande (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the worker caste system includes super majors in addition to smaller majors and minor workers. Interestingly, P. obtusospinosa and the six other New World Pheidole species described to have polymorphic major workers are all found in the desert southwest and adjacent regions of Mexico, all co-occurring with various species of Neivamyrmex army ants. Pheidole obtusospinosa used a multi-phase defensive strategy against army ant raids that involved their largest major workers. During army ant attacks, these super majors were involved in blocking the nest entrance with their enlarged heads. This is the first description of defensive head-blocking by an ant species that lacks highly modified head morphology, such as a truncated or disc-shaped head. P. obtusospinosa super majors switched effectively between passive headblocking at the nest entrance and aggressive combat outside the nest. If this multi-phase strategy is found to be used by other Pheidole species with polymorphic majors in future studies, it is possible that selective pressure by army ant raids may have been partially responsible for the convergent evolution of this extra worker caste. PMID:20569122

  7. Olfactory Detection of Prey by the Termite-Raiding Ant Pachycondyla analis

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Abdullahi Ahmed; Crewe, Robin M.; Pirk, Christian W. W.

    2014-01-01

    The African termite-raiding ant Pachycondyla analis Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) organizes group raids on termites of the sub-family Macrotermitinae. Termites and ants occupy and share similar habitats, resulting in a co-evolutionary arms race between termites as prey and ants as predators. The present study explored whether P. analis uses semiochemical signaling cues to detect potential termite prey prior to and during raids. Ants' responses to odors emitted from termites alone, termite gallery soil, and termites inside their galleries were tested using Y-tube olfactometer assays. The results showed that P. analis detected odors of termites and those of their galleries, and odors from termites inside their galleries were more attractive to both minor and major ant workers than odors from termites alone. The composition of these odor sources was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. While the odors from termite gallery soils were compositionally richer (containing 13 compounds rather than nine from termites alone), those from the termites alone were quantitatively richer, releasing about six times more odors than gallery soil. Most of the compounds in the odor profiles were identified as hydrocarbons. Naphthalene, previously identified as an insect repellent, was also identified as a component of the odors from the gallery soil. These results demonstrate that odors play an important role in prey detection by P. analis. PMID:25373200

  8. RAId_aPS: MS/MS analysis with multiple scoring functions and spectrum-specific statistics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-11-16

    Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an E-value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic E-value reported by any method into the textbook-defined E-value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific-values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign E-values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign E-values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page.

  9. RAId_aPS: MS/MS Analysis with Multiple Scoring Functions and Spectrum-Specific Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an -value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic -value reported by any method into the textbook-defined -value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific -values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign -values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign -values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page. PMID:21103371

  10. Hunting, food subsidies, and mesopredator release: the dynamics of crop-raiding baboons in a managed landscape.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachel A; Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Johnson, Leah R

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of protected areas or parks has become an important tool for wildlife conservation. However, frequent occurrences of human-wildlife conflict at the edges of these parks can undermine their conservation goals. Many African protected areas have experienced concurrent declines of apex predators alongside increases in both baboon abundance and the density of humans living near the park boundary. Baboons then take excursions outside of the park to raid crops for food, conflicting with the human population. We model the interactions of mesopredators (baboons), apex predators, and shared prey in the park to analyze how four components affect the proportion of time that mesopredators choose to crop-raid: (1) the presence of apex predators; (2) nutritional quality of the crops; (3) mesopredator "shyness" about leaving the park; and (4) human hunting of mesopredators. We predict that the presence of apex predators in the park is the most effective method for controlling mesopredator abundance, and hence significantly reduces their impact on crops. Human hunting of mesopredators is less effective as it only occurs during crop-raiding excursions. Furthermore, making crops less attractive, for instance by planting crops further from the park boundary or farming less nutritional crops, can reduce the amount of time mesopredators crop-raid.

  11. Failing in place for low-serviceability storage infrastructure using high-parity GPU-based RAID.

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Matthew L.; Ward, H. Lee; Skjellum, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    In order to provide large quantities of high-reliability disk-based storage, it has become necessary to aggregate disks into fault-tolerant groups based on the RAID methodology. Most RAID levels do provide some fault tolerance, but there are certain classes of applications that require increased levels of fault tolerance within an array. Some of these applications include embedded systems in harsh environments that have a low level of serviceability, or uninhabited data centers servicing cloud computing. When describing RAID reliability, the Mean Time To Data Loss (MTTDL) calculations will often assume that the time to replace a failed disk is relatively low, or even negligible compared to rebuild time. For platforms that are in remote areas collecting and processing data, it may be impossible to access the system to perform system maintenance for long periods. A disk may fail early in a platform's life, but not be replaceable for much longer than typical for RAID arrays. Service periods may be scheduled at intervals on the order of months, or the platform may not be serviced until the end of a mission in progress. Further, this platform may be subject to extreme conditions that can accelerate wear and tear on a disk, requiring even more protection from failures. We have created a high parity RAID implementation that uses a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to compute more than two blocks of parity information per stripe, allowing extra parity to eliminate or reduce the requirement for rebuilding data between service periods. While this type of controller is highly effective for RAID 6 systems, an important benefit is the ability to incorporate more parity into a RAID storage system. Such RAID levels, as yet unnamed, can tolerate the failure of three or more disks (depending on configuration) without data loss. While this RAID system certainly has applications in embedded systems running applications in the field, similar benefits can be obtained for servers that are

  12. Development of the RAIDS extreme ultraviolet wedge and strip detector. [Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Chater, W. T.; Christensen, A. B.; Howey, C. K.; Pranke, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    In the next few years the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System (RAIDS) package will be flown on a Tiros spacecraft. The EUV spectrometer experiment contains a position-sensitive detector based on wedge and strip anode technology. A detector design has been implemented in brazed alumina and kovar to provide a rugged bakeable housing and anode. A stack of three 80:1 microchannel plates is operated at 3500-4100 V. to achieve a gain of about 10 to the 7th. The top MCP is to be coated with MgF for increased quantum efficiency in the range of 50-115 nm. A summary of fabrication techniques and detector performance characteristics is presented.

  13. Smallholder farms as stepping stone corridors for crop-raiding elephant in northern Tanzania: integration of Bayesian expert system and network simulator.

    PubMed

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein A M J; McCall, Michael K; Prins, Herbert H T

    2014-03-01

    Crop-raiding elephants affect local livelihoods, undermining conservation efforts. Yet, crop-raiding patterns are poorly understood, making prediction and protection difficult. We hypothesized that raiding elephants use corridors between daytime refuges and farmland. Elephant counts, crop-raiding records, household surveys, Bayesian expert system, and least-cost path simulation were used to predict four alternative categories of daily corridors: (1) footpaths, (2) dry river beds, (3) stepping stones along scattered small farms, and (4) trajectories of shortest distance to refuges. The corridor alignments were compared in terms of their minimum cumulative resistance to elephant movement and related to crop-raiding zones quantified by a kernel density function. The "stepping stone" corridors predicted the crop-raiding patterns. Elephant presence was confirmed along these corridors, demonstrating that small farms located between refuges and contiguous farmland increase habitat connectivity for elephant. Our analysis successfully predicted elephant occurrence in farmland where daytime counts failed to detect nocturnal presence. These results have conservation management implications.

  14. TITLE: Remote sensing of lower thermospheric temperatures with the RAIDS experiment on the International Space Station (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Crowley, G.

    2010-12-01

    Current research into the processes operative in the lower thermosphere and upper mesosphere of the Earth's atmosphere is stressing the importance of dynamic interactions in determining the physical and chemical state of the region. Exploration of this sparsely sampled region was the purpose of the Radiation and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). RAIDS comprises 8 instruments including a near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) designed to routinely measure temperatures in the lower thermosphere from approximately 100 to 140 km altitude. Commencing in October, 2009, limb profiles of the neutral kinetic temperature have been obtained in a limb scanning mode viewing aft from the experiment porch on the JEM module. Spectra of the airglow are obtained across the wavelength range 725 to 870 nm in a step/stare mode of the RAIDS experiment. Dayside and nightside temperatures are derived from spectral measurements of the O2(1 Sigma) Atmospheric 0-0 and 1-1 band profiles. The temperature profiles obtained are in good agreement on average with the MSIS model, however they show significantly more variability than given by MSIS or TIEGCM model runs. The variability shows up as scan to scan variations in the temperature profile, where due to the data collection cadence, most of the measurements are collected over about 5 degrees in latitude and spaced approximately 15 degrees in latitude thus providing clues to the scale size of the variations. Seasonal trends and comparisons with TIMED/SABER measurements will be presented.

  15. [Functional status of submariners after short-time submarine raid in the sea].

    PubMed

    Kalmanov, A S; Pisarev, A A; Khankevich, Yu R; Bloshchinskii, I A; Valskii, A V

    2015-10-01

    Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover. The transfer of the submarine crew and referral to medical and psychological rehabilitation assumed only after the end of the operating cycle after the crew the task of further voyage. Based on the assessment of the functional systems of the submarine after a short voyage concluded on the need to develop a set of remedial measures for the recovery of submarine crews during inter-cruise period.

  16. Instrumentation on the RAIDS experiment 2: Extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, photometer, and near IR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Kayser, D. C.; Pranke, J. B.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McCoy, R. P.

    1994-02-01

    The RAIDS experiment consists of eight instruments spanning the wavelength range from the extreme ultraviolet (55 nm) to the near infrared (800 nm) oriented to view the Earth's limb from the NOAA-J spacecraft to be launched into a circular orbit in 1993. Through measurements of the natural optical emissions and scattered sunlight originating in the upper atmosphere including the mesosphere and thermosphere, state variables such as temperature, composition, density and ion concentration of this region will be inferred. This report describes the subset of instruments fabricated or otherwise provided by the Space and Environment Technology Center (formerly Space Sciences Laboratory) at The Aerospace Corp. The companion to this report describes the instruments from the Naval Research Laboratory. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUVS), the three fixed filter photometers OI (630), OI (777), and Na (589), and the near infrared spectrometer (NIR) will be described. These are all mounted on a mechanical scan platform that scans the limb from approximately 75 to 750 km in the orbital plane of the satellite every 90 seconds.

  17. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of non-small cell lung cancer using Tc-99m ANTI-CEA FAB` (immuRAID CEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fig, L.M.; Hughes, L.; Pinsky, C.M.

    1994-05-01

    We conducted a Phase II prospective multicenter clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of Tc-99M anti-CEA Fab`(ImmuRAID-CEA) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Fifty four patients (42 male; 12 female; age range 40-93 yr) had primary operable (19), primary inoperable (7), occult (9), metastatic (15) or recurrent (4) disease. Patients were injected with 1 mg ImmuRAID-CEA radiolabeled with 20-30 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate and imaged at 4-8 and 18-24 hr by planar and SPECT techniques; ten were imaged at 15-18 hr only. Despite prominent blood pool activity at 4-8 hr. overall imaging statistics on a per patient basis revealed a sensitivity of tumor detection of 90%, accuracy 85% and positive predictive value 94%. The later images had lower count rates but target to background ratios were improved. On a per lesion basis, sensitivity in the chest was 69% and in liver 88%. Twenty four patients had additional foci of antibody uptake at sites previously believed to be uninvolved; cancer was confirmed in 11, not confirmed in 2 and currently indeterminate in 11. Furthermore, a negative scan confirmed equivocal radiographic studies as true negative in 5 patients. With respect to safety, there were no adverse clinical reactions and four minor, transient changes in hematologic and/or biochemical parameters. Human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) determinations on 27 patients using ImmuSTRIP{reg_sign} HAMA Fragment assay were negative at 4-6 weeks or 3 months post-infusion. We conclude that imaging with ImmuRAID-CEA is safe and potentially useful for the evaluation and staging of lung cancer patients.

  18. Validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) score and definition of cut-off points for disease activity states in a population-based European cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, Fausto; Di Carlo, Marco; Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Simić Pašalić, Katarina; Balčune, Ineta; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Butrimienė, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-24

    To assess the validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) for measuring disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine cut-off values for defining the disease activity states. A total of 622 RA patients from an European database have been included. Cross-validation was based on assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Optimal cut-offs were determined against external criteria by calculating the respective 25th and 75th percentiles mean values of RAID. External criteria included definitions for remission (REM), low disease activity (LDA), moderate disease activity (MDA) and high disease activity (HDA), cut-offs of the 28-joint disease activity score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) score. The RAID showed a moderate degree of correlation with respect to DAS28-CRP (rho=0.417; P<0.0001). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate the ability of RAID to distinguish patients with active and non-active disease was very good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.847 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.816 to 0.878; P<0.0001). Based on the distributions of RAID in the different disease activity groups, we propose the following cut-off values for REM: RAID ≤3; for LDA: RAID >3 and ≤4; for MDA: RAID >4 and ≤6; for HDA: RAID >6. Mean RAID differed significantly between patients classified as REM, LDA, MDA or HDA (P=0.001). The cut-offs revealed good measurement characteristics in cross-validation analysis, had great discriminatory performance in distinguishing patients with different levels of disease activity and are suited for widespread use in everyday practice application and research. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Une lombalgie révélatrice d'un syndrome de l'homme raide

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Mckeon, Andrew; Najeh, Boussetta; Leila, Metoui; Imen, Gharsallah; Bassem, Louzir; Salah, Othmani

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome de l'homme raide est une pathologie neurologique rare. Son diagnostic est souvent très retardé à cause de sa présentation trompeuse. L′expression clinique est purement motrice, progressive avec une hypertonie axiale et des racines des membres, une hyperlordose souvent douloureuse, et un examen neurologique normal en dehors d'une augmentation des réflexes ostéotendineux. Le diagnostic est confirmé par l'examen électromyographique des muscles para-spinaux lombaires avec persistance d'une activité au repos de potentiel d'unité motrice d'allure normale, et une augmentation des anticorps anti acide glutamique décarboxylase (GAD). Le traitement de référence est le diazépam. Les immunoglobulines intraveineuses ont amélioré la qualité de vie des patients. L′évolution est longue et, si l′aggravation peut être stoppée, l′amélioration est souvent incomplète. Nous rapportons une observation de syndrome de l'homme raide, découvert à l'occasion de lombalgies mécaniques chroniques résistantes aux antalgiques améliorées par des cures d'immunoglobulines intraveineuses. PMID:24778753

  20. Patient-reported outcomes in Asia: evaluation of the properties of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score in multiethnic Asian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Peter P; Lahiri, Manjari; March, Lyn; Gossec, Laure

    2017-05-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as the Europe-developed Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) are important to assess patients' quality of life. Their interpretation may be culture-dependent. To evaluate the potential utility of RAID in multiethnic Asian rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Cross-sectional study of English-speaking RA patients in a Singapore tertiary center. Validity of RAID (scored between 0 and 10 with higher score indicating worse status) was assessed by Spearman's correlation with patient global assessment (PGA), DAS28 and short form 12 (SF-12). Consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 7 days after (n = 20). Feasibility was assessed by % of missing data. Eighty-two patients were analyzed: median age 53 years (Q1:Q3 44.7; 60.7), disease duration 4.2 years (1.4; 8.8), 66 (81%) women and 54 (66%) Chinese. Although RA was moderately active (median DAS28, 3.2 (2.5; 4.3)), RAID score was very low (median, 1.9 (0.6; 3.7)) with 44 (53.7%) patients having RAID score between 0 and 2. RAID was strongly correlated with PGA (r = 0.75), and moderately with other outcomes (DAS28 r = 0.46, SF12 physical r = -0.45 and SF12 mental r = -0.52, p < 0.0001 for all). Consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91). Test-retest reliability was excellent; ICC = 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.74-0.90). Feasibility was good with only 2 patients with missing data. Despite considerable floor effects, the RAID appeared to be a valid and practical PRO to assess the impact of RA in Asia. Multiethnic Asian patients may underestimate the impact of their disease compared to European patients.

  1. Development of the RAIDS (Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System) extreme-ultraviolet wedge and strip detector. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, D.C.; Chater, W.T.; Christensen, A.B.; Howey, C.K.; Pranke, J.B.

    1989-08-28

    In the next few years the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System (RAIDS) package will be flown on a TIROS spacecraft. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) experiment contains a position-sensitive detector based on wedge and strip anode technology. A detector design has been implemented in brazed alumina and Kovar to provide a rugged bakeable housing and anode. A stack of three 80:1 microchannel plates is operated at 3500-4100 V to achieve a gain of about 10{sup 7} power. The top MCP is to be coated with MgF for increased quantum efficiency in the range of 500-1150 A. Fabrication of the wedge and strip anode on brazed alumina has presented some challenging problems. In this report, a summary of fabrication techniques and detector performance characteristics is presented.

  2. Analysis of the mean time to data loss of nested disk arrays RAID-01 on basis of a specialized mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, P. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this scientific paper a specialized Markov chain for a reliability model of the fault-tolerant system with two types of failures, single batch repair and full restore after reaching the failed state is discussed. The generalized formulas for calculation of the system’s stationary availability factor, the mean time to failure and the mean time to repair are also introduced. Application of the special type of the Markov chain in the reliability model of the nested disk array ‘RAID-01’ and calculation of mean time to data loss by using the generalized formulas are also discussed. The calculation examples of mean time to data loss of the ‘RAID-01’ array are also given.

  3. The Hammelburg Raid Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Oppenheim and secured a foothold for follow-on I units. Patton’s beloved 4th Armored Division, 8 which had expected to lead the river crossing, was...for the operation was threefold: 1) I deception, 2) create confusion, and 3) free prisoners, with objectives one and two achieved. 1 4 9 Robert Reppa...the Army. He served in a variety assignments including military aide to Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson,I Chief of Military Assistance Staff in

  4. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics.

  5. Musculoskeletal injuries in a resource-constrained environment: comparing diagnostic accuracy of on-the-spot ultrasonography and conventional radiography for bone fracture screening during the Paris-Dakar rally raid.

    PubMed

    Dallaudière, Benjamin; Larbi, Ahmed; Lefere, Mathieu; Perozziello, Anne; Hauger, Olivier; Pommerie, Florence; Fraboulet, Bénédicte; Jacob, Denis

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a good first-line alternative for the diagnosis of bone fractures in adults as well as children. Our study shows that, compared to X-ray, in a resource-constrained environment, on-site US has a high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (96%) in the diagnosis of bone fractures. To compare the accuracy of on-the-spot US with conventional radiography in the screening for bone fractures during the Paris-Dakar rally raid. Eighty-three patients (81 men, 2 women) with clinically suspected bone fractures were included in 2013 and 2014. They underwent X-ray and US on the spot, blindly interpreted by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Using X-ray as gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for US, for each anatomic location. The accuracy of US and radiography were also assessed, as were the number of fragments and their degree of displacement (Student's t-test). Compared with X-ray, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of on-site US were, respectively, for the presence (or absence) of fractures: 98%, 98%, 100%, and 95%. The accuracy of US was 99%. Only one radial styloid process fracture was misdiagnosed with US. There was no significant difference between US and X-ray (P > 0.93) concerning the number of fragments and their degree of displacement. Bedside musculoskeletal ultrasound performed by trained musculoskeletal radiologists is a useful method in determining and assessing bone fractures in a resource constrained environment.

  6. Musculoskeletal injuries in a resource-constrained environment: comparing diagnostic accuracy of on-the-spot ultrasonography and conventional radiography for bone fracture screening during the Paris–Dakar rally raid

    PubMed Central

    Larbi, Ahmed; Lefere, Mathieu; Perozziello, Anne; Hauger, Olivier; Pommerie, Florence; Fraboulet, Bénédicte; Jacob, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) is a good first-line alternative for the diagnosis of bone fractures in adults as well as children. Our study shows that, compared to X-ray, in a resource-constrained environment, on-site US has a high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (96%) in the diagnosis of bone fractures. Purpose To compare the accuracy of on-the-spot US with conventional radiography in the screening for bone fractures during the Paris–Dakar rally raid. Material and Methods Eighty-three patients (81 men, 2 women) with clinically suspected bone fractures were included in 2013 and 2014. They underwent X-ray and US on the spot, blindly interpreted by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Using X-ray as gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for US, for each anatomic location. The accuracy of US and radiography were also assessed, as were the number of fragments and their degree of displacement (Student’s t-test). Results Compared with X-ray, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of on-site US were, respectively, for the presence (or absence) of fractures: 98%, 98%, 100%, and 95%. The accuracy of US was 99%. Only one radial styloid process fracture was misdiagnosed with US. There was no significant difference between US and X-ray (P > 0.93) concerning the number of fragments and their degree of displacement. Conclusion Bedside musculoskeletal ultrasound performed by trained musculoskeletal radiologists is a useful method in determining and assessing bone fractures in a resource constrained environment. PMID:26034643

  7. Public Colleges Fight Raids on Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    Public colleges and universities are girding themselves to win the war for tenured talent. Some are succeeding. State budget woes and a rocky economy have shaken public colleges and universities. One of the most noticeable shudders has been a pervasive "brain drain," as many state institutions face competition for their best faculty members from…

  8. Wisconsin's Flagship Is Raided for Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Wisconsin's stagnating state higher-education budget has forced the university to keep faculty salaries far below average. When professors get feelers from elsewhere, they learn that a move can easily mean a 100-percent salary increase--sometimes more. Budget problems have also depleted money for perks that keep faculty members on board--funds for…

  9. The Future of Raiding: Lessons in Raiding Tactics from the Indian Wars and Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    18 The American Heritage College Dictionary, ed. Costello, Robert B. et al., Third ed. ( Boston , Mass: Houghton Mifflin...classic ambush tactic, the Sioux and Cheyenne totally annihilated a cavalry troop of 81 men in a battle known as the Fetterman Massacre on December...because of the Washita River massacre in which Custer’s 7th Cavalry killed over 150 men, women, and children in an encampment that belonged to Chief

  10. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, RAID FLEA KILLER PLUS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... FOR USE INDOORS: To kill fl ••• and tick. hold can 2-3 f •• t·fro • • urf.c •• to b. tr.at.d. B •• ur. ... c.rpet •• dr.pe. and .11 .urf.c •• of uphol.ter.d furnitur.. ...

  11. Commerce Raiding: Historical Case Studies, 1755-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    marché commun, ed. Douglas Johnson, François Bédarida, and François Crouzet (Paris: Albin Michel , 1979), pp. 153–90; François Crouzet, “The Second...Marzagalli.indd August 30, 2013 1:19 PM 18. Crowhurst, French War on Trade, p. 7. Figures for Bordeaux in Michel Casse, “La course à Bordeaux en 1793...Bastérreche”; Michel Casse, “Un armateur en course borde- laise sous la Révolution et l’Empire: Jacques Conte, 1753–1836,” in Bordeaux, porte océane

  12. Raiding the Continent: The Origins of British Special Service Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    success is to be achieved. In forces dependent upon technology , this is self evident; the argument usually concerns the probability of need, in the...overall strategy, of the particular capability the technology bestows. The most intense, and perhaps most interesting, debates, however, arise over the...Div No. 9 Ind Coy-38 Div No. 5 Ind Coy-i London Div No. 10 Ind Coy-66 Div 16. 79/MOB/3433/129(M)( Mobl ) 22 Apr 40, 79/MOB/3433/140(M)(Gobl) 24 Apr 40

  13. Schweinfurt Raids and the Pause in Daylight Strategic Bombing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    German homeland defenses were upgraded and better coordinated, with established defense sectors, plus an additional three hundred flak guns positioned......when hit by the fighter’s superior firepower of 20mm/cannon and machine guns . A well coordinated attack by three to four fighters could also divide

  14. Binary random systematic erasure code for RAID system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Pengguo; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Liang; Yuan, Dezhai

    2017-03-01

    As the increasing expansion of data scale, storage systems grow in size and complexity, the requirements for systems scalability and methodologies to recover simultaneous disk and sector failures are inevitable. To ensure high reliability and flexible scalability, erasure codes with high fault tolerance and flexibility are required. In this pa per, we present a class of erasure codes satisfied the previous requirements, which referred as Binary Random Systematic erasure code, called BRS code for short. BRS code constructs its generator matrix based on random matrix, whose elements are in Galois Field GF (2), and takes the advantage of exclusive-or (XOR) operations to make it work much fast. It is designed as a systematic code to facilitate the store and recovery. Moreover, δ random redundancies make the probability of successfully decoding controllable. Our evaluations and experiments show that BRS code is flexible on parameters and fault tolerance setting, and has high computing efficiency on encoding and decoding speeds, what is more, when the code length is long enough, BRS code is approximately MDS, thus make it have nearly optimal storage efficiency.

  15. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOEpatents

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  16. Hybridization in East African swarm-raiding army ants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a range of species, examples of gene-flow via hybrid queens and males are rare. We studied hybridization in East African army ants (Dorylus subgenus Anomma) using morphology, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and nuclear microsatellites. Results While the mitochondrial phylogeny had a strong geographic signal, different species were not recovered as monophyletic. At our main study site at Kakamega Forest, a mitochondrial haplotype was shared between a "Dorylus molestus-like" and a "Dorylus wilverthi-like" form. This pattern is best explained by introgression following hybridization between D. molestus and D. wilverthi. Microsatellite data from workers showed that the two morphological forms correspond to two distinct genetic clusters, with a significant proportion of individuals being classified as hybrids. Conclusions We conclude that hybridization and gene-flow between the two army ant species D. molestus and D. wilverthi has occurred, and that mating between the two forms continues to regularly produce hybrid workers. Hybridization is particularly surprising in army ants because workers have control over which males are allowed to mate with a young virgin queen inside the colony. PMID:21859477

  17. A NMR reverse diffusion filter for the simplification of spectra of complex mixtures and the study of drug receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Vega-Vázquez, M; Cobas, J C; Oliveira de Sousa, F F; Martin-Pastor, M

    2011-08-01

    A reverse diffusion filter NMR experiment (Drev) is proposed for the study of small molecules in binding with macromolecules. The filtering efficiency of Drev to eliminate the signals of the macromolecule is shown to be superior to conventional transverse relaxation filters at least for macromolecules containing a significant fraction of flexible residues. The Drev filter was also a useful complement for ligand-based NMR screening in combination with saturation transfer difference experiments.

  18. The Ijmuiden Power Plant Raids of WWII (World War II) Airpower Misapplied.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    crew were tasked to practice navigating to and bombing a raft out in the Gulf of Mexico , but again there was absolutely no supervision; and all bombing...Noord Zee Canal. At that point, Captain Scott headed the formation towards the target some 30 degrees off heading. As the formation approached the target

  19. Psychologic scars remain 50 years after Dieppe raid, study of Canadian veterans finds.

    PubMed Central

    Spears, T

    1995-01-01

    A Toronto psychologist has conducted a 50-year follow-up study of the psychologic problems faced by Canadian troops who landed on the beaches of Dieppe, France, in 1942. Lynne Beal says many of the men have suffered in silence, never realizing that they were experiencing the widespread condition known as post-traumatic stress disorder. The veterans hope her work will help them win greater official recognition of their condition. Images p1325-a PMID:7497395

  20. Raiding the pharmacy: genomic screening identifies known chemotherapies as negative regulators of MCL1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite multiple studies demonstrating the importance of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 in tumor cell survival and treatment resistance, a clinically important inhibitor has yet to be developed. A recent study by Guo Wei and colleagues published in Cancer Cell has utilized a novel high-throughput approach to identify compounds that act as transcriptional repressors of MCL1 expression. Their findings identified a number of candidate drugs to be tested for clinical relevance in human cancers dependent on MCL1 expression. PMID:22742055

  1. Border Jumping: Strategic and Operational Considerations in Planning Cross-Border Raids Against Insurgent Sanctuaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Army SWAPO South West Africa People’s Organization UDN Nicaraguan Democratic Union UN United Nations UNITA União Nacional para a Independência Total...1958 1959 Cuba 1953 1959 Tibet 1959 1974 Eritrea 1960 1993 Congo/Katanga 1960 1965 South Africa 1960 1994 Guatemala 1960 1996 Angolan...Tunisian border.92 The Tunisian border fence ran 450 kilometers, while a second fence along the Moroccan border totaled 750 kilometers in length.93

  2. Thrilling but Pointless: General JO Shelby’s 1863 Cavalry Raid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    Carolina.5 Here Shelby used slave labor to raise hemp for rope manufacturing , a vital asset to the South who needed the rope to bind their cotton bales......to Arkansas he found ‘delicate females fleeing southward’, driving their teams ‘barefooted, ragged, and suffering for even bread ’.”337 Even though

  3. Observations of the migrating semidiurnal and quaddiurnal tides from the RAIDS/NIRS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem, Irfan; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Crowley, Geoff; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Christensen, Andrew B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze temperature data from the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) instrument on Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System experiment on the International Space Station and the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics satellite during June and July 2010 to investigate structures of the migrating semidiurnal (12 h) and quaddiurnal (6 h) tides in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Temperature measurements from the NIRS and SABER instruments allow us to examine the tides from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. We find that the amplitude of the migrating 6 h tide grows from ~5 K near 100 km altitude to ~30 K near 130 km. The amplitudes of the tide at altitudes accessible by NIRS are much larger than those previously reported at lower altitudes from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and the SABER instruments. The amplitude of the 12 h tide in the NIRS data shows two peaks in the lower thermosphere (between 95 and 130 km) with a maximum around 60 K occurring in the winter hemisphere near 20° latitude and a second maximum around 40 K occurring in the summer hemisphere near 30° latitude. The structure of the migrating terdiurnal (8 h) tide is also investigated in the NIRS data and shows increasing amplitude with altitude over a broad range of latitudes, roughly between 50°N and 30°S. Altitudinal variations seen in the 6, 8, and 12 h tides suggest an evolving mix of various Hough modes.

  4. RAID-2: Design and implementation of a large scale disk array controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R. H.; Chen, P. M.; Drapeau, A. L.; Lee, E. K.; Lutz, K.; Miller, E. L.; Seshan, S.; Patterson, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a large scale disk array controller and subsystem incorporating over 100 high performance 3.5 inch disk drives. It is designed to provide 40 MB/s sustained performance and 40 GB capacity in three 19 inch racks. The array controller forms an integral part of a file server that attaches to a Gb/s local area network. The controller implements a high bandwidth interconnect between an interleaved memory, an XOR calculation engine, the network interface (HIPPI), and the disk interfaces (SCSI). The system is now functionally operational, and we are tuning its performance. We review the design decisions, history, and lessons learned from this three year university implementation effort to construct a truly large scale system assembly.

  5. Hurry All to Sea: Union Naval, Strategy to Counter Confederate Commerce Raiding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    support a conflict that used a vast new array of warfare technologies. The South, on the other hand, was agriculturally oriented and depended on...San Jacinto reported from the Island of Guadeloupe : . Our consul at this place tells me he has information from a reliable source that the Alabama

  6. Guerrilla Operations in the Civil War: Assessing Compound Warfare During Price’s Raid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Louisiana . In the wake of his army, most of the guerrillas fled the state for winter quarters in Texas while Quantrill formed a group of 30 guerrillas...through Missouri including Confederate victories in Louisiana and Arkansas freeing Price’s force to return 8 to Missouri. It also describes...Pennsylvania’s southern border and the Ohio River--slave states were to the south. No distinction had been made west of the Mississippi River in the Louisiana

  7. Operation JUBILEE: The Allied Raid on Dieppe (1942) -- A Historical Analysis of a Planning Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-06

    b. Air Force Commander: Air Vice Marshall Leigh-Mallory, RAP; and, 5 I 1- ,I ~, c. Naval Force Commander: Rear-Admiral H.T. Baillie-Grohman, RN.17...Lovat ~~ Air Vice- Marshall Trafford Leigh-Mallory F-ll2 APPENDIX F - DETAILED OBJECTIVES OPERATION JUBILEE! No.3 Commando -land at beaches Yellow I and...para. :i6:.!)..’ ~ ... -(iv) Mihtary,·~’tPP(lrt during-landing (para. 363),: .::i (b) The bombardment Clf ~Ianluy Island by JL~r.S... K~nya," a 6

  8. Pearl Harbor and America's Homefront Children: First Fears, Blackouts, Air Raid Drills, and Nightmares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    In conducting research about U.S. homefront children during the Second World War, a professor of history wrote to the 100 largest-circulation newspapers in the United States as well as 75 African-American, Hispanic American, and Jewish-American newspapers and magazines seeking letters from people who experienced the War as children. More than…

  9. Colonel Ranald S. MacKenzie and the Remolino Raid: Prompt in the Saddle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-03

    clattering of hoofs were suddenly heard, causing [Colonel Beaumont and I] to sit up in our blankets, and Major Clarence Mauck rode hurriedly into camp...from Fort Clark and gave the orders from Mackenzie to ’pack up’and ’saddle up’ immediately. . . . It was between 2 and 3 A.M. . .. Beaumont turning to...Blood on the Border. London: Macmillan Company,1969. pp.61- 6 2. 19. Beaumont ,E.B. "Over the Border with Mackenzie",United Services Magazine,Vol XII

  10. Command and Control and Communications Lessons Learned: Iranian Rescue, Falklands Conflict, Grenada Invasion, Libya Raid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    physically located in the theater of operations. Throughout the Falklands campaign, the British excercised command of the task force from Northwood, England...decision, President Reagan ordered full authority for the operation to be vested in the JCS to avoid command and control bottle necks that were built into

  11. Proving Correctness of a Controller Algorithm for the RAID Level 5 System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    appear in the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing, 1998. STAUEN ENT A Distritut1om Un..Ited 19980508 079 This...a first step towards building such a tool, our approach consists of studying several controller algorithms manually, to determine the key properties...a tool, our validity of the controller algorithm obtained. However approach consists of studying several controller algo- the latter task may be

  12. John Brown's Raid: Park VideoPack for Home and Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This video pack is intended for parents, teachers, librarians, students, and travelers interested in learning about national parklands and how they relate to the nation's natural and cultural heritage. The video pack includes a VHS video cassette on Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, an illustrated handbook with historical information on…

  13. "Knowledge Universe" and Virtual Schools: Educational Breakthrough or Digital Raid on the Public Treasury? Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Correspondence schools, motion pictures, radio, educational television, and computer-assisted instruction have all been hailed as technological innovations that would revolutionize education, reducing, if not eliminating entirely, education's dependence on traditional schools and their teachers. The latest innovation is "virtual…

  14. Strategic Air Attack in Military Operations Other Than War Strikes and Raids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    terrorist bomb blew up the La Belle Disco in West Berlin, a popular club to American soldiers; one US servicemen was killed...incontrovertible”; West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl asserted, “I have not the slightest doubt that the trail of blood from the Berlin disco bombing leads to...the administration argued that for political reasons the strike had to clearly announce itself as a response to the disco bombing, directly attacking

  15. Intensive blood pressure control in patients with acute type B aortic dissection (RAID): study protocol for randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Cang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Zhong-Heng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Yue-Feng; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Wei-Min; Li, Dong-Lin; Li, Wei-Dong; Liu, Zhen-Jie; Qian, Xi-Min; Zhang, Ming-You; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Mi; Yang, Zhi-Tao; Yu, Yun-Xian; Li, Hang-Yang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Yong-Gang; Gao, Jian-Ping; Ling, Lin; Pan, Kong-Han

    2017-05-01

    Blood pressure control is an essential therapy for patients with acute type B aortic dissection (ABAD) and should be maintained throughout the entire treatment. Thus, vast majority current guidelines recommend control the blood pressure to lower than 140/90 mmHg. Theoretically, a much lower target may further decrease the risk of propagation of dissection. However, some argued that too lower blood pressure would compromise the organ perfusion. Thus, there is no unanimous optimal target for blood pressure in patients with ABAD so far. The present study aimed to investigate the optimal blood pressure target for patients with ABAD, in the hope that the result would optimize the treatment of aortic dissection (AD). The study is a multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial. Study population will include patients with new diagnosed ABAD and hypertension. Blocked randomization was performed where intensive blood pressure control (<120 mmHg) with conventional blood pressure control (<140 mmHg) were allocated at random in a ratio of 1:1 in blocks of sizes 4, 6, 8, and 10 to 360 subjects. Interim analysis will be performed. The primary outcome is a composite in-hospital adverse outcome, including death, permanent paraplegia or semi- paralysis during the hospitalization, and renal failure requiring hemodialysis at discharge. While the secondary outcomes include the aortic size, lower extremity or visceral ischemia, retrograde propagation into aortic arch or ascending aorta, mortality in 6 months and 1 year, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, total length of hospital stay, creatinine level, and surgical or endovascular intervention. The study was approved by the institutional review board of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital (approval number: 20160920-9). Informed consent will be obtained from participants or their next-of-kin. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and shared with the worldwide medical community. NCT03001739 (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/).

  16. BATMAN (Battle-Management Assessment System) and ROBIN (Raid Originator Bogie Ingress): Rationale, Software Design, and Database Descriptions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    background color of the screen when entering a new user’s name and social security number. value: a string of the form : " color offset". See...buttoncolor above. userbgcolor: the color of empty slots in the "list of users" panel. value: a string of the form : " color offset". See buttoncolor above. -66...BATMAN & ROBIN Database Descriptions userfgcolor: the color of users’ names in the "list of users" panel. value: a string of the form : " color offset

  17. Neurosensory and Cognitive Modifications in Europe's Toughest RandoRaid Competition: the Transpyrénéa Extreme Study.

    PubMed

    Tonacci, Alessandro; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Ujka, Kristian; Sansone, Francesco; Ferrisi, Alice; Giardini, Guido; Conte, Raffaele; Pratali, Lorenza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Given the wide proliferation of ultra-long endurance races, it is important to understand the physiological response of the athletes to improve their safety. We evaluated the cognitive and neurosensory effects on ultra-endurance athletes during the Transpyrénéa (866 Km, 65,000 m positive slope), held on the French Pyrenees. Materials and Methods: 40 athletes were enrolled (age 43.8 ± 8.8 years; 36 males). Olfactory and cognitive tests were performed before the race (T0, n = 40), at 166 kms (T1, n = 28), at 418 kms (T2, n = 20), and after the race (T3, 866 kms, n = 13). The effect of dehydration and sleep deprivation on cognitive features were also studied. Results: Olfactory function decreased during the race (T0: 24.9 ± 4.3 vs. T3: 22.8 ± 3.5, z = -2.678, p = 0.007), language fluency increased (T0: 10.8 ± 2.9; T1: 11.4 ± 2.7; T2: 12.9 ± 2.8; T3: 12.9 ± 3.0; χ(2) = 11.132, p = 0.011 for combined samples), whereas the Trail Making Test did not show any changes between pre- and post-race (T0 vs. T3 p = 0.697 for TMT-A, p = 0.977 for TMT-B). The mean aggregate sleeping time was 9.3 ± 5.4 h at T1, 22.4 ± 10.0 h at T2, 29.5 ± 20.5 h at T3, with a correlation with olfactory function (r = 0.644, p = 0.018), while Total Body Water (TBW) was not correlated with olfactory or cognitive scores. Conclusion: Physical activity and sleep restriction in ultra-endurance could transiently affect olfactory function, while verbal fluency improved, demonstrating a dissimilar mechanism of activation/deactivation in different cortical areas. Body water loss was uncorrelated to cognition. Further studies should clarify whether cognitive and sensory deficits occur even in absence of sleep restriction.

  18. Battle Experience From Pearl Harbor to Midway December 1941 to June 1942 Including Makin Island Raid 17-18 August

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-02-15

    of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1943 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4... WALKE , were sunk and a third destroyer, BEMAM, badly damaged. This des­ troyer broke up the next day, due to heavy seas, while en route to a re­...good drill mines - no experience in laying and sweeping. Inadequate expenditure of service mines in proof, anti-countermining service tests, ef

  19. Usefulness of Iron Deficiency Correction in Management of Patients With Heart Failure [from the Registry Analysis of Iron Deficiency-Heart Failure (RAID-HF) Registry].

    PubMed

    Wienbergen, Harm; Pfister, Otmar; Hochadel, Matthias; Michel, Stephan; Bruder, Oliver; Remppis, Björn Andrew; Maeder, Micha Tobias; Strasser, Ruth; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Pauschinger, Matthias; Senges, Jochen; Hambrecht, Rainer

    2016-12-15

    Iron deficiency (ID) has been identified as an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Intravenous iron therapy reduced symptoms and rehospitalizations of iron-deficient patients with HF in randomized trials. The present multicenter study investigated the "real-world" management of iron status in patients with HF. Consecutive patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤40% were recruited and analyzed from December 2010 to October 2015 by 11 centers in Germany and Switzerland. Of 1,484 patients with HF, iron status was determined in only 923 patients (62.2%), despite participation of the centers in a registry focusing on ID and despite guideline recommendation to determine iron status. In patients with determined iron status, a prevalence of 54.7% (505 patients) for ID was observed. Iron therapy was performed in only 8.5% of the iron-deficient patients with HF; 2.6% were treated with intravenous iron therapy. The patients with iron therapy were characterized by a high rate of symptomatic HF and anemia. In conclusion, despite strong evidence of beneficial effects of iron therapy on symptoms and rehospitalizations, diagnostic and therapeutic efforts on ID in HF are low in the actual clinical practice, and the awareness to diagnose and treat ID in HF should be strongly enforced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the novel online delineation workshop dummy run approach using FALCON within a European multicentre trial in cervical cancer (RAIDs).

    PubMed

    Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Rivera, Sofia; Martínez-Paredes, María; Hupé, Philippe; Slocker Escarpa, Andrea; Borget, Isabelle; Mazeron, Renaud; Scholl, Suzy; Palacios Eito, Amalia; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Online delineation workshops (ODW) permit training of geographically dispersed participants. The purpose is to evaluate the methodology of an ODW using FALCON to harmonize delineation within a European multicentre trial on locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Two ODW included 46 clinicians (14 centres). Clinicians completed baseline (C1), guideline (C2) and final contours (C3) for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) for LACC. Interobserver and intraobserver variability was evaluated quantitatively (using the DICE index) and qualitatively compared to expert contours. Nine clinicians submitted for EBRT and BT for C1-C3. Thirty-two sent any contour. Interobserver quantitative comparisons for EBRT showed significant improvement for C2 vs. C1 for bowel, CTV node, CTV-p and GTV node with significant detriment for GTV node (C3 vs. C1; C2), CTV-p (C3 vs. C2) and bowel (C3 vs. C2), showing in general an improvement in C2 vs. C1, with a detriment in C3 vs. C2 for two target volumes and an organ at risk. For BT there was significant improvement for C2 vs. C1 for bladder, GTV, HR-CTV and IR-CTV, with significant detriment for bladder (C3 vs. C2), thus overall improvement in C2 vs. C1, with only a detriment in C3 vs. C2 for bladder. Centres using MRI imaging for BT contouring did significantly better in the BT case for HR-CTV than those which used other techniques (C2 vs. C1: p<0.005; C3 vs. C1: p=0.02). Intraobserver quantitative comparisons showed significant improvement contouring a region of interest between C2 vs. C1, C3 vs. C1 and C3 vs. C2 for EBRT and between C2 and C1 for BT. ODW offer training, initial contouring harmonization and allow assessment of centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Avenging Angel? John Brown, the Harpers Ferry Raid and the "Irrepressible" Conflict. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    This unit deals with the struggle between proslavery and antislavery proponents which exacerbated sectional discord and culminated in secession of the southern states and the Civil War. The lessons would most appropriately be taught as a prelude to the Civil War and as a culmination of units on the heightened sectional conflict resulting from…

  2. Ranald S. Mackenzie and the Fourth Cavalry Cross-Border Raid on the Mexican Kickapoo Indians near Remolino, Coahuila, 17-21 May 1873

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    temporary paralysis of his arms, and another that took two fingers off his right hand.15 Although, “No enlisted man ever saw him laugh or smile... sleeping Kickapoo warriors. A reduced gait shattered Mackenzie’s confidence that this could happen, and significantly increased the risk to...consolidated, Mackenzie allowed the troopers to get water and prepare for the long march back to Fort Clark with no sleep and exhausted mounts

  3. Avenging Angel? John Brown, the Harpers Ferry Raid and the "Irrepressible" Conflict. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    This unit deals with the struggle between proslavery and antislavery proponents which exacerbated sectional discord and culminated in secession of the southern states and the Civil War. The lessons would most appropriately be taught as a prelude to the Civil War and as a culmination of units on the heightened sectional conflict resulting from…

  4. Patriot War and the Fenian Raids: Case Studies in Border Security on the U.S. Canada Border in the Nineteenth Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    Thesis Committee Chair Ethan S. Rafuse, Ph.D. , Member James B. Martin, Ph.D. , Member LTC David J. Rapone, M.A...would also like to thank our boys, James and Daniel. They are the reason for everything I do. They can now have the dining room table back because I...Rafuse, Dr. James Martin, and LTC David Rapone. Their advice and feedback guided me through a challenging writing process and pushed me to make it

  5. Health support for the Raid of the Seven Stones : in the footsteps of Navy physician Jules Crevaux in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Barthes, N; Boudsocq, J-P

    2017-06-01

    In the summer of 2015, soldiers of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment and civilian scientists mounted a joint expedition on foot to reconnoiter and better define the southern frontier of French Guiana with Brazil. Three doctor-nurse pairs worked in relay to provide medical support for this unprecedented 42-day, 320-km journey through a hostile and isolated environment, a mission whose success was made possible by large-scale logistic and technical prowess. The army health department, using knowledge gained from previous large-scale missions and expeditions and from its staff's local experience, provided its technical support for personnel selection, organization of the health logistics, and field support. This article describes the difficulties encountered from a medical perspective, the diseases encountered, and the final assessments of the personnel who completed this expedition.

  6. Detection of Biological Threat Agents by Real-Time PCR: Comparison of Assay Performance on the R.A.I.D., the LightCycler, and the Smart Cycler Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    2B and familial medullary thyroid cancer [FMTC] by multiplex PCR and heteroduplex analyses of RET proto-oncogene mutations. Hum Mutat 1996;8:64–70. 2...the RET protooncogene with fluorescence resonance energy transfer and real-time PCR in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Chem 2001;47:1939...associated with inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Chem 1997;43:453–7. 9. Blank RD, Sklar CA, Martin ML. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to

  7. Feeding outside the forest: the importance of crop raiding and an invasive weed in the diet of gallery forest ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) following a cyclone at the Beza Mahafaly special reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    LaFleur, M; Gould, L

    2009-01-01

    In January 2005, a cyclone hit southern Madagascar, including the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of Tamarindus indica, leaving Lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. We studied two adjacent groups of L. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside the reserve to feed. The Red group (RG) fed daily on cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves in a nearby field, and both groups consumed leaves and stems of the invasive terrestrial flowering herb Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana), growing outside the reserve. The Green group (GG) spent significantly more time feeding than did RG, and more time feeding inside the forest compared to outside. The members of RG spent half of their time feeding in the crops, and nearly half of their diet consisted of easy-to-process sweet potato leaves. Additionally, RG defended and restricted GG's access to the crop territory. Of the two non-forest foods, A. mexicana leaves were higher in protein and most minerals (P, Mg, K and Na, but not Ca) and lower in fiber than sweet potato leaves, but sweet potato leaves were preferred by RG. L. catta is a markedly flexible primate with respect to diet, and switches to fallback foods from outside the forest during periods of low food availability. In the highly seasonal and unpredictable climate of southern Madagascar, such behavioral adaptations are important to the survival of this species.

  8. "I wz wondering-uhm could 'Raid' uhm 'e'ffect the brain permanently d'y know?": Some Observations on the Intersection of Speaking and Writing in Calls to a Poison Control Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on how written records are created during calls to a Poison Control Center. Describes the relationship between writing and speaking in this bureaucratic context. Finds that keeping written records extends the length of call processing time, representing a barrier to handling new calls promptly. (MS)

  9. "I wz wondering-uhm could 'Raid' uhm 'e'ffect the brain permanently d'y know?": Some Observations on the Intersection of Speaking and Writing in Calls to a Poison Control Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on how written records are created during calls to a Poison Control Center. Describes the relationship between writing and speaking in this bureaucratic context. Finds that keeping written records extends the length of call processing time, representing a barrier to handling new calls promptly. (MS)

  10. Fifth Air Force Light and Medium Bomber Operations During 1942 and 1943: Building Doctrine and Forces That Triumphed in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea and the Wewak Raid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Major Paul I. ( Pappy ) Gunn, went to work modifying their A- 20s. 10 To increase the range, two 450-gallon fuel tanks were installed in the...mechanized forces, personnel and animals--perfect for the jungle targets of New Guinea.46 When the parafrags arrived in late August, Pappy Gunn once again...put on by the A-20s, Kenney directed Pappy Gunn to go to work on the B-25s. His original request was formidable: I sent word to...pull the

  11. Identification of Novel Genes Affected by Gamma Irradiation Using a Gene-Trapped Library of Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Chromosomal and chromatid analysis was performed on the DREV 1 knockdown MCF10A cells to access cel l survival following ionizing radiation treatment...statement of work as well as their response to ionizing radiation . 14 . SUBJECT TERMS 15 . NUMBER OF PAGE S 3 0 Gamma Irradiation, gene trapping...line with and without ionizing radiation treatment . We felt that it was important t o analyze the identified gene expression levels following IR

  12. Requirements Capture and Design Issues for a Real-Time Decision Support System for the Canadian Patrol Frigate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Making Evaluation Facility for Tactical Teams DF DFRM DMSS DND DNR DoD DRDB DRE DREO DREV DSAM ECM EM CON ESM EWS HCI ID IEEE IFF...entities will include jammers, chaff or flare rockets, rubber ducks , and active decoys. Target entities will include aicraft and anti-ship missiles with...deploying softkill weapon systems, such as jammers, chaff or flare rockets, rubber ducks , and active decoys, to defend the ship will be conducted. This

  13. Laboratory and semi-field evaluations of two (transfluthrin) spatial repellent devices against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    McPhatter, Lee P; Mischler, Paula D; Webb, Meiling Z; Chauhan, Kamal; Lindroth, Erica J; Richardson, Alec G; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes under laboratory (wind tunnel) and semi-field (outdoor enclosure) conditions. The placement of either product in the wind tunnel significantly reduced host-seeking behaviors. The mean baseline (control) landing counts for the Raid Dual Action and Raid Shield were reduced by 95% and 74% respectively. Mean probing counts for the Raid Dual Action were reduced by 95%, while the probing counts for the Raid Shield were decreased by 69%. Baseline blood-feeding success was significantly reduced for both treatments: Raid Dual Action (100%) and Raid Shield (96%). Semi-field evaluations were conducted in outdoor enclosures at the Navy Entomology Center of Excellence, Jacksonville, Florida. A moderate reduction in mosquito entry into military style tents resulted when either product was placed near the tent opening. The Raid Shield reduced mosquito entry into tents by 88%, while the Dual Action decreased entry by 66%.

  14. Laboratory and semi-field evaluations of two (Transfluthrin) spatial repellent devices against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes underlaboratory (wind tunn...

  15. Natosi: Strong Medicine. Indian Culture Series: Stories of the Blackfeet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    Part of a series of stories about the Blackfeet Indians, the illustrated story details the capture of the first horses by the Blackfeet. In the story, young Running Crane is allowed to join a party of warriors who raid a Crow camp for horses. Running Crane uses gentleness to capture a black horse but is separated from the raiding party and must…

  16. Frequency and Amplitude Characteristics of a High-Repetition-Rate Hybrid TEA-CO2 Laser,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    RA—ETC(U) FEB 78 J - LACNAMBRE» P LAVIGNE. M VERREAULT DREV-R-«»091/78 NL | OF | A05I853 4-78 Uftt I.I IM 12.5 i- m 12.2 I US 12.0...L. Lachambre P. Lavigne M. Verreault G. Otis Po ^e O OS«l BUREAU - RECHERCHE ET OEVEIOPPEMENT MINISTER« DE IA DEFENSE NATIONALE CANADA...JSEPETITION-RATE , HYBRID T£A.-C£? L.ASER . / J.-L./Lachambre, p/Lavigne, M./ Verreault ^jBi G./°tis *Gen-Tec Inc., Quebec (S2E57 <^s Quebec

  17. Results of the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers: CATSI and AIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, James O.; Theriault, Jean-Marc; Bradette, Claude; Gittins, Christopher M.; Marinelli, William J.

    2002-08-01

    The Pronghorn Field Tests were held at the Nevada Test Site for a two-week period in June 2001. Two passive infrared sensors were tested for inclusion into the Joint Service Wide Area Detection Program. The Adaptive InfraRed Imaging Spectroradiometer (AIRIS) and Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (CATSI) systems were tested with good results. This field test was a joint effort between the US (SBCCOM) and Canada (DREV). Various chemicals were detected and quantified from a distance of 1.5 kilometers. Passive ranging of Chemical Plumes was demonstrated.

  18. Results from the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers-CATSI and AIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, James O.; Theriault, Jean-Marc; Bradette, Claude; Gittins, Christopher M.; Marinelli, William J.

    2002-02-01

    The Pronghorn Field Tests were held at the Nevada Test Site for a two-week period in June 2001. Two passive infrared sensors were tested for inclusion into the Joint Service Wide Area Detection Program. The Adaptive InfraRed Imaging Spectroradiometer (AIRIS) and Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (CATSI) systems were tested with good results. This field test was a joint effort between the U.S (SBCCOM) and Canada (DREV). Various chemicals were detected and quantified from a distance of 1.5 kilometers. Passive ranging of Chemical Plumes was demonstrated.

  19. Experimental Signature of Programmable Quantum Annealing (Author’s Manuscript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-28

    approaching its Gibbs dis - tribution value. This would not be the case if ps were governed by the spectrum of HIsing. In Fig. 6 we com- pare a numerical...Science 292, 472 (2001). [12] S. Boixo and R. D. Somma , Phys. Rev. A 81, 032308 (2010), URL http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.81.032308. [13] D...Rev. Lett. 99, 070502 (2007), URL http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.070502 . [15] R. D. Somma , S. Boixo, H. Barnum, and E. Knill, Phys

  20. Far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph and scanning grating spectrometers for the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.; Meier, R.R.; Wolfram, K.D.; Picone, J.M.; Thonnard, S.E.; Fritz, G.G.; Morrill, J.S. . E.O. Hulburt Center for Space Research); Hardin, D.A. ); Christensen, A.B.; Kayser, D.C.; Pranke, J.B.; Straus, P.R. . Space and Environment Technology Center)

    1994-02-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) experiment is an optical remote sensing platform consisting of eight sensors, (spectrographs, spectrometers, and photometers) covering the wavelength range 550 to 8744 [angstrom]. RAIDS employs a mechanical scan platform to view the Earth's limb and measure line-of-sight column emission from tangent altitudes from 50 to 750 km. These measurements provide vertical profiles of atmospheric dayglow and nightglow from the mesosphere to the upper regions of the F-region ionosphere. RAIDS will be flown on the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) J weather satellite through the auspices of the US Air Force Space Test Program. The RAIDS wavelength and altitude coverage allows remote sensing of the major and many minor constituents in the thermosphere and ionosphere. These measurements will be used as part of a proof of concept for remote sensing of ionospheric and neutral density profiles. The RAIDS database will be used to study composition, thermal structure, and couplings between the mesosphere, thermosphere, thermal structure, and couplings between the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere. RAIDS is a joint venture of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the Aerospace Corporation. The authors describe the subset of RAIDS instruments developed at NRL covering the far to near UV regions (1,300 to 4,000 [angstrom]).

  1. Microsatellite analysis reveals strong but differential impact of a social parasite on its two host species.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Blass, Birgit; Heinze, Jürgen; Foitzik, Susanne

    2006-03-01

    The speed and the dynamics of the co-evolutionary process strongly depend on the relative strengths of reciprocal selection pressures exerted by the interacting species. Here, we investigate the influence of an obligate social parasite, the slave-making ant Harpagoxenus sublaevis, on populations of the two main host species Leptothorax acervorum and Leptothorax muscorum from a German ant community. A combination of genetic and demographic data allowed us to analyse the consequences of raiding pressure on the hosts' life history and possible host preferences of the parasite. We can demonstrate that slave raids during which the social parasite pillages brood from neighbouring host colonies are both frequent and extremely destructive for both host species. Microsatellite analysis showed that, on average, a single slave-maker colony conducts more than three raids per year and that host colonies mostly perish in the aftermath of these parasite attacks. Only in few cases, surviving nests of previously raided host colonies were found in the surroundings of slave-maker colonies. As a consequence of the high prevalence of parasites and their recurrent and devastating slave raids on host colonies, the life expectancy of host colonies was severely reduced. Combining our results on host-specific parasitic colony founding and raiding frequencies with the post-raid survival rate, we can demonstrate an overall higher mortality rate for the smaller host species L. muscorum. This might be caused by a preference of H. sublaevis for this secondary host species as demographic data on host species usage indicate.

  2. GIS interoperability: current activities and military implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Sylvia

    1997-07-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are gaining importance in military operations because of their capability to spatially and visually integrate various kinds of information. In an era of limited resources, geospatial data must be shared efficiently whenever possible. The military-initiated Global Geospatial Information and Services (GGI&S) Project aims at developing the infrastructure for GIS interoperability for the military. Current activities in standardization and new technology have strong implications on the design and development of GGI&S. To facilitate data interoperability at both the national and international levels, standards and specifications in geospatial data sharing are being studied, developed and promoted. Of particular interest to the military community are the activities related to the NATO DIGEST, ISO TC/211 Geomatics standardization and the industry-led Open Geodata Interoperability Specifications (OGIS). Together with new information technology, standardization provides the infrastructure for interoperable GIS for both civilian and military environments. The first part of this paper describes the major activities in standardization. The second part presents the technologies developed at DREV in support of the GGI&S. These include the Open Geospatial Datastore Interface (OGDI) and the geospatial data warehouse. DREV has been working closely with Defence Geomatics and private industry in the research and development of new technology for the GGI&S project.

  3. Life histories, blood revenge, and reproductive success among the Waorani of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Beckerman, Stephen; Erickson, Pamela I.; Yost, James; Regalado, Jhanira; Jaramillo, Lilia; Sparks, Corey; Iromenga, Moises; Long, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The Waorani may have the highest rate of homicide of any society known to anthropology. We interviewed 121 Waorani elders of both sexes to obtain genealogical information and recollections of raids in which they and their relatives participated. We also obtained complete raiding histories of 95 warriors. An analysis of the raiding histories, marital trajectories, and reproductive histories of these men reveals that more aggressive warriors have lower indices of reproductive success than their milder brethren. This result contrasts the findings of Chagnon [Chagnon N (1988) Science 239:985–992] for the Yanomamo. We suggest that the spacing of revenge raids may be involved in the explanation of why the consequences of aggressiveness differ between these 2 warlike lowland South American peoples. PMID:19433797

  4. 11. VIEW EAST OF WEST ELEVATION AND NORTHWEST WING WALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW EAST OF WEST ELEVATION AND NORTHWEST WING WALL. NOTE DETAIL OF AQUEDUCT REPAIR AFTER AUGUST 1864 CONFEDERATE RAID. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  5. Mountain Warfare and Other Lofty Problems: Foreign Perspectives on High-Altitude Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    withdrew into the darkness . The raid was successful, developed good intelligence information and proved that there was a way to get around those...under the cover of darkness . The battalions conducted mission training, issued ammunition and inspected equipment for the raid. Unfortunately...forward security positions under the covering fire of their armored personnel carriers. Darkness fell and fighting continued. The 334th Battalion had

  6. Aeronomy from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lessons learned with The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) a new NASA experiment studying the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from a vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. The RAIDS mission focuses on the coupling and transition from the coldest part of the atmosphere, the mesopause near 85 km, up to the hottest regions of the thermosphere above 300 km. Built jointly by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and The Aerospace Corporation, RAIDS also is serving as a pathfinder experiment for atmospheric remote sensing aboard the ISS. The 51.6 deg. orbital inclination and roughly 340 km orbital altitude of the ISS required tailoring atmospheric science objectives appropriate for low- and mid-latitude observations. Orbital precession enables observations over a range of local time and solar illumination conditions, but also causes the orbital plane to intersect the Sun roughly monthly, requiring a temporary shutdown of the RAIDS sensors. Extensive station structures near the field-of-regard pose a risk of scattered light contamination which must be mitigated through good baffling of optical sensors. Activities aboard the manned station, including attitude perturbations from spacecraft dockings and construction activities, occasionally disrupt observations. A significant challenge for limb-viewing RAIDS was ISS pitch oscillations up to ±0.75 deg. per orbit associated with solar array rotation, but NASA adjusted the station’s flight characteristics to provide ±0.2 deg. pitch stability for RAIDS. Jitter and vibration at the extremity of the ISS have not been a concern for RAIDS. Finally, manned environments are notoriously dirty with respect to contamination-sensitive optical instruments, but after twelve months of continuous operation RAIDS does not exhibit any unusual degradation in sensor performance.

  7. German Views of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Vorbeck mastered the art of irregular adaptation and survival. In the Second World War, Otto Skorzeny perfected the strategic commando raid. After serving...theater of World War I, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck mastered the art of irregular adaptation and survival. In the Second World War, Otto Skorzeny perfected ...commander, Otto Skorzeny, perfected a cornerstone operation of irregular warfare—the strategic commando raid. In September of 1943, under direct orders

  8. Wahhabism: Is it a Factor in the Spread of Global Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    than raids as a mechanism to maintain order. Raids had proven an effective technique in explaining the Saudi state, but would ultimately provoke the...Muhammad Abdu , and Rashid Rida, which were referred to as Islamic modernists. Their form of Salafism was fundamentally different from contemporary...in this section is contemporary Salafism practiced by Qutb and others, and not the original Salafism of al-Afghani, Abdu and Rida. Salafism is an

  9. Essays on Strategy. Hostage Rescue Planning, Maritime Theater Nuclear Capability, Strategic Psychological Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    against the psyche of the North Vietnamese, leaving them with a feeling of vulnerability . As Colonel "Bull" Simons, assault leader in the raid, stated...attention away from the sector of the prison camp: US Air Force F 105 Wild Weasel electronic warfare defense suppression air- craft were used to jam enemy...discussed. Following the Entebbe raid, the Israelis debriefed the hostages at an Israeli Air Force base before tlying them to Ben Gurion International Airport

  10. ARN Program, PDIT Final Technical Report - Deliver Orders 3, 12, 13

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-05

    access. The database server cannot be addressed externally, but only through the web server. This prevents hackers from even being able to...understand that the database server even exists, which means that it is impossible for hackers to access the database server. RAID A RAID (Redundant Array...of TYPE_DI = “ FB ” D6U – Material receipt from non- procurement instrument from requisition from a non-DLA but other DoD activity None Arrival of

  11. Cuckoo: Layered Clustering for NFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    encyclopedia of ornithology. Cambridge University Press, 1991. [5] Luis-Felipe Cabrera and Darrell D. E. Long. Swift: using distributed disk striping to...provide high I/O data rates. Computing Systems, 4(4):405–436, Fall 1991. [6] Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical byzantine fault tolerance...E. Long, Bruce R. Montague, and Luis-Felipe Cabrera . Swift/RAID: a distributed RAID system. Computing Systems, 7(3):333– 359. Usenix, Summer 1994. [16

  12. Mosby’s Rangers and Partisan Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-04

    recorded their initial impressions of their new commander. John Munson wrote: Nervously I swept my eyes over the band in search for a big man with a showy...to keep all booty or spoils of war. Mosby maintained the respect of his men and superior 22 officers by personally refusing to keep war plunder. Raids...a dance and were captured by a Federal raiding party. Only five men reported at the rendezvous point on the seventh. Mosby altered his plan and

  13. An Analysis of the Employment of the LVT-5 in Riverine Operations in Vietnam and Recommendations for the Employment of the AAAV in Future Riverine Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    December 2001, 2. 50 Col. Donald Head USMC (Ret.), personal conversation with author, 1991 Camp Lejuene . 28 28 An effective combination on river patrols... conducting a raid that perfectly illustrates a type of riverine operation for the future MAGTF. In the scenario the AAAV platoon swims 25 nm from the ship...sunrise they had conducted a raid from the sea, OTH, in total darkness and returned to the sea OTH successfully.77 In another scenario Clancy places

  14. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    PubMed

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  15. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  16. Mission configurable threat detection sensor suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jean; Cantin, Andre; Dubois, Jacques; Trudel, Carol

    2000-12-01

    This article describes work that has been undertaken at the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV) to integrate a number of electro-optics sensors into a modular mission configurable threat detection sensor suite (TDSS) demonstrator. The sensor suite is based on a series of plug and play detection heads networked together in the same fashion as a computer network. The architecture allows optimization of the detection capabilities according to a mission requirement. The TDSS demonstrator was developed to study different sensor configuration in order to establish the requirements to improve the protection of the military platforms. It is a good example showing how networking can help in adapting military systems to specific requirements. The paper gives an up to date description of the TDSS demonstrator. To our knowledge, it is the first time that this approach is used in the field of military detection sensors.

  17. Designing for scale: development of the ReMotion Knee for global emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Samuel R; Narayan, Vinesh G; Donaldson, Krista M

    2013-09-01

    Amputees living in developing countries have a profound need for affordable and reliable lower limb prosthetic devices. The World Health Organization estimates there are approximately 30 million amputees living in low-income countries, with up to 95% lacking access to prosthetic devices. Effective prosthetics can significantly affect the lives of these amputees by increasing opportunity for employment and providing improvements to long-term health and well-being. However, current solutions are inadequate: state-of-the-art solutions from the US and Europe are cost-prohibitive, while low-cost devices have been challenged by poor quality and/or unreliable performance, and have yet to achieve large scale impact. The introduction of new devices is hampered by the lack of a cohesive prosthetics industry in low-income areas; the current network of low-cost prosthetic clinics is informal and loosely organized with significant disparities in geography, patient volume and demographics, device procurement, clinical and logistical infrastructure, and funding. At D-Rev (Design Revolution) we are creating the ReMotion Knee, which is an affordable polycentric prosthetic knee joint that performs on par with devices in more industrialized regions, like the US and Europe. As of September 2012, over 4200 amputees have been fitted with the initial version of the ReMotion Knee through a partnership with the JaipurFoot Organization, with an 79% compliance rate after 2 years. We are currently scaling production of the ReMotion Knee using centralized manufacturing and distribution to serve the existing clinics in low-income countries and increase the availability of devices for amputees without access to appropriate care. At D-Rev, we develop products that target these customers through economically-sustainable models and provide a measurable impact in the lives of the world's amputees.

  18. A new energy saving storage system: SERAID for disk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei; Hu, Huaixiang; Liu, Ke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, high-energy consumption has become a serious concern for both storage servers and data centers. Recent research studies have utilized the short response times of multiple speed disks to decrease energy consumption. However, very few manufactures can produce the multiple speeds hard disk because of its complexity. The main limitation to MAID system is that we must assume the frequently accessed data is less than 5%, in fact, in most strong coupling system, the data can't be cached due to the access pattern and moreover the first accessed data which are usually frequently accessed are not cached, as a result, system performance is heavily degraded. In this paper, we propose the new storage system called saving energy RAID (SERAID), in which we place the frequently accessed data into solid state disks (SSD) and place the less frequently accessed ones into conventional hard disks (CHD). Because the energy consumption is very low and the random read/write rate is very fast in SSD, we can get high availability and high saving energy RAID system at the expense of very few costs. The simulation result shows that the random write performance of SERAID is 10 times rapid than those of traditional RAID and the random read performance of SERAID is 5 times rapid than those of conventional RAID. Besides that, the mean energy consumption of SERAIDsystem is lower than that of traditional RAID.

  19. Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human-nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Riley, Erin P; Priston, Nancy E C

    2010-09-01

    The island of Sulawesi is an ecologically diverse and anthropogenically complex region in the Indonesian archipelago; it is home to multiple macaque species and a key locus of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Here, we review the ethnoprimatology of Sulawesi by exploring two primary domains of the human-macaque interface: overlapping resource use and cultural perceptions of macaques. Crop raiding is the primary form of overlapping resource use. While the raiding of cacao plantations predominates in Central and South Sulawesi, subsistence crops (e.g., sweet potato and maize) are most vulnerable on Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. Despite this overlap levels of conflict are generally low, with farmers showing considerable tolerance. This tolerance can be explained by positive perceptions of the macaques despite their crop raiding behavior, and the finding that in some areas macaques figure prominently in local folklore, hence affording them protection. These findings provide some hope for the future management and conservation of these endemic macaques.

  20. Raiders of Fukien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, L. T.; Isorena, E.; Borja, R.; Magno-Canto, M.; Villanoy, C. L.; Gordon, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    1174-1190 AD marked years of coastal raids for the Province of Fukien (also known as Fujian). These raids were initially attributed to inhabitants of southwestern Formosa (now Taiwan) by Ma Tuan Lin (translated in 1273). Based on linguistic and historical evidence, however, later works analysed that these raids were more likely to be coming from the Visayan and Bicolandia- inhabitants of south and Philippines. This paper examines oceanographic features which further strengthens this conjecture. Specifically, how the strength and behaviour of the Kuroshio might allow for raiders to traverse the distance between the Visayan and Fujian and appear as if they were originating from Formosa. In situ oceanographic observations also demonstrate that it is possible for the raiders to have made use of a narrow band of southward heading current just east of the Kuroshio to travel back home.

  1. Interfacing a high performance disk array file server to a Gigabit LAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Srinivasan; Katz, Randy H.

    1993-01-01

    Our previous prototype, RAID-1, identified several bottlenecks in typical file server architectures. The most important bottleneck was the lack of a high-bandwidth path between disk, memory, and the network. Workstation servers, such as the Sun-4/280, have very slow access to peripherals on busses far from the CPU. For the RAID-2 system, we addressed this problem by designing a crossbar interconnect, Xbus board, that provides a 40MB/s path between disk, memory, and the network interfaces. However, this interconnect does not provide the system CPU with low latency access to control the various interfaces. To provide a high data rate to clients on the network, we were forced to carefully and efficiently design the network software. A block diagram of the system hardware architecture is given. In the following subsections, we describe pieces of the RAID-2 file server hardware that had a significant impact on the design of the network interface.

  2. Improving the Availability of Supercomputer Job Input Data Using Temporal Replication

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Zhe; Ma, Xiaosong; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Mueller, Frank

    2009-06-01

    Storage systems in supercomputers are a major reason for service interruptions. RAID solutions alone cannot provide sufficient protection as (1) growing average disk recovery times make RAID groups increasingly vulnerable to disk failures during reconstruction, and (2) RAID does not help with higher-level faults such failed I/O nodes. This paper presents a complementary approach based on the observation that files in the supercomputer scratch space are typically accessed by batch jobs whose execution can be anticipated. Therefore, we propose to transparently, selectively, and temporarily replicate 'active' job input data by coordinating the parallel file system with the batch job scheduler. We have implemented the temporal replication scheme in the popular Lustre parallel file system and evaluated it with real-cluster experiments. Our results show that the scheme allows for fast online data reconstruction, with a reasonably low overall space and I/O bandwidth overhead.

  3. Implementation of a major hardware and software upgrade in a hospital-wide PACS during clinical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Nicola H.; Allison, David J.; Beam, Kent W.; Deshaies, Marc J.; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Gardener, Glen; Martin, Nuala; Phillp, Jane; Prenzno, Thomas W.; Turner, Jonathan E.; West, Michael

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this project was to implement the installation of a major hardware and software upgrade into the Hammersmith hospital-wide PACS without any loss of data and with minimum disruption to the continuing clinical service throughout the hospital. The extant 40 Gbyte RAID was replaced by a new 256 Gbyte centralized RAID short term storage (STS) device at the hub of the Hammersmith Hospital PACS. This change entailed a complete database transfer, as well as hardware and software conversions to each of the 168 PACS workstations in the hospital.

  4. The Development of Forensic Pathology in London, England: Keith Simpson and the Dobkin Case, 1942.

    PubMed

    Bell, Amy

    2012-01-01

    During the Second World War in London, the bombing raids targeting civilians led to a greater public reliance on forensic pathologists. Hospitals used their skills to identify the victims of raids and determine their cause of death, though many bomb victims were never identified. The public reputation of forensic pathology was enhanced by Dr. Keith Simpson's 1942 identification of a body found in a bombed church as the missing Mrs. Dobkin, murdered by her husband and hidden in the rubble. The devastation wrought by the Blitz was countered by this public display of the collaboration between forensic pathology and wartime authorities desperate to maintain order.

  5. Haunted by Enron's ghost. National Century Financial Enterprises files for Chapter 11, leaving a string of broken healthcare chains and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark

    2002-11-25

    Some are calling it the Enron of the healthcare industry. Ryder trucks hauled possible evidence from embattled financier National Century Financial Enterprises during an FBI raid. NCFE filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection last week, sending ripples through the industry and contributing to the bankruptcies of a string of national healthcare chains and at least six hospitals.

  6. Release of Department of Defense Information to the Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    Times op-ed column that claims, Administration officials may have provided filmmakers with details of the raid that successfully killed Usama Bin Laden...UBL). According to this article, filmmakers Kathryn Bigelow and Mark Boal received top-level access to the most classified mission in history.

  7. An Anthropologist Bridges Two Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois, who has spent his career studying some of America's roughest neighborhoods and subcultures, got an unusually harsh welcome to his new hometown: Last May, during a trip to North Philly to make contact with some drug dealers, he got caught up in a police raid. The arrest was Bourgois's first, though hardly his first brush with…

  8. Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maggi

    Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

  9. Educational Equity and Rights: The Responsibilities of California's Public Schools towards Immigrant Students and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivos, Edward M.; Mendoza, Marcela

    2009-01-01

    Immigration enforcement efforts have become increasingly intrusive and arbitrary in Latino-origin communities in the U.S. As a result, there are very real possibilities that schools which serve large Latino populations may be affected by immigration enforcement activities (also known as "raids") in their communities. This article offers…

  10. An Anthropologist Bridges Two Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois, who has spent his career studying some of America's roughest neighborhoods and subcultures, got an unusually harsh welcome to his new hometown: Last May, during a trip to North Philly to make contact with some drug dealers, he got caught up in a police raid. The arrest was Bourgois's first, though hardly his first brush with…

  11. The Killing of Anwar al Awlaki: How the United States Lost a Crucial Battle in the War of Ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    shambles when they left.18 The Muslim community saw these raids as unwarranted intrusions , irrevocably breaking the budding constructive...They’re plotting night and day.”24 He whipped up anti-American sentiment and dreams of paradise for martyrs among a primarily young, male Muslim audience

  12. The role of sensation seeking, perceived peer pressure, and harmful alcohol use in riding with an alcohol-impaired driver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hong; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions have been the top of policy agenda for more than three decades in Korea. Despite implementation of various traffic safety measures, some drivers' alcohol use and abuse has resulted in a high number of alcohol-impaired traffic fatalities every year. This paper presents the association of theoretical factors with behavior of riding with an alcohol-impaired driver (RAID) among all age groups in the Korean adult sample. The theoretical factors of the drivers are personality factor, socio-psychological factor, and alcohol-related behavioral risk factor. We utilized national survey data from 1007 respondents consisting of 703 males and 304 females aged 20-66 collected by Korean Institute of Criminology (KIC) to test our theorized model. Our results indicated that there were three major predictors of RAID involvement: sensation seeking propensity, perceived peer pressure, and frequent harmful drinking. Overall, prediction of RAID behavior by gender was mediated entirely through these predictors. The issue of males' higher risk of RAID involvements was addressed for effective communication strategies such as campaigns.

  13. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. November - December 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    with logistics. From August through September 2010, Alpha Battery conducted two howitzer raids under the cover of darkness to provide suppressive...Instructor Course 1-11 throughout the month of October in the Chocolate Mountains Training Area near Yuma, Ariz. In preparation for providing support

  14. Fitness costs of warfare for women.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2014-12-01

    Research to date has focused on fitness costs that coalitional aggression imposes on men and how these may have shaped male cognitive design. This study investigated whether warfare may have shaped female cognitive design by identifying fitness costs that lethal raiding imposes on women and determining how widespread these fitness costs are across a sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist societies. To this end, archaeological and ethnographic accounts of lethal raiding were used to generate a list of fitness costs suffered by women in warfare. Five costs were identified: woman killed, woman captured, offspring killed, mate killed/captured, and adult male kin killed/captured. A cross-cultural sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist oral traditions was then surveyed for the presence of these costs. Results suggest that lethal raiding has recurrently imposed fitness costs on women, and that female cognitive design bears reexamination in terms of the motivational and decision-making mechanisms that may have evolved in response to them. This study differs from previous studies of lethal raiding by addressing the lack of comparative research on the fitness costs of warfare for women, by examining a wider range of fitness costs, and by using oral tradition as a database.

  15. Sociologist Jailed Because He "Wouldn't Snitch" Ponders the Way Research Ought to Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A Washington doctoral candidate in sociology is jailed for contempt of court for not revealing conversations with animal-rights activists in a grand jury investigation of a research laboratory raid at his institution. The graduate student refused to breach an American Sociological Association pledge of scholarly confidentiality. (MSE)

  16. 76 FR 4686 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Crawling Insect 264 Permethrin. Killer. 000498-00170 Spraypak Wasp & d-Allethrin Hornet Killer, Phenothrin.... 002517-00074 Sergeant's Flea & MGK 264 Tick Spray. Permethrin. ] 002724-00698 Tetraperm Wasp & Piperonyl... Killer Permethrin. and Treatment. 004822-00423 Raid Wasp & Hornet Tetramethrin Killer XIII. Permethrin...

  17. Coalition Operations in Afghanistan Post 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    the topography in southern and eastern Afghanistan is extremely remote, providing countless hideouts. Terrorist safe-havens are dangerous in any...may be prevented using drones , missiles, and raids from outside the country. This strategy is flawed for two reasons. With support by Afghans in

  18. Empirical Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    making an initial catalogue of evidence emerging about the impact of elements of Network Centric Warfare as they were emerging in the force. These...been able to use our imaginations and vary our tactics considerably. We have done everything form infantry raids to seize [weapons] caches …a couple

  19. Resolving Ambiguity in Familiar and Unfamiliar Casual Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, Annelie; Mitterer, Holger; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In British English, the phrase "Canada aided" can sound like "Canada raided" if the speaker links the two vowels at the word boundary with an intrusive /r/. There are subtle phonetic differences between an onset /r/ and an intrusive /r/, however. With cross-modal priming and eye-tracking, we examine how native British English listeners and…

  20. Teaching the Nuclear Age: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 14, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2009-01-01

    On March 28-29, 2009, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 43 teachers from across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching the nuclear age. In his opening remarks, Walter A. McDougall observed that although students today are not made to crawl under their desks in air raid drills, that atomic power remains, and it is still necessary to raise a…

  1. Defense Environmental Restoration Program Annual Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-16

    System (using " artificial Intellegence ") to ’identify potentially beneficial products that can be made from specified organic wastes, and to plan and... Artificial Remedial Action Intelligence Data System (RAIDS) for Assessing Remedial Measures One more project was proposed by Mr. Robert Griffing frcm

  2. Sociologist Jailed Because He "Wouldn't Snitch" Ponders the Way Research Ought to Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A Washington doctoral candidate in sociology is jailed for contempt of court for not revealing conversations with animal-rights activists in a grand jury investigation of a research laboratory raid at his institution. The graduate student refused to breach an American Sociological Association pledge of scholarly confidentiality. (MSE)

  3. Addressing the Travelling Salesman Problem through Evolutionary Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    M FILE Cun ARI Research Note 87-04 -- w CM o> < i Q < ADDRESSING THE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM THROUGH EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION David B...TITLE raid SubMII«; ’ 1 Addressing the Travelling Salesman Problem 1 Through Evolutionary...1 Optimizing the " travelling salesman" problem continues to

  4. The Hospital for Tropical Diseases at Endsleigh Gardens, Euston--1920-1939.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2015-11-01

    From 1920 until 1939, London's Hospital for Tropical Diseases sponsored by the Seamen's Hospital Society was located at Endsleigh Gardens, Euston. Unfortunately, written records of that era were destroyed in air raids on Greenwich in 1940 and 1941. Oral reminiscences documented in this paper help remedy this loss.

  5. The Impact of Immigration Enforcement Strategies on Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Calderon, Miriam; Chaudry, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Researchers, advocates, and community agencies are beginning to question the impact of U.S. immigration enforcement strategies on very young children. In particular, immigration raids may suddenly and sometimes violently separate children from their parents, place them in unstable living environments, and create barriers to accessing needed…

  6. A Selective Chronology of Terrorist and Counter-Terrorist Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Beginning with the July 22, 1966, Palestinian hijacking of an El Al airliner and ending with the April 5, 1986, bombing raid on Libya by the United States, this chronology details 56 terrorist events which were covered in the world press. (JDH)

  7. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  8. Inland Evolution of the Coastal Front During IOP-2, 25 January 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Bejerknes, J., 1919: On the structure of moving cyclones. GQfrL EubL, 1, 1-8. -, 1932: Explorations de quelques perturbations atmospheriques a raide...Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling. Atmospheric Sciences Library, 358 pp. Palmen, E. and C.W. Newton, 1969: Atmospheric Circulation

  9. Education in a Recovering Nation: Renewing Special Education in Kosovo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Brendan; Power, Des; Blatch, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "The inexhaustible problem of the Balkans" (Tuchman, 1962, p. ix). Kosovo, technically still a province of Serbia, was devastated by the wars of the 1990s, culminating in 1999 in the flight of refugees to neighboring countries, whether voluntarily or through deliberate "ethnic cleansing", the NATO bombing raids; the withdrawal…

  10. Non-Cognitive Predictors and TSC 3B Market Expansion: Examining MOS Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Homogeneity varied unsystematically when the number of clusters was low, particularly for females. Increasing the number of clusters led to an... risk of losing the data contained on the external array. Thus, we first tried to use the inherent capability of RAID to recover information from a

  11. Assigning statistical significance to proteotypic peptides via database searches.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2011-02-01

    Querying MS/MS spectra against a database containing only proteotypic peptides reduces data analysis time due to reduction of database size. Despite the speed advantage, this search strategy is challenged by issues of statistical significance and coverage. The former requires separating systematically significant identifications from less confident identifications, while the latter arises when the underlying peptide is not present, due to single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) or post-translational modifications (PTMs), in the proteotypic peptide libraries searched. To address both issues simultaneously, we have extended RAId's knowledge database to include proteotypic information, utilized RAId's statistical strategy to assign statistical significance to proteotypic peptides, and modified RAId's programs to allow for consideration of proteotypic information during database searches. The extended database alleviates the coverage problem since all annotated modifications, even those that occurred within proteotypic peptides, may be considered. Taking into account the likelihoods of observation, the statistical strategy of RAId provides accurate E-value assignments regardless whether a candidate peptide is proteotypic or not. The advantage of including proteotypic information is evidenced by its superior retrieval performance when compared to regular database searches. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Resolving Ambiguity in Familiar and Unfamiliar Casual Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, Annelie; Mitterer, Holger; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In British English, the phrase "Canada aided" can sound like "Canada raided" if the speaker links the two vowels at the word boundary with an intrusive /r/. There are subtle phonetic differences between an onset /r/ and an intrusive /r/, however. With cross-modal priming and eye-tracking, we examine how native British English listeners and…

  13. Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maggi

    Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

  14. Educational Equity and Rights: The Responsibilities of California's Public Schools towards Immigrant Students and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivos, Edward M.; Mendoza, Marcela

    2009-01-01

    Immigration enforcement efforts have become increasingly intrusive and arbitrary in Latino-origin communities in the U.S. As a result, there are very real possibilities that schools which serve large Latino populations may be affected by immigration enforcement activities (also known as "raids") in their communities. This article offers…

  15. CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES: Funding of 2000 Slots Sets Off Musical Chairs.

    PubMed

    Kondro, W

    2000-06-23

    Four months before it goes into effect, a $605 million program to help Canadian universities attract and retain the best scientific talent has ignited a furor within Canadian academe. Research-intensive universities have begun aggressively shopping for prospective candidates, using the new chairs as bait. Smaller universities say that has left them fending off talent raids.

  16. "The Story of Running Eagle" and "The Cause of Things."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James Willard

    The two illustrated children's stories are part of a series about the Blackfeet Indians. The first story, originally published in 1916, is the story of Weasel Woman, an orphaned girl who stole her way into a raiding party and became a successful warrior and, ultimately, a war chief named Running Eagle. The second story is a Blackfeet creation tale…

  17. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  18. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  19. Visualization of Expert Chat Development in a World of Warcraft Player Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article describes expertise development in a player group in the massively multiplayer online game World of Warcraft using visualization of chat log data. Charts were created to get a general sense of chat trends in a specific player group engaged in "high-end raiding", a 40-person collaborative activity. These charts helped identify patterns…

  20. Visualization of Expert Chat Development in a World of Warcraft Player Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article describes expertise development in a player group in the massively multiplayer online game World of Warcraft using visualization of chat log data. Charts were created to get a general sense of chat trends in a specific player group engaged in "high-end raiding", a 40-person collaborative activity. These charts helped identify patterns…

  1. Civilian Morale under Aerial Bombardment 1914-1939. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-12-01

    effects of the raids with the following observations. Those in Germany . . . who expected that air attacks on cities would cow the population of...Japanese when they attacked the Popular Grove Farms, an American enterprise near the city where choice Guernsey and Holstein milch cattle were raised

  2. Models and Analogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Jane; Curtis, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    How do teachers help children understand the difference between the structure of a flower and that of a root? Depending on the time of year this activity is quite easy. Get a bunch of flowers, germinate some chickpeas and raid the kitchen for carrots and beetroots--the children can experience the "real thing". But what if teachers want the…

  3. Negroes in Pre-Civil War History: New Myths in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Lois

    1974-01-01

    This article analyzes three incidents in pre-Civil War history; Crispus Attucks and the Boston Massacre, John Brown and the raid on Harpers Ferry, and Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation. The article examines how these incidents have been distorted into myths and stereotypes and offers more correct historical interpretations. (DE)

  4. Symbolic Martyrdom: The Ultimate Apology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Thomas R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the claim that "scaffold speeches" (speeches by individuals awaiting execution) form a discrete genre. Argues that they constitute a subgenre within the larger genre of apologia. Illustrates the subgenre through analysis of John Brown's final speech at his trial following the Harper's Ferry raid. (SR)

  5. Flowering times in genetically modified Brassica hybrids in the absence of selection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in days to flowering (DTF) were observed among reciprocal F1 progeny of Brassica napus ‘RaideRR’ with other B. napus and also with weedy B. rapa. Changes in DTF are presented as factors to consider in evaluating the potential of crop to weed gene flow in different geograp...

  6. Keeper of the Gates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Profiles Floyd Wiggins, Jr., veteran school security chief for Richmond (Virginia) Public Schools. Besides a security force, the district uses hand-held metal-detectors and police-dog raids in its secondary schools and is considering use of student identification cards, security video cameras, and a larger parent volunteer force. Wiggins feels…

  7. Education in a Recovering Nation: Renewing Special Education in Kosovo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Brendan; Power, Des; Blatch, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "The inexhaustible problem of the Balkans" (Tuchman, 1962, p. ix). Kosovo, technically still a province of Serbia, was devastated by the wars of the 1990s, culminating in 1999 in the flight of refugees to neighboring countries, whether voluntarily or through deliberate "ethnic cleansing", the NATO bombing raids; the withdrawal…

  8. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  9. Flowering times in genetically modified Brassica hybrids in the absence of selection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in days to flowering (DTF) were observed among reciprocal F1 progeny of Brassica napus ‘RaideRR’ with other B. napus and also with weedy B. rapa. Changes in DTF are presented as factors to consider in evaluating the potential of crop to weed gene flow in different geograp...

  10. Negroes in Pre-Civil War History: New Myths in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Lois

    1974-01-01

    This article analyzes three incidents in pre-Civil War history; Crispus Attucks and the Boston Massacre, John Brown and the raid on Harpers Ferry, and Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation. The article examines how these incidents have been distorted into myths and stereotypes and offers more correct historical interpretations. (DE)

  11. Models and Analogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Jane; Curtis, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    How do teachers help children understand the difference between the structure of a flower and that of a root? Depending on the time of year this activity is quite easy. Get a bunch of flowers, germinate some chickpeas and raid the kitchen for carrots and beetroots--the children can experience the "real thing". But what if teachers want the…

  12. Military Contingency Operations: The Lessons of Political-Military Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    the decision vu deploy American troops, dey iv. -I the desire to reasauro Th&llnnd, ay .have been the need to pro- tect hmerican cradl-bility. US...were a- gain retaliatory, in response to the mortar attack at Plelk’", but later raids were justified only by a general reference to the bellicose

  13. Coping with Illegal Immigrants in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Superintendent Steve Joel had reason to be concerned when he got a call from the police chief telling him that federal immigration authorities were coming to the local Swift & Company meat-packing plant to round up undocumented workers as part of a six-state raid. Of the 8,000 students in the Grand Island School District in Central Nebraska,…

  14. Claims and Counterclaims: Institutional Arrangements and Farmers' Response to the Delivery and Adoption of Innovations in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noga, Sekondeko Ronnie; Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare; Thakadu, Olekae Tsompi; Masunga, Gaseitsiwe Smollie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article examined how institutional factors influencing the promotion of two elephant crop-raiding deterrent innovations (ECDIs) introduced to farmers through a ministry-based extension system in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, have impacted farmers' adoption behaviour. Methodology: A standardised interview schedule was used to elicit…

  15. Revenge: an adaptive system for maximizing fitness, or a proximate calculation arising from personality and social-psychological processes?

    PubMed

    Potegal, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Revenge appears among a “suite” of social interactions that includes competition, alliance building (a prerequisite for tribal revenge raids), and so forth. Rather than a modular “system” directly reflecting evolutionary fitness constraints, revenge may be (another) social cost-benefit calculation involving potential or actual aggression and proximately controlled by individual personality characteristics and beliefs that can work against fitness.

  16. Genetic evidence for intra- and interspecific slavery in honey ants (genus Myrmecocystus).

    PubMed

    Kronauer, D J C; Gadau, J; Hölldobler, B

    2003-04-22

    The New World honey ant species Myrmecocystus mimicus is well known for its highly stereotyped territorial tournaments, and for the raids on conspecific nests that can lead to intraspecific slavery. Our results from mitochondrial and nuclear markers show that the raided brood emerges in the raiding colony and is subsequently incorporated into the colony's worker force. We also found enslaved conspecifics in a second honey ant species, M. depilis, the sister taxon of M. mimicus, which occurs in sympatry with M. mimicus at the study site. Colonies of this species furthermore contained raided M. mimicus workers. Both species have an effective mating frequency that is not significantly different from 1. This study provides genetic evidence for facultative intra- and interspecific slavery in the genus Myrmecocystus. Slavery in ants has evolved repeatedly and supposedly by different means. We propose that, in honey ants, secondary contact between two closely related species that both exhibit intraspecific slavery gave rise to an early form of facultative interspecific slavery.

  17. Healthcare in the cross hairs. California patient-dumping investigation unwinds into billing probe, fueling enforcers' national fraud-fighting efforts.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Gregg

    2008-08-11

    Fraud enforcers say the FBI's raid of three Southern California hospitals last week offered new evidence that aggressive measures are needed to battle abuse. Los Angeles City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo, left, sees the case as emblematic. "Our healthcare system in America is broken--it's never been more clear to me that is the case," he said. "There's so much pressure ... to make profits".

  18. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  19. Decision Support for Reconnaissance Using Intelligent Software Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    January 20,1998, p 242. Schemmer, Benjamin F., The Raid, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1976, pages 210-213. Snell, Monica, "Oracle Adds CDPD* Support to...6000 8. CPT Darrell R. Gregg, Jr 2 1701 Darr Street Hannibal, MO 63401 127 9. LT David G. Wirth 3516 Princeton Drive Greensburgh, PA 15601 10

  20. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  1. A Selective Chronology of Terrorist and Counter-Terrorist Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Beginning with the July 22, 1966, Palestinian hijacking of an El Al airliner and ending with the April 5, 1986, bombing raid on Libya by the United States, this chronology details 56 terrorist events which were covered in the world press. (JDH)

  2. U.S. Maritime Strategy In a Post-Cold War World?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-16

    British fleet was able to blocKace the entire U.S. coast and conduct raics inland at wili. On one sucn raid in 1814. the British ournea the U.S. Capitol...flow of red inK. The grouna swell in America to cut defense spending is growing exponentialiy. The fina . ievei of military force reauctions in Europe wi

  3. Harmonia: A Globally Coordinated Garbage Collector for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Oral, H Sarp; Shipman, Galen M; Lee, Junghee; Dillow, David A; Wang, Feiyi

    2011-01-01

    Solid-State Drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDD) on a number of workloads. The frequency of garbage collection (GC) activity is directly correlated with the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests, and scheduling of GC is controlled by logic internal to the SSD. SSDs can exhibit significant performance degradations when garbage collection (GC) conflicts with an ongoing I/O request stream. When using SSDs in a RAID array, the lack of coordination of the local GC processes amplifies these performance degradations. No RAID controller or SSD available today has the technology to overcome this limitation. This paper presents Harmonia, a Global Garbage Collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID array of SSDs. Our proposal includes a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices, as well as algorithms to coordinate the global GC cycles. Our simulations show that this design improves response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write dominant workloads response time was improved by 69% while performance variability was reduced by 71%.

  4. Lighter-Than-Air Systems for Future Naval Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    87 Size Perspective for Walrus ...their improved speed and lifting efficiency when compared to airships. For example, the proposed DARPA project named Walrus , has a design payload of...Programs • JLENS • TARS • SASS • REAP • RAID • Combat SkySat • HATB • Talon Topper • HABIT • ISIS • WALRUS • PTDS • MARTS • HAA Government Organizations

  5. DDG 51 Operational Evaluation: Measures of Workload from Combat Information Center Communication Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    RAIDS ......... 39 ix I. INTRODUCTION Communication is the act of sharing information. This thesis is about human communication , but human ...high costs, high stakes, high drama, and Ligh workload. From a methodological perspective, this thesis is about using natural human communication patterns...34* Fourth. The Operational Test and Evaluation (OPEVAL) of USS ARLEIGH BURKE (DDG 51) presented an opportunity to examine human communication patterns

  6. Using Utility Functions to Control a Distributed Storage System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Amiri and Wilkes [1996] produced similar models for availability and reliability. Gibson [1991] examined the reliability of RAID arrays. Also, Burkhard ...Browning, E. K. and Zupan, M. A. (1996).Microeconomic Theory and Applications. HarperCollins, fifth edition. 6 Burkhard , W. A. and Menon, J. (1993). Disk

  7. Red Cloud’s War: An Insurgency Case Study for Modern Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    Indian ponies who subsisted solely on native grass had a distinct advantage in a supply limited situation. Nonetheless, the around the clock raids...their most able braves on their best ponies .92 Two weeks later, the Indians made another probing attack using similar tactics.93 This skirmish on

  8. Fragility and State-Society Relations in South Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    subjected to forced displacement, slavery , and cattle raiding by northern militias. The LRA in northern Uganda conducted regular attacks and kidnappings... sexual violence with impunity.”34 Increasing accountability for violent crimes through public prosecutions and trials, especially for rural

  9. DURIP: Integrated Sensing and Computation for Passive Covert Radar, Signals Intelligence, and Other Applications Driven by Moore’s Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-31

    with dual 3.0 GHz Xeon processors, configured in a Beowulf architecture, provide computational horsepower. The features (cache, main RAM, bus speed, and...each = $550; $3,848 + $550 = $4,398.) The Beowulf computing nodes and the RAID storage and server are housed in a NetShelter rack and powered by a

  10. The Gonzo Scientist. Slaying monsters for science.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, John

    2008-06-20

    Slaying Monsters for Science John Bohannon The first scientific conference held in Azeroth, the online universe of the role-playing game World of Warcraft, went off virtually without a hitch. Although the participants all died during the final day's social event - a massive raid on an enemy fort - they agree that this event is a glimpse at the future of scientific exchange.

  11. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  12. Physician Migration to and from Canada: The Challenge of Finding the Ethical and Political Balance between the Individual's Right to Mobility and Recruitment to Underserved Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinee, W. Dale

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration to and from countries results from many local causes and international influences. These factors operate in the context of an increasingly globalized economy. From an ethical point of view, selective and targeted "raiding" of developing countries' medical workforce by wealthier countries is not acceptable. However,…

  13. The Olive Branch and the Spear: Merging Diplomatic Actions and Special Operations in Conflict Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    policymakers, who tend to be easily seduced by direct and “kinetic” operations, such as raids or drone strikes. The wide media resonance such special...first step in the interagency process. However, opposite perceptions of both cultures do not automatically sound the death knell of any

  14. In Sciences, the Reflected Prestige of the Nobel Prize Extends Far Beyond Anything Its Creator Imagined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    As the ultimate symbol of excellence, the Nobel Prize has had a tremendous effect on scholars, institutions, and national pride. Topics discussed include: recruitment and fund raising, salaries and other perks, "raids" from other institutions, students seeking out winners, publication declines, etc. (MLW)

  15. MINDSET: National Styles in Warfare and the Operational Level of Planning, Conduct and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-10

    sized and smaller units detached from the formations (and also, by the Sissi raiding tean,s trained by the Frontier Guards - which may. operate beyond...small but important Sissi element’ would fight as outright guerillas with a special emphasis on offensive cremolitions (in Soviet territory too, where

  16. [Impact of new information and communication technologies (NTIC) on hospital administration and patient management. Care Network for Diagnosing and Treating Neurologic Emergencies].

    PubMed

    Moulin, T; Retel, O; Chavot, D

    2003-04-01

    The combination of specialised in-patient management, the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools, the standardisation of procedures and organisation of the dies will allow for improving the prognosis of neurological patients seen in emergency situations. In order to achieve this objective, the Networks for Diagnosing and Treating Neurological Emergencies (RAIDS-UN) in Franche-Comté (FC) aim to better the quality of in-patient management for emergency on-set neurological pathologies such as traumatic brain injuries and strokes, the preparation and structuring of the dies for diagnosis and treatment, and assistance in neurology decision making. Based upon the needs of networks which approach the problem from two different directions--the RAIDS-UN/FC network (for neurological emergencies) and the RAIDS-UN/AVC network (for prevention and treatment of strokes)--they should both be able to benefit from new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in order to promote and support innovations in practice and contribute to the improvement in quality and health promotion effectiveness. In light of these developments, one may better understand the significance of the School of Medicine's role in training experts, advisors and supervisors as well as in providing a high level of quality and effective continuing education. Since 2001, the expansion of the RAIDS-UN networks has emphasised the need for the development of new professional specialties arising on the border between technology and medicine. The operation of these networks requires a strong partnership with health professionals and strategically relies upon a regional dynamic interaction which includes the hospitals, the city, the institutions and the university. It is in this manner that the RAIDS-UN networks will support other initiatives such as the Towards Unity for Health project.

  17. Determining baselines for human-elephant conflict: A matter of time.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Rocío A; Coulson, Tim; McCulloch, Graham; Stronza, Amanda L; Songhurst, Anna C

    2017-01-01

    Elephant crop raiding is one of the most relevant forms of human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Africa. Northern Botswana holds the largest population of African elephants in the world, and in the eastern Okavango Panhandle, 16,000 people share and compete for resources with more than 11,000 elephants. Hence, it is not surprising this area represents a HEC 'hotspot' in the region. Crop-raiding impacts lead to negative perceptions of elephants by local communities, which can strongly undermine conservation efforts. Therefore, assessing trends in conflict levels is essential to developing successful management strategies. In this context, we investigated the trend in the number of reported raiding incidents as one of the indicators of the level of HEC, and assessed its relationship to trends in human and elephant population size, as well as land-use in the study area. For each of these factors, we considered data spanning historical (since the 1970s) and contemporary (2008-2015) time frames, with the aim of comparing subsequent inferences on the drivers of crop raiding and predictions for the future. We find that the level of reported crop raiding by elephants in the eastern Panhandle appears to have decreased since 2008, which seems to be related to the reduction in agricultural land allocated to people in recent years, more than with human and elephant population size. We show that inferences regarding the drivers of HEC and predictions for the future are dependent on the time span of the data used. Although our study represents a first step in developing a HEC baseline in the eastern Panhandle, it highlights the need for additional multi-scale analyses that consider progress in conservation conflict to better understand and predict drivers of HEC in the region.

  18. Characteristic Based Methods for the Time-Domain Maxwell Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-09

    2-D results on Cartesian frame demonstrated a potential for numerical efficiency improvement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Time-domain...11 4 Discussion of Numerical Results ........................ 19 5 C onclusion...l ill tiit, pruIcIt a1lyis lder this’ Iranirwurk. Ilulilerical results it’lect tfi heIcst puss,’ibk 1)1(2pefon~lI liace of t he iiew aiiuiirical j

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 06/12/1990

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... ClOIMl1I4 u~ TI'It 'OI-OW''', ,lp"'5 01 (loft·" •• . r.".'I'~II!'''S pr~.ct lOfll \\li!'hf'd ''''~1·1o(I1On1 :loI.'S ;>If·.·.tJPy .~, gof'C.·c~,·. 11 ".1 .'I~ ~"f1 ... sn,s TO I( tAU"'. ...

  20. Novel radiation response genes identified in gene-trapped MCF10A mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Malone, Jennifer; Ullrich, Robert

    2007-02-01

    We have used a gene-trapping strategy to screen human mammary epithelial cells for radiation response genes. Relative mRNA expression levels of five candidate genes in MCF10A cells were analyzed, both with and without exposure to radiation. In all five cases, the trapped genes were significantly down-regulated after radiation treatment. Sequence analysis of the fusion transcripts identified the trapped genes: (1) the human androgen receptor, (2) the uncharacterized DREV1 gene, which has known homology to DNA methyltransferases, (3) the human creatine kinase gene, (4) the human eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2, and (5) the human ribosomal protein L27. All five genes were down-regulated significantly after treatment with varying doses of ionizing radiation (0.10 to 4.0 Gy) and at varying times (2-30 h after treatment). The genes were also analyzed in human fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines to determine whether the radiation response being observed was cell-type specific. The results verified that the observed radiation response was not a cell-type-specific phenomenon, suggesting that the genes play essential roles in the radiation damage control pathways. This study demonstrates the potential of the gene-trap approach for the identification and functional analysis of novel radiation response genes.

  1. Characterization of maritime scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Tom B.; Hudak, D. R.

    1992-09-01

    Meteorological modules were developed to describe characteristic maritime scenarios in various oceanic areas for DREV complimentarity studies of shipboard defense. The best means of depicting the maritime atmospheric environment was found to be on the basis of air mass analysis. A methodology was developed whereby, through a mixture of man-machine objective analysis of upper air radiosonde measurements at the 850, 700, and 500 mb levels, typical airmasses could be identified. Characteristic scenarios were then defined based on physical considerations of air mass theory. Utilizing an extensive 10-year set of worldwide radiosonde, ozondesonde, and surface observations collected from a combination of land-based stations, oceanographic buoys, and weather ships, frequency and correlation statistics of various global and derived meteorological and oceanographic parameters were established for the CANLANT, NORLANT, WESTLANT, EASTLANT, IBERLANT, MARPAC regions, the ARCTIC OCEAN to 85 degree(s)N, the BALTIC SEA, MEDITERRANEAN SEA, PERSIAN GULF, RED SEA, GULF OF OMAN, and the INDIAN OCEAN. These descriptions included atmospheric profiles of pressure, temperature, dewpoint and relative humidity, wind speeds and direction, refractivity index, and ozone concentration from the surface to approximately 20 km., as well as associated surface visibility, clouds and weather, sea state, and duct height conditions. Many of the derived parameters were found to be a strong function of the defining airmass scenarios. The spatial distribution of these scenarios was also determined.

  2. A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, shares sequences with tat, env, and rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Benko, D M; Schwartz, S; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized a novel 28-kilodalton protein, p28tev, detected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells. tev is recognized by both tat and rev monospecific antibodies. tev is initiated at the tat AUG and contains the first exon of tat at its amino terminus, a small portion of env in the middle, and the second exon of rev at its carboxy terminus. A cDNA clone producing tev was cloned and expressed in human cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the tev mRNA is generated by splicing to a novel exon located in the env region. This identifies a fourth class of multiply spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs, produced in infected and transfected cells. tev is regulated during the virus life cycle similarly to the other regulatory proteins, tat, rev, and nef, and displays both tat and rev activities in functional assays. Since tev contains important functional domains of tat and rev and is produced very early after transfection, it may be an important regulator in the initial phase of virus expression. Another rev-related protein, p18(6)Drev, containing env and rev sequences, was characterized and was found not to have detectable rev activity. Images PMID:2186172

  3. School shooting as a culturally enforced way of expressing suicidal hostile intentions.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Suicide with hostile intent encompasses a wide range of behaviors, from self-killing by methods that can harm others, to the suicide that generally follows a spree-killing raid. Reports on school shooting, a highly dangerous and lethal behavior that is spreading from North America to European countries, are analyzed within the paradigm of suicide with hostile intent, with the purpose of discovering some elements that might prevent and limit the dissemination of this behavior by imitation. In school shooting, the perpetrators often register a message before their killing raid, as in an ancient form of suicidal assault, the devotio, that was widespread across ancient Mediterranean Roman, Greek, and Hebrew cultures. The development of a code of rules to report on these episodes, likely to attract the interest of the population for their bloody implications, could prevent the dissemination of cultural norms that encourage this behavior.

  4. The origin of war: new 14C dates from ancient Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Kent V; Marcus, Joyce

    2003-09-30

    New 14C dates from archaeological sites in Oaxaca, Mexico, support R. C. Kelly's observation that intervillage raiding may begin as soon as a region has segmentary societies. The oldest defensive palisade dates to 3260-3160 B.P. in conventional radiocarbon years, only a few centuries after village life was established. Over the next millennium raiding evolved into war, with residences and temples burned, captives killed, and populations moving to defensible hills. 14C dates are now available for the first use of hieroglyphic writing to record a captive's name, military victories leading to the consolidation of the Zapotec state, the first skull rack, and the building of a fortress in conquered territory.

  5. Continuous-Tone Electrostatic Electrography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-12-15

    of v«sluos among th^ «ot^let of ©ach group*» 5fha Esaxlipai^ und siinknaa vplüoo ctra ehovfn a^övo the worägo vftluo«. 2/ mp4 & 4$$* «wifptf ono... raid sine tit&nate, ooe Progroflo -Report Ho. 1„ page 29.) * ü fhö nw’bore appö&rlng in thi-i column shev roughly how tho materials- «hieb...anpunt of Lnpurity whllo agitating tho. flolonlun"to innuro obtaining a honoganoun nrtcrial, raid (c) casting tho e-olssiua i&is sticks», -_ fflablo

  6. Reactions by army ant workers to nestmates having had contact with sympatric ant species.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    It was recently shown that Pheidole megacephala colonies (an invasive species originating from Africa) counterattack when raided by the army ant, Eciton burchellii. The subsequent contact permits Pheidole cuticular compounds (that constitute the "colony odour") to be transferred onto the raiding Eciton, which are then not recognised by their colony-mates and killed. Using a simple method for transferring cuticular compounds, we tested if this phenomenon occurs for Neotropical ants. Eciton workers rubbed with ants from four sympatric species were released among their colony-mates. Individuals rubbed with Solenopsis saevissima or Camponotus blandus workers were attacked, but not those rubbed with Atta sexdens, Pheidole fallax or with colony-mates (control lot). So, the chemicals of certain sympatric ant species, but not others, trigger intra-colonial aggressiveness in Eciton. We conclude that prey-ant chemicals might have played a role in the evolution of army ant predatory behaviour, likely influencing prey specialization in certain cases.

  7. Highly reliable data layout schemes for very large scale storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongjian; Zhong, Haifeng; Wu, Wei

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate data layout schemes and their impact on system reliability in a petabyte scale storage system built from thousands of Object-Based Storage Devices. We delve in two underlying data layout schemes: RAID 5 and RAID 5 mirroring. To accelerate data reconstruction, Fast Mirroring Copy is employed where the reconstructed objects are stored on different OBSDs throughout the system. In order to improve the system reliability, SMART Reliability Mechanism (SRM) is introduced for enhancing the reliability in very large-scale storage system. Analysis results show that they can be used to assure the reliability of data storage and efficiently utilize the disk resource while exert minimum impact on the whole systems performance.

  8. Ion heating and flows in a high power helicon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Derek S.; Agnello, Riccardo; Furno, Ivo; Howling, Alan; Jacquier, Rémy; Plyushchev, Gennady; Scime, Earl E.

    2017-06-01

    We report experimental measurements of ion temperatures and flows in a high power, linear, magnetized, helicon plasma device, the Resonant Antenna Ion Device (RAID). Parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures on the order of 0.6 eV are observed for an rf power of 4 kW, suggesting that higher power helicon sources should attain ion temperatures in excess of 1 eV. The unique RAID antenna design produces broad, uniform plasma density and perpendicular ion temperature radial profiles. Measurements of the azimuthal flow indicate rigid body rotation of the plasma column of a few kHz. When configured with an expanding magnetic field, modest parallel ion flows are observed in the expansion region. The ion flows and temperatures are derived from laser induced fluorescence measurements of the Doppler resolved velocity distribution functions of argon ions.

  9. Evaluating 6 ricin field detection assays.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Sparding, Nadja; Tanassi, Julia Tanas; Steenhard, Nina R; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2014-01-01

    This study presents data showing the performance of 6 commercial detection assays against ricin around concentrations specified as detection limits by the producers. A 2-fold dilution series of 20 ng/ml ricin was prepared and used for testing the lateral-flow kits: BADD, Pro Strips™, ENVI, RAID DX, Ricin BioThreat Alert, and IMASS™ device. Three of the 6 tested field assays (IMASS™ device, ENVI assay, and the BioThreat Alert assay) were able to detect ricin, although differences in the measured detection limits compared to the official detection limits and false-negative results were observed. We were not able to get the BADD, Pro Strips™, and RAID assays to function in our laboratory. We conclude that when purchasing a field responder assay, there is large variation in the specificity of the assays, and a number of in-house tests must be performed to ensure functionality.

  10. Anti-Cyanide Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    dissociative process. Nickel(1l) cyclams ra~idly bound one cyanide, and three more at later times. -# * < U-’/C 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF...only in the presence of a certain external tension of cyanide. In this direction, a nickel(ii)- cyclam -14 will bind one cyanide ligand with a...a macrocyclic ring of four nitrogen atoms in the cyclam . We have found a Schiff base nickel derivative that has the metal attached to nitrogen and

  11. World War II: A Chronology. July 1943

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-07-01

    boats Taberfane, Aroe Is.; 3 floatplanes and 1 flying boat hit. 12 Aleutian Is. : On Attu, 4 Jap- anese are en- countered in the C. Khlebnikof...moving parallel to coast seize Palma di Montechiaro and farther inland, Naro. Allied planes continue to pound Axis defenses and communications through...bomb and strafe airfield on Selaru I., Tanimbar Is. Single RAAF Catalina bombs Dobo, Aroe Is., while 2 others raid Langgoer airdrome, Kei Is. 13

  12. Camouflage, Concealment, and Decoys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-26

    inherent mission of self -protection, and they should use all CCD means available. However, CCD countermeasures have become more complicated due to...deployments and positions as a method of self -evaluation.  Incorporate ground-surveillance-radar (GSR) teams in training when possible. Let the troops know...raids to capture prisoners, documents, weapons, and equipment. A recon-in-force (usually by a reinforced company or battalion) is the most likely

  13. Automated Imagery Orthorectification Pilot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Formosat-2 automatic image processing system and is currently being used to produce orthoimages on a daily-basis Leprince et al . (2007) [22...clarity. The prototype system, as reported by Smith et al . [10] and shown in Figure 1, consists of a 4 terabyte (TB) RAID array for storage, a front...131.84.11.215. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms [10] S. Smith, B. Bursey , and C. Tucker, "Auto orthorectification experiment: Phase 2 experiment

  14. Insider Threat Detection on the Windows Operating System using Virtual Machine Introspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    its own disk queries for normal system usage. This could be alleviated through the use of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) level 0 or...CMAT-V to obtain additional information from the guest’s memory. Table 2.3: Description of CMAT-V Feature Files. Filename Suffix Description _1.txt...because through the DROPFILES structure, a double null terminated character array that contained the source and destination file names and paths could

  15. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Native Americans Nevada/Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-02

    Occupational classification of employed workers, by area of analysis 222 4.2.2-8 Recent grants and loans to the Duckwater tribe 223 4.2.2-9 Recent grants...travelers, to the establishement of military posts, telegraphs, overland stage , and . railway lines, and to the opening of their lands to prospecting...systematically raided stages and the pony express in western Utah and eastern California. Utes of the Utah Lake region were united under Chief Walker

  16. The Pentagon Reporters,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    for coffee , go for this, go for that), he landed a job in Washington, covering the New England congressional delegation for the Yankee Radio Network...advance and told about plans for the Doolittle raid on Japan. The scenario was laid out under a tight embargo to Fay and his counterparts. Even though...the plan was delayed, there was no security 17 WIRE SERVICES breach in the press. Later, Fay reported the birth of nuclear weapons as an observer of the

  17. Slim Chance: The Pivotal Role of Air Mobility in the Burma Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    recorded, “Our pilots thought they had located it [the battalion] from the panel that it showed, and dropped off considerable supplies [ chocolate ...universally high regard for the professional and personal qualities of Sir William Slim, who suffered through the dark days of the retreat out of...in the same vein as did American Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle’s Tokyo raid, particularly during the dark , stalemated times of 1943. 34

  18. Slim Chance: The Pivotal Role of Air Mobility in the Burma Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    con- siderable supplies [ chocolate , concentrated food, ammunition], but later I found out they had received none of the supplies we had dropped off...who suffered through the dark days of the retreat out of Burma but returned to conquer it at the helm of the Fourteenth Army. . . . A convincing case...morale—in the same vein as did Lt Col Jimmy Doolittle’s Tokyo raid for American forces— particularly during the dark , stalemated times of 1943.32

  19. Reluctant Allies: The United States Army Air Force and the Soviet Voenno Vozdushnie Sily 1941-1945,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    34 operations occurred for several reasons ~not all of them obvious at first glance. FRANTIC employed unique methods to achieve its ends, and it provided the only...was led by Colonel Harry A. Halverson. HALPRO consisted of thirteen B-24 "Liberator" four-engine heavy bombers. The raid force had originally...staffs almost immediately recommended disapproval . American airmen drew up two principal reasons to scuttle any attempt to hand VELVET planes over to

  20. Collective Defense of the Baltic States: A SOF Beginning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    in its foreign policy. In a dramatic example, Russia cut off its delivery of natural gas to the Ukraine in 2006.27 Similarly, it cut off the oil flow...Having specially selected and trained SOF troopers with these experiences has additional synergy as these soldiers are by their nature extremely...specialized in raiding Norway in kayaks and consisted of British, Canadians, North American Indians (Natives) plus members of the US 2 Ranger

  1. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-10

    Capacities 28 MALAYSIA Briefs Pirates Raid Bank 29 Defense Export Service Office 29 National Debt Declines 29 PAS Readiness To Accept Chinese as...Chief of State Reaffirmed (Nasir Hassan; BERITA MINGGU, 28 Jul 85) 30 Musa Accuses PAS of Flirting With Non-Muslims (UTUSAN MALAYSIA , 27 Jul 85...32 Post-NEP Government Protection of Malays Assured (UTUSAN MALAYSIA , 27 Jul 85) 34 Government’s Decision Not To Extend NEP Discussed (KIN KWOK

  2. Japanese Naval Military Culture in the Pacific War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    to the Imperial Japanese Navy’s culture that existed in the Pacific War. Along with the lessons learned from the Russo-Japanese War, his theories ...leadership melted away with the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo in. Originally, the Army had supported the plan in theory only because they had a tacit...Brookhaven Press, 1945. Digital Production by Northern Micrographics, 2002. _____. Operations Orders, 2-45 to 16-45: Iceberg : Tenth Army. LaCrosse, WI

  3. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Article 51.24 Cyber warfare is unique in that vulnerabilities that a network target may have could be discovered by software developers who then... cyber warfare rather than physical combat, a future subject to air strikes or ground-forces raids would likely be a powerful deterrent. Some in the U.S...Manwaring, The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare, (Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 2012), 126-129. 23 Arie J. Schaap, “ Cyber Warfare Operations

  4. Merdeka: Dutch military operations in Indonesia (1945-1950)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Dutch military capabilities; and the training and experience of the army leaders both in colonial and regular ‘European’ warfare. Dutch forces were...not able to prevail over the Indonesians, but were strong enough to resist being expelled. Although Dutch forces could control the towns and cities in... training and senior commanders make it impossible for this army to be formidable as anything but a force for guerrilla warfare and small scale raids

  5. Sik-ki-mi. Indian Culture Series: Stories of the Blackfeet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The children's story is one of a series about the Blackfeet Tribe at the height of its power in Southern Alberta and North Central Montana. In the story, Eagle Head, a Blackfeet boy, proves his bravery as he faces the first steamboat on the Yellowstone River and recaptures his chief's favorite buffalo horse, Sik-ki-mi, in a raid on a Crow camp.…

  6. Deterring Cross-Border Conflict in the Horn of Africa: A Case Study of Kenya-Uganda Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    realized that borehole yields are typically very low, indicating that underground water is limited. Besides boreholes, Lake Turkana in Kenya is a key...In the east is Lake Turkana. The Pokot, Rendille and Samburu of Kenya live to the south. Predatory raids on livestock are a common means of survival...districts to the south, the Turkana district to the north, and Baringo District to the southeast. The district has a total area of 9,100 square

  7. DEFENSE MANAGEMENT. Industry Practices Can Help Military Exchanges Better Assure That Their Goods Are Not Made by Child or Forced Labor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    eliminating sweatshops in the United States. However, we reported on the "widespread existence" of sweatshops within the United States in the 1980s and 1990s.6...Monte, California, and found sweatshop working conditions-workers were confined behind razor wire fences and forced to work 20 hours a day for 70 cents...association, the El Monte raid provoked a public outcry and galvanized the U.S. government’s efforts against sweatshops . Concern in the United States about

  8. A Model of Political Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    kills a member of your team) and self - esteem (the raid on your home dishonored you, a successful enemy attack in a sector under your control...and informal organizations rely upon social and professional networks.13 The rise of social media such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn greatly...shared intent and shared identity can be cultivated from marketing, social media , and other recruiting techniques. In extreme cases, an external

  9. Awaiting a Spark: How Three Chinese Territorial Disputes Could Jeopardize Peace in Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    increasingly informed public from growing domestic concerns within China and drum up support for the party. Conversely, another hypothesis contends that...Japanese. Taken a step further, in an instance where political unrest in China escalates to a level the CCP is uncomfortable with, they can drum up...scale “border raids and armed insurgencies” likely to drum up over a contested territory.38 Therefore, China’s massive military modernization

  10. Effect of Air Power on Military Operations, Western Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-07-15

    brought a sharp OIL ATTACK DID reduction in oil output, to an estimated SO % of pre-raid production in NOT AFFECT July 1944 and to 23 % in September. Bad ... bad weather, which played the major role in reducing enemy rail transport capacity for armament production. However the credit for this reduction in...critical situations. A series of marshalling yard attacks in the interdiction program around the REMAGEN bridgehead, which were made during bad weather

  11. Uncomfortable Experience: Lessons Lost in the Apache War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Cochise, the Chihenne (Ojo Caliente/Hot Springs) led by Victorio, the Bedonkohe led by Mangas Coloradas, and the Nednhi led by Juh are generally...Chokonen shared common blood lines. Cochise married the daughter of Mangas Coloradas, making their sons Taza and Naiche half Chokonen and half...but technically Mangus (the son of Mangas Coloradas) continued raiding with his group for another month. 9 Thrapp, Dan. L. The Conquest of

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Expeditionary Training at Gila Bend Air Force Auxiliary Field and the Barry M. Goldwater Range East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    inhabited the area, although other cultural groups such as the Quechan, Cocopah, Yavapai, Apache , Maricopa, and the Tohono O’odham used portions of...and probably ventured south of the Gila River into the western Papaguería at times. Apaches made brief forays to engage in raiding. Late Historical...Terry O. Enos, Chairman Nancy Nelson, Cultural Resource Manager, Ak-Chin Him Dak Eco Museum & Archives Cocopah Tribe Sherry Cordova , Chairman

  13. Blinding the Enemy: Soviet Tactical Reconnaissance in the Rear Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-17

    flanks and rear of enemy strong- points, advance swiftly into the depth, and make a surprise strike. (9) The U.S. battalion or brigade that loses the...reconnaissance missions (observations, raids, ambushes, reconnaissances in force) conducted by tank and motorized rifle units. (30) The Soviets make the...units moving well in advance of the main body in comformity to reconnaissance-intelligence ob- Jectives. Security duties are performed by the advanc- ed

  14. War in the Atlantic: A Historical Case of Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    alliances, Britain could not have gained the upper hand. 14. SUBJECT TERMS military history , strategy, homeland defense 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 75...demonstrated that it was possible for England’s population to be attacked at home. The Gotha raids caused the British to realize that their ancient ...Germany would build a larger, more capable U-boat fleet. Given the formidable history of German pressure on the British merchant marine, the decision to

  15. In Silence Toward The Unknown: Principles Of Special Reconnaissance And Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    and focus on collecting the information, since the North Koreans feared another attack or raid.342 Clark personally conducted a successful close...the Inchon landing of 1950. Also, this study suggests special operations forces can improve mission success with the use of the suggested principles...operations and theories of special operations. Ultimately, special operations engage a unique set of principles to accomplish successful missions. 14

  16. Organizational Culture and Leadership Practices in the 75th Ranger Regiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rangers. Led by Colonel John S. Mosby, this unit was very successful in raiding Union supply trains behind enemy lines. During World War II, six Ranger...Battalions were formed for operations in the European and Pacific Theaters. The 1st Ranger Battalion was formed under Lieutenant Colonel William O...Darby, who later commanded all Ranger forces in the European Theater. Additionally, the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), more commonly known as

  17. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    northern Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley for the duration of the conflict. These partisan units were hybrid organizations that conducted independent...Army’s response to counter the irregular partisan units. The thesis adds specific emphasis on the Union Army’s development and employment of hybrid ...conflict. These partisan units were hybrid organizations that conducted independent raids, small skirmishes, and reconnaissance in support of the larger

  18. An Asymmetrical Symmetry: How Convention Has Become Innovative Military Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Cebu was likewise peaceful (February 21, 1899), but soon the insurgents reorganized and were able attack U.S. forces and local officials. The mayor of... Cebu City was assassinated on June 11, and guerrillas and bandits raided the countryside and towns with impunity.78 In response, Major General Elwell...medieval, and early modern warfare: powerful traders; private armies; contractors who defended border and coastal fortresses; private investors who

  19. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Harry Diamond Laboratories-Woodbridge Research Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    one of many minor chiefdoms or mini-states in the Virginia-Maryland tidewater, with the largest and most well known being the Powhatan Confederacy ...raiding of outlying English farmsteads was conducted sporadically. In 1622 several members of the Powhatan Confederacy led by Opechancanough...under a larger political entity known as a confederacy . This is, probably, a misnomer, and the structure was that of a ranked chiefdom with

  20. Anti-class II antibodies in AIDS patients and AIDS-risk groups.

    PubMed Central

    de la Barrera, S; Fainboim, L; Lugo, S; Picchio, G R; Muchinik, G R; de Bracco, M M

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was evaluated in AIDS patients and in individuals at risk of AIDS [R-AIDS: male homosexuals (Ho) and haemophiliacs (He)]. Antibodies capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against non-T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (P3HR-1K and Raji) were detected in AIDS patients and in R-AIDS with positive or negative human immune deficiency virus (HIV) serology. Anti-class II antigen specificity was revealed by experiments in which class II antigens on target cells were blocked with monoclonal anti-class II antibody (DA6,231) and the cytotoxic reaction induced by patient's sera was abolished. In contrast, ADCC was not impaired by preincubating the target cells with anti-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32). Prevalence of antibodies to non-T cells was confirmed by standard C-mediated microlymphocytotoxicity. However, with this technique anti-T lymphocyte cytotoxicity was also observed in three AIDS patients with haemophilia. R-AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also cytotoxic against autologous non-T cells, and lysis was slightly increased by sensitization of the target cells with autologous serum. In addition to ADCC and C-mediated cytotoxicity, the specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was assayed by their ability to interfere the binding of fluorescein-labelled anti-class II (HLA-DR) and anti-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibodies to PBMC, non-T cells, P3HR-1K and Raji. Anti-class II specificity was confirmed, and antibody titres tended to be higher in Ho than in He R-AIDS, using non-T cells and Raji as targets. Higher titres of anti-class II antibodies in the Ho group could play a role in the different susceptibility of HIV-infected Ho when compared to HIV (+) He to develop AIDS. PMID:3501399

  1. STK Bladestore Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Heer, T

    2003-11-05

    The STK Bladestore is a disk subsystem consisting of ATA disks, fiber channel connectivity, and a RAID controller (LSI manufactured). There are essentially four host connections and four backend fiber connections. The host side ports are 2Gb/sec and with their advertised 400MB/sec bandwidth, the disk side ports are 1GB/sec. Our goal is to test this flavor of disk to see what the real world performance might be.

  2. Elements of Operational Design in the Planning for the Marianas Campaign in 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited cognitive recognition began at this point, “thus, apart from presenting a unique innovation of thought...mission of the raid was to gather intelligence, it combined the use of combat aircraft and submarines to disguise the reconnaissance planes, as well as...Navy. Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1978. Rottman, Gordon L. Saipan and Tinian 1944: Piercing the Japanese Empire. Botley

  3. Air Mobility and the Development of Attack Aviation During the Vietnam War from 1965-1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    armed helicopter roles. These included escort, reconnaissance, security, screens, deception, suppressive fires, raids, patrol actions, and anti- tank ...gunships was the M22 anti- tank guided missile system. The wire-guided systems fired AGM-22B missiles capable of destroying tanks , armored vehicles...helicopters pylons to carry weapon systems. Installation of pylons allowed the Cobra to carry rocket pods, 7.62mm mini-guns, and anti- tank missiles. The

  4. The Effects of the Cessation of Exchange of Prisoners During the Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-04

    were also addressed to Lincoln. One example, from a concerned father whose son was in Andersonville wrote that his son: has a family here consisting of a...desertions. Families on the home front felt the pinch of the Union olockade more each year. The soldiers at the front not only worried about their... families , but about their own ability to eat, as the railroad system disintegrated in the face of overwork, inadequate maintenance, and Union raids and

  5. Targeting War-Sustaining Capability at Sea: Compatibility with Additional Protocol I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    at 26–32 (1955) (sources of law of war at sea). 9 Early twentieth century naval thinkers studied the lengthy history of commerce raiding as an...of the Master of Laws requirements of the 57th Judge Advocate Officer Graduate Course. 1 B. H. LIDDELL HART, HISTORY OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR 22 (1971...background of San Remo Manual and rejection of war-sustaining concept). 7 See generally NEILL ALFORD, MODERN ECONOMIC WARFARE, INT’L L. STUD. NO. 56

  6. Configuring Battalion File Servers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    AGM Server 2008 to load on a Dell D630 laptop. Though not ideal, it did allow the battalion staff and command group to share...and install the AGM Microsoft Server 2008. The final contract included two Dell R610 1U servers with RAID 5 comprising of three 1 TB hard drives...continuity in data between garrison and deployment environ- ments. With the usage of AGM Server operating systems, the Army is

  7. Stratification, Integration and Challenges to Authority in Contemporary South Korea,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    Cheerfl! comzlimnce with ccllo_ -.. ve ncrn Lnd the subordintin -f indi-ua! in .re.t - -- , - . _ " _ ,, . ..... . . . .. . .. - , , . .. . - . , ,o...and large scale raid incastrialization have resulted in nomentcus shift,. both of geographic and occupational population distribution. A rapid decline...the middle classes and the spread of middle class life styles and e:c)Betations throughout society is partic-larly marked. Large scale generational

  8. Naval War College Review. Volume 66, Number 2, Spring 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    christian Science Monitor, 4 october 1972, p. 7. 62. Cyrus vance [secretary of state] to the presi- dent [Jimmy Carter], memorandum, “your Meeting with...oil consumption is currently estimated at 9.9 million barrels per day, half of which is imported.14 long-term projections yield little consolation in...profited from slave raids and the seizure of Christian shipping for over five hundred years, a practice suppressed only in the early nine- teenth

  9. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-18

    Jennifer E. Lake, and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli...08/08/110808fa_fact_schmidle. For a press report commenting on Schmidle’s sources for the article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin...Warfare Office, is as follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and

  10. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-27

    and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli. 11 For a...article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin Laden Camp,” Washington Post, August 3, 2011: C1. For another account, see Peter Bergen, “The...follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee

  11. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-06

    and Jennifer E. Lake, and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John...Schmidle’s sources for the article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin Laden Camp,” Washington Post, August 3, 2011: C1. For a very different...is as follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities

  12. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-13

    and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli. 11 For a...article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin Laden Camp,” Washington Post, August 3, 2011: C1. For a very different account, see Chuck...Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee, it is an honor

  13. Sik-ki-mi. Indian Culture Series: Stories of the Blackfeet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The children's story is one of a series about the Blackfeet Tribe at the height of its power in Southern Alberta and North Central Montana. In the story, Eagle Head, a Blackfeet boy, proves his bravery as he faces the first steamboat on the Yellowstone River and recaptures his chief's favorite buffalo horse, Sik-ki-mi, in a raid on a Crow camp.…

  14. Thermal Stress in RAN (Royal Australian Navy) Sea King Helicopter Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Aero-Space Technologies Australia, MahkotYer/Librarian (2 copies) Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Ansett Airlines of Australia...part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Copyright is the responsibility of the Director Publishing and Marketing , AGPS...was selected from the range available. For this experiment, the video game ’River Raid’ ( marketed by the Atari Company) was played by subjects using a

  15. Work place drug testing of police officers after THC exposure during large volume cannabis seizures.

    PubMed

    Doran, Gregory S; Deans, Ralph; De Filippis, Carlo; Kostakis, Chris; Howitt, Julia A

    2017-04-02

    Police officers responsible for the seizure and removal of illegally grown cannabis plants from indoor and outdoor growing operations face the prospect of THC exposure while performing their work duties. As a result, a study investigating the amount of THC on hands and uniforms of officers during raids on cannabis growing houses (CGHs) and forest cannabis plantations (FCPs) and in the air at these sites was conducted. Swabs of gloves/hands, chests, and heads/necks were collected and analysed for THC. Results of hand swabs indicated that officers removing plants from FCPs were exposed to THC concentrations up to 20 times those involved in raids at CGHs, which was mainly associated with the number and size of plants seized. Air samples collected inside cannabis houses showed no detectable THC. Air samples collected inside the cargo area of the storage trucks used during FCP raids indicated that THC can be volatilised when lush plants are compressed by other seized plants loaded on top of them in the truck over a period of several days, allowing composting of plants at the bottom of the load to commence. The elevated temperature and humidity inside the truck may assist the decarboxylation of THCA to THC, as well as increasing the rate of volatilisation of THC. More than 100 urine samples were collected from officers in raids on both CGHs and FCPs and all tested negative for THC. Removal of cannabis plants by officers often resulted in cuts, abrasions and ruptured blisters on exposed skin surfaces, particularly at FCPs. The results in this study suggest that even when small areas of damaged skin are directly exposed to THC by contact transfer, the likelihood of showing a positive THC urine test is low.

  16. Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    provided information on Glyphosate , the herbicide that is used for aerial eradication in Colombia. The booklet’s objective was to persuade Colombians...with Army Rangers who raided a Taliban compound and air base Oct. 19; they heralded the arrival of US forces by spreading leaflets with the picture of a...and Symbols. PSYOP themes, activities, and symbols should be based on a thorough analysis of targets, including friendly and adversary PSYOP

  17. The Civil War: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Arizona, on 30 June 1995. Tubman �s Triumphs Harriet Tubman , another black woman involved in intelligence col lection for the Union, is much more famous for...raiding party up the Harriet Tubman From Great Negroes Past and Present, Volume 1, by Russell L. Adams, African American Images, Chicago, Illinois...developed an interest in the Union flag-signal system, and he learned all he could about it. The intelligence Harriet Tubman and her spy organization

  18. Rangers and the Strategic Requirements for Direct Action Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    surface-to-air missile SAR search and rescue Vll SEAD suppression of enemy air defenses SEAL Sea-Air-Land SOCEX special operations capability exercise...raids" (in other words, direct action): 1. Terminal guidance operations 2. Pre-strike suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) 3. Recovery 4...that are part of the day-to-day operation of that installation. This, too, serves as a distractor for the troops of the 82nd and prevents the narrow

  19. Cyber Intelligence Analysis Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    volume contains a Linux OS and the virtual machine templates (VMDK files). This is not enough for some usage. 1 SAN in RAID 5 which presents a 10...redundancy mode; Unfortunately, neither power redundancy nor backup was available. Since xCAT is compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux , and...in a separate BASH shell). Half a day was needed at this step. 3. Deploy all the VMs on each node at the same time. This means 98 nodes working in

  20. The Myth of Omniscient Cybernetics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-03

    elements were the moral, physical, mathematical, geographic and statistical military might of a nation. 16 Successful strategy was the com- bination of...expanses of the Pacific Ocean gave clues to the future of war. Senior naval commanders habitually only mon- itored naval battles. During the battle of...raid in military history was launched from a strike force in the Indian Ocean totaling four aircraft carriers (one more than faced the Japanese at the

  1. The Effect of Shipboard Design Decisions in Amphibious Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    37 1. LHA (R) America Class Layout and Design .................................. 37 2. MV-22 Osprey ... Osprey : Speed, Range and Vertical Flight”). The Osprey was designed for expeditionary assault, raid operations and cargo lift (“MV-22 Osprey : Speed...Howitzer, and its dual hook can lift 40 15,000 pounds (“ V22 Characteristics”). The expected maximum amount of MV-22 Ospreys to embark on board the LHA

  2. Combat Power Analysis is Combat Power Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Hostage Rescue, 1980; Beirut Peacekeeping Force, 1982; Grenada , 1983; and the Bekaa Valley Air Raid, 1984. While not exhaustive, this list...assumptions in the methodology.100 Despite the problems, the methodology reemerged during the Reagan Administration. The Administration assumed that ten...Soviet Union.101 Despite the seeming success of the Reagan Administration’s approach, the U.S. Army definitively discounts this methodology in the 2006

  3. Infantry Companies Need Intelligence Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    billets that need to be filled is greater than the current number of Marines in the intelligence field. In a conventional fight, the intelligence... Marines are a force multiplier to the company. They understand the language and requirements needed by the infantry Marine on the ground, but are also...away manpower from the company. On the contrary, those same Marines will conduct patrols and raids since they know what is needed in collections

  4. Cultural Resources Evaluation of the Upper Atchafalaya Backwater Area, Iberville and Pointe Coupee Parishes, SOuth Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    attempt to lage on Bayou Teche. The Cathcart expedition of attack the Bayagoula, killed the priest St. Cosme 1819 described it as a row of palmetto-covered...southeast of the present study area (Newton 1985:16; Prichard et al. 1945:760). Although Cathcart Raids between the Chitimacha and Indian groups does not...utiliz- artifacts on the east side of Bayou Maringouin, about ing centralized landfill and garbage services. Cer- 850 m south of the junction of West

  5. Influence of diet and stress on reproductive hormones in Nigerian olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Lodge, E; Ross, C; Ortmann, S; MacLarnon, A M

    2013-09-15

    A female mammal's reproductive function and output are limited by the energy she is able to extract from her environment. Previous studies of the interrelationships between energetic circumstances and reproductive function in a variety of mammal species have produced varied results, which do not all support the common assumption that higher female reproductive hormone levels, specifically progesterone, indicate better ovarian function and greater reproductive potential, and are associated with lower energetic stress. In the present study faecal progesterone and glucocorticoid levels were assessed in two troops of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in the same population. They face similar ecological challenges, except that one troop crop-raids, potentially affecting its energetic intake and stress levels. The energy intake of individual females was assessed by combining detailed feeding observations with nutritional analysis of food samples. The crop-raiding troop experienced 50% higher energy intake rates and 50% lower glucocorticoid levels compared to the non-crop-raiding troop alongside substantially lower progesterone levels. This suggests that energetic stress is associated with elevated progesterone levels and may be the cause of the non-crop-raiding troop's lower reproductive output. By comparing groups which differ little, except in terms of food access, and also by directly assessing energy intake, our study addresses some of the design limitations of previous research investigating variation in progesterone levels and energetic stress. It therefore has the potential to contribute to greater understanding of the factors affecting differences in reproductive and stress hormone levels and reproductive function in mammals experiencing different energetic circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on flocks of African ant-following birds.

    PubMed

    Peters, Marcell K; Likare, Smith; Kraemer, Manfred

    2008-06-01

    Tropical rain forests are rapidly cleared, fragmented, and degraded in sub-Saharan Africa; however, little is known about the response of species and even of key ecological groups to these processes. One of the most intriguing (but often neglected) ecological phenomena in African rain forests is the interaction between swarm-raiding army ants and ant-following birds. Similar to their well-known Neotropical representatives, ant-following birds in Africa track the massive swarm raids of army ants and feed on arthropods flushed by the ants. In this study we analyzed the effect of habitat fragmentation and degradation of a mid-altitude Congo-Guinean rain forest in western Kenya on the structure of ant-following bird flocks. Significant numbers of swarm raids were located in all forest fragments and in both undegraded and degraded forest. Fifty-six different species of birds followed army ant raids, forming bird flocks of one to 15 species. We quantitatively differentiated the bird community into five species of specialized ant-followers and 51 species of opportunistic ant-followers. Species richness and size of bird flocks decreased with decreasing size of forest fragments and was higher in undegraded than in degraded habitat. This was caused by the decrease of the species richness and number of specialized ant-followers at swarms, while the group of opportunistic ant-followers was affected little by habitat fragmentation and degradation. The composition of bird flocks was more variable in small fragments and degraded forest, compared to undegraded habitat in large fragments. The effect of habitat fragmentation on flock structure was best explained by the strong decline of the abundance of specialized ant-followers in small forest fragments. To conserve the association of army ants and ant-following birds in its natural state, vast areas of unfragmented and undegraded tropical rain forest are necessary.

  7. The Rise of Pan-Islamism in Britain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Algerian GIA (Groupe Islamique Arm) in Europe.”48 By the late 1990s Abu Hamza was the leader of the Finsbury Park Mosque.49 A police raid on the...2006). Abu Hamza is also wanted in the U.S. for the following charges: involvement with Earnest James Ujaama, providing support and finance to al...group. Such activities included anti-Libyan regime propaganda, financing , and terrorist planning, as well as alliance with other terrorist organization

  8. CNA Small Group Discussion: Aiding Cameroon’s Effort to Counter Boko Haram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-18

    continues to wreak havoc inside Nigeria, it has also been launching attacks and raids into neighboring countries, Cameroon chief among them. Cameroon ...not quelled the threat of Boko Haram to Cameroon , and the United States has found itself devoting more time and resources to assist in countering this...group. The purpose of this small group meeting was to explore further avenues of U.S. support to Cameroon for countering Boko Haram. Background

  9. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    context about the often-overlooked aspects of the war in 20 George W. Smith , Carlson’s Raid: The...M. Smith , ―father of modern amphibious warfare,‖ referred to it as a ―piece of folly.‖78 Naval historian Samuel Eliot Morrison, claimed that the...Japanese soldiers captured the remaining forty people, and the western Aleutians were in Imperial hands.167 Admiral Theobald and the commander of the

  10. Specialized Assault Units of the World War I Western Front: A Comparative Study of the German Stormtrooper Battalions, and Canadian Trench Raiders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Kemp, 7 February 1918,” in Mark O. Humphries , ed., The Selected Papers of Sir Arthur Currie: Diaries, Letters, and Report to the Ministry, 1917-1933...Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that...Marshal Sir John French, directed his Chief of General Staff to publish a memorandum ordering all field army and corps commands to conduct raids.120

  11. A Theory of Special Operations: The Origin, Qualities, and Use of SOF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    include the raid on Entebbe53 and the rescue of Kurt Muse from Modelo Prison, Panama, in Operation Just Cause.54 Since SOF have the characteristics of...Nature of Strategy, Ph.D. thesis, University of Reading, July 2004, pp . 8-9. See also his subsequent book based on the thesis, Special Operations...Name Copperhead (New York: Pocket Books, 1994), pp . 386-405. 4. The exception is the current period, when SOF have been institutionalized in part

  12. USSR Report, Military Affairs, Aviation and Cosmonautics, No. 2, February 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-06

    allegedly critically weakened by British and U.S. bombing raids on aircraft plants, oilfields and synthetic fuel plants of Germany and its allies...little benefit . In addition, combat pilots get the false impression that victory comes easy, and they become complacent. Naturally initiative and...and technology should be directed toward the benefit of man, in the interests of world peace. The replies by CPSU Central Committee General Secretary

  13. Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, from 14th Naval District Photograph Collection, PHOG No. P.H. 4464-45) Official USN Photo, 1945. REMOVAL OF SPLINTERPROOF SHELTER (FORMER FACILITY S 1122), LOCATED BETWEEN FACILITIES 1 AND 3 IN NAVAL SHIPYARD. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Air Raid Shelters, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Operational Art in the Campaign of Stephen Watts Kearny to Conquer New Mexico and California, 1846-7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    business was to seize control of Santa Fe and California.43 Mexico had all but abandoned New Mexico because of the prevalence of raiding Indians, its...from Mexico with even more troops. Contrasting those rumors were indications that “a year before, the Mexican government had virtually abandoned ... Arkansas River distinguished each from the others, but all the routes eventually came together on the Cimarron River near the Cimarron Spring.79 Kearny

  15. Engineers of the Southwest Pacific 1941-1945. Volume 8. Critique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-01-01

    buried at fear- ful risk by a friendly Filipino and later dug up and returned to their owner. These yellow, moldy pages contained a wealth of dramatic...partially effective results. male native’s belief that his family would not be Because of daily air raids, little work was accom- properly cared for with food ...Watsonal Building had been a preventive took its toll. Food supplies dwin- trucked to Cabcaben on Bataan, transferred to dled. reducing rations to two

  16. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for

  17. Wild chimpanzees on the edge: nocturnal activities in croplands.

    PubMed

    Krief, Sabrina; Cibot, Marie; Bortolamiol, Sarah; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Jean-Michel; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    In a rapidly changing landscape highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, the great apes are facing new challenges to coexist with humans. For chimpanzee communities inhabiting encroached territories, not bordered by rival conspecifics but by human agricultural fields, such boundaries are risky areas. To investigate the hypothesis that they use specific strategies for incursions out of the forest into maize fields to prevent the risk of detection by humans guarding their field, we carried out video recordings of chimpanzees at the edge of the forest bordered by a maize plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contrary to our expectations, large parties are engaged in crop-raids, including vulnerable individuals such as females with clinging infants. More surprisingly chimpanzees were crop-raiding during the night. They also stayed longer in the maize field and presented few signs of vigilance and anxiety during these nocturnal crop-raids. While nocturnal activities of chimpanzees have been reported during full moon periods, this is the first record of frequent and repeated nocturnal activities after twilight, in darkness. Habitat destruction may have promoted behavioural adjustments such as nocturnal exploitation of open croplands.

  18. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime.

  19. Knowing your enemies: seasonal dynamics of host social parasite recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Brunner, Elisabeth; Wenseleers, Tom; Heinze, Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    Despite its evolutionary significance, behavioural flexibility of social response has rarely been investigated in insects. We studied a host social parasite system: the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens and its host Formica rufibarbis. Free-living host workers from parasitized and from unparasitized areas were compared in their level of aggression against the parasite and alien conspecifics. We expected that a seasonal change would occur in the acceptance threshold of F. rufibarbis workers from a parasitized area towards the parasite, whereas F. rufibarbis workers from an unparasitized area would not show substantial changes connected with the parasite’s peak in activity (raiding and colony-founding season). The results showed a significant adaptive behavioural flexibility of host species workers and are consistent with the acceptance threshold model’s (Reeve 1989) prediction that recognition systems are not fixed but context-dependent. In particular, host workers from the unparasitized area were highly aggressive towards the parasite regardless of the season, whereas host workers from the parasitized area significantly increased their aggression towards the parasite during its raiding and colony-founding season. Being able to detect and possibly kill a Polyergus scout searching for host nests can be an effective strategy for a Formica colony to avoid being raided or usurped by a parasite queen.

  20. Use and effectiveness of commercial flit-spray insecticides in control of mosquito population in Sagamu, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, A A; Ahmed, I A; Akinwunmi, M; Aina, S A; Tikare, O; Adeboye, A F; Badmos, S O; Adedeji, K A; Fehintola, F A; Amoo, A O J

    2012-06-01

    Control of mosquito vector is crucial to reducing the burden of malaria in endemic region. In the present study, we investigated the use of commercial insecticides in families and their effectiveness in control of mosquito population in Sagamu, southwest Nigeria. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to determine mosquito adulticides techniques employed in the community and most commonly used adulticides were evaluated for effectiveness by exposing adult mosquitoes to varying concentrations of the insecticides and responses monitored. Families differ in methods adopted to prevent mosquito and use of flit-spray insecticide was commoner. Although parents constitute 64% of those applying the insecticide, 22.2% were children. Household pyrethroid insecticide products of Baygon (Imiprothrin, Prallethrin plus Cyfluthrin), Mobil (Neopynamin, Prallethrin plus Cyphenothrin) and Raid (Pynamin forte, Neopynamin plus Deltimethrin) were three commonly used in the community. The exposure tie interval for eath of osquitoes was shorter with Raid (100% at 8 minutes) when compared with Mobil (80%) and Baygon (85%) at 10 minutes (p = 0.005). Kaplan-Meier survival curve of cumulative probability of surviving exposure to insecticide was lowest with Raid (log rank 2 = 14.56, P = 0.001). Although flit-spray insecticides are affordable with simple application tool, inexplicit use-instruction on labels may cause discrepancies in application. Monitoring responses of mosquitoes to commercial flit-spray insecticide may support effective control technique and prevention of vector resistance in poor resource communities.

  1. Anxiety, anxiety symptoms, and associations among older people with dementia in assisted-living facilities.

    PubMed

    Neville, Christine; Teri, Linda

    2011-06-01

    Anxiety is a major cause for distress among older people with dementia, and it impedes care. In order to develop interventions to treat anxiety and identify who might be most likely to benefit, mental health nurses need to understand what clinical and demographic factors are associated with anxiety in dementia. This cross-sectional study is a detailed assessment of anxiety in people living in assisted-living facilities using the Rating Anxiety in Dementia (RAID) scale and the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS). One hundred and forty-eight people, with a mean age of 86.2 years, were recruited from 19 assisted-living facilities in the USA. Prevalence rates for anxiety were 11% and 18%, as measured on the RAID and CAS, respectively. One or more symptoms of anxiety were exhibited for 49% (RAID) and 48% (CAS) of participants. Behavioural symptoms and the presence of depression strongly predicted anxiety, as did staff's reaction to behavioural symptoms and their sense of competence to care. These findings demonstrate that anxiety is prominent enough to warrant further investigation and treatment, and that anxiety in older people with dementia is closely associated with staff skill. This study has also identified areas for mental health nurses to target interventions. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Wild Chimpanzees on the Edge: Nocturnal Activities in Croplands

    PubMed Central

    Krief, Sabrina; Cibot, Marie; Bortolamiol, Sarah; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Jean-Michel; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    In a rapidly changing landscape highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, the great apes are facing new challenges to coexist with humans. For chimpanzee communities inhabiting encroached territories, not bordered by rival conspecifics but by human agricultural fields, such boundaries are risky areas. To investigate the hypothesis that they use specific strategies for incursions out of the forest into maize fields to prevent the risk of detection by humans guarding their field, we carried out video recordings of chimpanzees at the edge of the forest bordered by a maize plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contrary to our expectations, large parties are engaged in crop-raids, including vulnerable individuals such as females with clinging infants. More surprisingly chimpanzees were crop-raiding during the night. They also stayed longer in the maize field and presented few signs of vigilance and anxiety during these nocturnal crop-raids. While nocturnal activities of chimpanzees have been reported during full moon periods, this is the first record of frequent and repeated nocturnal activities after twilight, in darkness. Habitat destruction may have promoted behavioural adjustments such as nocturnal exploitation of open croplands. PMID:25338066

  3. The harsh life on the 15th century Croatia-Ottoman empire military border: analyzing and identifying the reasons for the massacre in Cepin.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Vyroubal, Vlasta; Bedić, Zeljka

    2010-03-01

    Excavation of the historic period cemetery in Cepin, Croatia revealed the presence of a large number of perimortem injuries distributed among males, females, and subadults. Archaeological and historical data suggest these individuals were victims of a raid carried out by Turkish akinji light cavalry in 1441. Comparisons with the frequencies of perimortem trauma in 12 other, temporally congruent skeletal series from the Balkans (n = 2,123 skeletons) support this assumption. The role of the akinji in the Ottoman army was twofold: to supply war captives, and to terrorize and disperse local populations before the advance of regular troops. This article tests the hypothesis that the purpose of the 1441 raid was the latter. To accomplish this, perimortem trauma in the series were analyzed by sex, age, location, and depth of the injury. A total of 82 perimortem injuries were recorded in 12 males, 7 females, and 3 subadults. The demographic profile of the victims suggests that young adults were specifically targeted in the attack. Significant sex differences are noted in the number, distribution, and pattern of perimortem trauma. Females exhibit significantly more perimortem injuries per individual, and per bone affected, than males. The morphology and pattern of perimortem trauma in females is suggestive of gratuitous violence. Cumulatively, analysis of the osteological data suggest that the objective of the 1441 akinji raid was to spread terror and panic in the Cepin area, either as revenge for recent military setbacks, or as part of a long-term strategy intended to depopulate the area around Osijek.

  4. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  5. Nest predation and maternal care in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) at Lake St Lucia, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Combrink, Xander; Warner, Jonathan K; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-12-01

    Information regarding nest predation, nest abandonment, and maternal care in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is largely restricted to anecdotal observations, and has not been studied quantitatively. Consequently, we investigated their nesting biology using camera-traps over four years at Lake St Lucia, South Africa. We obtained 4305 photographs (daylight captures=90.1%, nocturnal=9.9%) of 19 nest-guarding females. Of 19 monitored nests, 37% were raided by predators (mean=12.1±6.2days subsequent to camera placement). All females returned to their nests following first predation, and on average returned three times between predator raids before nest abandonment. Water monitors (Varanus niloticus) and marsh mongoose (Atilax paludinosus) were the main egg predators. Nesting raids lasted 5.9±1.6days. Diurnally females were seldom on the nest, except during cool/cloudy weather or rain, preferring to guard from nearby shade. Females defended nests aggressively against non-human intruders. Five Nile crocodile females were observed liberating their hatchlings from nests. A detailed sequence of a mother excavating and transporting hatchlings revealed 13 excursions between nest and water over 32.5h. This, after months of continual nest attendance and defence, is illustrative of the high level of maternal care in Nile crocodiles. Camera-trapping is an effective, non-invasive method for further crocodile nesting behaviour research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The research and design for a high availability object storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Ling; Tan, Zhihu; Gu, Peng; Wan, Jiguang

    2008-12-01

    With the growing scale of the computer storage systems, the likelihood of multi-disk failures happening in the storage systems has increased dramatically. Based on a thorough analysis on the fault-tolerance capability on various existing storage systems, we propose a new hierarchical, highly reliable, multi-disk fault-tolerant storage system architecture: High Availability Object Storage System (HAOSS). In the HAOSS, each object has an attribute field for reliability level, which can be set by the user according to the importance of data. Higher reliability level corresponds to better data survivability in case of multi-device failure. The HAOSS is composed of two layers: the upper-layer and the lower-layer. The upper-layer achieves the high availability by storing multiple replicas for each storage object in a set of storage devices. The individual replicas can service the I/O requests in parallel so as to obtain high performance. The lower-layer deploys RAID5, RAID6 or RAID_Blaum coding schemes to tolerate multi-disk failures. In addition, the disk utilization rate of RAID_Blaum is higher than that of multiple replicas, and it can be further improved by growing the RAID group size. These advantages come at the price of more complicated fault-tolerant coding schemes, which involve a large amount of calculation for encoding and cause an adverse impact on the I/O performance, especially on the write performance. Results from both our internal experiments and third-party independent tests have shown that HAOSS servers have better multi-disk- failure tolerance than existing similar products. In a 1000Mb Ethernet interconnection environment, with a request block size of 1024KB, the sequential read performance for a HAOSS server reaches 104MB/s, which is very close to the theoretical maximum effective bandwidth of Ethernet networks. The HAOSS offers a complete storage solution for high availability applications without the compromises that today's storage systems

  7. Unusual Fusion Proteins of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon; Sauter, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Despite its small genome size, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is one of the most successful pathogens and has infected more than 70 million people worldwide within the last decades. In total, HIV-1 expresses 16 canonical proteins from only nine genes within its 10 kb genome. Expression of the structural genes gag, pol, and env, the regulatory genes rev and tat and the accessory genes vpu, nef, vpr, and vif enables assembly of the viral particle, regulates viral gene transcription, and equips the virus to evade or counteract host immune responses. In addition to the canonically expressed proteins, a growing number of publications describe the existence of non-canonical fusion proteins in HIV-1 infected cells. Most of them are encoded by the tat-env-rev locus. While the majority of these fusion proteins (e.g., TNV/p28tev, p186Drev, Tat1-Rev2, Tat^8c, p17tev, or Ref) are the result of alternative splicing events, Tat-T/Vpt is produced upon programmed ribosomal frameshifting, and a Rev1-Vpu fusion protein is expressed due to a nucleotide polymorphism that is unique to certain HIV-1 clade A and C strains. A better understanding of the expression and activity of these non-canonical viral proteins will help to dissect their potential role in viral replication and reveal how HIV-1 optimized the coding potential of its genes. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of previously described HIV-1 fusion proteins and to summarize our current knowledge of their expression patterns and putative functions. PMID:28119676

  8. Multi-agent data fusion workstation (MADFW) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazian, Elisa; Bosse, Eloi; Valin, Pierre

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes an on-going effort to build a Multi- Agent Data Fusion Workstation (MADFW) based on a Knowledge- Based System (KBS) BlackBoard (BB) architecture to offer a range of innovative techniques for Data Fusion (DF), applicable to various domains. The initial application to be demonstrated is in the area of airborne maritime surveillance where several multi-agent concepts and algorithms have already been studied and demonstrated. The end result will offer the user a flexible and modular environment providing capability for: (1) addition of user defined sensor simulation models and fusion algorithms; (2) integration with existing models and algorithms; and (3) evaluation of performance to derive requirement specifications and help in the design phase towards fielding a real DF system. The workstation is being designed to accommodate modular interchangeable algorithm implementation and performance evaluation of: (1) fusion of positional data from imaging and non-imaging sensors; (2) fusion of attribute information obtained from imaging and non-imaging sensors and other sources such as communication systems, satellites, etc.; and (3) Object Recognition in imaging data. The design allows algorithms for sensor simulators and measures of performance to reside ether on the KBS BB shell or be separate from it, thus facilitating integration with other testbed designs. This architecture also allows the future introduction of fusion management capabilities. The real-time KBS BB shell developed by Lockheed Martin Canada, in collaboration with DREV, is the basis of the MADFW infrastructure. This system is totally generic, and could be used to implement any system comprising of components which can be numeric or AI based. It has been implemented in C++ rather than in a higher-level language (such as LISP, Smalltalk, ...) to satisfy the real-time requirement.

  9. Association Between the Use of Oral Contraceptives and Patient-Reported Outcomes in an Early Arthritis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Katinka; Callhoff, Johanna; Buttgereit, Frank; Straub, Rainer H; Westhoff, Gisela; Zink, Angela

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association between exposure to oral contraceptives (OCs) and clinical outcomes in an early arthritis cohort. Female patients with early inflammatory arthritis, ages 18-60 years, who were enrolled in an early arthritis cohort and had no exposure to hormone replacement were studied (n = 273). Associations between OC exposure (current/past/never) and disease activity, treatment, and patient-reported outcomes, including the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease Score (RAID), the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), the Profile of Mood and Discomfort (PROFAD), and the Hannover Functional Assessment (FFbH), were studied over 2 years. Linear mixed models adjusted for age, body mass index, parity, smoking, and education were used. Eighteen percent of patients had never used OCs, 63% had used OCs in the past, and 19% currently used OCs. After adjustment, the current/past OC use was associated with better RAID, PROFAD, RADAI, and FFbH scores at 12 months (P < 0.05 for all) compared to never use. Longitudinally over 2 years, the mean RAID scores were significantly better in women with current/past OC use (P < 0.001). Actual inflammatory markers were not associated with OC use. Glucocorticoids were used by a higher percentage of OC never users than by current/past users (P = 0.08), especially in patients with impaired function (FFbH <70: odds ratio 4.2 [95% confidence interval 1.6-11]). For past as well as current use, OCs seem to moderate patient-reported outcomes in inflammatory arthritis. Protective effects may be induced via central nervous pathways rather than through the suppression of peripheral inflammation. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Detailed Modeling of EUV Recombination and Contaminating Emissions Near 911 Å: A New Means of Dayside Ionospheric Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Coker, C.; Nicholas, A. C.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The 911 Å emission is produced by radiative recombination of ionospheric O+ ions and electrons, which makes it useful for satellite remote sensing of the ionosphere during the daytime and at night. However, previous measurements of the 911 Å emission made by sounding rockets during the daytime, at altitudes less than 300 km, indicated that the emission was either very weak or non-existent. Furthermore, the daytime spectrum was shown to be contaminated by other EUV emissions produced by molecular nitrogen, thus suggesting that the 911 Å was useless as a dayside ionospheric diagnostic. Yet, satellite-based measurements made by the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) instrument launched aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), which operated between mid-May 1999 and April 2002 at an altitude of ~830 km, showed the emission to be present and strong enough to be accurately measured and inverted; those inversions were validated against ionosonde measurements and demonstrated the possibility of using the 911 Å emission for daytime ionospheric sensing. Recent measurements made by the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) currently in operation aboard the International Space Station, at an altitude of 340 km, show that the daytime EUV spectrum is not as strongly contaminated as previously thought; the RAIDS measurements are shown to be in agreement with LORAAS measurements made between 1999-2002. A new analysis of the daytime and nighttime production of the 911 Å emission and the contaminating emissions that takes absorption by O, O2, and N2 into account shows that viewing geometry effects and absorption can explain these seemingly disparate observations. This analysis is shown to be in agreement with the RAIDS, LORAAS, and other recent observations. Simulations of the dayglow measurements are presented confirming that, although contaminated, the measurements can still provide an accurate measure

  11. Community-based human–elephant conflict mitigation: The value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods

    PubMed Central

    Gunaryadi, Donny; Sugiyo

    2017-01-01

    Human–elephant conflict (HEC) is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers’ willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 –May 2007) in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) out of crop fields in 91.2% (52 out of 57), 87.6% (156 out of 178), and 80.0% (16 out of 20) of attempted raids. Once the method had been shown to be effective at demonstration sites, farmers in 16 villages around WKNP voluntarily adopted it during the July 2008 to March 2009 period and were able to repel elephants in 73.9% (150 out of 203) of attempted raids, with seven villages repelling 100% of attempted raids. These 16 villages had all experienced high levels of HEC in the preceding years; e.g. they accounted for >97% of the 742 HEC incidents recorded for the entire park in 2006. Our work shows, therefore, that a simple evidence-based approach can facilitate significant reductions in HEC at the protected area scale. PMID:28510590

  12. Raiders of the Lost Bark: Orangutan Foraging Strategies in a Degraded Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark) to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits), when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated) and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which should be used

  13. Community-based human-elephant conflict mitigation: The value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods.

    PubMed

    Gunaryadi, Donny; Sugiyo; Hedges, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007) in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) out of crop fields in 91.2% (52 out of 57), 87.6% (156 out of 178), and 80.0% (16 out of 20) of attempted raids. Once the method had been shown to be effective at demonstration sites, farmers in 16 villages around WKNP voluntarily adopted it during the July 2008 to March 2009 period and were able to repel elephants in 73.9% (150 out of 203) of attempted raids, with seven villages repelling 100% of attempted raids. These 16 villages had all experienced high levels of HEC in the preceding years; e.g. they accounted for >97% of the 742 HEC incidents recorded for the entire park in 2006. Our work shows, therefore, that a simple evidence-based approach can facilitate significant reductions in HEC at the protected area scale.

  14. Raiders of the lost bark: orangutan foraging strategies in a degraded landscape.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark) to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits), when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated) and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which should be used

  15. Overview of TPC Benchmark E: The Next Generation of OLTP Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Trish

    Set to replace the aging TPC-C, the TPC Benchmark E is the next generation OLTP benchmark, which more accurately models client database usage. TPC-E addresses the shortcomings of TPC-C. It has a much more complex workload, requires the use of RAID-protected storage, generates much less I/O, and is much cheaper and easier to set up, run, and audit. After a period of overlap, it is expected that TPC-E will become the de facto OLTP benchmark.

  16. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  17. IAPD: Integrated Adaptive and Proactive Defense against Stealthy Botnets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-28

    functions, β(t) and γ(t), have period T = 8. Both parameter sets satisfy the sufficient condition of Theo- rem 2, namely λ1 < β̄/γ̄, which means that the...parameters satisfy the sufficient condition in Theo- rem 2, which means that the virus spreading will die out as we discussed above. To ensure...and J. Wing, “Ranking Attack Graphs,” Proc. Int’l Symp. Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection (RAID ’06), pp. 127-144, 2006. [25] Y. Moreno, R

  18. The Modern Major General: Patterns in the Careers of the British Army Major Generals on Active Duty at the Time of the Sarajevo Assassinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-11

    of this analysis is a de- scription-of who they were, where they came from and by what means they reached the pinnacle of their profession. They merit...general officers. The product of this analysis is a description of who they were, where they came from and by what means they reached the pinnacle of...in 188Q-1881 ana the Jameson raid in 1895, the Boers and the British went to war in October 1899. The Boer War was the first real test of Britain’s

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    ret) Ivan Tikhonovich Yaki- menko has died unexpectedly. ...He was a member of the Communist Party since 1941. I.T. Yakimenko was born on 31 March...Two days before its start, Ye. Shmelev , oblast civil defense chief of staff, decided to check the readiness of the leaders of his services. This...But, first he woke up all the oblast leaders, and then turned on the "air raid warning" alarm. When the infuriated Shmelev ordered him to turn it off

  20. Targeted Lymphoma Cell Death by Novel Signal Transduction Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    cell, and even other anti-CD22 mAb (4-6). In fact, the NCI has approved and funded the humanization of the anti-CD22 blocking mAb, HB22.7 through...the Rapid Access Intervention Drug (RAID) Program. Humanized HB22.7 could become an exciting new therapy for patients with CD22-positive non...apoptosis, and lymphomacidal effects in human NHL xenografts. We also have the capacity to use small animal immuno-positron emission tomography

  1. 21st Century Strategies for Policing Protest: What Major Cities’ Responses to the Occupy Movement Tell U.S. about the Future of Police Response to Public Protest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/24/occupy-wall-street-drops-suit-on- zuccotti-park/. 198 James Barron and Colin Moynihan, “Police Oust Occupy Wall Street Protesters at...other cities to move to evict their groups. Considering the rapid transmission of information via 510 Johnson, “Build Up To A Raid.” 511 Michelle ...street- protest_n_974693.html; Barron , James and Colin Moynihan. “Police Oust Occupy Wall Street Protesters at Zuccotti Park.” New York Times

  2. CTC Sentinel. Volume 7, Issue 10, October 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Internally displaced people (IDPs) who fled Borno estimate that Boko Haram may have abducted between 500 and 2,000 women since 2013, but most... Women in Fresh Raid,” PM News Ni- geria, October 20, 2014; “Boko Haram Frees Abducted Women , Girls,” Vanguard, October 23, 2014. 16 Author’s interview...using women in operations, including the wives of slain or arrested militants and beggars who were offered a “few naira notes.”17 During the

  3. Through-the-Sensor Determination of AN/AQS-20 Sensor Performance Demonstration 1, December 13 through 17, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-24

    operating mode. The HSR contains the raw time series from the AN/AQS-20 sonars. A special RAID recorder is used to record the HSR data . It is...sediment type processing steps. HSR data used in DEMO 1 contain only the raw time series data from the AN/AQS-20 sonars. As a result, MMU data are also...et al. A second part of the preprocessing for the raw HSR data is deconvolution of the source waveform from the basebanded time series data . This

  4. Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) Project Book: Fiscal Year 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-12

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 21-6 FORCE LEVEL AIRLAND BATTLE MGT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TRANSITION DEMONSTRATiON 21-7 I LOWER ECHELON C2 KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM 21-7...deployed. Jan 90 - V3. 5 - PANS Display Manager (PON) fielded (po".u menus). PAWS/RAIDES deployed to Operation Desert Shield/Storm.F2 91 - V4.0 - NaJor...I83 - Project Manager established - tasked with the coordination of the Worldwide Information system within AvW. Sep 83 -Dpsdocmaentation for

  5. How Many Terabytes Was That? Archiving and Serving Solar Space Data Without Losing Your Shirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, J. B.

    1999-05-01

    Even solar missions of modest size in the next decade will produce terabytes (10(12) bytes) of data. The Solar Data Analysis Center is already dealing with mission archives of similar volumes, and is serving the entire archives to the community over the Internet. We examine present and near-term archiving strategies and media, and conclude rather surprisingly that online storage on network-attached RAID arrays is the most cost-effective, as well as the most usable, archiving method likely to be available over the next decade for keeping and serving scientifically useful data for a period of 10 years or more.

  6. Combatting Terrorism through Study of the Genetic Psychology of Terrorist Leaders. The Early Development of the Terrorist Mind

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    avowed atheist, like his father, in youth; latterly he has become very religious. He prays daily. His wedd:ncn gift to Edda was a golden rosary; his...CHILDHOOD INFLUENCES The man known to the world as Carlos, " Jackal ," and a number of other aliases, was ir fact Ilich Ramirez Sanchez of Caracus, Venezuela...received world press attention and the " Jackal " was now lauded as the "premier international terrorist." 1 1 0 No doubt the OPEC raid vaulted

  7. Army Ants as Research and Collection Tools

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adrian A.; Haight, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    Ants that fall prey to the raids of army ants commonly respond by evacuating their nests. This documented behavior has been underexploited by researchers as an efficient research tool. This study focuses on the evacuation response of the southwestern desert ant Aphaenogaster cockerelli André (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to the army ant Newamyrmex nigrescens Cresson. It is shown that army ants can be used to collect mature colonies of ants. The applicability of this tool to ecologically meaningful areas of research is discussed. PMID:20302457

  8. Installing and Running AIM 2.3.1 in a Clustered Server Production Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.H.

    2003-09-11

    High availability and redundancy were required for a 24/7 technical baseline at a nuclear production facility. Process engineering, operations, and maintenance all had to connect to the AIM workflow and data management system at the plant. 24-hour availability and 100 percent data integrity were requirements. AIM 2.3.1 satisfied these needs by running in a clustered environment, using shared RAID 5 data storage installed with Oracle Fail Safe on clustered WinNT 4.0 Servers. Order of installation was critical for successful operation. The system has been running in production for 12 months with minimal downtime, and zero loss of data.

  9. Binding Technologies to Concepts: Unleashing the Power of the Information Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    experienced Windows systems administrator 23 and preferably personnel who have familiarity with Oracle 8i, BEA WebLogic , and Maya Viz CoMotion...downloadable Java Plug-in. DFC2 Server Requirements Server Hardware (Baseline Configuration) • Oracle 8i Server – SUN Microsystems V480, 4 processor...900Mhz • WebLogic /Maya Viz Server – Dell PE2650, single processor, 2 RAID, 2.8Ghz, 6.6GB RAM, 73GB HD Server Software The DFC2 server uses Windows

  10. Airland Battle and SOF: A Proposal for an Interim Doctrine for Joint Special Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-19

    Harper & Row, Publishers, 1976), p=T8T.-- Figure 3 2 8 Ibid., p. 304-310. 2 9 Ibid., p. 190. figure 4 3 0 Ibid., 212-220. 3 1 Ibid., 198-199. 32 FM...Terrorism (-ew York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988), p. -10. 4 0 Ibid., p. 6-42. 41Gabriel, p. 87-103. 4 2Ryan, p. 66. figure 6 4 3 Ibid., p. 83...Rescue Missions W It Failed. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press,-98T. 48 Schenmer, Benjamin F. The Raid. New York, NY: Harper a Row, Publishers

  11. Tournaments and slavery in a desert ant.

    PubMed

    Hölldobler, B

    1976-05-28

    Many species of ants engage in physical fighting when territorial borders are challenged. In contrast, colonies of the honeypot ant species Myrmecocystus mimicus conduct ritualized tournaments, in which hundreds of ants perform highly stereotyped display fights. Opposing colonies summon their worker forces to the tournament area by means of an alarm-recruitment system. When one colony is considerably stronger than the other, the tournament quickly ends, and the weaker colony is raided and its ants "enslaved." This is the first example of intraspecific slavery recorded in ants.

  12. A novel field search and rescue system based on SIM card location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huihui; Guo, Shutao; Cui, Dejing

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, the rapid development of outdoor sports and adventure leads to the increase of the frequency of missing accidents. On the other hand, it becomes much more convenient and efficient for the criminals to escape with the help of new technologies. So we have developed a long-distance raids targeted field search and rescue system which utilizes RSSI ranging and Kalman filtering algorithm to realize remote positioning and dynamic supervision management only by a mobile phone with a SIM card, without any additional terminal equipment.

  13. High Order Filter Methods for Shock/Turbulence MHD Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern

    2003-01-01

    Low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous MHD flows has been constructed. Several variants of the filter approach that cater to different flow types are proposed. These filters provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field (del (raided dot) B) numerical error in the sense that no standard divergence cleaning is required. For certain 2-D MHD test problems, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields of these filter schemes has been achieved.

  14. We Will Find A Way: Understanding the Legacy of Canadian Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Operations Forces Command and held the position until August 2009, when he was appointed chief of staff of the Land Force Doc- trine and Training...Diluted among the battalions in 4 and 6 Brigades during the ill-fated Dieppe Raid on 19 August 1942, the original Viking Force commandos were never...leather tough Canadians” and “tough, scrappy and self-reliant.”41 Beach Commando “W” was disbanded at the end of August 1944. Figure 2. Members of

  15. Remote Sensing of lower thermospheric temperature and composition based on observations of O2 Atmospheric band emission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Yee, J.; Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Stephan, A. W.; Crowley, G.

    2011-12-01

    The properties of the O2 Atmospheric bands emitted in the lower thermosphere are examined through the use of a photochemical model and compared with measurements from the RAIDS near-infrared spectrometer on the International Space Station. An updated model (Yee, 2011) has been used to establish the sensitivity of the line-of-sight (LOS) brightness of the (0,0), (1,1) and (0,1) bands to changes in neutral composition and some reaction rate and branching ratios. We found that the most sensitive region to O2 variability is near 120 km where the brightness is ~ [O2]^2. Calculations based on the MSIS-90E neutral atmospheric model corresponding to the geographical locations of the brightness measurements at 120 and 125 km for several days of observations indicate greater variability in the model results than observed by RAIDS based on our current understanding of the pointing errors. Up to about 200 km the (0,0) band lifetime is sufficiently long to allow thermalization of the upper state through collisions with the background gasses making the rotational distribution representative of the local temperature. The analysis of rocket data by Heller et al. (1991) and more recently Sheese et al. (2010) using OSIRIS observations up to an altitude of ~ 110 km illustrates the approach. Using the same measurement concept, the RAIDS data extend the range of altitudes an additional two scale heights to approximately 130 km. Comparing RAIDS and TIMED/SABER LOS measurements we have been able to validate temperatures in the region around 100 km. During moderate geomagnetic activity (Kp ~ 4) localized but greatly enhanced temperatures have been observed. J. W. Heller, A. B. Christensen, J. H. Yee and W. E. Sharp, Mesospheric temperature inferred from daytime observation of the O2 atmospheric (0,0) band system, J. Geophys. Res., 96,19,499-19,505,1991. P. E. Sheese, E. J. Llewellyn, R. L. Gattinger, A. E. Bourassa, D. A. Degenstein, N. D. Lloyd, and I. C. McDade, Temperatures in the

  16. Exclusive inclusion: the violation of human rights and US immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Drevdahl, Denise J; Dorcy, Kathleen Shannon

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we examine US immigration policies relative to those who work as nurses and those who are manual/low-wage laborers. Recruiting foreign nurses from developing countries to alleviate the nursing shortage is a common practice. While specialized visas for these healthcare professionals facilitate the visa application and approval process, immigrants employed in low-wage positions are subjected to long waits for visas, workplace raids, and subsequent deportation. Selective assistance to some immigrants violates basic human rights and global expectations of justice. Moral and ethical frameworks need to guide US immigration policy.

  17. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Jet Forward Air Controllers in SEAsia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-10-15

    a var’lation of the 3 earlier HUNTER-KILLER operation--the SNARE DRUM mission, Unl-4.e the war in STEEL TIGER, the conflict in northern Laos was a...the use of ARC LIGHT B-52 ~ 323 I raids. SNARE DRUM , or min-ARC LIGH T st ’jKe! were substituted On these missions, a Laredo FAC led a force of s...pteen ’or moe) F-4s t, toie t ’get and 31, directed them against t After one ?O-.h p SNARE DRUM m, on, the Air I Attache at Ventiane reported. "The pr

  18. Planning Considerations for the Combat Employment of Air Power in Peacetime Contingency Operations. CLIC Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Letter for commanders." Washington, DC, f the secretary of the Air Force, April 1986, p. 2. 2. Brauer , Richard F., Jr., Lieutenant Colonel, USAF. Essavs...AFM 2-XX /Draft) Tactical DeceDtion. 11. Hiatt, Fred . "U.S. Attack on Libya: A Raid That Went Right ’These Bombs Are for You, Colonel’ . Ig...Washinston Post. 20 April 1986. 12. Iklb, Fred C., et al. Discriminate Deterrence. Report of The Commission On Inteqrated Long-Term Stratesy. washington

  19. Guide to Simulation Scheduling. Appendices B and C,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    COKT’U CAL014bC * .RITE(6,850) CAL0 14SO 850 F0FI.A(/I.3X, @INPUT ALL PULILAY! (9THER THAN SUNCAYF9: Mp4 ,C[,lY./CAL0150C */93X96LN0 OF DATA PLEAIE PFESS... RAid 79C GC TO 1 GkACi e0C C CRAC181C 7 CENTISLE GRA01&82C C slior CAPACITY (THERE IS NC wORrCEINTE R-LEVEL CAP.) GRA0183C K ILL*C GRA0184C I TNN=C

  20. Performance consequences of parity placement in disk arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Edward K.; Katz, Randy H.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a variety of parity placement schemes are defined and investigated to demonstrate that, at relatively large request sizes of hundreds of kilobytes, the choice of parity placement significantly affects performance (20 to 30 percent for the disk array configurations that are common today). It is shown that the left-symmetric, extended-left-symmetric and flat-left-symmetric are the best RAID level 5 parity placements. The placement with the highest read performance, flat-left-symmetric, has the lowest write performance, while the placement with the lowest read performance, left-symmetric, has the highest write performance. Suggestions for optimizing parity placements are included.

  1. Instrumentation for planetary and terrestrial atmospheric remote sensing; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.; Christensen, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses the optical design of the UV imaging spectrograph for the Cassini mission to Saturn, auroral X-ray imaging from high and low earth orbits, the WIND Imaging Interferometer, the FUV imaging spectrograph and scanning grating spectrometers and EUV instruments of the RAIDS experiment, a gas-ionization solar spectral monitor, and the calculation of the isoplanatic patch for multiconjugate adaptive optics. Also discussed are a novel low resolution broadband IR spectrograph, a visible airglow limb imaging spectrograph, shortwave calibrations of active cavity radiometers using tungsten lamps, and a UV ionospheric imaging experiment for the ARGOS satellite.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  3. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  4. Evaluation of coping strategies in established rheumatoid arthritis patients: emergence of concealment in an Asian cohort.

    PubMed

    Chew, Elizabeth; Griva, Konstadina; Cheung, Peter P

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate coping strategies of Asian RA patients and their associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A cross-sectional sample of patients with established RA was evaluated using measures of coping (Coping in Rheumatoid Arthritis Questionnaire [C-RAQ]; appraisal of coping effectiveness and helplessness), HRQoL (Mental and Physical Components [MCS/PCS] of the Short Form 12v2; Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease score [RAID]) and clinical/laboratory assessments. Principal component analysis was conducted to identify coping strategies. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between coping strategies and HRQoL outcomes. The study sample comprised 101 patients, 81% female, 72.3% Chinese, mean age 54.2 ± 12.6 years. Five coping strategies were identified: Active problem solving (E = 5.36), Distancing (E = 2.30), Concealment (E = 1.89), Cognitive reframing (E = 1.55) and Emotional expression (E = 1.26). Concealment was consistently associated with PCS (rs = -0.23, P = 0.049), MCS (rs = -0.24, P = 0.04) and RAID (rs = 0.39, P < 0.001), and was significant in the multivariate model to explain lower disease-specific HRQoL (RAID) even after adjusting for disease activity, coping effectiveness and helplessness (β = 0.20, P = 0.04). Emotional expression was associated with poorer physical HRQoL (PCS), after adjusting for disease severity, body mass index, coping effectiveness, helplessness and Concealment (β = -0.39, P < 0.001). Perceived coping-related helplessness was significant in multivariate correlates for PCS (β = -0.25, P = 0.036), MCS (β = -0.29, P = 0.02) and RAID (β = 0.53, P < 0.001), after adjusting for covariates. Concealment and Emotional expression are associated with lower disease-specific HRQoL and physical HRQoL respectively, with the former coping strategy likely to be culture-specific. Interventions should tailor psychosocial support needs to address not only coping strategies, but patients

  5. Rocket Barge on the Pearl River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    During the early 1970's French settlers once cautiously sailed up the beautiful Pearl River in Hancock County looking for a New World home. Later, swashbuckling pirates took refuge in this historic stream in South Mississippi after raiding merchant ships. Today, a different cargo leaves a wake in the blue waters en route to National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mississippi Test Facility. The huge barge being pushed above contains the free world's largest rocket booster, on its way to the national rocket testing facility for extensive captive firings. Later versions of this huge rocket, first satge of the Apollo/Saturn V, will boost the first Americans to the Moon.

  6. The Russian Military in the Year 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A261 758 1110 STA’rs 4V DTIC 2𔃺•RAID𔃺ýý ELECTE S MARL 81993 D THESIS E THE RUSSIAN MILITARY IN...Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. 2b. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDILE 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT Nt MBER( S 5...MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. Dt ICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate

  7. Proposed Aural Nondetectability Limits for Army Materiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    C U a 9\\91AD I@ Technical Meemorandum 3-35 PROPOSED AURAL NONDOTECTABILITY LIMITS FOR ARMY MATERIEL 0 Georges R. Garinther I Joel T. Kalb David C...LIMTTS FOR ARMY MATERIEL , ,, 6. P’ErFOPMIN CG RE POR T Njý 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT O;R C-RAId- HUM1cjRý.•; Georges R. Garinther David C. Hodge...Technical Memorandum 3-85 PROPOSED AUTRAL NONDETFCTABILITY LIMITS FOR ARMY MAT1ERIEL Georc~e% R. Garinther Joel T. Kalb David C. Hodge G. Richard Price March

  8. Laboratory Modeling of Aspects of Large Fires,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    7 -7 g~L AD-A153 152 DNA-TR- 84-18 LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES G.F. Carrier "URARY F.E. Fendell b DVSO R.D. Fleeter N. Got L.M...I1I TITLE (include Socurty Olassihicarion) LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES 12. PERSONAL AUrHoR(S G.F. Carrier F.E. Fendell R.D. Fleeter N...Motorbuch Verlag.___ Caidin, M. (1960). A Torch to the Enemy: the Fire Raid on Tokyo. New York, NY: Ballantine. Carrier, G. F., Fendell , F. E., and

  9. 100 Companies Receiving the Largest Dollar Volume of Prime Contract Awards, Fiscal Years 1961, 1962

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-01-01

    Corp. 67. Garrett Corp. 79. Richfield Oil Corp. - 2. General Dynamics Corp. 1 87. Ryan Aeronautical Co.) 5. General Electric Co. i 10. General Motors Corp...CompDanies Of of U. S. Percent of Dollars Total U.S. Total 9. S~ERRY RAID CORP. $ 456.8 i.8 Vickers, Inc. 8.8 Jd aTotal 4C5 1 31.8 10. GENERAL MOTORS CORP...actions have been reported. c/ Less than $50,000. Less than 0.05%. e/ Stock ownership is equally divided between General Motors Corp. and Standard Oil Co

  10. The Marine Corps Artillery Regiment: A Structure for the 1990’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    following statement: Ambitious standards have been set for the MAU in the conduct of amphibious raids. The goal for the unit is to be able to condu t three... MAU deployments." (15:2) Each MEF would be authorized 90 days of ammunition (DOA) and the retention period would terminate at the end of 1987. (15:3...too heavy to deploy enough quickly into the Third World where it will doubtless have to fight, but that will forever be too light to prevail against

  11. The Panacea and the Square Peg: Strategic Fallacies of the Air, Undersea and Cyber Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-21

    34Colin S. Gray, Making Strategic Sense ofCyber Power: Why the Sky is Not Falling (Carlisle, PA : Strategic Studies Institute, April2013): 5. 16...an active conflict {e.g., high-value target raids in Afghanistan), whereas covert operations in other 1 Dustin Volz , "What a New $35 Million Agency...ofCyber Power: Why the Sky is Not Falling," Carlisle, PA : Strategic Studies Institute and US Anny War College Press (April2013). Harvey, A. D. "Air Power

  12. Drone Strikes in Pakistan: Reasons to Assess Civilian Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    photo: An MQ-9 Reaper, armed with GB U-12 Paveway II laser guided munitions and AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, piloted by Col. Lex Turner flies a combat...campaign. v \\Te observe that drone strikes in Pakistan were more likely to cause civilian casualties on av- erage than drone stiikes by military forces in...T11e Times (London) ,July 26, 2012. V \\!hilc not accomplished with a drone strike, that raid represents one end of a spectnnn with regard to trading

  13. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  14. The adaptive significance of phasic colony cycles in army ants.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Simon; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2017-09-07

    Army ants are top arthropod predators in tropical forests around the world. The colonies of many army ant species undergo stereotypical behavioral and reproductive cycles, alternating between brood care and reproductive phases. In the brood care phase, colonies contain a cohort of larvae that are synchronized in their development and have to be fed. In the reproductive phase larvae are absent and oviposition takes place. Despite these colony cycles being a striking feature of army ant biology, their adaptive significance is unclear. Here we use a modeling approach to show that cyclic reproduction is favored under conditions where per capita foraging costs decrease with the number of larvae in a colony ("High Cost of Entry" scenario), while continuous reproduction is favored under conditions where per capita foraging costs increase with the number of larvae ("Resource Exhaustion" scenario). We argue that the former scenario specifically applies to army ants, because large raiding parties are required to overpower prey colonies. However, once raiding is successful it provides abundant food for a large cohort of larvae. The latter scenario, on the other hand, will apply to non-army ants, because in those species local resource depletion will force workers to forage over larger distances to feed large larval cohorts. Our model provides a quantitative framework for understanding the adaptive value of phasic colony cycles in ants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute cardiac effects of 'SCUD' missile attacks on a civilian population.

    PubMed

    Hart, J; Weingarten, M A; Druckman, A; Feldman, Z; Shay, A

    1993-01-01

    The 'SCUD' raids on Israel during the Gulf War afforded a rare opportunity to examine the effect of mass acute fear on the cardiac health of the general population. Press reports suggested an alarming rise in cardiac deaths during the first missile raids. In order to ascertain this statement, we examined the Emergency Room records of a community hospital in the affected area and all the death certificates in the local region. The periods studied were from 1 January to 28 February 1991, and the equivalent weeks in 1990. The Emergency Room records showed that there was an increased rate of cardiac complaints throughout the war, most marked during the first week. However, this was not accompanied by an increased cardiac mortality, either in the hospital or in the region as a whole, except during the first week. A similar increase in cardiac mortality occurred during the same week the previous year. The increased incidence of acute cardiac events during the first week of the war was probably a coincidence, and not a direct consequence of mass fear. Panic, occasioned by press reports, may have led to a lower threshold of referral which persisted throughout the war.

  16. Margaret Sanger: birth control's successful revolutionary.

    PubMed

    Wardell, D

    1980-07-01

    The year 1979 marked the centennial of Margaret Sanger, birth control pioneer. Sanger worked to secure two new human rights: the right to decide whether to have a child and the right of a child to be wanted. Beginning in 1873, antipornography crusader Anthony Comstock lobbied through Congress and the state legislatures laws forbidding the distribution of contraceptive devices and even information. He equated these with erotic postcards as "obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting." Sanger's strategy was to challenge the Comstock laws in the courts. She studied birth control methods abroad and published a pamphlet, Family Limitation, in 1914. It was the first modern marriage manual; it was also illegal. The publicity her trial generated was immense and highly sympathetic. The government dropped its case when it saw it could only make her a martyr. An obstetrical nurse, Sanger had seen the plight of factory women in the poorest sections of New York City. In order to provide the medical advice and supplies women clamored for, Sanger opened the first U.S. birth control clinic, in Brooklyn in 1916. The New York City Vice Squad raided and closed it, and jailed Sanger. Margaret Sanger underwent other trials, raids, and harassments, but each time won additional public support for her organization--Planned Parenthood--and her cause.

  17. Confidence assignment for mass spectrometry based peptide identifications via the extreme value distribution.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing trend for biomedical researchers to extract evidence and draw conclusions from mass spectrometry based proteomics experiments, the cornerstone of which is peptide identification. Inaccurate assignments of peptide identification confidence thus may have far-reaching and adverse consequences. Although some peptide identification methods report accurate statistics, they have been limited to certain types of scoring function. The extreme value statistics based method, while more general in the scoring functions it allows, demands accurate parameter estimates and requires, at least in its original design, excessive computational resources. Improving the parameter estimate accuracy and reducing the computational cost for this method has two advantages: it provides another feasible route to accurate significance assessment, and it could provide reliable statistics for scoring functions yet to be developed. We have formulated and implemented an efficient algorithm for calculating the extreme value statistics for peptide identification applicable to various scoring functions, bypassing the need for searching large random databases. The source code, implemented in C ++ on a linux system, is available for download at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/qmbp/qmbp_ms/RAId/RAId_Linux_64Bit yyu@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Mass spectrometry-based protein identification with accurate statistical significance assignment.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2015-03-01

    Assigning statistical significance accurately has become increasingly important as metadata of many types, often assembled in hierarchies, are constructed and combined for further biological analyses. Statistical inaccuracy of metadata at any level may propagate to downstream analyses, undermining the validity of scientific conclusions thus drawn. From the perspective of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, even though accurate statistics for peptide identification can now be achieved, accurate protein level statistics remain challenging. We have constructed a protein ID method that combines peptide evidences of a candidate protein based on a rigorous formula derived earlier; in this formula the database P-value of every peptide is weighted, prior to the final combination, according to the number of proteins it maps to. We have also shown that this protein ID method provides accurate protein level E-value, eliminating the need of using empirical post-processing methods for type-I error control. Using a known protein mixture, we find that this protein ID method, when combined with the Sorić formula, yields accurate values for the proportion of false discoveries. In terms of retrieval efficacy, the results from our method are comparable with other methods tested. The source code, implemented in C++ on a linux system, is available for download at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/qmbp/qmbp_ms/RAId/RAId_Linux_64Bit. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Increased host aggression as an induced defense against slave-making ants

    PubMed Central

    Pennings, Pleuni S.; Foitzik, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Slave-making ants reduce the fitness of surrounding host colonies through regular raids, causing the loss of brood and frequently queen and worker death. Consequently, hosts developed defenses against slave raids such as specific recognition and aggression toward social parasites, and indeed, we show that host ants react more aggressively toward slavemakers than toward nonparasitic competitors. Permanent behavioral defenses can be costly, and if social parasite impact varies in time and space, inducible defenses, which are only expressed after slavemaker detection, can be adaptive. We demonstrate for the first time an induced defense against slave-making ants: Cues from the slavemaker Protomognathus americanus caused an unspecific but long-lasting behavioral response in Temnothorax host ants. A 5-min within-nest encounter with a dead slavemaker raised the aggression level in T. longispinosus host colonies. Contrarily, encounters with nonparasitic competitors did not elicit aggressive responses toward non-nestmates. Increased aggression can be adaptive if a slavemaker encounter reliably indicates a forthcoming attack and if aggression increases postraid survival. Host aggression was elevated over 3 days, showing the ability of host ants to remember parasite encounters. The response disappeared after 2 weeks, possibly because by then the benefits of increased aggression counterbalance potential costs associated with it. PMID:22476194

  20. Margaret Sanger: birth control's successful revolutionary.

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, D

    1980-01-01

    The year 1979 marked the centennial of Margaret Sanger, birth control pioneer. Sanger worked to secure two new human rights: the right to decide whether to have a child and the right of a child to be wanted. Beginning in 1873, antipornography crusader Anthony Comstock lobbied through Congress and the state legislatures laws forbidding the distribution of contraceptive devices and even information. He equated these with erotic postcards as "obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting." Sanger's strategy was to challenge the Comstock laws in the courts. She studied birth control methods abroad and published a pamphlet, Family Limitation, in 1914. It was the first modern marriage manual; it was also illegal. The publicity her trial generated was immense and highly sympathetic. The government dropped its case when it saw it could only make her a martyr. An obstetrical nurse, Sanger had seen the plight of factory women in the poorest sections of New York City. In order to provide the medical advice and supplies women clamored for, Sanger opened the first U.S. birth control clinic, in Brooklyn in 1916. The New York City Vice Squad raided and closed it, and jailed Sanger. Margaret Sanger underwent other trials, raids, and harassments, but each time won additional public support for her organization--Planned Parenthood--and her cause. Images p737-a p740-a p741-a PMID:6992603

  1. Multi-Temporal Analysis of WWII Reconnaissance Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, P.; Eckstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    There are millions of aerial photographs from the period of the Second Wold War available in the Allied archives, obtained by aerial photo reconnaissance, covering most of today's European countries. They are spanning the time from 1938 until the end of the war and even beyond. Photo reconnaissance provided intelligence information for the Allied headquarters and accompanied the bombing offensive against the German homeland and the occupied territories. One of the initial principal targets in Bohemia were the synthetized fuel works STW AG (Sudetenländische Treibstoffwerke AG) in Zaluzi (formerly Maltheuren) near Most (formerly Brück), Czech Republic. The STW AG synthetized fuel plant was not only subject to bombing raids, but a subject to quite intensive photo reconnaissance, too - long before the start of the bombing campaign. With a multi-temporal analysis of the available imagery from international archives we will demonstrate the factory build-up during 1942 and 1943, the effects of the bombing raids in 1944 and the struggle to keep the plant working in the last year of the war. Furthermore we would like to show the impact the bombings have today, in form of potential unexploded ordnance in the adjacent area of the open cast mines.

  2. Remote sensing from manned low Earth orbit spacecraft: implications for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the question of what contributions the International Space Station (ISS) can make as a sensor based remote sensing platform. There is precedent for the use of manned platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Skylab had the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). In the Shuttle -Mir program, the Piroda module was dedicated to Earth sensing. One experiment in the Piroda, the Multispectral Stereo Scanner (MOMS-2PP) was used for quantifying the advantages of performing remote sensing on the ISS. The Space Shuttle program also made significant contributions to Earth observations. Sixteen missions carried electronic experiment packages for Earth observations and crew on almost every mission performed earth observations using cameras. Experiments planned for the ISS can also tell us much about the potential the ISS has as a remote sensing platform by examining their design and objectives. In March of 2009 an experiment called Agricultural Camera (AgCam) was delivered to the ISS for installation in the window of the Laboratory module. In fall of 2009 two more remote sensing experiments will arrive on the ISS - the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS). These instruments will be combined on one experiment package, HICO- RAIDS experiment package (HREP), and will be placed outside the ISS, on an external platform.

  3. Development of electronic cinema projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, William E.

    2001-03-01

    All of the components for the electronic cinema are now commercially available. Sony has a high definition progressively scanned 24 frame per second electronic cinema camera. This can be recorded digitally on tape or film on hard drives in RAID recorders. Much of the post production processing is now done digitally by scanning film, processing it digitally, and recording it on film for release. Fiber links and satellites can transmit cinema program material to theaters in real time. RAID or tape recorders can play programs for viewing at a much lower cost than storage on film. Two companies now have electronic cinema projectors on the market. Of all of the components, the electronic cinema projector is the most challenging. Achieving the resolution, light, output, contrast ratio, and color rendition all at the same time without visible artifacts is a difficult task. Film itself is, of course, a form of light-valve. However, electronically modulated light uses other techniques rather than changes in density to control the light. The optical techniques that have been the basis for many electronic light-valves have been under development for over 100 years. Many of these techniques are based on optical diffraction to modulate the light. This paper will trace the history of these techniques and show how they may be extended to produce electronic cinema projectors in the future.

  4. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  5. Increased host aggression as an induced defense against slave-making ants.

    PubMed

    Pamminger, Tobias; Scharf, Inon; Pennings, Pleuni S; Foitzik, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Slave-making ants reduce the fitness of surrounding host colonies through regular raids, causing the loss of brood and frequently queen and worker death. Consequently, hosts developed defenses against slave raids such as specific recognition and aggression toward social parasites, and indeed, we show that host ants react more aggressively toward slavemakers than toward nonparasitic competitors. Permanent behavioral defenses can be costly, and if social parasite impact varies in time and space, inducible defenses, which are only expressed after slavemaker detection, can be adaptive. We demonstrate for the first time an induced defense against slave-making ants: Cues from the slavemaker Protomognathus americanus caused an unspecific but long-lasting behavioral response in Temnothorax host ants. A 5-min within-nest encounter with a dead slavemaker raised the aggression level in T. longispinosus host colonies. Contrarily, encounters with nonparasitic competitors did not elicit aggressive responses toward non-nestmates. Increased aggression can be adaptive if a slavemaker encounter reliably indicates a forthcoming attack and if aggression increases postraid survival. Host aggression was elevated over 3 days, showing the ability of host ants to remember parasite encounters. The response disappeared after 2 weeks, possibly because by then the benefits of increased aggression counterbalance potential costs associated with it.

  6. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced.

  7. The Critical Mass Laboratory at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, Robert E

    2003-10-15

    The Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) at Rocky Flats northwest of Denver, Colorado, was built in 1964 and commissioned to conduct nuclear experiments on January 28, 1965. It was built to attain more accurate and precise experimental data to ensure nuclear criticality safety at the plant than were previously possible. Prior to its construction, safety data were obtained from long extrapolations of subcritical data (called in situ experiments), calculated parameters from reactor engineering 'models', and a few other imprecise methods. About 1700 critical and critical-approach experiments involving several chemical forms of enriched uranium and plutonium were performed between then and 1988. These experiments included single units and arrays of fissile materials, reflected and 'bare' systems, and configurations with various degrees of moderation, as well as some containing strong neutron absorbers. In 1989, a raid by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) caused the plant as a whole to focus on 'resumption' instead of further criticality safety experiments. Though either not recognized or not admitted for a few years, that FBI raid did sound the death knell for the CML. The plant's optimistic goal of resumption evolved to one of deactivation, decommissioning, and plantwide demolition during the 1990s. The once-proud CML facility was finally demolished in April of 2002.

  8. Facultative and obligate slave making in Formica ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savolainen, R.; Deslippe, R. J.

    2001-08-01

    Here we show for the first time that the presumed facultative slave-making ant Formica subintegra does not activate outside its nest until July and August, when it raids slaves. A comparative behavioral study of seasonal and daily activities, retrieval of prey, and nest maintenance of F. subintegra, the obligate slavemaker Polyergus breviceps, and the facultative Formica subnuda, shows that the behavioral repertory of F. subintegra closely resembles that of P. breviceps and clearly differs from the repertory of F. subnuda. Unlike P. breviceps, F. subintegra has retained some nest-building activity which, owing to lack of competence, does not contribute to nest maintenance. We suggested earlier that F. subintegra is probably an obligate slavemaker, because it always has in its colonies a large proportion of slaves of the total workforce, whereas F. subnuda fares well even without slaves. This, coupled with no foraging in early summer and a raiding period later on, strongly suggests that F. subintegra is an obligate slave-making ant.

  9. Spatiotemporal resource distribution and foraging strategies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Lanan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of food resources in space and time is likely to be an important factor governing the type of foraging strategy used by ants. However, no previous systematic attempt has been made to determine whether spatiotemporal resource distribution is in fact correlated with foraging strategy across the ants. In this analysis, I present data compiled from the literature on the foraging strategy and food resource use of 402 species of ants from across the phylogenetic tree. By categorizing the distribution of resources reported in these studies in terms of size relative to colony size, spatial distribution relative to colony foraging range, frequency of occurrence in time relative to worker life span, and depletability (i.e., whether the colony can cause a change in resource frequency), I demonstrate that different foraging strategies are indeed associated with specific spatiotemporal resource attributes. The general patterns I describe here can therefore be used as a framework to inform predictions in future studies of ant foraging behavior. No differences were found between resources collected via short-term recruitment strategies (group recruitment, short-term trails, and volatile recruitment), whereas different resource distributions were associated with solitary foraging, trunk trails, long-term trail networks, group raiding, and raiding. In many cases, ant species use a combination of different foraging strategies to collect diverse resources. It is useful to consider these foraging strategies not as separate options but as modular parts of the total foraging effort of a colony.

  10. The NOAO Data Cache Initiative - Building a Distributed Online Datastore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.; Barg, I.; Zárate, N.; Smith, C.; Saavedra, N.

    2005-12-01

    The Data Cache Initiative (DCI) of the NOAO Data Products Program is a prototype Data Transport System for NOAO and affiliate facilities. DCI provides pre-tested solutions for conveying data from our large suite of instrumentation to a central mountain data cache. The heart of DCI is an extension of the Save-the-Bits safestore, running for more than a decade (more than 4 million images saved, comprising more than 40 Tbytes). The iSTB server has been simplified by the removal of STB's media handling functionality, and iSTB has been enhanced to remediate each incoming header with information from a database of NOAO instrumentation and an interface to the NOAO proposal database. Each mountain data cache has been implemented on commodity hardware running Redhat 9.0. Software RAID 1 runs over hardware RAID 5 to provide maximum storage reliability for each copy of the data. Each image is transferred from Kitt Peak or Cerro Tololo to the corresponding datastore at the Tucson or La Serena data centers using an rsync-based queue adopted from NCSA. From each data center, the files are transported to the other NOAO data center and also to NCSA for off-site storage using the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) of the San Diego Supercomputer Center. Thus we have three copies of each file on spinning disks or near-online. Major institutional users will be given access to the datastores.

  11. ATM-distributed PACS server for ICU application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joseph K.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Huang, H. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Zhang, Jianguo; Andriole, Katherine P.

    1996-05-01

    In order for PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications System) to better serve our intensive care units (ICUs), we, at University of California, San Francisco, have designed and developed a client/server application that is specifically tailored to provide fast, reliable access to our PACS data from diagnostic viewing stations in the ICUs. One of our utmost design criteria is to ensure consistent delivery of high speed, high performance data throughput, and yet, the system should be cost-effective and render minimal maintenance. As high technology advances, we are able to utilize powerful mass storage device such as raid disk, which serves as a central image repository, to store images and data. We are also able to utilize Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology, which is regarded as the prevailing technology for reliable, high speed data communications, to transfer large imagery data sets across systems and networks. This paper describes the design and mechanism of how ICU viewing stations take advantages of sharing a high performance raid disk, and ATM technology in data transfer for timely delivery of images in a clinical setting.

  12. Development of a networked four-million-pixel pathological and radiological digital image presentation system and its application to medical conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakano, Toshikazu; Furukawa, Isao; Okumura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Fujii, Tetsuro; Ono, Sadayasu; Suzuki, Junji; Matsuya, Shoji; Ishihara, Teruo

    2001-08-01

    The wide spread of digital technology in the medical field has led to a demand for the high-quality, high-speed, and user-friendly digital image presentation system in the daily medical conferences. To fulfill this demand, we developed a presentation system for radiological and pathological images. It is composed of a super-high-definition (SHD) imaging system, a radiological image database (R-DB), a pathological image database (P-DB), and the network interconnecting these three. The R-DB consists of a 270GB RAID, a database server workstation, and a film digitizer. The P-DB includes an optical microscope, a four-million-pixel digital camera, a 90GB RAID, and a database server workstation. A 100Mbps Ethernet LAN interconnects all the sub-systems. The Web-based system operation software was developed for easy operation. We installed the whole system in NTT East Kanto Hospital to evaluate it in the weekly case conferences. The SHD system could display digital full-color images of 2048 x 2048 pixels on a 28-inch CRT monitor. The doctors evaluated the image quality and size, and found them applicable to the actual medical diagnosis. They also appreciated short image switching time that contributed to smooth presentation. Thus, we confirmed that its characteristics met the requirements.

  13. Comparing the Effects of Multisensory Stimulation and Individualized Music Sessions on Elderly People with Severe Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alba; Maseda, Ana; Marante-Moar, M Pilar; de Labra, Carmen; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-03-08

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) and individualized music sessions on agitation, emotional and cognitive status, and dementia severity in a sample of institutionalized patients with severe dementia. Twenty-two participants with a diagnosis of severe or very severe dementia were randomly assigned to two groups: MSSE and individualized music sessions. Both groups participated in two 30-min weekly sessions over 16 weeks. Outcomes were agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CMAI), mood (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, CSDD), anxiety (Rating Anxiety in Dementia, RAID), cognitive function (Severe Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE), and the overall severity of dementia (Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale, BANS-S). They were assessed at baseline (pre-trial), in the middle (mid-trial), at the end of the intervention (post-trial), and 8 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Patients in the MSSE group showed significant improvement in their RAID and BANS-S scores compared with the individualized music group post- versus pre-trial. With regard to agitation, there was improvement during the intervention in both the MSSE and individualized music groups in the CMAI total score after 16 weeks of intervention, with no significant differences between the groups. The results suggest that MSSE could have better effects on anxiety symptoms and dementia severity in comparison with individualized music sessions in elderly patients with severe dementia.

  14. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species.

  15. The Utilization of Robotic Pets in Dementia Care

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sandra; Houston, Susan; Qin, Huanying; Tague, Corey; Studley, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioral problems may affect individuals with dementia, increasing the cost and burden of care. Pet therapy has been known to be emotionally beneficial for many years. Robotic pets have been shown to have similar positive effects without the negative aspects of traditional pets. Robotic pet therapy offers an alternative to traditional pet therapy. Objective: The study rigorously assesses the effectiveness of the PARO robotic pet, an FDA approved biofeedback device, in treating dementia-related symptoms. Methods: A randomized block design with repeated measurements guided the study. Before and after measures included reliable, valid tools such as: RAID, CSDD, GDS, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, and GSR. Participants interacted with the PARO robotic pet, and the control group received standard activity programs. Five urban secure dementia units comprised the setting. Results: 61 patients, with 77% females, average 83.4 years in age, were randomized into control and treatment groups. Compared to the control group, RAID, CSDD, GSR, and pulse oximetry were increased in the treatment group, while pulse rate, pain medication, and psychoactive medication use were decreased. The changes in GSR, pulse oximetry, and pulse rate over time were plotted for both groups. The difference between groups was consistent throughout the 12-week study for pulse oximetry and pulse rate, while GSR had several weeks when changes were similar between groups. Conclusions: Treatment with the PARO robot decreased stress and anxiety in the treatment group and resulted in reductions in the use of psychoactive medications and pain medications in elderly clients with dementia. PMID:27716673

  16. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  17. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level.

  18. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R.

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become “problem animals”. To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. PMID:27196059

  19. Spatiotemporal resource distribution and foraging strategies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of food resources in space and time is likely to be an important factor governing the type of foraging strategy used by ants. However, no previous systematic attempt has been made to determine whether spatiotemporal resource distribution is in fact correlated with foraging strategy across the ants. In this analysis, I present data compiled from the literature on the foraging strategy and food resource use of 402 species of ants from across the phylogenetic tree. By categorizing the distribution of resources reported in these studies in terms of size relative to colony size, spatial distribution relative to colony foraging range, frequency of occurrence in time relative to worker life span, and depletability (i.e., whether the colony can cause a change in resource frequency), I demonstrate that different foraging strategies are indeed associated with specific spatiotemporal resource attributes. The general patterns I describe here can therefore be used as a framework to inform predictions in future studies of ant foraging behavior. No differences were found between resources collected via short-term recruitment strategies (group recruitment, short-term trails, and volatile recruitment), whereas different resource distributions were associated with solitary foraging, trunk trails, long-term trail networks, group raiding, and raiding. In many cases, ant species use a combination of different foraging strategies to collect diverse resources. It is useful to consider these foraging strategies not as separate options but as modular parts of the total foraging effort of a colony. PMID:25525497

  20. Reciprocal protection from natural enemies in an ant-wasp association.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Roger; Corbara, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Azémar, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain

    2015-04-01

    We show that in French Guiana the large carton nests of Azteca chartifex, a territorially-dominant arboreal dolichoderine ant, are protected from bird attacks when this ant lives in association with Polybia rejecta, an epiponine social wasp. Because A. chartifex colonies are well known for their ability to divert army ant raids from the base of their host tree so that they protect their associated wasps from these raids, there is a reciprocal benefit for these two partners, permitting us to call this association a mutualism. We also show that P. rejecta nests are significantly less often attacked by birds than are those of two compared epiponine social wasp species. Furthermore, experimentation using a standardized protocol demonstrated the significantly higher aggressiveness of P. rejecta compared to seven other wasp species. We conclude that the efficacious protection of its associated ant nests is likely due to the extreme aggressiveness of P. rejecta. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Shoreline Movements. Report 1. Cape Henry, Virginia, to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 1849-1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    w I-- - * C4- 65 ±cc { z;\\> omI 0I 41 N" c - . L fA - - 2C - I 6t)a C a rt I t I i , I I kirjie - ir 1) LLI dI IY occI Irr t’ IIo Ii I i III I t tiit...of the lonig i it tr’vtili iig reach lt whi ich shore I ire pos it Iin dat. were uiiava i I ah 1t. Shorel Iire change rates at Vi rginiia Beach...APE HENP A TO CAPE HATTERAS N1K MAP NO LCCAAiT -~ Cn, H-r, 4 Ncrth Bav 46 Klolts Isln 47 BaiL, NV 48 Barm NE 49 Baro SE 50 Pco ,01s Point 51 Kittv H ,l

  2. Flexible Manufacturing System Handbook. Volume 6. FMS (Flexible Machining Systems) Decision Support Software Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    0 C-3 I ) 0 ) ( C’ a, I I I . . 3 * n WC ; al cc ) EC L) ) *: :CI4 a)~ L~t LW E mCI I( ) + Cl 1 I + +IVD... 0 4 . 6 4 4 4 4 S 0 4 4 4 06 0 0 * 4 4 4 0 0 4 44 44 4 4 44 4 V~~ + 44 U+ 4 4 4 c 4o 4 Z0 - 0 c 4c 10 3. a a i no 4o ft 04 m 4 W 44 4 F . . 4ý I4I ,1 9...34t .4444 0.5214 stN0 T . WU w4 U 0 - C SIL M!2 -m 6 Tii.t l % tLn_ . mr 4 L6SII-L 4.9 W j 4r 1) r4 LU 6 w U 0 112 -C444...

  3. From Forest to Farm: Systematic Review of Cultivar Feeding by Chimpanzees – Management Implications for Wildlife in Anthropogenic Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, Kimberley J.; McLennan, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human–wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified ‘high’ and ‘low’ conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected

  4. Facility for testing ice drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Delahunty, Chris; Goodge, John W.; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.

    2017-05-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) is designed for subsurface scientific investigations in Antarctica. Its objectives are to drill rapidly through ice, to core samples of the transition zone and bedrock, and to leave behind a borehole observatory. These objectives required the engineering and fabrication of an entirely new drilling system that included a modified mining-style coring rig, a unique fluid circulation system, a rod skid, a power unit, and a workshop with areas for the storage of supplies and consumables. An important milestone in fabrication of the RAID was the construction of a North American Test (NAT) facility where we were able to test drilling and fluid processing functions in an environment that is as close as possible to that expected in Antarctica. Our criteria for site selection was that the area should be cold during the winter months, be located in an area of low heat flow, and be at relatively high elevation. We selected a site for the facility near Bear Lake, Utah, USA. The general design of the NAT well (NAT-1) started with a 27.3 cm (10.75 in.) outer casing cemented in a 152 m deep hole. Within that casing, we hung a 14 cm (5.5 in.) casing string, and, within that casing, a column of ice was formed. The annulus between the 14 and 27.3 cm casings provided the path for circulation of a refrigerant. After in-depth study, we chose to use liquid CO2 to cool the hole. In order to minimize the likelihood of the casing splitting due to the volume increase associated with freezing water, the hole was first cooled and then ice was formed in increments from the bottom upward. First, ice cubes were placed in the inner liner and then water was added. Using this method, a column of ice was incrementally prepared for drilling tests. The drilling tests successfully demonstrated the functioning of the RAID system. Reproducing such a facility for testing of other ice drilling systems could be advantageous to other research programs in the future.

  5. Patient- and clinician-reported outcomes for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Joanna M; Snowden, Neil; Rivett, Ali; Galloway, James; Ide, Zoe; Firth, Jill; MacPhie, Elizabeth; Kandala, Ngianga; Dennison, Elaine M; Rowe, Ian

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to conduct a national audit assessing the impact and experience of early management of inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The audit enables rheumatology services to measure for the first time their performance, patient outcomes and experience, benchmarked to regional and national comparators. All individuals >16 years of age presenting to English and Welsh rheumatology services with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Clinician- and patient-derived outcome and patient-reported experience measures were collected. Data are presented for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. Ninety-seven per cent of English and Welsh trusts participated. At the first specialist assessment, the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) was calculated for 2659 (91%) RA patients [mean DAS28 was 5.0 and mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score was 5.6]. After 3 months of specialist care, the mean DAS28 was 3.5 and slightly >60% achieved a meaningful DAS28 reduction. The average RAID score and reduction in RAID score were 3.6 and 2.4, respectively. Of the working patients ages 16-65 years providing data, 7, 5, 16 and 37% reported that they were unable to work, needed frequent time off work, occasionally and rarely needed time off work due to their arthritis, respectively; only 42% reported being asked about their work. Seventy-eight per cent of RA patients providing data agreed with the statement 'Overall in the last 3 months I have had a good experience of care for my arthritis'; <2% disagreed. This audit demonstrates that most RA patients have severe disease at the time of presentation to rheumatology services and that a significant number continue to have high disease activity after 3 months of specialist care. There is a clear need for the National Health Service to develop better systems for capturing, coding and integrating information from outpatient clinics, including measures of

  6. ARRA-INPRVMNTS IN CMPTNG &CMMNC;RECOVERY ACT RESEARCH IN THEORETICAL HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS, SCOTT

    2011-03-15

    The RAID array of 80 terabytes of hard disk data storage that was purchased on this project and interfaced with the existing Rutgers high energy physics computer farm has been used in support of a number of research projects during the last budget period. Monte carlo simulations for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been continued for multi-jet signatures. The additional disk storage supported by this project allowed next to leading order matching effects of QCD radiation to be included in this study. Simulations to validate the technique of shot-gun sequencing of cascade decay trees in multi-dimensional Dalitz spaces have also been advanced. The results of this work will be applied to searches for quantum dimensions at the LHC. Simulations to investigate the possibility of extending these techniques to the search for the Higgs boson are also underway. The funds supporting this project have been entirely expended during the last period.

  7. Performance metric development for a group state estimator in airborne UHF GMTI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwell, Ryan A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of evaluation metrics for group state estimator (GSE, i.e. group tracking) algorithms. Key differences between group tracker metrics and individual tracker metrics are the method used for track-to-truth association and the characterization of group raid size. Another significant contribution of this work is the incorporation of measured radar performance in assessing tracker performance. The result of this work is a set of measures of performance derived from canonical individual target tracker metrics, extended to characterize the additional information provided by a group tracker. The paper discusses additional considerations in group tracker evaluation, including the definition of a group and group-to-group confusion. Metrics are computed on real field data to provide examples of real-world analysis, demonstrating an approach which provides characterization of group tracker performance, independent of the sensor's performance.

  8. Redundant disk arrays: Reliable, parallel secondary storage. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Garth Alan

    1990-01-01

    During the past decade, advances in processor and memory technology have given rise to increases in computational performance that far outstrip increases in the performance of secondary storage technology. Coupled with emerging small-disk technology, disk arrays provide the cost, volume, and capacity of current disk subsystems, by leveraging parallelism, many times their performance. Unfortunately, arrays of small disks may have much higher failure rates than the single large disks they replace. Redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) use simple redundancy schemes to provide high data reliability. The data encoding, performance, and reliability of redundant disk arrays are investigated. Organizing redundant data into a disk array is treated as a coding problem. Among alternatives examined, codes as simple as parity are shown to effectively correct single, self-identifying disk failures.

  9. Comparative magnetic measurements of migratory ant and its only termite prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G. R.; Alves, O. C.

    2004-07-01

    Termites and ants are social insects living organized in nests in castes. Behavioral studies with the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata have shown that it conducts well-organized predatory raids toward nests of its only prey, the termite Neocapritermes opacus. The magnetic materials in these two insects were studied using a SQUID magnetometer for two orientations. The Jr/ Js and Jr/ χ0, ratios were calculated from the two insects hysteresis curves. These ratios are in the range of magnetite pseudo-single or multi-domain particle values. The magnetic material are distinguishable by Hc values (30 Oe for ants and 100 Oe for termites) and by the magnetization magnitude, which is about two magnitude orders higher in the termite than in migratory ant. The Pachycondyla marginata SQUID results show an anisotropy in the magnetic material arrangement while for Neocapritermes opacus termite it is revealed by FMR spectra.

  10. Provider’s Perspectives on the Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Activity on Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Arsenault, Lisa; Marlin, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasing Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) activities such as raids, detention and deportation may be affecting the health and well-being of immigrants. This study sought to understand the impact of ICE activities on immigrant health from the perspective of health care providers. Methods An online survey of primary care and emergency medicine providers was conducted to determine whether ICE activity was negatively affecting immigrant patients. Results Of 327 providers surveyed, 163 responded (50%) and 156 (48%) met criteria for inclusion. Seventy-five (48%) of them observed negative effects of ICE enforcement on the health or health access of immigrant patients. Forty-three providers gave examples of the impact on emotional health, ability to comply with health care recommendations and access. Conclusions Health care providers are witnessing the negative effects of ICE activities on their immigrant patients’ psychological and physical health. This should be considered an important determinant of immigrant health. PMID:22643614

  11. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. DURING THE 1980S, A NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS CONCERNING SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ERRORS SURFACED, CULMINATING IN THE 1989 RAID ON THE PLANT BY THE FBI FOR ALLEGED ENVIRONMENTAL INFRACTIONS. THAT SAME YEAR, PRODUCTION AT THE PLANT WAS HALTED FOR CORRECTION OF SAFETY DEFICIENCIES. BY 1991, A SERIES OF EVENTS WORLDWIDE REDUCED THE COLD WAR THREAT, AND IN 1992, THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY ANNOUNCED THAT THE MISSION AT THE PLANT WOULD BE CHANGED TO ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT, WITH THE GOAL OF CLEANING UP THE PLANT AND SITE (1989). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges.

  13. Study of information hiding algorithm based on GHM and color transfer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuai; Mu, De-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Taking the feature that the energy of the image would gather and spread on four components ( LL 2, LH 2, HL 2 and HH 2) in the sub-image after first-order GHM multi-wavelet-transform. And by using the color control ability of lαβ color space in color transfer theory (CTT), an information hiding algorithm based on GHM-CTT is proposed. In this way, the robust parameters are embedded in the LL 2, the hidden information is set in LH 2 and HL 2 with RAID4, and fragile sign is set in HH 2. The consistence between the embedded data bits’ order and the embedded code of the sub-image is improved by using the chaotic mapping and the genetic algorithm. Experimental results indicate that the GHM-CTT can increase the imperceptibility by 15.72% averagely and robustness by 18.89% at least.

  14. Degenerate slave-makers, but nevertheless slave-makers? Host worker relatedness in the ant Myrmoxenus kraussei.

    PubMed

    Suefuji, Masaki; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Socially parasitic ants of the formicoxenine genus Myrmoxenus exhibit considerable diversity in colony structure and life history. While some species are active slave-makers with many workers and others are workerless 'murder-parasites,' Myrmoxenus kraussei is considered as a 'degenerate slave-maker' because of its very low worker numbers. Here, we document that Temnothorax recedens host workers in single colonies of M. kraussei from Lago di Garda, Italy, exhibit significantly more genetic diversity than workers in unparasitized colonies. This raises the possibility that, despite its low worker numbers, M. kraussei may actively engage in slave raids in nature. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Predictor of requested imagery and migration engine (PRIME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Keith; Baraghimian, Tony

    1995-01-01

    Although emerging mass storage devices, including robotic tape libraries, optical jukeboxes, and redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) systems, enable large softcopy image archives, timely dissemination of any image from the archive is not possible with popular hierarchical storage techniques. Significant delays occur for images located on slower storage devices such as robotic tape libraries. We developed a prototype, predictor of requested imagery and migration engine (PRIME), to provide more timely dissemination. PRIME reduces analysts' wait time by predicting the image requests and migrating the most likely of these images from slower to faster archive devices before analysts make these requests. PRIME uses a fuzzy logic expert system both to make the prediction and to perform the migration. We describe the PRIME environment, including the prediction and migration issues, and a description of the prototype.

  16. The robotized workstation "MASTER" for users with tetraplegia: description and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Busnel, M; Cammoun, R; Coulon-Lauture, F; Détriché, J M; Le Claire, G; Lesigne, B

    1999-07-01

    The rehabilitation robotics MASTER program was developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and evaluated by the APPROCHE Rehabilitation centers. The aim of this program is to increase the autonomy and quality of life of persons with tetraplegia in domestic and vocational environments. Taking advantage of its experience in nuclear robotics, the CEA has supported studies dealing with the use of such technical aids in the medical area since 1975 with the SPARTACUS project, followed by MASTER 10 years later, and its European extension in the framework of the TIDE/RAID program. The present system is composed of a fixed robotized workstation that includes a six-axis SCARA robot mounted on a rail to allow horizontal movement and is equipped with tools for various tasks. The Operator Interface (OI) has been carefully adapted to the most severe tetraplegia. Results are given following a 2-year evaluation in real-life situations.

  17. Introduction to Data Acquisition 3.Let’s Acquire Data!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hideya; Okumura, Haruhiko

    In fusion experiments, diagnostic control and logging devices are usually connected through the field bus, e.g. GP-IB. Internet technologies are often applied for their remote operation. All equipment and digitizers are driven by pre-programmed sequences, in which clocks and triggers give the essential timing for data acquisition. Data production rate and amount must be checked in comparison with the transfer and store rates. To store binary raw data safely, journaling file systems are preferably used with redundant disks (RAID) or mirroring mechanism, such as “rsync”. A proper choice of the data compression method not only reduces the storage size but also improves the I/O throughputs. DBMS is even applicable to quick search or security around the table data.

  18. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries.

  19. Formation factor and the microscopic distribution of wetting phase in pore space of Berea sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Experimental studies have been accomplished aimed at studying the formation factor of a partially saturated rock. The effective formation factors to an electrolyte solution of the pore spaces not occupied by a wetting raid (paraffin wax) have been measured at various saturations, after solidifying the wetting fluid in place. The experimental data is studied in light of the role of the pore structure on the wetting fluid invasion process with the aid of fluid distributions at each saturation regime, a complete rock pore cast, and its associated rock section. The effect of clay minerals on formation factor is studied. The surface conductance contribution of day minerals to overall electrical conductivity is assessed. The effect of partial hydrocarbon saturation on overall rock conductivity and on the Archei saturation exponent is discussed.

  20. Robotics EP Payloads

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-24

    ISS020-E-041981 (24 Sept. 2009) --- The exterior of the Japanese Kibo complex of the International Space Station and the station's Canadarm2 (bottom) are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 20 crew member on the station. European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne and NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, both Expedition 20 flight engineers, used the controls of the Japanese Experiment Module Robotic Manipulator System (JEM-RMS) in Kibo to grapple and transfer two Japanese payloads from the Exposed Pallet to their Exposed Facility locations -- first HICO/Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean & RAIDS/Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (HREP), then Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-emission Sounder (SMILES).

  1. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates FY 1990/1991 Biennial Budget Submitted to Congress January 1989. Operations and Maintenance, Navy Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    MP4 02 U 91 4 V AV ’M -i0 W L -0 >- w 10 0.- %40 C -400 00GM60a. U-O ) a0 C 0a W h0) 4-( .. 4. -e -w = W W -4 M0 02L 00- 0" CU4 0-4 -4 w Li4 .0 )L...4b. rAid - 4 (1 U 0 CJ a Du . to M41 mU 41 > 0 w~ 0 -. (U =4 0 #r.C A L c. 0--4- - IdI 0m& oWM -4ci W 4Z 6𔃾 00a Z = 0 u=0 ft 0 =44-M’ I C W Ql b 0 a

  2. The first ant-termite syninclusion in amber with CT-scan analysis of taphonomy.

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Aria, Cédric; Garrouste, Romain; Wils, Patricia; Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a co-occurrence (i.e. a syninclusion) of ants and termites in a piece of Mexican amber (Totolapa deposit, Chiapas), whose importance is two-fold. First, this finding suggests at least a middle Miocene antiquity for the modern, though poorly documented, relationship between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites. Second, the presence of a Neivamyrmex army ant documents an in situ raiding behaviour of the same age and within the same community, confirmed by the fact that the army ant is holding one of the termite worker between its mandibles and by the presence of a termite with bitten abdomen. In addition, we present how CT-scan imaging can be an efficient tool to describe the topology of resin flows within amber pieces, and to point out the different states of preservation of the embedded insects. This can help achieving a better understanding of taphonomical processes, and tests ethological and ecological hypotheses in such complex syninclusions.

  3. Producers don't deserve the bad rap they get

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas producers care about a clean environment. They haven't acquired a sparkling clean image in the public's eye just yet, but they do a pretty good job. Since 1980, the oil and gas industry moved steadily toward a brighter, sharper, cleaner image. Today, the picture is not perfect. And yet, even the industry's harshest critics have to admit, much progress has been made. In this report, examples of good industry practices are presented. Some are small and almost unnoticed, such as switching to a battery that creates no disposal problem. Many examples concern big changes in technology, steps forward in new ways to dispose of drill cuttings or better methods to drill in a national wildlife refuge. Still others are nothing more than simple housekeeping chores, ordinary means of cleaning up a site, or restoring a forest, and raiding a nest of eagles in a bayou cypress tree to ensure all the young survive to adulthood.

  4. Neurological problems of jazz legends.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Phillip L

    2009-08-01

    A variety of neurological problems have affected the lives of giants in the jazz genre. Cole Porter courageously remained prolific after severe leg injuries secondary to an equestrian accident, until he succumbed to osteomyelitis, amputations, depression, and phantom limb pain. George Gershwin resisted explanations for uncinate seizures and personality change and herniated from a right temporal lobe brain tumor, which was a benign cystic glioma. Thelonious Monk had erratic moods, reflected in his pianism, and was ultimately mute and withdrawn, succumbing to cerebrovascular events. Charlie Parker dealt with mood lability and drug dependence, the latter emanating from analgesics following an accident, and ultimately lived as hard as he played his famous bebop saxophone lines and arpeggios. Charles Mingus hummed his last compositions into a tape recorder as he died with motor neuron disease. Bud Powell had severe posttraumatic headaches after being struck by a police stick defending Thelonious Monk during a Harlem club raid.

  5. Problems of Air Defense - and - Appedicies. Volumes I-III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-08-01

    TP1,nhnnP -LLne Needs nTf Lasnd- B-ase ’-LSytC’= 3098 In more th~an one eectiun above, the need for more telephone lImes has, bee &n ex~pres~sed. tIt is...iderE;d’ for thiL- pui-pose. 400AEW% radars in~taUed ih’,aircraft have beE ~~~fIyuase for some timne ir the Navy. Theýy m-ay ’,e valuable as r7adar...where dense raids must bee anticipated, such an alr:,raft could be very valuable. It is tberefore recommended that the British development be closely

  6. Global Insurgency Strategy and the Salafi Jihad Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    attacks on US  embassies in Nairobi and Dar­es­Salaam, in August 1998; 2) the  suicide  attack on the USS Cole in Aden, in October 2000; and 3) the...This included bombings,  suicide  attacks,  kidnappings, and raids. Al Qaeda also established regional  affiliates in several parts of the region...into Russia since the late 1990s.  These have included  suicide  bombings.  What common themes and factors drew al Qaeda and these local  groups together

  7. The systems approach to airport security: The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)/BWI (Baltimore-Washington International) Airport demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, D.L.; Olascoaga, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in designing, installing and evaluating security systems for various applications during the past 15 years. A systems approach to security that evolved from this experience was applied to aviation security for the Federal Aviation Administration. A general systems study of aviation security in the United States was concluded in 1987. One result of the study was a recommendation that an enhanced security system concept designed to meet specified objectives be demonstrated at an operational airport. Baltimore-Washington International Airport was selected as the site for the demonstration project which began in 1988 and will be completed in 1992. This article introduced the systems approach to airport security and discussed its application at Baltimore-Washington International Airport. Examples of design features that could be included in an enhanced security concept also were presented, including details of the proposed Ramps Area Intrusion Detection System (RAIDS).

  8. Sugary food robbing in ants: a case of temporal cleptobiosis.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Dejean, Alain; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2004-05-01

    This study reports new information on interactions between Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae) and Crematogaster limata parabiotica (Myrmicinae). Workers of these sympatric arboreal ant species forage on the same pioneer trees. Diurnally, Ectatomma preyed on Crematogaster workers that avoided overt aggression by respecting a 'safe distance'. At night, Crematogaster initiated raids within the Ectatomma nests that they apparently left with their abdomen empty, then remained near the nest entrances where they successfully intercepted 75.2% of the returning Ectatomma foragers (N = 322). Certain intercepted workers rapidly resumed their return trip. Others (39.1%) were stopped, explored and licked during a long time by the Crematogaster. Most of them were carrying between their mandibles a droplet of liquid food that was stolen. This relationship, that appears to be a typical case of interspecific cleptobiosis, whose expression varies during the daytime, demonstrates for the first time sugary-food robbing, instead of prey robbing, in ants.

  9. Instrumentation for planetary and terrestrial atmospheric remote sensing; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya; Christensen, Andrew B.

    1992-06-01

    The present conference discusses the optical design of the UV imaging spectrograph for the Cassini mission to Saturn, auroral X-ray imaging from high and low earth orbits, the WIND Imaging Interferometer, the FUV imaging spectrograph and scanning grating spectrometers and EUV instruments of the RAIDS experiment, a gas-ionization solar spectral monitor, and the calculation of the isoplanatic patch for multiconjugate adaptive optics. Also discussed are a novel low resolution broadband IR spectrograph, a visible airglow limb imaging spectrograph, shortwave calibrations of active cavity radiometers using tungsten lamps, and a UV ionospheric imaging experiment for the ARGOS satellite. (For individual items see A93-27077 to A93-27108)

  10. War and the evolution of belligerence and bravery

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W

    2008-01-01

    Tribal war occurs when a coalition of individuals use force to seize reproduction-enhancing resources, and it may have affected human evolution. Here, we develop a population-genetic model for the coevolution of costly male belligerence and bravery when war occurs between groups of individuals in a spatially subdivided population. Belligerence is assumed to increase an actor's group probability of trying to conquer another group. An actor's bravery is assumed to increase his group's ability to conquer an attacked group. We show that the selective pressure on these two traits can be substantial even in groups of large size, and that they may be driven by two independent reproduction-enhancing resources: additional mates for males and additional territory (or material resources) for females. This has consequences for our understanding of the evolution of intertribal interactions, as hunter-gatherer societies are well known to have frequently raided neighbouring groups from whom they appropriated territory, goods and women. PMID:18755675

  11. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  12. Distribution of chimpanzees and interactions with humans in Guinea-Bissau and western Guinea, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Brugiere, David; Badjinca, Iacouba; Silva, Cristina; Serra, Abubacar

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the distribution and the status of chimpanzees in Guinea-Bissau and on the border with Guinea, we conducted an interview survey with hunters in 110 and 60 villages in Guinea-Bissau and Guinea, respectively. Based on the results of the survey, the northern distribution limit of chimpanzees in Guinea-Bissau appears to be located between the Corubal river (which once was suspected to represent the distribution limit) and the Gabù-Bafata road. Chimpanzees were reported to be common in most of the surveyed area and are not a game species. Crop-raiding by chimpanzees was mentioned by most interviewees. The implementation of a land management system that maintains a mosaic of habitats is the priority for the long-term conservation of this cross-border population.

  13. The Early Operations of the Eighth Air Force and the Origins of the Combined Bomber Offensive, 17 August 1942 to 10 June 1943

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-10-01

    ooneidarabla Iocs of life and raaidantial took pl*oe, According to oat free Pr<ai»h report* 69 bomba fall 92 during that raid on private houses... bomba ^4t»at wing. 2h« combat wing, oon*i»ticg of t two or thrw coabat boxas, tirua beceu» th* «aTlau« d*f«ntiT* foroation. It waa g«n« rally deployed...aa he «m* approaohing th* target, and th* r**t of th* unit recovered froa the eonfuaion of tb* mooent only to scatter their bomba a* far at ten to

  14. The Advantages of Parametric Modeling for the Reconstruction of Historic Buildings. The Example of the in War Destroyed Church of ST. Catherine (katharinenkirche) in Nuremberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rutishauser, S.; Zellweger, A.

    2013-02-01

    Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine's monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine's. A heterogeneous set of data was used for preparation of a parametric architectural model. In effect the modeling of historic buildings can profit from the so called BIM method (Building Information Modeling), as the necessary structuring of the basic data renders it into very sustainable information. The resulting model is perfectly suited to deliver a vivid impression of the interior and exterior of this former mendicant orders' church to present observers.

  15. Organizing lesbian/queer bathhouse events: Emerging forms of sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Brown, A D; Gailey, Nerissa

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of public sexual spaces in the social science literature have, until recently, been dominated by analyses of men's use of these spaces for erotic expression. In the late 1990s, feminist collectives began to explore the emancipatory potentials these spaces can have for lesbian sexualities. After a police raid on one such event called the "Pussy Palace," scholars in diverse disciplines began to explore how these events have both opened up and restricted erotic possibilities for lesbians, queer women, and trans* attendees. This article reviews the existing social science literature on lesbian and queer bathhouse events and highlights several key themes and subthemes that have dominated the discourse, including the importance that these spaces be recognized for their ability to both shape and be shaped by principles of community, safety, and sexual health/wellness.

  16. US defensive operations against Libya and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Markup before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. Res. 424 and H. Res 440, May 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The House Foreign Affairs Committee met to mark up two resolutions: H. Res. 424 and H. Res. 440. H. Res. 424 thanks the United Kingdom for its assistance in the April 14, 1986 operation against Libya. Despite objections to the raid and to including the British, as well as questions about the quality of the US response and about the President's compliance with the Constitution and the War Powers Resolution, the resolution passed. H. Res. 440 expresses sympathy to the victims of the Chernobyl accident and asks the Soviet Union to relax restrictions on communications and the transfer of whatever technology and assistance will be helpful. It also criticizes the Soviet handling of information about the accident. An amendment strengthened the wording of the criticism, and the resolution passed. The report includes the committee discussion and the tests of the two resolutions.

  17. Providing medical marijuana: the importance of cannabis clubs.

    PubMed

    Feldman, H W; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends.

  18. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state.

  19. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mariel; Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-12-01

    Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management-relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs should be

  20. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

  1. The Data-Logging System of the Trigger and Data Acquisition for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Andreas; Beck, Hans Peter; Dobson, Marc; Gadomski, Szymon; Kordas, Kostas; Vandelli, Wainer

    2008-10-01

    The ATLAS experiment is getting ready to observe collisions between protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. These will be the highest energy collisions in a controlled environment to-date, to be provided by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN by mid 2008. The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system selects events online in a three level trigger system in order to keep those events promising to unveil new physics at a budgeted rate of 200 Hz for an event size of 1.5 MB. This paper focuses on the data-logging system on the TDAQ side, the so-called ldquoSub-Farm Outputrdquo (SFO) system. It takes data from the third level trigger, and it streams and indexes the events into different files, according to each event's trigger path. The data files are moved to CASTOR, the central mass storage facility at CERN. The final TDAQ data-logging system has been installed using 6 Linux PCs, holding in total 144 disks of 500 GB each, managed by three RAID controllers on each PC. The data-writing is managed in a controlled round-robin way among three independent filesystems associated to a distinct set of disks, managed by a distinct RAID controller. This novel design allows fast I/O, which together with a high speed network permits to minimize the number of SFO nodes. We report here on the functionality and performance requirements on the system, our experience with commissioning it and on the performance achieved.

  2. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner‐Gulland, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management‐relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs

  3. Experiences From NASA/Langley's DMSS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has placed such a system into production use. This paper will present the experiences, both good and bad, we have had with this system since putting it into production usage. The system is comprised of: 1) National Storage Laboratory (NSL)/UniTree 2.1, 2) IBM 9570 HIPPI attached disk arrays (both RAID 3 and RAID 5), 3) IBM RS6000 server, 4) HIPPI/IPI3 third party transfers between the disk array systems and the supercomputer clients, a CRAY Y-MP and a CRAY 2, 5) a "warm spare" file server, 6) transition software to convert from CRAY's Data Migration Facility (DMF) based system to DMSS, 7) an NSC PS32 HIPPI switch, and 8) a STK 4490 robotic library accessed from the IBM RS6000 block mux interface. This paper will cover: the performance of the DMSS in the following areas: file transfer rates, migration and recall, and file manipulation (listing, deleting, etc.); the appropriateness of a workstation class of file server for NSL/UniTree with LaRC's present storage requirements in mind the role of the third party transfers between the supercomputers and the DMSS disk array systems in DMSS; a detailed comparison (both in performance and functionality) between the DMF and DMSS systems LaRC's enhancements to the NSL/UniTree system administration environment the mechanism for DMSS to provide file server redundancy the statistics on the availability of DMSS the design and experiences with the locally developed transparent transition software which allowed us to make over 1.5 million DMF files available to NSL/UniTree with minimal system outage

  4. The influence of space and time on the evolution of altruistic defence: the case of ant slave rebellion.

    PubMed

    Metzler, D; Jordan, F; Pamminger, T; Foitzik, S

    2016-05-01

    How can antiparasite defence traits evolve even if they do not directly benefit their carriers? An example of such an indirect defence is rebellion of enslaved Temnothorax longispinosus ant workers against their social parasite Temnothorax americanus, a slavemaking ant. Ant slaves have been observed to kill their oppressors' offspring, a behaviour from which the sterile slaves cannot profit directly. Parasite brood killing could, however, reduce raiding pressure on related host colonies nearby. We analyse with extensive computer simulations for the Temnothorax slavemaker system under what conditions a hypothetical rebel allele could invade a host population, and in particular, how host-parasite dynamics and population structure influence the rebel allele's success. Exploring a wide range of model parameters, we only found a small number of parameter combinations for which kin selection or multilevel selection could allow a slave rebellion allele to spread in the host population. Furthermore, we did not detect any cases in which the reduction of raiding pressure in the close vicinity of the slavemaker nest would substantially contribute to the inclusive fitness of rebels. This suggests that slave rebellion is not costly and perhaps a side-effect of some other beneficial trait. In some of our simulations, however, even a costly rebellion allele could spread in the population. This was possible when host-parasite interactions led to a metapopulation dynamic with frequent local extinctions and recolonizations of demes by the offspring of few immigrants. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-02-16

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131 ± 46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m ± 350, SD) and females (866 m ± 195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat

  6. Apes in Space: Saving an Imperilled Orangutan Population in Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131±46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m±350, SD) and females (866 m±195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat across

  7. Sarilumab improves patient-reported outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response/intolerance to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Vibeke; Reaney, Matthew; Chen, Chieh-I; Proudfoot, Clare W J; Guillonneau, Sophie; Bauer, Deborah; Mangan, Erin; Graham, Neil M H; van Hoogstraten, Hubert; Lin, Yong; Pacheco-Tena, César; Fleischmann, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effects of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody sarilumab administered with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in the TARGET trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate response or intolerance to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-IR). Methods 546 patients (81.9% female, mean age 52.9 years) were randomised to placebo, sarilumab 150 or 200 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks + csDMARDs. PROs included patient global assessment (PtGA); pain and morning stiffness visual analogue scales; Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI); Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36); FACIT-Fatigue (FACIT-F); Work Productivity Survey-Rheumatoid Arthritis (WPS-RA) and Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID). Changes from baseline at weeks 12 and 24 were analysed using a mixed model for repeated measures; post hoc analyses included percentages of patients reporting improvements ≥ minimum clinically important differences (MCID) and scores ≥ normative values. Results Sarilumab + csDMARDs doses resulted in improvements from baseline at week 12 vs placebo + csDMARDs in PtGA, pain, HAQ-DI, SF-36 and FACIT-F that were maintained at week 24. Sarilumab improved morning stiffness and reduced the impact of RA on work, family, social/leisure activities participation (WPS-RA) and on patients' lives (RAID). Percentages of patients reporting improvements ≥MCID and ≥ normative scores were greater with sarilumab than placebo. Conclusions In patients with TNF-IR RA, 150 and 200 mg sarilumab + csDMARDs resulted in clinically meaningful patient-reported benefits on pain, fatigue, function, participation and health status at 12 and 24 weeks that exceeded placebo + csDMARDs, and were consistent with the clinical profile previously reported. Trial registration number NCT01709578; Results. PMID:28326189

  8. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Naumann, Clas M; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  9. ECFS: A decentralized, distributed and fault-tolerant FUSE filesystem for the LHCb online farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybczynski, Tomasz; Bonaccorsi, Enrico; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment records millions of proton collisions every second, but only a fraction of them are useful for LHCb physics. In order to filter out the "bad events" a large farm of x86-servers (~2000 nodes) has been put in place. These servers boot from and run from NFS, however they use their local disk to temporarily store data, which cannot be processed in real-time ("data-deferring"). These events are subsequently processed, when there are no live-data coming in. The effective CPU power is thus greatly increased. This gain in CPU power depends critically on the availability of the local disks. For cost and power-reasons, mirroring (RAID-1) is not used, leading to a lot of operational headache with failing disks and disk-errors or server failures induced by faulty disks. To mitigate these problems and increase the reliability of the LHCb farm, while at same time keeping cost and power-consumption low, an extensive research and study of existing highly available and distributed file systems has been done. While many distributed file systems are providing reliability by "file replication", none of the evaluated ones supports erasure algorithms. A decentralised, distributed and fault-tolerant "write once read many" file system has been designed and implemented as a proof of concept providing fault tolerance without using expensive - in terms of disk space - file replication techniques and providing a unique namespace as a main goals. This paper describes the design and the implementation of the Erasure Codes File System (ECFS) and presents the specialised FUSE interface for Linux. Depending on the encoding algorithm ECFS will use a certain number of target directories as a backend to store the segments that compose the encoded data. When target directories are mounted via nfs/autofs - ECFS will act as a file-system over network/block-level raid over multiple servers.

  10. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  11. Impact of climate change on human-wildlife-ecosystem interactions in the Trans-Himalaya region of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Achyut; Brunton, Dianne; Raubenheimer, David

    2014-02-01

    The Trans-Himalaya region boasts an immense biodiversity which includes several threatened species and supports the livelihood of local human populations. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the impact of recent climate change on the biodiversity and human inhabitants of the upper Mustang region of the Trans-Himalaya, Nepal. We found that the average annual temperature in the upper Mustang region has increased by 0.13 °C per year over the last 23 years; a higher annual temperature increase than experienced in other parts of Himalaya. A predictive model suggested that the mean annual temperature will double by 2161 to reach 20 °C in the upper Mustang region. The combined effects of increased temperature and diminished snowfall have resulted in a reduction in the area of land suitable for agriculture. Most seriously affected are Samjung village (at 4,100 m altitude) and Dhey village (at 3,800 m) in upper Mustang, where villagers have been forced to relocate to an area with better water availability. Concurrent with the recent change in climate, there have been substantial changes in vegetation communities. Between 1979 and 2009, grasslands and forests in the Mustang district have diminished by 11 and 42 %, respectively, with the tree line having shifted towards higher elevation. Further, grasses and many shrub species are no longer found in abundance at higher elevations and consequently blue sheep ( Pseduois nayaur) move to forage at lower elevations where they encounter and raid human crops. The movement of blue sheep attracts snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) from their higher-elevation habitats to lower sites, where they encounter and depredate livestock. Increased crop raiding by blue sheep and depredations of livestock by snow leopard have impacted adversely on the livelihoods of local people.

  12. A Comparison of Electron Density Profiles Derived from the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) Ultraviolet Measurements: Resolution of the 911 Å Conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Coker, C.; Nicholas, A. C.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Previous measurements of the 911 Å emission made by sounding rockets, at altitude less than 320 km, indicated that the emission was either very weak or non-existent. Newer measurements made by the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) currently in operation aboard the International Space Station, at an altitude of 340 km, show the same behavior. Yet, satellite-based measurements made at altitudes above 800 km showed the emission to be present and strong enough to be accurately measured and inverted; those inversions were validated against ionosonde measurements and demonstrated the possibility of using the 911 Å emission for daytime ionospheric sensing. So the conundrum is: why do measurements made at lower altitudes (< 350 km) indicate weak or non-existent emission while satellite measurements at higher altitudes (>800 km) show the presence of the emission at the expected level? We present our measurements of the daytime and nighttime electron density derived by analysis of the O I 1356 and O I 911 Å altitude profiles measured by the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) instrument launched aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), which operated between mid-May 1999 and April 2002. We compare the retrieved electron density profiles inferred from the limb intensities of the ultraviolet emissions to peak heights and peak densities measured during ionosonde overflights. We show that the 911 Å emission is strongly affected by the height of the ionosphere and show that this is consistent with absorption of the 911 Å by atomic oxygen. Model results are presented showing that the RAIDS and sounding rocket measurements can be explained by this absorption.

  13. Radioimmunodetection of non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma with radiolabelled LL2 monoclonal antibody. Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparini, M.; Buraggi, G.L.; Tondini, C.

    1994-05-01

    Radioimmunodetection (RAID) with 99m technetium labelled B cell lymphoma monoclonal antibody (MAb) (IMMU-LL2 Fab`, Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, N.J.) was investigated in 8 patients (5 female and 3 male; age range 20-72 years) with histologically proven non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL). Of the 8 lymphomas, 5 were intermediate grade and 3 low grade. Whole body images with multiple planar views were obtained at 30 min, 4-6 and 24 hours after the I.V. injection of 1 mg LL2-Fab` labelled with 20-25 mCi (740-925 MBq) {sup 99}Tc. SPECT of chest or abdomen was performed at 5-8 hours after injection in all patients. No adverse reactions were observed in any patient after MAb infusion and no appreciable changes were seen in the blood counts, renal and liver function tests. A total of 17 of 18 (94.4%) lymphoma lesions were detected by RAID. All the tumor localizations were confirmed by clinical examination and with other imaging techniques, such as CT scan, MRI or gallium scan. In this series of patients no false positive results were noted and only 1 false negative resulted in a patient who had a mediastinal bulky disease. As regard the biodistribution of the immunoreagent we can make the following conclusions: (1) no appreciable bone marrow activity was seen, (2) splenic targeting was demonstrated in all patients, (3) tumor-to-non tumor ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 as measured by ROI technique, (4) no difference of uptake was noted for different tumor grades. The images performed 24 hours after injection did not detect new lesions, but areas of doubtful uptake were seen as positive focal areas in the delayed scan. In these preliminary results the LL2-Fab` MAb seems to be useful for detection, staging and follow up of NHL patients.

  14. Teleradiology network system and computer-aided diagnosis workstation using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2011-03-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of RAID. With RAID technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. We can safely share the screen of workstation to which the medical image of Data Center is displayed from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. Moreover, Real time biometric face authentication system is connected with Data Center. Real time biometric face authentication system analyzes the feature of the face image of which it takes a picture in 20 seconds with the camera and defends the safety of the medical information. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  15. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  16. Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  17. Digital image archiving: challenges and choices.

    PubMed

    Dumery, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, imaging exam volume has grown rapidly. In addition to increased image acquisition, there is more patient information per study. RIS-PACS integration and information-rich DICOM headers now provide us with more patient information relative to each study. The volume of archived digital images is increasing and will continue to rise at a steeper incline than film-based storage of the past. Many filmless facilities have been caught off guard by this increase, which has been stimulated by many factors. The most significant factor is investment in new digital and DICOM-compliant modalities. A huge volume driver is the increase in images per study from multi-slice technology. Storage requirements also are affected by disaster recovery initiatives and state retention mandates. This burgeoning rate of imaging data volume presents many challenges: cost of ownership, data accessibility, storage media obsolescence, database considerations, physical limitations, reliability and redundancy. There are two basic approaches to archiving--single tier and multi-tier. Each has benefits. With a single-tier approach, all the data is stored on a single media that can be accessed very quickly. A redundant copy of the data is then stored onto another less expensive media. This is usually a removable media. In this approach, the on-line storage is increased incrementally as volume grows. In a multi-tier approach, storage levels are set up based on access speed and cost. In other words, all images are stored at the deepest archiving level, which is also the least expensive. Images are stored on or moved back to the intermediate and on-line levels if they will need to be accessed more quickly. It can be difficult to decide what the best approach is for your organization. The options include RAIDs (redundant array of independent disks), direct attached RAID storage (DAS), network storage using RAIDs (NAS and SAN), removable media such as different types of tape, compact

  18. Design of a full PACS with experiences of mini-PACS in Yonsei University Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-Joung; Huh, Jae-Man; Kim, Namhyun; Kim, Kee-Deog; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Sang-Jin; Yoo, Hyung-Sik

    2000-05-01

    Yonsei University Medical Center (YUMC) in Seoul, Korea is 114 years old and 1,582 beds in Shinchon Severance hospital in main university campus and 746 beds in affiliated Youngdong Severance hospital which is 20 miles away from the main campus. The dental hospital in main campus is also included in a full-PACS system. The numbers of exams/year for main, affiliated, and dental hospitals are approximately 558,000, 365,000, and 181,000, respectively. Since 1997, a Mini-PACS with 3xMRI, 2xDSI, and 2xCT in Shinchon Severance hospital has been operating to archive the digital data and to view them with DICOM viewer PiViewTM. An archiving system with 2xCT and 2xMRI in Youngdong Severance has been operating to archive the digital data. We are now designing a large-scale full-PACS for YUMC with experiences of running a mini-PACS for 3 years. The 11xUS, 7xEndoscopy, 7xCR, 3xSPECT, 1xPET, 1xCT simulator, and digital camera based patient database in the Dept. of radiation oncology in Shinchon Severance hospital will be connected to an archiving server system through modality interface gateway. The 3xCR, 2xDSA, 2xFD, 5xUS, 3xEndoscopy in Youngdong Severance hospital will be connected to the main archiving system. The 1xCT, 10xIntraoral X-ray unit DR, 4xPanoramic&cephalometric unit DR, 1xTranscranial CR, 1xScanora X-ray unit CR, 1xSectography CR in dental hospital will be connected to archiving server system through modality interface gateway. The estimated amount of data for Shinchon severance, Youngdong severance, and dental hospitals per year are 11.55TB, 5.88TB, and 0.96TB, respectively. The current mini-PACS server includes 54 GB RAID, 520 GB DLT with SUN SpectraTM server. The main server in Shinchon Severance hospital needs to be upgraded to 600GB RAID for 30 days and 10TB ODJ or DLT for the first two years. Youngdong Severance hospital needs to be installed a main server with 600GB RAID for > 30 days and 10TB ODJ or DLT for > 2 years. The interface between HIS/RIS and

  19. Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, V. L.

    2002-12-01

    with a series of inexpensive high-capacity (1.6 Tbyte) magnetic-disk RAIDs. These systems are built with PC-technology components, using 16 120-Gbyte IDE disks, hot-swappable disk trays, two RAID controllers, dual redundant power supplies and a Linux operating system. The system is configured over a private gigabit network that connects to the two Data Center servers and spans between the Seismological Lab and the USGS. To ensure data integrity, each RAID disk system constantly checks itself against its twin and verifies file integrity using 128-bit MD5 file checksums that are stored separate from the system. The final level of data protection is a Sony AIT-3 tape backup of the files. The primary advantage of the magnetic-disk approach is faster data access because magnetic disk drives have almost no latency. This means that the SCEDC can provide better "on-demand" interactive delivery of the seismograms in the archive.

  20. MICE: a mouse imaging collaboration environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Flask, Chris; Wilson, David; Johnson, David; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2006-03-01

    With the ever-increasing complexity of science and engineering, many important research problems are being addressed by collaborative, multidisciplinary teams. We present a web-based collaborative environment for small animal imaging research, called the Mouse Imaging Collaboration Environment (MICE). MICE provides an effective and user-friendly tool for managing and sharing of the terabytes of high-resolution and high-dimension image data generated at small animal imaging core facilities. We describe the design of MICE and our experience in the implementation and deployment of a beta-version baseline-MICE. The baseline-MICE provides an integrated solution from image data acquisition to end-user access and long-term data storage at our UH/Case Small Animal Imaging Resource Center. As image data is acquired from scanners, it is pushed to the MICE server which automatically stores it in a directory structure according to its DICOM metadata. The directory structure reflects imaging modality, principle investigators, animal models, scanning dates and study details. Registered end-users access this imaging data through an authenticated web-interface. Thumbnail images are created by custom scripts running on the MICE server while data down-loading is achieved through standard web-browser ftp. MICE provides a security infrastructure that manages user roles, their access privileges such as read/write, and the right to modify the access privileges. Additional data security measures include a two server paradigm with the Web access server residing outside a network firewall to provide access through the Internet, and the imaging data server - a large RAID storage system supporting flexible backup policies - residing behind the protected firewall with a dedicated link to the Web access server. Direct network link to the RAID storage system outside the firewall other than this dedicated link is not permitted. Establishing the initial image directory structure and letting the

  1. High-Rate Data-Capture for an Airborne Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Susan; Hicks, Edward; Dabney, Philip; Harding, David

    2012-01-01

    A high-rate data system was required to capture the data for an airborne lidar system. A data system was developed that achieved up to 22 million (64-bit) events per second sustained data rate (1408 million bits per second), as well as short bursts (less than 4 s) at higher rates. All hardware used for the system was off the shelf, but carefully selected to achieve these rates. The system was used to capture laser fire, single-photon detection, and GPS data for the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photo-counting Lidar (SIMPL). However, the system has applications for other laser altimeter systems (waveform-recording), mass spectroscopy, xray radiometry imaging, high-background- rate ranging lidar, and other similar areas where very high-speed data capture is needed. The data capture software was used for the SIMPL instrument that employs a micropulse, single-photon ranging measurement approach and has 16 data channels. The detected single photons are from two sources those reflected from the target and solar background photons. The instrument is non-gated, so background photons are acquired for a range window of 13 km and can comprise many times the number of target photons. The highest background rate occurs when the atmosphere is clear, the Sun is high, and the target is a highly reflective surface such as snow. Under these conditions, the total data rate for the 16 channels combined is expected to be approximately 22 million events per second. For each photon detection event, the data capture software reads the relative time of receipt, with respect to a one-per-second absolute time pulse from a GPS receiver, from an event timer card with 0.1-ns precision, and records that information to a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage device. The relative time of laser pulse firings must also be read and recorded with the same precision. Each of the four event timer cards handles the throughput from four of the channels. For each detection event, a flag is

  2. Thermal ecology of the neotropical army ant Eciton burchellii.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Joe E

    2006-06-01

    I explored the thermal ecology of Eciton burchellii, a New World army ant, in primary forest and forest fragments in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica in 2002 and 2003. My primary objective was to determine whether high surface temperatures in pastures surrounding forest fragments posed a thermal barrier to ant colonies within those fragments; secondarily, I assessed whether thermal gradients within continuous moist forest were sufficient to elicit avoidance reactions from foraging colonies. E. burchellii colonies in forest fragments avoided entering open pasture in full sun (51.3 degrees C) on 100% of all edge interactions; however, edges were readily crossed where artificial shaded areas had previously been installed. Ant raids in primary forest avoided artificially established temperatures >43 degrees C but tolerated 45.5 degrees C in the presence of prey baits. Captive ants held at 43 degrees C survived 18.5 min; at temperatures of 51.3 degrees C survival time was only 2.8 min. Ants running on established foraging trails increased running velocity by 18% when substrate temperature was raised from 28.4 degrees to 38.0 degrees C, and they abandoned trails at temperatures >43 degrees C. The standard deviation (s) of temperatures on active raid trails in continuous forest was 2.13 degrees C, while nearby systematic sampling revealed a greater background standard deviation of 4.13 degrees C. E. burchellii colonies in this region appear to be living surprisingly near their upper limits of thermal tolerance. The heat of open pastures alone is sufficient to prevent their exiting forest fragments, or entering similarly hot areas within continuous forest. Shaded vegetative corridors are sufficient to permit mobility between isolated fragments, and their preservation should be encouraged. Despite views that tropical lowland moist forests have an essentially homogenous microclimate, army ants appear to avoid local hot spots on the forest floor, steering daily foraging

  3. First Observation of the Altitude Distribution of Atomic Potassium Dayglow in the MLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, W. F.; Budzein, S.; Llewellyn, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Cosmic dust enters the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and ablates into a hot gas which later condenses into meteoritic smoke, leaving behind some atomic potassium in the gas phase. In this paper we report the observation of day airglow from atomic K from the RAIDS on ISS and OSIRIS on ODIN satellite instruments. This atomic potassium has also been measured extensively with potassium lidars at several sites. The atomic potassium reacts with ozone to form potassium oxide, KO. The KO reacts with atomic oxygen to recycle the atomic K. This balance between production and loss leads to a dominant concentration of K. The resonance scattering of sunlight by K leads to a chemi-luminescent airglow emission which has been previously noted by the authors, Llewellyn and Evans, from their OSIRIS spectrograph on the ODIN satellite. The intensity of this airglow emission from K is proportional to the product of the atomic K concentration and the resonance scattering coefficient (g-factor). Since the rate of reaction for the reaction of KO with atomic oxygen is also in equilibrium with rate of reaction of K with ozone, the day airglow intensity can be used to derive the ground state K density if the atomic oxygen concentrations are available. The atomic oxygen can be derived from other airglow emissions, particularly the A band of O2 which is also observed simultaneously by the OSIRIS instrument. The concentration profile of K is derived from the altitude profile of the dayglow emission of potassium at 766.5 nm. The observed volume emission dayglow altitude profile will be compared with model calculations by the authors. The RAIDS ISS profile is peaked at 100 km level and extends up to 160 km. The profile has been simultaneously observed in the 766.5 and the 769.9 nm lines. Since this is the first measurement of the altitude profile of dayglow K emission, it can be compared with extensive historic ground based measurements of K twilight emission taken at Saskatoon in the 60s by

  4. Validation of FLARE-RA, a Self-Administered Tool to Detect Recent or Current Rheumatoid Arthritis Flare.

    PubMed

    Fautrel, Bruno; Morel, Jacques; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Constantin, Arnaud; De Bandt, Michel; Gaudin, Philippe; Maillefert, Jean-Francis; Meyer, Olivier; Pham, Thao; Saraux, Alain; Solau-Gervais, Elisabeth; Vittecoq, Olivier; Wendling, Daniel; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Guillemin, Francis

    2017-02-01

    To validate the measurement properties and the detection performance of the FLARE-RA questionnaire in a longitudinal prospective study. To validate the FLARE-RA self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a prospective trial in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to document: 1) content and construct validity by factor analysis, convergent validity by Pearson's correlation with routine assessment of patient index data (Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 [RAPID-3] questionnaire), RA Impact of Disease (RAID) score, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), 2) reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and Bland-Altman plot), and 3) feasibility of use. Patients were examined and questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3 months, and every week in between for RAPID-3. We recruited 138 patients from 13 centers: 81.9% women, mean age 57.4 years, mean DAS28 2.9, mean C-reactive protein level 6.2 mg/liter, 84.4% rheumatoid factor positive, 78.0% anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive, and 78.8% with erosive disease. At baseline, the mean ± SD FLARE-RA score was 2.3 ± 2.3. The content and construct validity of FLARE-RA was good. A substantial floor effect, but no ceiling effect, was observed. Principal components analysis revealed 1 domain disentangled in 2 subdomains: physical and emotional. The FLARE-RA total score was correlated with the DAS28 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001), RAID (r = 0.80, P < 0.001), RAPID-3 (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), and HAQ (r = 0.53, P < 0.001). The ICC for reliability was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.92-0.96). The FLARE-RA self-administered questionnaire represents a valid and valuable instrument to detect RA flare between visits to the physician. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. "Final solution" in Myanmar?

    PubMed

    Lintner, B

    1992-07-01

    The conditions of Burmese prostitutes in Thailand's border communities are described to show how they are mistreated and denied health information on AIDS prevention. The police had been returning prostitutes to Myanmar, until it was brought to their attention that 25 female prostitutes had been fatally injected with cyanide by Burmese authorities to stop the spread of HIV. Myanmar's military rulers have concentrated AIDS education on the military. They do not want the soldiers, who keep the military regime in power to become infected with AIDS. The reports of Burmese murders of prostitutes have come from all quarters. In the group of 25 prostitutes were two cousins of a Burmese citizen who reported the disappearance of his relatives after they left for a shopping trip in the southern Thai city of Ranong, opposite Kawthaung in Myanmar. Thai police found that the two cousins had been kidnapped and sold into prostitution in a brothel in Ranong, which had been raided by police. In the northern city of Chiang Mai, it is estimated that 10,000 of the prostitutes are Burmese girls and women. UNICEF has reported that as many as 40,000 Burmese girls are sold into prostitution in Bangkok and border towns such as Ranong and Chiang Mai. Anti-Slavery International estimated that more than 1500 of the prostitutes in Ranong are Burmese girls and women who have been forced into this work. Their condition is very similar to slavery. Girls are forced to work long hours and may be fed only a bowl of rice with watery soup. Prostitution flourished because 20,000 Burmese fisherman, who are at sea for prolonged periods, frequent the brothels on their return. There is a growing prevalence of HIV infection in Ranong in part due to the fishermen's widespread heroin use aboard ship. In Ranong, 1 in 5 prostitutes were found to be HIV positive including 1 in 3 of the Burmese women. Those locked in brothels are not included in the figures. Unfortunately the Burmese captives know no or very

  6. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  7. HIV, sex work, and civil society in China.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Harm reduction programs for sex workers have been hampered by the prioritization of law enforcement over AIDS prevention. For example, the April 2010 "strike-hard" campaign against prostitution in Beijing, during which bars, nightclubs, saunas, and karaoke bars were raided, created an atmosphere that critically impeded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outreach activities for sex workers. In China, criminalization has limited the growth of a coherent and cohesive set of nongovernmental organization (NGO) actors working with sex workers to prevent HIV infection. Compared with other risk groups for HIV sexual transmission, such as men who have sex with men, the NGO community for sex workers is fragmented and poorly coordinated with government efforts, and basic rights for sex workers are often violated. This article examines civil society groups working on AIDS prevention and care for female sex workers in China and reviews constraints to their operations. China's HIV prevention programs for sex workers are compared with sex worker HIV prevention in other Asian states where more well-developed NGOs exist and criminalization has been better balanced with harm reduction approaches, and recommendations are offered on improving China's policies and programs.

  8. A Zostera marina manganese superoxide dismutase gene involved in the responses to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You; Zang, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-10

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an essential enzyme playing a pivotal role in the protection mechanism against oxidative stress by reducing superoxide radicals. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase was identified from Zostera marina (ZmMnSOD) via raid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. The open reading frame (ORF) encoded a polypeptide of 254 amino acid residues, which shared 69%-77% similarity with previous identified SODs. Analysis of the deduced amino acid revealed conserved features, including functional domains, signature motifs and metal binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmMnSOD was closer to the SODs from angiosperm than those from other organisms. The mRNA expression level of ZmMnSOD at different temperatures was investigated using real-time PCR and it was significantly up-regulated from 5°C to 15°C, and then dramatically down-regulated. The recombinant ZmMnSOD protein was purified and exhibited Mn(2+) ions dependency specific enzymatic activity and strong antioxidant activity over a wide temperature range. All these results indicate that ZmMnSOD is an authentic member of the plant SOD family and may play important roles in minimizing the effect of oxidative damage in Z. marina against temperature stress and affect the adaptability of Z. marina to global warming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance and prospects of payments for ecosystem services programs: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu; Liu, Wei; Viña, Andrés; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-09-30

    Systematic evaluation of the environmental and socioeconomic effects of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs is crucial for guiding policy design and implementation. We evaluated the performance of the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP), a national PES program of China, in the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. The environmental effects of the NFCP were evaluated through a historical trend (1965-2001) analysis of forest cover to estimate a counter-factual (i.e., without-PES) forest cover baseline for 2007. The socioeconomic effects of the NFCP were evaluated using data collected through household interviews carried out before and after NFCP implementation in 2001. Our results suggest that the NFCP was not only significantly associated with increases in forest cover, but also had both positive (e.g., labor reduction for fuelwood collection) and negative (e.g., economic losses due to crop raiding by wildlife) effects on local households. Results from this study emphasize the importance of integrating local conditions and understanding underlying mechanisms to enhance the performance of PES programs. Our findings are useful for the design and implementation of successful conservation policies not only in our study area but also in similar places around the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emerging Technologies and MOUT

    SciTech Connect

    YONAS,GEROLD; MOY,TIMOTHY DAVID

    2000-11-15

    Operating in a potentially hostile city is every soldier's nightmare. The staggering complexity of the urban environment means that deadly threats--or non-combatants-may lurk behind every corner, doorway, or window. Urban operations present an almost unparalleled challenge to the modern professional military. The complexity of urban operations is further amplified by the diversity of missions that the military will be called upon to conduct in urban terrain. Peace-making and peace-keeping missions, urban raids to seize airports or WMD sites or to rescue hostages, and extended urban combat operations all present different sorts of challenges for planners and troops on the ground. Technology almost never serves as a magic bullet, and past predictions of technological miracles pile high on the ash heap of history. At the same time, it is a vital element of planning in the modern age to consider and, if possible, take advantage of emerging technologies. We believe that technologies can assist military operations in urbanized terrain (MOUT) in three primary areas, which are discussed.

  11. Current Status of the Ceph Based Storage Systems at the RACF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, A.; Ito, H.; Hollowell, C.; Wong, T.; Rao, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ceph based storage solutions are becoming increasingly popular within the HEP/NP community over the last few years. With the current status of Ceph project, both object storage and block storage (RBD) layers are production ready on a large scale, and the Ceph file system storage layer (CephFS) is rapidly getting to that state as well. This contribution contains a thorough review of various functionality, performance and stability tests performed with all three (object storage, block storage and file system) levels of Ceph by using the RACF computing resources in 2012-2014 on various hardware platforms and with different networking solutions (10/40 GbE and IPoIB/4X FDR Infiniband based). We also report the status of commissioning a large scale (1 PB of usable capacity, 4k HDDs behind the RAID arrays by design) Ceph based object storage system provided with Amazon S3 complaint RadosGW interfaces deployed in RACF, as well as performance results obtained while testing the RBD and CephFS storage layers of our Ceph clusters.

  12. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J.; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

    2014-04-13

    In early 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. While searching the laboratory, they discovered a small glass jar labelled “Gamma Source” and containing a green powder. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterize and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key ‘nuclear forensic signatures’ used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine.

  13. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef.

    PubMed

    Eshete, Girma; Tesfay, Girmay; Bauer, Hans; Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera; de Iongh, Hans; Marino, Jorgelina

    2015-09-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis). Questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the livelihoods of the Amhara people living in Mount Abune Yosef and their attitudes toward Afroalpine and Ethiopian wolf conservation. Of the 120 households interviewed, selected randomly from across eight villages, 80 % benefited from natural resources by grazing their livestock and harvesting firewood and grasses. The majority (90 %) also suffered from livestock predation by Ethiopian wolves and common jackals (Canis aureus) and crop raiding by geladas (Theropithecus gelada), birds, and rodents, yet more than half reported a positive attitudes toward Ethiopian wolves (66 %). People with positive attitudes tended to live close to the communal land, to own more livestock, and to be unaffected by conflict. Many also recognized the need to protect the Afroalpine habitats of Abune Yosef (71 %), and this attitude predominated among the literate, households that owned land, had smaller herds and were further away. We discussed how people's attitudes were modulated by human-wildlife conflicts and by the benefits derived from the access to natural resources in communal land, and the implications for the conservation of Afroalpine ecosystem and the flagship Ethiopian wolf.

  14. Fault-tolerant PACS server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.; Zhou, Michael Z.; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, X. C.; Mogel, Greg T.

    2002-05-01

    Failure of a PACS archive server could cripple an entire PACS operation. Last year we demonstrated that it was possible to design a fault-tolerant (FT) server with 99.999% uptime. The FT design was based on a triple modular redundancy with a simple majority vote to automatically detect and mask a faulty module. The purpose of this presentation is to report on its continuous developments in integrating with external mass storage devices, and to delineate laboratory failover experiments. An FT PACS Simulator with generic PACS software has been used in the experiment. To simulate a PACS clinical operation, image examinations are transmitted continuously from the modality simulator to the DICOM gateway and then to the FT PACS server and workstations. The hardware failures in network, FT server module, disk, RAID, and DLT are manually induced to observe the failover recovery of the FT PACS to resume its normal data flow. We then test and evaluate the FT PACS server in its reliability, functionality, and performance.

  15. Long-Term Preservation of the Physical Remains of the Destroyed Buddha Figures in Bamiyan (afghanistan) Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Preparation and Evaluation of Restoration Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toubekis, G.; Jansen, M.; Jarke, M.

    2017-08-01

    In March 2001, the world's largest depictions of standing Buddha figures located in Bamiyan (Afghanistan) were destroyed during a campaign of the Taliban leadership against all non-Muslim heritage in the country. Bamiyan and its archaeological remains have been nominated a World Heritage also to commemorate the events of destruction the site has experienced over the centuries. More than fifteen years after the Giant Buddha figures turned into dust, the UNESCO Safeguarding campaign for the preservation of the Bamiyan World Heritage property has made considerable progress. Upon continued request by the local population and the national government, the international community is asked to contribute proposals for the future presentation of the physical remains including the options of reassembling the original fragments. The achievements and backlashes of the UNESCO campaign are discussed and a proposal is given, how virtual technology can contribute to the ongoing discussion regarding the future of the site. At a time when deliberate raids during military conflicts against heritage places have become commonplace, the Bamiyan case has become emblematic and is considered now a key turning point in the heritage community on the question, which roles reconstruction can have especially in the aftermath of conflict situations. It is argued that immersive virtual reality technologies offer the chance to investigate how values attributed to cultural heritage are produced and experienced among different stakeholder groups.

  16. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-12-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy`s Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989.

  17. Network issues for large mass storage requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, James

    1992-01-01

    File Servers and Supercomputing environments need high performance networks to balance the I/O requirements seen in today's demanding computing scenarios. UltraNet is one solution which permits both high aggregate transfer rates and high task-to-task transfer rates as demonstrated in actual tests. UltraNet provides this capability as both a Server-to-Server and Server-to-Client access network giving the supercomputing center the following advantages highest performance Transport Level connections (to 40 MBytes/sec effective rates); matches the throughput of the emerging high performance disk technologies, such as RAID, parallel head transfer devices and software striping; supports standard network and file system applications using SOCKET's based application program interface such as FTP, rcp, rdump, etc.; supports access to the Network File System (NFS) and LARGE aggregate bandwidth for large NFS usage; provides access to a distributed, hierarchical data server capability using DISCOS UniTree product; supports file server solutions available from multiple vendors, including Cray, Convex, Alliant, FPS, IBM, and others.

  18. Inverse scattering and refraction corrected reflection for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiskin, J.; Borup, D.; Johnson, S.; Berggren, M.; Robinson, D.; Smith, J.; Chen, J.; Parisky, Y.; Klock, John

    2010-03-01

    Reflection ultrasound (US) has been utilized as an adjunct imaging modality for over 30 years. TechniScan, Inc. has developed unique, transmission and concomitant reflection algorithms which are used to reconstruct images from data gathered during a tomographic breast scanning process called Warm Bath Ultrasound (WBU™). The transmission algorithm yields high resolution, 3D, attenuation and speed of sound (SOS) images. The reflection algorithm is based on canonical ray tracing utilizing refraction correction via the SOS and attenuation reconstructions. The refraction correction reflection algorithm allows 360 degree compounding resulting in the reflection image. The requisite data are collected when scanning the entire breast in a 33° C water bath, on average in 8 minutes. This presentation explains how the data are collected and processed by the 3D transmission and reflection imaging mode algorithms. The processing is carried out using two NVIDIA® Tesla™ GPU processors, accessing data on a 4-TeraByte RAID. The WBU™ images are displayed in a DICOM viewer that allows registration of all three modalities. Several representative cases are presented to demonstrate potential diagnostic capability including: a cyst, fibroadenoma, and a carcinoma. WBU™ images (SOS, attenuation, and reflection modalities) are shown along with their respective mammograms and standard ultrasound images. In addition, anatomical studies are shown comparing WBU™ images and MRI images of a cadaver breast. This innovative technology is designed to provide additional tools in the armamentarium for diagnosis of breast disease.

  19. Isotopic and genetic analyses of a mass grave in central California: Implications for precontact hunter-gatherer warfare.

    PubMed

    Eerkens, Jelmer W; Carlson, Traci; Malhi, Ripan S; Blake, Jennifer; Bartelink, Eric J; Barfod, Gry H; Estes, Alan; Garibay, Ramona; Glessner, Justin; Greenwald, Alexandra M; Lentz, Kari; Li, Hongjie; Marshall, Charla K

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of a mass burial of seven males at CA-ALA-554, a prehistoric site in the Amador Valley, CA, was undertaken to determine if the individuals were "locals" or "non-locals," and how they were genetically related to one another. The study includes osteological, genetic (mtDNA), and stable (C, N, O, S) and radiogenic (Sr) isotope analyses of bone and tooth (first and third molars) samples. Isotopes in first molars, third molars, and bone show they spent the majority of their lives living together. They are not locals to the Amador Valley, but were recently living to the east in the San Joaquin Valley, suggesting intergroup warfare as the cause of death. The men were not maternally related, but represent at least four different matrilines. The men also changed residence as a group between age 16 and adult years. Isotope data suggest intergroup warfare accounts for the mass burial. Genetic data suggest the raiding party included sets of unrelated men, perhaps from different households. Generalizing from this case and others like it, we hypothesize that competition over territory was a major factor behind ancient warfare in Central California. We present a testable model of demographic expansion, wherein villages in high-population-density areas frequently fissioned, with groups of individuals moving to lower-population-density areas to establish new villages. This model is consistent with previous models of linguistic expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  1. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  2. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Gunasekaran, Raghul; Shipman, Galen M; Dillow, David A; Zhang, Zhe; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  3. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action.

  4. Visual issues associated with the use of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in the Apache helicopter: three decades in review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    In the late 1970s the U.S. Army developed the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS), which is a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for use in the AH-64 Apache helicopter. The helicopter and the system were designed with the Cold War in mind such that the Apache would be able to stand off far from the frontlines and attack deep target-primarily tanks-before they could engage our ground forces. The design used a right-sided monocular display optical system that was intended to reduce head-supported weight. This novel monocular design introduced a number of issues that had the potential of causing visual perception problems for pilots. Since the initial fielding of the Apache in the early 1980s, numerous reports have appeared in the literature that evaluated realized visual complaints voiced by Apache aircrew. In this review, the authors provide a summary of seminal reports, surveys, and experiments conducted over the past three decades. The extant literature described investigated these visual issues as the Apache's mission has evolved from the stand-off engagement tactics of the Cold War to the new Apache missions of close air support, deep attack, and raids currently occurring in the Global War on Terrorism.

  5. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  6. Flawed Nuclear Physics and Atomic Intelligence in the Campaign to deny Norwegian Heavy Water to Germany, 1942-1944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Børresen, Hans Christofer

    2012-12-01

    The military campaign to deny Norwegian heavy water to Germany in World War II did not diminish as the threat posed by heavy water in German hands dwindled, mainly because of excessive security among the Allies. Signs that Albert Speer (1905-1981) had decided in 1942 to stop the German atomic-bomb project were kept secret and ignored. Prominent Allied advisers like Leif Tronstad (1903-1945) and even Niels Bohr (1885-1962) were not told about the plutonium path to a German atomic bomb. Physicists did not brief advisers, decision makers, and Allied officers on how many years Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) would need to accumulate enough heavy water (deuterium oxide, D2O) for an Uranmachine and then to extract and process plutonium for an atomic bomb. Had the flow of information been better, the military raids on the Norwegian heavy-water plant at Vemork could have been timed better, and the more costly of them could have been averted altogether.

  7. Development of techniques for tagging precursor and essential chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, W.A.; Shepodd, T.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to identify the manufacturers and distributors of chemicals seized in raids of illicit drug labs would be of great value in controlling the diversion of these chemicals. We developed a tagging scheme based on the addition of sub-ppM concentrations of various combinations of rare-earth elements to the target chemicals and evaluated a number of techniques for detecting the tags. We developed soluble tags for tagging liquids and selected Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the preferred detection technique. We developed insoluble tags for tagging solids and developed methods to analyze them and mix them into solid precursors. We have successfully demonstrated the tagging of several solvents and two of the precursor chemicals used in one of the most popular clandestine methamphetamine syntheses (ephedrine reacting with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus). The tagging scheme is capable of yielding tens of thousands of signatures (using holmium as an internal standard and up to 9 rare-earths at up to 3 concentrations yields 3{sup 9} {minus} 1 = 19,682 signatures) and is applicable to most of the chemicals on the precursor and essential chemicals list. In the concentrations employed, the tags are safe enough to be added to pharmaceuticals and cheap enough to tag tanker loads of chemicals.

  8. Real-time, mixed-mode computing architecture for waveform-resolved lidar systems with total propagated uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortman, Robert L.; Carr, Domenic A.; James, Ryan; Long, Daniel; O'Shaughnessy, Matthew R.; Valenta, Christopher R.; Tuell, Grady H.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a prototype real-time computer for a bathymetric lidar capable of producing point clouds attributed with total propagated uncertainty (TPU). This real-time computer employs a "mixed-mode" architecture comprised of an FPGA, CPU, and GPU. Noise reduction and ranging are performed in the digitizer's user-programmable FPGA, and coordinates and TPU are calculated on the GPU. A Keysight M9703A digitizer with user-programmable Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGAs digitizes as many as eight channels of lidar data, performs ranging, and delivers the data to the CPU via PCIe. The floating-point-intensive coordinate and TPU calculations are performed on an NVIDIA Tesla K20 GPU. Raw data and computed products are written to an SSD RAID, and an attributed point cloud is displayed to the user. This prototype computer has been tested using 7m-deep waveforms measured at a water tank on the Georgia Tech campus, and with simulated waveforms to a depth of 20m. Preliminary results show the system can compute, store, and display about 20 million points per second.

  9. Virtualizing observation computing infrastructure at Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric; Inagaki, Takeshi; Kackley, Russell; Schubert, Kiaina; Tait, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Subaru Telescope, an 8-meter class optical telescope located in Hawaii, has been using a high-availability commodity cluster as a platform for our Observation Control System (OCS). Until recently, we have followed a tried-and-tested practice of running the system under a native (Linux) OS installation with dedicated attached RAID systems and following a strict cluster deployment model to facilitate failover handling of hardware problems,1.2 Following the apparent benefits of virtualizing (i.e. running in Virtual Machines (VMs)) many of the non- observation critical systems at the base facility, we recently began to explore the idea of migrating other parts of the observatory's computing infrastructure to virtualized systems, including the summit OCS, data analysis systems and even the front ends of various Instrument Control Systems. In this paper we describe our experience with the initial migration of the Observation Control System to virtual machines running on the cluster and using a new generation tool - ansible - to automate installation and deployment. This change has significant impacts for ease of cluster maintenance, upgrades, snapshots/backups, risk-management, availability, performance, cost-savings and energy use. In this paper we discuss some of the trade-offs involved in this virtualization and some of the impacts for the above-mentioned areas, as well as the specific techniques we are using to accomplish the changeover, simplify installation and reduce management complexity.

  10. Ceramic Production and Craft Specialization in the Prehispanic Philippines, A.D. 500 to 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolek, Lisa Christine

    In the millennium prior to Spanish contact, the political economies of lowland societies in the Philippines, such as Tanjay (A.D. 500-1600) on southeastern Negros Island in the central Philippines, underwent significant social, political, and economic changes. Foreign trade with China increased, the circulation of wealth through events such as ritual feasting and bridewealth exchanges expanded, inter-polity competition through slave-raiding and warfare heightened, and agriculture intensified. It also has been hypothesized that the production of craft goods such as pottery and metal implements became increasingly specialized and centralized at polity centers. Tanjay, a historically-known chiefdom, was among them. This dissertation examines changes in the organization of ceramic production using the results of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of close to 300 ceramic samples. In addition to geochemical analysis, this research draws on Chinese accounts of trade from the late first millennium and early second millennium A.D.; Spanish colonial accounts of exploration and conquest from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; ethnographic research on traditional Philippine societies and ceramic production; ethnoarchaeological investigations of pottery production, exchange, and use; and archaeological work that has taken place in the Bais-Tanjay region of Negros Island for more than 30 years. Rather than finding clear evidence that ceramics became more compositionally standardized or homogeneous over time, this analysis reveals that a dynamic and complex pattern of local, dispersed pottery production existed alongside increasingly centralized and specialized production of ceramic materials.

  11. Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Thomas R.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Estoff, Elizabeth L.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were ≈75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased ≈3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant’s bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence. PMID:18760003

  12. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia

    DOE PAGES

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J.; Colella, Michael; ...

    2014-04-13

    In early 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. While searching the laboratory, they discovered a small glass jar labelled “Gamma Source” and containing a green powder. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterize and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive rangemore » of parameters were measured, the key ‘nuclear forensic signatures’ used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine.« less

  13. The stressful life events and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, Hristina; Sipetic, Sandra; Marinkovic, Jelena; Ratkov, Isidora; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Dzoljic, Eleonora; Kostic, Vladimir

    2013-02-01

    A case-control study was conducted in order to investigate the possible link between stressful life events and Parkinson's disease (PD). A group of 110 consecutive newly diagnosed PD cases treated at the Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade University, was compared with a control group comprising 220 subjects with degenerative joint disease and some diseases of the digestive tract. The case and control subjects were matched by sex, age (±2 years) and place of residence (urban/rural). According to conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis, PD was found to be significantly related to retirement (odds ratio--OR 18.73, 95% confidence interval--95%CI 1.9-175.4), birth of own child (OR 66.22, 95%CI 8.3-526.3) and air raids (OR 5.66, 95%CI 2.4-13.5). The risk of PD significantly increased with the number of stressful events. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that stress may play a role in the development of PD. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Big Data Archives: Replication and synchronizing on a large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Modern data archives provide unique challenges to replication and synchronization because of their large size. We collect more digital information today than any time before and the volume of data collected is continuously increasing. Some of these data are from unique observations, like those from planetary missions that should be preserved for use by future generations. In addition data from NASA missions are considered federal records and must be retained. While the data may be stored on resilient hardware (i.e. RAID systems) they also must be protected from local or regional disasters. Meeting this challenge requires creating multiple copies. This task is complicated by the fact that new data are constantly being added creating what are called "active archives". Having reliable, high performance tools for replicating and synchronizing active archives in a timely fashion is critical to preservation of the data. When archives were smaller using tools like bbcp, rsync and rcp worked fairly well. While these tools are affective they are not optimized for synchronizing big data archives and their poor performance at scale lead us to develop a new tool designed specifically for big data archives. It combines the best features of git, bbcp, rsync and rcp. We call this tool "Mimic" and we discuss the design of the tool, performance comparisons and its use at NASA's Planetary Plasma Interactions (PPI) Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  15. Evolution of coalitionary killing.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, R W

    1999-01-01

    Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species.

  16. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-02-28

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids.

  17. Incomplete homogenization of chemical recognition labels between Formica sanguinea and Formica rufa ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) living in a mixed colony.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Formica sanguinea Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a slave-making species, i.e., it raids colonies of host species and pillages pupae, which are taken to develop into adult workers in a parasite colony. However, it has been unclear if the coexistence of F. sanguinea with slave workers requires uniformity of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), among which those other than n-alkanes are believed to be the principal nestmate recognition cues utilized by ants. In this study, a mixed colony (MC) of F. sanguinea and Formica rufa L. as a slave species was used to test the hypothesis that CHCs are exchanged between the species. Chemical analysis of hexane extracts from ants' body surfaces provided evidence for interspecific exchange of alkenes and methyl-branched alkanes. This result was confirmed by behavioral tests during which ants exhibited hostility toward conspecific individuals from the MC but not toward ones from homospecific colonies of their own species. However, it seems that species-specific differences in chemical recognition labels were not eliminated completely because ants from the MC were treated differently depending on whether they were con- or allospecific to the individuals whose behavioral reactions were tested. These findings are discussed in the context of mechanisms of colony's odor formation and effective integration of slaves into parasite colony. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. An ethnoprimatological approach to assessing levels of tolerance between human and commensal non-human primates in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nekaris, Anne-Isola; Boulton, Alex; Nijman, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Human and non-human primates increasingly are forced to live commensally, and understanding the human-nonhuman interconnections are paramount in understanding tolerance and conflict. In our study area, the heavily deforested parts of southern Sri Lanka humans and primates live side by side and prevalent religious tenets encourage a peaceful co-existence. We quantify the attitudes of rural communities towards three resident primate species (red slender loris, purple-faced langur, toque macaque) and wildlife conservation through semi-structured interviews with 301 people. Presence of the three primates on people' s land or farms was not related to the distance to the nearest forest but for langurs the incidence of crop-raiding was negatively related to distance to the forest. Despite Buddhist' s beliefs about 10% of interviewees indicated having killed primates (in the past) but levels of killing was not related to awareness of protective status of the primates. Overall however positive attitudes towards primates prevailed, without noticeable influence of sex, education or employment type. There was overwhelming support for forest protection measures - not because of the primates but mainly for water preservation and for ensuring a steady timber supply. We found that despite high levels of deforestation, and an increase of encroachment of humans into primate habitats, attitudes has led only to a limited increased level of tension between humans and primates.

  19. The Effect of Social Parasitism by Polyergus breviceps on the Nestmate Recognition System of Its Host, Formica altipetens

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Candice W.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Highly social ants, bees and wasps employ sophisticated recognition systems to identify colony members and deny foreign individuals access to their nest. For ants, cuticular hydrocarbons serve as the labels used to ascertain nest membership. Social parasites, however, are capable of breaking the recognition code so that they can thrive unopposed within the colonies of their hosts. Here we examine the influence of the socially parasitic slave-making ant, Polyergus breviceps on the nestmate recognition system of its slaves, Formica altipetens. We compared the chemical, genetic, and behavioral characteristics of colonies of enslaved and free-living F. altipetens. We found that enslaved Formica colonies were more genetically and chemically diverse than their free-living counterparts. These differences are likely caused by the hallmark of slave-making ant ecology: seasonal raids in which pupa are stolen from several adjacent host colonies. The different social environments of enslaved and free-living Formica appear to affect their recognition behaviors: enslaved Formica workers were less aggressive towards non-nestmates than were free-living Formica. Our findings indicate that parasitism by P. breviceps dramatically alters both the chemical and genetic context in which their kidnapped hosts develop, leading to changes in how they recognize nestmates. PMID:26840394

  20. First evidence for slave rebellion: enslaved ant workers systematically kill the brood of their social parasite protomognathus americanus.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Alexandra; Foitzik, Susanne

    2009-04-01

    During the process of coevolution, social parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to exploit the brood care behavior of their social hosts. Slave-making ant queens invade host colonies and kill or eject all adult host ants. Host workers, which eclose from the remaining brood, are tricked into caring for the parasite brood. Due to their high prevalence and frequent raids, following which stolen host broods are similarly enslaved, slave-making ants exert substantial selection upon their hosts, leading to the evolution of antiparasite adaptations. However, all host defenses shown to date are active before host workers are parasitized, whereas selection was thought to be unable to act on traits of already enslaved hosts. Yet, here we demonstrate the rebellion of enslaved Temnothorax workers, which kill two-thirds of the female pupae of the slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus. Thereby, slaves decrease the long-term parasite impact on surrounding related host colonies. This novel antiparasite strategy of enslaved workers constitutes a new level in the coevolutionary battle after host colony defense has failed. Our discovery is analogous to recent findings in hosts of avian brood parasites where perfect mimicry of parasite eggs leads to the evolution of chick recognition as a second line of defense.

  1. Detecting warning signs of trouble within population fluctuations: using capture-recapture modeling to uncover changes in population dynamics leading to declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

    2004-01-01

    An intensive mark-recapture/resighting program has been carried out on the Roseate Terns nesting at Falkner Island, Connecticut, since the late 1980s as part of a regional study of the metapopulation dynamics and ecology of the endangered Northwest Atlantic breeding population of this species. Substantial losses of tern eggs and chicks to predation at this colony site began in 1996 when at least five Black-crowned Night-Herons started nocturnal raids. This depredation has been a major factor in the reduction of productivity from an average of about 1.0 chicks/pair for the 10 years before night-heron predation began to as low as about 0.2 chicks/pair in 2002. Recent capture-recapture modelling analyses have detected other important impacts on the population dynamics of the Roseate Terns at this site including a reduction by about half in the 'development-of-residency' rates of first-time breeders, and a substantial decline in the local 'survival-and-fidelity' rates of experienced breeders believed due mostly to increased immigration rates to other colony sites.

  2. From Easter Island to coated coronary stents: a remarkable saga.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, John D

    2008-01-01

    Easter Island, even though it's in the middle of nowhere, is indeed a piece of the continent, as John Donne alluded to. In addition to contributing rapamycin to the medical field, the island is an example to the whole world of the consequences of affluent lifestyles, tribal wars, and ignorance of ecology. Jared Diamond expressed these thoughts best in his book, "Collapse:" The parallels between Easter Island and the whole modern world are chillingly obvious... All countries on earth today share resources and affect each other just as did Easter's dozen clans. Polynesian Easter Island was as isolated in the Pacific Ocean as the Earth is today in space. People see the collapse of Easter Island 's society as a metaphor; a worst-case scenario, for what may lie ahead for us in our own future. Some veteran Easter Island archaeologists like Claudio Cristina feel that Diamond's views are overly simplistic, commenting that he only spent a week on the island (versus 30 years for Cristina). Predatory Polynesian rats, earthquakes, tsunamis, variations in rainfall, diseases introduced by European sailing ships, could all have contributed to the near-demise of Easter Island. Tribal wars certainly didn't help, nor did slave-raiding parties from Peru. Only the eyes of the moai (Fig. 5) have seen it all, but the statues remain silent, as they have for over 1,000 years.

  3. [Conviction, pragmatism, research enthusiasm--mechanisms of conformity. The Medical Faculty of Giessen during National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Oehler-Klein, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    In the course of its history the University of Giessen was threatened several times by closure, due to the University's geographical location, size, or a relative lack of reputation. This paper deals with the policy of the University's Medical Faculty during the Nazi period, when it faced specific demands and opportunities. While the University's restructuring had been initiated by some active National Socialists, this process was pragmatically supported by the Medical Faculty as a whole in order to gain advantages from its location. In particular, the Faculty (1.) institutionalized racial hygiene--a chair for one of the most radical representatives of this subject in Germany was requested--and (2.) established collaboration with the "Wehrmacht". The newly opened up perspectives for research were seen as an opportunity. In fact, from 1940 the University of Giessen was frequented again by many medical students; in 1943, the Berlin Academy for Military Medicine relocated some institutes and scientists to the University of Giessen, as the capital had become too unsafe for them because of increasing air raids.

  4. A hierarchical storage management (HSM) scheme for cost-effective on-line archival using lossy compression.

    PubMed

    Avrin, D E; Andriole, K P; Yin, L; Gould, R G; Arenson, R L

    2001-03-01

    A hierarchical storage management (HSM) scheme for cost-effective on-line archival of image data using lossy compression is described. This HSM scheme also provides an off-site tape backup mechanism and disaster recovery. The full-resolution image data are viewed originally for primary diagnosis, then losslessly compressed and sent off site to a tape backup archive. In addition, the original data are wavelet lossy compressed (at approximately 25:1 for computed radiography, 10:1 for computed tomography, and 5:1 for magnetic resonance) and stored on a large RAID device for maximum cost-effective, on-line storage and immediate retrieval of images for review and comparison. This HSM scheme provides a solution to 4 problems in image archiving, namely cost-effective on-line storage, disaster recovery of data, off-site tape backup for the legal record, and maximum intermediate storage and retrieval through the use of on-site lossy compression.

  5. Honolulu and Waikiki

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Honolulu is one of the most exotic resort destinations in the United States. Honolulu is located on Oahu, the most populated of the Hawaiian Islands. Just to the East of Honolulu is Waikiki Beach, with throngs of tourists and dozens of high-rise hotels. Overlooking Waikiki is Diamond Head, a volcanic crater formed from 70,000 to 500,000 years ago, long after Oahu's principle volcanoes-Ko'olau and Wai'anae-stopped erupting. North of Diamond Head are the eroded remains of Ko'olau. The clouds in the upper right hand corner of this image are an almost permanent feature of Oahu. Trade winds blowing from the northeast are stopped by the 3,000 foot (960 meter) high mountain range, where they rain out most of their moisture. As a result, the windward side of Oahu is usually cloudy, and the leeward side is relatively clear and dry. On the lefthand side of the image is Pearl Harbor, site of the Japanese air raid which drew America into World War II. The harbor still serves as a U.S. Navy base. The image was captured by the Landsat 7 satellite's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on March 18, 2001. Image courtesy Landsat 7 Science Team

  6. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  7. Super-resolution of multi-pixel and sub-pixel images for the SDI. Final report. [SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-08

    The recent profound shift in the global balance of power in favor of the United States of America has had major repercussions on Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) planning. In particular, the focus has shifted from the provision of protection for the United States against a massive raid, involving possibly thousands of reentry vehicles, to defense against a much more limited attack which could now, however, be launched from any part of the world. Additionally, the United States is seeking to protect its forces and allies overseas, and in the task of missile detection and tracking, allowance must now be made for trajectories which can begin and end in almost any inhabited area of the globe. Thus SDI demands on surveillance technology have been significantly expanded. Space-based imaging systems will play a vital role in the surveillance task. In this report a description is first given of a typical scenario. The potential imaging problems are then examined, the mathematical background is discussed, and the innovative algorithms which have been developed for correcting and enhancing the performance of the imaging sensor are described.

  8. Strategic nuclear deterrence: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Individual study project

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, S.L.

    1991-03-15

    On 16 July 1945, the first atom bomb was successfully exploded over Trinity, New Mexico, and raised the question: What should we do with it. Once the conclusion to use the weapon had been reached, only one employment decision was necessary: Should it be dropped on a city or on a military target. Limitations on the bomb's power and accuracy negated its use against ships in Tokyo Bay, while Army bases had air raid shelters. On the other hand, a drop on any city would have an impressive effect. The practice of destroying cities was well established by August, 1945, and policy makers saw no moral difference using the atom bomb. So Hiroshima and Nagasaki were struck. Over time, the development and debates over nuclear strategy have become infinitely more complex. This study describes the evolution of United States nuclear deterrence strategy; discusses why the author believes it was successful during the Cold War period; assesses its viability against the post-Cold War threat; and, finally, offers a new paradigm for the utilization of the strategic nuclear balance. Although other factors are considered, the environment for this study encompasses primarily the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

  9. Police-Related Experiences and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests experiences with police are related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk among women working as sex workers. However, little is known about the links between specific police-related behaviors and HIV vulnerability. We examine whether 5 police-related experiences are associated with measures of HIV risk and violence among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Andhra Pradesh, India, and consider the implications for HIV prevention. FSWs at least 18 years of age (n = 835) were recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a cross-sectional survey conducted as part of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, age at start of sex work, and sex work venue, we assessed police-related experiences reported by FSWs in relation to HIV risk behaviors and violence. Results showed having sex with police to avoid trouble, giving gifts to police to avoid trouble, having police take condoms away, experiencing a workplace raid, and being arrested were associated with sexually transmitted infection symptoms, inconsistent condom use, acceptance of more money for sex without a condom, and experience of client violence. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting police–FSW interactions to reduce HIV vulnerability among FSWs. PMID:22043036

  10. Pacopampa: Early evidence of violence at a ceremonial site in the northern Peruvian highlands.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Tomohito; Uzawa, Kazuhiro; Seki, Yuji; Morales Chocano, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pacopampa, a ceremonial complex in Peru's northern highlands, reveals early evidence of trauma in the Middle to Late Formative Period coinciding with the emergence of social stratification in the area. We examine the prevalence of trauma in human remains found at the site and present evidence of the circumstances surrounding the deaths of individuals who lived during the early stages of Andean civilization. The materials are the remains of 104 individuals (38 non-adult and 66 adult) from the Middle to Late Formative Periods. We explored trauma macroscopically and recorded patterns based on skeletons' locations, age at death, sex, social class, and chronology. We detected trauma in remains over the Middle to Late Formative Periods. While the prevalence of trauma was minimal in the Middle Formative Period, skeletons from the subsequent era exhibit more severe disturbances. However, all the skeletons show signs of healing and affected individuals experienced a low degree of trauma. Given the archaeological context (the remains were recovered from sites of ceremonial practices), as well as the equal distribution of trauma among both sexes and a lack of defensive architecture, it is plausible that rituals, rather than organized warfare or raids, caused most of the exhibited trauma. Pacopampa was home to a complex society founded on ritual activity in a ceremonial center: this is indicated by the presence of ritual violence in a society that built impressively large, ceremonial architecture and developed social stratification without any political control of surplus agricultural goods.

  11. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  12. Viking voyages: the origin of multiple sclerosis? An essay in medical history.

    PubMed

    Poser, C M

    1995-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is most frequently found in Scandinavia, Iceland, the British Isles and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, i.e. the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas, as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus, to the Black and Caspian Seas, and penetrated Persia, India and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that Empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination.

  13. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself.

  14. Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana; Vicente, Luís; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Casanova, Catarina; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-02-01

    Our study concerns local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees among farming communities within Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. We submitted a survey questionnaire to 100 people living in four villages in the Park to enquire about their knowledge of chimpanzee ecology and human-chimpanzee interactions. Local farmers live in close contact with chimpanzees, consider them to be more similar to humans than any other species, and attribute special importance to them primarily due to expectations of tourism revenue. Interviewees' responses, as a function of gender, village, and age, were analyzed statistically using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Age influenced responses significantly, while gender and village had no significant effect. Youngsters emphasized morphological aspects of human-chimpanzee similarities, while adults emphasized chimpanzee behavior and narratives about the shared history of humans and chimpanzees. Tourism, conservation, and crop raiding feature prominently in people's reports about chimpanzees. Local people's engagement with conservation and tourism-related activities is likely to allow them to manage not only the costs but also the benefits of conservation, and can in turn inform the expectations built upon tourism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species.

  16. Public health through a different lens.

    PubMed

    Deber, Raisa; McDougall, Christopher; Wilson, Kumanan

    2007-01-01

    Although public health in Canada faces concerns similar to those noted by Tilson and Berkowitz in the US, a review we conducted of how public health is financed and delivered in Canada also highlights some key differences. In both systems, public health labours under similar disadvantages: it is invisible when it succeeds; it has overtones of a "nanny state" and it focuses on often unpopular vulnerable populations. Prevention is always at risk of being raided to finance treatment. Yet, Canada, because there are fewer financial barriers to receiving medically necessary personal services, can focus more attention on what Tilson and Berkowitz term "the ecology of health." We highlight some of the strengths and ongoing challenges of the Canadian public health system. We conclude that the issue appears less the need to measure performance, than the recognition that one size does not fit all. In particular, for threats to public health that transcend borders, local failure can affect wider populations and suggests a need to look beyond local, provincial or national sovereignty. Public health is heterogeneous, and many roads may lead us to the promised land.

  17. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshete, Girma; Tesfay, Girmay; Bauer, Hans; Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera; de Iongh, Hans; Marino, Jorgelina

    2015-09-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis). Questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the livelihoods of the Amhara people living in Mount Abune Yosef and their attitudes toward Afroalpine and Ethiopian wolf conservation. Of the 120 households interviewed, selected randomly from across eight villages, 80 % benefited from natural resources by grazing their livestock and harvesting firewood and grasses. The majority (90 %) also suffered from livestock predation by Ethiopian wolves and common jackals (Canis aureus) and crop raiding by geladas ( Theropithecus gelada), birds, and rodents, yet more than half reported a positive attitudes toward Ethiopian wolves (66 %). People with positive attitudes tended to live close to the communal land, to own more livestock, and to be unaffected by conflict. Many also recognized the need to protect the Afroalpine habitats of Abune Yosef (71 %), and this attitude predominated among the literate, households that owned land, had smaller herds and were further away. We discussed how people's attitudes were modulated by human-wildlife conflicts and by the benefits derived from the access to natural resources in communal land, and the implications for the conservation of Afroalpine ecosystem and the flagship Ethiopian wolf.

  18. High-Speed Optical Library System Using Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Takaya; Ura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2000-02-01

    A high-data-transfer-rate optical storage system using a redundant array of inexpensive libraries (RAIL) has been developed and tested. It incorporates multiple libraries, where each library consists of dual digital versatile disk (DVD) random access memory (RAM) drives and a single robotic hand and holds 2.6 GB DVD disks. To increase the reliability of data storage and at the same time to eliminate the need for read-after-write verification, which doubles the recording time, a redundant array of inexpensive drives (RAID) 4 algorithm is implemented in the control unit of the storage system. Data sent by the host is transferred to a control unit, which stripes the data into five data groups plus one parity unit. The striped and parity data is sent to individual libraries and written to the DVD disks. This system writes and retrieves data with a transfer rate of approximately 6 MB/s, using write and read control methods that minimize the data striping overhead. This reliable library system can be used for networked multimedia applications.

  19. Design and reliability analysis of high-speed and continuous data recording system based on disk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changlong; Ma, Cheng; He, Ning; Zhang, Xugang; Wang, Chongyang; Jia, Huibo

    2002-12-01

    In many real-time fields the sustained high-speed data recording system is required. This paper proposes a high-speed and sustained data recording system based on the complex-RAID 3+0. The system consists of Array Controller Module (ACM), String Controller Module (SCM) and Main Controller Module (MCM). ACM implemented by an FPGA chip is used to split the high-speed incoming data stream into several lower-speed streams and generate one parity code stream synchronously. It also can inversely recover the original data stream while reading. SCMs record lower-speed streams from the ACM into the SCSI disk drivers. In the SCM, the dual-page buffer technology is adopted to implement speed-matching function and satisfy the need of sustainable recording. MCM monitors the whole system, controls ACM and SCMs to realize the data stripping, reconstruction, and recovery functions. The method of how to determine the system scale is presented. At the end, two new ways Floating Parity Group (FPG) and full 2D-Parity Group (full 2D-PG) are proposed to improve the system reliability and compared with the Traditional Parity Group (TPG). This recording system can be used conveniently in many areas of data recording, storing, playback and remote backup with its high-reliability.

  20. Fitness costs of worker specialization for ant societies.

    PubMed

    Jongepier, Evelien; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-13

    Division of labour is of fundamental importance for the success of societies, yet little is known about how individual specialization affects the fitness of the group as a whole. While specialized workers may be more efficient in the tasks they perform than generalists, they may also lack the flexibility to respond to rapid shifts in task needs. Such rigidity could impose fitness costs when societies face dynamic and unpredictable events, such as an attack by socially parasitic slavemakers. Here, we experimentally assess the colony-level fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in Temnothorax longispinosus ants that are attacked by the slavemaker ant T. americanus. We manipulated the social organization of 102 T. longispinosus colonies, based on the behavioural responses of all 3842 workers. We find that strict specialization is disadvantageous for a colony's annual reproduction and growth during slave raids. These fitness costs may favour generalist strategies in dynamic environments, as we also demonstrate that societies exposed to slavemakers in the field show a lower degree of specialization than those originating from slavemaker-free populations. Our findings provide an explanation for the ubiquity of generalists and highlight their importance for the flexibility and functional robustness of entire societies.