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Sample records for dried dairy manures

  1. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  2. Characteristics of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Compost" dairy barns are a relatively new housing system that generates a deep (0.9 to 1.5 m), stratified bedded pack (SBP) manure source. Bedding composed of sawdust, wood chips, or crop residues accumulates as additions are made to maintain a dry surface. Surface drying is promoted by a combinati...

  3. Dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure at high organic loading rates in psychrophilic sequence batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-05-01

    Cow manure with bedding is renewable organic biomass available around the year on dairy farms. Developing efficient and cost-effective psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) processes could contribute to solving farm-related environmental, energy, and manure management problems in cold-climate regions. This study was to increase the organic loading rate (OLR), fed to a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of 27% total solid dairy manure (cow feces and wheat straw) in sequence batch reactor (PDAD-SBR), by 133 to 160%. The PDAD-SBR process operated at treatment cycle length of 21 days and OLR of 7.0 and 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) (5.2 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.0 g volatile solids (VS) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1)) for four successive cycles (84 days) produced average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 147.1 ± 17.2 and 143.2 ± 11.7 normalized liters (NL) CH4 kg(-1) VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.45 at OLR of 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. The VS removal averaged around 57.4 ± 0.5 and 60.5 ± 5.7% at OLR 7.0 and 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1), respectively.

  4. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2014-03-05

    The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L(-1)·day(-1) during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows' daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH₄ production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH₄ production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  5. Anaerobic acidogenesis of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krones, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if high rate acidogenic fermentation of dairy manure was possible, Whole dairy manure was ground and diluted to 4% total solids and fed to a 10 L anaerobic chemostat operating at 35C and with hydraulic retention times varying between 6 and 50 hours. Several physical and organic parameters of the influent and effluent were measured and compared. The results indicated that the manure was too refractory for high rate liquefaction and hydrolysis. A second experiment was conducted using the same techniques and substrate but varying the substrate pH between 5 and 7. The objectives were to further investigate the pH sensitivity of the acidogenic process and to determine if, by introducing a substrate with a low pH, acidogenesis might proceed more efficiently. The primary result of decreasing the pH was a smaller proportion of methane and an increased proportion of hydrogen in the gas. Liquefaction and hydrolysis continued to be rate limiting and appeared to be a major impediment to two phase anaerobic treatment of dairy manure.

  6. Dairy manure applications and soil health implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy manure applications can potentially improve soil health by adding organic matter (OM) to the soil. However, intensive dairy manure applications can cause salt accumulations on arid, irrigated soils, impairing soil health, which can reduce crop growth and yield. Soil organic matter, a major c...

  7. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable But Valuable

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  8. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable, But Valuable

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  9. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff.

  10. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  11. Effect of Dietary Protein on Ammonia Emission from Dairy Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH3) volatilization from dairy cow manure. Two types of manure were prepared by feeding lactating dairy cows diets with 16% (DM basis; HighCP) or 14% CP (LowCP). The manure was used in 2...

  12. Varying forage type, metabolizable protein concentration, and carbohydrate source affects manure excretion, manure ammonia, and nitrogen metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Willett, L B; St-Pierre, N R; Borger, D C; McKelvey, T R; Wyatt, D J

    2009-11-01

    Effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), and type of carbohydrate on manure excretion by dairy cows and production of ammonia from that manure were evaluated using a central composite experimental design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Diets contained 10.7% rumen-degradable protein with variable concentrations of undegradable protein so that dietary MP ranged from 8.8 to 12%. Starch concentration ranged from 22 to 30% with a concomitant decrease in neutral detergent fiber. A total of 15 diets were fed to 36 Holstein cows grouped in 6 blocks. Each block was a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square resulting in 108 observations. Manure output (urine and feces) was measured using total collection, and fresh feces and urine were combined into slurries and incubated for 48 h to measure NH3-N production. Feces, urine, and manure output averaged 50.5, 29.5, and 80.1 kg/d, respectively. Manure output increased with increasing dry matter intake (approximately 3.5 kg of manure/kg of dry matter intake), increased concentrations of alfalfa (mostly via changes in urine output), and decreased concentrations of starch (mostly via changes in fecal output). The amount of NH3-N produced per gram of manure decreased with increasing alfalfa because excreted N shifted from urine to feces. Increasing MP increased NH3-N produced per gram of manure mainly because of increased urinary N, but increased fecal N also contributed to the manure NH3. Manure NH3-N production per cow (accounts for effects on manure production and NH3-N produced per unit of manure) was least and milk protein yields were maximal for diets with high alfalfa (75% of the forage), moderate MP (11% of diet dry matter), and high starch (30% of diet dry matter).

  13. Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Ann C; Mulbry, Walter W

    2002-08-01

    Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of this research was to assess the ability of benthic freshwater algae to recover nutrients from dairy manure and to evaluate nutrient uptake rates and dry matter/crude protein yields in comparison to a conventional cropping system. Benthic algae growth chambers were operated in semi-batch mode by continuously recycling wastewater and adding manure inputs daily. Using total nitrogen (TN) loading rates of 0.64-1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), the dried algal yields were 5.3-5.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The dried algae contained 1.5-2.1% P and 4.9-7.1% N. At a TN loading rate of 1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), algal biomass contained 7.1% N compared to only 4.9% N at a TN loading rate of 0.64 g m(-2) d(-1). In the best case, algal biomass had a crude protein content of 44%, compared to a typical corn silage protein content of 7%. At a dry matter yield of 5.5 g m(-2) d(-1), this is equivalent to an annual N uptake rate of 1,430 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). Compared to a conventional corn/rye rotation, such benthic algae production rates would require 26% of the land area requirements for equivalent N uptake rates and 23% of the land area requirements on a P uptake basis. Combining conventional cropping systems with an algal treatment system could facilitate more efficient crop production and farm nutrient management, allowing dairy operations to be environmentally sustainable on fewer acres.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  15. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (<10% TS) because it allows for the use of a smaller volume of reactor and because it reduces wastewater production. In addition, it produces a fertilizer that is easier to transport. Performance of anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop.

  16. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably.

  17. Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

    2005-05-01

    Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm.

  18. Recycling of manure nutrients: use of algal biomass from dairy manure treatment as a slow release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Westhead, Elizabeth Kebede; Pizarro, Carolina; Sikora, Lawrence

    2005-03-01

    An alternative to land spreading of manure is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fertilizer value of dried algal biomass that had been grown using anaerobically digested dairy manure. Results from a flask study using two soils amended with algal biomass showed that 3% of total algal nitrogen (N) was present as plant available N at day 0. Approximately 33% of algal N was converted to plant available N within 21 days at 25 degrees C in both soils. Levels of Mehlich-3 extractable phosphorus (P) in the two soils rose with increasing levels of algal amendment but were also influenced by existing soil P levels. Results from plant growth experiments showed that 20-day old cucumber and corn seedlings grown in algae-amended potting mix contained 15-20% of applied N, 46-60% of available N, and 38-60% of the applied P. Seedlings grown in algae-amended potting mixes were equivalent to those grown with comparable levels of fertilizer amended potting mixes with respect to seedling dry weight and nutrient content. These results suggest that dried algal biomass produced from treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure can substitute for commercial fertilizers used for potting systems.

  19. Characteristics and Nitrogen Value of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Compost-bedded-pack (CBP) dairy barns are relatively new, but CBP manure has not been characterized in detail and there are no published data on its N supply. We measured physical characteristics, nutrient concentration, N mineralization, and N supply to corn (Zea mays L.) of CBP manure from eight M...

  20. Dairy heifer diets, manure management, and runoff phosphorus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of phosphorus and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer diet P, manure incorporation, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses f...

  1. Calculation of Manure Production and Excretion of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium by Dairy Cattle in the Comarca Lagunera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to show how to calculate dairy manure production and the manure content of N, P and K. At the regional level, 7.5 x 106 ton yr-1 of fresh manure is produced, with 12.3% of dry matter (DM) content, for a total of 925,000 ton yr-1 (DM). Total N excreted is 46,200 ton yr-...

  2. Characterization of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Kedar

    Emission of gases, odor, and particulate matters from livestock manure is a major concern because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. For example, ammonia in the air has the potential to: negatively affect animal, human health and environment. Mitigation of ammonia emissions from livestock manure to protect animal and human health, and the environment, in general, is thus an important agenda for livestock producers, engineers, and environmental scientists. Proper understanding of the mechanisms or process of its volatilization from manure is the first step towards designing or formulating appropriate emissions mitigation strategies. This research investigated the effects of suspended solids, anaerobic digestion, and ionic strength on the ammonia (NH3) volatilization mechanism from liquid dairy manure. Experiments were conducted to: (i) assess the role of suspended solids characteristics on ammonia volatilization, (ii) evaluate the impacts of anaerobic digestion on the process governing NH 3 volatilization, and (iii) delineate the influences of suspended solids (SS) and ionic strength (IS) on the ammonia volatilization process from dairy manure. Two key parameters (the ammonia dissociation and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KoL)) that govern ammonia volatilization were evaluated to achieve these objectives. The physical and chemical properties of manure were also evaluated to further elucidate the respective processes. The suspended solids ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption properties did not significantly affect either the ammonium dissociation or the K oL; suggesting that the characteristics of manure suspended solids did not play a significant role in ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure. The dissociation of ammonium in anaerobically digested (AD) manure was significantly higher than in the undigested (UD) manure. However, KoL was less in AD manure than in UD manure, while an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was observed

  3. Manure nitrogen excretion and transformation on dairy farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen (N) passes through a continuing cycle on dairy farms. On confinement farms, cows are fed conserved forages, grain, protein and mineral supplements, and manure is collected, stored and applied to cropland. Grazing-based dairy farms use intensive rotational grazing to provide fresh forage, ge...

  4. Prefermentation of liquid dairy manure to support biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Kerem; Müftügil, Mert B; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F; Love, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    A continuously operated, intermittently fed reactor (fermenter) system with a 2-d solids retention time was proposed for supporting biological nutrient removal from liquid dairy manure. The first objective of this study was to select a material with high fermentation potential to be used as the fermenter feed. Primary sludge, liquid separated dairy manure, and flushed dairy manure were investigated for their fermentation potential. Liquid separated dairy manure had the highest fermentation potential, 0.73mg volatile fatty acid as chemical oxygen demand/mg of initial volatile suspended solids (VSS). The second objective was to investigate the performance of a pilot-scale fermenter operated under an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 3 kg-VSS/m(3)/d. The reactor utilized 18% of the manure fermentation potential. Performance comparison of the pilot-scale fermenter and a lab-scale fermenter with an average OLR of 7 kg-VSS/m(3)/d highlighted the need to increase the OLR of the pilot-scale fermenter so that it can exploit a higher fraction of the manure fermentation potential. A continuously operated, intermittently fed fermenter with 2-d SRT can utilize the majority of the manure fermentation potential and support a downstream BNR reactor provided that it receives a sufficiently high OLR.

  5. Bacterial Communities in Aerosols and Manure Samples from Two Different Dairies in Central and Sonoma Valleys of California

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols have been suspected to transport food pathogens and contaminate fruits and vegetables grown in close proximity to concentrated animal feeding operations, but studies are lacking that substantiate such transport. To monitor the potential transport of bacteria originated from fresh or dry manure through aerosols on a dairy, we identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, bacteria in aerosols collected within 2 to 3 meters from dairy cows at two dairies. Gram-positive Firmicutes were predominant in aerosols from a dairy in Sonoma, California, and surrounded by vineyards, in contrast to sequences of Gram-negative Proteobacteria predominant in aerosols from a dairy in Modesto, California, also surrounded by other dairies. Although Firmicutes represented approximately 50% of the 10 most abundant sequences, aerosols from the Sonoma dairy also contained sequences of Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria, identified previously with animal feces. While none of the top 10 sequences from fresh or dry manure from Modesto dairy were detected in aerosols, two of the sequences from the phylum Bacteriodetes and one from class Clostridia from fresh manure were detected in aerosols from Sonoma. Interestingly, none of the sequences from dry manure were in the top 10 sequences in aerosols from both dairies. The 10 most abundant sequences in aerosols from the Modesto dairy were all from Proteobacteria and nearly half of them were from genus Massilia, which have been isolated previously from immune-compromised people and aerosols. We conclude that the predominant bacteria in aerosols are diverse among locations and that they do not reflect the predominant species of bacteria present in cow feces and/or in close proximity to cows. These results suggest that the aerosol sequences did not originate from manure. Large volumes of aerosols would be required to determine if bacterial sequences from aerosols could be used to track bacteria in manure to crops grown in proximity. PMID:21364996

  6. Semi-continuous cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris for treating undigested and digested dairy manures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Yingkuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2010-12-01

    The present study, based on a previous batch-wise experiment, investigated a lab-scale semi-continuous cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 2714), as a useful means for nutrient reduction as well as production of algal biomass which can be used as potential feedstock for the production of biofuel and other commodities, on 20 x diluted dairy manures. Both undigested and digested samples were applied in parallel experiments for comparison regarding the requirements of hydraulic retention times (HRTs), removal efficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), biomass productivities, and CO₂ sequestration abilities. It was demonstrated that algae grown in undigested dairy manure achieved removal rates of 99.7%, 89.5%, 92.0%, and 75.5% for NH₄+--N, TN, TP, and COD, respectively, under a 5-day HRT, while the HRT had to extend to 20 days in order to achieve 100.0% removal of NH₄+--N in digested one with simultaneous removals of 93.6% of TN, 89.2% of TP, and 55.4% of COD. The higher organic carbon contained in undigested dairy manure helped boost the growth of mixotrophic Chlorella, thus resulting in a much shorter HRT needed for complete removal of NH₄+--N. Moreover, algae grown in digested dairy manure provided more penitential than those grown in undigested one in CO₂ sequestration per milligram of harvested dried biomass (1.68 mg CO₂/mg dry weight (DW) vs 0.99 mg CO₂/mg DW), but did not surpass in total the amount of CO₂ sequestered on a 15-day period basis because of the better productivity gained in undigested dairy manure.

  7. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  8. A mixed plug flow anaerobic digester for dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.S.; Delisle, U.; Ferland, D.; Chagnon, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, a ''mixed plug-flow'' anaerobic digester has been built to produce biogas from the manure of 350 dairy cows and, subsequently, to produce electricity for on-farm use only. This paper describes the digester and presents the main results of one year of technical follow-up.

  9. Effects of acidifying reagents on microwave treatment of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Nkansah-Boadu, Frank; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2014-01-01

    Dairy manure, acidified using organic acids (acetic, oxalic, and citric acid) were treated with microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP). The effect of a mixture of oxalic acid and commonly used mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acid) on MW/H2O2-AOP was also examined. Substantial amounts of phosphorus were released under MW/H2O2-AOP, regardless of organic acid or mineral acid used. All three organic acids were good acidifying reagents; however, only oxalic acid could remove free calcium ion in the solution, and improve settleability of dairy manure. The MW/H2O2-AOP and calcium removal process could be combined into a single-stage process, which could release phosphate, solubilize solids and remove calcium from dairy manure at the same time. A mixture of oxalic acid and mineral acid produced the maximum volume of clear supernatant and had an ideal molar ratio of calcium to magnesium for effective struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) crystallization process. A single-stage MW/H2O2-AOP would simplify the process and reduce mineral acid consumption compared to a two-stage operation. The results of a pilot scale study demonstrate that MW/H2O2-AOP is effective in treating manure and recovering resource from dairy farms.

  10. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  11. Determinations of feed-milk-manure relationships on grazing-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aarons, S R; Gourley, C J P

    2012-10-01

    Feed conversion into milk, nutrient excretion in manure and subsequent environment impacts of manure management are highly influenced by the diets that farmers feed their lactating cows (Bos taurus). On confinement-based dairy farms, determinations of diet composition are relatively straightforward because the types, amounts and nutrients contained in stored feeds are often well known. However, on grazing-based dairy farms, diet composition is more difficult to determine because forage intake during grazing must be estimated. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between (1) feed N intake (NI), milk production, milk urea N (MUN), feed N use efficiency (FNUE) and excreted manure N (ExN); and (2) between feed P intake (PI), dung P concentrations (g/kg dry matter (DM)) and excreted manure P (ExP) for grazing-based lactating cows having a very wide range of diets and milk production. An additional objective was to evaluate how well these relationships compare with similar relationships based on more direct measurement of feed-milk-manure on confinement-based dairy farms. Four dairy farms located in southeastern Australia were visited during autumn and spring, and data were collected on feed, milk and dung of 18 cows on each farm. Estimated dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture comprised 12% to 75% of total diet DMI, and the crude protein (CP) concentrations in the total diets ranged from 167 to 248 g/kg. During spring, as diet CP increased FNUE declined. Total diet DMI and NI provided the best predictors of ExN, and PI provided the most accurate prediction of ExP. These results indicated accuracy in the study's indirect estimates of pasture DMI. Likely due to high levels and great variability in dietary CP and P concentrations associated with use of diet supplements, MUN did not appear to be a good indicator of dietary CP, and P in dung was not a good indicator of dietary P.

  12. Rheological properties of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; van Loon, Wilko K P; Zeeman, Grietje; Bot, Gerard P A

    2005-03-01

    Rheological properties are important for the design and modelling of handling and treating fluids. In the present study, the viscosity of liquid manure (about 10% total solids) was measured at different shear rates (2.38-238 s(-1)). The effect of temperature on the viscosity at different shear rates was also studied. The results showed that manure has non-Newtonian flow properties, because the viscosity strongly depended on the applied shear rate. The results showed also that manure behaves like real plastic materials. The power-law model of the shear stress and the rate of shear showed that the magnitude of the consistency coefficient decreased while increasing the temperature, with high values of the determination coefficient. Moreover, the results showed that the Arrhenius-type model fitted the temperature effect on manure viscosity very well (R2 at least 0.95) with calculated activation energy of 17.0+/-0.3 kJ mol(-1).

  13. Struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure: A review of application potential and hindrances.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wendong; Fattah, Kazi P; Huchzermeier, Matthew P

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobically digested dairy manure is rich in ammonium, orthophosphates, and magnesium, indicating a high potential for struvite recovery. Continuous generation of large amounts of dairy manure plus increasing global interest in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure suggest a huge market for struvite production with anaerobically digested dairy manure. However, the complex chemical composition of digested dairy manure presents hindrances to struvite recovery. This review paper assesses the significance and potential of struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure, identifies the factors hindering struvite recovery, and discusses the methods to overcome hindrances and the measures to improve phosphorus speciation of dairy manure for struvite formation. This paper proposes using "struvite recovery potential" or Pstruvite based on the least molar activity of struvite component ions in addition to "supersaturation ratio" to identify the potential for struvite recovery. The probable hindrances mainly include high Ca(2+) concentration and molar activity ratios of Ca(2+): Mg(2+) and Ca(2+): PO4(3-), high ionic strength, and high alkalinity. Struvite formation and purity is likely a function of all the interfering variables, rather than just a single factor with digested dairy manure. Potential enhancement measures need to be tested for technical and economic feasibility and applicability to various sources of digested dairy manure. This review paper provides guidance to overcoming the hindrances of digested dairy manure to struvite formation.

  14. Management and characteristics of recycled manure solids used for bedding in Midwest freestall dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Janni, K A

    2012-04-01

    Interest in using recycled manure solids (RMS) as a bedding material for dairy cows has grown in the US Midwest. Cost of common bedding materials has increased in recent years and availability has decreased. Information regarding the composition of RMS and its use as a bedding material for dairy cows in the Midwest is very limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize RMS as a bedding material, observe bedding management practices, document methods of obtaining RMS, and describe housing facilities. We visited 38 Midwest dairy operations bedding freestalls with RMS to collect data. Methods of obtaining RMS for bedding included separation of anaerobic digested manure, separation of raw manure, and separation of raw manure followed by mechanical drum-composting for 18 to 24 h. Average bedding moisture of unused RMS was 72.4% with a pH of 9.16. Unused samples contained (on a dry basis) 1.4% N, 44.9% C, 32.7C:N ratio, 0.44% P, 0.70% K, 76.5% neutral detergent fiber, 9.4% ash, 4.4% nonfiber carbohydrates, and 1.1% fat. Moisture was lowest for drum-composted solids before and after use as freestall bedding. After use in the stalls, digested solids had lower neutral detergent fiber content (70.5%) than drum-composted (75.0%) and separated raw (73.1%) solids. Total N content was greater in digested solids (2.0%) than in separated raw (1.7%) solids. Total bacterial populations in unused bedding were greatest in separated raw manure solids but were similar between digested and drum-composted manure solids. Drum-composted manure solids had no coliform bacteria before use as freestall bedding. After use as bedding, digested manure solids had lower total bacteria counts compared with drum-composted and separated raw manure solids, which had similar counts. Used bedding samples of digested solids contained fewer environmental streptococci than drum-composted and separated raw solids and had reduced Bacillus counts compared with separated raw solids. Coliform counts

  15. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  16. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery.

  17. Life cycle assessment of superheated steam drying technology as a novel cow manure management method.

    PubMed

    Hanifzadeh, Mohammadmatin; Nabati, Zahra; Longka, Pairote; Malakul, Pomthong; Apul, Defne; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2017-09-01

    Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method. Rapidly dried cow manure can be used as alternative fuel. Evaluations of energy payback time (EPBT) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of the SSD technology are presented in the SSD scenario and the results are compared with those of the direct field application (FA) of fresh manure and anaerobic digestion (AD). The heat required for the generation of superheated steam in the SSD scenario is provided from combustion of the dry manure to reduce energy costs. The results for the SSD process show 95% and 70% lower eutrophication and global warming potential in comparison to the FA scenario. Acidification potential for SSD turned out to be 35% higher than FA. The comparison of SSD with AD for their EPBT and normalized impacts indicated that the proposed SSD scenario has higher environmental sustainability than AD (70% lower impact), and is likely an economically better choice compared to conventional AD method (87% lower EPBT) for the future investment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microwave pretreatment for enhancement of phosphorus release from dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Szu-Hua; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang; Schreier, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Both the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a combination of hydrogen peroxide addition and microwave heating (H2O2/microwave), and the microwave heating process were used for solubilization of phosphorus from liquid dairy manure. About 80% of total phosphate was released into the solution at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. With an addition of H2O2, more than 81% of total phosphate could be released over a reaction period of 49 h at ambient temperature. The AOP process could achieve up to 85% of total phosphate release at 120 degrees C. The results indicated that both the microwave, and the AOP processes could effectively release phosphate from liquid dairy manure. These processes could serve as pretreatments for phosphorus recovery from animal wastes, and could be combined with the struvite crystallization process to provide a new approach in treating animal wastes.

  19. Overcoming challenges to struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeier, Matthew P; Tao, Wendong

    2012-01-01

    Recovering struvite from dairy manure has consistently posed problems for researchers. This study separated solids from anaerobically digested dairy manure using a filtration system. Filtrate was rich in free magnesium (160 to 423 mg/L), ammonium (320 to 1800 mg N/L) and orthophosphate (93 to 332 mg P/L). High concentrations of free calcium (128 to 361 mg/L) and alkalinity (3309 to 6567 mg/L as CaCO3), however, may hinder struvite precipitation. Batch precipitation tests were conducted to identify and overcome factors that interfere with struvite formation. Precipitation tests at pH 9 identified calcium and ionic strength as most probable interferences. Calcium addition did not significantly change phosphorus removal efficiency, but decreased struvite purity because of formation of calcium phosphates when Ca:P activity ratio was greater than 0.5 to 1. Batch tests demonstrated effective calcium removal from anaerobically digested dairy manure through precipitation of calcium carbonate at pH 9 to 10 while retaining magnesium and orthophosphate, lessening hindrance to struvite formation.

  20. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Ospina, A; Dao, Thanh H; Van Kessel, J A; Reeves, J B

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213gL(-1), in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m(-1)). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP(s)) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP(s)) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP(s) = 0.471 x MRP(s) + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH < or = 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRP(s) and RQFlex-DP(s) relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure.

  1. Diverse Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. PMID:24757214

  2. Geographic information systems (GIS) based model of dairy manure transportation and application with environmental quality consideration.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Krishna P; Bhattarai, Keshav; Gauthier, Wayne M; Hall, Larry M

    2009-05-01

    Survey information was used to develop a minimum cost spatial dairy manure transportation model where environmental quality and crop nutrient requirements were treated as constraints. The GIS model incorporated land use types, exact locations of dairy farms and farmlands, road networks, and distances from each dairy farm to receiving farmlands to identify dairy manure transportation routes that minimized costs relative to environmental and other constraints. Our analyses indicated that the characteristics of dairy manure, its bulk and relatively low primary N, P(2)O(5) and K(2)O nutrient levels limit the distribution areas or distances between the farms and the land over which the manure can be economically spread. Physical properties of the land limit the quantities of nutrients that can be applied because of excess nutrient buildup in soil and potential to harm nearby waterbodies and downstream people and places. Longer distances between dairy and farmland favor the use of commercial fertilizers due to the high cost of manure transportation. At $0.08 per ton per km transportation cost, the optimal cut-off distances for dairy manure application is 30km for N and 15km each for P(2)O(5) and K(2)O consistent rules. An analysis of dairy manure application to different crop types suggest that, on average, 1ha of land requires 61 tons of dairy manure to meet the recommended N, P(2)O(5) and K(2)O needs.

  3. Impact of organic loading rate on the performance of psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and wheat straw: long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Development of efficient processes for valorising animal wastes would be a major advancement in cold-climate regions. This paper reports the results of long term (315 days experiment) of novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces and wheat straw in laboratory scale sequence batch reactor operated at increasing organic loading rate. The PDAD process fed with a mixture of feces and straw (TS of 27%) over a treatment cycle length of 21 days at organic loading rate (OLR) 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) (of 2.9 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1g VS kg(-1) inoculum d(-1), respectively) resulted in average specific methane yield (SMY) of 187.3 ± 18.1, 163.6 ± 39.5, 150.8 ± 32.9 N L CH4 kg(-1)VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.4 at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction.

  4. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  5. Determining effects of multiple tannin manure applications on dairy forages and soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary choices for dairy cows have direct implications to nutrient availability from land-applied manure because of alterations to manure chemistry. Tannin additions to a dairy cow’s diet protect feed protein through rumen fermentation and digestion, resulting in reduced concentrations of urea nitr...

  6. Manure Nutrient Content on Vermont Dairy Farms: Long-term Trends and Relationships

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure nutrient analysis is an important component of nutrient management planning on dairy and other livestock farms. The University of Vermont Agricultural and Environmental Testing Laboratory has analyzed approximately 2400 manure samples from dairy farms in Vermont and neighboring states from 19...

  7. Dairy Cattle Management Impacts Manure Nitrogen Collection and Cycling Through Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escalating energy and fertilizer N prices, and regulatory limits on ammonia emissions from livestock facilities require methods that reduce manure management costs, enhance the fertilizer value of manure and reduce gaseous ammonia losses. We compared two dairy herd management practices on manure N c...

  8. Dairy Cattle Management Impacts Manure N Collection and Cycling Through Crops in Wisconsin, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escalating energy and fertilizer N prices and regulatory limits on ammonia emissions from livestock facilities require new methods that reduce manure management costs, enhance the fertilizer value of manure and reduce ammonia volatilization. We compared two dairy herd management practices on manure ...

  9. Tillage system and time post-liquid dairy manure: Effects on runoff, sediment and nutrients losses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liquid manure applied in agricultural lands improves soil quality. However, incorrect management of manure may cause environmental problems due to sediments and nutrients losses associated to runoff. The aims of this work were to: (i) evaluate the time effect of post-liquid dairy manure (LDM) applic...

  10. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-04-22

    Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. IMPORTANCE The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. The origins of resistance are complex, and a better understanding of the impacts of antibiotics used on farms would produce a more robust platform for public policy. Microbiomes of farm animals are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which may affect distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens. Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance genes in manures of animals subjected

  11. Cellulose decomposition and larval biomass production from the co-digestion of dairy manure and chicken manure by mini-livestock (Hermetia illucens L.).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Kashif Ur; Cai, Minmin; Xiao, Xiaopeng; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Hui; Soomro, Abdul Aziz; Zhou, Yusha; Li, Wu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2017-03-22

    World trends toward the modern dairies intensification on large production units cause massive animal manure production and accumulation. Improper handling of manure produced by industrial farm operation greatly deteriorates the major environmental media including air, water and soil. The black soldier fly utilizes organic waste and converts it into larvae biomass to be used as livestock feed and into residues to be used as bio-fertilizer. However, due to the high ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in dairy manure, this conversion is difficult. Therefore, dairy manure treated with chicken manure was digested by Hermetia illucens. In this paper, we found that the co-digestion process significantly enhanced the larval production, waste mass reduction, rate of larvae conversion, feed conversion ratio, nutrient reduction and fibers utilization. Whereas 40% dairy manure and 60% chicken manure group show better results than other manure mixtures and had a significantly increased the cellulose consumption by 61.19%, hemicellulose consumption by 53.22% and lignin consumption by 42.23% compared with 49.89%, 49.77% and 31.95%, respectively, in the dairy-only manure group. Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the structural changes of dairy manure, chicken manure and their co-digestion mixtures. The scan electron microscopy showed the deterioration in the structure of dairy and chicken manure fibers by Hermetia illucens. Moreover, the carbon-nitrogen ratio was decreased in all end products of post vermicomposting. The results suggest that the co-digestion of 40% dairy manure with 60% chicken manure is an appropriate proportion for dairy manure management with the black soldier fly.

  12. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production.

  13. Characterization of dairy cattle manure/wallboard paper compost mixture.

    PubMed

    Saludes, Ronaldo B; Iwabuchi, Kazunori; Miyatake, Fumihito; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Yoshifumi

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of manufacturing wallboard paper scraps as an alternative bulking agent for dairy cattle manure composting. The characteristics of the composting process were studied based on the changes in physico-chemical parameters and final compost quality. Composting of dairy cattle manure with wallboard paper was performed in a 481-L cylindrical reactor with vacuum-type aeration. Rapid degradation of organic matter was observed during the thermophilic stage of composting due to high microbial activity. High temperature and alkaline pH conditions promoted intense ammonia emission during the early stage of composting. The number of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms were found to be affected by changes in temperature at different composting stages. The total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) concentrations of the mixture did not change significantly after 28days of composting. However, the presence of gypsum in the paper scraps increased the calcium content of the final compost. The wallboard paper had no phyto-inhibitory effects as shown by high germination index of final compost (GI=99%).

  14. Thermogravimetric characterization of dairy manure as pyrolysis and combustion feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanjing; Hanna, Milford A; Jones, David D

    2012-10-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis was used to examine the thermal behavior of dairy manure as a pyrolysis and combustion feedstock. Nitrogen and air were used as purging gases to analyze the pyrolysis and combustion reactions, respectively, and heating rates of 20°C min(-1), 40°C min(-1) and 60°C min(-1) were applied. An Arrhenius model was used to estimate the kinetic parameters (activation energy, reaction order and pre-exponential factor). Results showed four steps for both the pyrolysis and the combustion reactions, with the second step being the most critical one and during which most thermal decomposition of cellulose, hemicelluloses, starch and protein occurred. Thermochemical reactions were determined mainly by temperature. Heating rate influenced the start and the end of the thermal conversions. The activation energies for the two major reaction zones were 93.63 kJ mol(-1) and 84.53 kJ mol(-1) for pyrolysis, and 83.03 kJ mol(-1) and 55.65 kJ mol(-1) for combustion. Knowledge of the thermal behavior of dairy manure provides guidelines for future energy utilization.

  15. Dairy manure resource recovery utilizing two-stage anaerobic digestion - Implications of solids fractionation.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Edmond J; Coats, Erik R; Brinkman, Cynthia K

    2015-12-01

    Dairy manure management is increasingly becoming an environmental challenge. In this regard, manure anaerobic digestion (AD) can be applied to address environmental concerns; however, dairy manure AD remains economically uncompetitive. Ongoing research is focused on enhanced resource recovery from manure, including maximizing AD methane yield through a novel multi-stage AD configuration. Research presented herein centered on the hypothesis that separately digesting fine and coarse solids from fermented dairy manure would improve methane production; the hypothesis was disproven. While maximum methane concentration was realized on fine solids, combined solids AD yielded enhanced VS destruction. The diverse combined-solids substrate enriched for a more heterogeneous bacterial/archaeal consortium that balanced fermentation and methanogenesis to yield maximum product (methane). However, results suggest that targeted AD of the fat-rich fine solids could be a more optimal approach for processing manure; alternate (non-AD) methods could then be applied to extract value from the fibrous fraction.

  16. Anaerobic digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Min, Min; Chen, Yifeng; Zhu, Jun; Ruan, Roger R

    2010-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp. Different dilution multiples of 10, 15, 20, and 25 were applied to the digested manure and algal growth was compared in regard to growth rate, nutrient removal efficiency, and final algal fatty acids content and composition. Slower growth rates were observed with less diluted manure samples with higher turbidities in the initial cultivation days. A reverse linear relationship (R(2) = 0.982) was found between the average specific growth rate of the beginning 7 days and the initial turbidities. Algae removed ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and COD by 100%, 75.7-82.5%, 62.5-74.7%, and 27.4-38.4%, respectively, in differently diluted dairy manure. COD in digested dairy manure, beside CO(2), proved to be another carbon source for mixotrophic Chlorella. Fatty acid profiles derived from triacylglyceride (TAG), phospholipid and free fatty acids showed that octadecadienoic acid (C18:2) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) were the two most abundant fatty acids in the algae. The total fatty acid content of the dry weight increased from 9.00% to 13.7% along with the increasing dilution multiples. Based on the results from this study, a process combining anaerobic digestion and algae cultivation can be proposed as an effective way to convert high strength dairy manure into profitable byproducts as well as to reduce contaminations to environment.

  17. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  19. Development of Hydrotaea aenescens (Diptera: Muscidae) in manure of unweaned dairy calves and lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Farkas, Róbert; Coler, Reginald R

    2002-04-01

    In laboratory studies performed in the United States and Hungary, the dump fly Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) was reared successfully in manure of 1- to 8-wk-old dairy calves, and in manure from adult lactating dairy cows. Survival in manure collected from 1-wk-old calves was poor (7.2%), better in manure collected from 2- and 3-wk-old calves (53.5%), and best in manure collected from 4- to 8-wk-old calves (71.4%). Survival in cow manure was slightly lower (47.4%) than that in calf manure. Reasons for different rates of development in the United States and in Hungary, and by calf age are discussed as are implications for biological control.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2017-03-01

    Livestock agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with a substantial proportion of emissions derived from manure management. Accurate estimates of emissions related to management practices and climate are needed for identifying the best approaches to minimize, and potentially mitigate, GHG emissions. Current emissions models such as those of the IPCC, however, are based on emissions factors that have not been broadly tested against field-scale measurements, due to a lack of data. We used a diverse set of measurements over 22 months across a range of substrate conditions on a working dairy to determine patterns and controls on soil-based GHG fluxes. Although dairy soils and substrates differed by management unit, GHG fluxes were poorly predicted by these or climate variables. The manure pile had the greatest GHG emissions, and though temperature increased and O2 concentration decreased following mixing, we detected almost no change in GHG fluxes due to mixing. Corral fluxes were characterized by hotspots and hot moments driven by patterns in deposition. Annual scraping kept the soil and accumulated manure pack thin, producing drier conditions, particularly in the warm dry season. Summed over area, corral fluxes had the greatest non-CO2 global warming potential. The field had net CH4 consumption, but CH4 uptake was insufficient to offset N2 O emissions on an area basis. All sites emitted N2 O with a similar or greater climate impact than CH4 . Our results highlight the importance of N2 O emissions, a less commonly measured GHG, from manure management and present potential opportunities for GHG emissions reductions.

  1. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  2. Effects of organic dairy manure on soil phosphatase activity, available soil phosphorus, and growth of sorghum-sudangrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairy (OD) production is increasing in the Northeastern U.S. due to consumer demand. Some physico-chemical properties of OD manure differ from conventional dairy (CD) manure, which could influence nutrient cycling and soil fertility differently when OD manure is applied to soil. Effects of O...

  3. Treating solid dairy manure using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2009-08-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat separated solid dairy manure for nutrient release and solids reduction. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP was conducted at a microwave temperature of 120 degrees C for 10 minutes, and at three pH conditions of 3.5, 7.3 and 12. The hydrogen peroxide dosage at approximately 2 mL per 1% TS for a 30 mL sample was used in this study, reflecting a range of 0.53-0.75 g H(2)O(2)/g dry sludge. The results indicated that substantial quantities of nutrients could be released into the solution at pH of 3.5. However, at neutral and basic conditions only volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand could be released. The analyses on orthophosphate, soluble chemical oxygen demands and volatile fatty acids were re-examined for dairy manure. It was found that the orthophosphate concentration for untreated samples at a higher % total solids (TS) was suppressed and lesser than actual. To overcome this difficulty, the initial orthophosphate concentration had to be measured at 0.5% TS.

  4. Impacts of flavanoid monomers and simple hydrolyzable tannins on ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inhibition of ammonia production in manure provides for a healthier environment for dairy farmers working in confined quarters. The resulting conservation of urea provides for an enhanced nitrogen concentration, and thus, fertilizing capacity, of the manure. The use of a mixture of tannins from queb...

  5. What dairy cows are fed impacts manure chemistry and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past 20 years or so there has been increasing evidence and concern that nutrients contained in animal manures can adversely impact water and air quality. Research has demonstrated that the diets fed to dairy cows can be modified to reduce nutrient excretions in manure and environmental impa...

  6. Corralling versus broadcasting dairy heifer manure: volatilization, leaching, and mineralizable N

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because they lack sufficient manure storage, a majority of dairy farmers in the northern USA spread livestock manure as frequent broadcast applications. Corralling livestock in the fields could achieve desired application rates, while reducing N losses and labor. We conducted two field experiments o...

  7. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses fr...

  8. Residual effects of fresh and composted dairy manure applications on potato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato growers in Idaho and other dairy producing regions often grow potatoes on fields that have had a history of fresh and composted manure applications. Growers remain uncertain of the impacts that previous manure applications will have on tuber yield and quality, as well as diseases, physiologic...

  9. Alteration of dairy cattle diets for beneficial on-farm recycling of manure nutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feed and manure nutrients pass through a continuous cycle on dairy farms. Cows are fed forages, grain, protein and mineral supplements to produce milk; land applied manure recycles nutrients through crops and pastures; and so on. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how the types and amount...

  10. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  11. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  12. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall be...

  13. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall be...

  14. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall be...

  15. On-farm quick tests for estimating nitrogen in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Van Kessel, J S; Reeves, J B

    2000-08-01

    Manure nutrient analyses performed rapidly on the farm could be useful for nutrient management programs. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate six quick tests for their accuracy in estimating total manure N or NH4+-N. The quick tests included the hydrometer, electrical conductivity meter and pen, reflectometer, Agros N Meter, and Quantofix-N-Volumeter. The hydrometer was used to estimate total N, while the remaining tests were used to estimate NH4+-N. Samples (107) were collected from dairy farms in five northeastern states. Samples were analyzed for total N and NH4+-N by traditional laboratory methods and using each of the quick tests. Manure compositions ranged from 1.4 to 38.6% dry matter (DM), 0.9 to 9.5 kg/m3 total N, and 0.3 to 4.7 kg/m3 NH4+-N. The estimated concentration of total N or NH4+-N determined by each quick test was regressed against laboratory-determined values. The hydrometer did not estimate total N accurately. The strongest relationship for estimation of NH4+-N was with the Quantofix-N-Volumeter followed by the Agros N Meter, the reflectometer, and the electrical conductivity meter and pen. When the samples were split into high (>12%) and low (< or =12%) DM groups, in all cases the r2 for the regression equation was higher for the low DM group than for the high DM group. The Agros N Meter, the reflectometer, and the conductivity meter and pen did not perform well for the high DM group. These data indicate that several quick tests are viable options for measuring NH4+-N concentrations in dairy slurries and solids.

  16. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphorus forms in conventional and organic dairy manure identified by solution and solid state P-31 NMR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairy production has increased rapidly in recent years. Organic dairy cows generally eat different diets than their conventional counterparts. Although these differences could impact availability, utilization, and cycling of manure nutrients, little such information is available to aid orga...

  18. Effects of dietary protein concentration on ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching, and plant nitrogen uptake from dairy manure applied to lysimeters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This lysimeter experiment was designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) concentration on nitrate-N (NO3-N) and ammonia (NH3) losses from dairy manure applied to soil and manure N use for plant growth. Lactating dairy cows were fed diets with 16.7 (HighCP) or 14.8% (LowCP) cru...

  19. Coupling dairy manure storage with injection to improve nitrogen management: whole-farm simulation using the integrated farm system Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of livestock manure to farm soils represents a priority nutrient management concern in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Historically strong emphasis has been placed on adding manure storage to dairy operations, and, there has been recognition that manure application methods can be improved....

  20. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life cycle assessment of swine and dairy manure: pyrolysis and combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lopez, M; Puig-Gamero, M; Lopez-Gonzalez, D; Avalos-Ramirez, Antonio; Valverde, J; Sanchez-Silva, L

    2015-04-01

    The valorization of three different manure samples via pyrolysis and combustion processes was evaluated. Dairy manure (sample Pre) was biologically pretreated by anaerobic digestion (sample Dig R) whereas swine manure (sample SW) was pretreated by a biodrying process. Thermal behavior of manure samples were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These processes could be divided into four general stages: dehydration, devolatilization, char transformation (oxidation for combustion) and inorganic matter decomposition. The main differences observed among the samples were attributed to their different composition and pretreatment. The economic feasibility, energetic and environmental impacts of pyrolysis and combustion technologies for dairy samples were carried out by means of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Four different scenarios were analyzed. The economic feasibility of the pyrolysis process was demonstrated, being sample Dig R the best environmental option. However, the combustion of sample Pre was the best energetic option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of dairy manure pre-application treatment on manure composition, soil dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes, and abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes on vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yuan-Ching; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Scott, Andrew; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Marti, Romain; Topp, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Manuring ground used for crop production is an important agricultural practice. Should antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria carried in the manure be transferred to crops that are consumed raw, their consumption by humans or animals will represent a route of exposure to antibiotic resistance genes. Treatment of manures prior to land application is a potential management option to reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes entrained with manure application. In this study, dairy manure that was untreated, anaerobically digested, mechanically dewatered or composted was applied to field plots that were then cropped to lettuce, carrots and radishes. The impact of treatment on manure composition, persistence of antibiotic resistance gene targets in soil following application, and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria on vegetables at harvest was determined. Composted manure had the lowest abundance of antibiotic resistance gene targets compared to the other manures. There was no significant difference in the persistence characteristics of antibiotic resistance genes following land application of the various manures. Compared to unmanured soil, antibiotic resistance genes were detected more frequently in soil receiving raw or digested manure, whereas they were not in soil receiving composted manure. The present study suggests that vegetables grown in ground receiving raw or digested manure are at risk of contamination with manure-borne antibiotic resistant bacteria, whereas vegetables grown in ground receiving composted manure are less so.

  3. Modeling rainfall-induced release of manure constituents from surface-applied liquid dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Release kinetics of manure constituents (MC) is an important mechanism affecting overland and subsurface transport of manure-borne contaminants. Present release models adequately describe the rainfall-induced release of MC from surface-applied solid manure, but these models are not applicable for li...

  4. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  5. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  6. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  7. Demonstration of methods to reduce E. coli runoff from dairy manure application sites.

    PubMed

    Meals, Donald W; Braun, David C

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by bacteria is a leading cause of impairment in U.S. waters, particularly in areas of livestock agriculture. We evaluated the effectiveness of several practices in reducing Escherichia coli levels in runoff from fields receiving liquid dairy (Bos taurus) manure. Runoff trials were conducted on replicated hay and silage corn (Zea mays L.) plots using simulated rainfall. Levels of E. coli in runoff were approximately 10(4) to 10(6) organisms per 100 mL, representing a significant pollution potential. Practices tested were: manure storage, delay between manure application and rainfall, manure incorporation by tillage, and increased hayland vegetation height. Storage of manure for 30 d or more consistently and dramatically lowered E. coli counts in our experiments, with longer storage providing greater reductions. Manure E. coli declined by > 99% after approximately 90 d of storage. On average, levels of E. coli in runoff were 97% lower from plots receiving 30-d-old and > 99% lower from plots receiving 90-d-old manure than from plots where fresh manure was applied. Runoff from hayland and cornland plots where manure was applied 3 d before rainfall contained approximately 50% fewer E. coli than did runoff from plots that received manure 1 d before rainfall. Hayland vegetation height alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in runoff, but interactions with rainfall delay and manure age were observed. Manure incorporation alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in cornland plot runoff, but incorporation could reduce bacteria export by reducing field runoff and interaction with rainfall delay was observed. Extended storage that avoids additions of fresh manure, combined with application several days before runoff, incorporation on tilled land, and higher vegetation on hayland at application could substantially reduce microorganism loading from agricultural land.

  8. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.

  9. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data.

  10. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    PubMed Central

    You, Byung-Gu; Choi, Yoon-Seok; Ra, Changsix

    2017-01-01

    Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i) experiment, ii) reference, and iii) theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0). Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs) of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management. PMID:27492346

  11. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  13. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Dell, C J; Feyereisen, G W; Kaye, J; Beegle, D

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH(3)) and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from fresh dairy cow manure incubated in a controlled environment (experiment 1) and from manure-amended soil (experiment 2). Manure was prepared from feces and urine collected from lactating Holstein cows fed diets with 16.7% (DM basis; HCP) or 14.8% CP (LCP). High-CP manure had higher N content and proportion of NH(3)- and urea-N in total manure N than LCP manure (DM basis: 4.4 vs. 2.8% and 51.4 vs. 30.5%, respectively). In experiment 1, NH(3) emitting potential (EP) was greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (9.20 vs. 4.88 mg/m(2) per min, respectively). The 122-h cumulative NH(3) emission tended to be decreased 47% (P=0.09) using LCP compared with HCP manure. The EP and cumulative emissions of GHG were not different between HCP and LCP manure. In experiment 2, urine and feces from cows fed LCP or HCP diets were mixed and immediately applied to lysimeters (61×61×61 cm; Hagerstown silt loam; fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) at 277 kg of N/ha application rate. The average NH(3) EP (1.53 vs. 1.03 mg/m(2) per min, respectively) and the area under the EP curve were greater for lysimeters amended with HCP than with LCP manure. The largest difference in the NH(3) EP occurred approximately 24 h after manure application (approximately 3.5 times greater for HCP than LCP manure). The 100-h cumulative NH(3) emission was 98% greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (7,415 vs. 3,745 mg/m(2), respectively). The EP of methane was increased and that of carbon dioxide tended to be increased by LCP compared with HCP manure. The cumulative methane emission was not different between treatments, whereas the cumulative carbon dioxide emission was increased with manure from the LCP diet. Nitrous oxide emissions were low in this experiment and did not differ between treatments. In the

  14. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Jokela, William E; Coblentz, Wayne K; Hoffman, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses from two successive simulated rainfall events. Bedded manure (18-21% solids) from dairy heifers fed diets with or without supplemental P was applied on a silt loam soil packed into 1- by 0.2-m sheet metal pans. Manure was either surface-applied or incorporated (Experiment 1) or surface-applied at two rates (Experiment 2) to supply 26 to 63 kg P ha. Experiment 3 evaluated runoff P from four similar nonmanured soils with average Bray P1-extractable P levels of 11, 29, 51, and 75 mg kg. We measured runoff quantity, total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total and volatile solids in runoff collected for 30 min after runoff initiation from two simulated rain events (70 mm h) 3 or 4 d apart. Manure incorporation reduced TP and DRP concentrations and load by 85 to 90% compared with surface application. Doubling the manure rate increased runoff DRP and TP concentrations an average of 36%. In the same experiment, P diet supplementation increased water-extractable P in manure by 100% and increased runoff DRP concentration threefold. Concentrations of solids, TP, and DRP in runoff from Rain 2 were 25 to 75% lower than from Rain 1 in Experiments 1 and 2. Runoff DRP from nonmanured soils increased quadratically with increasing soil test P. These results show that large reductions in P runoff losses can be achieved by incorporation of manure, avoiding unnecessary diet P supplementation, limiting manure application rate, and managing soils to prevent excessive soil test P levels.

  15. Biohydrogen production from dairy manures with acidification pretreatment by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan; Li, Zhuo; Fan, Yaoting; Hou, Hongwei

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogen is a clean and efficient energy source and has been deemed as one of the most promising carriers of new energy for the future. From an engineering point of view, producing hydrogen by mixed cultures is generally preferred because of lower cost, ease of control, and the possible use of organic waste as feedstock. The biological hydrogen production has been intensively studied in recent decades. So far, most investigates of biohydrogen production are still confined to using pure carbohydrates and carbohydrate-rich wastewater. Nowadays, the large amounts of livestock manure, which come from cattle feedlots, poultry, and swine buildings, are causing a major environmental issue because it has become a primary source of odors, gases, dust, and groundwater contamination. The increasingly stringent requirements for pollution control on livestock manures are challenging the scientific community to develop new waste treatment strategies. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop nonpolluting and renewable energy source utilizing the organic waste (e.g., livestock manure). It is well known that anaerobic digestion had successfully been used for the disposal of manures to produce methane in the last two decades. Recently, an alternative strategy has been developed to convert livestock manures (e.g., dairy manures) to biohydrogen as a high value-added clean energy source instead of methane. However, little information is available on hydrogen production from dairy manure via the mixed anaerobic microbe. As far as we know, the hydrogen production is habitually accompanied with production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are also an optimal feedstock for production of methane by anaerobic digestion. Provided that the biohydrogen production from dairy manure is further combined with the anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the producing hydrogen reactor that would be a one-stone two-bird paradigm, it not only produces a

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  17. On-farm environmental assessment of corn silage production systems receiving liquid dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased corn silage and manure production accompanying the proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding their environmental impacts. Our objectives were (1) to quantify soil chemical properties and offsite nutrient transport under field-scale corn (Zea mays L.) silage production a...

  18. Methane and hydrogen sulfide production during co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forage radish cover crops were investigated as a co-substrate to increase biogas production from dairy manure-based anaerobic digestion. Lab-scale batch digesters (300 mL) were operated under mesophilic conditions during two experiments. In the first experiment, the optimal co-digestion ratio for ...

  19. Utilization of Re-processed Anaerobically Digested Fiber from Dairy Manure as a Container Media Substrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solid fraction (fiber) from the effluent of the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure by plug flow technology yields material that has consistent physical properties (total porosity, air filled porosity at saturation, and water holding capacity) to perform satisfactorily as a plant growth media su...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961-2010.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China׳s beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961-2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18Mt to 5.86Mt and from 7.93kt-29.56kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09Mt and 0.12 to 7.90kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961-2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961-2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices.

  2. Kinetics of psychrophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating flushed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingwei; Yu, Liang; Frear, Craig; Zhao, Quanbao; Li, Xiujin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a new strategy, improving biomass retention with fiber material present within the dairy manure as biofilm carriers, was evaluated for treating flushed dairy manure in a psychrophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). A kinetic study was carried out for process control and design by comparing four microbial growth kinetic models, i.e. first order, Grau, Monod and Chen and Hashimoto models. A volumetric methane production rate of 0.24L/L/d of and a specific methane productivity of 0.19L/gVSloaded were achieved at 6days HRT. It was proved that an ASBR using manure fiber as support media not only improved methane production but also reduced the necessary HRT and temperature to achieve a similar treating efficiency compared with current technologies. The kinetic model can be used for design and optimization of the process. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Affect of dairy cow manure, urine, and slurry on N<2>O, CO<2>, and CH<4> emissions from Pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorich, C.; Varner, R. K.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is responsible for roughly 25% of total anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH<4>) and nitrous oxide (N<2>O) where they account for roughly 40 and 80 percent of anthropogenic emissions of their gas, respectively. Measuring and modeling of these gases has remained difficult however as management varies between farms and N<2>O fluxes have been difficult to link to climate and site conditions. Most of these N<2>O fluxes occur during soil freeze-thaw and wetting-drying cycles as well as fertilizer addition moments, all of which are difficult to measure and harder yet to model. Thus the N<2>O flux remains poorly understood and may be underestimated in literature. This provides a problem in agriculture emissions as N use efficiency has been suggested as a proxy for farm scale emissions. On a farm scale these large fluxes of N<2>O from soil "hot moments" can account for up to 60% of the total GHG emissions and thus it is essential to capture the full flux. At the University of New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station's (NHAES) organic dairy farm a manure fertilizer experiment was conducted. Manure, urine, and slurry from the UNH dairy farms were collected, analyzed, and applied to pasture plots in May 2012 in order to examine N<2>O flux hot moments. Sites were measured at least bi-weekly with manual static flux chambers taken with soil temperature and moisture along with measurements for soil inorganic N, soil C:N, plant biomass and C:N, and soil pH. Gas samples were analyzed for CO<2>, CH<4>, and N<2>O. Emissions were compared with other fluxes from the farm ecosystem including; corn silage, free stall bedding, composting and solid manure, and a manure slurry tank.

  4. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. Dry Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure with Agriculture Wastes.

    PubMed

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the effect on thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of poultry manure (PM) or treated poultry manure (TPM) by the addition of agriculture wastes (AWS) as a co-substrate under dry conditions. PM was co-digested with a mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Results were increased methane content in biogas, with decreased ammonia accumulation and volatile acids. The highest performance occurred under mesophilic conditions, with a 63 and 41.3 % increase in methane production from addition of AWS to TPM (562 vs. 344 mL g VS(-1) from control) and PM (406 vs. 287 mL g VS(-1) from control), respectively. Thermophilic conditions showed lower performance than mesophilic conditions. Addition of AWS increased methane production by 150 and 69.6 % from PM (323.4 vs. 129 mL g VS(-1) from control) and TPM (297.6 vs. 175.5 mL g VS(-1) from control), respectively. In all experiments, 100 % acetate produced was degraded to methane. Maximum ammonia accumulation was lowered to 43.7 % by mixing of AWS (range 5.35-8.55 vs. 7.81-12.28 g N kg(-1) bed). The pH was held at 7.3-8.8, a range suitable for methanogenesis.

  6. Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Forge, T. A.; Bittman, S.; Kowalenko, C. G.

    2005-01-01

    Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil. PMID:19262862

  7. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58.222 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  8. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  9. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters.

  10. Dutch dairy farms after milk quota abolition: Economic and environmental consequences of a new manure policy.

    PubMed

    Klootwijk, C W; Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland. In addition, phosphate quotas have been introduced. Herein, we used a whole-farm optimization model to simulate an average farm before and after quota abolition and introduction of the new manure policy. The objective function of the model maximized labor income. We combined the model with a farm nutrient balance and life-cycle assessment to determine environmental impact. Based on current prices, increasing the number of cows after quota abolition was profitable until manure processing or additional land was required to comply with the new manure policy. Manure processing involved treatment so that phosphate was removed from the national manure market. Farm intensity in terms of milk per hectare increased by about 4%, from 13,578kg before quota abolition to 14,130kg after quota abolition. Labor income increased by €505/yr. When costs of manure processing decreased from €13 to €8/t of manure or land costs decreased from €1,187 to €573/ha, farm intensity could increase up to 20% until the phosphate quota became limiting. Farms that had already increased their barn capacity to prepare for expansion after milk quota abolition could benefit from purchasing extra phosphate quota to use their full barn capacity. If milk prices increased from €355 to €420/t, farms could grow unlimited, provided that the availability of external inputs such as labor, land, barn capacity, feed, and phosphate quota at current

  11. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Noelle R.; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M.; Magnuson, Roberta J.; Cook, Shaun R.; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R.; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A.; Gow, Sheryl P.; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L.; Boucher, Christina A.; McAllister, Tim A.; Belk, Keith E.; Morley, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents. PMID:27095377

  12. Gaseous nitrogen and bacterial responses to raw and digested dairy manure applications in incubated soil.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Olivia E; Fortuna, Ann-Marie; Harrison, Joe H; Cogger, Craig G; Whitefield, Elizabeth; Green, Tonia

    2012-11-06

    A study was conducted under laboratory conditions to compare rates of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions when soil was amended with anaerobically digested dairy manure slurry containing <30% food byproducts, raw dairy manure slurry, or urea. Slurries were applied via surface and subsurface methods. A second objective was to correlate genes regulating nitrification and denitrification with rates of N(2)O production, slurry treatment, and application method. Ammonia volatilization from incubated soil ranged from 140 g kg(-1) of total N applied in digested slurry to 230 g kg(-1) in urea. Subsurface application of raw dairy manure slurry decreased ammonia volatilization compared with surface application. Anaerobic digestion increased N(2)O production. Cumulative N(2)O loss averaged 27 g kg(-1) of total N applied for digested slurry, compared with 5 g kg(-1) for raw dairy slurry. Genes of interest included a 16S rRNA gene selective for β-subgroup proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizers, amoA, narG, and nosZ quantified with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Application of anaerobically digested slurry increased nitrifier and denitrifier gene copies that correlated with N(2)O production. Expression of all genes measured via mRNA levels was affected by N applications to soil. This study provides new information linking genetic markers in denitrifier and nitrifier populations to N(2)O production.

  13. Estrogen transport in surface runoff from agricultural fields treated with two different application methods of dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the land-application of animal manure provides many benefits, concerns exist regarding the subsequent transport of hormones and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. This study compares two methods of dairy manure application, surface broadcasting and shallow disk injection, on the fate and...

  14. The fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soils.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kyle D; LaPara, Timothy M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soil. Soil microcosms were amended with either manure from swine fed subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics or manure from dairy cows that were given antibiotics only rarely and strictly for veterinary purposes. Microcosms were monitored for 6 months using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes (a measure of bacterial biomass), intI1, erm(B), tet(A), tet(W) and tet(X). Swine manure had 10- to 100-fold higher levels of ARGs than the dairy manure, all of which decayed over time after being applied to soil. A modified Collins-Selleck model described the decay of ARGs in the soil microcosms well, particularly the characteristic in which the decay rate declined over time. By the completion of the soil microcosm experiments, ARGs in the dairy manure-amended soils returned to background levels, whereas the ARGs in swine manure remained elevated compared to control microcosms. Our research suggests that the use of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed could lead to the accumulation of ARGs in soils to which manure is applied. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  16. The effects of ruminally degraded protein on rumen fermentation and ammonia losses from manure in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Agle, M; Hristov, A N; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K

    2010-04-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary crude protein (CP) and ruminally degraded protein (RDP) levels on rumen fermentation, digestibility, ammonia emission from manure, and performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 6 cows. Three diets varying in CP concentration were tested (CP, % of dry matter): 15.4 (high CP, control), 13.4 (medium CP), and 12.9% (low CP). These diets provided metabolizable protein balances of 323, -44, and 40 g/d and RDP balances of 162, -326, and -636 g/d (high, medium, and low, respectively). Both the medium and low CP diets decreased ruminal pH compared with high CP, most likely because of the higher nonfiber carbohydrate concentration in the former diets. Ruminal ammonia pool size (rumen ammonia N was labeled with (15)N) and the concentration of total free amino acids were greater for the high CP diet than for the RDP-deficient diets. Apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities were not affected by treatment. Both the medium and low CP diets resulted in lower absolute and relative excretion of urinary N compared with the high CP diet, as a proportion of N intake. Excretion of fecal N and milk yield and composition were not affected by diet. Milk N efficiency (milk N / N intake) and the cumulative secretion of ammonia-(15)N in milk protein were greater for the RDP-deficient diets, and milk urea N concentration was greater for the high CP diet. Both medium and low CP diets decreased the irreversible loss of ruminal ammonia N compared with the high CP diet. The rate and cumulative ammonia emissions from manure were lower for the medium and low CP diets compared with the high CP diet. Overall, this study demonstrated that dairy diets with reduced CP and RDP concentrations will produce manure with lower ammonia-emitting potential without affecting cow performance, if metabolizable protein requirements are met.

  17. Recovery of phosphorus from dairy manure: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Lo, Victor K; Thompson, James R; Koch, Frederic A; Liao, Ping H; Lobanov, Sergey; Mavinic, Donald S; Atwater, James W

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from dairy manure via a microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) followed by struvite crystallization in a pilot-scale continuous flow operation. Soluble phosphorus in dairy manure increased by over 50% after the MW/H2O2-AOP, and the settleability of suspended solids was greatly improved. More than 50% of clear supernatant was obtained after microwave treatment, and the maximum volume of supernatant was obtained at a hydrogen peroxide dosage of 0.3% and pH 3.5. By adding oxalic acid into the supernatant, about 90% of calcium was removed, while more than 90% of magnesium was retained. As a result, the resulting solution was well suited for struvite crystallization. Nearly 95% of phosphorus in the treated supernatant was removed and recovered as struvite.

  18. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Spray Irrigation of Dairy Manure Based on an Empirical Fate and Transport Model.

    PubMed

    Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Stokdyk, Joel P; Kieke, Burney A; Larson, Rebecca A; Firnstahl, Aaron D; Rule, Ana M; Borchardt, Mark A

    2017-08-16

    Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation affordable. Human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well understood. We aimed to a) estimate human health risks due to aerosolized zoonotic pathogens downwind of spray-irrigated dairy manure; and b) determine which factors (e.g., distance, weather conditions) have the greatest influence on risk estimates. We sampled downwind air concentrations of manure-borne fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens during 21 full-scale dairy manure irrigation events at three farms. We fit these data to hierarchical empirical models and used model outputs in a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate risk [probability of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI)] for individuals exposed to spray-irrigated dairy manure containing Campylobacter jejuni, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), or Salmonella spp. Median risk estimates from Monte Carlo simulations ranged from 10-5 to 10-2 and decreased with distance from the source. Risk estimates for Salmonella or EHEC-related AGI were most sensitive to the assumed level of pathogen prevalence in dairy manure, while risk estimates for C. jejuni were not sensitive to any single variable. Airborne microbe concentrations were negatively associated with distance and positively associated with wind speed, both of which were retained in models as a significant predictor more often than relative humidity, solar irradiation, or temperature. Our model-based estimates suggest that reducing pathogen prevalence and concentration in source manure would reduce the risk of AGI from exposure to manure irrigation, and that increasing the distance from irrigated manure (i.e., setbacks) and limiting irrigation to times of low wind speed may also reduce risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP283.

  19. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for spray irrigation of dairy manure based on an empirical fate and transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Stokdyk, Joel; Kieke, Burney A; Larson, Rebecca A; Firnstahl, Aaron; Rule, Ana M; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation affordable. Human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) estimate human health risks due to aerosolized zoonotic pathogens downwind of spray-irrigated dairy manure; and b) determine which factors (e.g., distance, weather conditions) have the greatest influence on risk estimates. METHODS: We sampled downwind air concentrations of manure-borne fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens during 21 full-scale dairy manure irri- gation events at three farms. We fit these data to hierarchical empirical models and used model outputs in a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate risk [probability of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI)] for individuals exposed to spray-irrigated dairy manure containing Campylobacter jejuni, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), or Salmonella spp. RESULTS: Median risk estimates from Monte Carlo simulations ranged from 10−5 to 10−2 and decreased with distance from the source. Risk estimates for Salmonella or EHEC-related AGI were most sensitive to the assumed level of pathogen prevalence in dairy manure, while risk estimates for C. jejuni were not sensitive to any single variable. Airborne microbe concentrations were negatively associated with distance and positively associated with wind speed, both of which were retained in models as a significant predictor more often than relative humidity, solar irradiation, or temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Our model-based estimates suggest that reducing pathogen prevalence and concentration in source manure would reduce the risk of AGI from exposure to manure irrigation, and that increasing the distance from irrigated manure (i.e., setbacks) and limiting irrigation to times of low wind speed may also reduce risk.

  20. Enhancing anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery of dairy manure through microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying; Hu, Zhenhu; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation are two effective ways of treating dairy manure for recovering biogas and phosphorus. Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure is commonly limited by slow fiber degradation, while struvite precipitation is limited by the availability of orthophosphate. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment to simultaneously enhance manure anaerobic digestibility (through fiber degradation) and struvite precipitation (through phosphorus solubilization). Microwave heating combined with different chemicals (NaOH, CaO, H(2)SO(4), or HCl) enhanced solubilization of manure and degradation of glucan/xylan in dairy manure. However, sulfuric acid-based pretreatment resulted in a low anaerobic digestibility, probably due to the sulfur inhibition and Maillard side reaction. The pretreatments released 20-40% soluble phosphorus and 9-14% ammonium. However, CaO-based pretreatment resulted in lower orthophosphate releases and struvite precipitation efficiency as calcium interferes with phosphate to form calcium phosphate. Collectively, microwave heating combined with NaOH or HCl led to a high anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery. Using these two chemicals, the performance of microwave- and conventional-heating in thermochemical pretreatment was further compared. The microwave heating resulted in a better performance in terms of COD solubilization, glucan/xylan reduction, phosphorus solubilization and anaerobic digestibility. Lastly, temperature and heating time used in microwave treatment were optimized. The optimal values of temperature and heating time were 147 degrees C and 25.3 min for methane production, and 135 degrees C and 26 min for orthophosphate release, respectively.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy open lot and manure stockpile in northern China: A case study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Luyu; Lu, Qikun; Xie, Lina; Liu, Jie; Cao, Wei; Shi, Zhengxiang; Li, Baoming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ren, Shixi

    2016-03-01

    The open lots and manure stockpiles of dairy farm are major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in typical dairy cow housing and manure management system in China. GHG (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) emissions from the ground level of brick-paved open lots and uncovered manure stockpiles were estimated according to the field measurements of a typical dairy farm in Beijing by closed chambers in four consecutive seasons. Location variation and manure removal strategy impacts were assessed on GHG emissions from the open lots. Estimated CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from the ground level of the open lots were 137.5±64.7 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), 0.45±0.21 kg hd(-1) yr(-1) and 0.13±0.08 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively. There were remarkable location variations of GHG emissions from different zones (cubicle zone vs. aisle zone) of the open lot. However, the emissions from the whole open lot were less affected by the locations. After manure removal, lower CH(4) but higher N(2)O emitted from the open lot. Estimated CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from stockpile with a stacking height of 55±12 cm were 858.9±375.8 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), 8.5±5.4 kg hd(-1) yr(-1) and 2.3±1.1 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively. In situ storage duration, which estimated by manure volatile solid contents (VS), would affect GHG emissions from stockpiles. Much higher N(2)O was emitted from stockpiles in summer due to longer manure storage. This study deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from open lots and stockpiles. It's an increasing area of concern in some livestock producing countries. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology is commonly used for estimation of national GHG emission inventories. There is a shortage of on-farm information to evaluate the accuracy of these equations and default emission factors. This work provides valuable information for improving accounting practices within China or for similar manure management practice in other countries.

  2. Escherichia coli inactivation kinetics in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under moderate, mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Batch anaerobic digestion experiments using dairy manure as feedstocks were performed at moderate (25°C), mesophilic (37°C), and thermophilic (52.5°C) temperatures to understand E. coli, an indicator organism for pathogens, inactivation in dairy manure. Incubation periods at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 61, 41, and 28 days respectively. Results were used to develop models for predicting E. coli inactivation and survival in anaerobic digestion. For modeling we used the decay of E. coli at each temperature to calculate the first-order inactivation rate coefficients, and these rates were used to formulate the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships. We found the inactivation rate coefficient at 52.5°C was 17 and 15 times larger than the inactivation rate coefficients at 25 and 37°C, respectively. Decimal reduction times (D10; time to achieve one log removal) at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 9 -10, 7 - 8 days, and < 1 day, respectively. The Arrhenius correlation between inactivation rate coefficients and temperatures over the range 25 -52.5°C was developed to understand the impacts of temperature on E. coli inactivation rate. Using this correlation, the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships were derived. Besides E. coli inactivation, impacts of temperature on biogas production, methane content, pH change, ORP, and solid reduction were also studied. At higher temperatures, biogas production and methane content was greater than that at low temperatures. While at thermophilic temperature pH was increased, at mesophilic and moderate temperatures pH were reduced over the incubation period. These results can be used to understand pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure, and impacts of temperatures on performance of anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure. PMID:21906374

  3. New York Dairy Manure Management Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Costs (1992-2022).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Jenifer L; Woodbury, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    Livestock manure can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) including methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO). However, GHG emissions are strongly affected by the type of waste management system (WMS) used. For example, CH emissions increase substantially under anaerobic conditions that occur in many WMSs. There is a need for improved estimates at regional and national scales of the effect of WMSs on GHG emissions and identification of opportunities and associated costs to mitigate these emissions. As New York State is the fourth largest dairy producer in the country, our objectives were to quantify (i) the changes in WMS and associated GHG emissions over time, (ii) a methane conversion factor (MCF) derived from existing data from three covered manure storage units in New York, and (iii) the benefit and cost of installing covers and flares to destroy CH from existing storage units. We found that GHG emissions from changing manure management increased from 0.7 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents per year (COe yr) in 1992 to 1.6 Tg COe yr in 2012. We derived an MCF of 0.61 based on data from dairy manure storage units with covers that captured and flared CH in 2010 and used this MCF to project GHG reductions for a statewide mitigation scenario in year 2022. This scenario, covering and flaring CH from 662 manure storage units, mitigates 1.8 Tg COe annually or 62% of manure GHG (CH and NO) at an estimated cost of $224 million ($0.005 L milk or $13 Mg COe).

  4. Effect of scraping frequency in a freestall barn on volatile nitrogen loss from dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Moreira, V R; Satter, L D

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of scraping frequency (2x vs. 6x daily) on N volatilization from manure on the floor of a dairy free-stall barn. Three trials (crossover design) were conducted in the summers of 2001 and 2002, and in the winter of 2003. Nitrogen volatilization was estimated from the change in the N:P ratio in excreta at the time of excretion to the time when manure was scraped from the barn. Total N loss was considered a maximum estimate of NH3-N loss, because small amounts of nonammonia N may be volatilized. Nitrogen was determined after manure subsamples were lyophilized; P content was measured by direct current emission spectroscopy of ashed subsamples of manure. Lactating dairy cows were fed high-protein (18.5 to 19.3% crude protein), alfalfa-based diets. Average milk yield was 31.9 (SD = 7.4) kg/d. Scraping frequency had no effect on N loss in summer 2001. An average of 41% of excreted N, or 238 +/- 19.0 g of N/d per cow, was volatilized. For the trial in summer 2002, nitrogen volatilization was reduced from 50% of the excreted N with 2x to 46.7% with 6x, equivalent to 265 and 248 g of N lost/d per cow, respectively. Scraping had no effect on N volatilization during the winter trial. An average of 17.7% of excreted N was volatilized during the winter, equivalent to 109 +/- 11.0 g of N lost/d per cow. Scraping frequency of manure had little or no effect on N loss from manure in a freestall barn. Nitrogen loss during the winter was less than half of the loss during the summer.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    PubMed

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation.

  6. Evolution of composition of dairy manure supernatant in a controlled dung pit.

    PubMed

    Rico, C; García, H; Rico, J L; Fernández, J; Renedo, J

    2009-12-01

    Anaerobic conversion of dairy manure into biogas is an attractive way of managing this waste. It is well known that the hydrolysis of large molecules into small, directly biodegradable ones is the rate limiting step of the overall anaerobic process. The present work studies the development of the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages of dairy manure with different solid concentrations (40, 60 and 80 g VS/L) at ambient temperature (20 degrees C). The purpose was to determine the operational conditions that provide a liquid fraction with a high soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a high volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in manure before the methanogenic stage starts up. At 20 degrees C, the evolution of the studied parameters showed that, in a controlled plug-flow dung pit, the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages progressed moderately in a continuous way during the 25 days that the experimentation lasted, whereas no methanization was observed. Supernatant COD and VFA concentrations increased 30% and 107%, respectively, for the 60 g VS/L samples. Manure was also operated at 35 degrees C with a similar increase in supernatant COD but a higher increase in VFA, 154%. For both operational temperatures, the predominant VFAs were, in this order, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. During the operation at 35 degrees C, the methanogenic stage started between days 20 and 25 for the samples with lower solids content, i.e. 40 and 60 g VS/L.

  7. Treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure in a two-stage biofiltration system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengjing; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of ammonium and phosphate present a challenge to cost-effective treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure. This study investigated the efficacy of a two-stage biofiltration system for passive treatment of digested dairy manure. The first stage pebble filters were batch loaded. When the slurry-like digested dairy manure was retained on pebble beds, soluble contaminants were removed before liquid infiltrated over 8-17 days. The pebble filters removed 70% of soluble chemical oxygen demand, 71% of soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 75% of ammonium, and 68% of orthophosphate. Nitrogen removal was attributed to the conventional nitrification - denitrification process and novel nitritation - anammox process. Aerobic ammonium oxidizing and anammox bacteria accounted for 25 and 23% of all bacteria, respectively, in the filtrate of the pebble filters. The longer it took for filtration, the greater the removal efficiency of soluble contaminants. The second stage sand filters had removal efficiencies of 17% for soluble chemical oxygen demand, 45% for soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 43% for ammonium, and 16% for orthophosphate during batch operations at a hydraulic retention time of 7 days. Aerobic ammonium oxidation and anammox were primarily responsible for nitrogen removal in the sand filters. Vegetation made an insignificant difference in treatment performance of the sand filters.

  8. Effects of a precomposting step on the vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mupondi, Lushian T; Mnkeni, Pearson N S; Muchaonyerwa, Pardon

    2011-02-01

    Thermophilic composting is being promoted as a means of sanitizing waste materials prior to vermicomposting. The precomposting duration is, however, critical to the success of the vermicomposting phase as it affects worm biomass. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different precomposting periods (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) on the sanitization and vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures. The parameters measured were coliform bacteria and protozoa oocyst numbers, earthworm growth, as well as stabilization and nutrient content of vermicomposts. Over 95% of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and of E. coli 0157 were eliminated from the waste materials within 1 week of precomposting and total elimination of these and protozoan oocysts was achieved after 3 weeks of precomposting. Microbial biomass carbon and water soluble carbon of waste mixtures decreased with increase in precomposting time and impacted negatively on earthworm growth and subsequent stabilization of the dairy manure-paper waste mixtures. Vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for over 2 weeks were less stabilized, less humified and had lower nutrient contents than vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for 1 week or less. A precomposting period of 1 week was found to be ideal for the effective vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures.

  9. Microwave treatment of dairy manure for resource recovery: Reaction kinetics and energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2016-12-01

    A newly designed continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave wastewater treatment system was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) for treating dairy manure. After the treatment, about 84% of total phosphorus and 45% of total chemical oxygen demand were solubilized with the highest H2O2 dosage (0.4% H2O2 per %TS). The reaction kinetics of soluble chemical oxygen demand revealed activation energy to be in the range of 5-22 kJ mole(-1). The energy required by the processes was approximately 0.16 kWh per liter of dairy manure heated. A higher H2O2 dosage used in the system had a better process performance in terms of solids solubilization, reaction kinetics, and energy consumption. Cost-benefit analysis for a farm-scale MW/H2O2-AOP treatment system was also presented. The results obtained from this study would provide the basic knowledge for designing an effective farm-scale dairy manure treatment system.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Manure Management: A Review of Field-based Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Dairy manure is a large potential source of agriculturally-derived greenhouse gases, but few studies have compared source locations or management strategies, nor evaluated how well emissions factors capture actual emission rates. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 approach. Greenhouse gas emissions varied by several orders of magnitude from all sources due to the heterogeneity of surface conditions and manure composition, the length of sampling, and the measurement technique. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (1097 × 591 g hd-1 d-1), over twice that from enteric fermentation (~350 g hd-1 d-1). Corrals and manure piles were the largest sources of nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from hardstandings and barn floors were negligible. Predicted methane emissions underestimated measured fluxes for slurry tanks, barns, and whole dairies. Predicted nitrous oxide emissions underestimated anaerobic lagoon fluxes but overestimated emissions from slurry tanks and barn floors. Refining these calculations requires: 1) within-site comparisons of measurement techniques, 2) multiple year data sets, 3) within-site comparisons across measurement scales, and 4) better metadata to constrain greenhouse gas emission models.

  11. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process for treating dairy manure at low pH.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Chan, Winnie W I; Yawson, Selina K; Liao, Ping H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW-AOP) at pH 2. An experimental design was developed based on a statistical program using response surface methodology to explore the effects of temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and heating time on sugar production, nutrient release and solids destruction. Temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and acid concentration were key factors affecting reducing sugar production. The highest reducing sugar yield of 7.4% was obtained at 160°C, 0 mL, 15 min heating time, and no H(2)O(2) addition. Temperature was a dominant factor for an increase of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the treated dairy manure. The important factors for volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were microwave temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Temperature was the most important parameter, and heating time, to a lesser extent affecting orthophosphate release. Heating time, hydrogen peroxide dosage and temperature were significant factors for ammonia release. There was a maximum of 96% and 196% increase in orthophosphate and ammonia concentration, respectively at 160°C, 0.5 mL H(2)O(2) and 15 min heating time. The MW-AOP is an effective method in dairy manure treatment for sugar production, nutrient solubilisation, and solids disintegration.

  12. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Other Zoonotic Pathogens during Simulated Composting, Manure Packing, and Liquid Storage of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Sukhbir K.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55°C, manure packing at 25°C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 106 CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55°C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were detectable up to 28 days. M

  13. Assessing the impacts of temperature and storage on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sagor; Pandey, Pramod K; Farver, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    Elevated levels of animal waste-borne pathogen in ambient water is a serious human health issue. Mitigating influx of pathogens from animal waste such as dairy manure to soil and water requires improving our existing knowledge of pathogen reductions in dairy manure treatment methods. This study was conducted to enhance the  understanding of human pathogen decay in liquid dairy manure in anaerobic (AN) and limited aerobic (LA) storage conditions. The decay of three pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes) was assessed in bench-scale batch reactors fed with liquid slurry. A series of temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C) conditions were tested to determine the impacts of temperature on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in AN and LA conditions. Results showed prolonged survival of E. coli compared to Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in both LA and AN environments. Variations in survival among pathogens with temperature and environmental conditions (i.e., LA and AN) indicated the necessity of developing improved dairy manure waste treatment methods for controlling animal waste-borne pathogens. The results of this study will help in improving the current understanding of human pathogen decay in dairy manure for making informed decisions of animal manure treatment by stakeholders.

  14. Use of Biochar to sequester nutrients from dairy manure lagoons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are developing technology to utilize dairy waste as an alternative energy and fertilizer source. The fiber component exiting a GHD™ Plugged Flow anaerobic digester as well as feedstocks from softwood sources were used to produce bio-gas or bio-oil under low temperature pyrolysis, the co-product, ...

  15. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  16. Dry anaerobic ammonia-methane production from chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2009-03-01

    The effect of temperature on production of ammonia during dry anaerobic fermentation of chicken manure (CM), inoculated with thermophilic methanogenic sludge, was investigated in a batch condition for 8 days. Incubation temperature did not have a significant effect on the production of ammonia. Almost complete inhibition of production of methane occurred at 55 and 65 degrees C while quite low yields of 8.45 and 6.34 ml g(-1) VS (volatile solids) were observed at 35 and 45 degrees C due to a higher accumulation of ammonia. In order to improve the production of methane during dry anaerobic digestion of CM, stripping of ammonia was performed firstly on the CM previously fermented at 65 degrees C for 8 days: the stripping for 1 day at 85 degrees C and pH 10 removed 85.5% of ammonia. The first-batch fermentation of methane for 75 days was conducted next, using the ammonia-stripped CM inoculated with methanogenic sludge at different ratios, (CM: thermophilic sludge) of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 on volume per volume basis at both 35 and 55 degrees C. Production of methane improved and was higher than that of the control (without stripping of ammonia) but the yield of 20.4 ml g(-1) VS was still low, so second stripping of ammonia was conducted, which resulted in 74.7% removal of ammonia. A great improvement in the production of methane of 103.5 ml g(-1) VS was achieved during the second batch for 55 days.

  17. Particulate and dissolved phosphorus chemical separation and phosphorus release from treated dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh H; Daniel, Tommy C

    2002-01-01

    In confined animal feeding operations, liquid manure systems present special handling and storage challenges because of the large volume of diluted wastes. Water treatment polymers and mineral phosphorus (P) immobilizing chemicals [AI2(SO4)3 x 18H2O, FeCl3-6H2O, and Class C fly ash] were used to determine particulate and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) reduction mechanisms in high total suspended solid (TSS) dairy manure and the P release from treated manure and amended soils. Co-application exceeded the aggregation level achieved with individual manure amendments and resulted in 80 and 90% reduction in metal salt and polymer rates, respectively. At marginally effective polymer rates between 0.01 and 0.25 g L(-1), maximal aggregation was attained in combination with 1 and 10 g L(-1) of aluminum sulfate (3 and 30 mmol Al3+ L(-1)) and iron chloride (3.7 and 37 mmol Fe3+ L(-1)) in 30 g L(-1) (TSS30) and 100 g L(-1) TSS (TSS100) suspensions, respectively. Fly ash induced particulate destabilization at rates > or = 50 g L(-1) and reduced solution-phase DRP at all rates > or = 1 g L(-1) by 52 and 71% in TSS30 and TSS100 suspensions, respectively. Aluminum and Fe salts also lowered DRP at rates < or = 10 g L(-1) and higher concentrations redispersed particulates and increased DRP due to increased suspension acidity and electrical conductivity. The DRP release from treated manure solids and a Typic Paleudult amended with treated manure was reduced, although the amendments increased Mehlich 3-extractable P. Therefore, the synergism of flocculant types allowed input reduction in aggregation aid chemicals, enhancing particulate and dissolved P separation and immobilization in high TSS liquid manure.

  18. Nutrient contributions and biogas potential of co-digestion of feedstocks and dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guiling; Neibergs, J Shannon; Harrison, Joseph H; Whitefield, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on collection of data on nutrient flow and biogas yield at a commercial anaerobic digester managed with dairy manure from a 1000 cow dairy and co-digestion of additional feedstocks. Feedstocks included: blood, fish, paper pulp, out of date beverages and grease trap waste. Mass flow of inputs and outputs, nutrient concentration of inputs and outputs, and biogas yield were obtained. It was determined that manure was the primary source of nutrients to the anaerobic digester when co-digested with feedstocks. The percentage of contribution from manure to the total nutrient inputs for total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, phosphorus and total solids was 46.3%, 67.7%, 32.8% and 23.4%, respectively. On average, manure contributed the greatest amount of total nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen. Grease trap waste contributed the greatest amount of phosphorus and total solids at approximately 50%. Results demonstrated that a reliable estimate of nutrient inflow could be obtained from the product of the nutrient analyses of a single daily composite of influent subsamples times the total daily flow estimated with an in-line flow meter. This approach to estimate total daily nutrient inflow would be more cost effective than testing and summing the contribution of individual feedstocks. Data collected after liquid-solid separation confirmed that the majority (>75%) of nutrients remain with the liquid effluent portion of the manure stream. It was demonstrated that the ash concentration in solids before and after composting could be used to estimate the mass balance of total solids during the compost process. This data confirms that biogas or methane yield could be accurately measured from the ratio of % volatile solids to % total solids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk.

    PubMed

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Lateef, Suraju A; Yamashiro, Takaki; Ihara, Ikko; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered as a promising method to manage animal waste with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Current research was conducted to investigate the survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) resistant to three groups of antibiotics: (i) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin (group 1); (ii) penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 2); and (iii) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 3), in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk at 37°C and 55°C for 22 days, respectively. The population densities of three groups of MDRB on peptone, tryptone, yeast and glucose agar plates incubated at 30°C for 7 days before and after digestion showed 100% destruction in both digestates at thermophilic temperature. Overall reduction of more than 90% of three groups of MDRB was observed in mesophilic digestion with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between manure and milk mixture. Co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk always produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total gas and methane gas than digestion of manure alone at both temperatures. Gas production in each case was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in thermophilic digestion than in mesophilic digestion. The results demonstrate that thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk offers more benefits in terms of the environment and economy.

  20. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Kondrad, Shannon; Pizarro, Carolina; Kebede-Westhead, Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    Cultivating algae on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in animal manure effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of land application. The objective of this study was to determine values for productivity, nutrient content, and nutrient recovery using filamentous green algae grown in outdoor raceways at different loading rates of raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure effluent. Algal turf scrubber raceways (30m2 each) were operated in central Maryland for approximately 270 days each year (roughly April 1-December 31) from 2003 to 2006. Algal biomass was harvested every 4-12 days from the raceways after daily additions of manure effluent corresponding to loading rates of 0.3 to 2.5g total N (TN) and 0.08 to 0.42g total P (TP) m(-2)d(-1). Mean algal productivity values increased from approximately 2.5g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the lowest loading rate (0.3g TN m(-2)d(-1)) to 25g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the highest loading rate (2.5g TN m(-2)d(-1)). Mean N and P contents in the dried biomass increased 1.5-2.0-fold with increasing loading rate up to maximums of 7% N and 1% P (dry weight basis). Although variable, algal N and P accounted for roughly 70-90% of input N and P at loading rates below 1g TN, 0.15g TP m(-2)d(-1). N and P recovery rates decreased to 50-80% at higher loading rates. There were no significant differences in algal productivity, algal N and P content, or N and P recovery values from raceways with carbon dioxide supplementation compared to values from raceways without added carbon dioxide. Projected annual operational costs are very high on a per animal basis ($780 per cow). However, within the context of reducing nutrient inputs in sensitive watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay, projected operational costs of $11 per kgN are well below the costs cited for upgrading existing water treatment plants.

  1. Prediction of phosphorus output in manure and milk by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Fuentes, G; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models for predicting P excretions play a key role in evaluating P use efficiency and monitoring the environmental impact of dairy cows. However, the majority of extant models require feed intake as predictor variable, which is not routinely available at farm level. The objectives of the study were to (1) explore factors explaining heterogeneity in P output; (2) develop a set of empirical models for predicting P output in feces (Pf), manure (PMa), and milk (Pm, all in g/cow per day) with and without dry matter intake (DMI) using literature data; and (3) evaluate new and extant P models using an independent data set. Random effect meta-regression analyses were conducted using 190 Pf, 97 PMa, and 118 Pm or milk P concentration (PMilkC) treatment means from 38 studies. Dietary nutrient composition, milk yield and composition, and days in milk were used as potential covariates to the models with and without DMI. Dietary phosphorus intake (Pi) was the major determinant of Pf and PMa. Milk yield negatively affected Pi partitioning to Pf or PMa. In the absence of DMI, milk yield, body weight, and dietary P content became the major determinants of Pf and PMa. Milk P concentration (PMilkC) was heterogeneous across the treatment groups, with a mean of 0.92 g/kg of milk. Milk yield, days in milk, and dietary Ca-to-ash ratio were negatively correlated with PMilkC and explained 42% of the heterogeneity. The new models predicted Pf and PMa with root mean square prediction error as a percentage of observed mean (RMSPE%) of 18.3 and 19.2%, respectively, using DMI when evaluated with an independent data set. Some of the extant models also predicted Pf and PMa well (RMSPE%=19.3 to 20.0%) using DMI. The new models without DMI as a variable predicted Pf and PMa with RMSPE% of 22.3 and 19.6%, respectively, which can be used in monitoring P excretions at farm level. When evaluated with an independent data set, the new model and extant models based on milk protein content

  2. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Wepking, Carl; Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, Partha P; Smitherman, Crystal; Strickland, Michael S

    2017-03-29

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function.

  3. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangyang; Li, Yu; Zhang, Difang; Li, Guoxue; Lu, Jiaxin; Li, Shuyan

    2016-10-01

    Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover was conducted at 20% total solids under 35°C for 45days. Results showed digestion of mixed tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover improved methane yields. The highest VS reduction (46.2%) and methane yield (415.4L/kg VSfeed) were achieved with the ternary mixtures of 33% corn stover, 54% dairy manure, and 13% tomato residues, lead to a 0.5-10.2-fold higher than that of individual feedstocks. Inhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to biogas production occurred when more than 40% tomato residues were added. The results indicated that ternary mixtures diluted the inhibitors that would otherwise cause inhibition in the digestion of tomato residues as a mono-feedstock.

  4. Ammonia volatilization from surface-banded and broadcast application of liquid dairy manure on grass forage.

    PubMed

    Pfluke, Paul D; Jokela, William E; Bosworth, Sidney C

    2011-01-01

    Manure can provide valuable nutrients, especially N, for grass forage, but high NH, volatilization losses from standard surface-broadcast application limits N availability and raises environmental concerns. Eight field trials were conducted to evaluate the emission of NH, from liquid dairy manure, either surface broadcast or applied in narrow surface bands with a trailing-foot implement. Manure was applied using both techniques at rates of approximately 25 and 50 m3 ha(-1) on either orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) on a well-drained silt loam or reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) on a somewhat poorly drained clay soil. Ammonia emission was measured with a dynamic chamber/equilibrium concentration technique. High NH3 emission rates in broadcast treatments, especially at the high rate (2 to 13 kg ha(-1) h(-1)), occurred during the first few hours after spreading, followed by a rapid reduction to low levels (<0.5 kg ha(-1) h(-1) in most cases) by 24 h after spreading and in subsequent days. Band treatments often followed the same pattern but with initial rates substantially lower and with a less dramatic decrease over time. Total estimated NH3 losses from broadcast application, as a percent of total ammoniacal N (TAN) applied, averaged 39% (range of 20 to 59%) from the high manure rate and 25% (range of 9 to 52%) from the low rate. Band spreading reduced total NH3 losses by an average of 52 and 29% for the high and low manure rates, respectively. Results show that the trailing-foot band application method can reduce NH3 losses and conserve N for perennial forage production.

  5. Runoff losses of sediment and phosphorus from no-till and cultivated soils receiving dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Verbree, David A; Duiker, Sjoerd W; Kleinman, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    Managing manure in no-till systems is a water quality concern because surface application of manure can enrich runoff with dissolved phosphorus (P), and incorporation by tillage increases particulate P loss. This study compared runoff from well-drained and somewhat poorly drained soils under corn (Zea mays, L.) production that had been in no-till for more than 10 yr. Dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure was broadcast into a fall planted cover crop before no-till corn planting or incorporated by chisel/disk tillage in the absence of a cover crop. Rainfall simulations (60 mm h(-1)) were performed after planting, mid-season, and post-harvest in 2007 and 2008. In both years and on both soils, no-till yielded significantly less sediment than did chisel/disking. Relative effects of tillage on runoff and P loss differed with soil. On the well-drained soil, runoff depths from no-till were much lower than with chisel/disking, producing significantly lower total P loads (22-50% less). On the somewhat poorly drained soil, there was little to no reduction in runoff depth with no-till, and total P loads were significantly greater than with chisel/disking (40-47% greater). Particulate P losses outweighed dissolved P losses as the major concern on the well-drained soil, whereas dissolved P from surface applied manure was more important on the somewhat poorly drained soil. This study confirms the benefit of no-till to erosion and total P runoff control on well-drained soils but highlights trade-offs in no-till management on somewhat poorly drained soils where the absence of manure incorporation can exacerbate total P losses.

  6. An ecoregion-specific ammonia emissions inventory of Ontario dairy farming: Mitigation potential of diet and manure management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; MacDonald, Douglas; Bittman, Shabtai; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Janzen, H. Henry; McGinn, Sean M.; Vanderzaag, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian ammonia (NH3) emissions model and a survey of dairy farm practices were used to quantify effects of management on emissions from dairy farms in Ontario Canada. Total NH3 emissions from dairy farming were 21 Gg NH3-N yr-1 for the four ecoregions of the province. Annual emission rates ranged from 12.8 (for calves in ecoregions of Manitoulin-Lake Simcoe-Frontenac) to 50 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1 (for lactating cows in ecoregions of St. Lawrence Lowlands) (mean of 27 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1). The St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion had the highest emission rate because more dairy manure was managed as solid manure in that ecoregion. Total dairy cattle N intake (diet-N) was 81 Gg N yr-1, 23% of which was retained in animal products (e.g., milk, meat, and fetus), 47% was returned to the land, and 30% was emitted as gas (i.e., NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N) and nitrate-N leaching/runoff. Ammonia volatilization constituted the largest loss of diet-N (26%), as well as manure-N (34%). Reducing the fraction of solid manure by 50% has the potential to mitigate NH3 emissions by 18% in Ontario ecoregions.

  7. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J

    2008-06-25

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction.

  8. Utilisation of dried caged-hen manure and cassava peels for intensive sheep production.

    PubMed

    Okeudo, N J; Adegbola, A A

    1993-11-01

    Twenty grower ewes with an average weight of 14.3 +/- 3.7 kg were allotted to 5 dietary treatments. The diets contained 0, 13, 25, 35 and 45% dried caged-hen manure which replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the conventional protein supplements. The animals were fed 55.0 g/w0.75 kg/day of the concentrate food during a 104 days growth study. Air dried cassava peels and water were also provided ad libitum. The differences in average total dry matter intake were not statistically significant. The higher the manure content in the diets, the lower the energy content and the higher the cassava peels intake. No statistical differences were found in growth rates. The efficiency of food conversion decreased progressively though insignificantly. It was concluded that sheep can be fed caged-hen manure as the sole protein supplement in cassava peel based diets.

  9. Impact of biochar enriched with dairy manure effluent on carbon and nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sarkhot, Deoyani V; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2012-01-01

    Amending soils with biochar can have multiple environmental benefits, including improvement in soil physicochemical properties, carbon sequestration, reduction in leaching losses of essential nutrients, and reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study was conducted to determine the effect of enriched biochar amendments on leaching losses of essential nutrients and GHG emissions from soil. The enriched biochar was prepared by shaking biochar with dairy manure effluent for 24 h, which increased the C and N concentration of biochar by 9.3 and 8.3%, respectively. Incubation and leaching experiments were conducted for 8 wk with three treatments: soil, soil + 1% biochar, and soil + 1% enriched biochar. Amendment with biochar and enriched biochar relative to unamended soil resulted in 68 and 75% reduction in net nitrification, 221 and 229% reduction in net ammonification, 67 and 68% reduction in cumulative CO flux, respectively, and 26% reduction in cumulative NO flux for both biochar treatments. There were no significant differences among treatments in total leaching losses of C, N, and base cations. Our findings suggest that enrichment of biochar with dairy manure effluent can promote C and N storage in soil and provide additional environmental benefits. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Hydrothermal liquefaction of separated dairy manure for production of bio-oils with simultaneous waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Theegala, Chandra S; Midgett, Jason S

    2012-03-01

    A bench scale hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) system was tested using dairy manure to explore biooil production and waste treatment potential. Carbon monoxide was used as the process gas and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) as catalyst. At a 350°C process temperature, the HTL unit produced 3.45 g (± 0.21) of acetone soluble oil fractions (ASF), with an average Higher Heating Value of 32.16 (± 0.23) MJ kg(-1). A maximum ASF yield of 4.8 g was produced at a process temperature of 350°C and 1g of catalyst. The best ASF yield corresponded to 67.6% of energy contained in the raw manure. GC-MS analysis of ASF indicated that the highest quantities of phenolic compounds were formed when 1g catalyst was used. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction in the dischargeable slurry was as high as 75%. The results point to an alternative dairy waste treatment technology with a potential to generate transportable biooils.

  11. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of pig and dairy manure under photo-dark fermentation condition.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongxue; Liu, Wei; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Gaihe; Wang, Xiaojiao; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) with livestock manure is a promising way for biogas production. This work presents the influence of photo-dark fermentation on biogas production of pig manure (PM) and dairy manure (DM). All sets were conducted with temperature 35 ± 2 °C and total solid concentrations 8%: PM₁ and DM₁ in transparent reactor under sunlight for photo-dark fermentation, and PM₂ and DM₂ in non-transparent reactor for dark fermentation. DM₂ had the best cumulative biogas production (CBP) of 15,447.5 mL, followed by PM₁ (15,020 mL) with stable pH and low total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration (1384.99 mg/L), and DM₁ and PM₂. The CBP of DM₂ was 5.77 times as much as PM₂. The relationship between CBP and four factors including volatile fatty acid (VFA), TAN, total alkalinity and pH was analyzed. pH gained the maximum determination coefficient with the CBP among all sets and total alkalinity showed negative correlation with CBP of PM₁ and DM₁.

  13. Does Fall Removal of the Dairy Manure Sludge in a Storage Tank Reduce Subsequent Methane Emissions?

    PubMed

    Baldé, Hambaliou; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Burtt, Stephen D; Gordon, Robert J; Desjardins, Raymond L

    2016-11-01

    When liquid manure is removed from storages for land application, "sludge" generally remains at the bottom of the tank. This may serve as an inoculum when fresh manure is subsequently added, thereby increasing methane (CH) emissions. Previous pilot-scale studies have shown that completely emptying storages can decrease CH emissions; however, no farm-scale studies have been conducted to quantify the effect of sludge removal. In this study, a commercial dairy farm removed as much manure and sludge from their concrete storage as possible in the fall (∼2% by volume remained). Emissions of CH were measured during the following winter, spring, and summer, and compared with emissions measured the preceding 2 yr when most of the sludge had not been removed (∼14% of tank volume remained). Emissions were measured using a micrometeorological technique, utilizing open-path CH lasers. Contrary to what was hypothesized, removing the majority of sludge in fall did not delay the onset of CH emissions and did not decrease emissions the following summer. In fact, annual CH emissions were ∼16% higher. It is possible that fall removal provided sufficient time for microbial dynamics to be restored before the following summer when emissions were high. Future farm-scale research should examine the effect of spring (rather than fall) emptying for on-farm CH mitigation in both concrete tanks and earthen storages.

  14. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  15. Use and environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals in freestall dairy farms with manured forage fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, Naoko; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Harter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collection systems, soils, and shallow groundwater. Concentrations of antibiotics were determined using on line solid phase extraction (OLSPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) for water samples, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) LC/MS/MS with ESI for solid samples. A variety of antibiotics were applied at both farms leading to antibiotics excretion of several hundred grams per farm per day. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and their epimers/isomers, and lincomycin were most frequently detected. Yet, despite decades of use, antibiotic occurrence appeared constrained to within farm boundaries. The most frequent antibiotic detections were associated with lagoons, hospital pens, and calf hutches. When detected below ground, tetracyclines were mainly found in soils, whereas sulfonamides were found in shallow groundwater reflecting key differences in their physicochemical properties. In manure lagoons, 10 compounds were detected including tetracyclines and trimethoprim. Of these 10, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin were found in shallow groundwater directly downgradient from the lagoons. Antibiotics were sporadically detected in field surface samples on fields with manure applications, but not in underlying sandy soils. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine were detected in shallow groundwater near field flood irrigation gates, but at highly attenuated levels.

  16. Use and Environmental Occurrence of Antibiotics in Freestall Dairy Farms with Manured Forage Fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collection systems, soils, and shallow groundwater. Concentrations of antibiotics were determined using on line solid phase extraction (OLSPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) for water samples, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) LC/MS/MS with ESI for solid samples. A variety of antibiotics were applied at both farms leading to antibiotics excretion of several hundred grams per farm per day. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and their epimers/isomers, and lincomycin were most frequently detected. Yet, despite decades of use, antibiotic occurrence appeared constrained to within farm boundaries. The most frequent antibiotic detections were associated with lagoons, hospital pens, and calf hutches. When detected below ground, tetracyclines were mainly found in soils, whereas sulfonamides were found in shallow groundwater reflecting key differences in their physicochemical properties. In manure lagoons, 10 compounds were detected including tetracyclines and trimethoprim. Of these 10, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin were found in shallow groundwater directly downgradient from the lagoons. Antibiotics were sporadically detected in field surface samples on fields with manure applications, but not in underlying sandy soils. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine were detected in shallow groundwater near field flood irrigation gates, but at highly attenuated levels. PMID:20698525

  17. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  18. Relationship of soil nutrient content from poultry litter and dairy manure on microbial survival in fescue soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This field experiment was designed to measure survival rates of select bacterial groups after addition of three nutrient sources to tall fescue fields. The nutrient sources were inorganic fertilizer (I), poultry littler (PL) and dairy manure (DM) along with a control treatment (C). Phosphorus and K...

  19. Influence of composted dairy manure and perennial forage on soil carbon and nitrogen fractions during transition into organic management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composted dairy manure (CDM) is among the management practices used in transitioning from a conventional to an organic agricultural system. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact of several organic nitrogen (N) sources on: (i) soil organic C (SOC) and soil total N (STN) content; (ii...

  20. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from digested and separated dairy manure during storage and after land application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure management at dairy production facilities, including anaerobic digestion (AD) and solid-liquid separation (SLS), has a strong potential for the abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. This study evaluated the effects of AD, SLS, and AD+SLS on GHG and NH3 emissions durin...

  1. Spatiotemporal soil organic carbon dynamics in irrigated corn silage-alfalfa production systems receiving liquid dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...

  2. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  3. Evaluation of dairy cattle manure as a supplement to improve net energy gain in fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated fermentative biohydrogen production from sucrose supplemented with dairy cattle manure at different sucrose:manure ratios. Hydrogen yields found in this study (2.9-5.3M hydrogen/M sucrose) at ambient temperature are higher than literature results obtained at mesophilic temperatures. This study demonstrated that dairy cattle manure could serve as a buffering agent to maintain recommended pH levels; as a nutrient source to provide the required nutrients for hydrogen production; as a seed to produce hydrogen from sucrose; and as a co-substrate to improve the hydrogen yield. Based on an analysis of the net energy gain, it is concluded that positive net energy gains can be realized with non-thermal pretreatment and/or by combining dark fermentation with anaerobic digestion or microbial fuel cells to extract additional energy from the aqueous products of dark fermentation.

  4. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide during storage of dairy cow manure as affected by dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio and crust formation.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Powell, J M

    2012-12-01

    Sixteen 200-L barrels were used to determine the effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio on the rate of NH(3)-N, N(2)O, CH(4), and CO(2) emissions from dairy manure during a 77-d storage period. Manure was obtained from a companion study where cows were assigned to total mixed rations that included the following F:C ratio: 47:53, 54:46, 61:39, and 68:32 (diet dry matter basis) and housed in air-flow-controlled chambers constructed in a modified tiestall barn. On d 0 of this study, deposited manure and bedding from each emission chamber was thoroughly mixed, diluted with water (1.9 to 1 manure-to-water ratio) and loaded in barrels. In addition, on d 0, 7, 14, 28, 35, 49, 56, 63, 70, and 77 of storage, the rate of NH(3)-N, N(2)O, CH(4), and CO(2) emissions from each barrel were measured with a dynamic chamber and gas concentration measured with a photo-acoustic multi-gas monitor. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block with 4 replications. Dietary F:C ratio had no effect on manure dry matter, total N and total ammoniacal-N (NH(3)-N + NH(4)(+)-N), or pH at the time of storage (mean ± SD: 10.6±0.6%, 3.0±0.2%, 93.1±18.1 mg/dL, and 7.8±0.5, respectively). No treatment differences were observed in the overall rate of manure NH(3)-N, N(2)O, CH(4), and CO(2) emissions (mean ± SD over the 77-d storage period; 117±25, 30±7, 299±62, and 15,396±753 mg/hr per m(2), respectively). The presence of straw bedding in manure promoted the formation of a surface crust that became air dried after about 1 mo of storage, and was associated with an altered pattern in NH(3)-N and N(2)O emissions in particular. Whereas NH(3)-N emission rate was highest on d 0 and gradually decreased until reaching negligible levels on d 35, N(2)O emission rate was almost zero the first 2 wk of storage, increased sharply to peak on d 35, and decreased subsequently. The emission rate of CH(4) and CO(2) peaked simultaneously on d 7, but decreased subsequently until the end of the

  5. Tumble-mix anaerobic digestion of dry beef manure

    SciTech Connect

    Kottwitz, D.; Schulte, D.D.

    1982-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of beef manure at an influent total solids concentration of 26% was demonstrated using an innovative tumble-mix fermenter. At an organic loading rate of 4.7 kg VS m-/sup 3/ d-/sup 1/ and a 23% VS influent concentration, a 54% volatile solids reduction was achieved. The average biogas production was 1.37 m/sup 3/ m-/sup 3/ d-/sup 1/ with a gas quality of 54% CH/sub 4/.

  6. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  7. Simultaneous immobilization of lead and atrazine in contaminated soils using dairy-manure biochar.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena; Liang, Yuan; Gao, Bin; Harris, Willie

    2011-06-01

    Biochar produced from waste biomass is increasingly being recognized as a green, cost-effective amendment for environmental remediation. This work was to determine the ability of biochar to immobilize heavy metal Pb and organic pesticide atrazine in contaminated soils. Biochar prepared from dairy manure was incubated with contaminated soils at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5.0% by weight for 210 d. A commercial activated carbon (AC) was included as a comparison. The AC was effective in immobilizing atrazine, but was ineffective for Pb. However, biochar was effective in immobilizing both atrazine and Pb and the effectiveness was enhanced with increasing incubation time and biochar rates. After 210 d, soils treated with the highest rate of 5.0% biochar showed more than 57% and 66% reduction in Pb and atrazine concentrations in 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction, respectively. Lead and atrazine concentrations in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure solutions were reduced by 70-89% and 53-77%, respectively. Uptake of Pb and atrazine by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was reduced by up to 79% and 73%. Phosphorus originally contained in biochar reacted with soil Pb to form insoluble hydroxypyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)(OH), as determined by X-ray diffraction, which was presumably responsible for soil Pb immobilization, whereas atrazine stabilization may result from its adsorption by biochar demonstrated by the significant exponential decrease of extractable atrazine with increasing organic C in biochar (r(2) > 0.97, p < 0.05). The results highlighted the potential of dairy-manure biochar as a unique amendment for immobilization of both heavy metal and organic contaminants in cocontaminated soils.

  8. Do drying and rewetting cycles modulate effects of sulfadiazine spiked manure in soil?

    PubMed

    Jechalke, Sven; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2016-05-01

    Naturally occurring drying-rewetting events in soil have been shown to affect the dissipation of veterinary antibiotics entering soil by manure fertilization. However, knowledge of effects on the soil microbial community structure and resistome is scarce. Here, consequences of drying-rewetting cycles on effects of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soil planted with Dactylis glomerata L. were investigated in microcosms. Manure containing SDZ or not was applied to the pregrown grass and incubated for 56 days in a climate chamber. Water was either added daily or reduced during two drying events of 7 days, each followed by a recovery phase. Total community DNA was analyzed to reveal the effects on the bacterial community structure and on the abundance of sul1, sul2, intI1 ,intI2, qacE+qacEΔ1, traN and korB genes relative to 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE fingerprints indicated that drying-rewetting cycles modulated the effects of SDZ on the bacterial community structure in the soil. Furthermore, the SDZ treatment increased the relative abundance of sulfonamide resistance and integrase genes compared to the control. However, this increase was not different between moisture regimes, indicating that drying-rewetting had only a negligible effect on the selection of the resistome by SDZ in the manured soil.

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of garbage, screened swine and dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Yue-Qin; Matsui, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Methane fermentation characteristics of garbage, swine manure (SM), dairy cattle manure (DCM) and mixtures of these wastes were studied. SM and DCM showed much lower volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiencies and methane yield than those of garbage. VTS digestion efficiency of SM was significantly increased when it was co-digested with garbage (Garbage: SM=1:1). Co-digestion of garbage, SM and DCM with respect to the relative quantity of each waste discharged in the Kikuchi (1: 16: 27) and Aso (1: 19: 12) areas indicated that co-digestion with garbage would improve the digestion characteristic of SM and DCM as far as the ratio of DCM in the wastes was maintained below a certain level. When the mixed waste (Garbage: SM: DCM=1:19:12) was treated using a thermophilic UAF reactor, methanogens responsible for the methane production were Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina species. Bacterial species in the phylum Firmicutes were dominant bacteria responsible for the digestion of these wastes. As the percentage of garbage in the mixed wastes used in this study was low (2-3%) and the digestion efficiency of DCM was obviously improved, the co-digestion of SM and DCM with limited garbage was a prospective method to treat the livestock waste effectively and was an attractive alternative technology for the construction of a sustainable environment and society in stock raising area.

  10. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  11. Emission of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide during storage of dairy cow manure as affected by dietary forage to concentrate ratio and crust formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen 200-L barrels were used to determine the effects of dietary forage to concentrate ratio (F:C) on rates of NH3-N, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission from dairy manure during a 77-d storage period. Manure was obtained from a companion study where cows were assigned to total mixed rations that included ...

  12. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Matthew J.

    Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been integrated into wastewater treatment facilities nationwide for many decades to increase the economic viability of the treatment process by converting a waste stream into two valuable products: biogas and fertilizer. Thus, anaerobic digestion offers potential economic and environmental benefits of organic waste diversion and renewable energy generation. The use of biogas has many applications, including cogeneration, direct combustion, upgrading for conversion to feed a fuel cell, and compression for injection into the natural gas grid or for vehicular use. The potential benefits of waste diversion and renewable energy generation are now being realized by major organic waste generators in New York State, in particular the food manufacturing and dairy industries, thus warranting an analysis of the energy generation potential for these waste products. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food-based feedstocks reflects a cradle-to- cradle approach to organic waste management. Given both of their abundance throughout New York State, waste-to-energy processes represent promising waste management strategies. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the current technical and economic feasibility of anaerobically codigesting existing dairy manure and food manufacturing waste feedstocks in New York State to produce high quality biogas for renewable energy generation. The first element to determining the technical feasibility of anaerobic codigestion potential in New York State was to first understand the feedstock availability. A comprehensive survey of existing organic waste streams was conducted. The key objective was to identify the volume and composition of dairy manure and liquid-phase food manufacturing waste streams available in New York State to make

  13. Near- versus mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determination of minerals in dried poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Reeves, J B

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if accurate calibrations for mineral content in dried poultry manures could be developed using near- or mid-infrared spectra. Samples (n = 124) were obtained from a commercial testing laboratory along with conventionally determined values for Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, and Zn. Samples were blended in a food blender, dried at 60 C, ground to 20 mesh, and scanned in the near-infrared (rotating sample cup) on a scanning monochromator. Samples were also scanned in the mid-infrared on a Fourier transform spectrometer using a custom-made sample transport. Results showed that calibrations based on nearor mid-infrared spectra were not satisfactory for the accurate determination of Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, or Zn in dried poultry manures. At best, most of the calibrations would be suitable for only gross estimates, although the mid-infrared calibration for P might be suitable for some needs in which only a limited degree of accuracy was needed. Either spectral range could be used to separate dried poultry manure samples into those containing less than 3% and greater than 8% Ca but not to accurately differentiate samples within those two groupings. Finally, although the mid-infrared calibrations were the more accurate for five of the eight minerals studied, the differences between the two sets of calibrations were so varied that it would be difficult to say that one region is better for mineral content measurement.

  14. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A; Leytem, April B; Verwey, Sheryl

    2005-11-01

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min.

  15. Feces composition and manure derived methane yield from dairy cows: Influence of diet with focus on fat supplement and roughage type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Moset, Verónica; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Lund, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dairy cow diets on feces composition and methane (CH4) potential from manure with emphasis on fat level and roughage type and compare these results with the corresponding enteric CH4 emission. In experiment 1 six different diets, divided into two fat levels (low and high) and three different roughage types (early cut grass silage, late cut grass silage and maize silage), were used. The high fat level was achieved by adding crushed rapeseed. In experiment 2, the influence of increasing the fat level by using three different types of rapeseed: rapeseed cake, whole seed and rapeseed oil against a low fat ration with no rapeseed fat supplementation was studied. The diet and fat level had a significant influence on feces composition and CH4 yield. In general, ultimate CH4 yields (B0) were 8-9% higher than the present international default values for diets without extra fat and in feces from diets with extra fat supply the yield was 25-31% higher. It was possible to predict the B0 value from feed and feces characteristics; in fact, the best correlation was obtained by including both feed and feces characteristics. Addition of crude fat to diets to dairy cows reduced enteric CH4 emission but at the same time increased CH4 potential from feces both in terms of organic matter in feces and dry matter intake which might lead to increasing emissions unless proper manure handling such as anaerobic digestion is included. Without subsequent anaerobic digestion to produce energy the positive effect achieved at cow level could be counteracted by increasing manure emissions.

  16. Effect of nitrogen content and additional straw on changes in chemical composition, volatile losses, and ammonia emissions from dairy manure during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Hunt, T; Lobos, N E

    2012-06-01

    Twelve 200-L barrels were used to determine the effects of N content and straw addition on changes in chemical composition and volatile losses measured by mass balance of dairy manure during a 136-d storage period. In addition, on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 28, 56, and 136, rate of NH₃-N emission was measured, and core samples were collected to characterize fermentation pattern. High N (3.06% N, HN) and low N (2.75% N, LN) manures were obtained from cows fed diets with 17.2 and 15.2% crude protein (dry matter basis), respectively. On d 0, manure scraped from a freestall barn floor was diluted with water to 10% dry matter and loaded in barrels with (+S) or without (-S) mixing 22g of chopped wheat straw per kilogram of undiluted manure. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 3 replications. We observed no interaction between treatments for the reported measurements, but several day-of-storage by treatment interactions were found. Throughout storage, total NH₃-N (TAN, NH₃-N + NH₄⁺-N; 71.9 vs. 104.3 mg/dL), pH (6.40 vs. 6.74), and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA, starting on d 12) were lower for LN relative to HN manure. In the presence of straw, crust formation occurred between d 12 and 28, and pH became lower and TVFA became higher starting on d 56, compared with no straw. Treatments did not influence loss of organic matter, organic N, organic C, or N, which averaged 31, 29, 26, and 20%, respectively. However, neutral detergent fiber loss was 44% higher for +S relative to -S manure. Consistent reductions in the C:N ratio indicated proportionally higher volatile C loss than volatile N loss during storage. Overall rate of NH₃-N emission was 36% lower for LN than for HN manure. In the presence of straw, rate of NH₃-N emission did not differ until after crust formation, but was 67% lower on d 56 and 95% lower on d 136, when it was barely detectable, compared with manure with no straw. Manure pH was highly

  17. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency. PMID:26609436

  18. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  19. [Continuous dry fermentation of pig manure using up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuang; Deng, Liang-Wei; Xin, Xin; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Yi; Kong, Chui-Xue

    2012-03-01

    To solve the problems of ammonia inhibition and discharging difficulty in continuous dry fermentation of pig manure, under the experimental conditions of temperature of (25 +/- 2) degrees C and organic loading rate (TS) of 4.44 g x (L x d) (-1), a lab-scale up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor (UPAR) was setup to investigate biogas production, ammonia inhibition, effluent liquidity, and the feasibility of continuous dry fermentation of pig manure using up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor. The experiment was operated for 160 days using the pig manure with four different TS mass fractions (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%) as feeding. Results showed that the feeding TS mass fraction exerted a significant influence on the dry fermentation of pig manure; the stable volumetric biogas production rates of four different feeding TS mass fractions were 2.40, 1.73, 0.89, and 0.62 L x (L x d)(-1), respectively; the biogas producing efficiencies of the reactors with feeding TS mass fractions of 20%, 25% and 30% were obviously superior to that with feeding TS of 35%. With feeding TS mass fraction increased from 20% to 35%, obvious inhibition to biogas producing occurred when concentration of ammonia nitrogen reached more than 2 300 mg x L(-1). When the feeding TS mass fraction was 35%, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen could accumulate to 3 800 mg x L(-1) but biogas production rate decreased 74.1% of that with feeding TS of 20%. Additionally, while the feeding TS mass fraction was 35%, the effluent TS mass fraction achieved 17.1%, and the velocity of effluent was less than 0.002 m x s(-1) the effluent of UPAR could not be smoothly discharged.

  20. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Korn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork. PMID:26184255

  1. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-10

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  2. Removal of Cu, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solutions by the dairy manure-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongran; Gao, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Biochar derived from waste biomass is now gaining much attention for its function as a biosorbent for environmental remediation. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of biochar as a sorbent in removing Cd, Cu, and Zn from aqueous solutions. Biochar was produced from dairy manure (DM) at two temperatures: 200 °C and 350 °C, referred to as DM200 and DM350, respectively. The obtained biochars were then equilibrated with 0-5 mM Cu, Zn or Cd in 0.01 M NaNO(3) solution for 10 h. The changes in solution metal concentrations after sorption were evaluated for sorption capacity using isotherm modeling and chemical speciation Visual MINTEQ modeling, while the solid was collected for species characterization using infrared spectroscopy and X-ray elemental dot mapping techniques. The isotherms of Cu, Zn, and Cd sorption by DM200 were better fitted to Langmuir model, whereas Freundlich model well described the sorption of the three metals by DM350. The DM350 were more effective in sorbing all three metals than DM200 with both biochars had the highest affinity for Cu, followed by Zn and Cd. The maximum sorption capacities of Cu, Zn, and Cd by DM200 were 48.4, 31.6, and 31.9 mg g(-1), respectively, and those of Cu, Zn, and Cd by DM350 were 54.4, 32.8, and 51.4 mg g(-1), respectively. Sorption of the metals by the biochar was mainly attributed to their precipitation with PO(4)(3-) or CO(3)(2-) originating in biochar, with less to the surface complexation through -OH groups or delocalized π electrons. At the initial metal concentration of 5 mM, 80-100 % of Cu, Zn, and Cd retention by DM200 resulted from the precipitation, with less than 20 % from surface adsorption through phenonic -OH complexation. Among the precipitation, 20-30 % of the precipitation occurred as metal phosphate and 70-80 % as metal carbonate. For DM350, 75-100 % of Cu, Zn, and Cd retention were due to the precipitation, with less than 25 % to surface adsorption through complexation of

  3. Chemical composition of leachate of dairy manure mixed with fluidized bed combustion residue

    SciTech Connect

    Elrashidi, M.A.; Baligar, V.C.; Korcak, R.F.; Persaud, N.; Ritchey, K.D.

    1999-08-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the hypothesis that using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residue to stabilize a dairy feedlot surface (DFS) could enhance element attenuation and minimize the environmental impact on water quality. The laboratory leaching experiment included FBC, dairy manure (DM), and DM/FBC treatments. The leaching process consisted of 10 weekly additions of distilled water, each of 460 mL. Using FBC with DM decreased the concentration of most elements (e.g., P, N, K, Ca, Al, Si, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, As, and Se) in the leachate. A decrease ranging from 5.6 to 100% was obtained. The presence of high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is believed to enhance element attenuation by FBC minerals. Several mechanisms involved in this process are proposed: (1) formation of insoluble metal-organic complexes; (2) sorption of soluble organic and inorganic species on mineral surfaces; and (3) precipitation of soluble inorganic species. These mechanisms are discussed in relation to each of the measured elements. On the other hand, using FBC with DM appeared to increase the concentration of B, S, and Mg in the leachate. Reactions of DOM with FBC minerals to form soluble organic complexes were suggested to explain B and S increases. The increase in leached Mg could be attributed to the presence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Their results provide evidence that using FBC to stabilize DFS has the advantage of immobilizing a large portion of most elements present in DM leachate.

  4. Studies into Using Manure in a Biorefinery Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shulin; Wen, Zhiyou; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Kincaid, R. L.; Harrison, J. H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Stevens, Don J.

    2005-03-01

    Animal manure is an underutilized biomass resource containing a large amount of organic carbon that is often wasted in the existing manure disposal practices. A research project funded by the US Department of Energy explored the feasibility of using manure via the sugar platform in a biorefinery. The results showed that fiber, the major component of dry manure, constituted approximately 50%, 40%, and 36% of the dry dairy, swine, and poultry manure materials, respectively. The highest fiber contents were in dairy manure of which more than 75% of the dry matter was in the particles greater than 0.125 mm. Manure can be used for substrate to produce cellulase on site. The hemicellulose component in the manure fiber could be readily converted to sugar through acid hydrolysis. Concentrated acid treatment was most effective in manure cellulose decrystallization. The effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis was limited without concentrated acid pretreatment. The high protein content in manure had negative affects on acid hydrolysis. Purification and separation is necessary for further chemical conversion of the sugar to value-added chemicals through hydrogenation.

  5. Effects of copper on the abundance and diversity of ammonia oxidizers during dairy cattle manure composting.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanan; Song, Wen; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Kaiyu; Qian, Xun; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Yang; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of adding Cu(II) at two exposure levels (50 and 500mgkg(-1), i.e., Cu50 and Cu500 treatments, respectively) on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms during dairy cattle manure composting. The results showed that the pH, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and potential ammonia oxidation values were inhibited significantly by the addition of Cu(II). Furthermore, the abundances of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) amoA gene and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene were determined by quantitative PCR, and their compositions were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). AOA was the dominant ammonia oxidizing microorganism, of which the abundance was much higher than AOB during composting. Cu50 and Cu500 had significant inhibitory effects on the abundance of the amoA gene. The DGGE profile and statistical analysis showed that Cu(II) changed the AOA and AOB community structure and diversity, where Nitrosomonas and Crenarchaeota dominated throughout the composting process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Thermochemical pretreatment and anaerobic digestion of dairy cow manure: Experimental and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Ortega, Valentina; Donoso-Bravo, Andrés

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess technically and economically the application thermochemical pretreatment in the anaerobic digestion of dairy cow manure. After selecting the optimum substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio in a preliminary BMP test, the following tests compared 20 different pretreatment conditions varying temperature (100 and 37°C), exposure time (5 and 30min and 12 and 24h) and chemical doses (0.5, 2, 6 and 10% of HCl or NaOH). The highest value of maximum production rate was achieved at an S/I ratio of 0.25gVSsgVSi(-1). The major improvements of the methane potential were 23.6% with 10% of NaOH at 100°C for 5min and 20.6% with 2% of HCl at 37°C. The technical-economic analysis showed that the implementation of neither thermal alkali nor thermal-acid pretreatment would be feasible and the conventional one-step anaerobic digestion outperforms both alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dairy manure application method and timing influence N availability to corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure N credits will vary with application method and time until incorporation; however, minimal information exists regarding N availability from in-season manure application. The objectives of this study were to understand how corn yield and manure N credits are impacted by 1) spring preplant or s...

  8. Methane production from thermophilic co‐digestion of dairy manure and waste milk obtained from therapeutically treated cows

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methane production from co‐digestion of dairy manure and waste milk, milk from cows treated with antibiotics for mastitis, was tested in a 2 × 4 factorial design. Four different waste milk percentages (w/w): 0% (SM), 10% (SMWM10), 20% (SMWM20) and 30% (SMWM30), were tested with two slurry percentages (w/w): 50% (A) and 25% (B) and the rest being manure at 55°C for 12 days in batch digesters. The results analyzed using a Gompertz model showed SMWM10 produced the highest methane production potential (Pm)/g volatile solids added followed by SM in both A and B. This Pm of SMWM10 in A and B was statistically non‐significant (P > 0.05). More than 96% of cefazolin‐resistant bacteria and 100% of multi‐drug‐resistant bacteria reductions were observed in all the treatments. Inclusion of waste milk at 10% in single stage digester enhances the methane production from dairy manure and could offer added benefit of waste milk treatment and disposal. PMID:27169788

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of microbial community in a mixed plug-flow loop reactor fed with dairy manure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Chen, Po-Hsu; Yu, Zhongtang

    2014-01-01

    Mixed plug-flow loop reactor (MPFLR) has been widely adopted by the US dairy farms to convert cattle manure to biogas. However, the microbiome in MPFLR digesters remains unexplored. In this study, the microbiome in a MPFLR digester operated on a mega-dairy farm was examined thrice over a 2 month period. Within 23 days of retention time, 55–70% of total manure solid was digested. Except for a few minor volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total VFA concentration and pH remained similar along the course of the digester and over time. Metagenomic analysis showed that although with some temporal variations, the bacterial community was rather stable spatially in the digester. The methanogenic community was also stable both spatially and temporally in the digester. Among methanogens, genus Methanosaeta dominated in the digester. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis and metagenomic analysis yielded different relative abundance of individual genera of methanogens, especially for Methanobacterium, which was predominant based on qPCR analysis but undetectable by metagenomics. Collectively, the results showed that only small microbial and chemical gradients existed within the digester, and the digestion process occurred similarly throughout the MPFLR digester. The findings of this study may help improve the operation and design of this type of manure digesters. PMID:24690147

  10. Methane production from thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk obtained from therapeutically treated cows.

    PubMed

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2017-02-01

    Methane production from co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk, milk from cows treated with antibiotics for mastitis, was tested in a 2 × 4 factorial design. Four different waste milk percentages (w/w): 0% (SM), 10% (SMWM10), 20% (SMWM20) and 30% (SMWM30), were tested with two slurry percentages (w/w): 50% (A) and 25% (B) and the rest being manure at 55°C for 12 days in batch digesters. The results analyzed using a Gompertz model showed SMWM10 produced the highest methane production potential (Pm )/g volatile solids added followed by SM in both A and B. This Pm of SMWM10 in A and B was statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). More than 96% of cefazolin-resistant bacteria and 100% of multi-drug-resistant bacteria reductions were observed in all the treatments. Inclusion of waste milk at 10% in single stage digester enhances the methane production from dairy manure and could offer added benefit of waste milk treatment and disposal. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Environmental implications of anaerobic digestion for manure management in dairy farms in Mexico: a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Rivas-García, Pasiano; Botello-Álvarez, José E; Abel Seabra, Joaquim E; da Silva Walter, Arnaldo C; Estrada-Baltazar, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The environmental profile of milk production in Mexico was analysed for three manure management scenarios: fertilization (F), anaerobic digestion (AD) and enhanced anaerobic digestion (EAD). The study used the life cycle assessment (LCA) technique, considering a 'cradle-to-gate' approach. The assessment model was constructed using SimaPro LCA software, and the life cycle impact assessment was performed according to the ReCiPe method. Dairy farms with AD and EAD scenarios were found to exhibit, respectively, 12% and 27% less greenhouse gas emissions, 58% and 31% less terrestrial acidification, and 3% and 18% less freshwater eutrophication than the F scenario. A different trend was observed in the damage to resource availability indicator, as the F scenario presented 6% and 22% less damage than the EAD and AD scenarios, respectively. The magnitude of environmental damage from milk production in the three dairy manure management scenarios, using a general single score indicator, was 0.118, 0.107 and 0.081 Pt/L of milk for the F, AD and EAD scenarios, respectively. These results indicate that manure management systems with anaerobic digestion can improve the environmental profile of each litre of milk produced.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of microbial community in a mixed plug-flow loop reactor fed with dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Chen, Po-Hsu; Yu, Zhongtang

    2014-07-01

    Mixed plug-flow loop reactor (MPFLR) has been widely adopted by the US dairy farms to convert cattle manure to biogas. However, the microbiome in MPFLR digesters remains unexplored. In this study, the microbiome in a MPFLR digester operated on a mega-dairy farm was examined thrice over a 2 month period. Within 23 days of retention time, 55-70% of total manure solid was digested. Except for a few minor volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total VFA concentration and pH remained similar along the course of the digester and over time. Metagenomic analysis showed that although with some temporal variations, the bacterial community was rather stable spatially in the digester. The methanogenic community was also stable both spatially and temporally in the digester. Among methanogens, genus Methanosaeta dominated in the digester. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis and metagenomic analysis yielded different relative abundance of individual genera of methanogens, especially for Methanobacterium, which was predominant based on qPCR analysis but undetectable by metagenomics. Collectively, the results showed that only small microbial and chemical gradients existed within the digester, and the digestion process occurred similarly throughout the MPFLR digester. The findings of this study may help improve the operation and design of this type of manure digesters.

  13. The survival of cefazolin-resistant bacteria in mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk.

    PubMed

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Moriya, Yusuke; Yamashiro, Takaki; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Lateef, Suraju A; Ying, Chun; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2013-08-01

    The use of cefazolin to treat mastitic cows leads to cefazolin residues in milk and manure. This is responsible for the high occurrence of cefazolin resistant bacteria (CRB) in waste and the environment. Anaerobic digestion is considered to have the potential to reduce antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in waste that results from concentrated animal feeding operations. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of CRB and the digester performance in mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk. The experiment was carried out using three digester compositions: 100% slurry (slurry), 50% slurry + 50% manure (manure mixture) and 50% slurry + 45% manure + 5% waste milk (milk mixture) in batch digesters of 1 l with a working volume of 800 ml in triplicate at 37°C for 34 days. The daily biogas production in each digester, and methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide compositions in the gas were determined. The population densities of total culturable bacteria (TCB) and CRB were determined by plate counts on agar media at day 0, 10, 20 and 34 of digestion. Milk mixture produced the highest (P < 0.05) daily and cumulative total and CH4 gas. The maximum percentage reductions of TCB and CRB in manure and milk mixture was observed at day 20, the values being 96.2%, 96.0% and 99.8% and 99.8% respectively. Final volatile fatty acids (VFA) and pH values of the digesters confirmed the digester stability. Based on the findings, mesophilic anaerobic digestion can be considered a potent method to avoid the dissemination of CRB in nature.

  14. Methane emission factors from cattle manure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Avalos, E; Ruiz-Suárez, L G

    2001-10-01

    Factors responsible for methane emission from cattle manure representing diverse climates, systems and functions of cattle production are presented. These factors were obtained by means of an experimental methodology developed for this project. It was considered that the temperature, moisture, handling of manure and the animals' feed ration affect methane production. Drying conditions and fermentation of manure in cool, temperate and warm climates were simulated in the laboratory. Cattle manure was obtained from animals in intensive, semi-intensive and extensive production systems; for dairy, non-dairy and double purpose cattle production functions. Also handling of manure in dry lot, pasture and solid storage was considered. Results suggest that the dominant factor in methane emissions is the feed ration, followed by fermentation temperature and the excreta moisture content. The emission factors obtained in this work are at least a factor of five smaller than those proposed in the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for countries like Mexico.

  15. Effect of compost temperature on oxygen uptake rate, specific growth rate and enzymatic activity of microorganisms in dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Fumihito; Iwabuchi, Kazunori

    2006-05-01

    Investigations were carried out to find out the relationship between temperature and microbial activity in dairy cattle manure composting using oxygen uptake rate, specific growth rate and enzymatic activities during autothermal and isothermal composting experiments. In autothermal composting, oxygen uptake rate and specific growth rate were found to be most intensive in order of 43 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 54 degrees C. Isothermal composting at 54 degrees C resulted highest levels of enzymatic activity and promoted the volatile solids reduction. Based on the maximum enzymatic activity, specific growth rate appeared to be more closely linked with microbial activity in compost than with oxygen uptake rate. The enhancement of specific growth rate, enzymatic activity and volatile solids reduction were induced at 54 degrees C in cattle manure composting.

  16. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    PubMed

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  17. Dissociation and ammonia mass transfer from ammonium solution and dairy cattle manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia (NH**3) emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficient for NH**3 volatilization from media of buffered ...

  18. Winter and growing season nitrogen mineralization from fall-applied composted or stockpiled solid dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adequate characterization of nitrogen (N) mineralization with time from manure and other organic sources is needed to maximize manure N use efficiency, decrease producer costs, and protect groundwater quality. The objective of our two-year field study at Parma, ID, was to quantify in situ N mineral...

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  1. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure. PMID:27444518

  2. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  3. Solution and solid state P-31 NMR characterization of phosphorus in organic and conventional dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the northeastern U.S., organic dairy production has increased rapidly in recent years, as Maine, Vermont, Pennsylvania and New York all rank in the top six U.S. states for the number of cows on organic dairy farms. Organic dairy farms have significant differences from conventional counterparts, i...

  4. Short communication: Urea hydrolysis in dairy cattle manure under different temperature, urea, and pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L E; Burgos, S A; DePeters, E J; Zhang, R; Fadel, J G

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the rate of urea hydrolysis in dairy cattle manure under different initial urea concentration, temperature, and pH conditions. In particular, by varying all 3 factors simultaneously, the interactions between them could also be determined. Fresh feces and artificial urine solutions were combined into a slurry to characterize the rate of urea hydrolysis under 2 temperatures (15°C and 35°C), 3 urea concentrations in urine solutions (500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg of urea-N/dL), and 3 pH levels (6, 7, and 8). Urea N concentration in slurry was analyzed at 0.0167, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after initial mixing. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used to determine the effects of urea concentration, pH, and temperature treatments on the exponential rate of urea hydrolysis and to predict the hydrolysis rate for each treatment combination. We detected a significant interaction between pH and initial urea level. Increasing urea concentration from 1,000 to 1,500 mg of urea-N/dL decreased the rate of urea hydrolysis across all pH levels. Across all pH and initial urea levels, the rate of urea hydrolysis increased with temperature, but the effect of pH was only observed for pH 6 versus pH 8 at the intermediate initial urea concentration. The fast rates of urea hydrolysis indicate that urea was almost completely hydrolyzed within a few hours of urine mixing with feces. The estimated urea hydrolysis rates from this study are likely maximum rates because of the thorough mixing before each sampling. Although considerable mixing of feces and urine occurs on the barn floor of commercial dairy operations from cattle walking through the manure, such mixing may be not as quick and thorough as in this study. Consequently, the urea hydrolysis rates from this study indicate the maximum loss of urea and should be accounted for in management aimed at mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy cattle manure under similar urea concentration, p

  5. Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics and methanogen communities in swine and dairy manure storage tanks: spatio-temporal variations and impact on methanogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Topp, Edward; Masse, Lucie; Massé, Daniel I; Talbot, Guylaine

    2013-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major environmental problem associated with the management of manure from the livestock industry. Methane is the primary GHG emitted during manure outdoor storage. In this paper, the variability of two swine and two dairy manure storage tanks was surveyed, in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The impact of the inter-tank and spatio-temporal variations of these parameters on the methanogenic activity of manure was ascertained. A Partial Least Square regression was carried out, which demonstrated that physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters had a major influence on the methanogenic activity. Among the 19 parameters included in the regression, the concentrations of VFAs had the strongest negative influence on the methane emission rate of manure, resulting from their well-known inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of two amplicons in archaeal fingerprints was found to positively influence the methanogenic activity, suggesting that Methanoculleus spp. and possibly Methanosarcina spp. are major contributors to methanogenesis in storage tanks. This work gave insights into the mechanisms, which drive methanogenesis in swine and dairy manure storage tanks.

  7. Evaluation of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with food wastes via bio-methane potential assay and CSTR reactor.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yulin; Zamalloa, Carlos; Lin, Hongjian; Yan, Mi; Schmidt, David; Hu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of food wastes into anaerobic digestion (AD) brings a promising scenario of increasing feedstock availability and overall energy production from AD. This study evaluated the biodegradability and methane potential from co-digestion of two typical food wastes, kitchen waste and chicken fat, with dairy manure. For single substrate, the bio-methane potential assays showed that kitchen waste had the highest methane yield of 352 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS added, 92% more than dairy manure alone. Chicken fat at the same Volatile Solid (VS) level (2 g L(-1)) inhibited bio-methane production. Addition of kitchen waste and chicken fat to a VS percentage of up to 40% improved overall methane yield by 44% and 34%, respectively. Synergistic effect was observed when either combining two or three substrates as AD feedstock, possibly as a result of increased biodegradability of organic materials in chicken fat and kitchen waste compared with dairy manure. Addition of chicken fat improved methane yield more than kitchen waste. However, addition of chicken fat VS over 0.8 g L(-1) should be cautiously done because it may cause reactor failure due to decrease in pH. The maximum methane yield was 425 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS, achieved at a VS ratio of 2:2:1 for kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure. Results from batch AD experiment demonstrated that supplementing dairy manure to chicken fat and/or kitchen waste improved alkalinity of substrate due to the inclusion of more titratable bases in dairy manure, and therefore stabilized the methanogenesis and substantially improved biogas yield. A mixture of substrates of kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure at a ratio of 1:1:3 was fed to a continuously stirred tank reactor operated at organic loading rates of 3.28, 6.55, and 2.18 g-COD L(-1)-day (hydraulic retention time of 20, 10, and 30 days, respectively) under mesophilic condition, and methane production rate reached 0.65, 0.95, and 0.34 L-CH4 L(-1)-reactor-day.

  8. Dry mesophilic fermentation of chicken manure for production of methane by repeated batch culture.

    PubMed

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Nishio, Naomichi

    2009-03-01

    The dry fermentation of chicken manure (CM) for production of methane in mesophilic conditions at 37 degrees C was studied under laboratory conditions using a repeated batch culture system. Methane was successfully produced after an acclimation period of about 254 d. A total volume of 4.4 l kg(-1) CM (31 ml g(-1)VS) of methane gas was produced, despite the presence of a high level of ammonia of ca. 8 to 14 g-N kg(-1) CM. This clearly demonstrates that spontaneous acclimation of the methanogenic consortia to high levels of ammonia could occur and result in production of methane even under a high percentage of total solid (25%) and a high level of ammonia.

  9. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha(-1) for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha(-1) in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha(-1), respectively). NO3(-) contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO3(-) loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg(-1) silage) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that in the other fertilization treatments. Therefore, the use of composted dairy manure should be increased and that of inorganic fertilizer decreased to reduce N leaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain.

  10. Decline in Soluble Phosphorus Mobility from Land-Applied Dairy Manure - Modeling and Practical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, J. A.; Walter, M. T.; Peterson, M.; Richards, B. K.; Giri, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Non-point source transport of soluble-reactive phosphorus (SRP) from agricultural systems to freshwater ecosystems is a significant water quality concern. Although farmers are encouraged to avoid manure or fertilizer application before runoff events, the implications of these management choices remain largely unquantified. We conducted soil box experiments to test how manure application timing and temperature or moisture conditions impact SRP concentration in runoff. We found that SRP concentrations dropped off exponentially over time, and that higher temperatures accelerated the decline in SRP in overland runoff over time. During the first runoff events after manure application, infiltration depth prior to runoff was not a primary driver of SRP concentrations. This research has implications for incorporating manure spreading timing into watershed models.

  11. Invited review: spray-dried dairy and dairy-like emulsions--compositional considerations.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Roos, Y H

    2006-02-01

    Milk constituents [caseins, whey proteins (WP), lactose, and anhydrous milk fat] are used widely in the manufacture of dehydrated dairy and dairy-like emulsions. When sodium caseinate- (NaCas) and WP-stabilized emulsions with an oil-to-protein ratio ranging from 0.25 to 5 are dehydrated, NaCas is a more effective encapsulant than WP because of its superior emulsifying properties and resistance to heat denaturation. Denaturation degree of WP during drying has been associated with increased powder surface fat and larger droplet size after reconstitution. Encapsulation of NaCas-stabilized emulsions improves in the presence of lactose; powder surface fat was reduced from 30 to <5% when lactose was added at a 1:1 ratio to NaCas in an emulsion containing 30% (wt/wt) oil. This has been related to the ability of lactose to form solid-like (or glassy) capsules during sudden dehydration. Encapsulation of WP-stabilized emulsions is not improved by addition of lactose, although there are conflicting reports in the literature. Storage stability of dehydrated dairy-like emulsions is strongly linked to lactose crystallization as release of encapsulated material occurs during storage at high relative humidities (e.g., 75%). The use of alternative carbohydrates as "matrix-forming" materials (such as maltodextrins or gum arabic) improves storage stability but compromises the emulsion droplet size after reconstitution. The composition of the powder surface has been recognized as a key parameter in dehydrated emulsion quality. It is the chemical composition of the powder surface that dictates the behavior of the bulk in terms of wettability, flowability, and stability. Analyses, using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis of the surface of industrial milk powders and dehydrated emulsions that mimicked the composition of milk, showed that powder surface is covered mainly by fat, even when the fat content is very low (18 and 99% surface fat coverage for skim milk and whole milk

  12. Protecting water quality by developing subsurface application technology for dry manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure provides a rich source of crop nutrients, but applying manure on the soil surface can result in significant nutrient losses that degrade water quality and accelerate the eutrophication process. Because surface-applied manure is completely exposed to the atmosphere, runoff water can tr...

  13. Phosphorous uptake by potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from biochar amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure effluent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorption of plant nutrients by biochar from dairy storage lagoons and use as a supplemental fertilizer off site is a beneficial strategy to reduce nutrient contamination around dairies and supply nutrients to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and other crops. This research evaluated potato growth respo...

  14. GRACEnet: Trace Gas Fluxes from Irrigated Soils Amended with Anaerobic Digested Dairy Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy production in Eastern Washington has shown a steady increase (4 % per year) over the past eight years, with a farm gate value exceeding 280 million dollars. This increase has also been accompanied by management challenges associated with the production of large concentrations of dairy animal ...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from an irrigated silt loam soil amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy production in Eastern Washington as well as the Pacific Northwest has grown steadily over the past eight years. This increase has been accompanied by management challenges associated with production of large concentrations of dairy animal wastes that are implicated in the decline in surface a...

  16. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  17. The effect of milk co-digested with dairy manure on biogas production and COD removal in batch processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Zhu, Jun

    2010-10-01

    Co-digestion of dairy manure with milk for biogas production was investigated in this study using batch experiments. Lab-scale digesters consisting of 500 mL flasks were employed (effective working volume: 300 mL) with temperature controlled at 37 degrees C. A total of eight treatments at different milk additions were examined, i.e., control (without milk), 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 14, and 19%. The results showed that the cumulative biogas volume produced over the experimental period increased from around 4984 mL for the control to 10,228 mL for the 19% treatment. In parallel, the cumulative CH4 volume produced increased from 3306 mL to 6515 mL in the same treatment percentages. The high milk chemical oxygen demand (COD) had no negative impact on the final COD removal by the digestion process, evidenced by the observed good efficiencies of COD removal by 49.7, 50.5, 58.7, 49.0, 62.1, 68.4, 73.4, and 77.8% for the control, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 14, and 19% milk treatments. This clearly indicated that COD removal was improved with the increasing milk content in the co-digestion process. There was a good linear relationship between the peak biogas production rates and the increasing milk treatments, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9930 (R2=0.9861), meaning that about 98.6% of the increase in peak biogas production rate could be explained by the milk addition. The study has provided useful information that it is feasible and beneficial to enhance the overall biogas and CH4 productivities by batch co-digesting dairy manure with milk.

  18. The effect of mixed-enzyme addition in anaerobic digestion on methane yield of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of applying a mixture of enzymes (ME) to dairy cattle manure (DCM) as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD). The aims of this study were to evaluate different methods of ME application to DCM at different temperatures and to investigate the effect of adding ME during the pre-treatment of the solid fractions of dairy cattle manure (SFDCM). The results showed that there was no positive effect of direct ME addition to substrate at either mesophilic (35 degrees C) or thermophilic (50 degrees C) process temperatures, but there was a significant 4.44% increase in methane yield when DCM, which had been incubated with ME addition at 50 degrees C for three days, was fed to a digester when compared to a control digester operating at the same retention time. Methane production was detected during the pre-treatment incubation, and the total sum methane yield during pre-treatment and digestion was found to be 8.33% higher than in the control. The addition of ME to the SFDCM in a pre-incubation stage of 20 h at 35 degrees C gave a significant increase in methane yield by 4.15% in a digester treating a mixed substrate (30% liquid fractions DCM and 70% enzyme-treated SFDCM) when compared with the control digester treating a similar mixed substrate with inactivated enzyme addition. The results indicate that direct physical contact of enzyme molecules and organic material in DCM prior to AD, without the intervention of extracellular enzymes from the indigenous microorganism population, was needed in order to increase methane yields.

  19. Trans-disciplinary soil science research: Impacts of dairy nutrition on manure chemistry and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The on-going trend of consolidation and intensification of animal agriculture requires a greater dependence on purchased feed. Larger livestock farms and more imported feed can result in the excretion of manure nutrients that may surpass the recycling capacity of local land, air, and water resource...

  20. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion, yet in temperate climate digesters, require a considerable amount of additional heat en...

  1. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE AND DAIRY MANURE FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The performance of continuously mixed anaerobic digesters was evaluated in the laboratory for treating manure, food waste and their mixtures at 35 ± 2oC and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The first mixture was composed of 32% and 68%, and the second was composed of 48% and 52% food waste and...

  2. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  3. Safely Coupling Livestock and Crop Production Systems: How Rapidly Do Antibiotic Resistance Genes Dissipate in Soil following a Commercial Application of Swine or Dairy Manure?

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne

    2014-01-01

    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems. PMID:24632259

  4. Safely coupling livestock and crop production systems: how rapidly do antibiotic resistance genes dissipate in soil following a commercial application of swine or dairy manure?

    PubMed

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne; Topp, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems.

  5. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  6. Methane and nitrous oxide analyzer comparison and emissions from dairy freestall barns with manure flushing and scraping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortus, Erin L.; Jacobson, Larry D.; Hetchler, Brian P.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission measurements were conducted at two crossflow-ventilated dairy freestall barns located in the state of Wisconsin, USA during a 19-month period from 2008 to 2010. The two cross-flow mechanically ventilated buildings (275 and 375 cow capacities) were evaluated in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study. In September of 2008, the barns' manure collection systems were changed from flushing open gutter using manure basin effluent to a tractor scrape. A photoacoustic multi-gas analyzer (PAMGA) and a direct methane/non-methane hydrocarbon analyzer (GC-FID) provided side-by-side measurements of methane (CH4) for 13 months. The PAMGA also measured nitrous oxide (N2O), and a side-by-side comparison was performed with a gas-filter correlation analyzer (GFC) for six months. Barn ventilation rates were measured by recording run times of the 127-cm diameter exhaust fans. All 125 belt-driven exhaust fans were identical, and in situ airflow measurements using the Fan Assessment Numeration System (FANS) were conducted once at the beginning and twice during the test. Daily CH4 and N2O emission rates were calculated over approximately 19 and 6 month periods respectively, on per barn, head, animal unit, floor area space and barn capacity bases. The differences between the analyzers' concentration measurements were compared in conjunction with water vapor and other gases. The analyzer type had a significant impact on the average CH4 emission rate (p < 0.001) and the average N2O emission rate (p < 0.05). Based on the CH4 measurements with the GC-FID, average daily mean CH4 emissions were approximately 290 g AU-1 d-1 (390 g cow-1 d-1) with very limited seasonal effects. Little variation was observed in CH4 emission rates before and after the change in manure collection method, suggesting that most of the CH4 emissions were enteric losses directly from the cows. The average daily mean N2O emission rates based on the GFC were

  7. Prediction of ammonia emission from dairy cattle manure based on milk urea nitrogen: relation of milk urea nitrogen to urine urea nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Burgos, S A; Fadel, J G; Depeters, E J

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between urinary urea N (UUN) excretion (g/d) and milk urea N (MUN; mg/dL) and to test whether the relationship was affected by stage of lactation and the dietary crude protein (CP) content. Twelve lactating multiparous Holstein cows were randomly selected and blocked into 3 groups of 4 cows intended to represent early [123 +/- 26 d in milk (DIM); mean +/- standard deviation], mid (175 +/- 3 DIM), and late (221 +/- 12 DIM) lactation stages. Cows within each stage of lactation were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence within a split-plot Latin square balanced for carryover effects. Stage of lactation formed the main plots (squares) and dietary CP levels (15, 17, 19, and 21% of diet dry matter) formed the subplots. Graded amounts of urea were added to the basal total mixed ration to linearly increase dietary CP content while maintaining similar concentrations of all other nutrients among treatments. The experimental periods lasted 7 d, with d 1 to 6 used for adjustment to diets and d 7 used for total collection of urine as well as milk and blood sample collection. Dry matter intake and yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose declined progressively with lactation stage and were unaffected by dietary CP content. Milk and plasma urea-N as well as UUN concentration and excretion increased in response to dietary CP content. Milk and urine urea-N concentration rose at increasing and decreasing rates, respectively, as a function of plasma urea-N. The renal urea-N clearance rate differed among lactation stages and dietary CP contents. The relationship between UUN excretion and MUN differed among lactation stages and diverged from linearity for cows in early and late lactation. However, these differences were restricted to very high MUN concentrations. Milk urea N may be a useful tool to predict the UUN excretion and ultimately NH(3) emission from dairy cattle manure.

  8. The effects of biochar and manure in silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amending soil with biochar may be a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality, but few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application in an irrigated, calcareous soil. We fall-applied four treatments: dairy manure (18.7 tons/ac dry wt.); ha...

  9. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  10. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations.

  11. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after Application of Contaminated Dairy Cattle Manure to Agricultural Soils▿

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, M.; Collins, M. T.; Salazar, F.; Kruze, J.; Bölske, G.; Söderlund, R.; Juste, R.; Sevilla, I. A.; Biet, F.; Troncoso, F.; Alfaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    Details regarding the fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis) after manure application on grassland are unknown. To evaluate this, intact soil columns were collected in plastic pipes (lysimeters) and placed under controlled conditions to test the effect of a loamy or sandy soil composition and the amount of rainfall on the fate of M. paratuberculosis applied to the soil surface with manure slurry. The experiment was organized as a randomized design with two factors and three replicates. M. paratuberculosis-contaminated manure was spread on the top of the 90-cm soil columns. After weekly simulated rainfall applications, water drainage samples (leachates) were collected from the base of each lysimeter and cultured for M. paratuberculosis using Bactec MGIT ParaTB medium and supplements. Grass was harvested, quantified, and tested from each lysimeter soil surface. The identity of all probable M. paratuberculosis isolates was confirmed by PCR for IS900 and F57 genetic elements. There was a lag time of 2 months after each treatment before M. paratuberculosis was found in leachates. The greatest proportions of M. paratuberculosis-positive leachates were from sandy-soil lysimeters in the manure-treated group receiving the equivalent of 1,000 mm annual rainfall. Under the higher rainfall regimen (2,000 mm/year), M. paratuberculosis was detected more often from lysimeters with loamy soil than sandy soil. Among all lysimeters, M. paratuberculosis was detected more often in grass clippings than in lysimeter leachates. At the end of the trial, lysimeters were disassembled and soil cultured at different depths, and we found that M. paratuberculosis was recovered only from the uppermost levels of the soil columns in the treated group. Factors associated with M. paratuberculosis presence in leachates were soil type and soil pH (P < 0.05). For M. paratuberculosis presence in grass clippings, only manure application showed a

  12. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after application of contaminated dairy cattle manure to agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Salgado, M; Collins, M T; Salazar, F; Kruze, J; Bölske, G; Söderlund, R; Juste, R; Sevilla, I A; Biet, F; Troncoso, F; Alfaro, M

    2011-03-01

    Details regarding the fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis) after manure application on grassland are unknown. To evaluate this, intact soil columns were collected in plastic pipes (lysimeters) and placed under controlled conditions to test the effect of a loamy or sandy soil composition and the amount of rainfall on the fate of M. paratuberculosis applied to the soil surface with manure slurry. The experiment was organized as a randomized design with two factors and three replicates. M. paratuberculosis-contaminated manure was spread on the top of the 90-cm soil columns. After weekly simulated rainfall applications, water drainage samples (leachates) were collected from the base of each lysimeter and cultured for M. paratuberculosis using Bactec MGIT ParaTB medium and supplements. Grass was harvested, quantified, and tested from each lysimeter soil surface. The identity of all probable M. paratuberculosis isolates was confirmed by PCR for IS900 and F57 genetic elements. There was a lag time of 2 months after each treatment before M. paratuberculosis was found in leachates. The greatest proportions of M. paratuberculosis-positive leachates were from sandy-soil lysimeters in the manure-treated group receiving the equivalent of 1,000 mm annual rainfall. Under the higher rainfall regimen (2,000 mm/year), M. paratuberculosis was detected more often from lysimeters with loamy soil than sandy soil. Among all lysimeters, M. paratuberculosis was detected more often in grass clippings than in lysimeter leachates. At the end of the trial, lysimeters were disassembled and soil cultured at different depths, and we found that M. paratuberculosis was recovered only from the uppermost levels of the soil columns in the treated group. Factors associated with M. paratuberculosis presence in leachates were soil type and soil pH (P < 0.05). For M. paratuberculosis presence in grass clippings, only manure application showed a

  13. Wind tunnel study of ammonia transfer from a manure pit fitted with a dairy cattle slatted floor.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Merlijn; Pieters, Jan G; Mendes, Luciano B; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Merci, Bart; Demeyer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In dairy cattle systems, most of the feces and urine go to the pit. At the manure pit level, mass transfer of NH3 ([Formula: see text]) has many factors, but practical difficulties hamper a controlled field evaluation. In this study, we propose a methodology for the determination of an alternative, more practical, pit transfer coefficient of NH3 (PTC), and compare it with [Formula: see text] determined from other scientific studies. The aims of this research study were: (1) to develop a wind tunnel set-up which mimics air flow patterns between the slats and above a clean section of a slatted floor section, featuring an aqueous NH3-emitting solution; and (2) to assess how air velocity, turbulence intensity, NH3 concentration ([NH3]) and PTC are influenced by inlet airflow ventilation rate (VR) forced deflection of the air above the slats into the manure pit through varying the deflection angle (DA) of a deflection panel and varying pit headspace height (HH). Main conclusions were: (1) the calculated PTC values presented a good fit to the power function of the air speed near the slats (u) (p < .001) while the average PTC (0.0039 m s(-1)) was comparable to [Formula: see text] values obtained from other studies, by remaining within the range of average values of 0.0015-0.0043 m s(-1); (2) VR and DA significantly impacted [NH3] profiles and PTC (p < .001) and (3) changing slurry pit from 0.10 to 0.90 m HH did not significantly impact [NH3] or PTC (p = .756 and p = .854, respectively).

  14. EPA acts to protect Puget Sound shellfish beds from manure runoff, fines Lynden dairy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle-March 26, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a compliance order and $7,500 penalty to R. Bajema Farm for violations of the Clean Water Act. During a 2013 inspection of the Lynden, Washington dairy farm, EPA staff observed the di

  15. Dietary CP and Tannin Extracts Impact Ammonia Emissions From Manure Deposited On Dairy Barn Floors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of dietary CP and Quebracho-Chestnut tannin extracts on dairy cow performance and N partitioning are reported elsewhere at this meeting. Mixtures of feces/urine from these studies were applied to lab-scale ventilated chambers to measure ammonia-N emissions (ANE) from simulated concrete ba...

  16. Feed management practices to reduce manure phosphorus excretion in dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral that needs to be supplied in sufficient quantities for maintenance and growth and milk production in dairy cattle. However, over 60% of the P consumed can be excreted in faeces with a potential to cause environmental pollution. Concern over higher levels of P i...

  17. Co-production of fumaric acid and chitin from a nitrogen-rich lignocellulosic material - dairy manure - using a pelletized filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 20344.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin

    2008-09-01

    Fumaric acid is widely used as a food additive for flavor and preservation. Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 20344 is a fungus known for good fumaric acid production. It also has been reported that the fungal biomass has high chitin content. This study investigated the possibility of producing both fumaric acid and chitin via R. oryzae fermentation of dairy manure. Co-production of valuable bio-based chemicals such as fumaric acid and chitin could make the utilization of manure more efficient and more profitable. A three step fermentation process was developed which effectively utilized the nitrogen as well as the carbohydrate sources within the manure. These steps were: the culturing of pellet seed; biomass cultivation on liquid manure to produce both biomass and chitin; and fumaric acid production on the hydrolysate from the manure fiber. Under the identified optimal conditions, the fermentation system had a fumaric acid yield of 31%, and a biomass concentration of 11.5 g/L that contained 0.21 g chitin/g biomass.

  18. Percolation and Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Soil Amended with Contaminated Dairy Manure or Slurry▿

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of cattle manure and slurry application on percolation and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated for different soil depths after the addition of water. Four treatments were chosen for the first set of experiments: (i) addition of inoculated farmyard manure on the soil surface, (ii) mixing of inoculated farmyard manure with the top 10 cm of soil, (iii) addition of inoculated slurry on the soil surface, and (iv) injection of inoculated slurry into the top 10 cm of the soil. Homogeneity of water distribution in the soil profile was confirmed by a nondestructive nuclear magnetic resonance method. Survival data were fitted to a modified logistic model, and estimated survival times were compared. In the second set of experiments, pathogen-inoculated farmyard manure or slurry was applied to soil columns with 1-month-old lettuce plants. More pathogen cells percolated to greater depths after slurry than after manure application. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly longer in soil with slurry than in that with manure, while survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was equally high with manure and slurry. The densities of the pathogens were not different in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil with manure, while the densities were higher by 0.88 ± 0.11 and 0.71 ± 0.23 log CFU per g (dry weight), respectively, in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil after slurry application. Our results suggest that surface application of manure may decrease the risk of contamination of groundwater and lettuce roots compared to injection of slurry. PMID:19270130

  19. Percolation and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in soil amended with contaminated dairy manure or slurry.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Alexander V; van Overbeek, Leo; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2009-05-01

    The effect of cattle manure and slurry application on percolation and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated for different soil depths after the addition of water. Four treatments were chosen for the first set of experiments: (i) addition of inoculated farmyard manure on the soil surface, (ii) mixing of inoculated farmyard manure with the top 10 cm of soil, (iii) addition of inoculated slurry on the soil surface, and (iv) injection of inoculated slurry into the top 10 cm of the soil. Homogeneity of water distribution in the soil profile was confirmed by a nondestructive nuclear magnetic resonance method. Survival data were fitted to a modified logistic model, and estimated survival times were compared. In the second set of experiments, pathogen-inoculated farmyard manure or slurry was applied to soil columns with 1-month-old lettuce plants. More pathogen cells percolated to greater depths after slurry than after manure application. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly longer in soil with slurry than in that with manure, while survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was equally high with manure and slurry. The densities of the pathogens were not different in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil with manure, while the densities were higher by 0.88 +/- 0.11 and 0.71 +/- 0.23 log CFU per g (dry weight), respectively, in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil after slurry application. Our results suggest that surface application of manure may decrease the risk of contamination of groundwater and lettuce roots compared to injection of slurry.

  20. Evaluation of a new fixed-bed digester design utilizing large media for flush dairy manure treatment.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Usama; Frear, Craig; Pandey, Paramod; Chen, Shulin

    2008-12-01

    A new anaerobic digester design for the treatment of diluted (<2% solids) flush dairy manure was evaluated. The new design was developed as an economic alternative for enhancing the performance of anaerobic lagoon systems in cold weather areas. The digester employed used automobile tires as fixed-bed media to improve bacterial retention. The digester was heated by steam injection and built underground to enhance insulation. The tires were sorted in a unique pattern for improving mixing and uniform temperature distribution. The system was tested on a pilot-scale. The treatment mechanism was explored by mathematical modeling. The observed treatment efficiency of the new design was comparable to that of conventional digesters operating at higher total solids concentrations (>4%). With a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 17 days, the measured removal rates were 30-50% and 40-60% of TVS and COD, respectively. The new digester maintained longer solids retention time (SRT) as estimated using the model, supported by the observed thick biofilm formation and resistance to hydraulic overload. The model was used to analyze different operation scenarios varying both the organic and hydraulic loads.

  1. Immobilization of metals in contaminated soil from E-waste recycling site by dairy-manure-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiliang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Liu, Minchao; Wu, Yingxin; Yuan, Zhihui

    2017-08-24

    E-waste is a growing concern around the world and varieties of abandoned E-waste recycling sites, especially in urban area, need to remediate immediately. The impacts of dairy-manure-derived biochars (BCs) on the amelioration of soil properties, the changes in the morphologies as well as the mobility of metals were studied to test their efficacy in immobilization of metals for a potential restoration of vegetation landscape in abandoned E-waste recycling site. The amendment with BCs produced positive effects on bioavailability and mobility reduction for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu depending on BC ratio and incubation time. The BCs promoted the transformation of species of heavy metals to a more stable fraction, and the metals concentrations in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure extract declined significantly, especially Pb and Cu. Besides, the BCs ameliorated the substrate with increasing the soil pH, cations exchangeable capacity and available phosphorous, which suggested BC as a potential amendment material for abandoned E-waste recycling sites before restoration of vegetation landscape. Generally, the BC modified by alkaline treatment has a higher efficacy, probably due to increase of specific surface area and porosity as well as the functional groups after alkaline treatment.

  2. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with three crop residues for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Wei, Luoyu; Duan, Qiwu; Hu, Guoquan; Zhang, Guozhi

    2014-03-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic semi-continuous co-digestion of dairy manure (DM) with three crop straw residues (SRs), rice straw, corn stalks and wheat straw under five mass mixing ratios (SRs/DM) were investigated. During the anaerobic digestion (AD) process, four periods were identified: startup, first stage of stabilization, second stage of stabilization, and suppression. Following the four periods, the biogas production rate varied between 101 and 576mL L(-1)d(-1). A high CH4 content and volatile solid reduction was maintained at the SRs/DM mass mixing ratio 1:9. The highest cumulative biogas production of more than 19L was obtained at ratio 5:5. However, ratio 9:1 performed worst in the whole process. Systematic analysis of the elements revealed nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements contents were important for the AD. Overall, the semi-continuous AD is efficient within a wide range of SRs/DM mass mixing ratios.

  3. Association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in freestall dairy herds using recycled manure solids for bedding.

    PubMed

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in upper Midwest US dairy operations using recycled manure solids as bedding material. The study included 34 dairy operations with herd sizes ranging from 130 to 3,700 lactating cows. Forty-five percent of the herds had mattresses and 55% had deep-bedded stalls. Farms were visited once between July and October 2009. At the time of visit, at least 50% of the cows in each lactating pen were scored for locomotion, hygiene, and hock lesions. On-farm herd records were collected for the entire year and used to investigate mortality, culling, milk production, and mastitis incidence. Stall surface was associated with lameness and hock lesion prevalence. Lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 3 on a 1 to 5 scale) was lower in deep-bedded freestalls (14.4%) than freestalls with mattresses (19.8%). Severe lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 4) was also lower for cows housed in deep-bedded freestalls (3.6%) than for cows housed in freestalls with mattresses (5.9%). In addition, the prevalence of hock lesions (hock lesion scores ≥ 2 on a 1 to 3 scale, with 1=no lesion, 2=hair loss or mild lesion, and 3=swelling or severe lesion) and severe hock lesions (hock lesion score=3) was lower in herds with deep-bedded freestalls (49.4%; 6.4%) than in herds with mattresses (67.3%; 13.2%). Herd turnover rates were not associated with stall surface; however, the percentage of removals due to voluntary (low milk production, disposition, and dairy) and involuntary (death, illness, injury, and reproductive) reasons was different between deep-bedded and mattress-based freestalls. Voluntary removals averaged 16% of all herd removals in deep-bedded herds, whereas in mattress herds, these removals were 8%. Other welfare measurements such as cow hygiene, mortality rate, mastitis incidence, and milk production were not associated with stall surface.

  4. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Two Dairy Farm Systems (Conventional vs. Organic Management) in New Hampshire Using the Manure DNDC Biogeochemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.; Brito, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture contributes 20 to 25 % of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with these GHG accounting for roughly 40 and 80 % of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Due to varied management and the complexities of agricultural ecosystems, it is difficult to estimate these CH4 and N2O emissions. The IPCC emission factors can be used to yield rough estimates of CH4 and N2O emissions but they are often based on limited data. Accurate modeling validated by measurements is needed in order to identify potential mitigation areas, reduce GHG emissions from agriculture, and improve sustainability of farming practices. The biogeochemical model Manure DNDC was validated using measurements from two dairy farms in New Hampshire, USA in order to quantify GHG emissions under different management systems. One organic and one conventional dairy farm operated by the University of New Hampshire's Agriculture Experiment Station were utilized as the study sites for validation of Manure DNDC. Compilation of management records started in 2011 to provide model inputs. Model results were then compared to field collected samples of soil carbon and nitrogen, above-ground biomass, and GHG fluxes. Fluxes were measured in crop, animal, housing, and waste management sites on the farms in order to examine the entire farm ecosystem and test the validity of the model. Fluxes were measured by static flux chambers, with enteric fermentation measurements being conducted by the SF6 tracer test as well as a new method called Greenfeeder. Our preliminary GHG flux analysis suggests higher emissions than predicted by IPCC emission factors and equations. Results suggest that emissions from manure management is a key concern at the conventional dairy farm while bedded housing at the organic dairy produced large quantities of GHG.

  5. Use of cationic polymers to reduce pathogen levels during dairy manure separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Runge, Troy

    2016-01-15

    Various separation technologies are used to deal with the enormous amounts of animal waste that large livestock operations generate. When the recycled waste stream is land applied, it is essential to lower the pathogen load to safeguard the health of livestock and humans. We investigated whether cationic polymers, used as a flocculent in the solid/liquid separation process, could reduce the pathogen indicator load in the animal waste stream. The effects of low charge density cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and high charge density cationic polydicyandiamide (PDCD) were investigated. Results demonstrated that CPAM was more effective than PDCD for manure coagulation and flocculation, while PDCD was more effective than CPAM in reducing the pathogen indicator loads. However, their combined use, CPAM followed by PDCD, resulted in both improved solids separation and pathogen indicator reduction.

  6. Evaluating the toxicity of food processing wastes as co-digestion substrates with dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2014-07-01

    Studies have shown that including food waste as a co-digestion substrate in the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure can increase energy production. However, the type and inclusion rate of food waste used for co-digestion need to be carefully considered in order to prevent adverse conditions in the digestion environment. This study determined the effect of increasing the concentration (2%, 5%, 15% and 30%, by volume) of four food-processing wastes (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) on methane production. Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) tests were conducted to determine the concentration at which each food waste became toxic to the digestion environment. Decreases in methane production were observed at concentrations above 5% for all four food waste substrates, with up to 99% decreases in methane production at 30% food processing wastes (by volume). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for spray irrigation of dairy manure based on an empirical fate and transport model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation affordable. However, human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well-unders...

  8. Invited review: The effect of native and nonnative enzymes on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are used in a wide array of foods from soups to bars to beverages. The popularity of dried dairy ingredients, including but not limited to sweet whey powder, whey proteins and milk powders, is increasing. Dried dairy ingredient flavor can carry through into the finished product and influence consumer liking; thus, it is imperative to produce a consistent product with bland flavor. Many different chemical compounds, both desirable and undesirable, contribute to the overall flavor of dried dairy ingredients, making the flavor very complex. Enzymatic reactions play a major role in flavor. Milk contains several native (indigenous) enzymes, such as lactoperoxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, proteinases, and lipases, which may affect flavor. In addition, other enzymes are often added to milk or milk products for various functions such as milk clotting (chymosin), bleaching of whey products (fungal peroxidases, catalase to deactivate hydrogen peroxide), flavor (lipases in certain cheeses), or produced during the cheesemaking process from starter culture or nonstarter bacteria. These enzymes and their possible contributions will be discussed in this review. Understanding the sources of flavor is crucial to produce bland, flavorless ingredients.

  9. Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Bacteriophage following Soil Fertilization with Dairy Manure or Municipal Biosolids, and Evidence for Potential Transduction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joseph; Topp, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Animal manures and municipal biosolids recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can influence the antibiotic resistome of agricultural soils, but little is known about the contribution of bacteriophage to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in this context. In this work, we quantified a set of ARGs in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of agricultural soil by quantitative PCR. All tested ARGs were present in both the bacterial and phage fractions. We demonstrate that fertilization of soil with dairy manure or human biosolids increases ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction but not the bacteriophage fraction and further show that pretreatment of dairy manure can impact ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction. Finally, we show that purified bacteriophage can confer increased antibiotic resistance to soil bacteria when combined with selective pressure. The results indicate that soilborne bacteriophage represents a substantial reservoir of antibiotic resistance and that bacteriophage could play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the context of an agricultural soil microbiome. Overall, our work reinforces the advisability of composting or digesting fecal material prior to field application and suggests that application of some antibiotics at subclinical concentrations can promote bacteriophage-mediated horizontal transfer of ARGs in agricultural soil microbiomes.

  10. Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Bacteriophage following Soil Fertilization with Dairy Manure or Municipal Biosolids, and Evidence for Potential Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Animal manures and municipal biosolids recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can influence the antibiotic resistome of agricultural soils, but little is known about the contribution of bacteriophage to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in this context. In this work, we quantified a set of ARGs in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of agricultural soil by quantitative PCR. All tested ARGs were present in both the bacterial and phage fractions. We demonstrate that fertilization of soil with dairy manure or human biosolids increases ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction but not the bacteriophage fraction and further show that pretreatment of dairy manure can impact ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction. Finally, we show that purified bacteriophage can confer increased antibiotic resistance to soil bacteria when combined with selective pressure. The results indicate that soilborne bacteriophage represents a substantial reservoir of antibiotic resistance and that bacteriophage could play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the context of an agricultural soil microbiome. Overall, our work reinforces the advisability of composting or digesting fecal material prior to field application and suggests that application of some antibiotics at subclinical concentrations can promote bacteriophage-mediated horizontal transfer of ARGs in agricultural soil microbiomes. PMID:26341211

  11. The effect of steam flaked or dry ground corn and supplemental phytic acid on nitrogen partitioning in lactating cows and ammonia emission from manure.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, K M; Guyton, A D; McKinney, J M; Knowlton, K F

    2004-08-01

    The effect of starch source and supplemental phytic acid (PA) on N partitioning and excretion and ammonia volatilization from dairy manure was evaluated with 8 midlactation cows. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with four 18-d periods. Diets were 61% forage, 25% starch, 17.2% crude protein, and 31% neutral detergent fiber and included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF) with no supplemental P (L; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified PA (0.45% P) to provide additional P from a non-mineral source. Total collection of milk, urine, and feces was conducted on d 16 to 18 of each period. Cows fed SF had lower dry matter (DM) intakes than those fed DG, which, in addition to increased starch digestibility and ruminal fermentation, contributed to higher DM digestibility. Cows fed SF had reduced feces and urine excretion compared with cows fed DG. Also, N intake for cows fed SF was lower, and N digestibility was higher, compared with cows fed DG; therefore, N excretion in both feces and urine was reduced in these cows. Despite the differences in DM intake, lactation performance was not affected by starch sources. Therefore, the efficiency of N utilization increased with SF. Addition of PA did not affect N intake or utilization. Feces and urine were subsampled from each cow, and wet feces and urine were mixed in sealed chambers in the proportions excreted. Ammonia volatilization was measured for 36 h using acid traps sampled on a planned time course. Nitrogen at time zero (A0), rate of ammonia emission (k), and residual N (R) were calculated using the exponential decay model At = A0 e(-kt) + R. Rate of ammonia loss from mixed feces and urine was lower from cows fed SF than from those fed DG. Altering dietary starch source to improve nutrient digestibility and to reduce N excretion by lactating cows may provide opportunity to reduce ammonia losses from manure.

  12. Reducing antibiotic resistance genes, integrons, and pathogens in dairy manure by continuous thermophilic composting.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Duan, Man-Li; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhang, Ran-Ran

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the effects of composting using three temperature regimes, namely, insufficient thermophilic composting (ITC), normal thermophilic composting (NTC), and continuous thermophilic composting (CTC), on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), integrons, and human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), as well as the mechanisms involved. The NTC and CTC treatments led to greater decreases in 5/10 ARGs and two integrons than ITC, and the abundances of ARGs (tetC, tetG, and tetQ) and int1 only declined in the NTC and CTC treatments. The abundances of HPB decreased by 82.8%, 76.9%, and 96.9% under ITC, NTC, CTC, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that both bacterial succession and horizontal gene transfer play important roles in the variation of ARGs, and the changes in different ARGs were due to diverse mechanisms. CTC performed significantly better at reducing ARGs, integrons, and HPB, thus it may be used to manage the public health risks of ARGs in animal manure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying physical structure changes and non-uniform water flow in cattle manure during dry anaerobic digestion process at lab scale: Implication for biogas production.

    PubMed

    André, L; Durante, M; Pauss, A; Lespinard, O; Ribeiro, T; Lamy, E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify non-uniform water flow during dry AD and its implication for biogas production. Laboratory tracer experiments were performed on cattle manure over the course of AD. The evolution of the permeability, the dry bulk density, the dry porosity, the total and volatile solid contents of cattle manure at different stages of AD, revealed waste structure changes, impacting water flow and methane production. Tracer experiments and numerical modeling performed by using a physical non-equilibrium model indicated non-uniform preferential flow patterns during degradation. According to literature, the increase of inoculum recirculation frequency improved methane production rate. However, these results demonstrated that this improvement occurs only at the beginning of manure degradation. After 19 days of degradation the inoculum recirculation and the flow patterns modification had no effect on methane production rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival of Salmonella spp. in dried turkey manure and persistence on spinach leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concerns about the microbiological safety of fresh produce has attracted attention in the past three decades due to multiple foodborne outbreaks. Animal manure contaminated with enteric pathogens has been identified as an important pre-harvest pathogen source. This study investigated the survival of...

  15. Using rare earth elements to control phosphorus and track manure in runoff.

    PubMed

    Buda, Anthony R; Church, Clinton; Kleinman, Peter J A; Saporito, Lou S; Moyer, Barton G; Tao, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. In this study, we amended poultry, dairy, and swine manures with two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3).7H(2)O) and ytterbium chloride (YbCl(3).6H(2)O), to evaluate their effects on P solubility in the manure following incubation in the laboratory as well as on the fate of P and rare earth elements (REEs) when manures were surface-applied to packed soil boxes and subjected to simulated rainfall. In terms of manure P solubility, La:water-extractable P (WEP) ratios close to 1:1 resulted in maximum WEP reduction of 95% in dairy manure and 98% in dry poultry litter. Results from the runoff study showed that REE applications to dry manures such as poultry litter were less effective in reducing dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in runoff than in liquid manures and slurries, which was likely due to mixing limitations. The most effective reductions of DRP in runoff by REEs were observed in the alkaline pH soil, although reductions of DRP in runoff from the acidic soil were still >50%. Particulate REEs were strongly associated with particulate P in runoff, suggesting a potentially useful role in tracking the fate of P and other manure constituents from manure-amended soils. Finally, REEs that remained in soil following runoff had a tendency to precipitate WEP, especially in soils receiving manure amendments. The findings have valuable applications in water quality protection and the evaluation of P site assessment indices.

  16. Environmental and economic assessment of integrated systems for dairy manure treatment coupled with algae bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are used to investigate integrated algae bioenergy production and nutrient management on small dairy farms. Four cases are considered: a reference land-application scenario (REF), anaerobic digestion with land-application of liquid digestate (AD), and anaerobic digestion with recycling of liquid digestate to either an open-pond algae cultivation system (OPS) or an algae turf scrubber (ATS). LCA indicates that all three "improved" scenarios (AD, OPS, and ATS) are environmentally favorable compared to REF, exhibiting increases in net energy output up to 854GJ/yr, reductions in net eutrophication potential up to 2700kg PO(4)-eq/yr, and reductions in global warming potential up to 196Mg CO(2)-eq/yr. LCC reveals that the integrated algae systems are much more financially attractive than either AD or REF, whereby net present values (NPV) are as follows: $853,250 for OPS, $790,280 for ATS, -$62,279 for REF, and -$211,126 for AD. However, these results are highly dependent on the sale price for nutrient credits. Comparison of LCA and LCC results indicates that robust nutrient credit markets or other policy tools are required to align financial and environmental preferability of energy production systems and foster widespread adoption of sustainable nutrient management systems.

  17. Inactivation of enteric indicator bacteria and system stability during dry co-digestion of food waste and pig manure.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin; Gardiner, Gillian E

    2017-08-26

    Provision of digestate with satisfactory biosafety is critical to land application of digestate and to the anaerobic digestion approach to treating manure and food waste (FW). No studies have been conducted on digestate biosafety in dry co-digestion systems. The aim of this study was to assess the inactivation efficiency and possible inactivation mechanism for three enteric indicator bacteria and the system stability during dry mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of FW and pig manure (PM). The effects of two different inocula were examined at a rate of 50% based on volatile solids (VS): digestate taken from existing dry co-digestion digesters and dewatered anaerobic sludge from a local wastewater treatment plant. The FW/PM ratios of 50:50 and 75:25 on a VS basis were also assessed. The results showed that using digestate as the inoculum and a FW/PM ratio of 50:50 led to stable dry co-digestion, with the specific methane yield (SMY) of 252mL/gVSadded. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was a significant inhibition factor for methane production during dry co-digestion (P<0.001). The data also showed that dry co-digestion of FW and PM effectively inactivated enteric indicator bacteria. E. coli and total coliforms counts decreased below the limit of detection (LOD, 10(2)CFU/g) within 4-7days, with free VFA identified as a significant inactivation factor. Enterococci were more resistant but nonetheless the counts decreased below the LOD within 12days in the digestate inoculum systems and 26-31days in the sludge inoculum systems. The residence time was the most significant inactivation factor for enterococci, with the free VFA concentration playing a secondary role at high FW/PM ratio in the sludge inoculum system. In conclusion, digestate as inoculum and the FW/PM ratio of 50:50 were preferable operation conditions to realize system stability, methane production and enteric indicator bacteria inactivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  19. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in soil, crops, and ensiled feed following manure spreading on infected dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Hovingh, Ernest; Whitlock, Robert H.; Sweeney, Raymond W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in soil, crops, and ensiled feeds following manure spreading. This bacterium was often found in soil samples, but less frequently in harvested feeds and silage. Spreading of manure on fields used for crop harvest is preferred to spreading on grazing pastures. PMID:24179246

  20. Within-herd prevalence thresholds for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds using boot swabs and liquid manure samples.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Hahn, N; Eisenberg, T; Schlez, K; Köhler, H; Wolter, W; Rohde, M; Pützschel, R; Rösler, U; Failing, K; Zschöck, P M

    2016-01-01

    The control of Johne's disease requires the identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive herds. Boot swabs and liquid manure samples have been suggested as an easy-to-use alternative to sampling individual animals in order to diagnose subclinical Johne's disease at the herd level, but there is a need to evaluate performance of this approach in the field. Using a logistic regression model, this study aimed to calculate the threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by individual faecal culture, thus allowing the detection of whether a herd is MAP positive. A total of 77 boot swabs and 75 liquid manure samples were taken from 19 certified negative and 58 positive dairy herds. Faecal culture, three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and the combination of faecal culture with PCR were applied in order to detect MAP. For 50% probability of detection, a within-herd prevalence threshold of 1·5% was calculated for testing both matrices simultaneously by faecal culture and PCR, with the threshold increased to 4·0% for 90% probability of detection. The results encourage the use of boot swabs or liquid manure samples, or a combination both, for identifying MAP-positive herds and, to a certain extent, for monitoring certified Johne's disease-negative cattle herds.

  1. Shallow groundwater quality on dairy farms with irrigated forage crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Thomas; Davis, Harley; Mathews, Marsha C.; Meyer, Roland D.

    2002-04-01

    California's dairies are the largest confined animal industry in the state. A major portion of these dairies, which have an average herd size of nearly 1000 animal units, are located in low-relief valleys and basins. Large amounts of liquid manure are generated and stored in these dairies. In the semi-arid climate, liquid manure is frequently applied via flood or furrow irrigation to forage crops that are grown almost year-round. Little is known about the impact of manure management practices on water quality of the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying these basins. The objective of this work is to assess nitrate and salt leaching to shallow groundwater in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to quantify the impact from individual sources on dairies. The complex array of potential point and nonpoint sources was divided into three major source areas representing farm management units: (1) manure water lagoons (ponds); (2) feedlot or exercise yard, dry manure, and feed storage areas (corrals); and (3) manure irrigated forage fields (fields). An extensive shallow groundwater-monitoring network (44 wells) was installed in five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. Water quality (electrical conductivity, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjehldahl nitrogen) was observed over a 4-year period. Nitrate-N, reduced nitrogen and electrical conductivity (EC, salinity) were subject to large spatial and temporal variability. The range of observed nitrate-N and salinity levels was similar on all five dairies. Average shallow groundwater nitrate-N concentrations within the dairies were 64 mg/l compared to 24 mg/l in shallow wells immediately upgradient of these dairies. Average EC levels were 1.9 mS/cm within the dairies and 0.8 mS/cm immediately upgradient. Within the dairies, nitrate-N levels did not significantly vary across dairy management units. However, EC levels were significantly higher in corral and pond areas (2.3 mS/cm) than in

  2. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates.

    PubMed

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH4/gVSadded/d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of dry cow therapy with the antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal coliform bacteria in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Glendening, Candace; Wittum, Thomas E; Funk, Julie A; Tragesser, Lesley A; Morley, Paul S

    2010-08-01

    The prophylactic use of intramammary antimicrobial drugs at the end of lactation in dairy cows, known as dry cow therapy (DCT), is widely practiced in US dairy herds. This extremely common use of high-dose, slow-release antimicrobials may influence the ecology of bacterial flora on dairy farms. We investigated the association between the antimicrobial used for intramammary DCT and the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to three antimicrobial drugs in dairy cattle. Most probable number (MPN) data were estimated from 463 individual fecal samples collected from lactating cows in 15 dairy herds in Ohio, USA. These data were used to calculate the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin, streptomycin, and tetracycline for individual cow samples. The farms included in this project were classified based on DCT, with 8 farms using a cephalosporin-based product and the remaining 7 using a penicillin/streptomycin therapy. Results of a linear mixed model indicate that herds using a cephalosporin DCT had higher (P<0.01) relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin and streptomycin compared to those using a penicillin/streptomycin intramammary therapy. Relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to tetracycline was not associated with DCT. These results suggest that high-dose slow-release antimicrobials applied locally in the udder to populations of dairy cows might influence the antimicrobial susceptibility of the enteric flora. However, the potential animal and public health implications of this result are not clear.

  4. Selection of cows for treatment at dry-off on organic dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Kiesner, Klemens; Wente, Nicole; Volling, Otto; Krömker, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Restrictions regarding the use of antibiotics make selective antibiotic dry cow therapy (DCT) mandatory on organic farms in Germany. This requires methods for identifying cows with an intramammary infection (IMI) at dry-off. The aim of this field study was to create a decision scheme for the use of DCT based on cow level factors associated with IMI at dry-off and the probability of both cure and new infection (NI) during the dry period. Data from 250 cows from five organic farms were collected including somatic cell counts (SCC) from Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records, California mastitis test (CMT) results at dry-off, clinical mastitis (CM) history, parity and dry-off treatment. IMI at dry-off were most accurate identified using a geometric mean SCC of 100 000 cells/ml as a threshold at either one or three DHI records prior to dry-off. Using a combination of SCC with either CM history, CMT at dry off or parity slightly increased the sensitivity of detection (SE). The probability of cure of the infection over the dry period increased with use of both antibiotic DCT and application of an internal teat sealant (ITS) and decreased when the dry period was longer than 56 d. The risk of NI decreased with the use of ITS and infections with minor pathogens at dry-off. Compared with the selection performed by the farmers during the study period identification of IMI based on the selection criterion with a defined SCC threshold achieved a higher SE.

  5. Effects of Temperature and Carbon-Nitrogen (C/N) Ratio on the Performance of Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Dairy Manure, Chicken Manure and Rice Straw: Focusing on Ammonia Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojiao; Lu, Xingang; Li, Fang; Yang, Gaihe

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a promising alternative to disposal organic waste and co-digestion of mixed organic wastes has recently attracted more interest. This study investigated the effects of temperature and carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio on the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and rice straw (RS). We found that increased temperature improved the methane potential, but the rate was reduced from mesophilic (30∼40°C) to thermophilic conditions (50∼60°C), due to the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen and free ammonia and the occurrence of ammonia inhibition. Significant ammonia inhibition was observed with a C/N ratio of 15 at 35°C and at a C/N ratio of 20 at 55°C. The increase of C/N ratios reduced the negative effects of ammonia and maximum methane potentials were achieved with C/N ratios of 25 and 30 at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. When temperature increased, an increase was required in the feed C/N ratio, in order to reduce the risk of ammonia inhibition. Our results revealed an interactive effect between temperature and C/N on digestion performance. PMID:24817003

  6. Effects of temperature and carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio on the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure, chicken manure and rice straw: focusing on ammonia inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojiao; Lu, Xingang; Li, Fang; Yang, Gaihe

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a promising alternative to disposal organic waste and co-digestion of mixed organic wastes has recently attracted more interest. This study investigated the effects of temperature and carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio on the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and rice straw (RS). We found that increased temperature improved the methane potential, but the rate was reduced from mesophilic (30∼40°C) to thermophilic conditions (50∼60°C), due to the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen and free ammonia and the occurrence of ammonia inhibition. Significant ammonia inhibition was observed with a C/N ratio of 15 at 35°C and at a C/N ratio of 20 at 55°C. The increase of C/N ratios reduced the negative effects of ammonia and maximum methane potentials were achieved with C/N ratios of 25 and 30 at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. When temperature increased, an increase was required in the feed C/N ratio, in order to reduce the risk of ammonia inhibition. Our results revealed an interactive effect between temperature and C/N on digestion performance.

  7. Alterations of antioxidant status markers in dairy cows during lactation and in the dry period.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Fathi, Mohammad Hasan; Parker, Matthew O

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate alterations in concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma, plasma total thiols as markers of oxidative protein damage and malondialdehyde (as a final product of lipid peroxidation) in samples obtained at different stages of the lactation cycle and dry period of dairy cows. We found that TAC was significantly lower in the primiparous cows compared to multiparous cows. This study clearly demonstrates a need for monitoring primiparous cows during the production cycle, especially when they are faced with severe metabolic conditions. Furthermore, TAC may be a sensitive, reliable and useful indicator for measurement of cumulative effects of antioxidants as an addition to metabolic profile tests, which are currently used to analyse dairy cattle health.

  8. Evaluating changes in cellulolytic bacterial population to explain methane emissions from air-dried and composted manure treated rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-02-01

    Compost application recorded ~20% reduction in methane (CH4) emission during rice cultivation as compared to air-dried manure treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependence of methanogens on cellulolytic bacteria (CB) to produce CH4 in organic-amended rice paddy soils. The presence of more decomposable organic C in manure was probably the key factor for higher CH4 emission from manure-treated soils as compared to compost application. Manure application facilitated anaerobic CB abundance in rice paddy soils, and that in turn increased concentrations of dissolved organic C compounds like carbohydrates in soil. Soluble organic C compounds are converted into acetate and/or carbon dioxide, which act as initial energy source for methanogens. Therefore, it could be concluded that CB positively influenced methanogen activity and methanogenesis and stabilized organic substrates like compost are more rational treatment to mitigate CH4 emission from rice paddy soil than cattle manure application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed increasing concentrations of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M

    2012-07-01

    In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

  10. Comparative characterization of water extractable organic matter of conventional and organic dairy manure by FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairy farming has increased rapidly in recent years. Organic dairy farms have significant differences from conventional counterparts, including fewer imports of protein and energy feeds, and a higher proportion of forage crops in the ration. Although these differences may impact availability...

  11. Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and anaerobically digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our study was conducted to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate...

  12. The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance.

    PubMed

    Beever, David E

    2006-12-01

    Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues. The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact on fertility is considered, with evidence that this phenomenon is common in many herds irrespective of average milk yields. Body tissue mobilisation after calving increases the flux of non-esterified fatty acids to the liver and pathways of fatty acid metabolism are considered. Particular attention is given to the effects of high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels on fat accumulation in liver cells and possible impacts on nitrogen and glucose metabolism. Current nutritional practices with early lactation cows which aim to stimulate milk yield and peak milk production but have been shown to exacerbate body condition loss, are reviewed. The paper also considers cow health issues during the peri-parturient period and how these may affect milk yield and fertility. It is concluded that current feeding practices for dry cows, with the provision of increasing amounts of the lactation ration during the Close-up period to accustom the rumen microbes and offset the expected reduction in feed intake as pregnancy reaches term, have largely failed to overcome peri-parturient health problems, excessive body condition loss after calving or declining fertility. From an examination of the energy and protein requirements of dry cows, it is suggested that current Close-up feeding practices can lead to luxury intakes of nutrients that can increase fat deposition in the viscera and the liver. Under such conditions, metabolism of nutrients by the cow may be compromised. In contrast, limited feeding throughout the whole dry period has been shown to prevent many of the

  13. Hay to reduce dietary cation-anion difference for dry dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Tremblay, G F; Allard, G; Pellerin, D

    2008-04-01

    Timothy grass has a lower dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD = (Na + K) - (Cl + S)] than other cool-season grass species. Growing timothy on low-K soils and fertilizing it with CaCl2 could further decrease its DCAD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding low-DCAD timothy hay on dry dairy cows. Six nonpregnant and nonlactating cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Treatments were as follows: 1) control diet (control; DCAD = 296 mEq/kg of dry matter); 2) low-DCAD diet based on low-DCAD timothy hay (L-HAY; DCAD = - 24 mEq/kg of dry matter); and 3) low-DCAD diet using HCl (L-HCl; DCAD = - 19 mEq/kg of dry matter). Decreasing DCAD with L-HAY had no effect on dry matter intake (11.8 kg/d) or dry matter digestibility (71.5%). Urine pH decreased from 8.21 to 5.89 when L-HAY was fed instead of the control. Blood parameters that decreased with L-HAY were base excess (- 0.4 vs. 3.8 mM) and HCO3- (23 vs. 27 mM), and blood parameters that increased were Ca2+ (5.3 vs. 5.1 mg/dL), Cl- (30.5 vs. 29.5 mg/dL), and Na+ (60.8 vs. 60.1 mg/dL). Compared with the control, L-HAY resulted in more Ca in urine (13.4 vs. 1.2 g/d). Comparing L-HAY with L-HCl, cow dry matter intake tended to be higher (11.5 vs. 9.8 kg/d), and blood pH was higher (7.37 vs. 7.31). Urine pH; total dry matter; Ca, K, P, and Mg apparent absorption; and Ca, K, Na, Cl, S, P, and Mg apparent retention were similar. Absorption as a percentage of intake of Na and Cl was lower for L-HAY as compared with L-HCl. In an EDTA-challenge test, cows fed L-HAY regained their initial level of blood Ca2+ twice as quickly as the control treatment (339 vs. 708 min); there were no differences between L-HAY and L-HCl. This experiment confirms that feeding low-DCAD hay is an effective means of decreasing the DCAD of rations and obtaining a metabolic response in dry dairy cows.

  14. Effect of organic loading on the microbiota in a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Abraham, Christopher; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-10-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) has gained increasing attention because it provides the flexibility to operate digesters under conditions that enhance overall digester performance. However, research on impact of organic overloading rate (OLR) to microbiota of TPAD systems was limited. In this study, we investigated the composition and successions of the microbiota in both the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a laboratory-scale TPAD system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey before and during organic overloading. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters were operated at 50 and 35 °C, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days for each digester. High OLR (dairy manure with 5 % total solid and waste whey of ≥60.4 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) resulted in decrease in pH and in biogas production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the thermophilic digester, while the mesophilic digester remained unchanged except a transient increase in biogas production. Both denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons showed dramatic change in microbiota composition and profound successions of both bacterial and methanogenic communities. During the overloading, Thermotogae was replaced by Proteobacteria, while Methanobrevibacter and archaeon classified as WCHD3-02 grew in predominance at the expense of Methanoculleus in the thermophilic digester, whereas Methanosarcina dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter became less predominant in the mesophilic digester. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that digester temperature and pH were the most influential environmental factors that explained much of the variations of the microbiota in this TPAD system when it was overloaded.

  15. Evaluation of biogas production by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass-animal manure mixtures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application without adverse environmental effects. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion (> 15% TS; total solid) has an advantage ov...

  16. Cabergoline inhibits prolactin secretion and accelerates involution in dairy cows after dry-off.

    PubMed

    Boutinaud, M; Isaka, N; Lollivier, V; Dessauge, F; Gandemer, E; Lamberton, P; De Prado Taranilla, A I; Deflandre, A; Sordillo, L M

    2016-07-01

    Dairy cattle require a dry period between successive lactations to ensure optimal milk production. Because prolactin (PRL) is necessary for the initiation and maintenance of milk production, strategies that can inhibit PRL secretion might hasten the involution process. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the PRL release inhibitor cabergoline on markers of mammary gland involution during the early dry period. To assess the effect of cabergoline treatment on mammary gland involution, 14 Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were treated with either a single i.m. administration of 5.6mg of cabergoline (Velactis, Ceva Santé Animale, Libourne, France, n=7) or placebo (n=7) at the time of dry-off. Blood samples and mammary secretion samples were collected 6d before dry-off and again 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 14d following the abrupt cessation of lactation. Blood samples were used to determine plasma PRL concentrations. Mammary secretion samples were used to determine somatic cell count, milk fat, lactose, true protein content, and concentrations of α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and citrate. Following the cessation of lactation, changes in mammary secretion composition indicated diminished milk synthesis, including reduced concentrations of α-lactalbumin, citrate, and lactose. In contrast, milk somatic cell count, percent total protein, percent fat content, and lactoferrin concentrations significantly increased as involution progressed. Cabergoline treatment decreased the plasma PRL concentrations during the first week of dry-off, compared with the control treatment. No significant differences in citrate, α-lactalbumin, or protein content were observed between treatment groups. The most dramatic changes in secretion composition as a consequence of cabergoline treatment occurred during the first week of the dry period, when lactose concentrations and the citrate:lactoferrin molar ratio were lower and lactoferrin concentrations higher than in the control

  17. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rainfall-induced removal of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure with runoff and infiltration greatly contributes to the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in rainfall intensity during a rainfall event d...

  18. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated if Neem (Azadirachta indic...

  19. Microbial ecology overview during anaerobic codigestion of dairy wastewater and cattle manure and use in agriculture of obtained bio-fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Jihen; Miladi, Baligh; Farhat, Amel; Nouira, Said; Hamdi, Moktar; Gtari, Maher; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2015-12-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of dairy wastewater (DW) and cattle manure (CM) was examined and associated with microbial community's structures using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The highest volatile solids (VS) reduction yield of 88.6% and biogas production of 0.87 L/g VS removed were obtained for the C/N ratio of 24.7 at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. The bacterial DGGE profile showed significant abundance of Uncultured Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Synergistetes bacterium. The Syntrophomonas strains were discovered in dependent association to H2-using bacteria such as Methanospirillum sp., Methanosphaera sp. and Methanobacterium formicicum. These syntrophic associations are essential in anaerobic digesters allow them to keep low hydrogen partial pressure. However, high concentrations of VFA produced from dairy wastes acidification allow the growth of Methanosarcina species. The application of the stabilised anaerobic effluent on the agriculture soil showed significant beneficial effects on the forage corn and tomato plants growth and crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of methanogen populations in three full-scale mesophilic anaerobic manure digesters operated on dairy farms in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2013-06-01

    The microbial communities that produce biogas as a result of anaerobic digestion of manure remain poorly understood. Using next-generation sequencing, methanogen populations were investigated in three full scale mesophilic anaerobic digesters operated on dairy farms. A combined 50 246 non-chimeric sequence reads covering the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the methanogen 16S rRNA gene were assigned to 307 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The Blue Spruce Farms (BSF) and Green Mountain Dairy (GMD) anaerobic digesters were found to have nearly identical methanogen profiles, with the overwhelming predominance of OTU 1 (98.5% and 99.7%, respectively), which showed 99.2% sequence identity to Methanosarcina thermophila. In contrast, methanogens from the Chaput Family Farms (CFF) anaerobic digester were more diverse, with five major OTUs belonging to four distinct phylogenetic groups (Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanoplasmatales, and Methanobacteriales). Differences in management practices and years of operation were hypothesized as potential factors responsible for differences in the methanogen profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    affect the insulin responses to GTT and IC during the transition period and glucose responses to GTT and IC at -14 and 28 DRC were not affected by treatments. At 7 DRC, CL cows tended to have slower glucose clearance to GTT and weaker glucose response to IC relative to HT cows. Cows from the cooling treatment had stronger nonesterified fatty acid responses to IC postpartum but not prepartum compared with HT. In conclusion, cooling heat-stressed dairy cows in the dry period reduced insulin effects on peripheral tissues in early lactation but not in the dry period.

  2. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  3. Effect of grass dry matter intake and fat supplementation on progesterone metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, I A; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2012-09-01

    Progesterone (P4) metabolism in dairy cattle can be manipulated by alterations in dry matter intake and diet composition. Our objectives were to determine the effects of grazing allowance and fat supplementation on P4 metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Forty mid- to late-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a completely randomized block design, with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were assigned to receive 1 of 2 pasture allowances (ad libitum allowance [AL], 9.5 kg dry matter per day, or restricted allowance [R] 7 kg dry matter per day) and 1 of 2 fat supplementation treatments (750 g per day saturated fat [F] or no fat supplement [NF]). All cows received an additional 4 kg per day of concentrate. Grass dry matter intake (GDMI) was measured 5 wk after the initiation of dietary treatment. Cows were treated with prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) to eliminate the endogenous source of P4, and two intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (CIDR) were inserted into each cow for a period of 8 days. Regular blood samples were taken before and after the removal of the intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices, and analyzed for P4 concentrations. The half-life (t½) and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of P4 was calculated for each cow. There was no effect of GDMI or fat supplementation on the t½ or MCR of P4. There was a tendency for an interaction between GDMI and fat supplementation on the t½ of P4; cows on the restricted-F diet tended to have a longer P4 t½ than cows on the ad libitum-F diet. It was concluded that greater alterations in GDMI than achieved in the current study are required to change P4 metabolism. A combination of fat supplementation and restricted feeding slows P4 clearance, which may have beneficial implications for fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  5. Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a lysostaphin-fusion protein (Lyso-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally-induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diago...

  6. Milk and methane production in lactating dairy cattle consuming distillers dried grains and solubles or canola meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of byproducts as an alternative feed source is becoming increasingly popular among dairy producers. A study using 12 multiparous (79 ± 16 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows, was conducted over 5 months to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or canola meal...

  7. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    PubMed Central

    Safa, S.; Soleimani, A.; Heravi Moussavi, A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25049832

  8. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    PubMed

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of active dried yeast on fecal methanogenic archaea diversity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dingxing; Kang, Kun; Wang, Hongze; Wang, Zhisheng; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi; Xu, Feng; Peng, Quanhui

    2017-02-07

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different dosages of active dried yeast (ADY) on the fecal methanogenic archaea community of dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous, healthy, mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (body weight: 584 ± 23.2 kg, milk produced: 26.3 ± 1.22 kg/d) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (control, ADY2, and ADY4) according to body weight with four replicates per treatment. Cows in the control group were fed conventional rations without ADY supplementation, while cows in the ADY2 and ADY4 group were fed rations supplemented with ADY at 2 or 4 g/d/head. Real-time PCR analysis showed the populations of total methanogens in the feces were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the ADY4 group compared with control. High-throughput sequencing technology was applied to examine the differences in methanogenic archaea diversity in the feces of the three treatment groups. A total of 155,609 sequences were recovered (a mean of 12,967 sequences per sample) from the twelve fecal samples, which consisted of a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranging from 1451 to 1,733, were assigned to two phyla, four classes, five orders, five families and six genera. Bioinformatic analyses illustrated that the natural fecal archaeal community of the control group was predominated by Methanobrevibacter (86.9% of the total sequence reads) and Methanocorpusculum (10.4%), while the relative abundance of the remaining four genera were below 1% with Methanosphaera comprising 0.8%, Thermoplasma composing 0.4%, and the relative abundance of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and Halalkalicoccus being close to zero. At the genus level, the relative abundances of Methanocorpusculum and Thermoplasma were increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dosage of ADY. Conversely, the predominant methanogen genus Methanobrevibacter was decreased with ADY dosage (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation of ADY had no significant effect (P

  10. Effects of two different feeding strategies during dry-off on certain health aspects of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Odensten, M O; Holtenius, K; Waller, K Persson

    2007-02-01

    With increasing milk production and short calving intervals, high daily milk yields at dry-off are rather common, making the dry-off procedure difficult and increasing the risk for health problems during the dry-off period. The objective of the following study was to compare the effects of 2 dry-off protocols, using different nutrient supplies, on health, as measured by clinical findings, intramammary infections, milk somatic cell count, and plasma concentrations of cortisol, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and Mg, in dairy cows. Twenty-one primi- and multiparous dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 different feeding treatments. One group was fed ad libitum straw (straw), whereas the other group was fed 4 kg of DM silage daily and ad libitum straw (silage) during dry-off (i.e., for 5 d). All cows were milked in the morning of d 3 and 5 during this period. At the start of dry-off (d 0), the average daily milk yield was 17.1 +/- 0.8 kg. The plasma cortisol concentration increased during dry-off only in cows fed straw. There was no significant effect of treatment on plasma serum amyloid A, but the concentration increased during dry-off in both groups. The plasma Mg concentration decreased during dry-off, and the values tended to be lower in the straw group. The milk somatic cell count increased in both groups during dry-off but did not differ between groups. In both groups the heart rate decreased at dry-off, but the decrease was more pronounced in the straw group. Overall, this study (together with a previous report) shows that the common dry-off procedure of feeding straw only may give rise to metabolic disturbances. However, this might be avoided without any apparent negative effects on udder health if a limited amount of silage is added during dry-off.

  11. Efficacy of alum and coal combustion by-products in stabilizing manure phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Dou, Z; Zhang, G Y; Stout, W L; Toth, J D; Ferguson, J D

    2003-01-01

    Animal manures contain large amounts of soluble phosphorus (P), which is prone to runoff losses when manure is surface-applied. Here we report the efficacy of alum and three coal combustion by-products in reducing P solubility when added to dairy, swine, or broiler litter manures in a laboratory incubation study. Compared with unamended controls, alum effectively reduced readily soluble P, determined in water extracts of moist manure samples with 1 h of shaking, for all three manures. The reduction ranged from 80 to 99% at treatment rates of 100 to 250 g alum kg(-1) manure dry matter. The fluidized bed combustion fly ash (FBC) reduced readily soluble P by 50 to 60% at a rate of 400 g kg(-1) for all three manures. Flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) reduced readily soluble P by nearly 80% when added to swine manure and broiler litter at 150 and 250 g kg(-1). Another by-product, anthracite refuse fly ash (ANT), was ineffective for all three manures. In all cases, reduction in readily soluble P is primarily associated with inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) with little change in organic phosphorus (P(o)). Sequential extraction results indicate that the by-product treatments shifted manure P from H2O-P into a less vulnerable fraction, NaHCO3 - P, while the alum treatment shifted the P into even more stable forms, mostly NaOH-P. Such shifts in P fractions would have little influence on P availability for crops over the long-term but would retard and reduce potential losses of P following manure applications.

  12. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a Farm-Scale Biogas Plant Supplied with Manure from Paratuberculosis-Affected Dairy Cattle▿

    PubMed Central

    Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk. PMID:21398476

  13. Inoculation with a psychrotrophic-thermophilic complex microbial agent accelerates onset and promotes maturity of dairy manure-rice straw composting under cold climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Gou, Changlong; Wang, Yuqiong; Zhang, Xiqing; Lou, Yujie; Gao, Yunhang

    2017-06-20

    The objective was to determine the effects of psychrotrophic-thermophilic complex microbial agent (PTCMA) comprised of a psychrotrophic bacterium consortium (PBC) and a thermophilic cellulolytic fungi consortium (TCFC), on composting in a cold climate. Mixtures of dairy manure and rice straw were inoculated with PTCMA, PBC, TCFC and sterile water (control) and composted at an initial ambient temperatures of -2 to 5°C. In compost piles inoculated with PBC or PTCMA, temperatures reached the thermophilic phase (>55°C) faster (8-11d) than piles inoculated with TCFC or control. Furthermore, compost inoculated with TCFC or PTCMA had greater decreases in total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, as well as significant increases in total nitrogen, degradation of cellulose and lignin and germination index than PBC inoculation or Control compost. Consequently, inoculation with both (i.e. PTCMA) accelerated the onset and promoted maturity of composting under cold-climate conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste with dairy manure in the batch digester: Focusing on mixing ratios and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinlei; Yun, Sining; Zhu, Jiang; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xue

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste (APW) with dairy manure (DM) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate, and the stability of digestate. Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic condition (36±1°C) at five different APW/DM wet weight ratios (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1). Experimental methane yield from the mixtures was higher than the yield from APW or DM alone, indicating the synergistic effect and benefits of co-digestion of APW with DM. The optimal mixing ratio of APW/DM was found to be 3:1. The cumulative methane yield was 195.1mL/g VS and the VS removal rate was 59.91%. The characteristics of the digestate were investigated by the thermal analysis which indicated the high stability in the samples of the co-digestion. The co-digestion can be an efficient way to improve the degradation efficiency of the bio-wastes and increase the energy output.

  15. A survey of drying-off practices on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany and a comparison to science-based recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bertulat, Sandra; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    While dry cow management is important for health, milk production and fertility information on drying-off procedures implemented on commercial dairy farms is lacking. Current drying-off management procedures on commercial dairy farms were evaluated using a questionnaire and results compared with recommendations given in the current literature. Ninety-one participants from a farmer education event completed the survey. On average, cows were dried off seven weeks before calving. Only 9.9 per cent of the farms had a dry period length of five weeks or less. A continuous milking regime without dry period was not established on any farm participating in the survey. Most farmers performed an abrupt drying-off (73.0 per cent). Only 11.8 and 15.0 per cent attempted to lower milk yield prior to drying-off by reducing milking frequencies and adjusting feed rations, respectively. While a blanket antibiotic dry cow treatment was carried out on 79.6 per cent of the farms, selective dry cow treatment was not mentioned by any farmer. Although 77.4 per cent preponed the drying-off date in low-yielding cows, an altered drying-off procedure in high-yielding dairy cows was rare (9.7 per cent). This survey provides an insight into drying-off procedures currently applied on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany.

  16. A survey of drying-off practices on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany and a comparison to science-based recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bertulat, Sandra; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    While dry cow management is important for health, milk production and fertility information on drying-off procedures implemented on commercial dairy farms is lacking. Current drying-off management procedures on commercial dairy farms were evaluated using a questionnaire and results compared with recommendations given in the current literature. Ninety-one participants from a farmer education event completed the survey. On average, cows were dried off seven weeks before calving. Only 9.9 per cent of the farms had a dry period length of five weeks or less. A continuous milking regime without dry period was not established on any farm participating in the survey. Most farmers performed an abrupt drying-off (73.0 per cent). Only 11.8 and 15.0 per cent attempted to lower milk yield prior to drying-off by reducing milking frequencies and adjusting feed rations, respectively. While a blanket antibiotic dry cow treatment was carried out on 79.6 per cent of the farms, selective dry cow treatment was not mentioned by any farmer. Although 77.4 per cent preponed the drying-off date in low-yielding cows, an altered drying-off procedure in high-yielding dairy cows was rare (9.7 per cent). This survey provides an insight into drying-off procedures currently applied on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany. PMID:26392891

  17. Genetics of grass dry matter intake, energy balance, and digestibility in grazing irish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Horan, B; O'Donovan, M; Buckley, F; Kennedy, E; McEvoy, M; Dillon, P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for grass dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), and cow internal digestibility (IDG) in grazing Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Grass DMI was estimated up to 4 times per lactation on 1,588 lactations from 755 cows on 2 research farms in southern Ireland. Simultaneously measured milk production and BW records were used to calculate EB. Cow IDG, measured as the ratio of feed and fecal concentrations of the natural odd carbon-chain n-alkane pentatriacontane, was available on 583 lactations from 238 cows. Random regression and multitrait animal models were used to estimate residual, additive genetic and permanent environmental (co)variances across lactations. Results were similar for both models. Heritability for DMI, EB, and IDG across lactation varied from 0.10 [8 days in milk (DIM)] to 0.30 (169 DIM), from 0.06 (29 DIM) to 0.29 (305 DIM), and from 0.08 (50 DIM) to 0.45 (305 DIM), respectively, when estimated using the random regression model. Genetic correlations within each trait tended to decrease as the interval between periods compared increased for DMI and EB, whereas the correlations with IDG in early lactation were weakest when measured midlactation. The lowest correlation between any 2 periods was 0.10, -0.36, and -0.04 for DMI, EB, and IDG, respectively, suggesting the effect of different genes at different stages of lactations. Eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed considerable genetic variation among animals in the shape of the lactation profiles for DMI, EB, and IDG. Genetic parameters presented are the first estimates from dairy cows fed predominantly grazed grass and imply that genetic improvement in DMI, EB, and IDG in Holstein-Friesian cows fed predominantly grazed grass is possible.

  18. Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli stx1, stx2, eaeA, and rfbE Genes and Survival of E. coli O157:H7 in Manure from Organic and Low-Input Conventional Dairy Farms▿

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Eelco; Klerks, Michel M.; De Vos, Oscar J.; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Manure samples were collected from 16 organic (ORG) and 9 low-input conventional (LIC) Dutch dairy farms during August and September 2004 to determine the prevalence of the STEC virulence genes stx1 (encoding Shiga toxin 1), stx2 (encoding Shiga toxin 2), and eaeA (encoding intimin), as well as the rfbE gene, which is specific for Escherichia coli O157. The rfbE gene was present at 52% of the farms. The prevalence of rfbE was higher at ORG farms (61%) than at LIC farms (36%), but this was not significant. Relatively more LIC farms were positive for all Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) virulence genes eaeA, stx1, and stx2, which form a potentially highly virulent combination. Species richness of Enterobacteriaceae, as determined by DGGE, was significantly lower in manure positive for rfbE. Survival of a green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli O157:H7 strain was studied in the manure from all farms from which samples were obtained and was modeled by a biphasic decline model. The time needed to reach the detection limit was predominantly determined by the level of native coliforms and the pH (both negative relationships). Initial decline was faster for ORG manure but leveled off earlier, resulting in longer survival than in LIC manure. Although the nonlinear decline curve could theoretically be explained as the cumulative distribution of an underlying distribution of decline kinetics, it is proposed that the observed nonlinear biphasic pattern of the survival curve is the result of changing nutrient status of the manure over time (and thereby changing competition pressure), instead of the presence of subpopulations differing in the level of resistance. PMID:17277204

  19. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli stx1, stx2, eaeA, and rfbE genes and survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure from organic and low-input conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Franz, Eelco; Klerks, Michel M; De Vos, Oscar J; Termorshuizen, Aad J; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2007-04-01

    Manure samples were collected from 16 organic (ORG) and 9 low-input conventional (LIC) Dutch dairy farms during August and September 2004 to determine the prevalence of the STEC virulence genes stx(1) (encoding Shiga toxin 1), stx(2) (encoding Shiga toxin 2), and eaeA (encoding intimin), as well as the rfbE gene, which is specific for Escherichia coli O157. The rfbE gene was present at 52% of the farms. The prevalence of rfbE was higher at ORG farms (61%) than at LIC farms (36%), but this was not significant. Relatively more LIC farms were positive for all Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) virulence genes eaeA, stx(1), and stx(2), which form a potentially highly virulent combination. Species richness of Enterobacteriaceae, as determined by DGGE, was significantly lower in manure positive for rfbE. Survival of a green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli O157:H7 strain was studied in the manure from all farms from which samples were obtained and was modeled by a biphasic decline model. The time needed to reach the detection limit was predominantly determined by the level of native coliforms and the pH (both negative relationships). Initial decline was faster for ORG manure but leveled off earlier, resulting in longer survival than in LIC manure. Although the nonlinear decline curve could theoretically be explained as the cumulative distribution of an underlying distribution of decline kinetics, it is proposed that the observed nonlinear biphasic pattern of the survival curve is the result of changing nutrient status of the manure over time (and thereby changing competition pressure), instead of the presence of subpopulations differing in the level of resistance.

  20. Effect of prepartum dry cow antibiotic treatment in dairy heifers on udder health and milk production.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, O C; De Vliegher, S; Barkema, H W; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2009-09-01

    A high percentage of heifers calve with intramammary infections. One of the measures available to control intramammary infections is treatment with antibiotics before calving. In this study, the effects of prepartum treatment of nonlactating heifers with a 600-mg cloxacillin dry cow treatment on the prevalence of culture-positive milk samples at calving and 10 to 14 d in milk (DIM), the incidence of clinical mastitis, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk production during first lactation were quantified. A total of 184 heifers on 13 dairy farms were treated with antibiotics 8 to 10 wk before the expected calving date. Another 185 heifers served as untreated controls. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated group of bacteria in the treatment and control groups at calving (32 and 42%), and at 10 to 14 DIM (15 and 19%), respectively. The prevalence of minor pathogens at calving was lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (34 and 43%, respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated major pathogen in the treated and control heifers at calving (4 and 5%) and at 10 to 14 DIM (2 and 3%), respectively. The prevalence of major pathogens was lower in the treated heifers at 10 to 14 DIM compared with the control group (4 and 6%, respectively). Cumulative incidence risk of clinical mastitis during the lactation was 9 and 18% in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Treatment with cloxacillin 8 to 10 wk before calving resulted in a lower prevalence of culture-positive milk samples at calving and lower quarter milk SCC in early lactation [30,000 +/- 4,600 (standard deviation) cells/mL in treated heifers versus 40,000 +/- 4,600 cells/mL in control heifers], and was associated with lower average test-day SCC (55,000 +/- 1,400 cells/mL in treated heifers versus 71,000 +/- 1,500 cells/mL in control heifers) and lower incidence of clinical mastitis throughout lactation. The improved udder health resulted in

  1. Effect of forage-to-concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of methane, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, lactation performance, and manure excretion.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Powell, J M; Broderick, G A; Arndt, C

    2011-06-01

    Holstein cows housed in a modified tie-stall barn were used to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and emission of CH(4), CO(2) and manure NH(3)-N. Eight multiparous cows (means ± standard deviation): 620 ± 68 kg of body weight; 52 ± 34 d in milk and 8 primiparous cows (546 ± 38 kg of body weight; 93 ± 39 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers, constructed to fit 4 cows each. Chambers were assigned to dietary treatment sequences in a single 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments, fed as 16.2% crude protein total mixed rations included the following F:C ratio: 47:53, 54:46, 61:39, and 68:32 [diet dry matter (DM) basis]. Forage consisted of alfalfa silage and corn silage in a 1:1 ratio. Cow performance and emission data were measured on the last 7 d and the last 4 d, respectively of each 21-d period. Air samples entering and exiting each chamber were analyzed with a photo-acoustic field gas monitor. In a companion study, fermentation pattern was studied in 8 rumen-cannulated cows. Increasing F:C ratio in the diet had no effect on DM intake (21.1 ± 1.5 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM, 37.4 ± 2.2 kg/d), ECM/DM intake (1.81 ± 0.18), yield of milk fat, and manure excretion and composition; however, it increased milk fat content linearly by 7% and decreased linearly true protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat content (by 4, 1, and 2%, respectively) and yield (by 10, 6, and 6%, respectively), and milk N-to-N intake ratio. On average 93% of the N consumed by the cows in the chambers was accounted for as milk N, manure N, or emitted NH(3)-N. Increasing the F:C ratio also increased ruminal pH linearly and affected concentrations of butyrate and isovalerate quadratically. Increasing the F:C ratio from 47:53 to 68:32 increased CH(4) emission from 538 to 648 g/cow per day, but had no effect on manure NH(3)-N emission (14.1 ± 3.9 g/cow per day) and CO(2) emission

  2. Dry anaerobic digestion of cow manure and agricultural products in a full-scale plant: Efficiency and comparison with wet fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, Alessandro; da Borso, Francesco; Limina, Sonia

    2017-04-04

    For years, anaerobic digestion processes have been implemented for the management of organic wastes, agricultural residues, and animal manure. Wet anaerobic digestion still represents the most common technology, while dry fermentation, dedicated to the treatment of solid inputs (TS>20%) can be considered as an emerging technology, not in terms of technological maturity, but of diffusion. The first agricultural dry anaerobic digestion plant constructed in Italy was monitored from the start-up, for over a year. The plant was fed with manure and agricultural products, such as corn silage, triticale, ryegrass, alfalfa, and straw. Three Combined Heat and Power units, for a total installed power of 910kWe, converted biogas into thermal and electric energy. The monitoring included the determination of quality and quantity of input feedstocks, of digestate (including recirculation rate), of leachate, biogas quality (CH4, CO2, H2S), biogas yield, energy production, labor requirement for loading, and unloading operations. The results of the monitoring were compared to performance data obtained in several full scale wet digestion plants. The dry fermentation plant revealed a start-up phase that lasted several months, during which the average power resulted in 641kWe (70.4% of nominal power), and the last period the power resulted in 788kWe (86.6% of installed power). Improving the balance of the input, the dry fermentation process demonstrated biogas yields similar to wet anaerobic digestion, congruent to the energy potential of the biomasses used in the process. Furthermore, the operation of the plant required significant man labor, mainly related to loading and unloading of the anaerobic cells.

  3. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Jorjong, S; Fievez, V; Kemp, B

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d) and early lactation ration (glucogenic or lipogenic), resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Rations were isocaloric and equal in intestinal digestible protein. The experimental period lasted from 8 wk prepartum to 14 wk postpartum and cows were monitored for milk yield, milk composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and milk fat composition. Prepartum average milk yield for 60 d precalving was 13.8 and 7.7 ± 0.5 kg/d for cows with a 0- and 30-d dry period, respectively. Prepartum DMI and energy intake were greater for cows without a dry period and 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Prepartum EB was greater for cows with a 60-d dry period. Postpartum average milk yield until wk 14 was lower for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period (32.7, 38.7, and 43.3 ± 0.7 kg/d for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively). Postpartum DMI did not differ among treatments. Postpartum EB was greater for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Young cows (parity 2) showed a stronger effect of omission of the dry period, compared with a 60-d dry period, on additional milk precalving (young cows: 15.1 kg/d; older cows: 12.0 kg/d), reduction in milk yield postcalving (young cows: 28.6 vs. 34.8 kg/d; older cows: 41.8 vs. 44.1 kg/d), and improvement of the EB postcalving (young cows: 120 vs. -93 kJ/kg(0.75)·d; older cows: -2 vs. -150 kJ/kg(0.75)·d. Ration did not affect milk yield and DMI, but a glucogenic ration tended to reduce milk fat content and increased EB, compared with a more lipogenic ration. Reduced dry period

  4. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  5. Potential sources of mouth drying in beverages fortified with dairy proteins: A comparison of casein- and whey-rich ingredients.

    PubMed

    Withers, C A; Lewis, M J; Gosney, M A; Methven, L

    2014-03-01

    Oral nutritional supplement drinks (ONS) are beverages high in dairy proteins that are prescribed to individuals at risk of malnutrition. Consumption of ONS is poor in elderly care facilities, with patients commenting that the sensory attributes of these drinks reduce their enjoyment and willingness to consume. Mouth drying is an attribute of ONS found to build with repeated consumption, which may further limit liking of these products. This study investigated the sources of drying sensations by sequential profiling, with a trained sensory panel rating a range of model milk systems and ONS over repeated sips and during after-effects. Sequential profiling found that fortification of milk with both caseinate and whey protein concentrate significantly increased the perception of mouth drying over repeated consumption, increasing by between 35 and 85% over consumption of 40mL. Enrichment of ONS with either whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate to a total protein content of 8.7% (wt/wt) resulted in whey and casein levels of 4.3:4.4% and 1.7:7.0% respectively. The product higher in whey protein was substantially more mouth drying, implying that whey proteins may be the most important contributor to mouth drying in ONS. However, efforts to mask mouth drying of protein-fortified milk by increasing sweetness or fat level were unsuccessful at the levels tested. Increasing the viscosity of protein-fortified milk led to a small but significant reduction in mouth drying. However, this approach was not successful when tested within complete ONS. Further analysis is required into the mechanism of protein-derived mouth drying to mask negative sensations and improve the enjoyment and consumption of protein-rich ONS. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of barn drying of fodder on respiratory symptoms and function in dairy farmers of the Doubs region of France.

    PubMed Central

    Dalphin, J. C.; Polio, J. C.; Pernet, D.; Maheu, M. F.; Toson, B.; Dubiez, A.; Monnet, E.; Laplante, J. J.; Depierre, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A previous study showed there to be fewer microorganisms (especially thermophilic actinomycetes) on farms with artificial barn drying of fodder than on those using traditional storage methods. A cross sectional study was performed to see whether barn drying provides protection against respiratory problems in dairy farmers. METHODS--The respiratory symptoms and function of a group of 123 farmers with daily exposure to cattle foddering from farms which had had a barn drying system for at least three years were compared with those of a representative sample of 274 farmers working in farms with traditional storage in five districts in the Doubs region of France. RESULTS--Both groups were comparable for mean age, weight, height, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, past history of respiratory disease, history of allergy, geographical location of the farm, and length of exposure. Retrospectively estimated exposure to fodder was greater in the group using a barn drying system than in the group working with traditional storage. Acute symptoms at exposure (rhinitis, eye irritation, dry cough, asthma symptoms) and chronic symptoms all tended to be less frequent in the barn drying group, although not individually significantly so. Mean (SD) respiratory function parameters were higher in the barn drying group than in the traditional group: % vital capacity (VC) 104 (14) v 102 (15); % forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 99 (14) v 94 (18); % FEV1/VC 96 (11) v 92 (16); % forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75) 87 (24) v 79 (25). CONCLUSION--The results of this cross sectional study suggest that barn drying of fodder may protect respiratory function in dairy farmers. PMID:8153940

  7. Comparison of rice husk- and dairy manure-derived biochars for simultaneously removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions: role of mineral components in biochars.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling

    2013-08-01

    Rice husk biochar (RHBC) and dairy manure biochar (DMBC) were prepared as sorbents for simultaneously removing Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solutions. DMBC was more effective in removing all the four heavy metals than RHBC, with the removal capacities of above 486 mmol kg(-1) for each metal, much higher than those of RHBC (65.5-140 mmol kg(-1)). RHBC showed stronger competition for metal removal than DMBC when the four metals coexisted, with Pb the least affected and Cd the most inhibited. When each metal was 1mM in the multi-metal system, the metal removal by RHBC was reduced by 38.4-100%, much higher than that reduced by 2-40.9% for DMBC. The stronger competition for metals removal by RHBC was due to the fact that all metals competed only for the ionized phenolic-O(-) groups, while the removal of metals by DMBC resulted not only from the complexation with ionized hydroxyl-O(-) groups but also from the precipitation of metals with CO3(2-) and/or PO4(3-) that were rich in DMBC, resulting in less competition. The different mechanisms for the removal of metals by the two biochars were evidenced by the instrumental analysis of XRD, FTIR, and SEM as well as chemical modeling of Visual MINTEQ. Results indicated the waste biomass can be converted into value-added biochar as sorbents for removal of heavy metals and the removal ability varies with different biochar feedstock sources where the mineral components such as CO3(2-), PO4(3-) originated from the feedstock play an important role in the sorption nature of biochar.

  8. A new strategy for co-composting dairy manure with rice straw: Addition of different inocula at three stages of composting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Zhang; Huang, Zhao-Lin; Dong, Ming; Yu, Xiao-Long; Ning, Ping

    2015-06-01

    In considering the impact of inoculation time and the characteristics of composting material and inoculants on the usefulness of inoculation, a new composting strategy has been proposed and studied, in which three inocula were inoculated at three stages of composting process respectively: inoculum A (Thermoactinomyces sp. GF1 and GF2) was inoculated before fermentation to increase or maintain high temperature of pile, inoculum B (Coprinus cinerea and Coprinus comatus) was inoculated after thermophilic phase to promote degradation of lignin, and inoculum C (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizopus oryzae) was inoculated after 30-day fermentation to promote degradation of cellulose. The results showed that the inoculations could significantly enhance the temperature of pile and the degradation of lignocelluloses. When inocula A, B, and C were inoculated into pile, temperature increased from 25°C to 65°C, from 33°C to 39°C and from 33°C to 38°C respectively and 35% lignin and 43% cellulose had been degraded in inoculated pile compared to the degradation of 15% lignin and 25% cellulose in control pile. As a result, the C/N ratio dropped more rapidly degraded in the inoculated pile (reached 20 after 33-day fermentation) than that in the control pile (reached 21.7 after 45-day fermentation). In addition, the volume loss in inoculated pile (76.5%) was higher than that in control pile (53.2%). The study, therefore, indicated that inoculating proper microorganisms at appropriate time improved the composting process and our new composting strategy would be propitious to the co-composting dairy manure with rice straw.

  9. Overstocking dairy cows during the dry period affects dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Fustini, M; Galeati, G; Gabai, G; Mammi, L E; Bucci, D; Baratta, M; Accorsi, P A; Formigoni, A

    2017-01-01

    Stressful situations trigger several changes such as the secretion of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the adrenal cortex, in response to ACTH. The aim of this study was to verify whether overstocking during the dry period (from 21±3 d to the expected calving until calving) affects DHEA and cortisol secretion and behavior in Holstein Friesian cows. Twenty-eight cows were randomly divided into 2 groups (14 animals each), balanced for the number of lactations, body condition score, and expected date of calving. Cows in the far-off phase of the dry period (from 60 to 21 d before the expected calving date) were housed together in a bedded pack. Then, animals from 21±3 d before the expected calving until calving were housed in pens with the same size but under different crowding conditions due to the introduction of heifers (interference animals) into the pen. The control condition (CTR) had 2 animals per pen with 12.0m(2) each, whereas the overstocked condition (OS) had 3 interference animals in the same pen with 4.8m(2) for each animal. On d -30±3, -21±3, -15±3, -10±3, and -5±3 before and 10, 20, and 30 after calving, blood samples were collected from each cow for the determination of plasma DHEA and cortisol concentrations by RIA. Rumination time (min/d), activity (steps/h), lying time (min/d), and lying bouts (bouts/d) were individually recorded daily. In both groups, DHEA increased before calving and the concentration declined rapidly after parturition. Overstocking significantly increased DHEA concentration compared with the CTR group at d -10 (1.79±0.09 vs. 1.24±0.14 pmol/mL), whereas an increase of cortisol was observed at d -15 (3.64±0.52 vs. 1.64±0.46ng/mL). The OS group showed significantly higher activity (steps/h) compared with the CTR group. Daily lying bouts tended to be higher for the OS group compared with CTR group in the first week of treatment. The overall results of this study documented that overstocking during the dry

  10. Evaluation of equations to predict dry matter intake of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P C; Weigel, K A; Wernberg, R M

    2008-09-01

    Daily pen dry matter intakes (DMI, n = 9,275) were collected over a 28-mo period at the University of Wisconsin's Integrated Dairy Research Facility. Heifers were housed in pens containing 8 Holstein or Holstein x Jersey crossbred heifers/pen. Heifer diets were formulated to energy and protein requirement twice monthly, with feed intake, dietary nutrient density, and ambient temperature recorded daily. Heifers were weighed at 60-d intervals, and mean pen body weights (BW) were estimated for each day between the weigh dates using the interval average daily gain as a regression coefficient. Prediction of heifer DMI was evaluated using the equations of NRC (2001), Quigley et al. (1986), or alternative random effects mixed models or nonlinear exponential models. The effects of breed, BW, temperature and neutral detergent fiber deviation (NDFdv) were considered as independent variables. Holstein and crossbred heifer DMI was predicted with reasonable precision [standard error (SE) < 0.86 kg/d], by the NRC (2001) or Quigley et al. (1986) equations, but heifer DMI was over- or underpredicted for heifers >500 kg, respectively. Improved heifer DMI prediction equations were achieved with exponential models. For Holsteins (SE = 0.71 kg/d), the prediction equation was: DMI (kg/d) = 15.79 x [1 - e((-0.00210 x BW))] - 0.0820 x NDFdv, where NDFdv = (dietary neutral detergent fiber as a % of dry matter) - {22.07 + [0.08714 x BW] - [0.00007383 x (BW)(2)]}. For crossbred heifers (SE = 0.60 kg/d), the prediction equation was: DMI (kg/d) = 13.48 x [1 - e((-0.00271 x BW))] - 0.0824 x NDFdv where NDFdv = (dietary neutral detergent fiber as a % of dry matter) - {23.11 + [0.07968 x BW] - [0.00006252 x (BW)(2)]}. Alternative exponential DMI model equations when dietary neutral detergent fiber is unknown were also developed. The Holstein DMI equation (SE = 0.73 kg/d) was: DMI (kg/d) = 15.36 x [1 - e((-0.00220 x BW))], and the crossbred DMI equation (SE = 0.81 kg/d) was: DMI (kg/d) = 12.91 x

  11. Emissions of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from dairy cattle housing and manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Leytem, April B; Dungan, Robert S; Bjorneberg, David L; Koehn, Anita C

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH₃), methane (CH₄), carbon dioxide (CO₂), and nitrous oxide (N₂O). The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the emission rates of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from three source areas (open lots, wastewater pond, compost) on a commercial dairy located in southern Idaho. Gas concentrations and wind statistics were measured each month and used with an inverse dispersion model to calculate emission rates. Average emissions per cow per day from the open lots were 0.13 kg NH₃, 0.49 kg CH₄, 28.1 kg CO₂, and 0.01 kg N₂O. Average emissions from the wastewater pond (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 2.0 g NH₃, 103 g CH₄, 637 g CO₂, and 0.49 g N₂O. Average emissions from the compost facility (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 1.6 g NH₃, 13.5 g CH₄, 516 g CO₂, and 0.90 g N₂O. The combined emissions of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from the lots, wastewater pond and compost averaged 0.15, 1.4, 30.0, and 0.02 kg cow(-1) d(-1), respectively. The open lot areas generated the greatest emissions of NH₃, CO₂, and N₂O, contributing 78, 80, and 57%, respectively, to total farm emissions. Methane emissions were greatest from the lots in the spring (74% of total), after which the wastewater pond became the largest source of emissions (55% of total) for the remainder of the year. Data from this study can be used to develop trace gas emissions factors from open-lot dairies in southern Idaho and potentially other open-lot production systems in similar climatic regions. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Effect of a single injection of cabergoline at dry off on udder characteristics in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bertulat, S; Isaka, N; de Prado, A; Lopez, A; Hetreau, T; Heuwieser, W

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, relationships between high milk yield at dry off, higher prevalence for new intramammary infections, and stress were evaluated. Considering increasing milk yield, dry off methods need to be refined to ensure udder health and animal welfare, especially in high-yielding dairy cows. The present work evaluated the effect of a single cabergoline injection (Velactis, Ceva Santé Animale, Libourne, France) at dry off on udder pressure, milk leakage, and signs of udder pain after dry off. A total of 234 high-yielding (≥16 kg of milk/d) dairy cows was enrolled 7 d before and followed up until 14 d after dry off. Cows were dried off without preparation (i.e., no feed change or intermittent milking before dry off) and treated with a single i.m. injection of 5.6 mg of cabergoline (n = 115) or placebo (n = 119) after last milking. Udder characteristics were measured 4 d before (i.e., before and after milking) and 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14 d after dry off. Udder pressure was evaluated utilizing a hand-held dynamometer. Milk leakage and signs of udder pain were noted as binary variables. Whereas udder pressure baseline values after last milking did not differ between treatment groups (0.541 ± 0.15 kg), cabergoline significantly reduced udder pressure in primiparous but not in multiparous cows after dry off. Differences between cabergoline- and placebo-treated primiparous cows could be evaluated until 3 d after dry off. The first day after dry off, udder pressure in placebo- and cabergoline-treated cows increased by 115% and 42.3%, respectively. Whereas pressure values in placebo cows were highest on the first day after dry off (1.16 ± 0.61 kg) and slowly decreased afterward, udder pressure in cows treated with cabergoline had a slower increase and peak only 2 d after dry off (0.94 ± 0.44 kg). Furthermore, cabergoline caused a reduction of milk leakage, a known factor for new intramammary infections. Only 11.3% of cows treated with cabergoline showed milk

  13. Investigation of the inorganic and organic phosphorus forms in animal manure.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Paulo H; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2012-01-01

    The most viable way to beneficially use animal manure on most farms is land application. Over the past few decades, repeated manure application has shown adverse effects on environmental quality due to phosphorus (P) runoff with rainwater, leading to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Improved understanding of manure P chemistry may reduce this risk. In this research, 42 manure samples from seven animal species (beef and dairy cattle, swine, chicken, turkey, dairy goat, horse, and sheep) were sequentially fractionated with water, NaHCO₃, NaOH, and HCl. Inorganic (P(i)), organic (P(o)), enzymatic hydrolyzable (P(e); monoester-, DNA-, and phytate-like P), and nonhydrolyzable P were measured in each fraction. Total dry ash P (P(t)) was measured in all manures. Total fractionated P (P(ft)) and total P(i) (P(it)) showed a strong linear relationship with P(t). However, the ratios between P(ft)/P(t) and P(it)/P(t) varied from 59 to 117% and from 28 to 96%, respectively. Water and NaHCO₃ extracted most of the P(i) in manure from ruminant+horse, whereas in nonruminant species a large fraction of manure P was extracted in the HCl fraction. Manure P(e) summed over all fractions (P(et)) accounted for 41 to 69% of total P(0) and 4 to 29% of P(t). The hydrolyzable pool in the majority of the manures was dominated by phytate- and DNA-like P in water, monoester- and DNA-like P in NaHCO₃, and monoester- and phytate-like P in NaOH and HCl fractions. In conclusion, if one assumes that the P(et) and P(it) from the fractionation can become bioavailable, then from 34 to 100% of P(t) in animal manure would be bioavailable. This suggests the need for frequent monitoring of manure P for better manure management practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in dairy cow diets containing dried distillers grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Linke, P L; Rennich, D R; Abdelqader, M M; Yoon, I

    2010-06-01

    Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (127+/-52 d in milk) were used in 4 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods to evaluate interactions of dietary inclusion of a fermentation product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; XPC, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on production of milk and milk components when fed diets containing approximately 30% dietary neutral detergent fiber with calculated forage neutral detergent fiber of 19.3% of diet dry matter (DM). Treatments were a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with SC included at 0 or 14 g/d and DDGS at 0 or 20% of diet DM. Diets consisted of 27% corn silage, 18% alfalfa hay, and 55% concentrate mix on a DM basis. Diets not containing DDGS included additional corn, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, soyhulls, and rumen inert fat to remain isocaloric and isonitrogenous with DDGS diets. Dry matter intake (26.0 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production increased with the addition of SC to diets (43.6 vs. 42.0 kg/d for diets without SC) and decreased for cows fed diets containing DDGS (42.0 kg/d vs. 43.6 kg/d for diets not containing DDGS). Milk fat percentage (3.05 vs. 3.22% for DDGS and non-DDGS diets, respectively) and yield (1.27 vs. 1.41 kg/d) were decreased by the addition of DDGS but were not affected by the addition of SC. Concentrations of long-chain, polyunsaturated, trans-, and conjugated fatty acids in milk of cows fed DDGS were increased, but milk fatty acid profiles were not affected by SC. Milk true protein concentrations were similar for all diets; however, the addition of SC increased yield of true protein (1.32 vs. 1.27 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen increased when SC was included in the diet with DDGS. The DDGS decreased yields of energy-corrected milk (39.4 vs. 42.1 kg/d) and tended to decrease feed efficiency (1.53 vs. 1.61 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake). Body weights and condition scores were not affected by

  15. The growth potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in dairy manure-based compost in a greenhouse setting under different seasons.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2010-12-01

    The pathogen growth in dairy compost was studied in a greenhouse setting under different seasons. The five-strain mixtures of each Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were inoculated separately into dry compost to yield c.1 log CFU g(-1) . After acclimation at room temperature, the inoculated compost was initially adjusted to moisture levels of 10-50% and then kept in a greenhouse under different seasons. The populations of all three pathogens increased by 2·1-3·9log CFU g(-1) within 3 days in autoclaved compost with initial moisture content of at least 40%. Listeria monocytogenes multiplied up to 2·4 log CFU g(-1) in compost with initial moisture content of 30% and was detected up to 28 days for all seasons, whereas populations of both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella increased by c. 1 log in compost with initial moisture content of 30% during winter months only. No pathogen growth in nonautoclaved compost was detected. Bacterial species, temperature, light intensity and moisture content affected the growth potential and survival of pathogens in compost when the population of background microflora was low. Keeping compost as dry as possible and maintaining certain levels of background microflora may be critical to prevent the growth of pathogens. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Treatment of screened dairy manure by upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactors packed with waste tyre rubber and a combination of waste tyre rubber and zeolite: effect of the hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Umaña, Oscar; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Sánchez, Enrique; Borja, Rafael; Raposo, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Two laboratory-scale anaerobic fixed bed reactors were evaluated while treating dairy manure at upflow mode and semicontinuous feeding. One reactor was packed with a combination of waste tyre rubber and zeolite (R1) while the other had only waste tyre rubber as a microorganism immobilization support (R2). Effluent quality improved when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) increased from 1.0 to 5.5 days. Higher COD, BOD5, total and volatile solids removal efficiencies were always achieved in the reactor R1. No clogging was observed during the operation period. Methane yield was also a function of the HRT and of the type of support used, and was 12.5% and 40% higher in reactor R1 than in R2 for HRTs of 5.5 and 1.0 days, respectively. The results obtained demonstrated that this type of reactor is capable of operating with dairy manure at a HRT 5 times lower than that used in a conventional reactor.

  17. Evaluation of various sources of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles for lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmit, D H; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) from different sources on milk production and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous and 4 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments consisted of total mixed diets containing no DDGS (CON), or DDGS from source 1 (DDGS-1), source 2 (DDGS-2), or source 3 (DDGS-3) at 20% of diet dry matter. The processing of DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 was intended to decrease heat damage and improve nutritional quality. The DDGS in the diets replaced a portion of the ground corn and soybean meal, allowing them to be isonitrogenous at 16% crude protein. All diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45. Dry matter intake (21.4 kg/d) did not differ among diets, but cows fed diets containing DDGS had greater yields of milk (34.6 vs. 31.2 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (32.7 vs. 29.6 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (35.4 vs. 32.3) compared with cows fed the CON diet. Feed efficiency was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (1.78 vs. 1.63). Milk fat yield was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with those fed CON (1.26 vs. 1.14 kg/d). Milk protein percentages (3.28, 3.13, 3.19, and 3.17% for CON, DDGS-1, DDGS-2, and DDGS-3, respectively) were greater for CON vs. DDGS and tended to be lower for DDGS-1 than for DDGS-2 and DDGS-3. Milk protein yields tended to be greater for cows fed DDGS than for those fed CON (1.09 vs. 1.02 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were lower in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (9.36 vs. 10.6 mg/dL). Feeding DDGS decreased arterial plasma concentrations of Arg, Ile, Lys, and Thr and increased His and Leu compared with CON. Arterial plasma from cows fed DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 had greater concentrations of Ile, Trp, and Val compared with DDGS-1. In all diets, Lys, Met, and Phe were the first 3 limiting amino acids for protein synthesis with Lys being first limiting in DDGS-1 and DDGS

  18. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  19. Effects of dairy manure management in annual and perennial cropping systems on soil microbial communities associated with in situ N2O fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunfield, Kari; Thompson, Karen; Bent, Elizabeth; Abalos, Diego; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Liquid dairy manure (LDM) application and ploughing events may affect soil microbial community functioning differently between perennial and annual cropping systems due to plant-specific characteristics stimulating changes in microbial community structure. Understanding how these microbial communities change in response to varied management, and how these changes relate to in situ N2O fluxes may allow the creation of predictive models for use in the development of best management practices (BMPs) to decrease nitrogen (N) losses through choice of crop, plough, and LDM practices. Our objectives were to contrast changes in the population sizes and community structures of genes associated with nitrifier (amoA, crenamoA) and denitrifier (nirK, nirS, nosZ) communities in differently managed annual and perennial fields demonstrating variation in N2O flux, and to determine if differences in these microbial communities were linked to the observed variation in N2O fluxes. Soil was sampled in 2012 and in 2014 in a 4-ha spring-applied LDM grass-legume (perennial) plot and two 4-ha corn (annual) treatments under fall or spring LDM application. Soil DNA was extracted and used to target N-cycling genes via qPCR (n=6) and for next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq) (n=3). Significantly higher field-scale N2O fluxes were observed in the annual plots compared to the perennial system; however N2O fluxes increased after plough down of the perennial plot. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated differences in N-cycling communities between annual and perennial cropping systems, and some communities became similar between annual and perennial plots after ploughing. Shifts in these communities demonstrated relationships with agricultural management, which were associated with differences in N2O flux. Indicator species analysis was used to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most responsible for community shifts related to management. Nitrifying and denitrifying soil

  20. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis by mixed microbial consortia cultured on fermented dairy manure: Effect of aeration on process rates/yields and the associated microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Coats, Erik R; Watson, Benjamin S; Brinkman, Cynthia K

    2016-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers that can substitute for petroleum-based plastics in a variety of applications. One avenue to commercial PHA production involves coupling waste-based synthesis with the use of mixed microbial consortia (MMC). In this regard, production requires maximizing the enrichment of a MMC capable of feast-famine PHA synthesis, with the metabolic response induced through imposition of aerobic-dynamic feeding (ADF) conditions. However, the concept of PHA production in complex matrices remains unrefined; process operational improvements are needed, along with an enhanced understanding of the MMC. Research presented herein investigated the effect of aeration on feast-famine PHA synthesis, with four independent aeration state systems studied; MMC were fed volatile fatty acid (VFA)-rich fermented dairy manure. Regardless of the aeration state, all MMC exhibited a feast-famine response based on observed carbon cycling. Moreover, there was no statistical difference in PHA synthesis rates, with qPHA ranging from 0.10 to 0.19 CmmolPHA gVSS(-1) min(-1); VFA uptake rates exhibited similar statistical indifferences. PHA production assessments on the enriched MMC resulted in maximum intracellular concentrations ranging from 22.5 to 90.7% (mgPHA mgVSS(-1)); at maximum concentration, the mean hydroxyvalerate mol content was 73 ± 0.6%. While a typical feast-famine dissolved oxygen (DO) pattern was observed at maximum aeration, less resolution was observed at decreasing aeration rates, suggesting that DO may not be an optimal process monitoring parameter. At lower aeration states, nitrogen cycling patterns, supported by molecular investigations targeting AOBs and NOBs, indicate that NO2 and NO3 sustained feast-famine PHA synthesis. Next-generation sequencing analysis of the respective MMC revealed numerous and diverse genera exhibiting the potential to achieve PHA synthesis, suggesting functional redundancy embedded in the diverse MMC

  1. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond; Tongwane, Mphethe Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock manure management is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in South Africa producing mainly methane and nitrous oxide. The emissions from this sub-category are dependent on how manure is stored. Liquid-stored manure predominantly produces methane while dry-based manure enhances mainly production of nitrous oxide. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines were utilized at different tier levels in estimating GHG emissions from manure management. The results show that methane emissions are relatively higher than nitrous oxide emissions with 3104 Gg and 2272 Gg respectively in carbon dioxide global warming equivalent. Abstract Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc.) were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal), sows (25.23 kg/year/animal) and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal). Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent). Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent) and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options

  2. Leptin, GH, PRL, insulin and metabolic parameters throughout the dry period and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, P A; Govoni, N; Gaiani, R; Pezzi, C; Seren, E; Tamanini, C

    2005-06-01

    Leptin may play a role in the endocrine-metabolic processes that guarantee the physiological course of lactation in dairy cattle. This study was aimed at determining the changes in plasma concentrations of leptin and some of the main hormones and metabolites involved in the lactogenetic process in high-yielding dairy cows throughout lactation; we also wanted to assess whether leptin secretion is subjected to seasonal influences. Blood samples were collected from 23 Italian Friesian dairy cows from the end of a lactation to the ninth month of the subsequent one; in addition, blood was sampled from 47 dairy cows in different phases of lactation during February and July. Plasma concentrations of leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin, prolactin (PRL), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and urea were quantified by either validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzymatic colorimetric methods. At the beginning of lactation, GH concentrations significantly increased, while a significant reduction occurred in leptin and insulin. This endocrine condition, such as the significant increase in NEFA plasma concentrations, is indicative of a marked lipid mobilization. In the more advanced stages of lactation, when both energy and protein balances become positive, leptin plasma concentrations increased, whereas GH and NEFA concentrations declined. During the summer months, a significant increase in leptin plasma concentrations, irrespective of the phase of lactation, was observed. Collectively, our findings suggest that, in dairy cows, leptin may represent a 'metabolic signal' of animal's status of fattening and nutritional level; in addition, leptin seems to be influenced by photoperiod and environmental temperature.

  3. Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores.

    PubMed

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5) were selected based on BCS at the beginning of the study (2mo before expected parturition date). During the study, animals were monitored weekly for BCS and backfat thickness and in the last 2wk, blood samples were taken for determination of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Animals underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test in the third week before the expected parturition date. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test consisted of 4 consecutive insulin infusions with increasing insulin doses: 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5mIU/kg per minute. For each insulin infusion period, a steady state was defined as a period of 30min where no or minor changes of the glucose infusion were necessary to keep the blood glucose concentration constant and near basal levels. During the steady state, the glucose infusion rate [steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) in µmol/kg per minute] and NEFA concentration [steady state NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) in mmol/L] were determined and reflect the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Dose response curves were created based on the insulin concentrations during the steady state and the SSGIR or SSNEFA. The shape of the dose response curves is determined by the concentration of insulin needed to elicit the half maximal effect (EC50) and the maximal SSGIR or the minimal SSNEFA for the glucose or fatty acid metabolism, respectively. The maximal SSGIR was negatively associated with variables reflecting adiposity of the cows (BCS, backfat thickness, NEFA concentration during the dry period, and absolute weight of the different adipose depots determined after euthanasia and dissection of the different depots), whereas the EC50 of the glucose metabolism was

  4. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salin, S; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K; Taponen, J; Boston, R C; Kokkonen, T

    2017-07-01

    We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition. Cows were fed either HEI or CEI diets based on grass silage during the first 3 wk of the dry period and grass silage supplemented with a commercial concentrate (30% of ME intake) during the final 3 wk of gestation. After calving, all cows were fed grass silage ad libitum and an increasing amount of commercial concentrate (maximum 9 kg at d 10 postpartum). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and intravenous insulin challenges were performed -10 ± 5 d (n = 15) and +10 ± 1 d (n = 14) relative to parturition. Following glucose injection, we did not find any treatment effects on glucose and insulin responses. The prepartal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) response of the HEI group was blunted, basal NEFA and the decrement of NEFA were smaller, and the area under the response curve (AUC) of NEFA was less negative in HEI cows than in CEI cows. The NEFA response reversed after parturition; the NEFA AUC of the HEI group was more negative than that of the CEI group. We did not find similar responses after insulin injection. Across the treatments, NEFA AUC correlated strongly with the basal NEFA concentration during the IVGTT pre- and postpartum. Calculated and model-based indices characterizing the overall glucose tolerance and β-cell function and the insulin sensitivity were higher after parturition than during the dry period. Consistent with the lower basal insulin, the acute insulin release after the glucose infusion

  5. Effects of feeding dry glycerin to early postpartum Holstein dairy cows on lactational performance and metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Rico, D E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Noirot, V; Ames, A; Varga, G A

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding a dry glycerin product (minimal 65% of food grade glycerol, dry powder) to 39 multiparous Holstein dairy cows (19 control and 20 glycerin-supplemented; lactation number = 2.2 +/- 1.3 SD) on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and blood metabolic profiles were investigated. Dry glycerin was fed at 250 g/d as a top dressing (corresponding to 162.5 g of glycerol/d) to the common lactating total mixed ration from parturition to 21 d postpartum. Individual milk was sampled from 2 consecutive milkings weekly and analyzed for components. Blood was sampled from the coccygeal vein at 4, 7, 14, and 21 (+/-0.92, pooled SD) d in milk and analyzed for urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Urine was tested for the acetoacetate level weekly by using Ketostix. Average feed intake, milk yield and components, blood metabolites, and serum insulin concentrations were not affected by dry glycerin supplementation. Glycerin-supplemented cows experienced a more positive energy status (higher concentrations of plasma glucose, lower concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, and lower concentrations of urine ketones), which was observed during the second week of lactation, suggesting that energy availability may have been improved. This glucogenic effect of dry glycerin did not result in an increase in feed intake or milk yield during the first 3 wk of lactation, likely because of the relatively less negative energy status of cows transitioning into lactation. The tendency toward higher milk yield for glycerin-supplemented cows during wk 6 of lactation (52 vs. 46 kg/d) after the supplementation period (dry glycerin was terminated at wk 3 of lactation) suggested a potential benefit of dry glycerin on subsequent milk production, perhaps through changes in metabolism, which requires further investigation.

  6. Inhibition of Escherichia coli in cultivated cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Z G; Szakacs, G; Chen, Y; Pinto, R; Bernstein, S; Konya, B; Sela Saldinger, S

    2014-05-01

    A common practice on Israeli dairy barns comprises daily cultivation of the manure. Cultivation is a mechanical process used to break up and till the manure bedding and it results in a drier and aerated bedding and cleaner cows, which consequently reduces the incidence of mastitis. Cultivation was associated with a shorter survival of Escherichia coli in cultivated manure as compared with noncultivated manure. The objective of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the shorter survival duration of E. coli in the cultivated manure. We hypothesized that microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, developing in the cultivated manure, are responsible for this phenomenon. A cow manure derived E. coli strain expressing the green fluorescence protein and antibiotic resistance markers was used to inoculate cow manure in 1.5-L jars. Manure treatments included cultivated and noncultivated manure. Half the jars of each cultivation treatment were autoclave sterilized at 121°C for 1 h on 3 successive days to eliminate from the manure antagonistic microorganisms. Each cultivation-sterilization treatment was performed in triplicate jars. Following sterilization, E. coli numbers in the cultivated and noncultivated manure were comparable, while in the nonsterilized manure the numbers were lower in the cultivated compared with the noncultivated manure. Several fungi isolated from the cultivated manure samples displayed inhibition effect on the tagged E. coli. Antagonistic fungi were also isolated from large-scale cultivated manure samples collected on several dairy farms in Israel. These findings support the notion that manure cultivation might facilitate the development of microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, thus contributing to the general hygiene of the cattle. Identifying the mechanisms by which the antagonistic fungi affect the survival of E. coli in manure could be exploited for improvement of the animal health and for limiting the

  7. Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hoernig, K J; Donovan, D M; Pithua, P; Williams, F; Middleton, J R

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant lysostaphin fused to a protein transduction domain (rLYS-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diagonal mammary quarters approximately 45d before dry off. Staphylococcus aureus-infected mammary quarters of cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups at dry off: (1) 279mg of rLYS-PTD in 50mL of vehicle (n=11 cows; 22 quarters) or (2) 50mL of vehicle solution (n=11 cows; 22 quarters) by intramammary infusion. All cows were followed for 30d postpartum to determine cure rates using bacteriologic culture, somatic cell counts, and clinical mastitis scores. No cures were recorded in either the treatment or control groups. Milk somatic cell count, bacterial colony counts, and mastitis scores did not significantly differ between treatment groups. In conclusion, rLYS-PTD was not an effective dry-cow therapeutic for chronic, subclinical Staph. aureus mastitis at the tested dose and formulation.

  8. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin and a shortened or no dry period on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klusmeyer, T H; Fitzgerald, A C; Fabellar, A C; Ballam, J M; Cady, R A; Vicini, J L

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altering dry period length in multiparous dairy cows (n = 341) on milk production for a full lactation (294 d). The study used 3 commercial herds in the western United States. Cows producing greater than 8,400 kg of mature-equivalent milk were assigned to treatments 60 d before their due dates. The 4 treatments were 1) 60-d dry period, label use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST; 60d-L); 2) 32-d dry period, label use of rbST (32d-L); 3) 0-d dry period, label use of rbST (0d-L); and 4) 0-d dry period, continuous use of rbST (0d-C). Cows with shortened dry periods produced 625, 1,000, and 1,042 kg of milk during the prepartum period for treatments 2 to 4, respectively. During the postpartum period, cows on the 32d-L treatment produced similar amounts of milk compared with the 60d-L treatment (11,490 vs. 11,968 kg, respectively). However, cows on the 0d-L (10,316 kg) and 0d-C (10,195 kg) treatments produced significantly lower amounts of milk during the postpartum period compared with the 60d-L treatment. Total milk production from the prepartum and postpartum periods was not altered significantly and was 11,974, 12,112, 11,310, and 11,230 kg for treatments 1 to 4, respectively. The concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in serum after calving were decreased for cows on the 32d-L, 0d-L, and 0d-C treatments compared with cows on the 60d-L treatment, which may indicate improved metabolic status.

  9. Potential traceable markers of organic matter in organic and conventional dairy manure using ultraviolet–visible and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairy (OD) production is drawing increasing attention because of public concerns about food safety, animal welfare and the potential environmental impacts of conventional dairy (CD) systems. However, very limited information is available on how organic farming practices affect the chemical ...

  10. Effect of milking frequency and feeding level before and after dry off on dairy cattle behavior and udder characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, C B; Lacy-Hulbert, S J; Webster, J R

    2009-07-01

    The effects of 2 common dry-off management procedures, feed restriction [8 vs. 16 kg of dry matter (DM)/d] and reduced milking frequency (once, 1x vs. twice, 2x/d), on the behavior and udder characteristics of dairy cattle were assessed in late lactation and the early dry period. Milking cows 1x instead of 2x in the week before dry off reduced milk yield (7.0 vs. 8.9 +/- 0.95 kg/d for 1x and 2x, respectively), but had little effect on behavior before or after cessation of milking. In comparison, feed restriction reduced milk yield (6.9 vs. 9.1 +/- 0.95 kg/d for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively), udder firmness after dry off (7.3 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.24 g force for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively), milk leakage (2 d after dry off, 14% of cows offered 8 kg of DM/d were leaking milk compared with 42% cows offered 16 kg of DM/d), and the likelihood of Streptococcus uberis intramammary infection (nonclinical mastitis; 12.5 vs. 62.5% of groups with at least 1 cow with a new intramammary infection for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively). Despite these benefits, cows offered only 8 kg of DM/d spent less time eating (7.3 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.28 h/d for 8 and 16 kg DM/d, respectively), more time lying (8.8 vs. 7.3 +/- 0.24 h/d), and vocalized more before dry off than cows offered 16 kg of DM/d (0.8 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.15 calls/min for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively). These behavioral changes indicate that this level of feed restriction may cause hunger. Information is needed about alternative dry-off procedures that maintain the health benefits and comfort associated with lower milk yield before dry off but prevent hunger, such as feeding low quality diets ad libitum.

  11. Using dairy herd improvement records and clinical mastitis history to identify subclinical mastitis infections at dry-off.

    PubMed

    Torres, Audrey H; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Degraves, Fred J; Hoblet, Kent H

    2008-05-01

    Interest in selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) has been increasing owing to concerns over development of antimicrobial resistance. Implementation of SDCT, however, requires a quick and cost-effective on-farm method for identifying cows for treatment and cows that can be left without treatment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of clinical mastitis (CM) history and somatic cell counts (SCC) from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records in identification of infected and uninfected cows at dry-off. A total of 647 Holstein cows were classified as uninfected or infected at dry-off based on CM history and varying number of monthly SCC records (with three different SCC cut-offs). Cows were considered uninfected based on the following criteria: (1) SCC <100,000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; (2) SCC <200,000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; (3) as criterion two, but additionally a cow was also considered uninfected if it experienced a case of CM during the first 3 months of the lactation and the SCC was <100,000 cells/ml for the rest of the lactation; (4) SCC <300,000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; otherwise they were considered infected. Infected and uninfected cows at dry-off were most efficiently identified using three months' SCC records with a threshold of 200,000 cells/ml for cows without CM during the lactation and a threshold of 100,000 cells/ml during the rest of lactation for cows with CM during the first 90 days in milk. Moreover, this criterion also most efficiently identified cows infected with major pathogens only at dry-off. The success of the criteria used for identifying infected and uninfected cows will, however, depend on herd characteristics, such as prevalence of infection and type of pathogens present in the herd.

  12. Effect of dietary dry matter concentration on the sorting behavior of lactating dairy cows fed a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether addition of water to a high-moisture total mixed ration reduces feed sorting by dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein cows, individually fed once per day, were tested on 2 diets in a crossover design with 21-d periods. Diets had the same dietary composition and differed only in dry matter content, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets were 1) dry (57.6% DM) and 2) wet (47.9% DM). Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of both treatment periods. For the final 3 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis and fresh feed and orts were sampled for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Contrary to the hypothesis, cows sorted the wet diet more extensively than the dry diet. Sorting of the dry diet was limited to a tendency to refuse short particles, whereas the wet diet was sorted against long particles and for short and fine particles. Water addition reduced DMI, neutral detergent fiber intake, and starch intake of cows on the wet diet. Increased sorting on the wet diet resulted in a tendency for decreased concentration of dietary neutral detergent fiber consumed and also resulted in increased starch concentration of the diet consumed. Milk production and components were unaffected by treatment. Our results suggest that water addition to high-moisture total mixed rations, containing primarily haylage and silage forage sources, may not be an effective method to reduce sorting. Furthermore, water addition may negatively affect DMI and encourage sorting, resulting in the consumption of a ration with different nutrient composition than intended.

  13. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    PubMed

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows.

  14. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia, lactation performance and manure excretion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Holstein cows housed in a modified tie-stall barn were used to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and emission of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and manure ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). Eight multiparous cows (means ± standard devi...

  15. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mayasari, N; Chen, J; Ferrari, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; Parmentier, H K; van Knegsel, A T M; Trevisi, E

    2017-03-29

    Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 107 multiparous) were assigned randomly to a 3 × 2 factorial design with 3 DP length (0, 30, or 60 d) and 2 early lactation rations (glucogenic or lipogenic). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic ration from 10 d before the expected calving date. Blood was collected in wk -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Dry period length affected inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress, especially in wk 1 and 2 after calving. Cows with a 0-d DP had higher levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites, and they tended to have higher haptoglobin levels compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d DP. Cows with a 0-d DP had a lower plasma paraoxonase and bilirubin in the first 2 wk after calving and a lower liver functionality index compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows of parity >3 fed a glucogenic ration had higher cholesterol levels compared with cows of parity >3 fed a lipogenic ration. No interaction between DP length and ration was present for inflammatory biomarkers or oxidative stress variables. Plasma bilirubin levels for cows with a 0-d DP were negatively related to energy balance and metabolic status in these cows. Moreover, occurrence of clinical health problems (fever, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta) was 41, 27, and 30% for cows with 0-, 30-, and 60-d DP, respectively. High levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites in cows with 0-d DP were related to the occurrence of health problems in these cows. In conclusion, omitting the DP increased levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites, and decreased levels of

  16. Effect of cooling during the dry period on immune response after Streptococcus uberis intramammary infection challenge of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I M T; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Jeong, K C; Dahl, G E

    2014-12-01

    Heat stress in the dry period affects the immune status of dairy cows in the subsequent lactation. We hypothesized that cooling during the dry period improves immune response to postpartum intramammary infection (IMI) by environmental pathogens such as Streptococcus uberis. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and assigned to cooling (CL, n = 15) or heat stress (HT, n = 15). Cooled cows were housed with sprinklers, fans, and shade, whereas the HT group had only shade. All cows were cooled postpartum. Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were recorded thrice weekly during the dry period. From −46 to 42 d relative to calving, dry matter intake was recorded daily, and both body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) weekly. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily after calving. Streptococcus uberis IMI was induced at 5 d postpartum in a subset of cows (CL, n = 5; HT, n = 5). Blood was collected at 0, 12, 18, 24, and 36 h after IMI. Hematological analysis was performed, and neutrophils isolated for RNA extraction. Immune response genes (TLR2, IL1-β, IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNFα) were assessed by real-time, reverse transcription-PCR. Relative to HT cows, CL cows had lower RT and RR during the dry period. The CL cows also consumed more feed prepartum but not postpartum, gained more BW prepartum but lost more BW in lactation, and had higher BCS score prepartum and a lower BCS postpartum. During 40 wk of lactation, CL cows produced more milk (33.8 vs. 30.0 kg/d) than HT cows but milk composition was not affected. Cows in the CL group had greater white blood cell counts and more neutrophils than HT cows during IMI. From 0 to 36 h post-IMI, TNFα mRNA expression decreased, whereas that of IL6 and IL8 increased in both treatments. Additionally, CL cows had lower IL10 mRNA expression at 18 h post-IMI. Expression of TLR2 mRNA decreased over time in both treatments. However, CL cows had greater overall TLR2 mRNA expression than HT. No

  17. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups.

  18. The locomotion of dairy cows on concrete floors that are dry, wet, or covered with a slurry of excreta.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J; Morris, I D

    2000-08-01

    Six dairy cows were trained to individually walk down a concrete aisle for a food reward. Their locomotion was then examined in a switchback experiment as the floor surface of the aisle was changed from dry to wetted concrete or concrete covered by shallow (5 cm) or deep (12.5 cm) slurry from cattle excreta. The static and dynamic frictional coefficients were measured by a tribometer, but did not give a clear indication of the risk of slipping. Cow locomotion was measured over the second half of the aisle, and limb angles recorded as the cow passed a video camera. Wetting the floor did not affect the walking or stepping rate, but it reduced the arc made by the joints of the hindlimb during the supporting phase. Slurry caused the cows to keep their legs more vertical at the end of the support phase, probably to aid lifting the limb out of the slurry. It also caused the cows to place their forelimbs down less vertically at the start of the support phase, probably because of the reduced risk of slip in the slurry. When the floor was covered with either the deep or, to a lesser extent, the shallow slurry, the cows' walking and stepping rates were reduced, and on the floor covered with deep slurry their step length was increased. Therefore slurry reduces the cow's walking speed and alters limb angles during the support phase, producing a different walking pattern from cows on dry or wetted concrete.

  19. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway - from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 ??g L-1, in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows

  20. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  1. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas H; Bergamaschi, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  2. Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

  3. Effect of water addition on selective consumption (sorting) of dry diets by dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Giannico, F; Armentano, L E

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether adding water to a dry diet would reduce sorting and improve cow performance. Eighteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a cross-over design with 21-d periods. Treatments had the same dietary composition and differed only by adding water (WET) or not (DRY). Diets consisted of 10% alfalfa silage, 30% hay (approximately 80% grass and 20% alfalfa), and 60% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dietary DM was 80.8% for DRY and 64.4% for WET. Both diets contained 16.9% crude protein and 24.3% neutral detergent fiber. Particle size was determined using the Wisconsin Particle Size Separator on the as-fed diets. The separator has five square-hole screens (Y(1) to Y(5)) with diagonal openings of 26.9 mm for Y(1), 18 mm for Y(2), 8.98 mm for Y(3), 5.61 mm for Y(4), and 1.65 mm for Y(5), and one pan. Sorting was calculated on a 60 degrees C DM basis (60DM). Predicted intake of Y(i) was calculated as the product of 60DM intake (60DMI) and the 60DM fraction of Y(i) in the total mixed ration for that screen. For DRY and WET, actual 60DMI by screen expressed as a percentage of predicted intake was 61.4% vs. 75.2% for Y(1), 83.8% vs. 98.6% for Y(2), 85.6% vs. 90.8% for Y(3), 95.2% vs. 96.0% for Y(4), 100.1% vs. 101.9% for Y(5), and 105.9% vs. 102.9% for pan, respectively. Adding water did not affect total DM intake (28.3 kg/d) or milk production (41.3 kg/d). Neutral detergent fiber intake was 6.42 kg/d for WET and 6.15 kg/d for DRY. Milk fat percentage tended to be higher (3.41% vs. 3.31%) when cows consumed WET vs. DRY. No differences in ruminal pH, NH(3), and volatile fatty acids were observed. Cows sorted against long particles in favor of shorter particles on both diets. Adding water to dry diets reduced sorting and tended to increase neutral detergent fiber intake and milk fat percentage.

  4. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: II. Effect on metabolic profile

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected metabolic profile, plasma fatty acid profile, and reproductive maturation. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d old) were used in a 24-wee...

  5. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  6. Influence of lipoproteins at dry-off on metabolism of dairy cows during transition period and on postpartum reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crociati, Martina; Sylla, Lakamy; Floridi, Claudia; Comin, Antonella; Fruganti, Gabriele; Monaci, Maurizio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    High-yielding dairy cows are metabolically challenged during transition, when intense mobilization and hepatic oxidation of lipids is achieved, thus leading to fatty infiltration, ketosis and generalized inflammation. The condition is associated to periparturient diseases and poor fertility. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum lipoprotein concentrations in the dry period could influence the occurrence of postpartum diseases and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The study was carried out on 30 multiparous Holstein Friesian cows. Blood samples were collected at dry-off (-60 days), 30 days after dry-off and within 12 h after parturition for biochemical and serum lipoprotein assays. From 10 to 60 days after parturition milk was collected twice weekly after feeding, for milk whey progesterone assay. The Optimal Cutpoint package identified a threshold of 89% for serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) concentration at the beginning of the dry period with 95% of confidence interval. Cows with serum HDL greater than 89% (High group, n = 10) showed better reproductive performance when compared to those with low values (Low group, n = 18). The odds ratio for reproductive disorders in High group was 0.6875, however, differences were not significant probably due to both the reduced number of animals per group and overall low incidence of postpartum reproductive disease. First postpartum luteal activity occurred around day 23, while the second one between days 40 and 48. The average calving to first AI interval was 64.00 ± 3.95 days and 94.50 ± 12.32 days in High and Low group, respectively (P < 0.05). The calving-conception interval was 129.86 ± 24.42 days and 199.18 ± 24.73 days in High and Low groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Low group displayed an increase in liver markers, that is total bilirubin, with 0.46 ± 0.09 mg/dL and 0.23 ± 0.08 mg/dL, in Low and High group respectively (P < 0.05), and NEFA/cholesterol ratio, with 0

  7. Nitrogen use efficiencies to grow, feed, and recycle manure from the major diet components fed to dairy cows in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crops and livestock transform a general range of 20% to 50% of applied N into product N. Most applied N not transformed into agricultural products is lost to the environment. The objective of this study was to quantify soil N input (fertilizer N, biologically fixed-N) incorporation into dairy cow di...

  8. Lactation and body composition responses to fat and protein supplies during the dry period in under-conditioned dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jaurena, G; Moorby, J M

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of precalving supplementation with protein (Pr) and rumen-inert fat (F) on body composition and subsequent milk production and composition. Forty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in the dry period (DP) based on a first-cut ryegrass silage, with 6 mature (in their third or greater pregnancy) and 4 young (in their second pregnancy) cows per treatment. These were low Pr, low F (silage alone); low Pr, high F (silage with 10% rumen-inert fat, mixed on a dry matter basis); high Pr, low F [silage with 5% high-protein corn gluten meal (CGM)]; and high Pr, high F (silage with 5% CGM and 10% rumen-inert fat). All the diets were individually offered ad libitum and dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily during the DP. After calving, all cows received ryegrass silage plus 8 kg/d of a commercial dairy concentrate. During the DP, DMI was higher for mature than for young cows. All animals recovered body condition score (0.13 units/wk, 1-5 scale), reaching a maximum score of 2.4 some days before calving. Precalving maximum muscle longissimus dorsi (LD) depth was greater for mature (47.5 mm) than for young cows (45.7 mm), and milk fat concentration was also higher for mature than for young cows (40.2 and 39.0 g/kg, respectively). Supplementation with CGM increased maximum LD depth (from 45.9 to 47.6 mm), calf birth weight (low Pr = 43.2, high Pr = 46.3 kg), and milk crude protein concentration (from 30.8 to 31.6 g/kg). Fat supplementation in the DP of the mature cows increased maximum back fat depth (from 3.6 to 4.5 mm), milk yield (low F = 26.3, high F = 28.7 kg/d), and Pr yields (low F = 837, high F = 899 g/d). Inclusion of F in the DP diets reduced casein concentration in milk at wk 3 of lactation from 26.3 to 24.5 g/kg. Milk CP yield was also increased by CGM supplementation when compared within cows receiving F-supplemented silages (low Pr, high F = 832 g/d; high Pr, high F= 877 g/d). It

  9. Evaluating two different evaporative cooling management systems for dairy cows in a hot, dry climate.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D P; Boland, M P; Kopel, E; Armstrong, D; Munyakazi, L; Godke, R A; Ingraham, R H

    1992-04-01

    Milk production, rectal temperature, live weight gain, reproductive performance, and weather data were obtained on 150 Holstein cows managed under two cooling systems on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia during the summer months. Cows were paired at the onset of the trial according to days postpartum, lactation number, and current milk production. Females were then allocated either to a system that forced air, precooled by evaporative cooling, over the cows or to a system that alternately showered a fine mist onto the surface of the cows and then forced air at ambient temperature over them. The cows receiving evaporative cooling and those with spray and fan cooling were on sand and on slatted concrete floor, respectively, during the periods of cooling. The onset of estrus was observed during the night when the cows preferred the unshaded corral. For the 120-d trial period, 84% (62 of 75) of the cows receiving evaporative cooling and 60% (44 of 75) of the cows receiving spray and fan cooling became pregnant. In the evaporative cooling system, the pregnancy rate per insemination was 35.2% (179 inseminations) versus 23.2% (194 inseminations) for spray and fan cooling. The mean postpartum interval to pregnancy was 117.6 d for the evaporative cooling cows and 146.7 d for spray and fan cooling cows. The evaporative cooling system, with its open shades and sand bedding, enhanced reproductive performance and milk production compared with that of cows cooled with a spray and fan system with slatted flooring in this hot climate.

  10. Milk production and nutrient digestibility by dairy cows when fed exogenous amylase with coarsely ground dry corn.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Steinberg, W; Engstrom, M A

    2011-05-01

    The digestibility of starch provided by coarsely ground corn is often low, which reduces the digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet. We hypothesized that adding exogenous amylase to diets based on coarsely ground dent corn would increase dietary DE resulting in greater milk production. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was measured in a partially replicated Latin square experiment (6 cows and 4 periods) with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets had 26 or 31% starch with or without exogenous amylase (amylase was added to the concentrate mixes at the feed mill). In the low and high starch diets, coarsely ground dry corn (mean particle size=1.42 mm) provided 43 and 62% of total dietary starch (corn silage provided most of the remaining starch). No treatment interactions were observed. High starch diets had greater dry matter (DM), organic matter, and energy digestibility than low starch diets, and diets with amylase had greater neutral detergent fiber digestibility than diets without amylase. Digestibility of starch averaged 88% and was not affected by treatment. A long-term (98-d) lactation study with 48 Holstein cows (74 d in milk) was conducted using 3 of the diets (low starch diets with and without amylase and the high starch diet without amylase). Addition of amylase to a diet with 26% starch did not affect intake, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, or body condition. Cows fed the diet with 31% starch had greater DM and DE intakes; yields of milk, fat, and protein; and feed efficiency than those fed diets with 26% starch. Milk composition was not affected by starch concentration. Adding exogenous amylase to a lower starch diet did not make the diet nutritionally equivalent to a higher starch diet. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication: Added value of rumination time for the prediction of dry matter intake in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Clément, P; Guatteo, R; Delaby, L; Rouillé, B; Chanvallon, A; Philipot, J M; Bareille, N

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the change in the prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) resulting from the inclusion of rumination time (RT) in the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) DMI prediction model. Forty-one Holstein cows fed the same total mixed ration were involved in a 10-wk study. Individual DMI were measured daily. The accuracy and precision of the original NRC prediction model, based on body weight, fat-corrected milk, and week of lactation as independent variables, was compared with the accuracy and precision of the same model with RT as an additional independent variable. The RT estimate was significant in the model developed but had a low value (0.031 kg/h). Root mean square prediction errors were very similar in the 2 models (1.70 and 1.68 kg/d) as were the other indicators (R(2), linear bias, random error, and concordance correlation coefficient) selected to compare the models in this study. These results indicate no gain in DMI prediction precision or accuracy when RT is included in the NRC model. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Cole, N A; Jenkins, K H; Meyer, B E; McCollum, F T; Preece, S L M; Auvermann, B W; Heflin, K R; MacDonald, J C

    2012-12-01

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial BW = 354 kg ± 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn (SFC)- and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 20% WDGS (0SFC, 20SFC, 0DRC, and 20DRC, respectively). Heifers averaged 154 d on feed and were marketed in 3 groups. There were no interactions between corn processing method and WDGS detected (P ≥ 0.29) for any performance or carcass response variables. Heifers fed diets containing WDGS tended to have greater final BW (P = 0.10) and increased G:F (P = 0.08) compared with heifers fed diets without WDGS. Heifers fed SFC-based diets consumed 7% less feed (P < 0.01) and were 9% more efficient (P < 0.01) than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Carcass characteristics were not affected by corn processing method or WDGS inclusion (P ≥ 0.16). Intakes of OM, N, P, and K were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for heifers fed DRC-based diets than those fed SFC-based diets, which resulted in greater net accumulation of the nutrients in the manure (P ≤ 0.04). Heifers fed diets containing WDGS had greater (P < 0.01) intakes of N, P, and K than heifers fed diets without WDGS. As a result, a greater net accumulation of P and K (P ≤ 0.03) and N (P = 0.10) were present in the manure from cattle fed diets containing WDGS compared with those fed diets without WDGS. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.16) between corn processing and WDGS on N volatilization losses. Nitrogen volatilization losses from manure (expressed as a percentage of intake and g·heifer(-1)·d(-1)) were greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed SFC-based diets than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Feeding DRC-based finishing diets to heifers

  13. Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy cow feces: Long-term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Massé, Daniel I. Cata Saady, Noori M.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces (CF) is feasible. • PDAD of CF is as efficient as mesophilic and thermophilic AD at TCL 21 days. • CF (13–16% TS at OLR 5.0 g TCOD{sub fed} kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1}) yielded 222 ± 27 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed. - Abstract: This paper reports experimental results which demonstrate psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces during long-term operation in sequence batch reactor. Cow feces (13–16% total solids) has been anaerobically digested in 12 successive cycles (252 days) at 21 days treatment cycle length (TCL) and temperature of 20 °C using psychrotrophic anaerobic mixed culture. An average specific methane yield (SMY) of 184.9 ± 24.0, 189.9 ± 27.3, and 222 ± 27.7 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} of VS fed has been achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 g TCOD kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1} and TCL of 21 days, respectively. The corresponding substrate to inoculum ratio (SIR) was 0.39 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± .02, 0.53 ± 0.05, respectively. Average methane production rate of 10 ± 1.4 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed d{sup −1} has been obtained. The low concentration of volatile fatty acids indicated that hydrolysis was the reaction limiting step.

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved.

  15. Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy cow feces: long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Cata Saady, Noori M

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports experimental results which demonstrate psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces during long-term operation in sequence batch reactor. Cow feces (13-16% total solids) has been anaerobically digested in 12 successive cycles (252 days) at 21 days treatment cycle length (TCL) and temperature of 20 °C using psychrotrophic anaerobic mixed culture. An average specific methane yield (SMY) of 184.9 ± 24.0, 189.9 ± 27.3, and 222 ± 27.7 (N)L CH4 kg(-1) of VS fed has been achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) and TCL of 21 days, respectively. The corresponding substrate to inoculum ratio (SIR) was 0.39 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± .02, 0.53 ± 0.05, respectively. Average methane production rate of 10 ± 1.4(N)L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed d(-1) has been obtained. The low concentration of volatile fatty acids indicated that hydrolysis was the reaction limiting step. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differing effects of 2 active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains on ruminal acidosis and methane production in nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Walker, N D; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-05-01

    different strains of S. cerevisiae fed as active dried yeasts vary in their ability to modify the rumen fermentative pattern in nonlactating dairy cows. Because strain 2 tended (when compared with strain 1) to lower CH(4) emissions but increase the risk of acidosis, it may be prudent to further evaluate this strain in cattle fed high-forage diets, for which the risk of acidosis is low but CH(4) emissions are high.

  17. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp.

  18. Effects of transient changes in silage dry matter concentration on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McBeth, L R; St-Pierre, N R; Shoemaker, D E; Weiss, W P

    2013-06-01

    Transient changes in the dry matter (DM) concentration of silages often occur, which will cause transient changes in the ration. To determine the effects of a transient change in silage DM, 24 Holstein cows (116 d in milk) were used in an 8 replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) control, (2) unbalanced (UNBAL), and (3) balanced (BAL). The control diet was designed to have a consistent day-to-day forage:concentrate ratio of 55:45 on a DM basis. The UNBAL and BAL diets were the same as the control diet for most of the period except during two 3-d bouts when water was added to the silage (simulating a rain event) to cause a 10-percentage unit decrease in silage DM concentration. During the bouts, the UNBAL diet was the same as that of the control on an as-fed basis, but on a DM basis, the forage:concentrate ratio decreased to 49:51, which reduced dietary concentrations of DM (63.9 vs. 66.2%) and forage NDF (21.0 vs. 23.6%), and increased starch (30.4 vs. 28.4%). The BAL treatment corrected for the change in silage DM by an increase in the inclusion of wet silage and had the same composition as the control diet on a DM basis, except for ration DM (66.2 vs. 63.9%). Over the 21-d period, treatment did not affect DM intake (DMI; 24.0 kg/d); however, DMI of cows on the UNBAL and BAL treatments tended to decrease during the wet bouts, especially during the second bout. The day following both bouts, DMI of cows fed BAL and UNBAL diets were greater than that of cows fed the control diet, which contributed to the lack of a treatment effect on DMI over the entire period. Milk production was greater for the UNBAL than control cows (39.8 vs. 39.3 kg/d) over the 21-d period. That difference was largely caused by increased milk yield during the first bout by cows on the UNBAL diet. Over the 21-d period, milk yield did not differ between control and BAL cows. Some small differences in milk fat and protein concentrations (≤ 0.1 percentage units

  19. Application of manure to no-till soils: Phosphorus losses by sub-surface and surface pathways

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concern over the acceleration of eutrophication by agricultural runoff has focused attention on manure management in no-till. We evaluated losses of phosphorus (P) in sub-surface and surface flow as a function of dairy manure application to no-till soils on a dairy farm in north-central Pennsylvania...

  20. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    PubMed

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  1. Comparing the inhibitory thresholds of dairy manure co-digesters after prolonged acclimation periods: Part 2--correlations between microbiomes and environment.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Leticia; Spirito, Catherine M; Usack, Joseph G; Hospodsky, Denina; Werner, Jeffrey J; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-12-15

    Here, we studied the microbiome succession and time-scale variability of four mesophilic anaerobic reactors in a co-digestion study with the objective to find links between changing environmental conditions and the microbiome composition. The changing environmental conditions were ensured by gradual increases in loading rates and mixing ratios of three co-substrates with a constant manure-feeding scheme during an operating period longer than 900 days. Each co-substrate (i.e., alkaline hydrolysate, food waste, and glycerol) was co-digested separately. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to examine the microbiome succession. The alkaline hydrolysate reactor microbiome shifted and adapted to high concentrations of free ammonia, total volatile fatty acids, and potassium to maintain its function. The addition of food waste and glycerol as co-substrates also led to microbiome changes, but to a lesser extent, especially in the case of the glycerol reactor microbiome. The divergence of the food waste reactor microbiome was primarily linked to increasing free ammonia levels in the reactor; though, these levels remained below previously reported inhibitory levels for acclimated biomass. The glycerol reactor microbiome succession included an increase in Syntrophomonadaceae family members, which have previously been linked to long-chain fatty acid degradation. The glycerol reactor exhibited rapid failure and limited adaptation at the end of the study.

  2. Assessment of the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from dairy manure and rice chaff by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Yu, Guanghui; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of maturity and biological parameters is important in the composting process. In this study, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from the co-composting of dairy and rice chaff. The results from a Pearson correlation analysis between traditional physico-chemical maturity indices and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) parameters showed that among the FRI parameters, P(V,n)/P(III,n) and P(V,n) were suitable for the assessment of compost maturity. Moreover, the FRI parameters could be used to evaluate biological parameters including the germination index (GI) and ribotype evolution which indicate the bacterial community structure and dynamics. P(IV,n) was the most suitable indicator for revealing the community structure and dynamics during the composting process. Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with the FRI analysis could be used as a sensitive and efficient tool for assessing compost maturity and biological parameters.

  3. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-30

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  4. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-01

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  5. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller’s Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183

  6. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller's Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller's grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters.

  7. Prediction of Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Selenium and Zinc Status of Periparturient Dairy Cows Using Blood Sampling During the Mid Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Meglia, GE; Holtenius, K; Petersson, L; Öhagen, P; Waller, K Persson

    2004-01-01

    Vitamins A and E, and the trace elements selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the health and performance of dairy cows. Their concentrations often decrease around calving and extra supplementation is sometimes recommended at that time. However, the need for this varies, for example depending on quantity and quality of feedstuffs in the diet. The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of serum vitamin A (S-vit A) and vitamin E (S-vit E), plasma Se (P-Se) and serum Zn (S-Zn) in blood samples taken at several time points from one month before to one month after calving, and to evaluate if a blood sample taken during the mid dry period can accurately predict the blood concentration at calving and early lactation. Dairy cows on 3 different feeding regimens during the dry period were included in the study. A significant decrease in the concentrations of S-vit A and S-vit E, and S-Zn, was observed at calving, and P-Se was significantly lower during the dry period and at calving than in early lactation. The blood concentrations of S-vit E and P-Se in the mid dry period significantly predicted the occurrence of values considered marginal or deficient at the time of calving. The data indicate that a mid dry period concentration of ≥5.4 mg/l of S-vit E and ≥0.09 mg/l of P-Se will result in a 90% chance that the cow stays above marginal levels at calving given that a feed of the same quality is offered. PMID:15535092

  8. Effect of manure application on abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and their attenuation rates in soil: field-scale mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Fahrenfeld, Nicole; Knowlton, Katharine; Krometis, Leigh Anne; Hession, W Cully; Xia, Kang; Lipscomb, Emily; Libuit, Kevin; Green, Breanna Lee; Pruden, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The development of models for understanding antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) persistence and transport is a critical next step toward informing mitigation strategies to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. A field study was performed that used a mass balance approach to gain insight into the transport and dissipation of ARGs following land application of manure. Soil from a small drainage plot including a manure application site, an unmanured control site, and an adjacent stream and buffer zone were sampled for ARGs and metals before and after application of dairy manure slurry and a dry stack mixture of equine, bovine, and ovine manure. Results of mass balance suggest growth of bacterial hosts containing ARGs and/or horizontal gene transfer immediately following slurry application with respect to ermF, sul1, and sul2 and following a lag (13 days) for dry-stack-amended soils. Generally no effects on tet(G), tet(O), or tet(W) soil concentrations were observed despite the presence of these genes in applied manure. Dissipation rates were fastest for ermF in slurry-treated soils (logarithmic decay coefficient of -3.5) and for sul1 and sul2 in dry-stack-amended soils (logarithmic decay coefficients of -0.54 and -0.48, respectively), and evidence for surface and subsurface transport was not observed. Results provide a mass balance approach for tracking ARG fate and insights to inform modeling and limiting the transport of manure-borne ARGs to neighboring surface water.

  9. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  10. Investigation of the persistence of closantel residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments and its migration into dairy products.

    PubMed

    Power, Clare; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Clancy, Clare; Furey, Ambrose; Jordan, Kieran; Danaher, Martin

    2013-09-11

    Closantel is a veterinary drug used to treat liver fluke in cattle and sheep. A provisional maximum residue limit (MRL) of 45 μg/kg in milk has been set by the European Union. The purpose of this study was to investigate the persistence of closantel residues in milk and the migration of residues into milk products. Following dry-cow treatment, residues ranged from undetectable to 8.7 μg/kg at the first milking. Following lactating-cow treatment, residues detected ranged from 278 to 482 μg/kg at day 1 post-treatment and were detectable above the MRL for 52 days and detectable for 198 days. At day 2 and day 23 post-treatment, the milk was collected and dairy products manufactured. Closantel residues concentrated in the cheese, butter, and skim milk powder. The results indicate that closantel is best used as a dry-cow treatment.

  11. Performance of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico during the dry season under traditional feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando; Anaya-Ortega, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Prospero-Bernal, Fernando; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, small-scale dairy systems (SSDS) represent over 78 % of dairy farms and contribute with 37 % of national milk production; however, they face high feeding costs. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of SSDS during the dry season in terms of milk yields, milk composition and feeding costs under traditional feeding strategies, to identify areas of opportunity for improving their profitability. The information was collected from 22 SSDS every month during dry season. Feeds were classified in quality forages (QF), supplements (SU) and straws (ST). Two factors were identified: factor 1-a positive relationship among QF, SU, milk yield and ration cost and factor 2-represented straw usage. Four feeding strategies were identified: (1) low-cost feeding strategy; (2) home-grown feeding strategy; (3) high-cost feeding strategy; and (4) straw-based feeding strategy. There were differences (P < 0.001) among feeding strategies for QF, SU, ST, total dry matter offered (TDMO), ration cost (RC), external inputs, home-grown inputs and milk yield. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences among feeding strategies for fat and protein contents in milk. It is concluded that to improve performance and profitability and enhance sustainability in SSDS, farmers should base feeding strategies on home-grown quality forages, as it was the case in group 2 which showed lower feeding cost and better milk yield. It is also recommended to increase the inclusion of quality forages like grazing pastures and maize silages during the dry season and to avoid the inclusion of straws.

  12. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P < 0.0001) of time for refrigeration was found on uric acid nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. In experiment 2, the total Kjeldahl nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation compared with fresh manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen

  13. Distribution of phosphorus in manure slurry and its infiltration after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Computer models help identify agricultural areas where P transport potential is high, but commonly used models do not simulate surface application of manures and P transport from manures to runoff. As part of an effort to model such P transport, we conducted manure slurry separation and soil infiltration experiments to determine how much slurry P infiltrates into soil after application but before rain, thus becoming less available to runoff. We applied dairy and swine slurry to soil columns and after both 24 and 96 h analyzed solids remaining on the soil surface for dry matter, total phosphorus (TP), and water-extractable inorganic (WEIP) and organic (WEOP) phosphorus. We analyzed underlying soils for Mehlich-3 and water-extractable P. We also conducted slurry separation experiments by sieving, centrifuging, and suction-filtering to determine which method could easily estimate slurry P infiltration into soils. About 20% of slurry solids and 40 to 65% of slurry TP and WEIP infiltrated into soil after application, rendering this P less available to transport in runoff. Slurry separation by suction-filtering through a screen with 0.75-mm-diameter openings was the best method to estimate this slurry P infiltration. Measured quantities of manure WEOP changed too much during experiments to estimate WEOP infiltration into soil or what separation method can approximate infiltration. Applying slurries to soils always increased soil P in the top 0 to 1 cm of soil, frequently in the 1- to 2-cm depth of soil, but rarely below 2 cm. Future research should use soils with coarser texture or large macropores, and slurry with low dry matter content (1-2%).

  14. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  15. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  16. Effects of pregrazing herbage mass in late spring on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Letelier, P A; Ungerfeld, E M; Morales, J M; Hube, S; Pérez-Prieto, L A

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of fresh forage quality on enteric methane (CH4) emissions of dairy cows under grazing conditions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of 2 contrasting forage qualities induced by different pregrazing herbage masses in late spring on enteric CH4 emissions and milk production of grazing dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 24 lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in 2 experimental periods. Each period had a duration of 3wk (2wk for diet adaptation and 1wk for measurements), and the interval between them was 2wk. Treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing herbage masses [2,200 and 5,000kg of dry matter (DM)/ha above 3cm], generated by different regrowth periods, corresponding to low (LHM) and high (HHM) herbage mass treatments, respectively. Daily herbage allowance (Lolium perenne) for both treatments was 20kg of DM per cow measured above 3cm. Enteric CH4 emissions were individually determined during the last week of each period using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Daily herbage intakes by individual cows during the CH4 measurement weeks were estimated using the n-alkanes technique. During the CH4 measurement weeks, milk yield and body mass were determined twice daily, whereas milk composition was determined once in the week. The LHM pasture had a higher crude protein concentration, lower neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations, and higher in vitro digestibility, with a lower proportion of ryegrass pseudostems, than the HHM pasture. Cows offered the LHM pasture had greater herbage (+13%) and total DM (+12%) intakes, increased milk (+13%) and energy-corrected milk (+11%) yields, and tendencies toward higher milk protein (+4.5%) and higher milk urea nitrogen (+15%) concentrations than their counterparts offered the HHM pasture. No differences were found between treatments in total daily CH4 production

  17. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post

  18. Randomized noninferiority field trial comparing 2 first-generation cephalosporin products at dry off in quarters receiving an internal teat sealant in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Rota, N; Locatelli, C; Colombo, L; Pollera, C; Giacinti, G; Bronzo, V; Casula, A; Arpinelli, A; Brossette, V; Facchi, M; Patelli, A; Ruggeri, A; Barberio, A; Potenza, G; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The study objective was to compare 2 commercial dry cow mastitis products at the quarter level, with concurrent internal teat sealant application, evaluating the cure risk difference, odds of a cure, odds of a new intramammary infection (NIMI) during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis (CM) case between calving and 60d in milk (DIM). A total of 590 cows (2,360 quarters) from 8 commercial dairy herds in Italy were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 2 treatments at dry off: Cefovet A (CF; 250mg of cephazoline; Merial Italia SpA, Milan, Italy), and Cepravin (CP; 250mg of cephalonium dehydrate MSD Animal Health Srl, Segrate, Italy). Quarter milk samples were collected before dry cow therapy treatment at dry off, 2 to 9 DIM, and 10 to 17 DIM. Quarter milk samples from CM cases were collected during the first 60 DIM. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the risk difference of a bacteriological cure during the dry period, the primary outcome. The odds of cure, developing a NIMI during the dry period, and the risk of a CM event within 60 DIM were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression and hazard analysis, respectively. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of NIMI at dry off was 15.3%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative staphylococci. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on the risk difference for a cure between dry off and both postpartum samples, difference was 0.013. The least squares means from the multivariable model evaluating the odds of cure was 94% for CF and 95%for CP. We observed no effect of treatment on the odds for the presence of a NIMI at 2 to 9 DIM (least squares means: CF=0.09 and CP=0.07), nor did we note a difference in risk of experiencing a CM event between calving and 60 DIM (hazard ratio=0.8). In conclusion, no difference was observed between the 2 products evaluated when assessing the aforementioned outcomes in

  19. Manure effects on soil N in eroded and non-eroded, sprinkler-irrigated soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure effects on nitrate-N transport through irrigated, low-organic matter calcareous soil are not well known. This field study quantified the effects of a one-time fall application of stockpiled dairy manure and urea on in-season and over-winter nitrate-N transport through non-eroded and eroded (...

  20. Effect of manure types, rates, and number of applications on sweet corn growth and nutrients content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two field experiments were conducted at the Waimanalo research station on the island of Oahu, Hawaii to study the effect of two types of manure on biomass and nutrient concentrations in sweet corn roots and shoots. The manure types selected were chicken (CM) and dairy (DM). Four rates of application...

  1. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure including no...

  2. Manure and inorganic N affect irrigated corn yields and soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure could be a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers and for mitigating potential soil deterioration under irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) silage production, but the impact on yields, soil C and N have not been thoroughly studied in the semi-arid western U.S. Five N source treatments [dairy manure...

  3. Soil-Plant Nutrient Interactions on Manure-Enriched Calcareous Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient accumulations on heavily manured soils can trigger soil and plant nutrient interactions. The goal of the study was to determine the current impact of dairy manure applications on nutrient concentrations in soil and tissue for irrigated corn silage crops grown in Southern Idaho. At harvest,...

  4. Nitrogen Availability From Manure in Years Following a One-Time Application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

  5. Composition of whole and water extractable organic matter of cattle manure affected by management practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic matter (OM) is a major component of animal manure. In this chapter, we present two case studies on the multiple spectral features of whole and water extractable organic matter (WEOM) of cattle (beef and dairy) manure affected by differing management practices. Using wet chemistry and Fourie...

  6. Manure and inorganic N affect trace gas emissions under semi-arid irrigated corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy manure is often applied to cropped soils as a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers, but the impacts of manure on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, yields and soil N are uncertain in the semi-arid western U.S. Soil carbon dioxide (CO2-C), methane (CH4-C), and nitrous oxide (N2O-N) emissions ...

  7. Orchardgrass Ley for Improved Manure Management in Wisconsin: I. Forage Yield, Environmental Impact, and Production Costs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spreading dairy manure in climatic zones with a short growing season that are dominated by full season crops such as corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a challenge. However, replacing these with a grass ley (GL) does open several windows for manure spreading. The effects of such ...

  8. Economics of dairy waste use as fertilizer in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Murali; Paudel, Krishna P; Martin, Neil R; Gauthier, Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    Dairy manure is an unavoidable natural, but negative, byproduct of milk production. Its nitrogen, phosphate, and potash contents represent a potential substitute for commercial fertilizers on field crops. In the absence of subsidies, manure transportation and land application costs limit its utilization as a substitute for chemical fertilizer. The results from a study of the economics of manure use in Central Texas suggest that, at the current costs for loading, hauling, and spreading, dairy manure cannot be economically transported from surplus to deficit areas within the study area. The estimated breakeven transport distance for manure application to four crops varied from 28 to 41 km; however, the distances between manure-surplus and manure-deficit counties in the study region varied from 40 to 90 km. An analysis of potential subsidies paid by the government or dairy farmers showed that the breakeven distance could increase by up to 30 km. A decrease in the assumed moisture content of the manure from 50% to 40% is shown to increase the breakeven distance by 10 km. The study suggests that dairy manure loading, transportation, and land application, with appropriate subsidies or reductions in moisture content, has the potential to be profitably substituted for chemical fertilizers.

  9. Size distributions of manure particles released under simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    Pachepsky, Yakov A; Guber, Andrey K; Shelton, Daniel R; McCarty, Gregory W

    2009-03-01

    Manure and animal waste deposited on cropland and grazing lands serve as a source of microorganisms, some of which may be pathogenic. These microorganisms are released along with particles of dissolved manure during rainfall events. Relatively little if anything is known about the amounts and sizes of manure particles released during rainfall, that subsequently may serve as carriers, abode, and nutritional source for microorganisms. The objective of this work was to obtain and present the first experimental data on sizes of bovine manure particles released to runoff during simulated rainfall and leached through soil during subsequent infiltration. Experiments were conducted using 200 cm long boxes containing turfgrass soil sod; the boxes were designed so that rates of manure dissolution and subsequent infiltration and runoff could be monitored independently. Dairy manure was applied on the upper portion of boxes. Simulated rainfall (ca. 32.4 mm h(-1)) was applied for 90 min on boxes with stands of either live or dead grass. Electrical conductivity, turbidity, and particle size distributions obtained from laser diffractometry were determined in manure runoff and soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachates and manure runoff samples decreased exponentially. Turbidity of manure runoff samples was on average 20% less than turbidity of soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachate samples from boxes with dead grass was on average 30% less than from boxes with live grass. Particle size distributions in manure runoff and leachate suspensions remained remarkably stable after 15 min of runoff initiation, although the turbidity continued to decrease. Particles had the median diameter of 3.8 microm, and 90% of particles were between 0.6 and 17.8 microm. The particle size distributions were not affected by the grass status. Because manure particles are known to affect transport and retention of microbial pathogens in soil, more information needs to be collected about the

  10. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  11. Impact of diet composition and temperature-humidity index on water and dry matter intake of high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ammer, S; Lambertz, C; von Soosten, D; Zimmer, K; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Gauly, M

    2017-03-15

    The temperature-humidity index (THI) is widely used to characterize heat stress in dairy cattle. Diet composition is known to induce variation in metabolic-associated heat production. However, the relationships between THI and diet are poorly characterized with regard to performance and intake behaviour. Therefore, the objectives were to evaluate the impact of THI on water intake (WI), dry matter intake (DMI) and the frequency of drinking and feeding bouts in lactating dairy cows offered four dietary treatments: each contained 20% grass silage and additionally (i) 20% maize silage, 60% concentrate (M-HC); (ii) 60% maize silage, 20% concentrate (M-LC); (iii) 20% pressed beet pulp silage, 60% concentrate (BPS-HC); or (iv) 60% pressed beet pulp silage, 20% concentrate (BPS-LC) (DM basis). Individual WI and DMI were recorded from April to July 2013. Furthermore, dietary effects on milk production and reticular pH were estimated. Milk yield was lowest for M-LC, while energy-corrected milk was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentage was higher and milk protein amount lower for cows offered both LC diets. Reticular pH below 6.3, 6.0 and 5.8 lasted longest for BPS-LC. WI was higher for HC diets. However, the frequency of drinking bouts was not influenced by the ration. Lower DMI occurred for BPS-LC compared to M-LC. Frequency of feeding bouts was significantly higher for LC diets. THI was significantly related to WI, DMI as well as drinking and feeding bouts. Per increasing THI, WI increased slightly more for LC diets and DMI decreased more for HC diets. Frequency of drinking bouts increased slightly higher for BPS rations per rising THI, while the decrease in feeding bouts was highest for M-HC. In conclusion, TMR composition and moderate heat stress impacted WI and DMI of dairy cows, while both dietary energy density and ruminal filling might intensify the THI impact.

  12. Toxicity of ozonated animal manure to the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Masten, S J; Kim-Yang, H; Walker, E D; Roman, H; Yokoyama, M T

    2001-01-01

    Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-microm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

  13. Texturized dairy proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey prote...

  14. Association of rumen fill score and energy status during the close-up dry period with conception at first artificial insemination in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Karaki, Chihiro; Munakata, Megumi; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown significant associations between prepartum energy status and postpartum fertility in dairy cows; therefore, the assessment of energy status by blood metabolites and metabolic hormones and suitable improvement of management during the prepartum period may enhance reproductive performance. Rumen fill score (RFS) is associated with feed intake; however, it is unknown whether RFS is also related to blood parameters. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between RFS and energy status during the prepartum period, and their associations with conception at first artificial insemination (AI) after parturition. In 42 multiparous Holstein cows, RFS assessment and blood sampling were carried out twice a week during 3 weeks of the peripartum period. Ovarian cycles until AI were evaluated by measuring milk progesterone levels. Before calving, positive correlations were observed between RFS and total cholesterol, and RFS did not change in pregnant cows at first AI after parturition, whereas in non-pregnant cows, RFS decreased gradually as the calving day approached. After calving, non-pregnant cows showed lower energy status compared with pregnant cows, and some non-pregnant cows showed anovulation and cessation of estrous cycle. In conclusion, RFS during the close-up dry period is related to real-time energy status, and is associated with postpartum energy status and conception at first AI in dairy cows. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Unrestricted feed intake during the dry period impairs the postpartum oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Murondoti, A; Jorritsma, R; Beynen, A C; Wensing, T; Geelen, M J H

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of key hepatic enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in cows that had excessive body fat at parturition. Dairy cows were allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. All cows were offered a total mixed ration with an energy content of 6.6 MJ of net energy for lactation per kilogram of dry matter and consisting of corn silage, beet pulp, rapeseed meal, and soybean meal. Control cows were restricted to 6.8 kg/dry matter of the mixed ration in the dry period. Experimental cows had unrestricted access to the mixed ration during the dry period to increase body fat and induce fatty liver postpartum. Blood and liver samples were collected 1 wk before and 1, 2, and 4 wk after parturition. Before parturition, neither the serum nonesterifled fatty acids nor the hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations differed between experimental and control cows. After parturition, the values for these variables were greater in experimental cows than in control cows. Plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate increased sharply after parturition in the experimental group. In liver, the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was already significantly lower in the experimental group before parturition. After parturition, the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase dropped in the experimental group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in liver was less in experimental cows following parturition. Hepatic citrate synthase activity increased only in the control group after parturition. Unrestricted feed intake before parturition reduces de novo fatty acid synthesis as well as fatty acid oxidation after parturition. The reduction in fatty acid oxidation following parturition may contribute to postpartum accumulation of triacylglycerol in the livers of cows with unrestricted access to feed during the dry period.

  16. Manure on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  17. A simple method to predict dissolved phosphorus in runoff from surface-applied manures.

    PubMed

    Vadas, P A; Kleinman, P J A; Sharpley, A N

    2004-01-01

    Computer models are a rapid, inexpensive way to identify agricultural areas with a high potential for P loss, but most models poorly simulate dissolved P release from surface-applied manures to runoff. We developed a simple approach to predict dissolved P release from manures based on observed trends in laboratory extraction of P in dairy, poultry, and swine manures with water over different water to manure ratios. The approach predicted well dissolved inorganic (R2 = 0.70) and organic (R2 = 0.73) P release from manures and composts for data from leaching experiments with simulated rainfall. However, it predicted poorly (R2 = 0.18) dissolved inorganic P concentrations in runoff from soil boxes where dairy, poultry, and swine manures had been surface-applied and subjected to simulated rainfall. Multiplying predicted runoff P concentrations by the ratio of runoff to rainfall improved the relationship between measured and predicted runoff P concentrations, but runoff P was still overpredicted for dairy and swine manures. We attributed this overprediction to immediate infiltration of dissolved P in the freely draining water of dairy and swine manure slurries upon their application to soils. Further multiplying predicted runoff dissolved inorganic P concentrations by 0.35 for dairy and 0.60 for swine manures resulted in an accurate prediction of dissolved P in runoff (R2 = 0.71). The ability of our relatively simple approach to predict dissolved inorganic P concentrations in runoff from surface-applied manures indicates its potential to improve water quality models, but field testing of the approach is necessary first.

  18. Influence of an intramammary infusion at drying-off of combined penethamate hydriodide, benethamine penicillin, and framycetin sulfate on intramammary infections and somatic cell counts in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Linage, B; Gonzalo, C

    2008-09-01

    The dynamics of intramammary infection (IMI) during the dry period were studied in 435 half-udders of 229 Assaf ewes, belonging to 2 flocks with high and medium IMI prevalences. Ewes were randomly assigned to 2 lots: 1) treated lot (TL) with 223 half-udders (118 ewes), which received complete dry therapy (1 syringe/teat) of an antibiotic combination containing 100 mg of penethamate hydriodide, 280 mg of benethamine penicillin, and 100 mg of framycetin sulfate, and 2) control lot (CL) with 212 nontreated half-udders (111 ewes). Two samplings per half-udder were carried out on 2 different days in the 5 d preceding drying-off, and 2 other samplings were again carried out in the 5 first d of the postpartum period. The length of the dry period averaged 109.0 d. Cure, persistent infections, reinfection, and new infection rates were 81.7, 12.8, 5.5, and 7.9%, respectively, for TL and 13.3, 70.4, 16.3, and 22.8%, respectively, for the CL. The prevalence of IMI decreased significantly from 48.9% at drying-off to 13.0% at lambing for the TL, but it did not vary for the CL (46.2 and 52.4%, respectively). Within the TL, IMI prevalence significantly diminished for Staphylococcus (41.3 to 9.9%) and Streptococcus (5.8 to 1.8%) genera, and more specifically this decrease was most evident for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus agalactiae species. Log somatic cell count (SCC) diminished significantly between drying-off (5.68) and lambing (5.33) in the TL, whereas log SCC did not vary in the CL (5.61 vs. 5.66). This SCC reduction was very significant in the flock with the greater IMI prevalence. As a conclusion, the antibiotic formulation used as dry therapy drastically diminished IMI prevalence and SCC during the dry period in dairy ewes as a result of greater IMI cure rates and lower reinfection and new infection rates in the TL compared with the CL.

  19. A Bayesian micro-simulation to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions for mastitis control during the dry period in UK dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Down, P M; Bradley, A J; Breen, J E; Browne, W J; Kypraios, T; Green, M J

    2016-10-01

    Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period. Data were assimilated from 77 UK dairy farms that participated in a British national mastitis control programme during 2009-2012 in which the majority of intramammary infections were acquired during the dry period. The data consisted of clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell count (SCC) records, herd management practices and details of interventions that were implemented by the farmer as part of the control plan. The outcomes used to measure the effectiveness of the interventions were i) changes in the incidence rate of clinical mastitis during the first 30days after calving and ii) the rate at which cows gained new infections during the dry period (measured by SCC changes across the dry period from <200,000cells/ml to >200,000cells/ml). A Bayesian one-step microsimulation model was constructed such that posterior predictions from the model incorporated uncertainty in all parameters. The incremental net benefit was calculated across 10,000 Markov chain Monte Carlo iterations, to estimate the cost-benefit (and associated uncertainty) of each mastitis intervention. Interventions identified as being cost-effective in most circumstances included selecting dry-cow therapy at the cow level, dry-cow rations formulated by a qualified nutritionist, use of individual calving pens, first milking cows within 24h of calving and spreading bedding evenly in

  20. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  1. Predicting grass dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat and protein yield of spring calving grazing dairy cows during the grazing season.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B F; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Shalloo, L; Galvin, N; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; Delagarde, R

    2013-08-01

    Predicting the grass dry matter intake (GDMI), milk yield (MY) or milk fat and protein yield (milk solids yield (MSY)) of the grazing dairy herd is difficult. Decisions with regard to grazing management are based on guesstimates of the GDMI of the herd, yet GDMI is a critical factor influencing MY and MSY. A data set containing animal, sward, grazing management and concentrate supplementation variables recorded during weeks of GDMI measurement was used to develop multiple regression equations to predict GDMI, MY and MSY. The data set contained data from 245 grazing herds from 10 published studies conducted at Teagasc, Moorepark. A forward stepwise multiple regression technique was used to develop the multiple regression equations for each of the dependent variables (GDMI, MY, MSY) for three periods during the grazing season: spring (SP; 5 March to 30 April), summer (SU; 1 May to 31 July) and autumn (AU; 1 August to 31 October). The equations generated highlighted the importance of different variables associated with GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season. Peak MY was associated with an increase in GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season with the exception of GDMI in SU when BW accounted for more of the variation. A higher body condition score (BCS) at calving was associated with a lower GDMI in SP and SU and a lower MY and MSY in all periods. A higher BCS was associated with a higher GDMI in SP and SU, a higher MY in SU and AU and a higher MSY in all periods. The pre-grazing herbage mass of the sward (PGHM) above 4 cm was associated with a quadratic effect on GDMI in SP, on MY in SP and SU and on MSY in SU. An increase in daily herbage allowance (DHA) above 4 cm was associated with an increase in GDMI in AU, an increase in MY in SU and AU and MSY in AU. Supplementing grazing dairy cows with concentrate reduced GDMI and increased MY and MSY in all periods. The equations generated can be used by the Irish dairy industry during the grazing season to predict the

  2. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  3. Effect of pregrazing herbage mass on methane production, dry matter intake, and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season period.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2010-10-01

    Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4

  4. Meta-analysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 1. Protection against new intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Halasa, T; Osterås, O; Hogeveen, H; van Werven, T; Nielen, M

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the preventive effect of various dry cow management measures against quarter new intramammary infections (IMI) during the dry period up to 21 d postcalving. Moreover, the potential publication bias was assessed in the studies selected for this analysis. The intervention measures were blanket dry cow therapy (BDCT), selective dry cow therapy (SDCT), cloxacillin compared with other dry cow therapy products, and teat sealant. A meta-analysis relative risk (RR) was calculated per intervention and pathogen group when enough studies were available from the 33 selected studies. Results of the meta-analyses were examined using publication bias tests. Blanket dry cow therapy showed significant protection against new IMI caused by Streptococcus spp. [the pooled RR was 0.39 (0.30 to 0.51)] but no protection was observed against coliform new IMI [the pooled RR was 0.95 (0.81 to 1.10)]. After correction for publication bias, it became doubtful whether DCT is protective against new Staphylococcus spp. IMI. Cloxacillin showed similar protection against new quarter IMI compared with other DCT products [the pooled RR was 1.09 (0.94 to 1.25)]. Selective dry cow therapy showed higher protection against new IMI compared with no DCT [the pooled RR was 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86)]. However, BDCT showed more protection when compared with SDCT [the pooled RR was 0.55 (0.37 to 0.80)], but the inference about whether BDCT is superior to SDCT was dependent on whether the selection criteria for SDCT was at the cow or quarter level. Internal teat sealants showed significant protection against new IMI during the dry period [the pooled RR was 0.39 (0.18 to 0.82)]. Publication bias should be taken into account when attempts are made to review literature in a meta-analysis.

  5. Biochar and manure effects on nitrogen nutrition in silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amending soil with biochar may be a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality, but few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application in an irrigated, calcareous soil. Four treatments were applied in the fall 2008: dairy manure (18.7 tons/...

  6. Biogas production from low temperature lagoon digesters treating livestock manure

    SciTech Connect

    Safley, L.M. Jr.; Westerman, P.W.

    1993-12-31

    Laboratory anaerobic digesters were fed dairy and swine manure at the rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3}-day over the temperature range of 10--23{degrees}C. The digesters were operated successfully with little indication of instability.

  7. Ecologically sustainable development in dairy farms II: Nutrient cycling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Mexico, there is not a specific regulation dealing with manure and wastewater in confined livestock farms. In the case of dairy farms that have agricultural areas for the production of forage crops, there are some "Good Management Practices", focused on the use of manure as a source of nitrogen a...

  8. Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds, Escherichia coli, and Nutrient Concentrations when Kiln-Dried Pine Chips and Corn Stover Bedding Are Used in Beef Bedded Manure Packs.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Parker, David B; Brown-Brandl, Tami M

    2017-07-01

    Pine ( spp.) bedding has been shown to lower the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pathogenic bacteria compared with corn ( L.) stover bedding, but availability and cost limit the use of pine bedding in cattle confinement facilities. The objectives of this study were to determine if the addition of pine wood chips to laboratory-scaled bedded packs containing corn stover (i) reduced odorous VOC emissions; (ii) reduced total ; and (iii) changed the nutrient composition of the resulting manure-bedded packs. Bedding treatments included 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips, with the balance being corn stover. Four bedded packs for each mixture were maintained for 42 d ( = 4 observations per bedding material). The production of total sulfur compounds increased significantly when 100% pine chips were used (44.72 ng L) compared with bedding mixture containing corn stover (18.0-24.56 ng L). The carbon-to-nitrogen ratio exceeded the ideal ratio of 24:1 for the optimum activity of soil microorganisms when ≥60% pine chips (25.3-27.5 ng L) were included in the mixture. The use of 100% pine chips as bedding increased sulfide concentration in the facility 1.8 to 2.4 times over the use of corn stover bedding. was not influenced by the addition of pine chips to the corn stover bedding material but did decrease as the bedded pack aged. Bedding material mixtures containing 30 to 60% pine and 40 to 70% corn stover may be the ideal combination to mitigate odors from livestock facilities using deep bedded systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-06-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land.

  10. Association between body energy content in the dry period and post-calving production disease status in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, G L; Friggens, N C; Ashworth, C J; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-02-15

    The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse. Further, there is increasing concern that current dry off management is inappropriate for modern cattle and may influence future disease risk. This study aimed to identify candidate indicators of early lactation production disease from body energy data collected in the dry period and production data recorded at the time of dry off. Retrospective analysis was performed on 482 cow-lactations collected from a long-term Holstein-Friesian genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd in Scotland. Cow-lactations were assigned to one of four health groups based on health status in the first 30 days of lactation. These four groups were as follows: healthy, reproductive tract disorders (retained placenta and metritis), subclinical mastitis and metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and left displaced abomasum). ANOVA, employing a GLM was used to determine effects for the candidate indicator traits. Cows which were diagnosed with a reproductive tract disorder in the first 30 days of lactation experienced a significantly greater loss in body energy content, body condition score and weight in the preceding dry period than healthy cows. The rate of change in body energy content during the first 15 days of the dry period was -18.26 MJ/day for cows which developed reproductive tract disorder compared with +0.63 MJ/day for healthy cows

  11. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was done in the Upper Tiffin River Watershed, in southeastern Michigan, to determine the influence of liquid dairy manure effluent (LDME) management practices on the quality of agricultural subsurface-drain water. Samples from subsurface drains were analyzed for nutrients, fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, antibiotics, chemicals typically detected in wastewater, and the occurrence of genes indicating the presence of shiga-toxin-producing E. coli, or of bovine-specific Bacteroidetes bacteria. Samples were collected from November 2, 2006, to March 20, 2007, from eight subsurface drains under field plots that received no LDME and no tillage (controls) or received 4,000 or 8,000 gallons per acre (gal/acre) of LDME and either no tillage or two different types of tillage. The two types of tillage tested were (1) ground-driven, rotary, subsurface cultivation and (2) rolling-tine aeration. Samples were collected before LDME application and at 4 hours, and 1, 2, 6, 7, and 14 days post-application. Nutrient concentrations were high in subsurface-drain water throughout the field-trial period and could not be attributed to the field-trial LDME application. Of the 59 drain-water samples, including those collected before LDME application and control samples for each date, 56 had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Ecoregion VI recommended surface-water criterion for total phosphorus, and all samples had concentrations greater than the recommended total nitrogen criterion. Nitrate + nitrite nitrogen concentration exceeded 20 milligrams per liter for every sample and contributed most to the total nitrogen concentrations. Substantial increases in drain-water concentrations of organic and ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were found for all treatments, including controls, at 14 days post-application after 0.84 inch of rainfall over 2 days. E. coli concentrations exceeded the USEPA recreational

  12. The effect of supplemental concentrate fed during the dry period on morphological and functional aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle during the dry period and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Klop, G; Schonewille, J T; Bannink, A

    2017-01-01

    Ten rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used to examine the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the dry period on rumen papillae morphology and fractional absorption rate (ka) of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during the dry period and subsequent lactation. Treatment consisted of supplemental concentrate [3.0kg of dry matter (DM)/d] from 28d antepartum (ap) until the day of calving, whereas control did not receive supplemental concentrate. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to the dry period ration (27% grass silage, 28% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a DM basis) and, from calving onward, to a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 42% corn silage, and 16% soybean meal on a DM basis). From 1 to 3d postpartum (pp), all cows were fed 0.9kg DM/d of concentrate, which increased linearly thereafter to 8.9kg of DM/d on d 11 pp. At 28, 18, and 8d ap, and 3, 17, 31, and 45d pp, rumen papillae were collected and kaVFA was measured in all cows. On average, 13.8 (standard deviation: 3.8) papillae were collected each from the ventral, caudodorsal, and caudoventral rumen sacs per cow per day. The kaVFA was measured by incubating a standardized buffer fluid (45 L), containing 120mM VFA (60% acetic, 25% propionic, and 15% butyric acid) and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker, in the evacuated and washed rumen. Treatment did not affect ap or pp DM and energy intakes or milk yield and composition. Treatment increased papillae surface area, which was 19 and 29% larger at 18 and 8d ap compared with 28d ap, respectively. Surface area increased, mainly due to an increase in papillae width. However, treatment did not increase kaVFA at 18 and 8d ap compared with 28d ap. In the control group, no changes in papillae surface area or kaVFA were observed during the dry period. In the treatment group, papillae surface area decreased between 8d ap and 3d pp, whereas no decrease was observed for control. From 3 to 45d pp, papillae

  13. Effect of supplemental concentrate during the dry period or early lactation on rumen epithelium gene and protein expression in dairy cattle during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; van Baal, J; Kruijt, L; Bannink, A; Schonewille, J T; Carreño, D; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported 2 experiments with rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows showing that during the transition period, rumen papillae surface area, and fractional absorption rate of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase after calving. However, supplemental concentrate during the dry period and rate of increase of concentrate allowance during lactation affected papillae surface area, but not VFA absorption. Here we report the changes in gene and protein expression in rumen papillae related to tissue growth and VFA utilization. The lactation experiment treatment consisted of a rapid [RAP; 1.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d; n = 6] or gradual (GRAD; 0.25 kg of DM/d; n = 6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at 4 d postpartum (pp). The dry period experiment treatment consisted of 3.0 kg of DM/d of concentrate (n = 4) or no concentrate (n = 5) during the last 28 d of the dry period. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of rumen papillae showed that the expression of apoptosis-related genes was neither affected by day nor its interaction with treatment for both experiments. Expression of epithelial transporter genes was not affected by day or treatment in the lactation experiment, except for NBC1. In the dry period experiment, expression of MCT1, NBC1, DRA, NHE2, NHE3, and UT-B generally decreased after calving. A day and treatment interaction was observed for ATP1A1 in the dry period experiment, with greater expression at 18 and 8 d antepartum for concentrate than no concentrate. Generally, expression of VFA metabolism-related genes was not affected by day or its interaction with treatment. In the lactation experiment, immunoblotting of 5 selected genes showed that protein expression of DRA and PCCA was greater at 16 d pp compared with 3 and 44 d pp. Expression of NHE2 was greater, and that of ATP1A1 lower, at 16 and 44 d pp compared with 3 d pp, suggesting alterations in intracellular pH regulation and sodium homeostasis. Both MCT1

  14. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    PubMed

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets.

  15. Effects of feeding propylene glycol on dry matter intake, lactation performance, energy balance and blood metabolites in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Wang, C; Yang, W Z; Zhang, W W; Yang, X M; He, D C; Dong, K H; Huang, Y X

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effects of feeding propylene glycol (PG) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition, blood metabolites and energy balance in Holstein dairy cows from 1 to 63 days in milk. Thirty-two multiparous cows, blocked by lactation number, previous 305-day milk production and expected calving date, were arranged into four groups in a randomized block design. Treatments were: control, low PG, medium PG and high PG with 0, 150, 300 and 450 ml PG per cow per day, respectively. The supplement of food grade PG (0.998 g/g PG) was hand-mixed into the top one-third of the daily ration. Cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of forage and concentrate (50 : 50, dry matter basis). Feed intake, milk yield and milk components were not affected (P > 0.05) by PG supplementation. Overall, body weight (BW) loss tended (P < 0.08) to be linearly reduced, and energy status was linearly improved with increasing PG supplementation. Concentrations of glucose in plasma were higher for cows fed PG relative to control (55.6 v. 58.9 mg/dl) and linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing PG supplementation. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate were linearly increased, but urine acetoacetate concentration was quadratically changed with the highest for control diet and the lowest for 450 ml/day of PG. These results indicated that supplementation of PG in the early lactating cow diets had minimal effects on feed intake and milk production, but may potentially reduce contents of milk fat and milk protein. Supplementation of early lactating dairy cow diets with PG is beneficial in terms of improving energy status and reducing BW loss.

  16. Effect of stocking rate and animal genotype on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score in spring-calving, grass-fed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Coffey, E L; Delaby, L; Fitzgerald, S; Galvin, N; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the experiment was to quantify the effect of stocking rate (SR) and animal genotype on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and production efficiency across 2 consecutive grazing seasons (2014 and 2015). A total of 753 records from 177 dairy cows were available for analysis: 68 Holstein-Friesian and 71 Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JxHF) cows each year of the experiment under a pasture-based seasonal production system. Animals within each breed group were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 whole-farm SR treatments defined in terms of body weight per hectare (kg of body weight/ha): low (1,200 kg of body weight/ha), medium (1,400 kg of body weight/ha), and high (1,600 kg of body weight/ha), and animals remained in the same SR treatments for the duration of the experiment. Individual animal DMI was estimated 3 times per year at grass using the n-alkane technique: March (spring), June (summer), and September (autumn), corresponding to 45, 111, and 209 d in milk, respectively. The effects of SR, animal genotype, season, and their interactions were analyzed using mixed models. Milk production, body weight, and production efficiency per cow decreased significantly as SR increased due to reduced herbage availability per cow and increased grazing severity. As a percentage of body weight, JxHF cows had higher feed conversion efficiency, higher DMI and milk solids (i.e., kg of fat + kg of protein) production, and also required less energy intake to produce 1 kg of milk solids. The increased production efficiency of JxHF cows at a similar body weight per hectare in the current analysis suggests that factors other than individual cow body weight contribute to the improved efficiency within intensive grazing systems. The results highlight the superior productive efficiency of high genetic potential crossbred dairy cows within intensive pasture-based milk production systems at higher SR where feed availability is restricted. Copyright © 2017

  17. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  18. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  19. The effect of dry period length and postpartum level of concentrate on milk production, energy balance, and plasma metabolites of dairy cows across the dry period and in early lactation.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-07-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level postpartum on milk yield, feed intake, EB, and plasma metabolites between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving of cows of second parity or higher. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 123) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 DP lengths: 0-d DP (n = 81) or 30-d DP (n = 42). Prepartum, cows with a 0-d DP received a lactation ration based on grass silage and corn silage (6.4 MJ of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter). Cows with a 30-d DP received a dry cow ration based on grass silage, corn silage, and straw (5.4 MJ of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter). Postpartum, all cows received the same basal lactation ration as provided to lactating cows prepartum. Cows with a 0-d DP were fed a low level of concentrate up to 6.7 kg/d based on the requirement for their expected milk yield (0-d DP-L; n = 40) or the standard level of concentrate up to 8.5 kg/d (0-d DP-S; n = 41), which was equal to the concentrate level for cows with a 30-d DP (30-d DP-S; n = 42) based on requirements for their expected milk yield. Prepartum dry matter intake, concentrate intake, basal ration intake, energy intake, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and insulin concentrations were greater and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose concentrations were lower, but EB was not different in cows with a 0-d DP compared with cows with a 30-d DP. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, milk fat yield and plasma BHB concentration were lower and dry matter intake and concentrate intake were greater in cows with a 0-d DP compared with cows with a 30-d DP. During wk 4 to 7 postpartum, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), lactose content, and lactose and fat yield were lower in 0-d DP-L or 0-d DP-S cows compared with 30-d DP

  20. Influence of manure application on surface energy and snow cover: field experiments.

    PubMed

    Kongoli, C E; Bland, W L

    2002-01-01

    Application of manure to frozen and/or snow-covered soils of high-latitude, continental climate regions is associated with enhanced P losses to surface water bodies, but the practice is an essential part of most animal farming systems in these regions. Field experiments of the fates of winter-applied manure P are so difficult as to make them essentially impractical, so a mechanistic, modeling approach is required. Central to a mechanistic understanding of manure P snow-melt runoff is knowledge of snowpack disappearance (ablation) as affected by manure application. The objective of this study was to learn how solid manure applied to snow-covered fields modulates the surface energy balance and thereby snow cover ablation. Manure landspreading experiments were conducted in Arlington, WI during the winters of 1998 and 1999. Solid dairy manure was applied on top of snow at a rate of 70 Mg ha(-1) in 1998, and at 45 and 100 Mg ha(-1) in 1999. Results showed that the manure retarded melt, in proportion to the rate applied. The low-albedo manure increased absorption of shortwave radiation compared with snow, but this extra energy was lost in longwave radiation and turbulent flux of sensible and latent heat. These losses result in significant attenuation of melt peaks, retarding snowmelt. Lower snowmelt rates beneath manure may allow more infiltration of meltwater compared with bare snow. This infiltration and attenuated snowmelt runoff may partially mitigate the enhanced likelihood of P runoff from unincorporated winter-spread manure.

  1. Silage from maize (Zea mays), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) or their mixture in the dry season feeding of grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy production systems in the highlands of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Ortega, J P; Garduño-Castro, G; Espinoza-Ortega, A; Rojo-Rubio, R; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-04-01

    Small-scale dairy systems based on grazing have dry-season herbage shortages. A repeated 3 x 3 Latin Square experiment evaluated grazing with silage from maize (MS), annual ryegrass (ARG) or a mixture (MIX) with 9 cows with 3 week periods; continuously grazed at 3.6 cows/ha with 3.6 kg DM/day of concentrate. Treatments were 7 kg DM of MS, ARG or a 2 MS:1 ARG mixture. Milk yield (MY), milk composition, live-weight, body condition, silage and concentrate intake were recorded. Herbage DM intake was estimated indirectly. Activity budgets were done for economic analysis. MY on MS (21.5 kg/cow/d) was 0.06 higher than on ARG (P < 0.09) with no differences on MIX. There were no differences for milk fat, milk protein, or body condition score. Live-weight on ARG was higher (P < 0.01) than on MS or MIX. Silage intake was higher (P < 0.01) on ARG and MS than on MIX. Herbage intake was lower (P < 0.05) on MS, compared with MIX and ARG. Total DM intake on ARG was higher than MS (P < 0.01), and MIX in between. MS resulted in 0.12 higher economic returns over ARG which had highest costs. Annual ryegrass may have a place in small-scale systems, but not as silage due to higher costs.

  2. Effects of rumen-protected choline and dry propylene glycol on feed intake and blood parameters for Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Brown, N E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Varga, G A

    2009-06-01

    A 6 x 6 Latin square design was used to test 3 sets of comparisons simultaneously to study response in dry matter intake, milk yield, and blood parameters to propylene glycol (PG) supplementation delivered by 2 methods [incorporating PG into the total mixed ration (TMR) vs. top dressing; comparison I]; individual or combined dietary choline and PG supplementation as a 2 x 2 factorial (comparison II); or increasing amounts of dietary choline (comparison III). Six multiparous (lactation number = 1.5 +/- 0.8 SD) Holstein dairy cows were at 41 d in milk (+/- 9 SD) at the start of the experiment. Propylene glycol used was a dry product containing 65% PG, and choline was a rumen-protected choline product (RPC; estimated to be 50% rumen-protected) containing 50% choline chloride. In comparison I, treatments compared were 1) control: no PG; 2) PG-TMR: 250 g/d of dry PG (corresponding to 162.5 g/d of PG) incorporated into the TMR; and 3) PG-top dress: 250 g/d of dry PG top-dressed onto the TMR. In comparison II, treatments compared were 1) control: no PG and no RPC; 2) PG: 250 g/d of dry PG incorporated into the TMR; 3) RPC: 50 g/d of RPC top-dressed onto the TMR; and 4) PG+RPC: combination of treatments 2 and 3. In comparison III, treatments compared were 0, 25, and 50 g/d of RPC top-dressed onto the TMR. Each experimental period lasted 10 d with 9 d of adaptation followed by 1 d of serial blood sampling. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. During the serial blood sampling, jugular blood was sampled every 20 min for the first 4 h and at 8 and 12 h after treatment administration. Results obtained from comparison I showed that feeding 250 g/d of PG as a dry product decreased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration (mean +/- SEM) from 701 +/- 81 (control) to 564 +/- 76 micromol/L without affecting serum insulin, plasma glucose, or plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Top-dressing PG decreased plasma BHBA concentrations more than by

  3. Tillage and manure application effects on mineral nitrogen leaching from seasonally frozen soils.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Satish; Munyankusi, Emmanuel; Moncrief, John; Zvomuya, Francis; Hanewall, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Land application of manure is a common practice in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Recently, there have been concerns regarding the effect of this practice on water quality, especially when manure is applied during winter over frozen soils. A study undertaken on a Rozetta silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) at Lancaster, WI, evaluated the effects of tillage and timing of manure application on surface and subsurface water quality. The daily scrape and haul liquid dairy manure was applied either in the fall (before snow) or in winter (over snow with frozen soil underneath) to be compared with no manure under two tillage systems (no-till and chisel-plowing). In this paper, we report results on the effects of the above treatments on mineral N leaching. Percolation and mineral N leaching during the nongrowing season were, respectively, 72 and 78% of the annual losses, mainly because of the absence of plant water and N uptake. Percolation was generally higher from no-till compared with chisel-plow but there was no significant effect of tillage on mineral N concentration of the leachate or mineral N losses via leaching. Mineral N leaching was statistically higher from the manure-applied vs. no-manure treatment, but there was no difference between winter-applied manure and no-manure treatments. There were significant tillage by manure interactions with fall manure application followed by chisel-plowing resulting in highest N leaching losses. Averaged over the two years, N leaching rates were 52, 38, and 28 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) from fall-applied, winter-applied, and no-manure treatments, respectively. These results show that there is substantial N leaching from these soils even when no fertilizer or manure is applied. Furthermore, fall-applied manure followed by fall tillage significantly increases N leaching due to enhanced mineralization of both soil and manure organic N.

  4. [Effects of dry period length on milk production, health, fertility, and quality of colostrum in dairy cows. Invited review].

    PubMed

    Mansfeld, R; Sauter-Louis, C; Martin, R

    2012-01-01

    In terms of milk production, the dry period (DP) is a non-productive time. In addition, the risk of mastitis increases when cows with daily milk yield >12.5kg are dried off, which is often the case when the DP is set to 55-60 days. References on the positive effects of a shortened DP on the metabolic health at the start of lactation and the subsequent reproductive performance were the motive of this review. Completely foregoing or shortening the DP produces a decrease in milk yield during the following lactation. This decrease is particularly pronounced for cows at the beginning of the second lactation. It is thought that this may be due in part to different involution and proliferation processes of the mammary glands in primiparous and multiparous animals. The majority of the scientific papers suggest that shortening the DP has a positive rather than a negative effect on udder health. The quality of the colostrum is also unaffected; but if there is no drying off, the colostrum will be diluted. When considered overall, the literature, with support from metabolic profile studies, appears to favour a reduced impact on energy metabolism in early lactation in circumstances when the DP is shortened or waived. Clear positive effects on parameters relevant to energy metabolism however only apply to multiparous animals, and other factors, such as milking frequency before and after calving, exert an influence. Positive effects of shortening the DP on the reproductive performance were shown in several studies. Time from calving to first ovulation as well as indicators for assessing the success of artificial insemination and reproductive performance showed better results in animals with no or shortened drying off periods. Again, this only applied to multiparous animals. Overall, there is no single clear answer to the question of an optimal length of the DP, but conversely it is abundantly clear that a dry period of 55-60 days is not necessary in all cases and does not make

  5. Effects of a Brown-midrib corn hybrid on nutrient digestibility in wethers and on dry matter intake, performance, rumen and blood variables in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, T; Meyer, U; Hackelsperger, F; Dänicke, S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present trials was to determine the effect of an experimental Brown-midrib (Bm) corn hybrid in relation to a commercial corn hybrid (Con) on digestibility in wethers and on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Digestibility of crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) were higher for Bm (CF Con: 57.8%; Bm: 67.2%; NDFom Con: 56.8%; Bm: 64.8%; ADFom Con: 52.0%; Bm: 63.9%), but concentration of net energy for lactation did not differ (Con: 6.4 MJ/kg DM; Bm: 6.3 MJ/kg DM). A total of 64 lactating German Holstein cows were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments Con or Bm according to milk yield, lactation number, days in milk and live weight. In Trial 1, cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 50% corn silage (Con or Bm) and 50% concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis. In Trial 2, the same animals were fed the respective silage for ad libitum intake and 5.3 kg of concentrate DM per animal per day. In Trial 1, DMI and milk-fat content were decreased significantly for the Bm-treatment (DMI Con: 22.5 kg/day; Bm: 21.5 kg/day; milk fat Con: 3.8%; Bm: 3.3%). In Trial 2, milk yield and fat-corrected milk (FCM) were increased significantly, whereas milk-fat% was decreased significantly (milk yield Con: 25.8 kg/day; Bm: 29.4 kg/day; FCM Con: 27.2 kg/day; Bm: 29.6 kg/day; fat Con: 4.4%; Bm: 4.0%). Diets did not influence ruminal pH or temperature. Diets, furthermore, did not influence rumination in either trial. Additional research on digestibility and rumen fermentation should, however, be carried out using dairy cows at respective intake levels as trials with wethers cannot be transferred to high-yielding ad libitum fed cows.

  6. Effects of continuous milking during the dry period or once daily milking in the first 4 weeks of lactation on metabolism and productivity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schlamberger, G; Wiedemann, S; Viturro, E; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of 3 management systems in high-yielding dairy cows on metabolic profiles and milk production. Thirty-six multiparous Brown Swiss cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n=12 cows/group): the control (C) group, in which cows were dried off 56 d before calving and milked twice daily throughout next lactation (305 d); the once daily milking (ODM) group, in which cows were dried off 56 d before calving and milked once daily for the first 4 wk of lactation and twice daily for the remaining lactation; and the continuous milking (CM) group, in which cows were milked twice daily until calving and also during the subsequent lactation. Serum glucose concentrations decreased between wk 1 and 4 exclusively in C cows. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the first 4 wk of lactation were highest in C cows compared with ODM and CM cows. Decreased backfat thickness during early lactation and reduction of body condition score were markedly more pronounced in C cows compared with ODM and CM cows. Mean lactational milk yield of C cows [11,310+/-601 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/305 d] was approximately 16% higher compared with ODM cows (9,531+/-477 kg of ECM/305 d) and CM cows (9,447+/-310 kg of ECM/305 d). The lactation curve of CM cows compared with C cows was characterized by a similar time of peak yield (wk 3), a reduced peak yield, and no obvious differences in persistency. Mean percentage of milk protein was significantly higher for CM cows (3.91%) compared with C cows (3.52%). In contrast, once daily milking was accompanied by a reduced and significantly delayed peak yield (wk 8) compared with the control treatment, whereas persistency was better and milk protein (3.79%) was higher in ODM cows than in C cows. In conclusion, continuous milking and once daily milking, targeting the interval before or after calving, respectively, substantially reduced the metabolic challenge of fresh cows and improved milk protein

  7. Effects of feeding grass or red clover silage cut at two maturity stages in dairy cows. 2. Dry matter intake and cell wall digestion kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M; Vanhatalo, A

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the effects of red clover or grass silages cut at 2 stages of growth on feed intake, cell wall digestion, and ruminal passage kinetics in lactating dairy cows. Five dairy cows equipped with rumen cannulas were used in a study designed as a 5 x 5 Latin square with 21-d periods. Diets consisted of early-cut and late-cut grass and red clover silages and a mixture of late-cut grass and early-cut red clover silages offered ad libitum. All diets were supplemented with 9 kg/d of concentrate. Ruminal digestion and passage kinetics were assessed by the rumen evacuation technique. Apparent total-tract digestibility was determined by total fecal collection. The silage dry matter intake was highest when the mixed forage diet was fed and lowest with the early-cut red clover diet. Delaying the harvest tended to decrease DMI of grass and increase that of red clover. The intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) was lower but the intake of indigestible NDF (iNDF) was higher for red clover diets than for grass diets. The rumen pool size of iNDF and the ratio of iNDF to pdNDF in the rumen contents were larger, and pool sizes of NDF and pdNDF were smaller for red clover than for grass silage diets. Outflow of iNDF and the ratio of iNDF to pdNDF in digesta entering the omasal canal were larger, and the outflow of pdNDF was smaller for red clover than for grass silage diets. The digestion rate (k(d)) of pdNDF was faster for red clover diets than for grass silage diets. Delaying the harvest decreased k(d) for grass but increased it for red clover silage diets. Observed differences in fiber characteristics of red clover and grass silages were reflected in ruminal digestion and passage kinetics of these forages. The low intake of early-cut red clover silage could not be explained by silage digestibility, fermentation quality, or rumen fill, but was most likely related to nutritionally suboptimal composition because inclusion of

  8. A multi-site, multi-year examination of factors affecting the persistence of attenuated O157- and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli in manure-amended soils in the mid-Atlantic United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition of untreated biological soil amendments (BSAs), including dairy cattle manure (DM), poultry litter (PL), and horse manure (HM), to soils provides nutrients for crops in conventional and organic agriculture, but may also introduce enteric pathogens present in manure to crops. The U.S. Fo...

  9. Meta-analysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 2. Cure of existing intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Halasa, T; Nielen, M; Whist, A C; Osterås, O

    2009-07-01

    The main goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to cure existing intramammary infections (IMI) at dry off. Although several published studies have estimated the cure rate of IMI after DCT, variation among studies is great, which makes it difficult to conduct a proper economic evaluation of DCT. The objective of the present meta-analysis of existing peer-reviewed literature was to provide a summary quantification of quarter IMI cure based on DCT. A meta-analysis relative risk (RR) was calculated per intervention and pathogen group when at least 4 studies were available for analysis per comparison from the 22 selected studies, according to the selection criteria. Results of the meta-analysis were examined using publication bias tests. Blanket DCT with a 95% confidence interval (CI) provided a 1.78 (1.51 to 2.10) times higher calculated cure rate from quarter IMI during the dry period up to 21 d postcalving, compared with no DCT. The RR of cure was similar when treatment was conducted for Streptococcus spp. IMI quarters compared with Staphylococcus spp. IMI quarters. The pooled RR with the 95% CI were 1.83 (1.48 to 2.35) and 1.65 (1.38 to 1.96), respectively. There was no significant difference between cloxacillin and other DCT products in the cure of quarter IMI during the dry period up to 21 d postcalving. The pooled RR with the 95% CI was 1.00 (0.92 to 1.09). Similarly, there was no significant difference between cloxacillin and other DCT products in the cure of quarter Staphylococcus spp. IMI. The pooled RR with the 95% CI was 1.00 (0.96 to 1.06). The pooled RR with the 95% CI of quarter IMI cure using selective DCT, compared with no DCT, was 1.76 (1.23 to 2.54).

  10. A nitrogen index for improving nutrient management within commercial Mexican dairy operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy farm operations in Mexico are contributing to large, negative environmental impacts across some regions. These regions are traditionally dominated by large concentrations of dairy animals and intensive operations. Some of these dairy forage systems receive extremely large manure inputs and add...

  11. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  12. Predicting nitrogen excretion in commercial grazing system dairy farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving nitrogen (N) management on dairy farms is best facilitated through management of dairy cow feed N intakes (NI), due to strong associations between NI, feed N use efficiencies (NUE, proportion of NI secreted as milk N) and manure N excretion (Nex). Milk urea N (MUN) has also been used as an...

  13. Restricting dairy cow access time to pasture in early lactation: the effects on milk production, grazing behaviour and dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, E; Curran, J; Mayes, B; McEvoy, M; Murphy, J P; O'Donovan, M

    2011-09-01

    One of the main aims of pasture-based systems of dairy production is to increase the proportion of grazed grass in the diet. This is most easily achieved by increasing the number of grazing days. However, periods of inclement weather conditions can reduce the number of days at pasture. The two objectives of this experiment were: (i) to investigate the effect of restricting pasture access time on animal production, grazing behaviour and dry matter intake (DMI) of spring calving dairy cows in early lactation; and (ii) to establish whether silage supplementation is required when cows return indoors after short grazing periods. In all, 52 Holstein-Friesian spring calving dairy cows were assigned to a four-treatment study from 25 February to 26 March 2008. The four treatments were: full-time access to pasture (22H; control); 4.5-h- pasture access after both milkings (2 × 4.5H); 3-h pasture access after both milkings (2 × 3H); 3-h pasture access after both milkings with silage supplementation by night (2 × 3SH). All treatments were offered 14.4 kg DM/cow per day herbage from swards, with a mean pre-grazing yield of 1739 kg DM/ha above 4 cm, - and were supplemented with 3 kg DM/cow per day of concentrate. The 2 × 3SH treatment was offered an additional 4 kg DM/cow of grass silage by night. Restricting pasture access time (2 × 3H, 2 × 3SH and 2 × 4.5H) had no effect on milk (28.3 kg/cow per day) and solids-corrected milk (27.2 kg/cow per day) yield when compared with the treatment grazing full time. Supplementing animals with grass silage did not increase milk production when compared with all other treatments. Milk protein concentration tended to be lower (P = 0.08; 32.2 g/kg) for the 2 × 3SH animals when compared with the 22H animals (33.7 g/kg). The grass DMI of the 2 × 3SH treatment was significantly lower (-2.3 kg DM/cow per day) than all other treatments (11.9 kg DM/cow per day), yet the total DMI of these animals was highest (16.6 kg DM/cow per day). The 22

  14. Feeding lactating dairy cattle long hay separate from the total mixed ration can maintain dry matter intake during incidents of low rumen pH.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of offering dry hay of different quality and length on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (104 ± 34 d in milk, body weight of 601 ± 116 kg, and parity of 2.38 ± 1.69; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period encompassed 21 d divided into 5 phases: adaptation (d 1 to 14), with ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR); baseline (d 15 to 17), with ad libitum TMR; restricted feeding (d 18), with cows fed for 75% of baseline dry matter intake; challenge (d 19), with 4 kg (as-fed) of finely ground wheat mixed into the digesta of each cow via rumen cannula before feeding; and recovery (d 20 to 21), with ad libitum TMR. Cows were assigned to squares by parity and randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were 5.2% low-quality hay TMR (CL), 5.2% high-quality hay TMR (CH; both hays were chopped and included in TMR), TMR with 5.2% supplemental long low-quality hay (TMR+L), and TMR with 5.2% supplemental long high-quality hay (TMR+H; both hays were unprocessed and fed separate from TMR).Low-quality hay contained 8.6% crude protein and 67.1% neutral detergent fiber, whereas high-quality hay contained 14.4% crude protein and 56.2% neutral detergent fiber. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Subacute ruminal acidosis challenge decreased weighted average rumen pH from 5.72 to 5.51. Cows fed TMR+L had higher rumen pH compared with CL and TMR+H on d 19. During d 20, cows fed chopped hay had higher rumen pH than cows fed supplemental long hay. Cows fed supplemental long hay had greater dry matter intake during baseline and challenge days compared with when hay was chopped and included in the TMR. Minimal differences among diets were found for TMR particle size selection during the

  15. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    PubMed

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P < 0.01), resulting in greater total DMI for HO in yr 2 (P < 0.01). Heights at the hip and withers were greater for HO than for HG during both grazing seasons (P < 0.05). Weed presence did not differ between grazing strategies over both grazing seasons as determined by manual harvesting, but visual estimation

  16. Oral supplementation of medium-chain fatty acids during the dry period supports the neutrophil viability of peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2013-08-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted to explore the effect of orally supplemented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to heifers and cows starting 6-8 weeks prior to expected calving date on blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocyte (PMNL) apoptosis between 1 and 3 d in milk (DIM). The effects of MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactation, and test-day somatic cell count (SCC) and average daily milk yield (MY) during the first 4 months of lactation were evaluated as well. Twenty-two animals were included of which half were orally supplemented with MCFA starting 6-8 weeks prior to calving and half served as non-supplemented controls. The PMNL viability in both blood and milk was quantified using dual-colour flow cytometry with fluorescein-labelled annexin and propidium iodide. In non-supplemented animals, % blood PMNL apoptosis significantly increased between start of supplementation and early lactation, reflecting a potential reduction in innate immune capacity, whereas this was not true in the MCFA-supplemented animals. Similar results were seen in milk PMNL apoptosis. Overall, the % apoptotic milk PMNL between 1 and 3 DIM was significantly lower in the MCFA-supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented group. There was no substantial effect of oral MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of quarter IMI nor on the composite test-day milk SCC or average daily MY. In conclusion, oral MCFA-supplementation starting 6-8 weeks before expected calving date supported the blood and milk neutrophil viability in early lactating dairy cows. Still, this was not reflected in an improvement of udder health nor MY in early and later lactation. The results should trigger research to further unravel the mechanisms behind the observed immunomodulating effect, and the potential relevance for the cows' performances throughout lactation.

  17. Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets.

    PubMed

    Toor, Gurpal S; Sims, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (<30%) in dairy manures or broiler litters resulted in lower DRP leaching from soils. Preferential flow in two soils caused greater DRP leaching; this effect was more pronounced in the superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (P<0.01) on the L treatment and cows grazing the L pastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (P<0.05). Treatment did not affect daily milk production or pasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (P<0.01) and increase grazing time (P<0.05) to compensate for a lower pre-grazing HM (P<0.01). The results indicate that, while pre-grazing HM did not influence daily milk yield per cow, adapting the practise of grazing low HM (1150 kg DM/ha) pasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  19. Manure use on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  20. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage.

    PubMed

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period of observation was three weeks. During the first week (period 1) cows were maintained on basic ration for the purpose of recording baseline values. During the second week (period 2) control cows were fed a basic diet (grass silage), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine. Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited an activation of calcium mobilisation. The influence of zeolite on calcium homeostasis was not evident from monitoring serum concentration of calcium regulating hormones (PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)VitD) or renal excretion of markers of bone resorption. Enhanced active intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption was therefore considered insignificant in the calcium mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed

  1. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration.

  2. The effect of cattle manure cultivation on moisture content and survival of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Z; Chen, Y; Khanal, P; Pinto, R; Zakin, V; Sela, S

    2011-03-01

    A new practice whereby wet slurry is added daily to the cattle manure bedding at the barn and cultivated has been developed in Israel. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of manure cultivation on the persistence of Escherichia coli in a model system. A cow manure-derived E. coli strain was tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) and antibiotic resistance markers and was used to inoculate cow manure in 10-L buckets. After 3 successive cycles of inoculation and cultivation, wet slurry was added during an additional 2 cycles. After 32 d, the cultivated and noncultivated manure contained 677 ± 14 and 505 ± 2 g·kg(-1) DM, respectively. The cultivated manure remained drier compared with the noncultivated manure after the addition of wet slurry, and its texture remained lumpy compared with the compact, cohesive, and sticky texture of the noncultivated manure. Throughout the experiment, the counts of the tagged E. coli were less (P < 0.05) and disappeared faster in the cultivated than in the noncultivated manure. These results support the hypothesis that daily cultivation of manure may result in reduced incidence of mastitis and improves the welfare and performance of dairy cows.

  3. Evaluation of the factors affecting silage intake of dairy cows: a revision of the relative silage dry-matter intake index.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Rinne, M; Nousiainen, J

    2007-06-01

    An evaluation of the factors affecting silage dry-matter intake (SDMI) of dairy cows was conducted based on dietary treatment means. The data were divided into six subsets based on the silage treatments used in the experiments: concentration of digestible organic matter in dry matter (D-value) influenced by the maturity of grass ensiled (n = 81), fermentation quality influenced by silage additives (n = 240), dry matter (DM) concentration influenced by wilting of grass prior to ensiling (W; n = 85), comparison of silages made from primary growth or regrowth of grass (n = 46), and replacement of grass silage with legume (L; n = 53) or fermented whole-crop cereal (WC; n = 37) silages. The data were subjected to the mixed model regression analysis. Both silage D-value and fermentation quality significantly affected SDMI. The average effects of D-value and total acid (TA) concentration were 17.0 g and - 12.8 per 1 g/kg DM, respectively. At a given D-value, silage neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) concentration tended to decrease SDMI. Silage TA concentration was the best fermentation parameter predicting SDMI. Adding other parameters into the multivariate models did not improve the fit and the slopes of the other parameters remained insignificant. Total NDF intake was curvilinearly related to silage D-value the maximum intake being reached at a D-value of 640 g/kg DM. Results imply that physical fill is not limiting SDMI of highly digestible grass silages and that both physical and metabolic factors constrain total DM intake in an interactive manner. Silage DM concentration had an independent curvilinear effect on SDMI. Replacing primary growth silage with regrowth, L or WC silages affected SDMI significantly, the response to regrowth silage being linearly decreasing and to L and WC quadratically increasing. The outcome of factors affecting SDMI was used to update the relative SDMI index as follows: SDMI index = 100+10 × [(D-value - 680) × 0.0170

  4. Hot topic: prevention of parturient paresis and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows by zeolite A administration in the dry period.

    PubMed

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J

    2001-03-01

    To test the effects of a zeolite feed supplement on parturient calcium status and milk fever, two groups of dry cows were treated with either 1 kg of zeolite/d or none for 4 wk prepartum. At calving and d 1 and 2 after calving all cows were given 250 g of calcium carbonate as a drench, and a blood sample was taken. Serum calcium analysis revealed a greater calcium concentration in zeolite-treated cows. While three control cows contracted milk fever, necessitating intravenous calcium therapy, and six out of eight control cows experienced serum calcium levels below 2 mmol/L in one or more samples taken, none of the zeolite-treated cows contracted milk fever or experienced subclinical hypocalcemia.

  5. Evaluation of conductive cooling of lactating dairy cows under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Rojano, F; Choi, C Y; Bruer, J; Steele, T; Schuring, N; Allen, J; Collier, R J

    2015-03-01

    Cooling systems used to reduce heat stress in dairy operations require high energy, water usage, or both. Steady increases in electricity costs and reduction of water availability and an increase in water usage regulations require evaluation of passive cooling systems to cool cows and reduce use of water and electricity. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of heat exchangers buried 25 cm below the surface as components in a conductive system for cooling cows. Six cows were housed in environmentally controlled rooms with tie-stall beds, which were equipped with a heat exchanger and filled with 25 cm of either sand or dried manure. Beds were connected to supply and return lines and individually controlled. Two beds (one per each kind of bedding material) constituted a control group (water off), and the other 4 (2 sand and 2 dried manure) used water at 7°C passing through the heat exchangers (water on). The experiment was divided in 2 periods of 40 d, and each period involved 3 repetitions of 3 different climates (hot and dry, thermo neutral, and hot and humid). Each cow was randomly assigned to a different treatment after each repetition was over. Sand bedding remained cooler than dried manure bedding in all environments and at all levels of cooling (water on or off). Bed temperatures were lower and heat flux higher during the bed treatment with sand and water on. We also detected a reduction in core body temperatures, respiration rates, rectal temperatures, and skin temperatures of those cows during the sand and water on treatment. Feed intake and milk yield numerically increased during the bed treatment with sand and water on for all climates. No major changes were observed in the lying time of cows or the composition of the milk produced. We conclude that use of heat exchangers is a viable adjunct to systems that employ fans, misters, and evaporative cooling methods to mitigate effects of heat stress on dairy cows. Sand was superior to dried manure as a

  6. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    PubMed

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH3 and N2O from manure. However, CH4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation.

  7. Short communication: Folates and vitamin B12 in colostrum and milk from dairy cows fed different energy levels during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Girard, C L; Pellerin, D; Overton, T R

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations of colostrum and milk in early lactation of dairy cows fed different levels of energy during the dry period. A total of 84 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments fed as a total mixed ration 57 d before the expected calving date: (1) high-energy one-group dry cow diet [1.35 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of dry matter (DM); 56% corn silage, 12% wheat straw, and 32% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis]; (2) controlled-energy one-group dry cow diet (1.14 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM; 29% corn silage, 36% wheat straw, and 35% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis); or (3) an intermediate step-up diet (controlled-energy diet from dry off until 29 d before the expected calving date and then switching to a diet representing a 50:50 blend of the controlled- and high-energy diets from 28 d before expected calving date until parturition; 1.24 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM). After calving, all cows were fed the same diet served as a total mixed ration (44% corn silage, 14% grass silage, and 42% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis) until 42 d in milk (DIM). Colostrum samples were taken at the first milking after parturition and milk samples were taken during the morning milking at 11 and 39±2 DIM. Colostrum from the first milking and milk yields were weighed on the day of sampling. Colostrum yield from the first milking postpartum and milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were unaffected by treatments. Colostrum yield averaged 6.8±0.7mg at the first milking postpartum, whereas milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were, on average, 40.3±1.5 and 48.9±1.3mg/d, respectively. Folate concentrations in colostrum and milk were not different among treatments. Folate concentration of colostrum (440.3±18.8ng/mL) was higher than folate concentration in milk at 11 (93.7±3.0ng/mL) and at 39 DIM (78.4±2.6ng/mL). Vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum

  8. Comparison of cephalonium alone and in combination with an internal teat sealant for dry cow therapy in seasonally calving dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bates, A J; Chambers, G; Laven, R A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of combining an internal teat sealant (ITS) and a long-acting cephalonium-based dry cow therapy (DCT) on the prevalence of cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving, and the incidence of clinical mastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the first 100 days after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based, dairy farm in the South Canterbury region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive cephalonium DCT (n=289) or cephalonium and internal teat sealant (n=304) at the end of lactation. Cows were inspected twice daily by farm staff during the dry period and following calving for signs of mastitis. Individual SCC were determined from herd tests conducted in the previous lactation and following calving. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships with the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, and survival analysis was used to model time to the first case of clinical mastitis following calving at the cow and quarter level. The OR for a cow with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, including age and individual SCC in the preceding lactation in the model, was 0.53 (95% CI=0.32-0.89) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.017). At the cow level, including age and preceding SCC in the model, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis by farm staff in the first 100 days of lactation was 0.60 (95% CI=0.39-0.98) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.04). At the quarter level, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis, with age included in the model, was 0.41 (95% CI=0.23-0.74) for the combination therapy compared to cephalonium alone (p<0.001). The combination of internal teat sealant and cephalonium DCT was more effective than cephalonium alone at reducing clinical mastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the 100 days after calving, and the prevalence of

  9. Replacing alfalfa hay with dry corn gluten feed and Chinese wild rye grass: Effects on rumen fermentation, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hao, X Y; Gao, H; Wang, X Y; Zhang, G N; Zhang, Y G

    2017-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance when a portion of alfalfa was replaced with combinations of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) and Chinese wild rye grass in the diet of lactating cows. Six multiparous and 3 primiparous Chinese Holsteins were arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment for 21-d periods. The animals were fed 1 of 3 treatment diets during each period: (1) 0% DCGF (0DCGF); (2) 6.5% DCGF (7DCGF); and (3) 11% DCGF (11DCGF). Diets were isonitrogenous, and a portion of alfalfa hay was replaced with DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass, with similar concentrate mixtures and corn silage contents. The dry matter intake was greater for 11DCGF (21.9 kg/d) than for 0DCGF (20.7 kg/d) or 7DCGF (21.2 kg/d). The treatment diets did not result in difference in milk production, fat and lactose concentration, or yield. Compared with 0DCGF, the ration containing 11% DCGF improved the milk protein concentration. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater for 7DCGF (62.7% and 45.6%) and 11DCGF (63.1% and 47.2%) than for 0DCGF (59.4% and 42.3%), and the nitrogen digestibility was similar for the 3 treatments. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in cows fed the 11DCGF diet than in those fed the 0DCGF diet, with no difference between the 7DCGF and 11DCGF diets. The estimated microbial crude protein yield was greater for the 11DCGF diet (1985.1 g/d) than for the 0DCGF diet (1745.0 g/d), with no difference between the 0DCGF and 7DCGF diets. Thus, it appears that feeding DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass in combination can effectively replace a portion of alfalfa hay in the rations of lactating dairy cows.

  10. Short communication: a comparison of 2 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs following the first stage of a 2-stage fistulation surgery in dry dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Newby, Nathalie C; Tucker, Cassandra B; Pearl, David L; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Duffield, Todd F

    2013-10-01

    temperature readings, dry matter intake, and time spent lying on the left side. It is clear that left flank surgery is painful and that NSAID can improve outcomes associated with that pain, but we cannot make recommendations as to which NSAID to choose based on these results. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  12. Application of dairy slurry on alfalfa fields, and subsequent effects on nutritive value and silage fermentation characteristics of the harvested forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many dairy producers have recurring needs for more land area to distribute their dairy manure, as well as additional (summer) windows of opportunity for manure hauling that are independent of corn production. Increasingly, there are questions asked by producers about the risks associated with applyi...

  13. Short-term response in milk production, dry matter intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows to changes in postgrazing sward height.

    PubMed

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2014-05-01

    Postgrazing sward height (PGSH) can be altered to adjust the allowance of grass in the dairy cow's diet. This study aimed to investigate the short-term dairy cow response to a change in postgrazing height in early lactation. Ninety Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows were randomly assigned across 3 postgrazing height treatments (n=30): 2.7 cm (severe), 3.5 cm (low), and 4.2 cm (moderate) from February 14 to April 24, 2011. From April 25, animals were rerandomized within each treatment to graze across 2 postgrazing heights: 3.5 cm (low) or 4.5 cm (high). Animal production measurements were taken from April 4 to 24 (measurement period 1; M1) and from April 25 to May 15 (measurement period 2; M2). The 6 treatments (n=15) of M2 were severe-low, severe-high, low-low, low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high. During M1, increasing postgrazing height from severe to low to moderate linearly increased daily milk yield (21.5, 24.6 and 25.8 kg/cow per day) and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; 13.2, 14.9, and 15.8 kg of DM/cow per day). Milk solids yield was reduced in the severe (-1,518 g/cow per day) treatment when compared with the low and moderate cows (1,866 g/cow per day, on average). The milk yield (MY) response to change in PGSH between M1 and M2 (VM1-M2) was established using VM1-M2 MY=-1.27-1.89 × PGSHM1 + 1.51 × PGSHM2 (R(2)=0.64). The MY response associated with each treatment between M1 and M2 (3 wk) were -1.03 kg/cow for severe-low, 0.68 kg/cow for severe-high, -2.56 kg/cow for low-low, -1.11 kg/cow for low-high, -4.17 kg/cow for moderate-low, and -2.39 kg/cow for moderate-high. The large increase in energy intake in severe-high between M1 and M2 was achieved through higher GDMI per minute and GDMI per bite, which supported the positive change in MY. Treatments low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high recorded the highest overall cumulative milk yield (74 kg of milk solids/cow) over the 6-wk period, whereas severe-low and severe-high had the lowest (65 kg of

  14. Effect of mineral and manure phosphorus sources on runoff phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N; Moyer, Barton G; Elwinger, Gerald F

    2002-01-01

    Concern over nonpoint-source phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural lands to surface waters has resulted in scrutiny of factors affecting P loss potential. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to quantify the effects of alternative P sources (dairy manure, poultry manure, swine slurry, and diammonium phosphate), application methods, and initial soil P concentrations on runoff P losses from three acidic soils (Buchanan-Hartleton, Hagerstown, and Lewbeach). Low P (12 to 26 mg kg(-1) Mehlich-3 P) and high P (396 to 415 mg kg(-1) Mehlich-3 P) members of each soil were amended with 100 kg total P ha(-1) from each of the four P sources either by surface application or mixing, and subjected to simulated rainfall (70 mm h(-1) to produce 30 min runoff). Phosphorus losses from fertilizer and manure applied to the soil surface differed significantly by source, with dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) accounting for 64% of total phosphorus (TP) (versus 9% for the unamended soils). For manure amended soils, these losses were linearly related to water-soluble P concentration of manure (r2 = 0.86 for DRP, r2 = 0.78 for TP). Mixing the P sources into the soil significantly decreased P losses relative to surface P application, such that DRP losses from amended, mixed soils were not significantly different from the unamended soil. Results of this study can be applied to site assessment indices to quantify the potential for P loss from recently manured soils.

  15. Optimizing the Logistics of Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C.

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.

  16. The use of an internal teat sealant in combination with cloxacillin dry cow therapy for the prevention of clinical and subclinical mastitis in seasonal calving dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Runciman, D J; Malmo, J; Deighton, M

    2010-10-01

    Cows (n=2,053) from 6 seasonally calving dairy herds were enrolled in a trial to compare the efficacy of 2 dry cow treatments. Cows received either a combination dry cow therapy of 600 mg of cloxacillin (CL) followed by an internal teat sealant (ITS) containing 2.6 g of bismuth subnitrate in all 4 quarters immediately following their final milking for the season, or only an intramammary infusion of 600 mg of CL. All cases of clinical mastitis were recorded and cultured during the first 150 d of lactation in each herd, and cow somatic cell count (SCC) was measured between 7 and 50 d postcalving. A large difference was found between treatment groups in the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis over the first 21 d of lactation, after which time the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis was similar between treatment groups. Analysis of the relative proportions of cows with clinical mastitis was performed at both the gland and cow levels. The relative risk (RR) of clinical mastitis diagnosed within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving in a gland treated with the ITS-CL combination was, respectively, 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.44], 0.39 (0.28-0.53), and 0.58 (0.46-0.75) that of the CL group. An interaction between treatment and previous SCC was found when clinical mastitis was analyzed at the cow level. In a subset of cows that had low SCC in their previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in cows with the ITS-CL combination within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.54 (95% CI=0.33-0.87), 0.57 (0.37-0.88), and 0.69 (0.50-0.99) that of cows that received only CL at drying off. In the subset of cows that had at least 1 high SCC in the previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in the ITS-CL combination group within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI=0.16-0.44), 0.37 (0.24-0.57), and 0.72 (0.55-0.96) that of the CL-only group. The ITS-CL combination of dry cow treatments was associated with a

  17. Effect of broadcast manure on runoff phosphorus concentrations over successive rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N

    2003-01-01

    Concern over eutrophication has directed attention to manure management effects on phosphorus (P) loss in runoff. This study evaluates the effects of manure application rate and type on runoff P concentrations from two, acidic agricultural soils over successive runoff events. Soils were packed into 100- x 20- x 5-cm runoff boxes and broadcast with three manures (dairy, Bos taurus, layer poultry, Gallus gallus; swine, Sus scrofa) at six rates, from 0 to 150 kg total phosphorus (TP) ha(-1). Simulated rainfall (70 mm h(-1)) was applied until 30 min of runoff was collected 3, 10, and 24 d after manure application. Application rate was related to runoff P (r2 = 0.50-0.98), due to increased concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in runoff; as application rate increased, so did the contribution of DRP to runoff TP. Varied concentrations of water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in manures (2-8 g WEP kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower DRP concentrations in runoff from dairy manure treatments (0.4-2.2 mg DRP L(-1)) than from poultry (0.3-32.5 mg DRP L(-1)) and swine manure treatments (0.3-22.7 mg DRP L(-1)). Differences in runoff DRP concentrations related to manure type and application rate were diminished by repeated rainfall events, probably as a result of manure P translocation into the soil and removal of applied P by runoff. Differential erosion of broadcast manure caused significant differences in runoff TP concentrations between soils. Results highlight the important, but transient, role of soluble P in manure on runoff P, and point to the interactive effects of management and soils on runoff P losses.

  18. Lactation responses and amino acid utilization of dairy cows fed low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without rumen-protected lysine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Paz, H A; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different amounts of low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without supplementation of rumen-protected Lys (RPL) on lactation responses and AA utilization. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 188 ± 13 DIM were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) 15% low-fat DDGS, (2) 15% low-fat DDGS plus RPL, (3) 30% low-fat DDGS, and (4) 30% low-fat DDGS plus RPL. Periods lasted 21 d, with the last 3 d for data collection. Basal diets (without RPL) were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model [Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute (Chazy, NY)] to be isonitrogenous (16.9% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.63 Mcal/kg) and inclusion of low-fat DDGS increased at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Inclusion rate of low-fat DDGS and RPL supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield, averaging 25.3 ± 0.97 kg/d and 26.9 ± 1.94 kg/d, respectively (means ± standard error of the means). Milk fat and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatments but milk protein concentration decreased in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS compared with those fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS (3.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.12%). Updated predictions from the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model showed a decrease of 25 g of metabolizable protein Lys in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS. Compared with cows fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS, cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS had a marked increase in extraction efficiency (49.4 vs. 61.4 ± 2.51%) and a tendency to increase milk protein concentration (3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 0.12%) with RPL supplementation, which supported that Lys supply was inadequate. Despite differences observed in milk protein concentration, milk protein

  19. Fat and starch as additive risk factors for milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the additive effects of starch and fat as risk factors associated with milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles. In experiment 1, 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, averaging 114±14 d in milk and 662±52 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 4×4 Latin square to determine the effect of these risk factors on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. In each 21-d period, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a control diet (CON; ether extract 5.2%, starch 19%); CON with added oil (OL; ether extract 6.4%, starch 18%); CON with added starch (STR; ether extract 5.5%, starch 22%); and CON with added oil and starch (COMBO; ether extract 6.5%, starch 23%). After completion of experiment 1, milk production response was evaluated in a second experiment with a similar approach to diet formulation. Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, averaging 117±17 d in milk and 641±82 kg, were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Results from experiment 1 showed that ruminal pH was not affected by treatment averaging 5.87±0.08. Molar proportion of propionate in rumen fluid was greatest on the COMBO diet, followed by OL and STR, and lowest for CON. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat increased with the COMBO diet. Adding oil, starch, or a combination of both resulted in lower concentration and yield of fatty acids<16 carbons. Compared with the control, OL and STR resulted in 13% lower concentration, whereas the COMBO diet resulted in a 27% reduction; similarly yield was reduced by 24% with the OL and STR treatments and 54% with the COMBO diet. In experiment 2, milk yield, milk protein percentage, and milk protein yield were similar across treatments, averaging 26.6±1.01 kg/d, 3.2±0.05%, and 0.84±0.03 kg/d, respectively. Fat-corrected milk was greatest for CON, 26

  20. Effects of prepartum roughage neutral detergent fiber levels on periparturient dry matter intake, metabolism, and lactation in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Homwong, N; Buatong, N

    2010-06-01

    Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in dry matter intake (DMI). As a result, energy input cannot satisfy energy needs and thus accelerates body fat mobilization. Decreasing the level of roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in prepartum diets, and thereby increasing the amount of nonfiber carbohydrates, may provide an adequate supply of energy and glucose precursors to maintain and minimize the decrease in DMI while reducing mobilization of adipose tissue. The effects of 3-wk prepartum diets containing different amounts of roughage NDF on DMI, blood metabolites, and lactation performance of dairy cows were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Thirty cross-bred cows (87.5% Holstein x 12.5% Sahiwal) were dried off 60 d before their expected calving date and were assigned immediately to a nonlactating cow diet containing the net energy for lactation recommended by the National Research Council (2001) model. The treatment diets contained 17.4, 19.2, and 21.0% DM as roughage NDF from bana grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum glaucum) silage. Levels of concentrate NDF were 39.8, 40.2, and 38.6% of dietary NDF, so the levels of dietary NDF were 28.9, 32.1, and 34.2% of DM. After parturition, all cows received a lactating cow diet containing 12.7% roughage NDF and 23% dietary NDF. During the entire experiment, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity index averaged 77.7 and 86.8, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for the induction of extreme heat stress. As parturition approached, DMI decreased steadily, resulting in a 12.9, 25, and 32.8% decrease in DMI from d -21 until calving for nonlactating cows fed prepartum diets containing 17.4, 19.2, and 21% roughage NDF, respectively. During the 3-wk prepartum period, intakes of DM and net energy for lactation and concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin were higher for cows fed diets containing less roughage NDF. In cows fed the 3-wk prepartum diets

  1. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  2. Effects of rumen acid load from feed and forage particle size on ruminal pH and dry matter intake in the lactating dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rustomo, B; AlZahal, O; Odongo, N E; Duffield, T F; McBride, B W

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of level of concentrate acidogenic value (AV) and forage particle size on ruminal pH and feed intake in lactating dairy cows. Two isoenergetic (net energy for lactation = 1.5 +/- 0.01 Mcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein = 17.4 +/- 0.1% dry matter) concentrates with either a low AV or high AV were formulated and fed in a total mixed ration with either coarsely or finely chopped corn silage and alfalfa haylage ad libitum. Four rumen-fistulated cows (114 +/- 14 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Each period consisted of 3-wk (14-d treatment adaptation and 7-d data collection). Increasing the concentrate AV decreased the mean pH (from 6.07 to 5.97) and minimum pH (from 5.49 to 5.34). Cows fed high-AV diets spent a longer time below pH 5.6 (135.1 vs. 236.7 min/d; low-AV diet vs. high-AV diet, r