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Sample records for dried distillers grains

  1. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  3. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics of microwave-dried wheat distillers grain with solubles.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Maria Rosario P; Tabil, Lope G; Meda, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-prepared samples of wheat distillers grain with solubles with varying condensed distillers solubles (CDS) content were dried under varying microwave power, and microwave convection settings using a domestic microwave oven to examine their effect on the chemical, structural, color, flow, compression, thermal, and frictional properties of the product, which is dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). As CDS level increased, protein and ash content increased, while fat and fiber content decreased in wheat-based DDGS. Fat content was also markedly effected by the microwave oven drying conditions. While CDS level, microwave power or microwave convection setting, and/or their interactions significantly effected a number of physical properties; results indicated that CDS level had a stronger influence compared to the other factors. DDGS samples with high CDS levels were significantly denser, finer but more differentiated in size, less flowable, and less dispersible. These also produced denser and stronger pellets.

  5. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles composition, and lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David J; Moreau, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the compositional difference between grain sorghum and corn impact ethanol yields and coproduct value when grain sorghum is incorporated into existing corn ethanol facilities. Fermentation properties of corn and grain sorghum were compared utilizing two fermentation systems (conventional thermal starch liquefaction and native starch hydrolysis). Fermentation results indicated that protease addition influenced the fermentation rate and yield for grain sorghum, improving yields by 1-2% over non-protease treated fermentations. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles produced from sorghum had a statistically significant higher yields and significantly higher protein content relative to corn. Lipid analysis of the Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles showed statistically significant differences between corn and sorghum in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and free fatty acid levels.

  6. Mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene – dried distillers grains with solubles composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Injection molded composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of DDGS, and either 5% of 0% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding and injection mo...

  7. Properties of Low-oil Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol production is exponentially growing in the U.S. As the use of ethanol as a fuel source increases, so does the need to find valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a good source of fiber and protein. Cu...

  8. Physical Properties of Low Oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol production is exponentially growing in the U.S. As the use of ethanol as a fuel source increases, so does the need to find valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a good source of nutrients, energy, and...

  9. Resistant starch, total dietary fiber and antioxidants in distillers dried grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) is a cereal byproduct of the rapidly growing fuel ethanol industry in United States. Currently, DDG is used for livestock feed since it is high in protein. Because of the shear magnitude of agricultural crop biomass converted to fuel ethanol, large quantities of DDG a...

  10. Improving flow ability of distillers dried grains by novel processing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillers dried grains (DDG) sample obtained from MCP Corporation was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Among the various fractions, free flowing particles were obtained that appear to have several opportunities for a range of industrial applications. Rheological p...

  11. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  12. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  13. Gels of ferulated arabinoxylans extracted from distillers dried grains with solubles: rheology, structural parameters and microstructure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major by-products of bioethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Maize is one of the main sources for the production of this biofuel. In this way, dietary fiber represents the principal fraction of DDGS, which could be a potential source of added-value biomolecu...

  14. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24...

  15. Twin screw extrusion processing of feed blends containing distillers dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  16. Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-06

    Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

  17. Process simulation of modified dry grind ethanol plant with recycle of pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    Distillers' grains (DG), a co-product of a dry grind ethanol process, is an excellent source of supplemental proteins in livestock feed. Studies have shown that, due to its high polymeric sugar contents and ease of hydrolysis, the distillers' grains have potential as an additional source of fermentable sugars for ethanol fermentation. The benefit of processing the distillers' grains to extract fermentable sugars lies in an increased ethanol yield without significant modification in the current dry grind technology. Three different potential configurations of process alternatives in which pretreated and hydrolyzed distillers' grains are recycled for an enhanced overall ethanol yield are proposed and discussed in this paper based on the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of distillers' grains. Possible limitations of each proposed process are also discussed. This paper presents a compositional analysis of distillers' grains, as well as a simulation of the modified dry grind processes with recycle of distillers' grains. Simulated material balances for the modified dry grind processes are established based on the base case assumptions. These balances are compared to the conventional dry grind process in terms of ethanol yield, compositions of its co-products, and accumulation of fermentation inhibitors. Results show that 14% higher ethanol yield is achievable by processing and hydrolyzing the distillers' grains for additional fermentable sugars, as compared to the conventional dry grind process. Accumulation of fermentation by-products and inhibitory components in the proposed process is predicted to be 2-5 times higher than in the conventional dry grind process. The impact of fermentation inhibitors is reviewed and discussed. The final eDDGS (enhanced dried distillers' grains) from the modified processes has 30-40% greater protein content per mass than DDGS, and its potential as a value-added process is also analyzed. While the case studies used to illustrate the

  18. Development and characterization of thermoplastic films from sorghum distillers dried grains grafted with various methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Shi, Zhen; Temme, Lisa; Xu, Helan; Xu, Lan; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2014-03-19

    Distillers Dried Grains (DDG) obtained during production of ethanol from grain sorghum were grafted with methacrylates and compression molded into films with good dry and wet tensile properties. Since sorghum DDG contains up to 45% proteins that are indigestible by animals, it is necessary to find alternative applications to make sorghum ethanol economically competitive. In this research, sorghum DDG was grafted with methyl, ethyl, and butyl methacrylates, the grafted DDG was compression molded into films, and the properties of the grafted DDG and films were studied. At a grafting ratio of 40%, butyl methacrylate (BMA) grafted films had a strength of 4.8 MPa and elongation of 1.8% when dry and 3.1 MPa and 8.1% when wet, indicating that the films had good strength and wet stability. Films developed from grafted DDG show the potential to overcome the brittleness and poor water stability of biopolymer-based films and be useful for various applications.

  19. Feeding value of dried distillers' grains (DDG) in beef feedlot rations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Matsushima, J.K.

    1980-06-01

    Dried distillers' grains (DDG) replaced flaked corn in the feed for steers in the Colorado State University feedlot at rates of 0%, 15%, and 30% of finishing rations. Steers were randomly assigned to six pen treatments with each treatment replicated. No significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency, or general health were observed between treatments. Likewise, differences in carcass quality were negligible. Under the conditions of this experiment ad prevailing prices, DDG was worth $113/ton. If its full value as a protein supplement had been credited, it would have had a value of $131/ton. This compares to the market price at the time of $150/ton for DDG.

  20. Nutrition evaluation and mutagenicity testing of freeze-dried distiller's grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pintauro, S J; al-Nasser, A S

    1989-01-01

    Distiller's grains with solubles (DGS) was obtained from a commercial fermentation of 90% corn and 10% wheat for ethanol production. The DGS was freeze-dried and proximate analysis resulted in 17.6% protein, 5.5% fat, 3.0% ash, 17.3% moisture, 21.6% neutral detergent fiber, and 35% carbohydrate by difference. Fatty acid analysis and amino acid analysis were similar to those of corn. Tryptophan was the limiting amino acid with a chemical score of 47. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) was 1.49. Mutagenicity testing of lipid and aqueous extracts of DGS in the Ames Salmonella mammalian microsome assay were negative.

  1. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    PubMed

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial.

  2. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  3. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  4. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of reduced-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to broilers from 23 to 31 days of age.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Perryman, K R; Hess, J B

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using male Ross×Ross 708 broiler chicks to determine the effect of oil extraction from corn distillers dried grains with solubles on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility from 23 to 31 d of age. On an as-fed basis, ether extract concentrations were determined as 5.4% (L-distillers dried grains with solubles), 7.9% (M-distillers dried grains with solubles), and 10.5% (H-distillers dried grains with solubles) for the 3 experimental distillers dried grains with solubles sources. Prior to experimentation, each sample (H-distillers dried grains with solubles (control), M-distillers dried grains with solubles and L-distillers dried grains with solubles) was analyzed on an as-fed basis for crude protein (29.2, 27.6, and 27.9%), starch (4.4, 5.2, and 6.1%), neutral detergent fiber (29.5, 33.2, and 29.9%), and total dietary fiber (31.4, 36.6, and 33.6 %). Four hundred and thirty-two male chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.04 m2 per bird) were randomly assigned to 36 battery grower cages. Broilers were fed one of 3 semi-purified diets, which were comprised of 76% L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M- distillers dried grains with solubles, or H-distillers dried grains with solubles as the sole amino acid source from 23 to 31 d of age. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients were negatively affected (P<0.05) by oil extraction for Met (0.722, 0.788, and 0.791), Lys (0.504, 0.510, and 0.552), Thr (0.563, 0.566, and 0.612), Trp (0.708, 0.733, and 0.767), and Arg (0.762, 0.776, and 0.799) for L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M-distillers dried grains with solubles, and H-distillers dried grains with solubles, respectively. Conversely, no differences in apparent amino acid coefficients were reported for Ile, Leu, and Val. These results indicated that L-distillers dried grains with solubles had lower apparent amino acid digestibility coefficients for Met, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Arg compared with H-distillers dried grains with

  5. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  6. Analysis of organic gas phase compounds formed by hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Madsen, René B; Christensen, Per S; Houlberg, Kasper; Lappa, Elpiniki; Mørup, Anders J; Klemmer, Maika; Olsen, Eva M; Jensen, Mads M; Becker, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B; Glasius, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive characterization of the gas phase from hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) collected during a 24-h continuous experiment. The gas consisted mainly of CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and C2H6 accounting for 96 v/v% while further analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed additionally 62 compounds of which 54 were tentatively identified. These products included methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, various olefins and several aromatic compounds. The composition provided clear indication of the steady state of the system. Apart from CO2, olefins were the most abundant compound class and could provide a source of revenue.

  7. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are one of the two major co-products (with carbon dioxide) of the corn ethanol industry...

  8. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) through a narrowing of particle size distribution followed by aspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve 3 screening and 3 air classification unit operatio...

  9. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior res...

  10. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are a major co-product of the ethanol industry, and are principally sold as animal fee...

  11. Use of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SM) used in the diets of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Six isocaloric (3.22 ± 0.02 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (30.1 ± 0.2% SE) experimental diets were formulate...

  12. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and ...

  13. Selected factors affecting crude fat analysis of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with ground corn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increasing production of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS), both fuel ethanol and animal feed industries are demanding standardized protocols for characterizing its quality. AOCS Approved Procedure (Am 5-04) was used for measuring crude oil content in ground corn (GC) and resulting DD...

  14. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  15. Dried distillers grains with solubles with reduced corn silage levels in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Depenbusch, B E; Reinhardt, C D; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Cole, N A; Drouillard, J S

    2010-07-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of 25% dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DDG) in beef cattle finishing diets by partially replacing a portion of the grain and soybean meal in the control diets. In Exp.1, crossbred heifers (n = 377; BW 378 +/- 4.1 kg) were fed diets consisting of steam-flaked corn (SFC) with a control diet containing 0% DDG and 15% corn silage (CS), 25% DDG and 15% CS, or 25% DDG and 5% CS. Compared with the control treatment, heifers fed DDG and 15% CS had a greater proportion of USDA yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses (P = 0.04; 5.68 vs. 14.12), and smaller LM area (P = 0.04; 86.09 vs. 82.48 cm(2)). In Exp. 2, crossbred heifers (n = 582; BW = 377 +/- 27.09 kg) were fed diets similar to Exp. 1 except dry-rolled corn (DRC) and SFC were compared as the basal grain sources. Treatments included DRC or SFC: with control diets containing 0% DDG and 15% CS, 25% DDG and 15% CS, or 25% DDG and 5% CS. Feeding SFC decreased DMI (P < 0.01), improved G:F (P < 0.01) and final shrunk BW (P = 0.05) compared with DRC. Average USDA yield grade was greater for cattle fed DRC than for those fed SFC (P = 0.02), but calculated yield grade was not different among treatments (P = 0.71). Feeding DDG and 5% CS, regardless of grain source, led to decreased DMI and greater G:F than feeding DDG and 15% CS (P = 0.02). When comparing the control treatments with the diets containing 25% DDG and 15% CS shrunk final BW, ADG, and G:F were decreased (P < or = 0.05); however, carcass-adjusted measurements were not different (P > 0.52). Results indicate that roughage levels can be reduced in feedlot diets containing 25% DDG with no adverse effects on BW gain, feed efficiency, or carcass quality.

  16. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed increasing concentrations of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M

    2012-07-01

    In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

  17. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  18. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers' dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller grains with soluble (DDGS) have roughly three times the amount of oil as regular corn used in feeds, and several studies have shown that DDGS also have higher concentrations of lipophilic bioactives such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls, because the levels found in whole corn...

  19. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, John; Ruan, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syngas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5-50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5-62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy content of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650°C and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heating value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of highly flexible thermoplastic films from cyanoethylated corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-03-09

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be made into highly flexible thermoplastic films without the need for plasticizers. DDGS is an abundantly available coproduct of ethanol production that is inexpensive ($80-130/ton) compared to most of the polymers used for thermoplastic applications. In this research, oil-and-zein-free DDGS was cyanoethylated using acrylonitrile, and cyanoethylation conditions were optimized to obtain high percent weight gain of up to 42%. Cyanoethylated DDGS was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA. Cyanoethylated DDGS was compression molded into thermoplastic films, and the tensile properties of the films were studied. It was found that DDGS films with elongation as high as 38% and strength of 14 MPa could be obtained without the use of any plasticizers. Alternatively, films with strength as high as 651 MPa but with relatively low elongation (2.5%) were obtained by varying the extent of cyanoethylation. This research showed that cyanoethylation could be a viable approach to develop biothermoplastics from biopolymers for applications such as packing films, extrudates, and resins for composites.

  1. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  2. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing level of DDGS in diets. There was a main effect ( < 0.001) of phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P.

  3. Biodiesel from corn distillers dried grains with solubles: preparation, evaluation and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of dry-grind ethanol fermentation and represents a low-cost feedstock with potential to improve process economics and logistics of biodiesel manufacture through integration of biodiesel and ethanol production. Oil extracted from DDGS...

  4. Effect of process variables on the quality characteristics of pelleted wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Lope Tabil; Anthony Opoku; Maria Rosario Mosqueda; Olaniyi Fadeyi

    2011-04-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol processing plants in Canada has resulted in a significant increase in the production of wheat-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Transportation and flowability problems associated with DDGS necessitate investigations on pelleting. In the present study, the effect of process variables like die temperature (T) and feed moisture content (Mw) on the pellet properties like pellet moisture content, durability and pellet density was explored using a single pelleting machine; further studies on pelleting DDGS using a pilot-scale pellet mill were also conducted to understand the effect of die diameter and steam conditioning on durability and bulk density of pellets. Proximate analysis of DDGS indicated that crude protein and dry matter were in the range of 37.37–40.33% and 91.27–92.60%, respectively. Linear regression models developed for pellet quality attributes like pellet moisture content, pellet density and durability adequately described the single pelleting process with R2 value of 0.97, 0.99 and 0.7, respectively. ANOVA results have indicated that linear terms T and Mw and the interaction term T × Mw were statistically significant at P < 0.01 and P < 0.1 for pellet moisture content and pellet density. Based on the trends of the surface plots, a medium T of about 50–80 °C and a low Mw of about 5.1% resulted in maximum pellet density and durability and minimum pellet moisture content. Results from pilot-scale studies indicated that bulk density, durability and throughput values were 436.8–528.9 kg m-3, 60.3–92.7% and 45.52–68.77 kg h-1, respectively. It was observed that both die diameter and steam addition had a significant effect on the bulk density and the durability values. The highest bulk density and durability were achieved with 6.4 mm die diameter with steam addition compared to 7.9 mm die with or without steam addition.

  5. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles affects composition but not oxidative stability of milk.

    PubMed

    Testroet, E D; Li, G; Beitz, D C; Clark, S

    2015-05-01

    Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few

  6. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P < 0.01) when compared with 25% DDGS inclusion. With 25% DDGS in the diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P < 0.01). A similar response (P < 0.01) occurred for total VFA concentrations at 0 h postfeeding. However, at 3 and 6 h postfeeding, propionate concentrations increased (P ≤ 0.05) in cattle fed the 60% DDGS diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with

  7. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Depenbusch, B E; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Reinhardt, C D; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and alfalfa hay (AH) or corn silage (CS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility in cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. In trial 1, crossbred heifers (n = 358; BW = 353 +/- 13 kg) were used in a finishing trial to evaluate interactions between corn-DDGS and roughage source (AH or CS) in terms of impact on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets (DM basis) consisted of SFC and 11% CS without DDGS (SFC-CS), SFC and 11% CS with 25% DDGS (DDGS-CS), SFC and 6% AH without DDGS (SFC-AH), and SFC with 25% DDGS and 6% AH (DDGS-AH). Heifers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily for 97 d. Results indicated no interaction between DDGS and roughage source with respect to animal performance. Feeding DDGS did not affect ADG (P = 0.19), DMI (P = 0.14), or feed conversion (P = 0.67). Heifers fed CS had greater DMI than those fed AH (P = 0.05), but ADG (P = 0.56) and G:F (P = 0.63) were not different. There were no differences among treatments with respect to HCW, dressing percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, quality grades, or yield grades (P > 0.20). Cattle fed CS tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores than those fed AH. There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between roughage and DDGS with respect to incidence of liver abscess. The greatest incidence was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when CS was fed, and the least was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when AH was used. In the second trial, ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility were examined in 12 cannulated Holstein steers fed similar diets to those fed in the finishing trial. Ruminal pH for all treatments was below 5.8 for 14 h after feeding. Acetate:propionate ratios were less (P = 0.02) in steers fed 25% DDGS but had greater (P = 0.02) ruminal lactate concentrations compared with cattle fed 0

  8. Amino acid digestibility in low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Curry, Shelby Marie; Navarro, Diego Mario David Labadan; Almeida, Ferdinando Nielsen; Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Stein, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different concentrations of fat. Twelve growing barrows (initial body weight: 76.1 [Formula: see text] 6.2 kg) were randomly allotted to a replicated 6 × 4 Youden square design with 6 diets and 4 periods. The fat content of the 3 sources of DDGS were 11.5, 7.5, and 6.9% respectively. Diets contained 60% DDGS and fat concentration of the diets were 7.5, 5.2, and 5.2%, respectively. Two additional diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with 7.5 and 6.9% fat were also formulated, and corn oil was added to these diets to increase the concentration of fat in the diets to levels that were calculated to be similar to the diet containing conventional DDGS with 11.5% fat. A N-free diet was also formulated to calculate endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA from the pigs. Pigs were fed experimental diets during four 7-d periods. The first 5 d of each period were an adaptation period and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The apparent ileal digestibililty (AID) and SID of CP and all indispensable AA, except AID Pro and SID of Trp, were greater (P < 0.01) in conventional DDGS than in the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat. Adding oil to the diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat did not consistently increase SID of AA. In conclusion, conventional DDGS has greater SID values for most AA compared with DDGS that contains less fat and inclusion of additional oil to diets containing low-fat DDGS does not increase AID or SID of AA. The lower AA digestibility in low-fat DDGS could not be overcome by the inclusion of additional fat to the diets.

  9. Effects of acid extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs.

    PubMed

    de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; van Rooijen, C; Kabel, M A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-12-01

    Commonly used feed processing technologies are not sufficient to affect recalcitrant nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylans present in maize distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Instead, hydrothermal treatments combined with acid catalysts might be more effective to modify these NSP. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal maleic acid treatment (acid extrusion) on the degradability of maize DDGS in growing pigs. It was hypothesized that acid extrusion modifies DDGS cell wall architecture and thereby increases fermentability of NSP. Two diets, containing either 40% (wt/wt) unprocessed or acid-extruded DDGS, were restrictedly fed to groups of gilts (n=11, with 4 pigs per group; initial mean BW: 20.8±0.2 kg) for 18 d and performance and digestibility were analyzed. Acid extrusion tended to decrease apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (approximately 3 percentage units [% units]); P=0.063) and starch (approximately 1% unit; P=0.096). Apparent digestibility of CP and starch measured at the mid colon (2% units, P=0.030, for CP and 0.3% units, P<0.01, for starch) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD; 3% units, P<0.01, for CP and 0.2% units, P=0.024, for starch) were lower for the acid-extruded diet compared with the control diet. Hindgut disappearance was, however, not different between diets, indicating that reduced CP and starch digestibility were mainly due to decreased AID. Acid extrusion tended to increase AID of NSP (6% units; P=0.092) and increased digestibility of NSP measured at the mid colon (6% units; P<0.01), whereas hindgut disappearance and ATTD of NSP did not differ between diets. Greater NSP digestibility was mainly due to greater digestibility of arabinosyl, xylosyl, and glucosyl residues, indicating that both arabinoxylan and cellulose degradability were affected by acid extrusion. In conclusion, these results show that acid extrusion did not improve degradation of DDGS for

  10. Processing method and corn cultivar affected anthocyanin concentration from dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Wang, Zhaoqin; West, Megan; Singh, Vijay; West, Leslie; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with health benefits and potential use as food colorants. The objectives of this work were to (1) determine optimum parameters for the extraction of anthocyanins from dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), (2) develop a method of anthocyanin extraction from DDGS, (3) quantify and identify the extracted anthocyanins, and (4) determine the effect of processing methods and corn cultivars on anthocyanin concentration. DDGS samples were prepared from purple (PC) and dark (DC) corn and processed using conventional enzymes (C) and granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GC). Three independent variables (ethanol concentration (0, 12.5, and 25%); liquid-to-solid ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1 mL/g); and extraction temperature (4, 22, and 40 °C)) and two dependent variables (anthocyanin concentration and a-value (redness)) were used. Results showed that dark corn DDGS gave anthocyanin concentration higher than that of purple corn. The GC process showed total anthocyanin concentration higher than that of the conventional method of DDGS production. The maximum anthocyanin concentration was obtained at 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C for C-PC [321.0 ± 37.3 μg cyanidin-3 glucoside (C3G) equivalent/g DDGS]. For GC-PC, 25% ethanol, 30:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C gave 741.4 ± 12.8 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. For GC-DC, 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 °C extraction gave 1573.4 ± 84.0 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. LC/MS-MS analysis showed that the major anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″-malonyl) glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6″malonyl) glucoside. In conclusion, anthocyanin extraction from colored corn DDGS can be optimized using 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 mL/g ratio, and 22 °C.

  11. Evaluation of various sources of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles for lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmit, D H; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) from different sources on milk production and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous and 4 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments consisted of total mixed diets containing no DDGS (CON), or DDGS from source 1 (DDGS-1), source 2 (DDGS-2), or source 3 (DDGS-3) at 20% of diet dry matter. The processing of DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 was intended to decrease heat damage and improve nutritional quality. The DDGS in the diets replaced a portion of the ground corn and soybean meal, allowing them to be isonitrogenous at 16% crude protein. All diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45. Dry matter intake (21.4 kg/d) did not differ among diets, but cows fed diets containing DDGS had greater yields of milk (34.6 vs. 31.2 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (32.7 vs. 29.6 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (35.4 vs. 32.3) compared with cows fed the CON diet. Feed efficiency was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (1.78 vs. 1.63). Milk fat yield was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with those fed CON (1.26 vs. 1.14 kg/d). Milk protein percentages (3.28, 3.13, 3.19, and 3.17% for CON, DDGS-1, DDGS-2, and DDGS-3, respectively) were greater for CON vs. DDGS and tended to be lower for DDGS-1 than for DDGS-2 and DDGS-3. Milk protein yields tended to be greater for cows fed DDGS than for those fed CON (1.09 vs. 1.02 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were lower in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (9.36 vs. 10.6 mg/dL). Feeding DDGS decreased arterial plasma concentrations of Arg, Ile, Lys, and Thr and increased His and Leu compared with CON. Arterial plasma from cows fed DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 had greater concentrations of Ile, Trp, and Val compared with DDGS-1. In all diets, Lys, Met, and Phe were the first 3 limiting amino acids for protein synthesis with Lys being first limiting in DDGS-1 and DDGS

  12. Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that needs to be utilized beyond animal feeds. We evaluated cornbreads, which were formulated incorporating 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% corn DDGS into co...

  13. Study of lipids and lipid components in corn dried distiller's grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extracted oil from corn dried distiller’s grains (DDG) with ethanol, hexane, and supercritical CO2 and found that it has a very large amount of some valuable nutraceutical phytochemicals including phytosterols, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The oil fatty acid ...

  14. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  15. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  16. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  17. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  18. Pretreatment of dried distillers grains with solubles by soaking in aqueous ammonia and subsequent enzymatic/dilute acid hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15% w/w NH4OH solution at a solid:liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied...

  19. Alterations in the Colonic Microbiota of Pigs Associated with Feeding Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Burrough, Eric R.; Arruda, Bailey L.; Patience, John F.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species. In the present study, colonic contents collected at necropsy from pigs fed either 30% or no DDGS were analyzed to examine the relative abundance of bacterial taxa associated with feeding this ingredient. No difference in alpha diversity (richness) was detected between diet groups. However, the beta diversity was significantly different between groups with feeding of DDGS being associated with a decreased Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P = .004) and a significantly lower abundance of Lactobacillus spp. (P = .016). Predictive functional profiling of the microbiota revealed more predicted genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein digestion, and degradation of glycans in the microbiota of pigs fed DDGS. Taken together, these findings confirm that alterations in dietary insoluble fiber significantly alter the colonic microbial profile of pigs and suggest the resultant microbiome may predispose to the development of colitis. PMID:26555787

  20. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  1. The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk production, nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six Holstein cows, four of which were ruminally cannulated, (mean ± SD, 111 ± 35 DIM; 664 ± 76.5 kg BW) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of brown midrib (bm3) and conventional (DP) corn silages and the inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG...

  2. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  3. Effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and Eimeria acervulina infection on growth performance and the intestinal microbiota of young chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicks were used to determine whether dietary corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may prevent or ameliorate Eimeria acervulina (EA) infection. The experiment had a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 diets (inclusion of 0, 10, or 20% DDGS) × 2 challenge treat...

  4. Pond demonstration of production diets using high levels of distiller's dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increased availability and potential price advantage of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), there is considerable interest in utilizing this product in aquaculture diets. The response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to practical diets containing 20% and 30% DDGS with and...

  5. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  7. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of ...

  8. Evaluation of grain distillers dried yeast as a fish meal substitute in practical-type diets of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain distillers dried yeast (GDDY) is a single-cell protein obtained as a co-product during the production of fuel ethanol that may have potential as a protein replacement for rainbow trout. The goal of this study was to examine the suitability of GDDY as a replacement for fishmeal on a digestible ...

  9. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on animal performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-four crossbred steers (308 ± 8 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) and steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets with and without 35% wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) derived from corn to determine impacts of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on animal performance and carcass chara...

  10. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  11. Determination of the Mycotoxin Content in Distiller's Dried Grain with Solubles Using a Multianalyte UHPLC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Campbell, Katrina; Magowan, Elizabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-11-04

    There are more than 300 potential mycotoxins that can contaminate food and feed and cause adverse effects in humans and animals. The data on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in novel animal feed materials, such as distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), are limited. Thus, a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of 77 mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites was used to analyze 169 DDGS samples produced from wheat, maize, and barley and 61 grain samples. All DDGS samples analyzed were contaminated with 13-34 different mycotoxins. Fumonisins were present in all 52 maize DDGS samples (81.0-6890 μg/kg for fumonisin B1), and deoxynivalenol was present in all 99 wheat DDGS samples (39.3-1120 μg/kg). A number of co-occurring mycotoxins were also identified. Due to the high co-occurrence of mycotoxins, routine screening of the animal feed ingredients is highly recommended to allow the highlighted risks to be effectively managed.

  12. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2014-03-05

    The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L(-1)·day(-1) during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows' daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH₄ production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH₄ production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  13. Effect of different inclusion level of condensed distillers solubles ratios and oil content on amino Acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Xu, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S; Ma, X K; Piao, X S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS.

  14. Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, D P; Hirl, P J; Belia, E

    2008-06-01

    Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles, a co-product of ethanol production, was studied in 2-L anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) under 10 different operating conditions. Methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were quantified for a wide range of operating parameters. Chemical oxygen demand removals of 64 to 95% were achieved at organic loading rates ranging from 1.5 to 22.2 g COD/L x d, solids retention times from 8 to 40 days, and food-to-microorganism ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 g COD/g volatile suspended solids (VSS) x d. Biogas methane content varied from 61 to 74%, with 0.29 L CH4 produced/g COD removed. Roughly 56% of the influent COD and 84% of the COD removed in the ASBRs was converted to methane. Microbial yield (Y) and decay (b) constants were determined to be Y = 0.126 g VSS/g COD removed and b = 0.032 day(-1), respectively. Methane produced from co-products can reduce the costs and fossil-fuel consumption of ethanol manufacture.

  15. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

    PubMed

    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants.

  16. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  17. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, distillers dried grains with solubles composition, and lipid profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in utilization of feedstocks other than corn for fuel ethanol production has been increasing due to political as well as environmental reasons. Grain sorghum is an identified alternative that has a number of potential benefits relative to corn in both composition and agronomic traits. Compo...

  18. Effects of sodium hydroxide treatment of dried distillers' grains on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Freitas, T B; Relling, A E; Pedreira, M S; Santana Junior, H A; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the optimum inclusion of NaOH necessary to buffer the acidity of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and its effects on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis in feedlot steers. Rumen cannulated Angus-crossed steers were blocked by BW (small: 555 ± 42 kg initial BW, = 4; large: 703 ± 85 kg initial BW, = 4) over four 21-d periods in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Steers were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) 50% untreated DDGS, 2) 50% DDGS treated with 0.5% (DM basis) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 3) 50% DDGS treated with 1.0% (DM basis) NaOH, and 4) 50% DDGS treated with 1.5% (DM basis) NaOH. The remainder of the diets, on a DM basis, was composed of 20% corn silage, 20% dry-rolled corn, and 10% supplement. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments ( = 0.56) or by a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.15). In situ NDF and ruminal DM disappearance did not differ ( ≥ 0.49 and ≥ 0.47, respectively) among treatments. Similar to in situ results, apparent total tract DM and NDF digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.33 and ≥ 0.21, respectively) by increasing NaOH inclusion in the diets. Urinary pH increased (linear, < 0.01) with increasing NaOH concentration in the diet. Blood pH was not affected ( ≥ 0.20), and blood total CO and partial pressure of CO were similar ( ≥ 0.56 and ≥ 0.17, respectively) as NaOH increased in the diet. Increasing NaOH in the diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.21) ruminal concentrations of total VFA. There were no linear ( = 0.20) or quadratic ( = 0.20) effects of treatment on ruminal acetate concentrations, nor was there a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.22) for acetate. Furthermore, there were no effects ( ≥ 0.90) of NaOH inclusion on ruminal propionate concentration. However, there was a quadratic response ( = 0.01) of ruminal butyrate concentrations as NaOH inclusion increased in the diet; ruminal butyrate concentrations were greatest with the 0.5 and 1

  19. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Meloche, K J; Kerr, B J; Billor, N; Shurson, G C; Dozier, W A

    2014-06-01

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior research data were used to generate a best-fit equation for AMEn based on proximate analysis. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 4.98 to 14.29% (DM basis) were collected from various dry-grind ethanol plants and were subsequently fed to broiler chicks to determine AMEn content. A corn-soybean meal control diet was formulated to contain 15% dextrose and test diets were created by mixing the control diet with 15% DDGS at the expense of dextrose. In each trial, male Ross × Ross 708 chicks were housed in grower battery cages and received a common starter diet until the experimental period. Each cage was randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments (trial 1 and trial 2: control + 6 test diets, 13 replicates per diet; trial 3: control + 3 test diets, 12 replicates per diet). Experimental diets were fed over a 6-d acclimation period, followed by a 48-h total excreta collection period. On a DM basis, AMEn of the 15 DDGS samples ranged from 1,975 to 3,634 kcal/kg. Analyses were conducted to determine gross energy, CP, EE, DM, starch, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber (CF), acid detergent fiber, and ash content of the DDGS samples. All results were reported on a DM basis. Application of the 4 equations to the validation data resulted in root mean square error (RMSE) values of 335, 381, 488, and 502 kcal/kg, respectively. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique was applied to proximate analysis data for 30 corn coproducts adapted from prior research and resulted in the following best-fit equation: [AMEn (kcal/kg) = 3,673 - (121.35 × CF) + (51.29 × EE) - (121.08 × ash); P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.70; R(2) adj = 0.67; RMSE = 270 kcal/kg]. The RMSE values

  20. Evaluation of sulfur content of dried distillers grains with solubles in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn or dry-rolled corn.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Schneider, C J; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Hollis, L C; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2011-08-01

    Crossbred yearling steers (n=80; 406 ± 2.7 kg of BW) were used to evaluate the effects of S concentration in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal concentrations of CH(4) and H(2)S in finishing steers fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC) and containing 30% DDGS (DM basis) with moderate S (0.42% S, MS) or high S (0.65% S, HS). Treatments consisted of SFC diets containing MS (SFC-MS), SFC diets containing HS (SFC-HS), DRC diets containing MS (DRC-MS), or DRC diets containing HS (DRC-HS). High S was achieved by adding H(2)SO(4) to DDGS. Ruminal gas samples were analyzed for concentrations of H(2)S and CH(4). Steers were fed once daily in quantities that resulted in traces of residual feed in the bunk the following day for 140 d. No interactions (P ≥ 0.15) between dietary S concentration and grain processing were observed with respect to growth performance or carcass characteristics. Steers fed HS diets had 8.9% less DMI (P < 0.001) and 12.9% less ADG (P=0.006) than steers fed diets with MS, but S concentration had no effect on G:F (P=0.25). Cattle fed HS yielded 4.3% lighter HCW (P = 0.006) and had 16.2% less KPH (P=0.009) than steers fed MS. Steers fed HS had decreased (P=0.04) yield grades compared with steers fed MS. No differences were observed among treatments with respect to dressing percentage, liver abscesses, 12th-rib fat thickness, LM area, or USDA quality grades (P ≥ 0.18). Steers fed SFC had less DMI (P < 0.001) than steers fed DRC. Grain processing had no effect (P > 0.05) on G:F or carcass characteristics. Cattle fed HS had greater (P < 0.001) ruminal concentrations of H(2)S than cattle fed MS. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was inversely related (P ≤ 0.01) to ADG (r=-0.58) and DMI (r=-0.67) in cattle fed SFC, and to DMI (r=-0.40) in cattle fed DRC. Feeding DDGS that are high in dietary S may decrease the DMI of beef steers and compromise the growth

  1. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  2. Growth Responses and Resistance to Streptococccus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  3. Relationship of protein molecular structure to metabolisable proteins in different types of dried distillers grains with solubles: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang; Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G

    2010-11-01

    To date, there has been no study of protein molecular structures affected by bioethanol processing in relation to protein nutritive values of the new co-products of bioethanol production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between protein molecular structures (in terms of protein α-helix and β-sheet spectral intensity and their ratio and amide I to amide II spectral intensity and their ratio) and protein rumen degradation kinetics (rate and extent), estimated protein intestinal digestibility and total truly absorbed protein in small intestine (metabolisable protein) in different types of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), such as wheat DDGS, maize DDGS and blend DDGS (wheat:maize = 70:30). The protein molecular structures of the different types of DDGS affected by processing were identified using diffuse reflectance IR Fourier transform spectroscopy. The results showed that the protein structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio in the DDGS had a strongly negative correlation with estimated intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded protein (%dRUP, R - 0.95, P = 0.04), tended to have a significant correlation with the protein PC subfraction (which was undegradable and contained proteins associated with lignin and tannins and heat-damaged proteins) (R 0.91, P = 0.09) and had no correlation (P>0.10) with rumen degradation kinetics (rate and extent), total intestinally absorbed protein supply and degraded protein balance. However, the protein amide I to amide II ratio in the DDGS had a strongly positive correlation with soluble crude protein (CP) (R 0.99, P < 0.01), protein PA subfraction (which was instantaneously solubilised at time zero) (R 0.99, P < 0.01), protein PB2 subfraction (which was intermediately degradable) (R - 0.95, P = 0.04) and total digestible CP (R 0.95, P = 0.04). The amide I to amide II ratio also had strongly negative correlations with ruminally undegraded protein (%RUP: R - 0.96, P = 0.03) and the

  4. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P < 0.01). However, when diets contained 30% DDGS, the AID of all SFA was reduced as levels of tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P < 0.01) and tallow (P < 0.01) were included in the diet compared to when either ingredient was excluded. For ileal digestible SFA, an interaction (P < 0.01) between DDGS and tallow was

  5. Ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids in soybean meal, canola meal, corn, and wheat dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-08-01

    Different protein sources, such as canola meal (CM) or dried distillers grains (DDG), are currently used in dairy rations to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, little data exists comparing their rumen degradation in a single study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and AA of SBM, CM, high-protein corn DDG (HPDDG), and wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS). In situ studies were conducted with 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows fed a diet containing 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate. Each protein source was incubated in the rumen of each cow in nylon bags for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h to determine DM and CP rumen degradation kinetics, whereas additional bags were also incubated for 16 h to evaluate AA ruminal disappearance. Rumen DM and CP degradability was calculated from rumen-undegraded residues corrected or not for small particle loss. Data were fitted to an exponential model to estimate degradation parameters and effective degradability (ED) was calculated with a passage rate of 0.074 h(-1). The WDDGS and SBM had higher uncorrected ED (DM=75.0 and 72.6%; CP=84.8 and 66.0%, respectively) than CM and HPDDG (DM=57.2 and 55.5%; CP=59.3 and 48.2%, respectively), due to higher soluble fraction in WDDGS and a combination of higher potentially degradable fraction and rate of degradation in SBM. Correction for small particle loss from bags, higher for WDDGS than for the other protein sources, decreased estimated ED but did not alter feed ranking. The ruminal disappearance of AA after 16 h of incubation reflected the overall pattern of CP degradation between protein supplements, but the ruminal disappearance of individual AA differed between protein supplements. Overall, these results indicate that, in the current study, (1) SBM and WDDGS were more degradable in the rumen than CM and HPDDG, and (2) that small particle loss correction is relevant but does not alter this

  6. Origin identification of dried distillers grains with solubles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy after in situ oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ph; Fernández Pierna, J A; Abbas, O; Dardenne, P; Baeten, V

    2015-12-15

    The ban on using processed animal proteins in feedstuffs led the feed sector to look for other sources of protein. Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could be considered as an important source in this regard. They are imported into Europe mainly for livestock feed. Identifying their origin is essential when labelling is missing and for feed safety, particularly in a crisis situation resulting from contamination. This study investigated applying attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-MIR) to the oil fraction extracted from samples in situ in order to identify the origin of DDGS. The use of spectroscopic and chemometric tools enabled the botanical and geographical origins of DDGS, as well as the industrial process used to produce them, to be identified. The models developed during the study provided a classification higher than 95% using an external validation set.

  7. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat.

  8. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2013-09-18

    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

  9. Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and ractopamine (Paylean) on quality and shelf-life of fresh pork and bacon.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Puls, C L; Ellis, M; Killefer, J; Carr, T R; Scramlin, S M; England, M B; Gaines, A M; Wolter, B F; Carr, S N; McKeith, F K

    2010-08-01

    Pigs (n = 240) were allotted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS): 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60%, and 2 ractopamine (RAC) levels: 0 and 5 mg/kg. Four pigs per pen (2 barrows, 2 gilts) closest to pen mean BW were used for meat quality evaluation. Loins (n = 119) were evaluated for objective color; moisture and fat; subjective color, marbling, and firmness; and drip loss. Bellies (n = 119) were evaluated for weight, length, width, thickness, objective fat color, and firmness. Cured bellies were evaluated for pump yield, cook loss, and sliced bacon cook loss. Loin thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated on enhanced (salt and phosphate) boneless chops held in modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) packages for 0, 7, 14, and 21 d. Bacon TBARS were evaluated on sliced bacon held in vacuum packages for 0, 28, 56, and 84 d. Fat samples were collected from each jowl and belly and evaluated for fatty acid profile and iodine value (IV). Increasing DDGS decreased subjective marbling (P = 0.0134) and firmness (P = 0.0235), and increased drip loss (P = 0.0046). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin pH, subjective or objective color, percent moisture, or percent fat (P > 0.05). The RAC decreased subjective color (P = 0.0239), marbling (P = 0.0445), and a* (P = 0.0355). Increasing DDGS decreased belly weight (P = 0.0155), length (P = 0.0008), thickness (P = 0.0019), and firmness (P = 0.0054); decreased belly fat L* (P = 0.0818); and increased belly cook loss (P = 0.0890). Ractopamine did not affect any belly measurements, and there were no DDGS x RAC interactions (P > 0.05). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin TBARS at 0, 7, or 14 d. At 21 d, loin TBARS from 30, 45, and 60% DDGS groups were increased compared with 0 and 15% groups (P < 0.05). Ractopamine did not affect (P > 0.05) loin TBARS, and there were no (P > 0.05) DDGS x RAC interactions. Distillers dried

  10. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits.

  11. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  12. Effects of calcium oxide treatment of dry and modified wet corn distillers grains plus solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent digestibility of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A R; Duckworth, M J; Shike, D W; Schoonmaker, J P; Felix, T L

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding dried corn distillers grains (DDGS) or modified wet corn distillers grains (MDGS) with or without CaO treatment to feedlot steers on 1) growth performance and carcass characteristics and 2) diet digestibility, pattern of intake, and meal distribution. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 139; average initial BW = 336 ± 75 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): 1) 50% DDGS untreated, 2) 48.8% DDGS treated with 1.2% CaO, 3) 50% MDGS untreated, or 4) 48.8% MDGS treated with 1.2% CaO. The remainder of the diet was corn husklage, dry rolled corn, and vitamin and mineral supplement. In Exp. 2, fistulated steers (n = 8; average initial BW = 540 ± 250 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with the same dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.14) between distillers grains plus solubles (DGS) and CaO inclusion for DMI, ADG, final BW, or USDA yield and quality grades. However, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had decreased (P < 0.01) DMI, regardless of DGS type. Because CaO treatment decreased DMI without affecting (P = 0.66) ADG, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had increased (P < 0.01) G:F compared to steers not fed CaO. The variation in DMI found in this experiment could be explained by differences in meal size and distribution. Steers fed CaO-treated DGS ate a similar (P = 0.36) number of meals but ate smaller (P < 0.01) meals. No effects (P ≥ 0.55) of CaO treatment or its interaction with DGS type were found for apparent total tract DM or NDF digestibility. However, steers fed MDGS had increased (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility compared to steers fed DDGS. In conclusion, CaO treatment of DGS improved feed efficiency when DGS-based diets were fed but did not improve digestibility.

  13. The effects of dry-rolled corn particle size on performance, carcass traits, and starch digestibility in feedlot finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, E F; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D

    2016-03-01

    Crossbred yearling steers ( = 360; 395 ± 33.1 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate the effects of dry-rolled corn (DRC) particle size in diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and starch digestibility. Steers were used in a randomized complete block design and allocated to 36 pens (9 pens/treatment, with 10 animals/pen). Treatments were coarse DRC (4,882 μm), medium DRC (3,760 μm), fine DRC (2,359 μm), and steam-flaked corn (0.35 kg/L; SFC). Final BW and ADG were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). Dry matter intake was greater and G:F was lower ( < 0.05) for steers fed DRC vs. steers fed SFC. There was a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in DMI in the final 5 wk on feed with decreasing DRC particle size. Fecal starch decreased (linear, < 0.01) as DRC particle size decreased. In situ starch disappearance was lower for DRC vs. SFC ( < 0.05) and linearly increased ( < 0.05) with decreasing particle size at 8 and 24 h. Reducing DRC particle size did not influence growth performance but increased starch digestion and influenced DMI of cattle on finishing diets. No differences ( > 0.10) were observed among treatments for any of the carcass traits measured. Results indicate improved ruminal starch digestibility, reduced fecal starch concentration, and reduced DMI with decreasing DRC particle size in feedlot diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains on a DM basis.

  14. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  15. The effects of feeder design and dietary dried distillers' grains with solubles on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J R; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a conventional dry (five 30.5-cm spaces 152.4 cm wide; Staco Inc., Schaefferstown, PA) vs. a wet-dry (double sided; each side = 38.1-cm space; Crystal Spring; GroMaster Inc., Omaha, NE) finishing feeder (Exp. 1 and 2) and to evaluate the effects of feeder design and dietary level of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS; >10% oil; Exp. 3) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 1,186 pigs (32.1 kg BW) were used in a 69-d experiment. There were 26 to 28 pigs per pen and 22 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 4 phases. In Exp. 2, 1,236 pigs (28.7 kg BW) were used in a 104-d experiment, with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 23 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 5 phases. Carcass measurements were obtained from 11 pens of each feeder design after harvest. In Exp. 3, 1,080 pigs (35.1 kg BW) were used in a 99-d 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of feeder design (dry vs. wet-dry feeders) and DDGS (20 vs. 60%) with 10 pens of 27 pigs per treatment and all diets fed in 4 phases. Jowl fat samples were collected from 2 pigs per pen for fatty acid analysis and iodine value (IV) determination. In all experiments, pigs fed with the wet-dry feeder had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and final BW. In Exp. 2 and 3, HCW and backfat depth were increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed with a wet-dry feeder, but G:F and fat-free lean index (FFLI) were reduced. Jowl IV was also reduced (P < 0.05) with a wet-dry feeder in Exp. 3. Pigs fed 60% DDGS in Exp. 3 had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, final BW, HCW, and backfat but increased jowl IV and a tendency (P < 0.07) toward greater FFLI regardless of feeder type. In conclusion, pigs fed with this specific type of wet-dry feeder had improved ADG and ADFI, poorer G:F, and increased backfat depth compared to pigs fed with a conventional dry feeder. The poorer growth performance and increased jowl IV of

  16. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) with 25% and 45% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism, and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing beef steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed ...

  17. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on fatty acids, sensory attributes, and shelf life of loins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-four crossbred steers were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) based finishing rations with or without 35% wet distiller's grain plus solubles (WDGS) to determine effects of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on marbling attributes, sensory attributes, and shelf-life of...

  18. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  19. Performance of alternative diets containing solvent-extracted distillers dried grains with solubles compared to traditional diets for pond-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and hybrid catfish I. punctatus x I. furcat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A regional pond study was initiated in April 2011 to evaluate feeds containing solvent-extracted distillers dried grains with solubles (SE-DDGS) in both 28%- and 32% protein catfish feeds. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were stocked in multiple-batch production ponds at the University of Ark...

  20. Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Wilson, K B; Matulis, R J; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    One hundred ninety-two pigs were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.7 ± 2.3 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts/pen), and within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with main effects of diet form (meal vs. pelleted) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion (0% vs. 30%). Pigs were slaughtered after a 91-d feeding trial, and carcasses were fabricated after a 24-h chilling period. Belly dimensions and flop distance were measured, and an adipose tissue sample from each belly was collected for fatty acid analysis. Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility before being returned to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for further evaluation. Although bellies from pigs fed pelleted diets were 5.3% heavier ( < 0.01) than bellies from meal-fed pigs, belly weight as a percentage of chilled side weight ( = 0.55) and fresh belly dimensions ( ≥ 0.11) were not affected by diet form. Slab bacon weight and cooked yield were greater ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies from pellet-fed than meal-fed pigs. Despite pellet-fed pigs having a 3.1-unit greater iodine value (IV) than meal-fed pigs, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.16) of diet form on commercial bacon slicing yields. Bacon slabs from pellet-fed pigs produced more ( < 0.01) total bacon slices, but 3.1% fewer ( < 0.01) slices per kilogram than slabs from meal fed pigs. Inclusion of 30% DDGS reduced belly thickness ( < 0.001), flop distance ( < 0.001), and initial belly weight ( = 0.04) by 0.32 cm, 4.97 cm, and 2.85, respectively, and increased ( < 0.001) belly fat IV by 7.1 units compared with bellies from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Feeding 0% DDGS produced more ( < 0.01) total bacon slices than feeding 30% DDGS. Distillers dried grains with solubles inclusion had no effect on slice yields ( ≥ 0.14) or slices per kilogram ( = 0.08). Overall, bellies from pellet-fed pigs were heavier and had greater IV but did not differ in

  1. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets.

  2. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  3. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers' dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve States in the U.S. In 2011.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; McMaster, Nicole J; Musser, Robert; Schmale, David G

    2014-03-26

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g-1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g-1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g-1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g-1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g-1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g-1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g-1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g-1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products.

  4. High-shear, jet-cooking, and alkali treatment of corn distillers' dried grains to obtain products with enhanced protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Inglett, G E; Chen, D; Rose, D J; Berhow, M

    2010-08-01

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) have potential to be a nutritionally important source of protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants. DDG was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking, with or without alkaline pH adjustment and autoclaving. Soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed for protein, oil and ash. Extracts were analyzed for phenolic acids and antioxidant activity. Protein contents were significantly elevated in the insoluble fractions after treatment and the oil content was drastically increased in the insoluble fraction after high-shear and jet-cooking without pH adjustment. Alkaline pH adjustment resulted in a soluble fraction that was highest in phenolic acids, but not antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the 50% ethanol extract from DDG that had been subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking. These results suggest that high-shear and jet-cooking may be useful processing treatments to increase the value of DDG by producing fractions high in protein, oil and extractable phenolic acids with high antioxidant activity. The DDG fractions and extracts described herein may be useful as food and nutraceutical ingredients, and, if used for these applications, will increase the value of DDG and ease economic burdens on ethanol producers, allowing them to compete in the bio-fuel marketplace.

  5. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  6. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion.

  7. Effect of forage level and replacing canola meal with dry distillers grains with solubles in precision-fed heifer diets: Digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Rico, D E; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (DM basis). Diets were fed to allow for 800 g/d of body weight gain and fed 1×/d. Rumen contents were sampled at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 20 h after feeding for rumen fermentation measures. Low-forage rations had greater DM and organic matter apparent digestibility. We detected a quadratic effect for DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber apparent digestibility, with the 14% DDGS inclusion level having the highest values. Nitrogen retention decreased with increasing levels of DDGS. Molar proportions of acetate tended to be greater for HF and decreased as DDGS increased; propionate increased as DDGS increased, resulting in the opposite effect on acetate to propionate ratio. Rumen protozoa count decreased as DDGS increased. Moderate levels (14% of DM) of DDGS appear to enhance nutrient utilization and fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifers fed different F:C diets.

  8. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed.

  9. Properties of dried distillers grains with solubles, Paulownia wood, and pine wood reinforced high density polyethylene composites: Effect of maleation, chemical modification, and the mixing of fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to identify usable lignocellulosic materials that can be blended with thermoplastic resins to produced commercial lignocellulosic plastic composites (LPC) at lower costs with improved performance. The core objectives of this study are to: 1) evaluate the use of dried distillers grai...

  10. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  11. Effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in steers fed seventy percent concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S

    2009-09-01

    Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (500 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in growing diets (70% concentrate) on OM intake, site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of 30% grass hay, 6% concentrated separator by-product, 4% supplement, and 60% dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, urea, or DDGS (DM basis). Treatments consisted of increasing DDGS at 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60% of diet DM replacing a combination of dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, and urea. Diets were balanced for growing steers gaining 1.22 kg/d and included 0.25% (DM basis) chromic oxide as a digesta flow marker. Diets were offered to the steers for ad libitum intake each day (10% above the intake of the previous day). Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for collections. Intake of OM responded quadratically (P = 0.004) with greatest intakes at 15% DDGS and least at 60% DDGS. No differences (P >or= 0.14) were observed in CP intake or duodenal flow of OM, CP, and NDF. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestibilities decreased (linear; P or= 0.19). A cubic (P = 0.02) effect was observed for total ruminal fill (as is basis) with the greatest fill at 0% DDGS and the least fill at 45% inclusion. Replacing dry-rolled corn with up to 60% DDGS in 70% concentrate diets resulted in no adverse effects on

  12. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health.

  13. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  14. Effects of dietary inclusion and NaOH treatment of dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Murphy, T A; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) can decrease rumen pH because of their inherent acidity. Two replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with ruminally fistulated heifers to determine the effects of dietary inclusion and NaOH treatment of DDGS on rumen metabolism. In Exp. 1, dietary treatments were 0%, 20%, 40%, or 60% DDGS on a DM basis. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, 20% vitamin-mineral supplement, and corn (to replace DDGS) on a DM basis. Dry matter intake decreased (linear; P < 0.01) with increasing dietary inclusion of DDGS. Rumen pH was less than 5.3 from 1.5 to 12 h after feeding regardless of dietary DDGS inclusion, and mean rumen pH tended to decrease (linear; P = 0.08) with increasing DDGS. Rumen fluid S(2-) and rumen H(2)S gas concentrations increased (P < 0.01) with increasing DDGS inclusion at all time points postfeeding. At 3 h after feeding, ruminal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and total VFA increased linearly (P < 0.04) with increasing dietary inclusion of DDGS. Acetate to propionate ratio (A:P) ranged from 0.97 to 1.25 and was not affected (P = 0.88) by diet over time. In Exp. 2, dietary treatments were 1) 25% DDGS inclusion, untreated, 2) 60% DDGS inclusion, untreated, 3) 25% DDGS inclusion, treated with 2% NaOH, and 4) 60% DDGS inclusion, treated with 2% NaOH. Dry matter intake decreased (P < 0.01) when 60% DDGS was included in the diet regardless of NaOH treatment. Mean rumen pH was greater (P < 0.01) when NaOH-treated DDGS was fed regardless of dietary inclusion level. There were interactions (P ≤ 0.06) of NaOH treatment by DDGS inclusion by time for mean H(2)S and S(2-) concentrations. These interactions occurred because the magnitude of the response to NaOH treatment was greater for the 60% DDGS diets than for the 25% DDGS diets only from 1.5 to 9 h postfeeding. There were no interactions (P > 0.05) of NaOH treatment by DDGS inclusion on VFA concentrations. Acetate concentration decreased

  15. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  16. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ≤ 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ≥ 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P < 0.01) in bellies from BT15- than YG15-fed pigs. In contrast, proportions of linoleic acid, all PUFA, and iodine value were greater (P < 0

  17. Effect of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles or sugar beet pulp on prevalence of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomson, L W; Pieper, R; Marshall, J K; Van Kessel, A G

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is of concern in the swine industry with relevance for animal health and consumer safety. Nutritional strategies might help to reduce ST infection and transmission. This study examined the potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) to alter intestinal microbial communities and ST shedding using a Trojan model. Weaned pigs (n = 105; 28.5 ± 3.5 d of age) were separated into 3 treatment groups (7 pigs/pen) and fed a wheat-based control diet or the control diet formulated with 15% wheat DDGS or 6% SBP inclusion. Following 12 d of diet adaptation, 2 pigs/pen were inoculated with 2 x 10(9) cfu ST, resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid. Fecal swabs were taken from infected pigs and pen-mates (contact pigs) for 9 d following challenge, enriched in nutrient broth for 24 h, and plated on selective media to determine prevalence of ST. The ranges of prevalence of ST in feces were from 90 to 100% in challenged pigs and 74 to 78% in contact pigs. No influence of treatment on rectal temperature and prevalence of ST in contact pigs were observed. Fifteen contact pigs were euthanized per treatment group on 9 and 10 d postchallenge to enumerate in intestinal contents (ileum, cecum, and proximal colon), Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridium clusters I, VI, and XVIa by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and to determine ST prevalence by selective culture. No significant effects of diet were observed with respect to ST prevalence in feces, ileum, cecum, colon, and lymph nodes of contact pigs. Compared with the control diet, DGGS and SBP diets showed a trend towards increased (P < 0.1) number of Lactobacillus species in the cecum and colon. Although both wheat DGGS and SBP tended to increase the Lactobacillus spp. neither of the feed ingredients affected ST prevalence.

  18. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  19. Effect of dietary adipic acid and corn dried distillers grains with solubles on laying hen performance and nitrogen loss from stored excreta with or without sodium bisulfate.

    PubMed

    Romero, C; Abdallh, M E; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2012-05-01

    Effects of dietary adipic acid (0 vs. 1%) and corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 20%) were evaluated on hen performance and egg characteristics from 26 to 34 wk of age. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were randomly assigned to blocks of 6 consecutive cages (36 cages per diet; 2 hens per cage). On wk 2 and 7 of the experiment, excreta were collected by cage block, mixed, and equally split into 2 containers. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) was spread (8.8 kg/100 m(2)) on the top surface of half of the containers. All containers were stored uncovered for 14 d at room temperature. Excreta pH, DM, and N content were measured on d 0, 7, and 14 of storage. Feed intake (112 g/d per hen), egg production (96.1%), and egg specific gravity (1.079 g/g) were not affected by diet. On excreta collection day, a synergy (P = 0.014) between dietary adipic acid and DDGS was detected, as the lowest excreta pH was obtained with the diet including both adipic acid and DDGS. On d 7 of storage, excreta pH was still reduced by dietary adipic acid (P = 0.046) and DDGS (P < 0.001), but a week later, only dietary DDGS decreased excreta pH (8.91 vs. 9.21; P < 0.001). Whereas dietary adipic acid had no influence on excreta N loss, excreta from hens fed 20% DDGS lost 19.7% more N (P = 0.039) during storage than hens not eating DDGS. Surface amendment of excreta with SBS increased excreta DM content, with the effect being even more marked on d 14 of storage (increase of 6.7 percentage units; P < 0.001), consistently decreased excreta pH during storage (P < 0.001) and reduced N loss by 26.1% for the 14 d of storage period.

  20. The effect of vitamin E on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Licong; Shan, Anshan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on laying performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and several biochemical parameters of laying hens fed corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the laying period (40 to 63 wk of age). A total of 360 Hy-Line Variety Brown hens were randomly assigned to 6 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 10 hens each. Hens were allocated to diets 1 through 6 in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 levels of DDGS (0, 10, and 20%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 and 200 mg/kg). The results indicated that yolk color and eggshell thickness increased with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). However, increasing DDGS to 20% in laying hen diets significantly reduced feed conversion (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E significantly improved egg production and yolk percentage (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary levels of vitamin E caused a decrease in cholesterol and an increase in the α-tocopherol concentration of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with DDGS decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Supplementation with high levels of vitamin E decreased malondialdehyde and increased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase concentrations of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that DDGS was successfully fed to laying hens at levels up to 10% without adverse effects on laying performance. Additionally, vitamin E supplementation improved egg production and egg quality and provided health benefits to laying hens.

  1. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  2. The net energy values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles and wheat bran for laying hens using indirect calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Yuan, J M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  3. Evaluation of feeding dried distiller's grains with solubles and dry-rolled corn on the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Drouillard, James S; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G

    2009-03-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are foodborne pathogens that reside in the gut of cattle and are shed in the feces. Previous work indicated a positive association between feeding cattle distiller's grains (DG) and an increase in E. coli O157:H7 prevalence. Feeding processed grains also has been shown to affect fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding DG and dry-rolled corn (DRC), alone or in combination, on fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in finishing cattle. Cattle were allotted to pens (n = 28), and fed dietary treatments (n = 150 days) structured in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement; the factors were 0% or 25% dried corn DG with solubles (DDGS) and 0% or 25% DRC in steam-flaked corn-based high-grain diets. Fecal samples were collected from each pen floor before initiating dietary treatments and at least once every 2 weeks after final diets began. Overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in fecal samples was 5.1%. There were no significant effects of DDGS, DRC, or sampling time on E. coli O157:H7 prevalence (p > 0.20). Overall prevalence of Salmonella in pen floor fecal samples was 23.7%, and sampling week affected prevalence (p < 0.01), ranging from < 1% (week 1) to 77.5% (week 17). Salmonella prevalence was not affected by cattle diet, and no work had previously reported an association between either DG or DRC and Salmonella prevalence. Lack of an association between E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and feeding DG or DRC is contrary to previous observations. Further research is needed to understand inconsistencies between studies of E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and potential associations with DG and grain-processing methods.

  4. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  5. Effects of increasing levels of dried corn distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of yearling heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Coleman, C M; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Three hundred forty-seven crossbred heifers (330 +/- 11 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block study to identify the optimal level of dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DGS) in flaked corn finishing diets. Fifty-four pens were used, with 9 pens per treatment and 6 to 7 heifers per pen. Finishing diets were steam-flaked corn-based and were fed once daily for 148 d. Dietary treatments consisted of 6 levels of DGS (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75%, DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, and final BW responded quadratically (P < or = 0.03) to increasing levels of DGS and were maximized at 15% DGS. However, G:F decreased linearly (P = 0.01) as level of DGS increased. Longissimus muscle areas were not different (P > or = 0.27), whereas 12th-rib fat thicknesses decreased linearly (P = 0.05) for heifers fed increasing levels of DGS. Marbling score and USDA yield grades were not different (P > or = 0.06) for heifers fed different levels of DGS. Number of carcasses grading USDA Prime or Choice were not different (P > or = 0.07), whereas number of carcasses grading USDA Select increased (P = 0.02; linear) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Myofibrillar and overall tenderness increased linearly (P = 0.01) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Juiciness, off-flavor intensity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different (P > or = 0.16) among treatments. Redness of steaks (i.e., a*) was not different (P > or = 0.13) for steaks collected from heifers fed different levels of DGS as evidenced by similar instrumental color measurements after d 0, 3, and 5 of display. However, on d 7, steak color was less red (P = 0.04) and had more metmyoglobin. Concentration of linoleic acid (18:2n-6cis), total n-6 fatty acids, and total PUFA linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing levels of DGS.

  6. Evaluation of nutrient equivalency of microbial phytase in hens in late lay given maize-soybean or distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets.

    PubMed

    Deniz, G; Gezen, S S; Kara, C; Gencoglu, H; Meral, Y; Baser, E

    2013-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 360 Lohmann LSL-Classic White Leghorn layers (64 weeks old) to evaluate the effects of supplementation of microbial phytase on production, egg quality, bone, selected manure parameters and feed costs. 2. Experimental diets were formulated as follows: (1) maize-soybean (CS), (2) CS+300 units of phytase (FTU)/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYCa+P), (3) CS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYtotal), (4) CS+100 g/kg distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), (5) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYCa+P), or (6) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYtotal). 3. Each dietary treatment was assigned to 4 replicate groups with 3 cages and 5 hens per cage. The hens were provided with feed and water ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. 4. CS+PHYCa+P, CS+PHYtotal, DDGS+PHYCa+P and DDGS+PHYtotal diets supplemented with phytase provided similar percentage egg production, egg weight, egg mass, exterior egg quality, initial and final body weight compared with phytase-free diets. 5. However, supplementation of phytase to the experimental diets and calculation of the total nutrient equivalency for enzyme caused increased feed intake and decreased feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. 6. No differences in manure dry matter, crude ash, total nitrogen, tibia crude ash, calcium and phosphorus contents were found among the experimental diets. On the other hand, manure total phosphorus content was significantly decreased in the DDGS diet and diets supplemented with phytase in comparison to the CS diet. 7. It was concluded that the addition of microbial phytase to the CS-based diets or diets with DDGS of hens in late lay and using Ca and available P equivalency of

  7. Determination of energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed corn distillers' dried grains with solubles containing different lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Dong, Bing; Zang, Jianjun; Gong, Limin

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate the digestibility of energy, nitrogen and amino acids (AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing one of five corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), including three normal oil DDGS (NO-DDGS) and two low oil DDGS (LO-DDGS) samples. Exp. 1 was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content. Six growing barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 35.1 +/- 2.2 kg) were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design, with six periods and six diets. One diet was a corn soybean meal basal diet and the other five diets were based on corn, soybean meal and 28.8% DDGS. The average DE and ME values for the three NO-DDGS samples were 16.0 and 14.9 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). These values were 9 and 13% greater than the LO-DDGS values of 14.7 and 13.2 MJ/kg DM respectively. Exp. 2 was conducted to determine and compare apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility for crude protein and AA in the five DDGS samples. Six growing barrows (initial BW, 32.2 +/- 1.9 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design with six periods and six diets. Five of the diets were based on the five DDGS samples, and the remaining one diet was nitrogen-free diet based on cornstarch and sucrose. Titanium dioxide (0.1%) was used as inert marker. The results of the experiment showed the largest variation among the different samples in AID and SID for lysine (from 41.8 to 65.8% and 53.8 to 73.9% respectively) and threonine (from 54.3 to 73.8% and 65.2 to 79.5% respectively). Also, among the indispensable AA, the SID values for arginine, histidine, threonine and tryptophan observed in LO-DDGS were not different from the values derived from NO-DDGS. In conclusion, LO-DDGS may have decreased energy compared with NO-DDGS because of its lower fat content. However, oil removal during the production of DDGS may not affect amino acid digestibility.

  8. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P < 0.01) in IC when compared to PC. Bellies were thicker (P < 0.01) and tended to have greater belly flop distances (P = 0.07) in PC compared to IC, however iodine values (IV) were not altered (P = 0.84). Carcass traits (P ≥ 0.10), cutting yields (P ≥ 0.43), and fresh belly characteristics (P ≥ 0.08) were minimally affected by DDGS feeding strategy. Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P < 0.01) in IC compared with PC. At 7 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 1.57% units greater (P = 0.03) in IC compared with PC. Distiller's grains feeding strategy had no effect (P ≥ 0.83) on boneless carcass cutting yields in IC; while in PC, these yields were 2.32% units less (P < 0.02) in control-fed barrows when compared to other feeding strategies (castration method × feeding strategy; P = 0.03). Bellies from PC tended to be thicker (P = 0.07) and have similar flop distances (P = 0.44) and IV (P = 0.54) when compared with IC. Iodine value

  9. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  10. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  11. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  12. Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 μm. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 μm improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 μm DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 μm had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 μm DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 μm. Compared with a 595 or 818 μm DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 μm reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of

  13. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  14. Effect of dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles, canola meal, and chloride on electrolyte balance, growth performance, and litter moisture of growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farahat, M H; Hassanein, E I; Abdel-Razik, W M; Noll, S L

    2013-05-01

    A study determined if dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), canola meal (CM), or chloride (Cl) could adversely affect the performance and litter moisture of turkeys. A total of 1,089 Nicholas toms were used in a study during 2 to 14 wk of age. The poults were randomized into 99 pens (11 poults/pen) with number reduced to 10/pen at 8 wk. The factorial arrangement consisted of 3 diet sets [corn-soy (CS), CS + 20% DDGS, CS + 20% DDGS + 10% canola meal] and 3 Cl levels (0.22, 0.32, 0.42%), making 9 treatments distributed in 11 replicate blocks. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric with similar levels of digestible amino acids for each of 4 feeding phases. The dietary electrolyte balance varied with diet set and age period and ranged from 351 to 181 mEq/kg of diet (Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-)) or 184 to -29 mEq/kg (Na(+) + K(+)) - (Cl(-) + S(2-)). Individual BW and pen feed residues were measured at each phase. Samples of litter were collected at 11 and 14 wk for measuring moisture. During 2 to 14 wk, no differences were observed in BW and ADG attributable to diet (P < 0.05). Birds fed diets containing DDGS or with CM consumed 6.0% more ADFI (P > 0.05). No differences were found for Cl or diet × Cl interaction for BW, ADG, or ADFI. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher (P > 0.05) for birds fed diets containing DDGS or CM. A diet × Cl interaction was found for FCR during 8 to 14 wk; increasing Cl over 0.22% significantly increased the FCR by 3.0% only in diets containing DDGS with CM. Litter moisture was increased in diets containing DDGS or with CM, and by increased Cl. Including S in dietary electrolyte balance resulted in a better albeit weak correlation with ADG during 2 to 5 wk (-0.51 vs. -0.36) and FCR during 11 to 14 wk (-0.36 vs. -0.21). Due to the detrimental effect on FCR, high Cl should be avoided with DDGS and CM in turkey grower diets.

  15. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    PubMed

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (P<0.01). Protein was decreased (P=0.01) and fat was increased (P=0.01) in milk from DDGS compared with CON cows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (P<0.01) and increased long chain FA (P<0.01) at both time points. Saturated FA content of milk was decreased (P<0.01) at both time-points in DDGS compared with CON cows, which resulted in an increase (P<0.01) in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, including cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Daily gain of the DDGS calves was increased (P=0.01) compared with CON calves, resulting in heavier BW on day 129 (P=0.01). Heavier BW of DDGS calves was maintained through weaning (P=0.01). Timed-artificial insemination (TAI) rates were greater for cows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (P<0.02), but dietary treatment had no effect on overall pregnancy rates (P=0.64). In summary, feeding DDGS to lactating beef cows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male

  16. Xylanase increased the ileal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides and concentration of low molecular weight nondigestible carbohydrates in pigs fed high levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M B; Yu, S; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Lærke, H N

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS-a control diet or 1 of 3 diets with CAX, EX, or EXP-in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 7 d; adaptation lasted 4 d, and the ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7, when spot samples of feces were also collected. Digesta samples were analyzed for NDC, total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), low molecular weight (LMW) NDC, OM, CP, fat, starch, and marker. Compared with the control diet, addition of CAX, EX, and EXP increased the AID of arabinoxylan by 32 (P < 0.001), 28 (P = 0.001), and 24% (P = 0.004), respectively. In addition, EXP increased the AID of noncellulosic polysaccharide glucose by 21% compared with the control (P = 0.005). Compared with the control, addition of EX, EXP, and CAX decreased the concentration of soluble arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P < 0.0001), 40 (P < 0.0001), and 21% (P = 0.022), respectively. Furthermore, addition of CAX, EXP, and EX increased the concentration of LMW arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P = 0.0001), 36 (P = 0.0006), and 24% (P = 0.023), respectively, compared with the control. Addition of EX and EXP decreased the concentration of soluble NSP of ileal digesta by 25 (P = 0.001) and 26% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the control diet. Addition of CAX (P < 0.0001) and EXP (P = 0.013) increased the arabinose-to-xylose ratio in the insoluble arabinoxylan fraction in ileal digesta compared with

  17. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  18. Metabolizable energy content of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles supplemented with or without a mixture of carbohydrases and protease for broilers and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, A O; Olukosi, O A

    2015-06-01

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to determine the AME and AMEn of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) without or with supplementation of an enzyme mixture containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) in broilers and turkeys. One hundred twenty-six male Ross 308 broilers (Experiment 1) or 126 male BUT 10 turkeys (Experiment 2) were offered a nutrient-adequate diet from d 1 to 14. On d 14, birds in each experiment were allocated to 6 treatments consisting of 3 levels of wheat-DDGS (0, 300, or 600 g/kg) and 2 levels of XAP (0 or 250 mg/kg diet) in a randomized complete block design. The AME or AMEn content of wheat-DDGS was determined from the slope of regression of wheat-DDGS-associated energy intake (kilocalories) against wheat-DDGS intake (kilograms). In Experiment 1, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diets linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention, AME, and AMEn, irrespective of XAP supplementation. The AME of wheat-DDGS without or with XAP for broilers was 3,587 or 3,700 kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,356 and 3,459 kcal/kg DM for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP, respectively. In Experiment 2, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diet linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention irrespective of XAP supplementation. Diet AME and AMEn linearly decreased (P<0.05) as the level of wheat-DDGS increased in the diets without added XAP, whereas there was no effect of increasing wheat-DDGS level on dietary AME or AMEn in the XAP-supplemented diets. The AME of wheat-DDGS without and with supplemental XAP for turkeys were 3,355 and 3,558 kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,109 and 3,294 kcal/kg DM, respectively, for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP. Supplemental XAP increased (P>0.05) the AME and AMEn of wheat-DDGS for broilers and turkeys by up to 6%. It was concluded that wheat-DDGS is a valuable source of AME for broilers and turkeys.

  19. Evaluation of high dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles and supplementation of protease and xylanase in the diets of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis challenge.

    PubMed

    Barekatain, M R; Antipatis, C; Rodgers, N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Iji, P A; Choct, M

    2013-06-01

    A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16. The disease challenge and DDGS inclusion significantly (P < 0.01) interacted, depressing BW gain and feed conversion ratio only in wk 3. Disease challenge adversely influenced (P < 0.01) BW gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds in the third week and across the 35-d study. Over the last 2 wk and across the 35-d trial, the interaction between DDGS and enzyme supplementation showed a tendency (P = 0.09) to gain more BW in birds regardless of the disease challenge. Inclusion of 20% DDGS markedly (P < 0.01) interacted with disease challenge, accelerating the proliferation of C. perfringens in the ceca at d 17. Inoculation of birds with C. perfringens resulted in higher (P < 0.01) counts of C. perfringens in both ileal and cecal contents. The necrotic enteritis-related lesions (d 17) were more severe (P < 0.05) in the intestine of infected birds fed DDGS diets than in birds fed the control diet. Incorporation of DDGS to the diets improved (P < 0.01) the IgA and IgG titer at d 13 but interacted with the disease challenge, reducing the concentration of IgA at d 21 and IgM at d 35 in the infected birds. In conclusion, incorporating a high level of DDGS in the diet of broiler chickens may increase susceptibility to necrotic enteritis. Supplementation of enzymes did not reveal significant mitigation effect in infected birds but helped the birds fed DDGS to maintain feed intake and BW gain.

  20. Determination of the energy value of corn distillers dried grains with solubles containing different oil levels when fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-C; Li, P; Liu, D-W; Li, D-F; Wang, F-L; Su, Y-B; Zhu, Z-P; Piao, X-S

    2017-04-01

    This experiment used indirect calorimetry to determine the net energy (NE) content of five corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn DDGS) containing different oil levels and to compare the NE obtained using indirect calorimetry with that calculated using previously published prediction equations. There were two samples of high-oil DDGS, one sample of medium-oil DDGS and two samples of low-oil DDGS. Twelve barrows (initial BW of 32.8 ± 2.0 kg) were used in a repeated 3 × 6 Youden square design with three periods and six diets. The diets were comprised of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and five diets containing 29.25% of one of the corn DDGS added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, the pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 16 days which included 7 days for adaption to feed and environmental conditions. On day 8, the pigs were transferred to respiration chambers and fed one of the six diets at 2300 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day. Faeces and urine were collected from day 9 to 13 and heat production (HP) was also measured. From day 14 to 15, the pigs were fed 893 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day to allow them to adapt from the fed to the fasted state. On the last day of each period (day 16), the pigs were fasted and fasting HP was measured. The digestible energy value was 16.0, 17.1 and 15.3 MJ/kg DM, the metabolizable energy value was 14.6, 15.5 and 13.7 MJ/kg DM and the NE value was 10.7, 11.0 and 9.4 MJ/kg DM, for the high-oil, medium-oil and low-oil corn DDGS, respectively. The NE obtained with indirect calorimetry in the present study did not differ from values calculated using previously published prediction equations.

  1. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  2. Effects of adding saturated fat to diets with sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 112 barrows (avg BW of 72 kg) was used in a 65-day growth assay to determine the effects of adding a source of saturated fat (beef tallow) into diets with sorghum-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The pigs were sorted by ancestry and blocked by BW with seven pigs/pen an...

  3. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  4. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI and ADG and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) G:F than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P < 0.008) as juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P < 0.05) and serum Ca and P and fecal P were similar (P > 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves

  5. Effects of wheat or corn distillers dried grains with solubles on feedlot performance, fecal shedding, and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Hallewell, J; McAllister, T A; Thomas, J; Booker, C W; Hannon, S; Jim, G K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; May, M L; Peterson, R E; Flaig, C; Hussey, E M; Stanford, K

    2012-08-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a coproduct of the ethanol industry and are often used as a replacement for grain in livestock production. Feeding corn DDGS to cattle has been linked to increased fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7, although in Canada, DDGS are often produced from wheat. This study assessed the effects of including 22.5% wheat or corn DDGS (DM basis) into barley-based diets on performance, carcass characteristics, animal health, and fecal E. coli O157:H7 shedding of commercial feedlot cattle. Cattle (n = 6,817) were randomly allocated to 10 pens per treatment group: WDDGS (diets including 22.5% wheat DDGS), CDDGS (diets including 22.5% corn DDGS), or CTRL (barley substituted for DDGS). Freshly voided fecal pats (n = 588) were collected and pooled monthly for fecal pH measurement and screened for naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and direct plating (DP). Hide swabs (n = 367) were collected from randomly selected cattle from each pen before slaughter. Pen-floor fecal samples (n = 18) were collected from treatment groups at entry to the feedlot (<14 d on the finishing diet) and after adapting to the finishing diet for ≥ 14 d, inoculated (10(9) cfu of a 5 strain naldixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 mixture), incubated (20°C) and evaluated weekly (IMS and DP) to assess fecal E. coli O157:H7 persistence. The WDDGS group had 3.0% poorer ADG (P = 0.007), 5.3% poorer G:F (P < 0.001), and a decreased proportion of Canada Quality Grade AAA carcasses (P = 0.022) compared with CTRL cattle. The CDDGS group had a similar ADG (P = 0.06), a decreased proportion of Canada Yield Grade (YG) 1 (P < 0.001), and greater proportions of Canada YG 2 (P = 0.003) and YG 3 (P < 0.001) carcasses compared with the CTRL group. There were no differences among groups in any of the animal health parameters assessed. Inclusion of DDGS in cattle finishing diets had no effect on fecal shedding (P = 0.650) or persistence

  6. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on growing and finishing steer intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and steak color and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S; Maddock, R J

    2009-12-01

    Seventy-two crossbred and purebred beef steers (296 +/- 9 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design to determine effects of 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 29.2% CP, 9.7% fat, DM basis) inclusion during the growing or finishing period on DMI, performance, carcass, and meat quality traits. The resulting treatments were 0:0, 30:0, 0:30, and 30:30 (diet DDGS percentage fed during growing and finishing periods, respectively). Steers were individually fed a growing diet (65% concentrate) for 57 d, then acclimated to and fed a finishing diet (90% concentrate) for 80 or 145 d. Dietary ingredients included dry-rolled corn, corn silage, grass hay, concentrated separator by-product, and supplement. Diets included 27.5 mg/kg of monensin and 11 mg/kg of tylosin and were formulated to contain a minimum of 12.5% CP, 0.70% Ca, and 0.30% P. During the growing period, DMI was not different (P >or= 0.63; 10.22 +/- 0.23 kg/d; 2.42 +/- 0.06% of BW). Steer performance, including ADG (1.75 +/- 0.05 kg/d) and G:F (174.1 +/- 6.8 g/kg), was not affected (P >or= 0.14) by treatment during the growing period, and final BW at the end of the growing period was not different (425 +/- 7 kg; P = 0.99). During the finishing period, DMI was not different (P >or= 0.54; 8.47 +/- 0.66 kg/d; 1.57 +/- 0.09% BW). During the finishing period, no differences (P >or= 0.22) were observed for ADG (1.54 +/- 0.07 kg/d) or G:F (202.4 +/- 28.3 g/kg). As a result, final BW was not different (P >or= 0.28; 551 +/- 15 kg). Longissimus muscle area (77.8 +/- 3.3 cm(2)), 12th-rib fat thickness (1.26 +/- 0.10 cm), and KPH (2.48 +/- 0.16%) were not different (P >or= 0.16). There were no differences (P >or= 0.35) in yield grade (3.33 +/- 0.17) or marbling (431 +/- 21; Small(0) = 400). Results from the trained panel indicated no differences (P >or= 0.16) in tenderness, which averaged 6.03 +/- 0.16 (8-point hedonic scale); however, steaks from steers fed 0:30 or 30:30 tended (P = 0.10) to be

  7. Lactation responses and amino acid utilization of dairy cows fed low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without rumen-protected lysine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Paz, H A; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different amounts of low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without supplementation of rumen-protected Lys (RPL) on lactation responses and AA utilization. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 188 ± 13 DIM were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) 15% low-fat DDGS, (2) 15% low-fat DDGS plus RPL, (3) 30% low-fat DDGS, and (4) 30% low-fat DDGS plus RPL. Periods lasted 21 d, with the last 3 d for data collection. Basal diets (without RPL) were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model [Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute (Chazy, NY)] to be isonitrogenous (16.9% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.63 Mcal/kg) and inclusion of low-fat DDGS increased at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Inclusion rate of low-fat DDGS and RPL supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield, averaging 25.3 ± 0.97 kg/d and 26.9 ± 1.94 kg/d, respectively (means ± standard error of the means). Milk fat and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatments but milk protein concentration decreased in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS compared with those fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS (3.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.12%). Updated predictions from the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model showed a decrease of 25 g of metabolizable protein Lys in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS. Compared with cows fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS, cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS had a marked increase in extraction efficiency (49.4 vs. 61.4 ± 2.51%) and a tendency to increase milk protein concentration (3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 0.12%) with RPL supplementation, which supported that Lys supply was inadequate. Despite differences observed in milk protein concentration, milk protein

  8. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Pérez, B. I.; Garzón-Proaño, J. S.; López-Soto, M. A.; Barreras, A.; González, V. M.; Plascencia, A.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Ríos-Rincón, F. G.; Zinn, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg) with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis) in substitution for dry-rolled (DR) corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE) of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01), but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM) digestion (linear effect, p<0.01). Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02) duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN) or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N) were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04) as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06) and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08). However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg), reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs. PMID:25049896

  9. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, steers fed 0% CaO had the greatest prefeeding ruminal pH, steers fed 0 and 0.8% CaO exhibited the most rapid postfeeding decline in ruminal pH, and steers fed 2.4% CaO exhibited a relatively stable ruminal pH throughout the 24-h period (treatment × time; P ≤ 0.01). Acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentrations increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding with increasing CaO. Propionate at 3 h postfeeding increased from 0 to 1.6% CaO and decreased from 1.6 to 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.10). Urine pH increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) while urine output and urine ammonia decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as CaO inclusion increased

  10. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  11. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  12. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P < 0.01) G:F (0.4) than pigs fed no tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P < 0.01) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth of pigs independent of DDGS. Feeding DDGS reduced (P < 0.01) belly firmness, as measured by belly flop angle, independent of tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P < 0.10). Feeding DDGS and tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P < 0.01) by feeding tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the concentration of PUFA in belly fat but there was no effect of tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and

  13. Pork fat quality of pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles with variable oil content and evaluation of iodine value prediction equations.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C

    2016-03-01

    Back, belly, and jowl fat samples of pigs fed control corn-soybean meal-based diets and diets containing 4 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were used to determine the impact of feeding DDGS with variable oil content on pork fat quality and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of published iodine value (IV) prediction equations. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 corn-soybean meal diets containing 40% DDGS from different sources with 10.7, 5.6, 14.2, or 16.0% ether extract (EE; as-fed) content. Diets did not contain any other supplemental lipid sources. Regardless of fat depot, SFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 5.6% EE DDGS (35.4) was greater ( < 0.05) than that of pigs fed 14.2 or 16.0% EE DDGS sources (34.4 and 30.2, respectively) and tended to be greater ( < 0.10) than that of pigs fed 10.7% EE DDGS (34.6). Pigs fed 10.7 and 14.2% EE DDGS had greater ( < 0.01) SFA concentration than pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS. Regardless of fat depot, MUFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources were similar (43.7, 43.1, and 43.0, respectively) but were greater ( < 0.01) than that of pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS (40.0). A dietary treatment × fat depot interaction was observed for PUFA ( < 0.05) and IV ( = 0.079). Pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources had reduced ( < 0.01) PUFA concentration and IV compared with pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS, but the magnitude of responses in PUFA and IV to the variable oil content of DDGS was greater in backfat than in belly and jowl fat. Carcass fat IV data were used to evaluate prediction error (PE) and bias of published carcass fat IV prediction equations. Equations using dietary C18:2 content or IV product as a single predictor resulted in highly variable PE (g/100 g) ranging from 3.43 to 8.36 and bias (g/100 g) ranging from -5.05 to 5.66. Using equations that included additional diet composition information and pig growth performance factors decreased PE (3.27 to 4.73) and bias (-3.37 to 1.73) of

  14. Determination and prediction of energy values in corn distillers dried grains with solubles sources with varying oil content for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, D F; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z C; Zhao, P F; Zeng, Z K; Xu, X; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the DE and ME content of 25 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. The 25 samples included 15 full-oil (no oil extracted; ether extract [EE] > 8%) DDGS and 10 reduced-oil (oil extracted; EE < 8%) DDGS collected from 17 ethanol plants in China. A corn–soybean meal diet constituted the basal diet and the other 25 diets replaced a portion of the corn, soybean meal, and lysine of the basal diet with 28.8% of 1 of the 25 corn DDGS sources. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 42.6 ± 6.2 kg) were used in the experiment conducted over 2 consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomized design. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolism cages for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following a 7-d adaptation to the diets. Among the 25 corn DDGS samples, EE, NDF, DE, and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 2.8 to 14.2%, 31.0 to 46.6%, 3,255 to 4,103 kcal/kg, and 2,955 to 3,899 kcal/kg, respectively. Using a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were developed not only among all 25 DDGS but also only within 15 full-oil DDGS and 10 reduced-oil DDGS samples. The best fit equations of DE (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 2,064 – (38.51 × % NDF) + (0.64 × % GE) – (39.70 × % ash), –(87.53 × % ADF) + (1.02 × % GE) – (22.99 × % hemicellulose), and 3,491 – (40.25 × % NDF) + (46.95 × % CP), respectively. The best fit equations for ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 1,554 – (44.11 × % NDF) + (0.77 × % GE) – (68.51 × % ash), 7,898 – (42.08 × % NDF) – (136.17 × % ash) + (101.19 × % EE) (103.83 × % CP), and 4,066 – (46.30 × % NDF) + (45.80 × % CP) – (106.19 × % ash), respectively. Using the sum of squared

  15. The effects of deoxynivalenol-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles in nursery pig diets and potential for mitigation by commercially available feed additives.

    PubMed

    Frobose, H L; Fruge, E D; Tokach, M D; Hansen, E L; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Negative Control (NC; 4 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.10% Biofix (Biomin Inc., Herzogenburg, Austria), 4) NC + 0.15% Cel-can (VAST Inc., Mason City, IA) and 0.50% bentonite clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer ( < 0.01) ADG than those fed the PC. Pigs fed Defusion Plus had improved ( < 0.03) ADG over those fed NC, whereas pigs fed Biofix or Cel-can with bentonite clay had reduced ADG ( < 0.01) compared with those fed PC. In Exp. 2, 340 pigs (11.7 ± 0.1 kg BW) were fed 1 of 8 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Low NC (1.5 mg/kg DON), 3) Low NC + 0.15% Biofix, 4) Low NC + 0.30% Biofix, 5) High NC (3.0 mg/kg DON), 6) High NC + 0.30% Biofix, 7) High NC + 0.45% Biofix, and 8) Diet 7 with 5% added water. Increasing the DON level reduced (linear; < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and pig BW, and Biofix did not improve performance. In Exp. 3, 1,008 pigs (12.5 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 6 treatments for 24 d. Diets were 1) PC ( < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion, 4) NC + 0.50% Defusion, 5) Diet 3 with supplemental nutrients, and 6) Diet 5, pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, but adding Defusion improved (linear; < 0.04) ADG and ADFI over pigs fed NC. Pelleting improved ( < 0.01) both ADG and G:F, resulting in ADG above PC pigs. In Exp. 4, 980 pigs (12.0 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 1 of 7 diets in a 28-d trial in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement. The 7 treatments were based on 3 diets fed in meal or pellet form: 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), and 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion. Treatment 7 was Diet 3 with

  16. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Mahan, D C; Hill, G M; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Inclusion of up to 0.38% S in diets that contain 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has no negative effect on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs, but there is no information about the effects of dietary S on accumulation of S in tissues in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of S in diets containing DDGS affects carcass characteristics, loin quality, or tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 10 replicate pens and 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. At the conclusion of the experiment, the pig in each pen with the BW closest to the pen average was slaughtered. The control diet was based on corn and soybean meal and the finisher diet contained 0.14% S, 0.19 mg/kg Se, and 15.3 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS diet was formulated with corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS and the finisher diet with DDGS contained 0.16% S, 0.32 mg/kg Se, and 14.0 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS plus S (DDGS-S) diet was similar to the DDGS diet, except that 1.10% CaSO4 (16.2% S) was included in this diet, and the finisher diet with DDGS-S contained 0.37% S, 0.35 mg/kg Se, and 13.8 mg/kg Cu. Results indicated that organ weights and loin quality, 24-h pH, drip loss, loin subjective color, marbling, and firmness did not differ among treatments, but loin a* was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the control diet than for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet. Concentrations of S in hair, liver, heart, loin, and all other tissues did not differ among treatments, but urinary S concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet than for pigs fed the other diets. Pigs fed the DDGS diet or the DDGS-S diet had greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of Se in hair, liver, heart, and loin than pigs fed the control diet, but liver concentrations of Cu did not differ among

  17. The effects of medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-02-01

    A total of 288 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 68.9 kg BW) were used in a 67-d study to determine the effects of increasing medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 7.63% ether extract, 30.1% CP, 19.53% ADF, 36.47% NDF, and 4.53% ash; as-fed basis) on growth performance and carcass traits in finishing pigs. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet or the control diet with 15, 30, or 45% medium-oil DDGS. Diets were fed over 2 phases (69 to 100 and 100 to 126 kg) and were not balanced for energy. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the AA, vitamin, and mineral requirements and contained constant standardized ileal digestible lysine levels within phase. Increasing medium-oil DDGS decreased (linear, P < 0.02) ADG and G:F. Average daily gain decreased approximately 2.3% for every 15% added medium-oil DDGS whereas G:F decreased approximately 1.3% with every 15% added DDGS. In addition, final BW, HCW, carcass yield, and loin-eye depth decreased (linear, P < 0.03) and jowl iodine value (IV) increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing medium-oil DDGS. Nutrient digestibility of the DDGS source was determined using pigs (initially 25.6 kg BW) that were fed either a corn-based basal diet (96.6% corn and 3.4% vitamins and minerals) or a DDGS diet, which was a 50:50 blend of the basal diet and medium-oil DDGS. There were 12 replications for each diet consisting of a 5-d adaptation period followed by 2 d of total fecal collection on a timed basis. Feces were analyzed for GE, DM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, and ether extract. On an as-fed basis, corn was analyzed to contain 3,871 and 3,515 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively. Medium-oil DDGS was analyzed to contain 4,585 and 3,356 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively (as-fed basis). Digestibility coefficients of the medium-oil DDGS were 70.3% DM, 82.9% CP, 61.4% ether extract, 77.4% ADF, 67.5% NDF, and 67.2% crude fiber. Caloric efficiency (ADFI × kcal energy intake/kg BW gain) was not

  18. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than

  19. Enzymes enhance degradation of the fiber-starch-protein matrix of distillers dried grains with solubles as revealed by a porcine in vitro fermentation model and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jha, R; Woyengo, T A; Li, J; Bedford, M R; Vasanthan, T; Zijlstra, R T

    2015-03-01

    Effects of treating corn and wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with a protease on porcine in vitro fermentation characteristics and the matrix structure of the DGGS before and after the fermentation were studied. Three DDGS samples (wheat DDGS sample 1 [wDDGS1], wheat DDGS sample 2 [wDDGS2], and corn DDGS [cDDGS]) were predigested with pepsin and pancreatin. Residues were then subjected to in vitro fermentation using buffered mineral solution inoculated with fresh pig feces without or with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with protease in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Accumulated gas production was measured for up to 72 h. Concentration of VFA was measured in fermented solutions. The matrix of native DDGS and their residues after fermentation was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine internal and external structures, respectively. On a DM basis, wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS contained 35.5, 43.4, and 29.0% CP; 2.23, 0.51, and 6.40% starch; 0.82, 0.80, and 0.89% available Lys; and 24.8, 22.5, and 23.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides, respectively. The in vitro digestibility of DM for wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS was 67.7, 72.1, and 59.6%, respectively. The cDDGS had greater ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA production than both wheat DDGS. The wDDGS2 had lower ( < 0.05) total gas production than wDDGS1. Multicarbohydrase increased ( < 0.05) total gas production for cDDGS and total VFA production for wDGGS1 but did not increase gas or VFA production for wDDGS2. Addition of protease with multicarbohydrase to DDGS reduced ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA productions and increased ( < 0.05) branched-chain VFA regardless of DDGS type. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that DDGS were mainly aggregates of resistant and nonfermentable starchy and nonstarchy complexes formed during DDGS production. After in vitro

  20. Interactive effects of distillers dried grains with solubles and housing system on reproductive performance and longevity of sows over three reproductive cycles.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Baidoo, S K; Li, Y Z; Shurson, G C; Johnston, L J

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in sow diets and housing systems on reproductive performance and longevity. Sows (311 for parity 0 and 90 for parity 1) were assigned randomly within parity to 1 of 4 treatments and maintained on these treatments for up to 3 reproductive cycles. Sows were fed either fortified corn-soybean meal control diets (CON) during gestation and lactation or diets containing 40% DDGS in gestation and 20% DDGS in lactation and were housed either in individual stalls or group pens with electronic sow feeders during gestation. Sows fed DDGS had smaller (P < 0.05) litter size (born alive, 11.0 vs. 11.6; weaning, 9.8 vs. 10.2) and had more (P < 0.05) stillborns (0.9 vs. 0.7) than sows fed CON. Litters nursing sows fed DDGS gained less weight (P < 0.01) than litters nursing sows fed CON (47.8 vs. 49.8 kg, respectively). Group-housed sows tended to farrow smaller litters (born alive, 11.0 vs. 11.5; P < 0.10) and had fewer pigs at weaning (9.9 vs. 10.2; P < 0.05) compared with stall-housed sows. Litters from group-housed sows tended (P < 0.10) to gain less weight while suckling than those from stall-housed sows (48.3 vs. 49.4 kg, respectively). Diet did not affect the percentage of sows that completed each successive reproductive cycle. Stall housing tended to increase (P = 0.06) the completion rate of sows at the second reproductive cycle (80.0 vs. 68.2%) and increased (P < 0.05) the completion rate of sows in the third reproductive cycle (68.9 vs. 55.8%) compared with group housing. Sows fed DDGS produced fewer (P < 0.05) live-born pigs (26.2 vs. 27.4) and tended (P < 0.10) to have fewer pigs weaned (23.7 vs. 24.5) over 3 reproductive cycles compared with sows fed CON. Stall-housed sows farrowed more (P < 0.05) total pigs (30.1 vs. 26.7) and live pigs (28.4 vs. 25.2) and had more weaned pigs (25.2 vs. 23.1) compared with group-housed sows over 3 reproductive cycles

  1. Effects of dry-rolled or steam-flaked corn finishing diets with or without twenty-five percent dried distillers grains on ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestion.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Reinhardt, C D; Murray, L; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-11-01

    A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibilities of cattle finishing diets. Holstein steers (n = 16, 351 kg of BW) with ruminal cannulas were fed diets consisting of 0 or 25% dried corn distillers grains (DDG), using dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) as the principal energy source (2 x 2 factorial arrangement). The study was conducted in 2 periods, with 4 steers per treatment in each period. Periods consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase and a 3-d collection phase. Compared with DRC, feeding SFC decreased intakes of DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01), and steers fed SFC excreted less DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, feeding DRC decreased ruminal concentrations of acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, and decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, DRC decreased ruminal propionate, valerate, and lactate concentrations (P < 0.01). When compared with cattle fed SFC, ruminal pH of cattle fed DRC was less at 0 h and greater at 6 h postfeeding (P < 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were greater for DRC vs. SFC at h 0, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 postfeeding (P < 0.05). Feeding DDG decreased consumption of starch and ether extract, but increased NDF intake (P < 0.01). Fecal excretion of ether extract was increased by adding DDG compared with diets without DDG (P < 0.05), resulting in less apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract for cattle fed DDG (P < 0.01). Ruminal lactate concentrations were increased with addition of DDG compared with diets without DDG (P = 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were less for steers fed 25 vs. 0% DDG at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h postfeeding (P < 0.05). We conclude, based on these results, that ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibility of DDG are affected by grain processing.

  2. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  3. Physical properties of extrudates containing distillers grains extruded in a twin screw extruder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  4. Modification of an AOCS Official Method for Crude Oil Content in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study at author’s lab showed that the AOCS official method Am 5-04, based on filter bag technology developed by Ankom Technology Inc. has to be modified in order to have accurate measurement of oil content in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The areas of modification recomme...

  5. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  6. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial body weight = 354 kg +/- 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study w...

  7. Evaluating percentage of roughage in lamb finishing diets containing 40% dried distillers grains: growth, serum urea nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin growth factor-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of percentage of roughage on growth, serum urea N, NEFA, and IGF-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid (FA) characteristics were investigated in Rambouillet wether lambs (n = 33). Lambs were individually fed ad libitum pelleted diets for 98 d containing 40% dried distillers grains and other ingredients, with 10% (CSH10), 20% (CSH20), or 30% (CSH30) cottonseed hulls replacing an increasing amount of ground sorghum grain. Results indicated no interaction between diet and day for lamb BW, ADG, or G:F. Percentage of roughage did not affect lamb BW, even though ADG linearly increased (P = 0.005) as cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Increasing percentage of cottonseed hulls in the diet linearly increased (P < 0.001) daily DMI, which resulted in a linear increase (P = 0.001) in degradable protein intake. All lambs had similar G:F: 0.200, 0.181, and 0.190 for lambs fed CSH10, CSH20, and CSH30 diets, respectively. Diet x day interactions were not observed (P > 0.45) for serum urea N, NEFA, or IGF-1 concentrations. Serum urea N linearly increased (P = 0.005) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. All lambs had similar NEFA concentrations, but serum IGF-1 linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Lambs had similar wool fiber characteristics except that average fiber curvature and SD of fiber curvature linearly increased (P = 0.03) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were not affected (P > 0.19) by diet, except for body wall thickness (quadratic, P = 0.03) and a linear decrease in sustained tenderness (P = 0.02) as the percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. As cottonseed hulls increased in the diet, percentages of myristic and palmitoleic (linear, P < 0.05) and arachidic SFA (quadratic, P = 0.03) decreased and cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased (linear, P = 0.007). When sorghum grain and cottonseed hull prices

  8. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of including either wheat-based (W-DDGS) or corn-wheat blend (B-DDGS) dried distillers grains with solubles as the major protein source in low- or high-crude protein (CP) diets fed to dairy cows on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and milk production. Eight lactating Holstein cows (768.5 ± 57.7 kg of body weight; 109.5 ± 40.0 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18d of dietary adaptation and 10d of measurements) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in one Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, urea-N recycling kinetics, and omasal nutrient flow. The treatment factors were type of distillers co-product (W-DDGS vs. B-DDGS) and dietary CP content [15.2 vs. 17.3%; dry matter (DM) basis]. The B-DDGS was produced from a mixture of 15% wheat and 85% corn grain. All diets were formulated to contain 10% W-DDGS or B-DDGS on a DM basis. No diet effect was observed on DM intake. Yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose, and plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations were lower in cows fed the low-CP compared with those fed the high-CP diet. Although feeding B-DDGS tended to reduce ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration compared with feeding W-DDGS (9.3 vs. 10.5mg/dL), no differences were observed in plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations. Additionally, dietary inclusion of B-DDGS compared with W-DDGS did not affect rumen-degradable protein supply, omasal flows of total N, microbial nonammonia N (NAN), rumen-undegradable protein, and total NAN, or urea-N recycling kinetics and milk production. However, cows fed the low-CP diet had lower N intake, rumen-degradable protein supply, ruminal NH3-N concentration, and omasal flows of N, microbial NAN, and total NAN compared with those fed the high-CP diet

  9. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P < 0.01), hunter a* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), and b* values (linear, P < 0.05) with a decrease in hunter L* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P < 0.01) by increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS. In conclusion, feeding diets containing 20% DDGS to laying hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens.

  10. The effects of coarse ground corn, whole sorghum, and a prebiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in broilers fed diets with and without corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, China; Parsons, Carl M

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 21 d of age and evaluated diets containing combinations of fine or coarse ground corn (557 or 1,387 μm, respectively), whole sorghum, 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a prebiotic-type product containing yeast cell wall, lactose, citric acid, and other fermentable carbohydrates. In experiment 1, feed efficiency was decreased (P < 0.001) after the first week of age for broilers fed diets containing whole sorghum, whereas broilers receiving diets with 15% DDGS had increased feed efficiency (P < 0.03) compared with those receiving no DDGS. In the second experiment, BW gain was increased (P < 0.03) after the first week of age for broilers fed diets containing the prebiotic and DDGS compared with their respective controls. In experiment 1, the diet containing sorghum yielded the highest AMEn value (P < 0.03). In experiment 2, diets containing the combination of the prebiotic + DDGS yielded higher AMEn values (P < 0.004) at 7 and 21 d compared with diets containing no combination. The effects of diet on amino acid digestibility were generally small and inconsistent in both experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed the coarse corn or whole sorghum diets had increased (P < 0.0001) relative gizzard weights compared with broilers fed the fine corn diet. Also, diets containing DDGS yielded increased relative gizzard weights (P < 0.05) compared with diets containing no DDGS. In experiment 2, there was a decrease (P < 0.03) in cecal Escherichia coli when the combination of the coarse ground corn, prebiotic, and DDGS was fed in comparison with broilers receiving no prebiotic or DDGS. These results indicate that diets containing coarsely ground corn or whole sorghum in combination with DDGS can be fed to broilers with no long-term adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and that these ingredients can have beneficial effects on AMEn, gizzard size, and cecal microflora in some instances.

  11. Investigation of the Impact of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber through the Feeding of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on the Incidence and Severity of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wilberts, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Kinyon, Joann M.; Frana, Tim S.; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R.; Madson, Darin M.; Patience, John F.; Burrough, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or “B. hampsonii”) and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the “B. hampsonii” groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery. PMID:25485776

  12. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  13. A comparison of different dilute solution explosions pretreatment for conversion of distillers' grains into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue-Hong; Zhong, Xia; Deng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of distillers' grains converting to ethanol, 13 dilute solution explosions were evaluated based on the optimization of pure water explosion. To decrease residual inhibitor content, the exploded slurry was dried at 105°C. Using a 1.1 mol/L butanone solution explosion, with the explosion temperature set at 160°C (pressure at 1.9 MPa), the residence time at 10 min, and the dried distillers' grains-to-water ratio at 1:2 (w/w), the yields of total sugar, glucose, and xylose were 86%, 89%, and 84% (w/w), respectively, and the ethanol yield was 25.3 g/100 g distillers' grains dry matter. Moreover, the eight other reagent solution explosions improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, and of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and the residual contents of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid decreased to an acceptable concentration range after detoxification by drying. The results suggested that compared with pure water explosions, the use of volatile solutions lowered the explosive temperature and improved the sugar yield. This study offers a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials with higher starch and hemicelluloses contents as raw materials for converting biomass to bioethanol.

  14. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  15. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  16. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) N flow to the small intestine. The undegradable intake protein (UIP) value of DDGS was 35%. Postruminal digestion of OM (linear effect, P = 0.04) and fatty acids (linear effect, P = 0.03) and total tract digestion of OM and GE decreased (linear effect, P < 0.03) with increasing level of DDGS substitution. Substitution with DDGS did not affect (P = 0.80) ruminal pH but increased (linear effect, P = 0.01) acetate:propionate molar ratio. In Exp.2, 144 Holsteins steer (112 ± 6 kg) were used in a 305-d trial to evaluate treatment effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. During the initial 126 d, DDGS substitution increased ADG (linear effect, P = 0.03), G:F (quadratic effect, P = 0.03), and dietary NE (quadratic effect, P = 0.02), maximal for both at 20% DDGS inclusion rate. Based on estimated indispensable AA supply to the small intestine as a percentage of requirements during the initial 126-d period, histidine was first limiting followed by methionine. During the final 179-d period and overall (305-d feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf

  17. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Cole, N A; Jenkins, K H; Meyer, B E; McCollum, F T; Preece, S L M; Auvermann, B W; Heflin, K R; MacDonald, J C

    2012-12-01

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial BW = 354 kg ± 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn (SFC)- and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 20% WDGS (0SFC, 20SFC, 0DRC, and 20DRC, respectively). Heifers averaged 154 d on feed and were marketed in 3 groups. There were no interactions between corn processing method and WDGS detected (P ≥ 0.29) for any performance or carcass response variables. Heifers fed diets containing WDGS tended to have greater final BW (P = 0.10) and increased G:F (P = 0.08) compared with heifers fed diets without WDGS. Heifers fed SFC-based diets consumed 7% less feed (P < 0.01) and were 9% more efficient (P < 0.01) than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Carcass characteristics were not affected by corn processing method or WDGS inclusion (P ≥ 0.16). Intakes of OM, N, P, and K were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for heifers fed DRC-based diets than those fed SFC-based diets, which resulted in greater net accumulation of the nutrients in the manure (P ≤ 0.04). Heifers fed diets containing WDGS had greater (P < 0.01) intakes of N, P, and K than heifers fed diets without WDGS. As a result, a greater net accumulation of P and K (P ≤ 0.03) and N (P = 0.10) were present in the manure from cattle fed diets containing WDGS compared with those fed diets without WDGS. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.16) between corn processing and WDGS on N volatilization losses. Nitrogen volatilization losses from manure (expressed as a percentage of intake and g·heifer(-1)·d(-1)) were greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed SFC-based diets than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Feeding DRC-based finishing diets to heifers

  18. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  19. Effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bingdong; Nie, Shaoping; Meng, Qingwei; Qu, Zhe; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Sows (Landrace×Large White) with an average parity of 4·2 with similar body weight were randomly assigned to four groups of thirty each. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the total superoxide dismutase activity but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde of the jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets and decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and l-carnitine on the bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in weaning piglets on day 21 were significantly increased by l-carnitine only in soyabean meal diet, but there was no significant effect of l-carnitine in DDGS-based diet. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the bacterial numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria spp. in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in sows affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets, and by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. In conclusion, dietary

  20. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    Excess protein in dairy cattle diets increases production costs and contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplemented with rumen-protected Lys and Met in place of solvent-extracted soybean meal on the performance of late-lactation cows. Two experiments were carried out, with each using 24 late-lactating dairy cows distributed among 4 pens. In trial 1, corn silage was the main forage source. Control (HP1) total mixed ration (TMR) contained 16.3% crude protein (CP) with soybean meal as the main protein source. Treatment TMR (LP1) had 13.7% CP when soybean meal was replaced with DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Forage in trial 2 was ryegrass silage; control TMR (HP2; 15.4% CP) contained soybean meal and rumen-protected Met, whereas treatment TMR (LP2; 13.8% CP) contained DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Trials were analyzed as crossover design using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC) with cow as sampling unit and pen as the experimental unit. Treatments were similar in dry matter intake (21.0 and 20.4 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) and milk yield (20.7 and 20.5 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) during trial 1. Milk composition was similar between treatments, averaging 4.22, 3.73, 4.54, and 9.15, respectively, for fat, protein, lactose, and solids nonfat. Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 17.2 mg/dL for HP1 to 9.93 mg/dL for LP1. In trial 2, no significant differences were observed for dry matter intake (21.4 and 20.9 kg/cow per day for HP2 and LP2, respectively), milk yield (28.1 and 26.6 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), fat yield (0.99 vs. 0.92 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), protein yield (0.94 vs. 0.86 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively) and lactose yield (1.37 vs. 1.28 for HP2 and LP2, respectively). Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 9.88 mg/dL with HP2 to 6.39 mg/dL with the LP2

  1. New co-products from grain-based fuel ethanol production and their drying performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. and elsewhere is an important and growing industry. In the U.S, about 40% of annual corn production is now converted into fuel ethanol. During co-product recovery, condensed distillers solubles (CDS) has to be mixed with distillers wet grains before drying due to ...

  2. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  3. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  4. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Jaderborg, J P; Crawford, G I; DiCostanzo, A; Spiehs, M J; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2015-10-01

    The effects of feeding a dry-rolled corn-based diet (DRCB) or a combination of a high-moisture corn-based diet (HMCB) with dry-rolled corn (DRC; 2:1 ratio of high-moisture corn [HMC] and DRC) with 25 and 45% wet distillers' grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, the WDGS × diet type interaction, and period and the random effects of square and steer within square were also included. Treatments consisted of a DRCB with 25% WDGS, a DRCB with 45% WDGS, a combination of HMCB and DRC with 25% WDGS, and a combination of HMCB and DRC with 45% WDGS. Cattle consuming DRCB consumed a greater amount of DM ( < 0.01) and GE intake was also greater when feeding DRCB with 25% WDGS than when feeding DRCB with 45% WDGS ( < 0.01). As a proportion of GE intake, cattle consuming HMCB had a greater fecal energy loss ( = 0.01). Digestible energy loss as a proportion of GE intake was greater when cattle were fed DRCB than when cattle were fed HMCB ( = 0.01) and when WDGS was included at 45% of DM ( = 0.05). As a proportion of GE intake, cattle consuming DRCB and 25% WDGS respired a greater amount of methane (Mcal) than cattle consuming 45% WDGS. As a proportion of GE intake, ME was greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( = 0.01). Within HMCB, 45% WDGS had more megacalories of retained energy than 25% WDGS. Nitrogen excretion (g) was greater in the urine ( < 0.01) and feces ( < 0.05) when 45% WDGS was included. As a proportion of N intake, total N retained was greater when a greater amount of WDGS was included in the diet ( = 0.05). Digestibility was greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( = 0.02). Starch intake, excretion, and digestibility as a proportion of intake were greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( < 0.01) and when WDGS was included at 25% than when WDGS was included at 45% of the diet ( < 0.01). Intake of ether extract was

  5. Stagewise dilute-acid pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis of distillers' grains and corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Noureddini, Hossein; Byun, Jongwon; Yu, Ta-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Distillers' grains and corn fiber are the coproducts of the corn dry grind and wet milling industries, respectively. Availability of distillers' grains and corn fiber at the ethanol plant and their high levels of lignocellulosic material make these coproducts attractive feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of these coproducts was investigated in a multistage scheme. After the completion of each pretreatment stage, the liquid substrate was separated and reused in the succeeding pretreatment stage with a fresh substrate. The substrate from each stage was also subjected to enzyme hydrolysis in a separate experiment. The sulfuric acid concentration and the substrate loading were maintained at 1.0 vol% and 15.0 wt.%, respectively, and the temperature was maintained at 120 degrees C in all the experiments. Experiments were also performed to study the effect of removing oil from the samples prior to the pretreatment. The highest concentration of monomeric sugars (MS) was observed when three stages of pretreatment were followed by the enzyme reaction. The enzyme hydrolysis of the three-stage pretreated dried distillers' grains and corn fiber yielded 122.6 +/- 5.8 and 184.5 +/- 4.1 mg/mL of MS, respectively. The formation of inhibitory products was also monitored.

  6. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications.

  7. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P < 0.05) and had greater G:F (0.540 vs. 0.471 and 0.455; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the DDGS or the DDGS-S diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P < 0.01), but there was no difference between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets

  8. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-04-01

    Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ≥ 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ≤ 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ≥ 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ≤ 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended

  9. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( < 0.001) and ADFI ( < 0.0001). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and GE were lower for the 30% DDGS diets than the 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.0001). Ractopamine improved ADG ( < 0.0001), G:F ( < 0.0001), and N retention ( < 0.001) and tended to increase daily water intake ( < 0.10). Pigs fed RAC had higher N intake and urinary excretion and lower N retention in Period 2 than in Period 1 ( < 0.05), indicating a decline in the response to RAC over time. Tylosin phosphate did not affect ADFI or G:F but did improve ATTD of N ( < 0.05). There was a tendency for a TP × DDGS interaction ( < 0.10) for ADG, where TP tended to increase ADG in pigs fed 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.10) but not in pigs fed 30% DDGS diets ( > 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC

  10. Enzyme characterization for hydrolysis of AFEX and liquid hot-water pretreated distillers' grains and their conversion to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production, was investigated as a feedstock for additional ethanol production. DDGS was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) processes. Cellulose was readily converted to glucose from bo...

  11. Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller's grains (DG) are used extensively by beef cattle feeding operations in the United States, including the Southern Great Plains. Our regional research consortium has been conducting research focused on utilization of wet DG in feedlot diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). Effects of DG on...

  12. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  13. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-09-01

    New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal

  14. Optimal energy management in grain drying.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S

    1986-01-01

    Grain drying is very specific to the geographic location, kind of drying system, and the type of grain. Under a given set of conditions, the optimal system can be selected based on careful evaluation. However, a good choice of drying systems, procedures, and management practices can be made from the information already available. The review of several grain-drying procedures has provided some insight in making a quick evaluation of the process and arriving at the most suitable system for a particular application. Despite extensive research efforts, the present knowledge of grain drying is yet insufficient to optimally design each drying process with respect to capacity, quality, and energy requirement. There is a need for incorporating grain and air parameters more accurately. It is also important to develop comprehensive drying simulation models to encompass agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting. Recent efforts indicate a strong influence of planting and harvesting strategies on optimal drying and storage system selection. Results of the varietal trials at Ohio State University indicate that it is now possible to select midseason varieties, which dry down rapidly, without sacrificing yield. Also, low moisture at harvest is important to the energy management process because it affects total drying time and energy required. It is also important from a quality standpoint because kernel damage increases rapidly at harvesting moisture levels above 25%. The trend in grain-dryer design has shifted from focusing on drying capacity and operation reliability to energy consumption. The development in design of energy efficient continuous-flow dryers has been significant. Multistage concurrentflow dryers are excellent examples. Various aspects of dryer staging for efficient operation and control are yet to be determined. Recirculation of the exhaust air is a proven method of improving energy efficiency. Likewise, in batch-in-bin systems, stirring and

  15. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time.

  16. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on nutrient metabolism and enteric gas production in finishing steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry rolled (DRC) and high moisture (HMC) corn are common corn processing methods used by feedlots in the Upper Midwest. Research is limited on higher inclusion rates of wet distillers grains with soluble (WDGS). Therefore, the effects of increasing the concentrations of WDGS in dry rolled and high m...

  17. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: In vitro fermentation and hydrogen sulfide production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDG) on in vitro rate of gas production, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were evaluated. Five substrate treatments that were balanced for ether extract content were arran...

  18. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  19. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds.

  20. Optimizing use of distillers grains in finishing diets containing steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Sindt, J J; Cole, N A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Two hundred ninety-nine crossbred yearling steers (363 +/- 15 kg initial BW) were fed for an average of 114 d in a finishing study comparing 7 diets in which steam-flaked corn was used as the principal energy source. Forty-nine pens were used in this study with 7 BW blocks, 7 pens per treatment, and 5 to 7 steers per pen. A control diet with no distillers grains with solubles (DGS) was compared with 6 diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). The diets contained wet sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, dried sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, wet corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay, or dried corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay. Apparent total tract digestibilities were calculated by total collection of fecal material from the concrete-surfaced pens over a 72-h period. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, and carcass characteristics were similar (P > or = 0.18) for steers fed finishing diets with or without 15% DGS. However, apparent total tract digestibilities of DM and OM were 2.8% less (P < or = 0.03) for finishing diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics were not different (P > or = 0.09) for steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum or corn DGS. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics also were not different (P > or = 0.10) for steers fed finishing diets containing wet or dried DGS. Steers fed sorghum DGS with 6% hay consumed more DM (P < 0.01) and gained more BW (P < 0.01) than steers fed diets without hay, but G:F were not different (P > 0.78). Sorghum DGS diets containing alfalfa hay were 4% less (P = 0.01) digestible than sorghum DGS diets containing no hay. Carcasses of steers fed sorghum DGS diets without hay were lighter, leaner, and had decreased USDA yield grades (P = 0.01) compared with steers fed sorghum DGS diets containing hay. Feeding moderate levels (i.e., 15%, DM basis) of DGS resulted in growth performance and carcass

  1. A two-step fermentation of distillers' grains using Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris for fish feed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Li, Shun-Zhou; You, Ling; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Chuan-Ze; Liu, Xiao-Bin

    2013-10-01

    It is important to provide added value or to make full use of the co-product of grains from ethanol production. In order to convert distillers' grains into a high-quality feed, the Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris fermentation were combined and investigated in this study. The T. viride fermentation was carried out in an aerobic fermentation installation in favoring of the growth of the fungi and the degradation of the cellulose, and then the fermentation of R. palustris was performed to increase the content of protein with an anaerobic installation. After the two step fermentations, the true protein content of dried distiller' grains increased from 11.4 to 33.6 % (w/w) (the content of crude protein from 14.5 to 39.7 %), the crude fiber content decreased from 21.3 to 7.6 % (w/w), the crude fat content increased from 5.5 to 7.9 % (w/w), the crude ash decreased from 14.6 to 10.2 % (w/w), the total phosphorus content increased from 0.4 to 1.2 % (w/w), and the water content was 11.8 % (w/w). The dried and fermented grains contain the R. palustris viable count of 5.3 × 10¹¹ CFU/g dry matter. The results may support a new application of an active photosynthetic bacteria fish feed in fisheries industry and offer a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials as raw materials converting into high-quality feed.

  2. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  3. Effect of compositional variability of Distillers' Grains on cellulosic ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a dry grind ethanol plant, approximately 0.84 kg of dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced per liter of ethanol. The distillers’ grains contain the unhydrolyzed and unprocessed cellulosic fraction of corn kernels, which could be further converted to ethanol or other valuable b...

  4. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles to beef cattle on air and manure quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality is becoming a pressing issue for beef feedlot producers. Feeding practices influence the excretion of starch, fiber, nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) in manure, thereby affecting nutrient content and the production of ammonia and odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS...

  5. Impact of using virginiamycin in the fuel ethanol production process on distillers grains coproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are frequently used to reduce bacterial contamination in commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, but there is concern that antibiotic residues may persist in the distillers grains (DDG) coproducts that are utilized for cattle feed. A study was conducted in the pilot plant facilities at t...

  6. Substituting steam-flaked corn with 20% whole shelled corn in finishing diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles did not affect performance and feed conversion in feedlot heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous feeding studies suggest there may be an interaction between grain processing method and the feeding of wet distillers grains (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets, such that the growth response to feeding WDGS in beef cattle finishing diets based on dry rolled corn is greater than in steam ...

  7. Meat quality responses to feeding distiller's grains to finishing Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Roeber, D L; Gill, R K; DiCostanzo, A

    2005-10-01

    Strip loins from two experiments were used to evaluate effects of feeding dry (DDG) or wet (WDG) distiller's grains on beef color, tenderness, and sensory traits of Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, conducted at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, dietary treatments consisted of a control whole corn-corn silage diet with soybean meal (SBM) or diets formulated with 12.5% DDG plus urea, 25% DDG, 25% WDG, 50% DDG, or 50% WDG (DM basis). In Exp. 2, conducted at Iowa State University, dietary treatments consisted of cracked corn-corn silage-hay diets with either SBM or urea (Urea) as the control diets, or diets formulated with 10, 20, or 40% DDG or WDG (DM basis). Within each study, strip loins from each of four steers (representing 45.7 and 66.6% of steers in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) in four replicate pens per treatment were aged for 13 d at 4 degrees C for subsequent color, tenderness, and palatability evaluation. Color of steaks was measured objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE spectrophotometer and was subjectively evaluated by a trained panel. Tenderness was measured using the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) instrument on steaks cooked to 70 degrees C. For sensory evaluation, 95 consumers were recruited to evaluate tenderness, juiciness, and flavor of cooked steaks. In Exp. 1, steaks from steers fed 25% WDG had higher (P < 0.05) a* values after 138 h of simulated retail display than all other treatments, except for those from steers fed 12.5% DDG. In Exp. 2, a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of steaks from steers fed 40% DDG or 40% WDG were considered moderately undesirable during retail display (steaks that received a consumer acceptability score of 3 or less). There were no (P = 0.20 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.33 in Exp. 2) differences among treatments in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 for WBSF (1.47 +/- 0.66 kg and 1.58 +/- 0.72 kg, respectively) or taste panel tenderness (5.7 +/- 0.30 and 6.2 +/- 0.22, respectively), beef flavor (6.0 +/- 0.23 and 6.2 +/- 0

  8. Effect of increasing oil from distillers grains or corn oil on lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Bertics, S; Armentano, L E

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate production response and more specifically percentage and yield of fat in milk from dairy cows fed distillers grains with added solubles (DGS). It was hypothesized that the oil present in DGS would decrease milk fat yield. Four dietary treatments consisted of dried DGS replacing soybean meal and soybean hulls. The DGS inclusion rates as a percentage of dry matter (DM) were 0, 5, 10, and 15% DGS. To determine the role of oil in DGS, a fifth diet similar to 0% DGS with added corn oil (OIL) was included. Twenty multiparous Holsteins were assigned to a replicated, 5 x 5 Latin Square design with periods of 21 d. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration. Feeding OIL or 15% DGS resulted in similar production of milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Increasing dietary DGS linearly increased milk production and milk true protein yield. Adding corn oil increased milk yield and, although milk true protein yield also tended to increase with oil, milk true protein concentration decreased. The addition of DGS or OIL did not significantly change fat yield from 0% DGS; however, fat concentration in milk was significantly decreased by DGS due to increased fluid milk production. In diets containing approximately 28% NDF, cottonseed, blood and fish meal, feeding DGS to bring total dietary fatty acids to 5% of diet DM increased milk and milk protein yield without decreasing milk fat yield. Reduced proportions of shorter chain fatty acids and increased proportions of longer chain fatty acids in milk as dietary fatty acid content increased suggests that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland was inhibited but this was offset by increased secretion of long-chain fatty acids, presumably absorbed from the diet. Therefore, our hypothesis that feeding corn oil either as DGS or as pure corn oil would decrease milk fat yield was not correct.

  9. Methods to recover value-added coproducts from dry grind processing of grains into fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keshun; Barrows, Frederic T

    2013-07-31

    Three methods are described to fractionate condensed distillers solubles (CDS) into several new coproducts, including a protein-mineral fraction and a glycerol fraction by a chemical method; a protein fraction, an oil fraction and a glycerol-mineral fraction by a physical method; or a protein fraction, an oil fraction, a mineral fraction, and a glycerol fraction by a physicochemical method. Processing factors (ethanol concentration and centrifuge force) were also investigated. Results show that the three methods separated CDS into different fractions, with each fraction enriched with one or more of the five components (protein, oil, ash, glycerol and other carbohydrates) and thus having different targeted end uses. Furthermore, because glycerol, a hygroscopic substance, was mostly shifted to the glycerol or glycerol-mineral fraction, the other fractions had much faster moisture reduction rates than CDS upon drying in a forced air oven at 60 °C. Thus, these methods could effectively solve the dewatering problem of CDS, allowing elimination of the current industrial practice of blending distiller wet grains with CDS for drying together and production of distiller dried grains as a standalone coproduct in addition to a few new fractions.

  10. Determination of the Relative Effectiveness of Four Food Additives in Degrading Aflatoxin in Distillers Wet Grains and Condensed Distillers Solubles.

    PubMed

    Shi, H U; Stroshine, Richard L; Ileleji, Klein

    2017-01-01

    The food additives sodium bisulfite, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, and ammonium persulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in degrading aflatoxin in samples of distillers wet grains (DWG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) obtained from an industrial ethanol plant. Aqueous food additive solutions, 0.5% by weight, were added to DWG or CDS at the level of 0.5 ml/g of sample, and the materials were heated at 90°C for 1 h. Sodium bisulfite was not effective in degrading aflatoxin in either DWG or CDS. Among the four food additives tested, sodium hypochlorite was the most effective. However, it bleached the substrate and left an off-odor. Citric acid and ammonium persulfate reduced aflatoxin levels by 31 to 51%. Citric acid is the most promising additive for degrading aflatoxin because it has been classified as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Aflatoxin reduction was enhanced by increasing the citric acid addition level and prolonging the heating time. Reductions of 65 and 80% in DWG and CDS, respectively, were obtained by the addition of 2.5% (by weight) citric acid and heating at 90°C for 1 h. Aflatoxin levels in DWG and CDS were gradually reduced with prolonged heating at 90°C, even without the addition of food additives. Aflatoxin reductions of 53 and 73% were achieved in DWG and CDS as a result of heating at 90°C for 5 h.

  11. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  12. Measurement of rheology of distiller's grain slurries using a helical impeller viscometer.

    PubMed

    Houchin, Tiffany L; Hanley, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Current research is focused on developing a process to convert the cellulose and hemicellulose in distiller's grains into fermentable sugars, increasing both ethanol yield and the amount of protein in the remaining solid product. The rheologic properties of distiller's grain slurries were determined for concentrations of 21, 23, and 25%. Distiller's grain slurries are non-Newtonian, heterogeneous fluids subject to particle settling. Traditional methods of viscosity measurement, such as cone-and-plate and concentric cylinder viscometers, are not adequate for these fluids. A helical impeller viscometer was employed to measure impeller torque over a range of rotational speeds. Newtonian and non-Newtonian calibration fluids were utilized to obtain constants that relate shear stresses and shear rates to the experimental data. The Newtonian impeller constant, c, was 151; the non-Newtonian shear rate constant, k, was 10.30. Regression analysis of experimental data was utilized for comparison to power law, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson viscosity models with regression coefficients exceeding 0.99 in all cases.

  13. Modeling the effects of pelleting on the logistics of distillers grains shipping.

    PubMed

    Rosentrater, Kurt A; Kongar, Elif

    2009-12-01

    The energy security needs of energy importing nations continue to escalate. It is clear that biofuels can help meet some of the increasing need for energy. Theoretically, these can be produced from a variety of biological materials, including agricultural residues (such as corn stover and wheat straw), perennial grasses, legumes, algae, and other biological materials. Currently, however, the most heavily utilized material is corn starch. Industrial fuel ethanol production in the US primarily uses corn, because it is readily converted into fuel at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of corn-based ethanol in the US is dramatically increasing. As the industry continues to grow, the amount of byproducts and coproducts also increases. At the moment, the nonfermentable residues (which are dried and sold as distillers dried grains with solubles--DDGS) are utilized only as livestock feed. The sale of coproducts provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. Even though these materials are used to feed animals in local markets, as the size and scope of the industry continues to grow, the need to ship large quantities of coproducts grows as well. This includes both domestic as well as international transportation. Value-added processing options offer the potential to increase the sustainability of each ethanol plant, and thus the industry overall. However, implementation of new technologies will be dependent upon how their costs interact with current processing costs and the logistics of coproduct deliveries. The objective of this study was to examine some of these issues by developing a computer model to determine potential cost ramifications of using various alternative technologies during ethanol processing. This paper focuses specifically on adding a densification unit operation (i.e., pelleting) to produce value-added DDGS at a fuel ethanol

  14. Effects of concentration and source of wet distiller's grains on digestibiity of steam-flaked corn-based diet fed to finishing steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The source and dietary concentration of wet distiller's grains may affect the digestibility of beef cattle finishing diets. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of graded levels of a sorghum + corn-based wet distiller's grains plus solubles (NMDGS) and corn-based distiller'...

  15. Characterization of key aroma compounds in distiller's grains from wheat as a basis for utilization in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Roth, M; Meiringer, M; Kollmannsberger, H; Zarnkow, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

    2014-11-12

    The limited use of distiller's grains (DG) in the food industry depends occasionally on the characteristic odor of DG. For a better understanding of this typical odor, a sensory evaluation was performed first. The impressions seasoninglike, roasty/breadlike, and malty/caramellike were revealed as the most intensive odors. Furthermore, analysis of volatile flavor compounds was applied on dried DG from wheat. Isolation was performed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and simultaneous distillation/extraction and identification with gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. As a result, 42 odor-active compounds could be identified in total. Among 24 of the 42 odor-active compounds obtained by SAFE, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoninglike) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor, and 7 compounds (3-methylbutanioc acid, dimethyl trisulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-phenylethanol, 2,6-nonadienal, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone) with a FD factor ≥ 32 were identified as key aroma compounds in DG from wheat.

  16. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants.

  17. Hydrolysis of oligosaccharides from distillers grains using organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Jason A; Entorf, Matthew; Eder, Judd; Shanks, Brent H

    2008-08-01

    The use of propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides released by hydrothermal pretreatment of distiller's grains was examined in batch reactor studies. The effectiveness of the catalyst system for oligosaccharide hydrolysis was found to improve significantly with increased reaction temperature. This higher temperature operation allowed for more selective recovery of glucose, but was detrimental to arabinose recovery since significant degradation occurred. Xylose recovery efficiency improved with increasing temperature, but the higher temperature led to increased degradation. Using a model feed, solubilized proteins were found to deactivate the organic-inorganic hybrid catalyst, but a simple pretreatment with activated silica was found to alleviate the deactivation.

  18. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P < 0.05), HCW (P = 0.06), fat thickness (P = 0.10), and % KPH (P = 0.08) responded quadratically to early DDGS supplementation, increasing from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and decreasing from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion, respectively. Marbling score was not affected (P > 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and

  19. Grain Boundary Microstructures of Wet and Dry Recrystallizing Marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bresser, H.; Urai, J.; Olgaard, D.

    2003-12-01

    We analyzed 2D grain boundary maps of samples of marble that were deformed at high temperature with and without added water. Our aim was to relate the grain boundary geometry of wet and dry marble to the observed mechanical behavior, and to obtain criteria that can help interpretation of natural calcite rocks in terms of the influence of water on their deformation. We made use of cylindrical samples of pure white, microporous Carrara marble that were axially compressed in a gas medium deformation apparatus at temperatures (T) ranging 600-1000° C, a constant confining pressure of 300 MPa and strain rates around 10-5 s-1. Samples were jacketed in sealed Pt-capsules with or without the addition of 0.4-2.1 wt% water. Microstructural analysis was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Light Optical Microscopy. Traced grain boundary maps were made from ultra thin sections of samples, and were quantitatively analyzed using Image Analysis techniques. The strength of water-added samples was found to be slightly less than of dry samples at all temperatures investigated (weakening ~40% at T=600° C, decreasing to ˜10% at higher T), with one exception at T=800° C. Microstructurally, the samples showed grain flattening and twinning at T=600° C and development of new grains by dynamic recrystallization at higher T, dominated by grain boundary migration. Grain boundaries in wet samples showed isolated or locally continuous remnants of fluid pockets in SEM. Quantitatively, the mean grain size and grain size distribution were found to only marginally vary between dry and wet samples. Average roundness of grains in wet recrystallized samples is systematically better than in dry samples. The fractal dimension D for the relationship between grain diameter d and grain perimeter P (expressed P ˜dD) for wet samples is systematically lower than for dry samples. Thus, grain boundaries in wet-deformed samples have less irregular shapes than in dry samples. Average

  20. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P < 0.05) AID of DM, N, Ca, and P. Increasing phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) AID of P and Ca, respectively, with AID of Ca showing a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.053). Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) AID of P from 46 to 62%. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, Ca, P, Mg, K, and energy. Contrasts showed that phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID for 8 indispensable AA (Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val), 6 dispensable AA (Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, and Tyr), as well as for total AA. Furthermore, phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P < 0.10) to increase ileal digestibility of Gly. Ileal digestibility of Met, Trp, and Pro were not affected by phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P < 0.05) in AID of 6

  1. Whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets with different concentrations of wet distiller's grains plus solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  2. Effect of distiller's grain in steam flaked corn based diets on the fecal microbiota of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: The high demand for ethanol in the United States has generated large stocks of wet distiller's grains (DG) derived as a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Energy dense DG are attractive for use as a feed supplement for beef cattle production....

  3. Evaluation of whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing different concentrations of wet distiller's grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  4. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG), a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG), and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG), 5S (5% sorghum-based DG), 10S (10% sorghum DG), and 15S (15% sorghum DG) were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet) and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set) were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%), Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%), Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%), Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%), Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%), and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%). Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01), WS3 (p = 0.054), Actinobacteria (p

  5. Dry-distillation of astatine-211 from irradiated bismuth targets: a time-saving procedure with high recovery yields.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jensen, H J

    2001-08-01

    Astatine-211 was produced via the 209Bi(alpha,2n) 211At reaction. The radionuclide was isolated with a novel procedure employing dry-distillation of the irradiated target material. The astatine was condensed as a dry residue in a PEEK-capillary cryotrap. Distillation was completed within 1-2 min with isolation yields of 92 +/- 3%. Subsequent work-up of the nuclide resulted in final recovery yields of 79 +/- 3%.

  6. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  7. Effects of wet distillers grains with solubles on visceral organ mass, trace mineral status, and polioencephalomalacia biomarkers by individually-fed cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains can contain high concentratations of sulfur (S). In ruminants, high dietary S concentrations can cause the neurological disorder polioencephalomalacia (polio). To evaluate the effects of dietary wet distillers grains (WDGS) on the risk of polio 24 steers (initial body weight [BW]...

  8. Effects of level of alfalfa hay in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing 25% sorghum wet distiller's grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred forty crossbred yearling steers (379 +/-19 kg) were blocked by weight and used in a completely randomized design study to determine effects of 25% wet distiller's grains (WDG) derived from sorghum in steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets, and to determine effects of level of alfalfa hay (7...

  9. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  10. Ensiling characteristics of distillers wet grains with corn stalks and determination of the feeding potential for dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characteristics and feeding potential of corn distillers wet grains with solubles (DWGS) ensiled with corn stalks (CS) were evaluated in a two-part experiment. A mix of 66.7 % DWGS and 33.3 % CS (as-fed) was ensiled in two plastic silage bags. One silage bag was left untreated (UNT) and the othe...

  11. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A ENERGY SAVING GRAIN DRYING INVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE SHIVVERS

    2005-09-30

    The project goal is to develop the world's best grain dryer, where best is defined in terms of energy efficiency, grain quality protection, and minimal environmental impact. A technique was developed to recapture enthalpy from a continuous flow drying system and to carry that energy back into the grain kernels. Process design assures that the recaptured energy is used to provide latent heat for evaporation of moisture from the kernels. Maximum kernel temperatures are tightly controlled by the design and can be selected through the system controls. The drying system process has been simulated, the mechanical design for a prototype was completed, and the prototype has been fabricated and installed. Simulation results show energy use that is a fraction of that required by the most efficient heat assisted grain dryer systems available at this time. Unfortunately, project time has expired, funding has been exhausted, and the system has yet to be fully run in order to validate the process design. Additional development work is required to run tests with the prototype, improve the simulation model, optimize the process and mechanical design, and bring this energy saving system to market.

  13. Replacement of starch from corn with nonforage fiber from distillers grains and soyhulls in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ranathunga, S D; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-03-01

    Forty Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 6-wk experimental period to evaluate incremental substitution of nonforage fiber provided by dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and soyhulls (SH) for starch provided by corn in the diet. Diets provided decreasing concentrations of starch: 29% starch with 0% DDGS; 26% starch with 7% DDGS; 23% starch with 14% DDGS; and 20% starch with 21% DDGS. Diets contained 27% corn silage, 22% alfalfa hay, and 51% concentrate mix and were formulated to be 17% crude protein, 4.7% fat, and 23% neutral detergent fiber from forage. Total neutral detergent fiber increased as DDGS and SH were included in the diet. Soyhulls were included in a linear fashion along with DDGS to replace soybean meal and expeller soybean meal, thereby maintaining a similar crude protein content across diets. Dry matter intake decreased linearly; consequently, feed efficiency tended to increase linearly as starch was replaced by nonforage fiber. There was no effect of diet on milk production or milk fat and protein percentage or yield. Milk fatty acid profiles were similar across diets. Other response variables, including 4% fat-corrected milk, total solids, and milk urea nitrogen, were unaffected by dietary treatments. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration did not differ between diets. Concentrations of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar across diets. Results from this research suggest that nonforage fiber from DDGS can partially substitute for starch from corn in dairy cow diets without affecting milk production and milk composition. Economic analysis of the diets showed that feeding DDGS and SH in substitution of corn was cost-effective. Results from this experiment indicate that DDGS and SH can replace corn as an energy source to decrease feed costs.

  14. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOEpatents

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G [Dnipropetrovsk, UA; Noyes, Ronald T [Stillwater, OK; Potapovych, Larysa P [Dnipropetrovsk, UA

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  15. Impact of beef cattle diets containing corn or sorghum distillers grains on beef color, fatty acid profiles, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Gill, R K; VanOverbeke, D L; Depenbusch, B; Drouillard, J S; Dicostanzo, A

    2008-04-01

    Strip loins from 236 carcasses from crossbred yearling steers were collected on each of 2 slaughter dates (slaughter 1 or 2) to determine the effects of feeding corn or sorghum distillers grains (DG) on beef color, fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, tenderness, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn (SFC) diet without (control) or with 15% (DM basis) corn dry or wet DG (CDDG and CWDG) or sorghum dry or wet DG (SDDG and SWDG) and alfalfa hay (R). Additional treatments included SDDG or SWDG with no alfalfa hay (NR). In slaughter 2, steaks from steers fed SFC had lesser L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed DG. When comparing sorghum and corn DG steaks, the same color differences were detected. Steaks from steers fed sorghum DG had lower L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed corn DG. Also, L* values in steaks from steers fed SWDG with R were greater (P < 0.05) than those from steers fed SWDG with NR. In slaughter 1, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) steak n-6 fatty acid concentrations compared with SFC. In both slaughter groups, feeding dry DG increased (P < 0.05) steak linoleic acid concentrations compared with wet DG. In slaughter 2, feeding corn DG diets increased (P < 0.05) linoleic acid concentrations of steaks compared with sorghum DG diets. In addition, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid in steaks resulted from feeding SDDG or SWDG with R compared with those sorghum treatments with NR. In each slaughter group, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) the n-6:n-3 ratio of steaks compared with SFC, and feeding corn DG increased (P < 0.05) this ratio compared with sorghum DG. Furthermore, steaks from steers fed corn DG had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of trans-vaccenic acid than those from steers fed sorghum DG. In slaughter 1, the CLA isomer 18:2, trans-10, cis-12 was greater (P < 0.05) in steaks from DG diets. On d 1 of retail display, steaks from

  16. Corn distillers grains with solubles derived from a traditional or partial fractionation process: Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Quinn, M J; Corrigan, M E; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2008-09-01

    Six hundred ten crossbred-yearling heifers (347 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were obtained and used in a randomized complete-block design finishing study. Finishing diets were based on steam-flaked corn and ground alfalfa hay. The control (CONT) treatment contained no distillers grains with solubles (DGS), the second diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a traditional dry-grind ethanol process (TRAD), and the third diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a partial fractionation dry-grind process (FRAC). Dry matter intake, ADG, and gain efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.48) for yearling heifers fed CONT when compared with heifers fed DGS. Heifers fed TRAD consumed more (P = 0.01) feed than heifers fed FRAC. However, ADG and feed efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.07) for heifers fed DGS. Moderate inclusion levels of DGS in finishing flaked corn diets yielded satisfactory performance. Growth performance was not different for heifers fed DGS originating from either ethanol processing method.

  17. Effects of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets containing corn wet distillers grains with solubles with differing corn processing methods.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Benton, J R; Luebbe, M K; Laudert, S B

    2013-05-01

    A total of 3,632 crossbred steers were used in 3 separate randomized complete-block designed finishing experiments. Data from Exp. 1 were analyzed separately whereas data were combined for Exp. 2 and 3, based on corn processing method used [Exp.1 = equal combination of dry-rolled and high-moisture (DRC:HMC); Exp. 2 and 3 = steam-flaked (SFC)]. Steers were fed 1 of 5 treatments to evaluate the effects of monensin and tylosin in feedlot diets containing 25% corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis). Treatments included: 1) corn-based diet (no WDGS) with 360 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (CORN+MT), 2) 25% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS-CON), 3) 25% WDGS with 360 mg/d monensin (WDGS+M), 4) WDGS with monensin and tylosin at same levels as treatment 1, and 5) WDGS with 480 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (WDGS+HIMT). In Exp. 1, WDGS+MT increased (P < 0.01) ADG (6.5%), G:F (6.9%), and HCW (3.0%) compared with CORN+MT. Alternatively, in Exp. 2 and 3, WDGS+MT had no effect on ADG (P = 0.18), decreased (P < 0.01) G:F by 3.2%, and did not affect HCW (P = 0.57) compared with CORN+MT. In Exp. 1, addition of monensin to a WDGS diet increased G:F by 3.1% (P = 0.03) and tended to increase G:F in Exp. 2 and 3 (P = 0.09) compared with WDGS-CON. For all experiments, addition of monensin and tylosin in a diet containing WDGS increased G:F (P < 0.01) and reduced total and severe liver abscesses (P < 0.01) compared with WDGS-CON. Additionally, HCW was increased in Exp. 2 and 3 (P < 0.01) and tended to increase in Exp. 1 (P = 0.09) when monensin and tylosin were fed in a WDGS diet compared with WDGS-CON. Feeding WDGS+MT reduced total liver abscesses by 79.3% (Exp. 1) and 57.6% (Exp. 2 and 3) compared with WDGS-CON. Compared with WDGS+MT, minimal differences were observed when monensin was fed at 480 mg/steer daily with tylosin in diets containing WDGS. Inclusion of WDGS in finishing steer diets did not alter effectiveness of monensin with tylosin in

  18. Chewing activities and particle size of rumen digesta and feces of precision-fed dairy heifers fed different forage levels with increasing levels of distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 differing forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) and various levels of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) replacing canola meal in precision-fed dairy heifer rations on chewing behavior, rumen pH and fill, and particle size of rumen contents and feces. A split plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as subplot was administered in a 4-period 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5±0.5 mo of age and 344±15 kg of body weight, respectively) housed in individual stalls were allocated to F:C 50:50 (low forage) or 75:25 [high forage (HF); dry matter basis] and to a sequence of DDGS level (0, 7, 14, and 21%; dry matter basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (dry matter basis). Diets were fed once daily and formulated to provide equal amounts of nutrients and body weight gain. No differences were found for rumen pH between dietary treatments. Time spent eating tended to be longer for HF and was not affected by DDGS inclusion rate. Ruminating time did not differ by F:C, but linearly increased as DDGS increased (422 to 450±21 min/d). Total chewing time tended to be longer for HF and to increase linearly as DDGS increased (553 to 579±33 min/d). Wet rumen digesta weight and volume were greater for HF. Geometric mean particle length of rumen contents was greater for HF 2h prefeeding when analyzed with solubles (particles <0.15 mm). Proportion of rumen solubles decreased as DDGS increased 5h postfeeding. Fecal geometric mean particle length and proportion of particles >1.18 mm increased with increasing levels of DDGS and did not change with F:C. Total chewing time increased by the addition of DDGS and higher F:C. Heifers can compensate for lower physically effective neutral detergent fiber by modifying their chewing behavior. Rumen pH was never at a level that could induce acidosis, and lower eating time at lower F:C was somewhat

  19. Effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn on heifer growth performance and diet digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Arias, R P; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Scholljegerdes, E J; Baird, A N; Johnson, K D; Buckmaster, D; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles (MWDGS; 48% DM) co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC) on growth performance, dietary intake, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 Angus-crossed heifers (2 yr old; 522 ± 49.1 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.1 BCS) were stratified and blocked according to BW and stratified by BCS in each block in a randomized complete block design (24 pens; 4 heifers/pen; 6 treatment replications). Groups were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for a 62 d trial. Treatments were 1) corn silage (CS) and soybean meal (CON), 2) MWDGS co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC; CO-EN), 3) CS mixed with MWDGS at feeding (CS+WDG), and 4) CS mixed with dry distillers grain plus solubles (DDGS) at feeding (CS+DDG). In Exp. 2, 4 crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 278 ± 18 kg) fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used in a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square to test the effects of feeding MWDGS co-ensiled with WC on DM intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and total tract digestibility. There were four 14-d periods, with 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for samples collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used and compared CON vs. diets containing distillers grains (DGD), CO-EN vs. diets where distillers grains were mixed at feeding (MIX), and CS+WDG vs. CS+DDG. In Exp. 1, the CON fed heifers resulted in greater G:F (P = 0.04) compared with those fed DGD. However, ADG (P = 0.03), final BW (P = 0.04), and BW gain (P = 0.03) were greatest for DGD diets compared with CON and greatest (P = 0.04) for CO-EN when compared with MIX. Apart from a slightly greater acetate concentration (P = 0.05), which resulted in a greater acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.03) for the CON diet compared with DGD, no important differences were observed on intake, diet digestibility, or fermentation characteristics when comparing the CON treatment with DGD or when comparing CS

  20. Changes in the phenolic acid content during commercial dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine fractions (ground corn-1, cooked slurry-2, liquefied slurry-3, fermented mash-4, whole stillage-5, thin stillage-6, condensed distillers soluble (CDS)-7, distillers wet grains (DWG)-8, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-9) were collected from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol ...

  1. Creep of Fine-grained Gabbro in dry Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G.; He, C.

    2008-12-01

    Natural fine-grained gabbro were deformed at 300MPa confining pressure in a paterson-type deformation apparatus in GFZ. Creep tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 950-1150'C, stresses from 25-500 MPa, and strain rates between2.3x10-4 to 6.7x10-8s-1. The fine-grained gabbro is composed of 60 vol percent plagioclase, 30 vol percent pyroxene, 10 vol percent magnetite and ilmenite. The samples were dried at 1000`C for 167 hours before experiments. FTIR measurements show a water content of 0.008 wt percent H2O for starting samples, and 0.03 wt percent H2O for deformed samples. We performed three kinds of tests: stress step creep tests, temperature step creep test and constant stress creep with a long creep time. The data of stress-stepping creep tests and the constant stress creep test with long creep time show that the strain rates under the same stress level were increasing with cumulated creep time beyond a threshold time, which is 24 hours for temperature up to 1050 `C and 5 hours for temperature of 1100 `C, and a linear relation with slope of 1.0 was found between logarithm of strain rate and logarithm of accumulated time, suggesting time-proportional strain-rate enhancement, or equivalently, time-weakening effect of flow strength. Microstructural observations of deformed samples show that melt films occurred between grain boundaries of samples, and the melt contents increase with the creep time, indicating the mechanism of the weakening behavior. The strain rate enhancement related to melt fraction agrees to the data of Dimanov et al. [2000], and is fitted well with the model of Paterson [2000]. In order to determine a steady-state flow law with the effect of melt film excluded, the original steady-state strain rates are converted to the case with t=24 hours for experiments with temperatures up to 1050 `C, and data for temperature of 1100 `C are converted to the case with t=5 hours. The time-corrected creep data were fitted to the most commonly used

  2. Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage-based diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P F; Cabrita, A R J; Dewhurst, R J; Vicente, T E J; Lopes, Z M C; Fonseca, A J M

    2006-07-01

    The effects of increasing levels of solvent-extracted palm kernel meal (SPKM) and corn distillers dried grains (CDG) in corn silage-based diets on feed intake and milk production were examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows averaging 100 d in milk (DIM) (SD = 61.5) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 4 treatments in 5 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of SPKM in the diet. During a 3-wk preliminary period, cows were fed a standard diet. At the end of the preliminary period, cows were blocked by 4% fat-corrected milk yield, parity number (primiparous and multiparous), and DIM, and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets. The total mixed ration (TMR) consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of SPKM were achieved by replacing protein sources and citrus pulp with SPKM and urea (0, 5, 10, and 15% SPKM and 0.06, 0.22, 0.38, and 0.55% urea for SPKM0, SPKM5, SPKM10, and SPKM15, respectively). In Experiment 2, 18 Holstein cows averaging 93 DIM (SD = 49.1) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatments in 6 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of CDG in the diet. The preliminary period lasted for 2 wk. Assignment of cows to treatments was the same as in Experiment 1. The TMR consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of CDG were achieved by replacing soybean meal and citrus pulp with CDG and urea (0, 7, and 14% CDG and 0, 0.22, and 0.49% urea for CDG0, CDG7, and CDG14, respectively). There were no significant treatment effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition in Experiment 1. Inclusion of SPKM tended to increase protein and lactose contents of milk. The SPKM0 diet promoted body weight loss. There were no

  3. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG; < 15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn- (SFC) based diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility of feeedlt ocattle. In Experi...

  4. Production response of lactating cows fed dried versus wet brewers' grain in diets with similar dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bingham, H R; Radloff, H D

    2003-09-01

    Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (20 intact and 4 fitted with rumen cannula) during early lactation (56 +/- 25.3 d in milk) were assigned to two treatments to determine intake and production responses to feeding dried and wet brewers' grain. There were two cows fitted with a rumen cannula in each treatment. Cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily containing either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The diet contained 47% forage and 53% concentrate. The experimental design was a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square with two periods of 5 wk each. First 2 wk in each period were considered as adaptation to diets and data from the last 3 wk were used for treatment comparisons. Dried and wet brewers' diets contained 68.0 and 66.5% DM, respectively. Feeding brewers' grain dry or wet to dairy cows had no influence on feed intake (25.6 vs. 25.1 kg/d), fat corrected milk yield (40.1 vs. 40.7 kg/d), milk composition and feed consumption. The pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acids and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not different between treatments. Fatty acid composition of milk fat from cows fed diets containing dry or wet brewers' grain was identical, except C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids were lower in milk fat from cows fed wet brewers' grain compared with dried brewers' grain. The results from the present study suggest that the performance of cows fed either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of dietary DM was similar when diets had the same DM. The average price for dried and wet brewers' grain in the United States from July 2001 to June 2002 was dollars 145.3 and dollars 96.9/metric tonne DM, respectively. Using wet instead of dried brewers' grain will save dollars 49/metric tonne minus the difference in storage costs. Wet brewers' grain can be fed to dairy cows in areas that are close to the brewery and provides nutritive value similar to the dried brewers' grain.

  5. Grain sterility in relation to dry mass production and distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Puteh, Adam B; Mondal, M Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation.

  6. Grain Sterility in relation to Dry Mass Production and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam B.; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd. Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation. PMID:24895563

  7. Corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility.

    PubMed

    May, M L; DeClerck, J C; Quinn, M J; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Hales, K E; Galyean, M L

    2010-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestion of nutrients. In Exp. 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete block design (initial BW 391.1 +/- 9.51 kg) and fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets consisting of (DM basis) 0% distillers grains (CON), 15% SDG, 30% SDG, 15% CDG, 30% CDG, 15% of a 50:50 blend of SDG and CDG, and 30% of a 50:50 blend of CDG and SDG. Decreased carcass-adjusted final BW and HCW (P < or = 0.05) were noted as the inclusion amount of distillers grains increased in the diet. Body weight gain efficiency did not differ among the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON treatments, but G:F was numerically less with either amount of SDG than for CON, and decreased (P < or = 0.05) as distillers grains were increased from 15 to 30%. Cattle fed CON had greater carcass yield grades than those fed the distillers grain diets (P < or = 0.05). In Exp. 2, crossbred beef steers (n = 36; initial BW 567.3 +/- 53.1 kg) were used in a generalized randomized block design and fed SFC-based diets with 0% distillers grains (CON) and 15% (DM basis) CDG or SDG. Digestibility was determined with a pulse dose of Cr(2)O(3). Feeding steers 15% CDG or SDG increased intakes of CP and NDF (P < or = 0.05), but intakes of DM, OM, and starch did not differ among treatments (P >o r = 0.07). Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and starch (P > or = 0.25) did not differ among the 3 treatments. Fecal pH averaged over all sampling times was not affected by treatment, nor were average fecal pH values for prefeeding samples (0, 24, 48, and 72 h after the pulse dose) or for samples taken after feeding (12, 36, and 60 h after the pulse dose; P > or = 0.11). Results suggest that with 15% distillers grains in the DM, G:F was similar for cattle fed the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON diets

  8. Triboelectrification and razorbacks: geophysical patterns produced in dry grains.

    PubMed

    Shinbrot, Troy; Lamarche, Keirnan; Glasser, Benjamin J

    2006-05-05

    Electrostatic interactions between particles can dramatically affect granular flows, creating industrial safety and handling problems [K. N. Palmer, (Chapman and Hall, London, 1973), pp. 388-389]. We present experimental data demonstrating that charging of grains can also cause spontaneous self-assembly that may generate lasting geological patterns under arid conditions. Paradoxically, we find that grains that tribocharge enough to produce small explosions, ejecting grains meters into the air, leave little net charge on grains. Rather, grains charge into strongly heterogeneous polar clusters. These assemble into stereotyped residual structures that resemble geological features, for example, razorbacks observed on Mars ["The Razorback Mystery," July 16, 2004, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/mer/images.cfm?id=701].

  9. Effect of water yam (Dioscoreaalata) flour fortified with distiller's spent grain on nutritional, chemical, and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Awoyale, Wasiu; Maziya-Dixon, Busie; Sanni, Lateef Oladimeji; Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi

    2016-01-01

    It was envisaged that the inclusion of treated distiller's spent grain (DSG) to yam flour might increase its nutritional value, with the aim of reducing nutritional diseases in communities consuming yam as a staple. Hence, yam flour was fortified with DSG at 5-35%. The effects of this fortification on the nutritional, chemical, and functional properties of yam flour were investigated. The result showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001) in fat, ash, protein, total amino acids, total dietary fiber, and insoluble dietary fiber contents of the blends as DSG increased except for starch and soluble dietary fiber contents, which decreased. The functional properties showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction with DSG inclusion. The inclusion of DSG increased both the tryptophan and methionine contents of the blends. Therefore, the DSG fortified yam flour could contribute to quality protein intake in populations consuming yam as a staple, due to its indispensible amino acid content.

  10. Effects of roughage source and inclusion in beef finishing diets containing corn wet distillers' grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Benton, J R; Watson, A K; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Pol, K J Vander; Meyer, N F; Greenquist, M A

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of roughage source and inclusion in diets containing wet distillers' grains plus solubles (WDGS) on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism. In Exp. 1, 385 crossbred steer calves (initial BW = 346 kg [SD 29]) were used in a finishing trial. A control diet with no roughage inclusion was compared with 6 diets containing either alfalfa hay (ALF), corn silage (CSIL), or corn stalks (CSTK) at 2 inclusions as a 3 × 2 factorial. Alfalfa hay was included at 4 (low) or 8% (standard) of diet DM. Diets containing CSIL or CSTK were formulated to provide total dietary NDF equal to the low and standard ALF inclusion diets. The final diets contained 6.13 and 12.26% CSIL or 3.04 and 6.08% CSTK (DM basis). All diets contained 30% WDGS and a 1:1 mixture of dry-rolled and high-moisture corn (DM basis). Cattle fed no roughage had reduced ( < 0.01) DMI and tended ( ≤ 0.10) to have the lowest final BW and ADG compared with cattle fed roughage. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.11) in DMI, ADG, or G:F due to roughage source. Cattle fed a standard inclusion of roughage had greater ( ≤ 0.04) DMI and ADG compared with cattle fed diets with low inclusion, regardless of roughage source. Feed efficiency tended to be different among treatments ( = 0.09), with cattle fed no roughage having greater G:F than all treatments ( ≤ 0.06) except cattle fed the low level of CSTK, which had a similar G:F ( = 0.48). Feed efficiency was not affected by source of roughage ( = 0.23) or inclusion of roughage ( = 0.49). In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally fistulated steers (347 kg BW [SD 25]) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial with ALF or CSTK included at zero, low, or standard levels similar to Exp. 1. Apparent total tract digestibility (%) of DM, OM, and NDF decreased linearly ( ≤ 0.07) due to increasing roughage inclusion. Average, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH increased linearly ( ≤ 0

  11. Effect of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles inclusion level in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, M E; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Luebbe, M K; Vander Pol, K J; Meyer, N F; Buckner, C D; Vanness, S J; Hanford, K J

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) level on steer performance and metabolism. In Exp. 1, 480 crossbred steer calves (314 +/- 18 kg of BW) were used in a finishing experiment with a randomized complete block design and a 3 x 4 treatment structure. Diets were based on dry-rolled (DRC), high-moisture (HMC), or steam-flaked corn (SFC) with increasing levels of WDGS (0, 15, 27.5, or 40%; DM basis). A corn processing x WDGS level interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for ADG and G:F. Average daily gain and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) in steers fed DRC; ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04) and G:F increased linearly (P = 0.02) in steers fed HMC; and ADG decreased quadratically (P = 0.02) with no change in G:F (P = 0.52) in steers fed SFC as WDGS increased. In Exp. 2, 7 ruminally fistulated steers (440 +/- 41 kg of BW) were used in a 6-period crossover design with 3 x 2 factorial treatment structure. Diets were the same as those fed in Exp. 1, except they contained only 2 levels of WDGS (0 or 40% of diet DM). Total tract starch digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) for steers fed SFC than for steers fed DRC or HMC. Minimum ruminal pH was less (P < 0.01) for steers fed SFC than for steers fed HMC or DRC. Variance of ruminal pH was different among all 3 processing methods with DRC < HMC < SFC (P < 0.10). In situ 22-h DM digestibility of DRC and HMC and starch digestibility of DRC were greater (P < 0.10) in steers fed DRC compared with steers fed HMC or SFC. Steers fed 0% WDGS had less (P < or = 0.02) intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ether extract compared with steers fed 40% WDGS. Total tract digestibility of DM and OM was greater (P < or = 0.08) and digestibility of ether extract tended (P = 0.11) to be less for steers fed 0% WDGS compared with steers fed 40% WDGS. Maximum ruminal pH and pH variance were greater (P < or = 0.08) in steers fed 0% WDGS. A corn processing x WDGS

  12. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH4(+) and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  13. Costs of Pelleting to Enhance the Logistics of Distillers Grains Shipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels, especially corn-based ethanol, can help meet some of the increasing demand for transportation fuels. Currently, the most heavily utilized substrate is corn grain, which is readily converted into ethanol at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of ethanol...

  14. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to growing-finishing cattle on ammonia concentration in air and manure nutrient composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality is a difficult and pressing problem for feedlot producers. This is compounded by feeding practices that influence the excretion of starch, fiber, crude protein, and sulfur (S) by cattle that significantly affect the production of odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (...

  15. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distiller's grains with solubles on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has increased the use of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of WDGS in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate ...

  16. Effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six hundred crossbred steers (365 + -35 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine effects of a corn- and sorghum-based (< 15% sorghum) wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG) on animal performance and carcass characteristics in steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets. Forty-eig...

  17. Effects of ruminally degradable nitrogen in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of degradable nitrogen (N) needs in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) is needed to aid the cattle industry in managing feed costs. Yearling steers (n = 525; initial weight = 373 +/- 13 kg) were housed in 54 pens (9 to 10 steers/pen) and received treatments...

  18. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distiller's grain with solubles on energy metabolism and enteric methane emissions of finishing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate of the net energy value of WDGS has yet to be determined. Effects of corn processing method and WDGS on energy metabolis...

  19. Effects of wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) and non-protein nitrogen on growth performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) contain high concentrations of crude protein and ruminally undegradable protein. The requirement for dietary ruminally degradable protein in steam-flaked corn-based beef cattle finishing diets that contain high concentrations of WDGS is not known. Therefor...

  20. Effects of non-protein nitrogen in diets containing 15% wet distiller's grains with solubles and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous data suggest that the non-protein nitrogen (NPN) need in diets with 15% wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) for optimum growth performance may be slightly less than in 0% WDGS diets. The objective of the present study was to more clearly define the NPN need in diets with 15% WDG...

  1. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  2. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch.

    PubMed

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol) than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  3. Effects of ruminally degradable N in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of degradable nitrogen (N) needs in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) is needed to aid the cattle feeding industry in managing feed costs and potential environmental issues. Yearling steers (n = 525; initial weight = 822 +/- 28 lb) were housed in 56 pens (...

  4. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  5. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  6. Optimization and economic evaluation of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation from gasification of corn stover and distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Demirel, Yasar; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Thermochemical gasification is one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into power, fuels and chemicals. The objectives of this study were to maximize the net energy efficiency for biomass gasification, and to estimate the cost of producing industrial gas and combined heat and power (CHP) at a feedrate of 2000kg/h. Aspen Plus-based model for gasification was combined with a CHP generation model, and optimized using corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as the biomass feedstocks. The cold gas efficiencies for gas production were 57% and 52%, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. The selling price of gas was estimated to be $11.49 and $13.08/GJ, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were as high as 37% and 88%, respectively, for corn stover and 34% and 78%, respectively, for DDGS. The selling price of electricity was estimated to be $0.1351 and $0.1287/kWh for corn stover and DDGS, respectively. Overall, high net energy efficiencies for gas and CHP production from biomass gasification can be achieved with optimized processing conditions. However, the economical feasibility of these conversion processes will depend on the relative local prices of fossil fuels.

  7. Ultrastructure of mature protein body in the starchy endosperm of dry cereal grain.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuhi; Shigemitsu, Takanari; Tanaka, Kunisuke; Morita, Shigeto; Satoh, Shigeru; Masumura, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    The development of the protein body in the late stage of seed maturation is poorly understood, because electron-microscopy of mature cereal endosperm is technically difficult. In this study, we attempted to modify the existing method of embedding rice grain in resin. The modified method revealed the ultrastructures of the mature protein body in dry cereal grains.

  8. Composition and oxidative stability of crude oil extracts of corn germ and distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition, Acid Value, and the content and composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and steryl ferulates were determined in corn germ oil and four post-fermentation corn oils from the ethanol dry grind process. The oxidative stability index at 110ºC was ...

  9. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  10. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  11. Efficacy of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn with and without corn wet distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Drouillard, J S; Loe, E R; Higgins, J J; Corrigan, M E; Quinn, M J

    2008-09-01

    Three hundred seventy-one crossbred-yearling heifers (299 +/- 9 kg initial BW) were obtained from a common source and used in a randomized complete-block designed finishing study. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with one factor being diet: based on steam-flaked corn finishing diet (SFC) or SFC plus 25% (dry basis) corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). The second factor was feed additives: no added antibiotics (NONE), 300 mg of monensin daily (MONENSIN), or 300 mg of monensin + 90 mg of tylosin daily (MON+TYL). Main effect of diet resulted in no difference in DMI (P = 0.34). Heifers fed SFC gained 9% faster (P = 0.01) and were 7% more efficient (P = 0.01) than heifers fed WDGS. In addition, heifers fed SFC had 3% heavier (P = 0.01) HCW; 1% greater (P = 0.01) dress yield; and had 3% larger (P = 0.05) LM area. Marbling score and carcasses that graded USDA Choice or better were both greater (P /= 0.12) among feed additive treatments. Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat and s.c. fat thickness at the 12th rib were also not different (P >/= 0.55) for main effects of diet and feed additive. There was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a diet x feed additive interaction for the most severe (A+) liver abscesses. Heifers fed NONE yielded the greatest percentage (16%) of A+ livers in the SFC treatment, whereas heifers fed MON+TYL yielded the greatest percentage (10%) in the WDGS treatment. Including wet distillers grains with solubles in diets based on steam-flaked corn decreased finishing heifer performance, HCW, and marbling. Tylosin addition tended to decrease severity of liver abscesses in diets containing SFC, but not in diets containing WDGS. These data indicate that monensin and tylosin may not be

  12. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, M K; Patterson, J M; Jenkins, K H; Buttrey, E K; Davis, T C; Clark, B E; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2012-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDG; <15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility. In Exp. 1, six hundred crossbred steers (364 ± 35 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with 8 replications/treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a dry-rolled corn (DRC) control diet without WDG, a SFC control without WDG, and SFC with 4 WDG concentrations (15, 30, 45, 60% DM basis) replacing SFC, cottonseed meal, urea, and yellow grease. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, and 12th-rib fat depth were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for DRC compared with SFC. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, 12th-rib fat depth, and marbling score decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. In Exp. 2, six ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred steers (481 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design using the same diets as Exp. 1. Ruminal, postruminal, and total tract OM and NDF digestibility were not different (P > 0.14) for DRC compared with SFC. Ruminal and total tract starch digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter and OM intake were not different (P ≥ 0.43) among WDG treatments. Ruminal and total tract OM digestibility decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Intake, ruminal digestibility, and total tract digestibility of NDF increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Starch intake decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Ruminal starch digestibility increased (P = 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Total tract starch digestibility decreased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Feeding SFC improved steer performance compared with DRC. The concentration of WDG and corn

  13. Use of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in rainbow trout feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing price and reduced availability of fish meal have prompted feed manufacturers and aquaculture producers to search for sustainable and economical alternative protein sources. The majority of these have come from plants, and many, for example soybean meal, have been successfully incorporated...

  14. Effect of matrix clean-up for aflatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a group of highly carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. These toxins have a detrimental economic impact on such industries as corn and ethanol production. They are highly regulated by the FDA and as such, a rapid, reliable method with low det...

  15. Anaerobic treatment of wastewaters generated during grain fermentation and distillation of alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Takamura, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes of grain fermentation wastewaters were investigated in this research. The study showed that bench-scale anaerobic stirred reactors were more applicable in treating the substrate than bench-scale anaerobic packed-bed reactors at a temperature of 35/sup 0/C. Results indicate that significant amounts of methane could be generated from the stabilization of the high strength (COD = 70,000 mg/L) acidic (pH less than or equal to4.2) grain fermentation wastewater. The study showed that anaerobic stirred reactors were applicable to the treatment of high strength wastewaters containing high suspended solids content. Anaerobic packed-bed reactors were applicable to soluble substrates. In terms of organic loading rates necessary for design purposes, stirred reactors were applicable at loading rates above 200 lb-COD/1000 ft/sup 3/-day while below this rate packed-bed reactors could be employed. Gas production yields were substantial for both the stirred and packed-bed reactors. Methane yields of 6.2 ft/sup 2/-CH/sub 4//lb-COD added and 6.4 ft/sup 3/-CH/sub 4//lb-COD added were observed for the stirred and packed-bed reactors operated at a theta/sub c/greater than or equal to30 days were 65% CH/sub 4/, 32% CO/sub 2/, and 3% N/sub 2/. Gas composition of packed-bed reactors operated at theta/sub h/greater than or equal to15 days were 65% CH/sub 4/, 32% CO/sub 2/ and 3% N/sub 2/.

  16. The impact of postharvest interventions on the color stability and, subsequently, the palatability of beef from cattle fed wet distillers grain.

    PubMed

    Knobel, S M; Mafi, G G; De Witt, C Mireles; Morgan, J B; Richards, C J; VanOverbeke, D L

    2013-03-01

    Two hundred forty heifers were fed at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK, in 1 of 2 treatment groups: a dry rolled corn (CON) diet or a diet including 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS). Chuck rolls (n = 60) and paired strip loins (n = 75 pairs; 38 CON and 37 WDGS) were collected from each treatment group and processed at 3 d and 14 d, respectively. After grinding, each chuck was separated into 8 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film overwrapped packages and 8 high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), each containing approximately 0.23 kg of ground beef, for evaluation by a trained color panel, a trained color panel and a trained sensory panel and for thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) analysis. After 14 d, 1 strip loin from each pair was injected with an enhancement solution. Steaks from each strip loin were fabricated and packaged, one-half in PVC and one-half in MAP. In addition to the evaluation by trained color and sensory panels and TBARS analysis, steaks were subjected to instrumental color evaluation using a HunterLab Miniscan XE and Warner-Bratzler Shear Force analysis using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Ground beef exhibited no significant differences in color between dietary treatments; however, sensory panelists did find MAP WDGS had less beefy flavor (P = 0.05) and more painty flavor (P = 0.01) intensities than the MAP CON ground beef. Cattle fed WDGS discolored more (P = 0.01) and had less bright steaks than cattle fed the CON when MAP and enhanced. Distillers fed, nonenhanced (nonE) MAP steaks were redder and yellower than control steaks (P < 0.05) on removal from simulated retail display. There were no other significant (P > 0.05) color differences between dietary treatments using any other combination of postharvest interventions. Sensory panel results indicated WDGS NE PVC products were juicier and more tender (P < 0.05), initially, and contained less connective tissue (5.3 ± 0.1, 5.5 ± 0.1, and 5.9 ± 0

  17. Microbiological characterization of wet wheat distillers' grain, with focus on isolation of lactobacilli with potential as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, C; Jonsson, H; Lindberg, J E; Roos, S

    2004-03-01

    Wet wheat distillers' grain (WWDG), a residue from ethanol fermentation, was examined from a microbiological perspective. After storage, WWDG was characterized by a high content of lactobacilli, nondetectable levels of other bacteria, occasional occurrence of yeasts, and a pH of about 3.6 and contained a mixture of lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. The composition of lactobacilli in WWDG was simple, including primarily the species Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus panis, and Lactobacillus pontis, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Since the use of WWDG as pig feed has indicated a health-promoting function, some relevant characteristics of three strains of each of these species were examined together with basal physiological parameters, such as carbohydrate utilization and growth temperature. Seven of the strains were isolated from WWDG, and two strains from pig feces were included for comparison. It was clear that all three species could grow at temperatures of 45 to 50 degrees C, with L. amylolyticus being able to grow at temperatures as high as 54 degrees C. This finding could be the explanation for the simple microflora of WWDG, where a low pH together with a high temperature during storage would select for these organisms. Some strains of L. panis and L. pontis showed prolonged survival at pH 2.5 in synthetic stomach juice and good growth in the presence of porcine bile salt. In addition, members of all three species were able to bind to immobilized mucus material in vitro. Especially the isolates from pig feces but, interestingly, some isolates from WWDG as well possessed properties that might be of importance for colonization of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs.

  18. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles on odor and gas production in cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; Varel, V H

    2012-11-01

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has recently increased the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate odorous compound production in urine and feces of feedlot steers fed diets with different concentrations of WDGS and different grain processing methods. In both experiments, a Latin square design was used. In Exp. 1, a 2× 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used and the factors consisted of corn processing method [steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC)] and inclusion of corn-based WDGS (0 or 30% on a DM basis). Thus, the 4 treatment combinations consisted of: 1) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); 3) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and 4) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30). In Exp. 2, all diets were based on SFC and the 4 treatments consisted of: 1) 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) 30% WDGS (SFC-30); and 4) 45% WDGS (SFC-45). In both experiments, diets were balanced for degradable intake protein and ether extract by the addition of cottonseed meal and fat. Fecal slurries were prepared from a 5-d composite of urine and feces collected from each treatment. The slurries were analyzed using a gas chromatograph for VFA, phenol, p-cresol, indole, skatole, hydrogen, methane (CH(4),) and total gas production. In Exp. 1, the DRC fecal slurries had greater initial total VFA concentration compared with the SFC-based slurries and accumulated a greater concentration of total gas throughout the incubation; however, the SFC-based manure resulted in more CH(4) production. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentrations did not differ across all fecal slurries initially and on d 28; however, throughout the incubation, slurries with 0 and 15% WDGS had the greatest total VFA concentration. Overall, the presence of starch in the feces was likely the determining factor for the accumulation of odorous compounds in

  19. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  20. Treating thin stillage or condensed distillers solubles with phytase for production of low phytate co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol production from grains is mainly based on dry grind processing, during which phytate is concentrated about three fold in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a major co-product. For reducing phyate in DDGS, two industrial phytase preparations (Natuphos and Ronozyme) were used ...

  1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction for fast analysis of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Deng, Chunhui; Li, Yan; Ye, Hao; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, a novel method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation-headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is dried before being preserved and used, there is too little water to absorb microwave energy and heat the TCM samples. In the work, carbonyl iron powders (CIP) was added and mixed with the dried TCM sample, which was used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of the TCM. At the same time, SPME was used for the extraction and concentration of essential oil after MD. The dry rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC was used as the model TCM, and used in the study. The MD-HS-SPME parameters including fiber coating, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added CIP, were studied. To demonstrate the method feasibility, the conventional HS-SPME method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in the TCM. Experimental results show that more compounds were isolated and identified by MD-HS-SPME than those by HS-SPME. Compared to conventional HS-SPME, the advantages of the proposed method are: short extraction time and high extraction efficiency. All experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative tool for fast analysis of essential oils in dry TCMs.

  2. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distillers grains with solubles on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2012-09-01

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has increased the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus) finishing diets. Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (Zea mays L.; SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of WDGS in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate of the net energy value of WDGS has yet to be determined. Effects of corn processing method and WDGS on energy metabolism, C and N balance, and enteric methane (CH(4)) production were evaluated in a short-term study using 8 Jersey steers and respiration calorimetry chambers. A 2 by 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a Latin square design. The 4 treatment combinations consisted of: i) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); ii) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); iii) dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and iv) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30). Diets were balanced for degradable intake protein (DIP) and ether extract (EE) by the addition of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) meal and yellow grease. As a proportion of GE, grain processing method did not affect (P ≥ 0.12) fecal, digestible, urinary, and ME, or heat production. Steers consuming SFC-based diets produced less (P < 0.04) CH(4) than steers consuming DRC-based diets. Retained energy tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for cattle consuming SFC- than DRC-based diets. Inclusion of WDGS did not affect (P ≥ 0.17) fecal, digestible, urinary, metabolizable, and retained energy, or heat production as a proportion of GE. Furthermore, neither inclusion of WDGS or grain processing method affected (P ≥ 0.17) daily CO(2) production. Due in part to greater N intake, cattle consuming diets containing 30% WDGS excreted more (P = 0.01) total N and excreted a greater (P < 0.01) quantity of N in the urine. From these results, we conclude that cattle consuming SFC-based diets produce less CH(4) and retain more energy than cattle fed DRC-based diets; however, dietary

  3. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  4. Numerical Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Dry Granular Flow with Deformable Elastic Grain

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, H A; Elander, V; Jin, C; Li, Y; Vasquez, P; Fast, P

    2005-08-11

    The authors consider the dynamics of interacting elastic disks in the plane. This is an experimentally realizable two-dimensional model of dry granular flow where the stresses can be visualized using the photoelastic effect. As the elastic disks move in a vacuum, they interact through collisions with each other and with the surrounding geometry. Because of the finite propagation speed of deformations inside each grain it can be difficult to capture computationally even simple experiments involving just a few interacting grains. The goal of this project is to improve our ability to simulate dense granular flow in complex geometry. They begin this process by reviewing some past work, how they can improve upon previous work. the focus of this project is on capturing the elastic dynamics of each grain in an approximate, computationally tractable, model that can be coupled to a molecular dynamics scheme.

  5. Evaluation of feeding distiller's grains, containing virginiamycin, on antimicrobial susceptibilities in fecal isolates of Enterococcus and Escherichia coli and prevalence of resistance genes in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distiller’s grains (DG), produced from fermentations using no antibiotic (Control) or dosed with 2 or 20 ppm virginiamycin product and containing 0, 0.7, and 8.9 ppm virginiamycin, respectively, were fed to cattle and effects on antibiotic sensitivity and prevalence of resistance genes in comm...

  6. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  7. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  8. Effect of substitution of soybean meal by canola meal or distillers grains in dairy rations on amino acid and glucose availability.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-01-01

    Canola meal (CM) or by-products of ethanol production (dried distillers grain, DDG) may offer an economical alternative to soybean meal (SBM) in North American dairy rations. These protein supplements can effectively replace SBM and, in 2 recent meta-analyses, CM had a positive effect on milk and milk protein yields compared with SBM. The objective of this study was to determine if the positive responses observed with inclusion of CM in dairy rations could be explained by an increased availability of His, Lys, Met, or glucose. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods. Cows were fed isonitrogenous (17.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy of lactation) diets formulated to slightly exceed nutrient requirements. Diets contained 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate including SBM, CM, corn high-protein DDG (HPDDG), or wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS) as the single protein supplement. The effect of protein supplements on availability of His, Lys, Met, and glucose was estimated using variations in the whole-body (WB) flux of these nutrients, determined by isotopic dilution. As planned, dry matter intake and milk and milk protein yields were not affected by treatments and averaged 23.7, 31.4, and 1.14 kg/d, respectively. Lactose yield did not differ among diets although milk lactose content tended to be lower with CM and WDDGS diets than with SBM and HPDDG diets. Lysine availability was affected by treatments: the highest WB irreversible loss rate (ILR) was observed for the CM diet (371 g/d) and the lowest for HPDDG diet (290 g/d); values for SBM and WDDGS were intermediate (330 and 316 g/d, respectively). Availability of His and Met did not vary among diets and WB ILR averaged, respectively, 129 and 124 g/d; the CM diet, however, had numerically the highest His and Met ILR. Plasma concentrations of most of the essential AA were higher with the CM diet and lower with the HPDDG diet, the

  9. Creep of partially molten fine-grained gabbro under dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongsheng; Rybacki, Erik; Wirth, Richard; He, Changrong; Dresen, Georg

    2012-05-01

    Natural fine-grained gabbro was deformed in a Paterson deformation apparatus to evaluate the flow strength of lower crustal rocks containing partial melt. We performed 94 creep stepping tests on seven samples at 300 MPa confining pressure, temperatures between 950°C and 1150°C, and axial stresses of 25-510 MPa, resulting in strain rates between 2.3 × 10-4 and 6.7 × 10-8 s-1. Water content of samples predried at 1000°C at 1 atm was about 0.035 wt % H2O. The drying process induced partial melting of the starting material of ˜1 vol % Si-poor and Fe-rich melt at grain boundaries, which increased further up to ˜2 vol % during creep tests. Creep tests reveal strain rates increasing with duration of the tests related to increasing melt content present in the samples. Microstructural observations of deformed samples show melt in triple junctions and melt films contained in grain boundaries. The observed microstructures indicate that the samples were deformed in the dislocation creep regime. Dislocation walls are present in pyroxene and plagioclase grains. Very fine grained (about 10 μm) pyroxene and olivine were produced by mineral reactions and dynamic recrystallization at temperatures >1000°C. Melt fraction ϕ of creep test samples and annealed samples increases linearly with logarithm of time (log(t)), suggesting that strain rate enhancement by partial melting can be described by an exponential function of melt fraction with an exponent coefficient of 128. After applying a correction for the time-dependent increase of melt content the data were fitted to a power law creep equation, resulting in a stress exponent of n = 4.0 ± 0.3, an activation energy of Q = 644 ± 75 kJ mol-1, and a preexponential factor of A = 1010.3 ± 0.4 MPan s-1 for dry gabbro that contains ˜1 vol % melt. The flow law for gabbro from this study is compared to published flow law parameters of basaltic composition rocks.

  10. Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different grain sources as dietary protein for hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. Aureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different sources on growth performance, hematology, and immunity of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, were evaluated. Sex-reversed, all-male hybrid tilapia (3.72 ± 0.08 g initial weight) were fed diets in which 30% o...

  11. Effects of dietary fat and wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four hundred yearling heifers in two experiments were fed for an average of 106 days. Treatments included 0% wet sorghum distiller’s grains plus solubles (WSDGS) and 0% yellow grease (fat), 0% WSDGS and 3% fat, or 15% WSDGS and either 0, 1.5, or 3.0% fat. The WSDGS replaced steam-flaked corn and cot...

  12. Effects of increasing concentrations of wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked corn-based diets of energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased in the Southern Great Plains as a result of the growing ethanol industry. Research evaluating the use of steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets in conjunction with WDGS is limited. Therefore, the effects of increasi...

  13. Effects of adding MIN-AD to steam-flaked corn-based diets with or without wet corn distiller's grain plus solubles on performance by beef cattle during receiving and finishing phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of wet corn distillers grain (WCDG) and MIN-AD (MIN-AD Inc., Amarillo, TX), a commercial source of calcium-magnesium carbonate, on cattle performance and carcass measurements were evaluated in a 42-d receiving phase (220 steers; initial BW = 279.3 kg) and a subsequent finishing phase (192 s...

  14. A mathematical model for constant and intermittent batch drying of grains in a novel rotating jet spouted bed

    SciTech Connect

    Jumah, R.Y.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    1996-05-01

    A diffusion-based mathematical model is presented for batch drying of corn in a novel rotating jet spouted bed device under constant as well as intermittent drying conditions. Such a device is suited for drying of large particles (e.g. grains, beans, seeds, etc.) for which internal heat and mass transfer rates control the drying kinetics. Based on literature data for moisture diffusivities the model predictions are compared with experimental data for both continuous and time-dependent air supply and/or heat input. Effects of relevant parameters are evaluated and discussed in the light of potential practical applications. 44 refs.

  15. Corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: in vitro fermentation and hydrogen sulfide production.

    PubMed

    May, M L; DeClerck, J C; Leibovich, J; Quinn, M J; DiLorenzo, N; Smith, D R; Hales, K E; Galyean, M L

    2010-07-01

    The effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) on in vitro rate of gas production, IVDMD, H(2)S production, and VFA were evaluated. Five substrate treatments that were balanced for ether extract content were arranged in a 2 x 2 + 1 factorial. Factors were concentration (15 or 30%; DM basis) and source of WDG (corn or sorghum WDG; CDG and SDG, respectively) plus a 0% WDG control in substrates with steam-flaked corn as the basal grain. Control substrates had greater (P < 0.01) IVDMD and total gas production per gram of substrate DM than WDG-based substrates, and IVDMD was greater (P = 0.03) for CDG than for SDG substrates. Increasing WDG inclusion from 15 to 30% decreased IVDMD and total gas production (P < 0.05), but H(2)S production (micromol/g of fermentable DM) increased (P = 0.01) as inclusion of WDG increased. There were no differences (P > or = 0.10) among treatments in proportions of major VFA, acetate:propionate ratio, and total VFA concentration. These results suggest that including WDG in the substrate decreased IVDMD and gas production, which was particularly evident as WDG increased from 15 to 30% of substrate DM. In addition, CDG seemed to be more digestible than SDG. Hydrogen sulfide production increased with increasing WDG in the substrate, reflecting greater S concentrations in WDG, but in vitro VFA profiles were not affected by WDG concentration or source.

  16. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS.

  17. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  18. Twin-screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS)-based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to tremendous increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, the need for alternative protein sources cannot be disregarded. Toward that end, twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally...

  19. Twin-screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS)-based Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world’s increasing demand for seafood products has resulted in rising demands for fish meal for fish feed, which must be compensated for by searching for effective alternative protein sources. In this study, twin-screw extrusion trials were conducted to study the production of nutritionally-bala...

  20. Biofuel Co-products as Swine Feed Ingredients: Combining Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Crude Glycerin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of combining corn DDGS with crude glycerin on growth performance and carcass traits to determine if a high level of crude glycerin supplementation could counteract the impact of corn DDGS on fatty acid profile of pork adipose. The experimental d...

  1. Twin screw extrusion processing of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, has created the need for alternative protein sources. Twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally-balanced feeds for juvenile yellow perch (Pe...

  2. Influence of distillers grains resulting from a cellulosic ethanol process utilizing corn kernel fiber on nutrient digestibility of lambs and steer feedlot performance.

    PubMed

    Lundy, E L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects on animal performance of traditional wet distillers grains (T-WDG) compared to cellulosic wet distillers grains (C-WDG) from a new process converting corn kernel fiber into cellulosic ethanol. The resulting coproduct has greater CP and decreased starch and ether extract (EE) concentrations (34.0% CP, 1.6% starch, 7.3% EE) compared to T-WDG (32.5% CP, 5.1% starch, 7.7% EE). In Exp. 1, 10 wethers (34.1 ± 2.35 kg, SD) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square to evaluate digestibility of DM, fiber, EE, and N. Diets including a corn-based control with 7.5% T-WDG and 7.5% C-WDG (CORN); 30% or 45% inclusion of T-WDG; and 30% or 45% inclusion of C-WDG. Between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 45% T-WDG, or 45% C-WDG, DMI was not different (P ≥ 0.11), but lambs fed 30% C-WDG had decreased (P ≤ 0.05) DMI compared to other diets. Compared to CORN and 30% T-WDG, DM digestibility was lesser ( P< 0.05) for 45% T-WDG or 30% C-WDG, while 45% C-WDG has lesser (P ≤ 0.05) DM digestibility than all other treatments. Digestibility of NDF was not affected by treatment (P= 0.13), and ADF digestibility was not different ( 0.21) between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 30% C-WDG, or 45% C-WDG. However, digestibility of ADF tended to differ (P = 0.06) between 30% T-WDG and 45% C-WDG and was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed 45% T-WDG compared to other treatments. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (421 ± 23.9 kg, SD) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the impact of C-WDG or T-WDG on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Diets included a corn-based control (CON), 30% T-WDG (TRAD), 30% C-WDG (CEL), and 18% C-WDG and 12% condensed corn distillers solubles (CEL+CCDS; = 7 pens of 6 steers/pen). Steers fed TRAD had improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG, G:F, and HCW compared to steers fed the CON diet. No differences (P ≥ 0.16) in ADG and HCW were noted for steers fed CEL compared to TRAD; however, steers fed CEL had decreased (P = 0.01) G:F due to increased (P = 0

  3. Successive Reduction Dry Milling of Normal and Waxy Corn: Grain, Grit, and Flour Properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh

    2015-06-01

    Dry milling of different corn types resulted in varied proportions of germ, pericarp, grit and flour. Grit and flour produced during different reduction stages varied in particle size and chemical constituents, hence applications in food industry. In this study, recovery of different fractions and variation in physicochemical and pasting properties of grit and flour fractions obtained during 3 successive reduction dry millings of 2 normal (African tall, HQPM1) and 1 waxy corn (IC 550353) were evaluated. Waxy corn grains had the highest L*, a*, b*, ash, fat, and protein content and the lowest weight. Waxy and African tall gave the highest recovery of germ and pericarp, respectively. Waxy corn showed lower grit and flour recovery as compared to normal corn. Flour fractions showed higher L* and lower a* and b* values than grit fractions. Particle size of grit and flour fractions ranged from 840 to 982 μm and 330 to 409 μm, respectively. Fractions with larger particle size showed lower L* value. The b* value showed positive correlation with yellow pigment content. Grit and flour from the 1st reduction stage showed higher ash and fat content. Protein content was correlated positively with ash content and negatively with L* value. Grit and flour fractions with higher protein content had lower pasting viscosities. Pasting viscosities were higher for flours than their corresponding grits. Protein profiling of grit and flour fractions from different stages showed quantitative and qualitative differences in medium (22, 28, and 35 kDa) and low molecular weight (16, 17, and 19 kDa) polypeptides and were related to grit and flour yield.

  4. Economic impact of ethanol production on U.S. livestock sector: A spatial analysis of corn and distillers grain shipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'guessan, Yapo Genevier

    2007-12-01

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has increased from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 4,855 million gallons in 2006, representing a 198% growth over the period considered. This growth is favored by the availability of more efficient technologies in the production process of ethanol and is sustained by the high prices of ethanol in the market. The industry is also supported by a favorable public policy, expressed in the form of laws, mandating an increase in the use of ethanol, and also in the form of tax incentives. The tremendous increase in the use of corn for the ethanol industry is made at the expense of the livestock industry that was the traditional destination for much of the U.S. corn grain. As the ethanol industry continues to expand, concerns are raised in regard to its impact as more and more corn is diverted from the livestock sector. This study investigates the economic impact of the ethanol industry on the U.S. livestock sector. Specifically, a shipping cost model is developed to simulate the impact of the ethanol industry on the shipping cost of corn at the national and individual state levels. The dynamics for major livestock producing states are also analyzed at the crop reporting district level. Different scenarios based on assumptions on the availability of corn and the production capacities of the ethanol industry are displayed. Results from the model indicate that nationwide there is a 5 to 22% increase in the shipping cost of corn for the livestock industry due to the ethanol industry, depending on the scenario involved. At the state level, there is an increase in the transportation cost for most of the states, with shipping cost doubling in some cases. Nevertheless, some states benefit from the dynamics created by the development of ethanol plants and are experiencing a reduction in their livestock industry corn transportation cost.

  5. Rapid analysis of the essential oil components of dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim by Fe2O3-magnetic-microsphere-assisted microwave distillation and simultaneous headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing

    2013-06-01

    In this work, microwave distillation assisted by Fe2 O3 magnetic microspheres (FMMS) and headspace single-drop microextraction were combined, and developed for determination of essential oil compounds in dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBM). The FMMS were used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of dried ZBM. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction, and concentration of essential oil compounds can be carried out in a single step. The experimental parameters including extraction solvent, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added FMMS, were studied. The optimal analytical conditions were: 2.0 μL decane as the extraction solvent, microwave power of 300 W, irradiation time of 2 min, and the addition of 0.1 g FMMS to ZBM. The method precision was from 4 to 10%. A total of 52 compounds were identified by the proposed method. The conventional steam distillation method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in dried ZBM and only 31 compounds were identified by steam distillation method. It was found that the proposed method is a simple, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free technique for the determination of volatile compounds in Chinese herbs.

  6. [Effects of different barnyardgrass species on grain yield of rice and their physiological characteristics under alternate wetting and drying irrigation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-chang; Li, Yong-feng; Yang, Xia; Gu, Tao; Li, Gui

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of different barnyardgrass species on rice yield and physiological characteristics of rice, two rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu (an indica hybrid cultivar) and Nanjing 9108 (a japonica cultivar) , were employed to co-culture with four barnyardgrass species during the period from transplanting to maturity under alternate wetting and moderate drying ir- rigation condition. The treatments were separately designed as follow: weed free ( control) , rice with Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis (T1), rice with E. crusgalli (T2), rice with E. crusgali var. zelayensis (T3) and rice with E. colonum (T4). The results showed that T1, T2, T3 and T4 treatments reduced the Liangyoupeijiu yield by 13.8%, 10.6%, 23.8% and 0.5%, but the corresponding yield loss of Nanjing 9108 could reach up to 45.5%, 36.9%, 60.7% and 15.1%, respectively. The results above showed that T1, T2 and T3 treatments all significantly reduced grain yield, and T4 treatment only reduced grain yield for Nanjing 9108 but not for Liangyoupeijiu. All treatments elevated malondialehyde contents of rice leaf, but the activities of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dimutase, dry matter accumulation in maturity stage, root oxidation activities and contents of indole-3-acetic acid as well as zeatin + zeatin riboside in roots during rice grain filling stage were all decreased. The influence degree of four barnyardgrass against physiological indices of rice had the order of T3 > T1 >T2 > T4. It showed that the reductions in enzyme activities of antioxidant system, root oxidation activities, contents of indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin + zeatin riboside during grain filling stage and accumulation of dry matter in maturity as well as increase in contents of malondialehyde of rice during grain filling stage might be important reasons for grain yield reduction when grew with barnyardgrass.

  7. Effective utilization of distiller's grain soluble-an agro-industrial waste in the feed of cage-reared minor carp Labeo bata in a tropical reservoir, India.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das

    2016-08-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste.

  8. Effects of wet corn distillers grains with solubles on visceral organ mass, trace mineral status, and polioencephalomalacia biomarkers of individually-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Ponce, C H; Brown, M S; Osterstock, J B; Cole, N A; Lawrence, T E; Soto-Navarro, S; MacDonald, J; Lambert, B D; Maxwell, C

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-four steers (initial BW = 385 ± 1.1 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments (0, 30, or 60% wet distillers grains with solubles [WDGS]; DM basis) and were fed individually to determine the effect of WDGS on live growth and carcass performance, visceral organ mass, trace mineral status, and polioencephalomalacia biomarkers. Steers were slaughtered at 125, 150, 164, and 192 d (2 blocks/slaughter date) when external fat depth was approximately 1.3 cm based on visual appraisal. Steers fed 30% WDGS had greater DMI than those fed 0 or 60% WDGS (P < 0.05), and steers fed 60% WDGS had the lowest carcass-adjusted ADG (P < 0.09) of the 3 treatments. Nonetheless, WDGS concentration did not alter feed efficiency (P > 0.41) on either live or carcass-adjusted basis. Steers fed 30% WDGS had greater liver S and Mn concentrations (DM basis) and lower liver Fe concentrations than control steers (P < 0.10; initial values used as a covariate), and feeding 60% WDGS decreased liver Cu and increased liver Fe (P < 0.10) compared with feeding 30% WDGS. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in brain tissue tended to be decreased with 60 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.12), and COX activity decreased linearly (P = 0.06) in lung tissue as dietary WDGS concentration increased. Likewise, gut fill linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing WDGS concentration. Feeding 30% WDGS increased fractional mass (g/kg of empty BW) of the small intestine (P < 0.10) compared with controls, whereas 60% WDGS increased fractional kidney mass (P < 0.10) compared with 30% WDGS. Overall, results suggest that gut fill, Cu status, and COX activity seem to be compromised by WDGS when fed at 60% of diet DM in diets based on steam-flaked corn, which suggests a greater susceptibility to polioencephalomalacia.

  9. Impact of management practices and distillers' grains feeding on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ryan C; Popowski, Jackie M; Anderson, Jon E; Dahlberg, Johanna L; Kalyanikutty, Sudha; Crawford, Grant I; DiCostanzo, Alfredo; Cox, Ryan B; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted by contaminated ground beef and is shed naturally in cattle feces. Recent reports indicated that feeding distillers' grains (DG) to cattle increased fecal shedding and prevalence of E. coli O157. In Minnesota, feeding DG with solubles (DGS) to livestock became widespread within the last 10 years, but there is no report about the prevalence of E. coli O157 in beef cattle in this state. This study was undertaken to survey the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle fed diets containing DG and its association with environmental conditions and management practices. Fecal samples were collected from three feedlots during a 1-year period. All animals in those feedlots were fed different DGS levels. E. coli O157 presence was determined using a combination of enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar, and confirmation of isolates by immunoassay and multiplex virulence genes polymerase chain reaction analysis. Overall, E. coli O157 was confirmed in 9.7% of samples. Prevalence during summer was 30% and declined to less than 10% the rest of the year. In animals grouped by dietary DGS concentration, no significant difference in prevalence (12.0 and 5.5%) was detected between the low and the high average groups (less and more than 20%). Previous feeding of DGS before arriving to the feedlot also had no influence on fecal prevalence. The presence of several interacting variables, uncontrolled in a real-life feedlot environment, was the likely reason for our observation and suggested that at the levels studied, DGS had no effect on the STEC O157 prevalence in cattle populations.

  10. Energy conservation in grain (corn) drying with combination high-temperature, low-temperature methods. Final report, July 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, R. Vance; Gustafson, Robert J.; Cloud, Harold A.; Walter, Kenneth L.

    1980-03-01

    The need to conserve energy has led to efforts to improve efficiency of grain drying systems. Combination high-temperature, low-temperature drying offers potential for meeting this need. Combination drying is any system in which high-temperature drying is followed by in-storage cooling and low-temperature drying. The high-temperature (120 to 240/sup 0/F) phase can be a continuous flow or automatic batch dryer, or a bin dryer using elevated air temperatures (continuous flow; unstirred, stirred or recirculated batch. The purpose of the high-temperature dryer is to reduce the corn moisture content to a level where drying can be safely completed with in-storage, low-temperature methods. In-storage drying is accomplished by moving low-temperature air through the grain mass. This process may take from four to eight weeks, or longer, to complete. In fact, drying may be halted in late fall and completed during the following spring. Potential advantages of the combination approach compared to conventional drying with in-drying cooling include: reduced energy requirements, increased drying capacity, and improved grain quality. Combination drying studies from four corn harvest seasons (1975 to 1978) at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station, and results of simulation analysis of the low-tempeature phase of combination drying are presented. The model used for this analysis was validated with experimental data from the field studies. Finally, design and management recommendations, and economic considerations for combination drying are discussed. (LCL)

  11. [Effects of tillage pattern on the flag leaf senescence and grain yield of winter wheat under dry farming].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Wu, Jin-Zhi; Li, You-Jun; Yao, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Can-Jun; Cai, Dian-Xiong; Jin, Ke

    2009-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage patterns, i.e., deep plowing once, no-tillage, subsoiling, and conventional tillage, on the flag leaf senescence and grain yield of winter wheat, as well as the soil moisture and nutrient status under dry farming. No-tillage and subsoiling increased the SOD and POD activities and the chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, decreased the MDA and O2(-.) contents, and postponed the senescence of flag leaf. Under non-tillage and subsoiling, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer at anthesis and grain-filling stages was decreased by 4.13% and 6.23% and by 5.50% and 9.27%, respectively, and the contents of alkali-hydrolysable N, available P, and available K in this soil layer also increased significantly, compared with those under conventional tillage. Deep plowing once decreased the moisture content and increased the nutrients contents in 0-40 cm soil layer, but the decrement and increment were not significant. The post-anthesis biomass, post-anthesis dry matter translocation rate, and grain yield under no-tillage and subsoiling were 4.34% and 4.76%, 15.56% and 13.51%, and 10.22% and 9.26% higher than those under conventional tillage, respectively. It could be concluded that no-tillage and subsoiling provided better soil conditions for the post-anthesis growth of winter wheat, under which, the flag leaf senescence postponed, post-anthesis dry matter accumulation and translocation accelerated, and grain yield increased significantly, being the feasible tillage practices in dry farming winter wheat areas.

  12. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  13. Potential odorous volatile organic compound emissions from feces and urine from cattle fed corn-based diets with wet distillers grains and solubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin E.; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2012-12-01

    Odor and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are a concern at animal feeding operations (AFOs). The issue has become more prevalent as human residences move into areas once occupied only by agriculture. Odors near AFOs are generally caused by odorous VOCs emitted from manure, the mixture of feces and urine. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) are a by-product of the ethanol industry, and WDGS have become a staple in many beef cattle finishing diets. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from frozen feces and urine of cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets containing 0, 15, 30, or 45% WDGS. No differences in flux were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, indole, skatole, or 4-methylphenol (P > 0.23). Dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide flux in feces were not different across treatments (P > 0.35) and the flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric were not different across treatments (P > 0.25). There was a tendency for dimethyl disulfide flux from urine to be greater for cattle consuming an SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS than the other diets (P = 0.10). Furthermore, flux of acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, and isovaleric acid from the urine were not different (P > 0.61) across dietary treatment. There were no significant differences in odor activity value (OAV) across treatments for feces, and only a tendency for dimethyl disulfide in the feces (P = 0.09). Thus, there was no obvious indication that feeding WDGS in conjunction with SFC affects flux of odor or odorous VOC from beef manure. The summed OAV was three times higher in the urine than feces, and a single odorous compound (4-methylphenol) accounted for 97.6%and 67.3% of the OAV in urine and feces, respectively. Therefore, engineering or dietary strategies to reduce odor from beef cattle manure should focus on controlling or reducing 4-methylphenol concentrations in the

  14. Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

    1999-07-01

    Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

  15. Changes in Composition and Phosphorus Profile during Dry Grind Process of Corn into Ethanol and DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. Dry grind method has been a major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. The process consists of grinding, cooking, liquefactio...

  16. Composition of corn dry-grind ethanol by-products: DDGS, wet cake, and thin stillage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Rick; Ezeji, Thaddeus; Blaschek, Hans; Dien, Bruce; Cotta, Michael; Dale, Bruce; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    DDGS and wet distillers' grains are the major co-products of the dry grind ethanol facilities. As they are mainly used as animal feed, a typical compositional analysis of the DDGS and wet distillers' grains mainly focuses on defining the feedstock's nutritional characteristics. With an increasing demand for fuel ethanol, the DDGS and wet distillers' grains are viewed as a potential bridge feedstock for ethanol production from other cellulosic biomass. The introduction of DDGS or wet distillers' grains as an additional feed to the existing dry grind plants for increased ethanol yield requires a different approach to the compositional analysis of the material. Rather than focusing on its nutritional value, this new approach aims at determining more detailed chemical composition, especially on polymeric sugars such as cellulose, starch and xylan, which release fermentable sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. In this paper we present a detailed and complete compositional analysis procedure suggested for DDGS and wet distillers' grains, as well as the resulting compositions completed by three different research groups. Polymeric sugars, crude protein, crude oil and ash contents of DDGS and wet distillers' grains were accurately and reproducibly determined by the compositional analysis procedure described in this paper.

  17. Effects of corn processing method in diets containing sorghum wet distillers grain plus solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle and on in vitro fermentation of diets.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, J; Vasconcelos, J T; Galyean, M L

    2009-06-01

    Two randomized complete block design experiments with a factorial arrangement of treatments were conducted to study the effects of corn processing method and inclusion of sorghum wet distillers grain plus solubles (SWDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. In Exp. 1, 160 crossbred steers (primarily British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 397.6 +/- 29.4 kg) were fed diets based on dry-rolled (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC), with or without the inclusion of 15% SWDGS (DM basis). Corn processing x SWDGS interactions were not detected (P > or = 0.20) for performance and most carcass characteristics. The G:F was less (P < 0.01) with DRC- than with SFC-based diets. Steers fed SFC-based diets had greater 12th-rib fat thickness (P = 0.03), yield grade (P = 0.02), and a smaller LM area (P = 0.08) than steers fed DRC. Inclusion of 15% SWDGS resulted in decreased G:F (P < 0.01) than for diets without SWDGS. In addition, steers fed SWDGS had decreased HCW (P = 0.01) and dressing percent (P = 0.03) than those fed no SWDGS. In Exp. 2, diet samples from Exp. 1 were used to evaluate rate of in vitro gas production, IVDMD, and H(2)S concentrations in gas. No significant corn processing x SWDGS interactions were noted for any of these measurements or for mathematically fitted gas production parameters, except for the predicted maximum value of gas production. The SFC-based diets had greater IVDMD (P = 0.01), area under the gas production curve (AUC; P = 0.02), and rate (k) of gas production (P = 0.02) than DRC-based diets. Inclusion of 15% SWDGS in the substrates decreased IVDMD (P < 0.01), AUC (P = 0.03), and rate of gas production (P = 0.04) compared with 0% SWDGS. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations in gas did not differ (P > 0.10) with corn processing method or addition of SWDGS. Overall, these data suggest that the response to 15% SWDGS in finishing diets was not affected by corn processing method, but including 15% SWDGS in finishing diets decreased G:F, IVDMD, and gas

  18. Effects of roughage concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Dilorenzo, N; Smith, D R; Galyean, M L

    2011-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) and dietary concentration of alfalfa hay (AH) on performance of finishing beef cattle and in vitro fermentation. In both studies, 7 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial; factors were dietary concentrations (DM basis) of WDG (15 or 30%) and AH (7.5, 10, or 12.5%) plus a non-WDG control diet that contained 10% AH. In Exp. 1, 224 beef steers were used in a randomized complete block (initial BW 342 kg ± 9.03) finishing trial. No WDG × AH interactions were observed (P > 0.12). There were no differences among treatments in final shrunk BW or ADG (P > 0.15), and DMI did not differ with WDG concentration for the overall feeding period (P = 0.38). Increasing dietary AH concentration tended (P < 0.079) to linearly increase DMI, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) G:F and calculated dietary NE(m) and NE(g) concentrations. Carcasses from cattle fed 15% WDG had greater yield grades (P = 0.014), with tendencies for greater 12th-rib fat (P = 0.054) and marbling score (P = 0.053) than those from cattle fed 30% WDG. There were no differences among treatments (P > 0.15) in HCW, dressing percent, LM area, KPH, proportions of cattle grading USDA Choice, and incidence of liver abscesses. In Exp. 2, ruminal fluid was collected from 2 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to a 60% concentrate diet to evaluate in vitro gas production kinetics, H(2)S production, IVDMD, and VFA. Relative to the control substrate, including WDG in substrates increased (P < 0.01) H(2)S production and decreased total gas production (P = 0.01) and rate of gas production (P = 0.03). Increasing substrate WDG from 15 to 30% increased (P < 0.05) H(2)S production and decreased (P < 0.001) total gas production, with a tendency (P = 0.073) to decrease IVDMD and fractional rate of gas production (P = 0.063). Treatments did not significantly affect (P > 0.09) molar proportions or total concentration of VFA

  19. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed products, dry grains, and corn ears intended for fresh consumption in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A M; Kommers, C M; Lehmann, F K M; Fonseca, A S K; Ikuta, N; Lunge, V R

    2016-10-17

    Conventional and genetically modified (GM) maize cultivars have been widely planted in Brazil to produce grains for processed food, feed, or to be consumed fresh as corn ears. This study used real-time PCR to detect GM maize in processed products and fresh commercial corn ears produced in the last two years in South Brazil. Eighteen conventional and GM maize cultivars were obtained from seed production companies and 50 commercial samples (including canned corn, corn flour, dry grains, and fresh corn ears) were purchased in small local stores and supermarkets. All samples were analyzed by real time TaqMan PCR to detect one constitutive maize gene (hmg) and three genetic regions present in GM plants (p-35S promoter, major gene cry 1A.105, and t-Nos terminator). Each commercial sample was classified as conventional or GM based on the PCR results. PCR targeting the hmg gene generated positive results from all DNA samples, which were further tested with the GM targets. These targets were not detected in the five conventional maize cultivars, but were detected in the GM seeds hosting these fragments. Analysis of processed foods identified four cultivars as conventional and six as GM, which were mostly correctly labeled. Seven (53.8%) dry grain samples were classified as conventional, while six (46.2%) were classified as GM. Three (11.1%) corn ear samples were identified as conventional, and the remaining 24 (88.9%) were GM maize. These results demonstrate the high frequency of GM maize in processed products, including fresh corn ears intended for consumption in South Brazil.

  20. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  1. Changes in oil content, fatty acid composition, and functional lipid profiles during dry grind ethanol production from corn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. The dry grind method has been the major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. This presentation reports our study to monitor ...

  2. Effects of feeding wet corn distillers grains with solubles with or without monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne pathogenic and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M E; Fox, J T; Narayanan, S K; Drouillard, J S; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-05-01

    Distillers grains, a coproduct of ethanol production from cereal grains, are composed principally of the bran, protein, and germ fractions and are commonly supplemented in ruminant diets. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle. Cattle were fed 0 or 25% WDGS in steam-flaked corn-based diets with the addition of no antimicrobials, monensin, or monensin and tylosin. Fecal samples were collected from each animal (n = 370) on d 122 and 136 of the 150-d finishing period and cultured for Escherichia coli O157. Fecal samples were also pooled by pen (n = 54) and cultured for E. coli O157, Salmonella, commensal E. coli, and Enterococcus species. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by determining antimicrobial susceptibilities of pen bacterial isolates and quantifying antimicrobial resistance genes in fecal samples by real-time PCR. Individual animal prevalence of E. coli O157 in feces collected from cattle fed WDGS was greater (P < 0.001) compared with cattle not fed WDGS on d 122 but not on d 136. There were no treatment effects on the prevalence of E. coli O157 or Salmonella spp. in pooled fecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed Enterococcus isolates from cattle fed monensin or monensin and tylosin had greater levels of resistance toward macrolides (P = 0.01). There was no effect of diet or antimicrobials on concentrations of 2 antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB or tetM, in fecal samples. Results from this study indicate that WDGS may have an effect on the prevalence of E. coli O157 and the concentration of selected antimicrobial resistance genes, but does not appear to affect antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Enterococcus and generic E. coli isolates.

  3. Chemical weathering trends in fine-grained ephemeral stream sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated chemical weathering trends within the fine-grained (< 63 μm; silt and clay) fraction of sediments collected from meltwater streams emanating from glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV; Wright and Taylor Valleys) by integrating grain size, BET surface area, and whole-rock geochemistry. While both valleys currently host cold-based glaciers, the sediment underlying the ephemeral glacial streams was deposited under differing glacial conditions. In Wright Valley (Clark Glacier stream), Brownworth and Trilogy drifts were deposited via cold-based glaciation, whereas the Ross Sea drift that underlies Delta Stream in Taylor Valley likely reflects contributions from wet-based ice. Wright Valley stream sediments are typically coarser grained and have a higher silt content as compared to Taylor Valley sediments. These sediments consist primarily of pyroxenes, quartz, and feldspars, with the percentages of pyroxenes and quartz systematically increasing downstream. The percentage of phyllosilicates ranges from 4 to 18% and decreases with downstream distance. In contrast, Taylor Valley sediments (Delta Stream) are finer-grained and exhibit lower percentages of both pyroxene and quartz and a significantly higher percentage of phyllosilicates (30-43%). Concentrations of all mineral phases remain relatively consistent in abundance with downstream transport in the Delta Stream transect as compared to Clark Glacier stream sediments. Standard chemical weathering indices, such as the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), indicate that chemical weathering is occurring within the silt and clay fractions of Antarctic stream sediments and is particularly pronounced in Delta Stream sediments that have BET surface area measurements > 40 m2/g. Utilization of MFW (mafic-felsic-weathered) and A-CN-K (Al2O3-CaO + Na2O-K2O) plots, however, are more effective in discerning the extent and nature of chemical weathering in these stream systems. Ca and Na depletion observed within the

  4. Dry-rolled or steam-flaked grain-based diets and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Fox, J T; Depenbusch, B E; Drouillard, J S; Nagaraja, T G

    2007-05-01

    Hindgut is a major colonization site for Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. In this study, diets were formulated to effect changes in hindgut fermentation to test our hypothesis that changes in the hindgut ecosystem could have an impact on fecal shedding of E. coli O157. Feedlot heifers (n = 347) were prescreened for the prevalence of E. coli O157 by fecal and rectoanal mucosal swab cultures. A subset of 40 heifers identified as being positive for fecal shedding of E. coli O157 was selected, housed in individual pens, and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial, with factor 1 consisting of grain type (sorghum or wheat) and factor 2 being method of grain processing (steam-flaking or dry-rolling). Four transition diets, each fed for 4 d, were used to adapt the animals to final diets that contained 93% concentrate and 7% roughage. The grain fraction consisted of dry-rolled sorghum, steam-flaked sorghum, a mixture of dry-rolled wheat and steam-flaked corn, or a mixture of steam-flaked wheat and steam-flaked corn. Wheat diets contained 52% wheat and 31% steam-flaked corn (DM basis). Fecal and rectoanal mucosal swab samples were obtained 3 times a week to isolate (enrichment, immunomagenetic separation, and plating on selective medium) and identify (sorbitol negative, indole production, and agglutination test) E. coli O157. The data were analyzed as repeated measures of binomial response (positive or negative) on each sampling day. Method of processing (dry-rolled vs. steam-flaked), sampling day, and the grain type x day interaction were significant (P < 0.05), but not the method of processing x grain type interaction. The average prevalence of E. coli O157 from d 9 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed steam-flaked grains (65%) compared with those fed dry-rolled grains (30%). Average prevalence in cattle fed sorghum (51%) or wheat (43%) were similar (P > 0.10) on most sampling days. Results from this study indicate that

  5. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distillers grains with solubles on enteric methane emissions of finishing cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased because of the growing U.S. ethanol industry. However, few studies have evaluated the use of WDGS in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC), the processing method used extensively in the Southern Great P...

  6. Effects of Varying CDS Levels and Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Flowability Properties of DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternative fuels and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, have triggered the growth of corn-based ethanol production, and this is expected to rise in future years. Transportation of the co-product distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from this industry occurs under vari...

  7. Effects of Varying CDS, Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Glass Transition Temperature of DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co product of the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is used widely as an animal feed. Due to increased demand for DDGS in livestock markets it has become essential to transport DDGS over long distances. Flowability problems in DDGS, due to particle cak...

  8. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  9. Determination of cross-grain properties of clearwood samples under kiln-drying conditions at temperature up to 140 C

    SciTech Connect

    Keep, L.B.; Keey, R.B.

    2000-07-01

    Small specimens of Pinus radiata have been tested to determine the creep strain that occurs during the kiln drying of boards. The samples have been tested over a range of temperatures from 20 C to 140 C. The samples, measuring 150 x 50 x 5 mm, were conditioned at various relative humidities in a pilot-plant kiln, in which the experiments at constant moisture content (MC) in the range of 5--20% MC were undertaken to eliminate mechano-sorptive strains. To determine the creep strain, the samples were brought to their equilibrium moisture content (EMC), then mechanically loaded under tension in the direction perpendicular to the grain. The strain was measured using small linear position sensors (LPS) which detect any elongation or shrinkage in the sample. The instantaneous compliance was measured within 60 sec of the application of the load (stress). The subsequent creep was monitored by the continued logging of strain data from the LPS units. The results of these experiments are consistent with previous studies of Wu and Milota (1995) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii). An increase in temperature or moisture content causes a rise in the creep strain while the sample is under tension. Values for the instantaneous compliance range from 1.7 x 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.28 x 10{sup {minus}2} M/Pa at temperatures between 20 C and 140 C and moisture content in the range of 5--20%. The rates of change of the creep strains are in the order of magnitude 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}8 s{sup {minus}1}} for these temperatures and moisture contents. The experimental data have been fitted to the constitutive equations of Wu and Milota (1996) for Douglas-fir to give material parameters for the instantaneous and creep strain components for Pinus radiata.

  10. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  11. High sulfur content in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) protects against oxidized lipids in DDGS by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some sources of DDGS contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during production process, but it is unclear whether these oxidized lipids negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status in pigs. The objective of this study was to compare t...

  12. Biochanin A, an isoflavone produced by red clover, promotes weight gain of steers grazed in mixed grass pastures and fed dried-distillers' grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifloium pratense L.) that can inhibit hyper-ammonia producing bacteria (HAB) to reduce deamination in the rumen and increase the feed amino acids available for gastric digestion. An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect...

  13. Effect of Corn Dry Fractionation on the Distribution of Mycotoxins in Pre-fermentation Ethanol Co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  14. Effect of corn dry fractionation on the distribution of mycotoxins in pre-fermentation ethanol co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  15. The influence of dry lakebeds, degraded sandy grasslands and abandoned farmland in the arid inlands of northern China on the grain size distribution of East Asian aeolian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Rong; Yue, Le-Ping; Li, Zhi-Pei

    2008-02-01

    Dry lakes, degraded sandy grasslands, abandoned farmland and mobile dunes which are widely distributed throughout the arid areas of northern China have been investigated in this work. Gain-size distribution of the surface sediments of Manas lake in Junggar basin, Juyan lake in the Alxa plateau, Zhuye lake in Minqin basin and most deserts (such as Mu Us desert, Otindag desert, Horqin desert and Hulun Buir desert) in China have been analyzed. The results show clay with particle sized <10 μm on the surface sediments of dry lakebed and sandy grassland developed from dry lakebed, respectively, account for >60% and ˜50% of the total mass. Since the tiny particles on the surface of abandoned farmland are blown away easily and rapidly, the content of clay particles in Minqin basin is <14%. The grain-size distribution of mobile dunes in northern China mainly consists of particles >63 μm and few particles <10 μm. Consequently, although sand/dust storms originate primarily in the western deserts, the gobi areas of the Alxa plateau, the north and east of Hexi Corridor and in central Mongolia, the widely distributed dry lakebeds, sandy grasslands and abandoned farmland adjacent to the deserts also contribute to aeolian dusts. Hence, the material sources for sand dust storm in East Asia include inland deserts, but also dry lakes, sandy grasslands and abandoned farmland, which are widely distributed throughout the arid inlands of northern China.

  16. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  17. Effects of twenty percent alkaline-treated corn stover without or with yucca extract on performance and nutrient mass balance of finishing steers fed modified distillers grains-based diets.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Erickson, G E; Rincker, M J; Cecava, M J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 192 steers each (during the winter [November to May] or summer [June to October]) to evaluate 3 diets with or without Yucca schidigera extract in a 3 × 2 factorial on steer growth performance and N mass balance. One factor was diet (DM basis): 1) 5% untreated corn stover, 51% corn, and 40% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS; CON); 2) 20% calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaO added at 5% of stover DM), 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (TRT); or 3) 20% untreated corn stover, 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (NONTRT). The other factor was dietary extract at 0 (NOYE) or 1.0 g/d per steer (YE). No interaction between diet and YE was detected (P > 0.51) for growth performance and carcass traits in winter and only for DMI in summer. Final BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.28) between cattle fed CON and TRT, whereas cattle fed NONTRT had lesser ADG, HCW, and G:F compared to CON and TRT in the winter experiment. During the summer, final BW and ADG tended to be greater (P ≥ 0.07) for CON compared to TRT. Cattle fed TRT had reduced (P < 0.01) G:F compared to CON. No difference was observed (P ≥ 0.36) between YE and NOYE in the winter experiment for performance or carcass traits. In the summer, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.02) HCW, ADG, and DMI compared to NOYE. In the summer experiment, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.01) N intake, N excretion, and amount of N lost (kg/steer) compared to NOYE, but no difference (P = 0.33) was observed for percentage of N volatilized (% of excretion). Diet had no effect (P > 0.18) on amount (kg/steer) or percentage of N volatized in the winter or summer. All diets had similar amounts (P > 0.13) of DM and OM removed from the pen surface in both summer and winter. Feeding CaO-treated corn stover as a partial grain replacement had no impact on performance in winter but decreased G:F in summer. Although high-fiber diets increased the amount of OM on pen surfaces, they did not impact N

  18. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance.

    PubMed

    Polania, Jose A; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  19. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  20. Sulfur in Distillers Grains for Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfur is an essential element needed by animals for many functions. About 0.15% of the body weight is sulfur. It is found in the amino acids methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, and taurine; in chondroitin sulfate of cartilage; and in the B-vitamins, thiamin and biotin. Methionine, thiam...

  1. Effects of increasing concentrations of wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked, corn-based diets on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-02-01

    The use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased in the Southern Great Plains as a result of the growing ethanol industry. Nutrient balance and respiration calorimetry research evaluating the use of steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets in conjunction with WDGS is limited. Therefore, the effects of increasing concentrations of WDGS in a SFC-based diet on energy metabolism, C, and N balance, and enteric methane (CH4) production was evaluated in Jersey steers fed at 2 times maintenance, using respiration calorimetry chambers. Four treatments were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs, using 8 steers. Treatments consisted of: 1) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); and 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45). Diets were balanced for degradable intake protein (DIP) by adding cottonseed meal to the SFC-0 diet. As a proportion of GE, fecal, urinary, and CH4 energy increased linearly (P < 0.03) as WDGS concentration increased in the diet. In contrast, DE, ME, and retained energy decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as a proportion of GE as WDGS concentration increased. Increasing concentration of WDGS in the diet did not affect (P > 0.78) heat production as a proportion of GE. As a result of greater N intake, total N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDGS inclusion in the diet. Fecal C loss and CH4-C respired increased linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration increased in the diet whereas CO2-C respired decreased (linear, P = 0.05) as WDGS concentration increased. We conclude that CH4 production as a proportion of GE increases linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration in the diet is increased; however, dietary inclusion of WDGS at up to 45% seems to have no effect (P > 0.78) on heat production as a proportion of GE. The reason for a linear decrease in retained energy as WDGS increased was likely because of increased fecal energy loss

  2. Establishment and assessment of a novel cleaner production process of corn grain fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhang, Guiying; Yang, Xizhao; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2013-11-01

    An integrated corn ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to solve the problem of stillage handling, where thin stillage was treated by anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the following ethanol fermentation. This system was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage ran steadily with total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98% at laboratory scale and 97% at pilot scale. Ethanol production was not influenced by recycling anaerobic digestion effluent at laboratory and pilot scale. Compared with dried distillers' grains with solubles produced in conventional process, dried distillers' grains in the proposed system exhibited higher quality because of increased protein concentration and decreased salts concentration. Energetic assessment indicated that application of this novel process enhanced the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 (conventional process) to 1.76. In conclusion, the proposed system possessed technical advantage over the conventional process for corn fuel ethanol production.

  3. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  4. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  5. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800–7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400–5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  6. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.

    PubMed

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J; Cooke, Richard G

    2007-02-27

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture.

  7. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  8. Utilization of condensed distillers solubles as nutrient supplement for production of nisin and lactic acid from whey.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W

    2007-04-01

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  9. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  10. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  11. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  12. Influence of dry-rolling and tempering agent addition during the steam-flaking of sorghum grain on its feeding value for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Alverez, E G; Montano, M; Salinas-Chavira, J

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of dry-rolling (DRS) and tempering agent (TA) addition during the steam-flaking of grain sorghum (SFS) for feedlot cattle. Five dietary treatments were compared: 1) DRS; 2) SFS, no TA; 3) SFS, 0.275 mg/kg of TA; 4) SFS, 1.375 mg/kg of TA; and 5) SFS, 2.750 mg/kg of TA. Bulk densities of DRS and SFS were 0.48 and 0.36 kg/L, respectively. Diets contained 70.6% grain sorghum (DM basis). One hundred fifty crossbred steers (336 kg of BW) were used in a 115-d finishing experiment to evaluate treatment effects on feedlot performance. Body weight gain averaged 1.49 kg/d and was not affected (P = 0.47) by treatments. The SFS reduced (P < 0.01) DMI (9%) and enhanced (P < 0.01) G:F (13%) and the NE(m) and NE(g) value of the diet (9 and 11%, respectively). Use of a TA before flaking sorghum did not influence (P > 0.20) cattle growth performance or NE(m) or NE(g) value of the diet. Given that the NE(m) and NE(g) values of DRS are 2.00 and 1.35 Mcal/kg, respectively (NRC, 1996), the corresponding values for SFS were 2.28 and 1.59 Mcal/kg. Five steers (397 kg of BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects on digestive function. Ruminal digestion of OM and starch was greater (14 and 16%, respectively; P < 0.01) for SFS vs. DRS. Steam-flaking sorghum increased (P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of OM (11%), N (10%), and starch (25%) and total tract digestion (P < 0.01) of OM (8.3%), N (8.2%), and starch (8.9%). Grain processing did not affect (P > 0.20) ruminal pH or VFA molar proportions. There was a cubic component (P < 0.10) to level of TA on ruminal pH and VFA molar proportions, with values being optimal at 1.375 mg/kg of tempering agent. It is concluded that steam-flaking grain sorghum will increase its NE value for maintenance and gain (14 and 18%, respectively) and enhance the MP value of the diet due to greater intestinal N digestion. The use of a TA to

  13. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  14. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  15. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller’s Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183

  16. Potential for a mycotoxin deactivator to improve growth and performance of rainbow trout fed high levels of an ethanol industry co-Product, grain distiller’s dried yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-products from the production of fuel ethanol may have the potential to be used as protein sources for Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss if dietary supplementation strategies that can maintain fish performance can be identified. A random sample of one such co-product, grain distiller’s dried yeast...

  17. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  18. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  19. Geomorphic field experiment to quantify grain size and biotic influence on riverbed sedimentation dynamics in a dry-season reservoir, Russian River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Ulrich, C.; Hubbard, S. S.; Borglin, S. E.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    An important problem in geomorphology is to differentiate between abiotic and biotic fine sediment deposition on coarse gravel river beds because of the potential for fine sediment to infiltrate and clog the pore space between gravel clasts. Infiltration of fines into gravel substrate is significant because it may reduce permeability; therefore, differentiation of abiotic vs. biotic sediment helps in understanding the causes of such changes. We conducted a geomorphic field experiment during May to November 2012 in the Russian River near Wohler, CA, to quantify biotic influence on riverbed sedimentation in a small temporary reservoir. The reservoir is formed upstream of a small dam inflated during the dry season to enhance water supply pumping from the aquifer below the channel; however, some flow is maintained in the reservoir to facilitate fish outmigration. In the Russian River field area, sediment transport dynamics during storm flows prior to dam inflation created an alternate bar-riffle complex with a coarser gravel surface layer over the relatively finer gravel subsurface. The objective of our work was to link grain size distribution and topographic variation to biotic and abiotic sediment deposition dynamics in this field setting where the summertime dam annually increases flow depth and inundates the bar surfaces. The field experiment investigated fine sediment deposition over the coarser surface sediment on two impounded bars upstream of the reservoir during an approximately five month period when the temporary dam was inflated. The approach included high resolution field surveys of topography, grain size sampling and sediment traps on channel bars, and laboratory analyses of grain size distributions and loss on ignition (LOI) to determine biotic content. Sediment traps were installed at six sites on bars to measure sediment deposited during the period of impoundment. Preliminary results show that fine sediment deposition occurred at all of the sample

  20. Resistance of αAI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Dry grain legume seeds possessing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing αAI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to αAI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The αAI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control αAI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to αAI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.

  1. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  2. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  3. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  4. Energy conservation in grain (corn) drying with combination high-temperature, low-temperature methods. Final report, July 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, R.V.; Gustafson, R.J.; Cloud, H.A.; Walter, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Field drying experiments were carried out during the 1975 through 1978 harvest seasons at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station. Several combination drying experiments were conducted each season along with a control (conventional drying) experiment. Based on the results of the field experiments, comparisons of energy requirements for combination and conventional drying were made. Performance of the low-temperature, in-storage phase of combination drying was evaluated using computer simulation. Drying performance using ambient air was compared to performance when small amounts of supplemental heat were added, either solar or constant source heat. Long term weather records were used to evaluate variations in performance from year to year.

  5. Changes in mineral concentrations and phosphorus profile during dry-grind processing of corn into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun; Han, Jianchun

    2011-02-01

    For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from three commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentrations) increased significantly from corn to cooked slurry but fermentation caused most significant increase in all attributes. During centrifugation, more minerals went into thin stillage than wet grains, making minerals most concentrated in the former. Mineral increase in DDGS over corn was about 3 fold, except for Na, S, Ca, and Fe. The first three had much higher fold of increase, presumably due to exogenous addition. During fermentation, phytate P and inorganic P had 2.54 and 10.37 fold of increase over corn, respectively, while relative to total P, % phytate P decreased and % inorganic P increased significantly. These observations suggest that phytate underwent some degradation, presumably due to activity of yeast phytase.

  6. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  7. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  8. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  9. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  10. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  11. Steam drying of industrial and agricultural products and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, G.B.; Galland, K.V.; Svensson, C.

    1983-03-01

    A new drying technique has been developed by MoDo-Chemetics and Chalmers of Technology in Sweden. Steam drying utilizes the drying capacity of superheated steam to remove moisture from porous material such as pulp or hog fuel. The first commercial dryer based on this technique was installed at Rockhammar Bruk in Sweden, where wood pulp is dried from 60% to 12% moisture content. Two commercial-size units are presently under construction, one for drying of hog fuel from 50% to 35% moisture content for on-the-grate firing in the power boiler and one for drying of sugar-beet pulp from 80% to 10% moisture content. This new technique can be applied in the drying of materials used in the production of waterboard, fiberboard, and hardboard, drying of peat, distillers grain residue, orange and pineapple pulp, grape and apple pomace, and cotton linters, for various end uses including cattlefeed and the use of residues as combustible material in small boilers. The energy-recovery aspects of the steam dryer are very important. Energy recovery in a useful form of more than 85% of the input to the dryer is feasible. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  12. Effects of feeding combinations of steam-flaked grain sorghum and steam-flaked, high-moisture, or dry-rolled corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Huck, G L; Kreikemeier, K K; Kuhl, G L; Eck, T P; Bolsen, K K

    1998-12-01

    The objective of these two feeding trials was to determine the associative effects of feeding steam-flaked grain sorghum (SFGS) in combination with steam-flaked (SFC), dry-rolled (DRC), or high-moisture (HMC) corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle. In Trial 1, 200 yearling heifers were blocked by weight, allotted to 25 pens, and fed one of five finishing diets (77% grain, 15% corn silage, and 8% supplement on a DM basis) for an average of 137 d. The grain combinations were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 SFC:SFGS, respectively. Treatment had no effect on DMI (P > .05), but ADG, gain efficiency, and final live and hot carcass weights decreased linearly (P < .05) as the proportion of SFGS increased in the diet. Carcass backfat, quality grade, and liver abscess score were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. In Trial 2, 306 yearling steers were blocked by weight, allotted to 30 pens, and fed diets that contained 74.5% grain, 10% corn silage, 7.5% soybean meal, 4% tallow, and 4% supplement (DM basis) for an average of 139 d. The grain and grain combinations were 100% DRC, HMC, SFC, or SFGS and a 67%:33% combination of SFGS: DRC or SFGS:HMC. For steers fed diets containing a single source of grain, those fed SFC gained 7% more live weight and had a 7% higher gain efficiency (P < .05) than those fed DRC or HMC. Growth performance of steers fed SFGS was intermediate. Feeding grain combinations (67% SFGS:33% HMC or DRC) resulted in a 5 to 6% positive associative effect (P < .05) for ADG and gain efficiency. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. We concluded that there were significant benefits (positive associative effects) when SFGS was fed in combination with DRC or HMC, but the effects were smaller when SFGS was fed in combination with SFC.

  13. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact.

  14. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  15. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  16. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains

  17. Edible grain legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  18. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  19. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  20. An engineering and economic evaluation of quick germ-quick fiber process for dry-grind ethanol facilities: model description and documentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changying; Rodríguez, Luis F; Khanna, Madhu; Spaulding, Aslihan D; Lin, Tao; Eckhoff, Steven R

    2010-07-01

    An engineering economic model, which is mass balanced and compositionally driven, was developed to compare the conventional corn dry-grind process and the pre-fractionation process called "Quick germ/Quick fiber". For the purposes of this model, the distillers dried grains with solubles price was correlated to its protein and fiber composition and the long-term average relationship with the corn price. This paper has been prepared to describe the development of the model and provide documentation for its use. This model can be used to provide decision support for ethanol producers considering the new emerging technologies that may provide sustainability to the business of ethanol production from corn.

  1. Effect of a saponin-based surfactant and aging time on ruminal degradability of flaked corn grain dry matter and starch.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Zaman, S; VanderPol, M; Szasz, P; Huber, K; Greer, D

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of a saponin-based surfactant, Grain Prep surfactant (GP), and hot flake aging time on starch characteristics and ruminal DM and starch degradability of steam-flaked corn grain. In 2 experiments, the moisture content of incoming corn was automatically adjusted using the Grain Prep Auto Delivery System to 19.8% (Exp. 1) and 18.5% (Exp. 2). The application rate of GP was 22 mg/kg (as-is basis). Control corn was treated with water alone. Processed corn in Exp. 2 was stored in insulated containers for 0, 4, 8, or 16 h. Flaked corn samples were incubated in the rumen of lactating dairy cows for 0, 2, 4, 6, 16, or 24 h. In Exp. 1, GP increased, compared with the control, the soluble fraction and effective degradability (ED) of DM by 17.2 and 8.6%, respectively. The ED of cornstarch was increased by 6.7%. In Exp. 2, the concentration of soluble DM and starch were increased by GP by 15 and 24% compared with the control. The ED of DM and starch were also increased by 3 and 4%, respectively. No differences in gelatinization temperatures were observed due to treatment, except that GP-treated grain had a slightly greater mean gelatinization enthalpy in Exp. 2. In a pilot study, DM degradability parameters were not affected by germination of the corn kernels. Aging of the hot flakes for up to 16 h resulted in a quadratic decrease in DM and starch ruminal degradability. The aging process affected starch gelatinization enthalpy values of flaked grain in a manner opposite to that observed for ruminal DM and starch degradation. This phenomenon was most likely explained by increased starch intramolecular associations or crystallinity associated with starch annealing, or both. This study confirmed our previous observations that Grain Prep surfactant increases flaked corn DM and starch degradability in the rumen. Because the rate of degradation was not affected by the surfactant, the increase in degradability was attributed

  2. Use of dry citrus pulp or soybean hulls as a replacement for corn grain in energy and nitrogen partitioning, methane emissions, and milk performance in lactating Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    López, M C; Estellés, F; Moya, V J; Fernández, C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substitution of dietary corn grain by dry citrus pulp or soybean hulls on energy and nitrogen partitioning, substrate oxidation, methane emission, and milk performance in dairy goats during midlactation. Twelve multiparous Murciano-Granadina goats of similar body weight (41.7 ± 2.8 kg) were split in 3 groups in an incomplete crossover design. One group of 4 goats was fed a mixed ration with 605 g/kg of dry matter of corn grain (CRG), another group replaced corn grain with dry citrus pulp (CTP), and the last with soybean hulls (SYH). The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 d of adaptation, feed intake, total fecal and urine output, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all 3 groups (1.53 kg/d, on average). Total replacement of the concentrate with fibrous by-products increased fiber apparent digestibility. The metabolizable energy intake was significantly greater for diet CRG than SYH (1,193 vs. 1,079 kJ/kg of BW⁰·⁷⁵, respectively), CTP showed an intermediate value. The heat production was higher for the fiber diet than starchy diet (908 vs. 843 kJ/kg of BW⁰·⁷⁵ for SYH and CRG, respectively). The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production obtained by regression was 0.59. Goats fed CTP and SYH diets produced similar CH₄ emissions (34.8 g/d, on average), significantly higher compared with goats fed the CRG diet (24.7 g/d). Goats of the 3 treatments were in negative energy balance, so the oxidation of fat was greater than for carbohydrates. No significant differences were observed for milk production (1.72 kg/d), and milk fat was significantly greater for a more fibrous diet compared with a starchy diet (6.57 vs. 4.95% in SYH and CRG, respectively).

  3. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Min

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100 µM BABA increased drought-induced ABA production, leading to a decrease in the lethal leaf water potential (Ψ) used to measure desiccation tolerance, decreased water use, and increased water use efficiency for grain (WUEG) under moderate water stress. In addition, at severe water stress levels, drenching the soil with BABA reduced ROS production, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and reduced the oxidative damage to lipid membranes. The data suggest that the addition of BABA triggers ABA accumulation that acts as a non-hydraulic root signal, thereby closing stomata, and reducing water use at moderate stress levels, and also reduces the production of ROS and increases the antioxidant defence enzymes at severe stress levels, thus increasing the desiccation tolerance. However, BABA treatment had no effect on grain yield of wheat when water availability was limited. The results suggest that there are ways of effectively priming the pre-existing defence pathways, in addition to genetic means, to improve the desiccation tolerance and WUEG of wheat. PMID:22859677

  4. Combined effects of grain size, flow volume and channel width on geophysical flow mobility: three-dimensional discrete element modeling of dry and dense flows of angular rock fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, Bruno; Piersanti, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out new three-dimensional numerical simulations by using a discrete element method (DEM) to study the mobility of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments. These simulations are relevant for geophysical flows such as rock avalanches and pyroclastic flows. The model is validated by previous laboratory experiments. We confirm that (1) the finer the grain size, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows; (2) the smaller the flow volume, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows and (3) the wider the channel, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows. The grain size effect is due to the fact that finer grain size flows dissipate intrinsically less energy. This volume effect is the opposite of that experienced by the flow fronts. The original contribution of this paper consists of providing a comparison of the mobility of granular flows in six channels with a different cross section each. This results in a new scaling parameter χ that has the product of grain size and the cubic root of flow volume as the numerator and the product of channel width and flow length as the denominator. The linear correlation between the reciprocal of mobility and parameter χ is statistically highly significant. Parameter χ confirms that the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows is an increasing function of the ratio of the number of fragments per unit of flow mass to the total number of fragments in the flow. These are two characteristic numbers of particles whose effect on mobility is scale invariant.

  5. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  6. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  7. Shell's Middle Distillate Synthesis process

    SciTech Connect

    Voetter, H.; VanDerBurgt, M.J. B.V., The Hague )

    1988-01-01

    The basis of the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) process is the classic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. For the case of middle distillate production from natural gas the procedure has been developed to commercial maturity, making use of tailored line-up for synthesis gas production and of proprietary modern catalysts in synthesis. Development work over the last years has in particular lead to improvement of the economy of the process altogether via catalyst performance, reactor sizing and syngas manufacturing line-up.

  8. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  9. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  10. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  11. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  12. Solar fermentation and distillation process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.M.

    1984-06-19

    A solar fermentation process and distillation system for the manufacture of ethanol product suitable for blending with motor gasoline or as a substitute fuel for gasoline. Fermentation of starches or sugars is carried out in situ in solar collector tubes. The raw beer product emanating from the solar tubes is purified into a high quality ethanol fuel product by passing the beer product through a series of distillation columns whose internal reboil vapor is generated in whole or in substantial part through direct application of solar heat energy. The use of solar energy as heating source in the fermentation and distillation steps markedly reduces the need for external utilities such as steam and fuel to run the plant thereby greatly reducing the operating costs of the plant.

  13. Ethanol Fermentation Performance of Grain Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor) with Modified Endosperm Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.; Jampala, B; Robbins, A; Hays, D; Yan, S; Xu, F; Rooney, W; Peterson, G; Shi, Y; Wang, D

    2010-01-01

    We tested 13 sorghum entries (lines and hybrids) with different endosperm matrices for ethanol production using a laboratory dry grind process. Waxy and heterowaxy samples had the highest efficiencies. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents in sorghum samples were positively related to the fermentation rate during fermentation (R{sup 2} = 0.8618). Dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from different sorghums had significantly different crude protein and crude fat contents. Residual starch content in DDGS ranged from 0.60% for the most efficient sample to 2.66% for the least efficient sample. This study showed that the HD lines (TX1, TX3, TX5, TX7, and TX9) with modified endosperm protein matrix have several attributes desirable for ethanol production: easily pasted starch granules, significantly higher FAN content in finished mashes, 30-45% faster ethanol fermentation rate during early stages, and 50-60% higher lysine content in DDGS.

  14. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  15. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  16. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  17. Phosphorus flow and characterization in dry-grind corn ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Alkan-Ozkaynak, A; Karthikeyan, K G

    2012-01-01

    Both the high phosphorus (P) content and P bioavailability of the animal feed coproducts of the corn-ethanol industry could potentially contribute to increased manure and soil P levels and associated environmental issues (e.g., eutrophication). Therefore, a detailed modeling of total P mass flow to the coproducts (i.e., dry distillers grains with solubles, DDGS) was performed. Distribution of P between inorganic P and phytase-hydrolyzable P forms was quantified for selected coproducts (thin stillage, DDGS, modified DDGS [mDDGS]). The P mass balance indicated that although corn is the major P contributor to the coproducts (80.2%), a substantial portion (19.4%) comes from yeast addition. Of the two components constituting DDGS, wet distillers grains and condensed solubles, the latter contributes to only one-third of the mass but, importantly, yields 70.9% of P. The phytase enzyme used, , was very effective in hydrolyzing the nonorthophosphate P components of thin stillage, DDGS and mDDGS. Our results would help track P movement during various dry-grind processing steps and formulate strategies for phytase enzyme supplementation to various postfermentation coproducts from corn-ethanol plants.

  18. In situ disappearance of dry matter and fiber from fall-grown cereal-grain forages from the north-central United States.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Walgenbach, R P

    2010-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that fall-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack), and oat (Avena sativa L.) forages contain limited lignin and exhibit relatively stable estimates of in vitro true DM disappearance, as well as TDN, across a wide fall-harvest window. These traits suggest that ruminal availability of forage fiber is extensive. Our objectives were to evaluate this premise by assessing in situ DM and NDF disappearance for Kaskaskia wheat, Trical 2700 triticale, Ogle oat (grain-type, mid-maturity rating), and ForagePlus oat (forage-type, late maturity rating) grown and harvested during fall in Wisconsin. During 2006, ruminal disappearance rate (K(d)) of DM declined linearly (P ≤ 0.002) across fall harvest dates for all cultivars; K(d) ranged narrowly (0.091 to 0.100/h) on the initial September 15 harvest date, but by October 30, K(d) generally was slower for oat (0.042 to 0.053/h) than for triticale (0.069/h) or wheat (0.072/h). Estimates of effective ruminal disappearance of DM (RDDM) were large for all cultivars (72.0 to 82.8% of DM), and generally exhibited polynomial trends over harvest dates that displayed both linear (P ≤ 0.003) and quadratic (P ≤ 0.004) character. For 2007, RDDM was extensive across all forages (70.5 to 83.1%), except for Ogle oat harvested on October 10 (61.5% of DM) or November 7 (57.0% of DM), at which time tillers had reached the boot- and fully headed stages of growth, respectively. For ruminal disappearance of NDF, K(d) declined linearly (P ≤ 0.002) across harvest dates for all cultivars during 2006 and 2007; a quadratic (P ≤ 0.033) effect also was detected for ForagePlus oat, but not for other cultivars (P ≥ 0.072). During both years, effective ruminal disappearance of NDF (RDNDF) declined linearly (P ≤ 0.008) over harvest dates for all cultivars, but detection of additional quadratic responses was dependent on cultivar and year. Concentrations of RDNDF for all cultivars

  19. On 10 to 30 m-scale fracture networks in Gale Crater: Contraction of fine-grained sediments due to drying or of frozen sediments due to cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, Ronald; Hallet, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The area in Gale Crater north of the Curiosity landing site has been identified as an alluvial fan [1] and features diverse geological units [2], some with abundant contraction cracks that delineate polygons on the order of 10-30 meters across. These polygons are much larger than the < 1m flagstones seen in Yellowknife by Curiosity [3] and are more suggestive of polygonal patterned ground seen at higher latitudes on Mars [4] and Earth; however, current conditions indicate that ground ice is not stable in Gale Crater [4]. Nevertheless, past conditions, e.g. obliquity changes, may have allowed permafrost to develop and ground ice to form. The domains between the larger polygons are several meters wide, which is consistent with cyclic ratcheting of ice-cemented permafrost (thermal contraction with fractures opening, debris infilling the fractures, and the fractures not closing fully when the ground warms and expands). On the other hand, the large-scale crack networks often seem to be associated with certain lithologic units, including the thinly-bedded, lightly-colored mudstones exposed at Yellowknife. This suggests that the contraction cracks defining these 10 to 30-m polygons, as well as those defining the < 1m flagstones, formed in moist fine-grained sediments that contracted upon desiccation. If the fractures were due to contraction of ice-cemented permafrost, they would be insensitive to the type of sediments they formed in because the mechanical properties would be dominated by ice. The interpretation of the larger-scale crack network is limited to satellite images since Curiosity did not visit this area, and to evidence about surface materials elsewhere in the vicinity of the rover. This evidence points to the former presence of flowing water in Gale Crater and existence of shallow lakes of relatively low salinity and near-neutral pH at Yellowknife [5]. The large amount of contraction in Yellowknife deposits is consistent with a desiccation origin in these

  20. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  1. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  2. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  3. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  4. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  5. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  6. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  7. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  8. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  9. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  10. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  11. Grain Refining and Microstructural Modification during Solidification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    and 100 ml of distilled water (called etchant A) for 5 to 15 seconds. The others were etched with aqua regia (called etchant B) for 10 to 25 seconds... reverse lide It noceoav. aid IduntIty by block um-bet) Grain refining, microstructure, solidification, phase diagrams, electromagnetic stirring, Cu-Fe

  12. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  13. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, E.; Streltsov, A.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Adesso, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  14. Comparison of Oven-drying Methods for Determination of Moisture Content in Feed Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J Y; Kil, D Y; Kong, C; Kim, B G

    2014-11-01

    An accurate assessment of moisture content in feed ingredients is important because moisture influences the nutritional evaluation of feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to evaluate various methods for moisture content determination. In Exp. 1, the weight loss on drying (LOD) of corn, soybean meal (SBM), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), whey permeate, whey powder, spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), fish meal, and a mixed diet of these 7 ingredients were measured by oven drying at 135°C for 2 h. Additionally, the samples were dried at 105°C for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 h. The LOD contents of the DDGS, whey permeate, and whey powder measured by drying at 135°C for 2 h were greater than the values measured by drying at 105°C for 3 h (p<0.05). All samples except SDPP (p = 0.70) dried at 105°C for 6, 9, 12, or 15 h caused more LOD compared with the samples dried for at 105°C for 3 h (p<0.05). The LOD contents of the individual ingredients were additive when dried at 105°C regardless of drying time. In Exp. 2, moisture contents of corn, SBM, wheat, whey permeate, whey powder, lactose, and 2 sources of DDGS (DDGS1 and DDGS2) were measured by the Karl Fischer method, oven drying at 135°C for 2 h, and oven drying at 125°C, 115°C, 105°C, or 95°C for increasing drying time from 1 to 24 h. Drying samples at 135°C for 2 h resulted in higher moisture content in whey permeate (7.5% vs 3.0%), whey powder (7.7% vs 3.8%), DDGS1 (11.4% vs 7.5%), and DDGS2 (13.1% vs 8.8%) compared with the Karl Fischer method (p<0.05). Whey permeate and whey powder were considerably darkened as the drying time increased. In conclusion, drying samples at 135°C for 2 h is not appropriate for determining the moisture content in whey permeate, whey powder, or DDGS as well as the mixed diet containing these ingredients. The oven-drying method at 105°C for 5 to 6 h appears to be appropriate for whey permeate and whey powder, and at 105°C for 2 to 3 h for DDGS.

  15. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding.

  16. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  17. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  18. Comparison of oil recovered from tea tree leaf by ethanol extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Baker, G R; Lowe, R F; Southwell, I A

    2000-09-01

    Two methods for the determination of oil and oil major components from tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaf are quantitatively compared. A microwave assisted ethanol extraction and a 2-h hydrodistillation technique were used on both dry and fresh leaf from a low and a high oil concentration tree. There was no significant difference between dry and fresh leaf. The distillation technique recovered 88% and 82% of the extractable oil for the low and high concentration material, respectively. For both samples this distilled oil was composed of lower absolute amounts of sesquiterpenoids and marginally lower amounts of monoterpenoids. Extending the distillation to 6 h increased the sesquiterpenoid recovery but this resulted in a reduction in both the absolute and relative amounts of the oxygenated monoterpenoids, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.

  19. Phase distribution of products of radiation and post-radiation distillation of biopolymers: Cellulose, lignin and chitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Kholodkova, Е. M.; Metreveli, A. K.; Metreveli, P. K.; Erasov, V. S.; Bludenko, A. V.; Chulkov, V. N.

    2011-11-01

    Influence of both the absorbed dose and the dose rate of 8 MeV electron-beam radiation on destruction of microcrystalline cellulose, pine lignin and krill chitin was investigated. Two conversion modes were compared: (1) post-radiation distillation PRD and (2) electron-beam distillation EBD. Cellulose, chitin and lignin demonstrate different responses to irradiation and distillation in PRD and EBD modes. Treatment in EBD mode transforms biopolymers to organic liquid more productively than conventional dry distillation and treatment in PRD mode. Both radiation heating and an irradiation without heating intensify chitin and cellulose decomposition and distillation. At the same time lignin decaying rather efficiently in EBD mode appears to be insensitive to a preliminary irradiation in PRD mode up to a dose of 2.4 MGy.

  20. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2006-01-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

    The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  1. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  2. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.272 - Grain handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Continuous-flow bulk raw grain dryers. (1) All direct-heat grain dryers shall be equipped with automatic... temperature occurs in the exhaust of the drying section. (2) Direct-heat grain dryers installed after March 30.... Department of Agriculture, Kansas State University's Extension Grain Science and Industry, and other...

  4. Advanced Biorefinery of Distriller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced via the dry milling process, which converts corn grain to ethanol. The co-product, distiller’s grain (DG), is sold as a low-cost, high-protein feed source for livestock.

  5. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  6. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  7. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown...

  9. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  10. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  11. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  12. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

  13. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  14. Microwave-vacuum drying system (MIVAC). Progress report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wear, F C

    1980-01-01

    Progress in developing a microwave vacuum system (MIVAC) for drying grain at a facility capable of handling up to 400 bushels/h and of storing up to 1000 bushels each of wet and dry grain is reported. The design of a prototype 48 kW drying system is described. (LCL)

  15. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  16. Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it further. The purpose of this project is to determine if the soluble by-product could potentially be used as a food source in an aquatic environment where its high water content would not necessarily pose an impediment. Studies have shown that corn distiller's solubles are not highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that it be administered to ponds at rates less than 2000 ppM on a daily basis. Golden shiners were observed to actively consume the particulates of the corn distiller's solubles. Direct consumption of the particulates by fish makes the use of corn distiller's solubles in aquaculture much more attractive than if the by-product only serves to increase pond fertility. Despite the minimum amount of food material added to the ponds, production of shrimp and fish was favorable over the 4 month growing periods. Golden shiners reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to 130 kg ha/sup -1/. Monoculture of shrimp at higher densities (3000 to 5000 shrimp stocked per pond versus 2000 in 1982) resulted in an average production equivalent to approximately 228 kg ha/sup -1/, with individual shrimp averaging 10.5 g. Based on estimated wholesale prices of $10.00 and $7.75 per kilogram for frozen shrimp and live fish, respectively, the gross profit margin would have exceeded $2000 ha/sup -1/ both years. 25 references, 13 figures, 13 tables.

  17. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... or chewing tobacco can increase dry mouth symptoms. Methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine use can cause severe dry mouth and damage to teeth, a condition also known as "meth mouth." If you don't have enough saliva ...

  18. Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.

    PubMed

    Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

    2009-07-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed.

  19. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  20. [His Majesty's distillers: distillation and chemical medicine in the court of Phillip II].

    PubMed

    Rey Bueno, M; Alegre Pérez, M E

    2001-01-01

    The present work studies the appearance and development of Paracelsian Practices in the Spanish Court through a linked series of events that took place between 1564 and 1602. These were: the creation of Philippine distillation laboratories, the ordenance of the protophysician Francisco de Valles regarding distilled waters; the concession of a patent to Diego de Santiago for the invention of a steam distillery; the publication of the last treatise by Francisco de Valles, dedicated to weights, measures, and distilled waters; the appearance of a distiller on the founding staff of the Royal Apothecary, in charge of preparing all the distilled waters and chemical medicines; and the creation of a new post within the Court health organigram, that of Distiller Major.

  1. An engineering and economic evaluation of quick germ-quick fiber process for dry-grind ethanol facilities: analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis F; Li, Changying; Khanna, Madhu; Spaulding, Aslihan D; Lin, Tao; Eckhoff, Steven R

    2010-07-01

    An engineering economic model, which is mass balanced and compositionally driven, was developed to compare the conventional corn dry-grind process and the pre-fractionation process called quick germ-quick fiber (QQ). In this model, documented in a companion article, the distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) price was linked with its protein and fiber content as well as with the long-term average relationship with the corn price. The detailed economic analysis showed that the QQ plant retrofitted from conventional dry-grind ethanol plant reduces the manufacturing cost of ethanol by 13.5 cent/gallon and has net present value of nearly $4 million greater than the conventional dry-grind plant at an interest rate of 4% in 15years. Ethanol and feedstock price sensitivity analysis showed that the QQ plant gains more profits when ethanol price increases than conventional dry-grind ethanol plant. An optimistic analysis of the QQ process suggests that the greater value of the modified DDGS would provide greater resistance to fluctuations in corn price for QQ facilities. This model can be used to provide decision support for ethanol producers.

  2. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  3. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  4. Unifying Gate Synthesis and Magic State Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Howard, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The leading paradigm for performing a computation on quantum memories can be encapsulated as distill-then-synthesize. Initially, one performs several rounds of distillation to create high-fidelity magic states that provide one good T gate, an essential quantum logic gate. Subsequently, gate synthesis intersperses many T gates with Clifford gates to realize a desired circuit. We introduce a unified framework that implements one round of distillation and multiquibit gate synthesis in a single step. Typically, our method uses the same number of T gates as conventional synthesis but with the added benefit of quadratic error suppression. Because of this, one less round of magic state distillation needs to be performed, leading to significant resource savings.

  5. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  6. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  7. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  8. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  9. Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2013-06-01

    The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3√ {3}+1) ≈ 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

  10. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  11. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  12. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  13. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... added promptly to the fermenting or distilling material. (b) Use at bonded wine cellar. Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  14. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  15. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  16. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  17. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  18. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  19. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  20. Presolar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, E. K.

    2003-12-01

    Traditionally, astronomers have studied the stars by using, with rare exception, electromagnetic radiation received by telescopes on and above the Earth. Since the mid-1980s, an additional observational window has been opened in the form of microscopic presolar grains found in primitive meteorites. These grains had apparently formed in stellar outflows of late-type stars and in the ejecta of stellar explosions and had survived the formation of the solar system. They can be located in and extracted from their parent meteorites and studied in detail in the laboratory. Their stellar origin is recognized by their isotopic compositions, which are completely different from those of the solar system and, for some elements, cover extremely wide ranges, leaving little doubt that the grains are ancient stardust.By the 1950s it had been conclusively established that the elements from carbon on up are produced by nuclear reactions in stars and the classic papers by Burbidge et al. (1957) and Cameron (1957) provided a theoretical framework for stellar nucleosynthesis. According to these authors, nuclear processes produce elements with very different isotopic compositions, depending on the specific stellar source. The newly produced elements are injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds or as supernova (SN) ejecta, enriching the galaxy in "metals" (all elements heavier than helium) and after a long galactic history the solar system is believed to have formed from a mix of this material. In fact, the original work by Burbidge et al. and Cameron was stimulated by the observation of regularities in the abundance of the nuclides in the solar system as obtained by the study of meteorites (Suess and Urey, 1956). Although providing only a grand average of many stellar sources, the solar system abundances of the elements and isotopes ( Anders and Grevesse, 1989; Grevesse et al., 1996; see Chapter 1.03; Lodders, 2003) remained an important test for nucleosynthesis

  1. Grain Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  2. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  3. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Schiber, Andreas; Mihalev, Kiril; Berardini, Nicolai; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides were extracted from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. after industrial distillation for essential oil recovery and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 22 major compounds analyzed, only kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were detected. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-xyloside has so far not been reported within the genus Rosa. In addition, based on their fragmentation patterns, several acylated quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, some of them being disaccharides, were identified for the first time. The kaempferol glycosides, along with the kaempferol aglycone, accounted for 80% of the total compounds that were quantified, with kaempferol 3-O-glucoside being the predominant component. The high flavonol content of approximately 16 g/kg on a dry weight basis revealed that distilled rose petals represent a promising source of phenolic compounds which might be used as functional food ingredients, as natural antioxidants or as color enhancers.

  4. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  5. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  6. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  11. A soil water distillation technique using He-purging for stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatev, A.; Velivetckaia, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Ueta, A.

    2013-08-01

    A new method of soil water extraction for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis has been developed; this method uses a helium flow system as an alternative to the conventional vacuum extraction method. The method significantly increases the efficiency of sample preparation and simplifies the extraction. During the water distillation, a helium carrier gas transfers water vaporized at 95 °C from the soil sample to a cold trap at liquid nitrogen temperature. An extraction time of 180 min is used to distill the water from the fine-grained soil completely. The proposed He-purging distillation technique makes it possible to distill approximately a dozen samples simultaneously. The method was tested using liquid water samples and clayey soil samples hydrated with water of known isotopic composition. The standard deviations for these tests were 0.08‰ for δ18O and 0.7‰ for δD. An intercomparison test was conducted for the helium and vacuum extraction methods using natural soil samples. The correlation coefficients between the methods were 0.9926 and 0.9939 for δD and δ18O, respectively. The proposed He-purging distillation method can achieve high precision for clayey soil samples with low water content and has the potential to provide adequate isotopic data in hydrological and ecological studies. The method is relatively fast, efficient, and inexpensive. We also recommend using the method to distill salt solutions (sea water, mineralized water) before determining the δD and δ18O values using a chromium or carbon reduction method to avoid “salt effects”.

  12. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D . When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  13. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-15

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  14. Sculpting sandcastles grain by grain: self-assembled sand towers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Moreau, F; Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2012-11-01

    We study the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a wet sand bed. When the liquid content of the bed exceeds a threshold value W*, the impacting grains have a nonzero probability to stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The trapped grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow towers. The growth velocity is determined by the surface liquid content which decreases exponentially as the tower height augments. This self-assembly mechanism (only observed in the funicular and capillary regimes) could theoretically last while the capillary rise of water is possible; however, the structure collapses before reaching this limit. The collapse occurs when the weight of the tower surpasses the cohesive stress at its base. The cohesive stress increases as the liquid content of the bed is reduced. Consequently, the highest towers are found just above W*.

  15. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  16. Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

  17. Distillate-fuel stability and cleanliness

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Henry, C.P.

    1981-01-01

    A symposium was held in June 1980 to assess the state of the art and to define current and future needs for tests to predict and monitor the stability and cleanliness of distillate fuels (excluding aviation turbine fuels). Topics included appraisals of present-day distillate fuel stability and cleanliness, requirements for various applications, anticipated trends, future fuels, fuel distribution problems, microbiological contamination, test methods for stability and cleanliness, and refinery processes which improve stability. This publication contains the twelve papers that were presented at the Symposium. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  18. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    The grain scale melt distribution plays a key role for physical properties of partially molten regions in Earth's upper mantle, but our current understanding of the distribution of basaltic melt at the grain scale is still incomplete. A recent experimental study shows that wetted two-grain boundaries are a common feature of partially molten dunite at small melt fractions (Garapic et al., G3, 2013). In early ideal models which assume isotropic surface energy, the grain scale melt distribution is uniquely determined by knowing the melt fraction and the dihedral angle between two crystalline grains and the melt (von Bargen and Waff, JGR, 1986). Olivine is anisotropic in surface energy, hence the grain scale melt distribution at given melt fraction cannot be characterized by the dihedral angle alone. The grain boundary wetness, which is defined as the ratio of solid-liquid boundary area over the total interfacial area (Takei, JGR, 1998), is a more objective measure of the grain scale melt distribution. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between grain size, melt fraction, temperature and grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite under dry conditions. We annealed olivine-basalt aggregates with melt fractions from 0.03% to 6% at a range of temperatures and 1 GPa in a piston cylinder for 1 to 336 hours, with resulting mean grain sizes of 10 to 60 μm. The samples were sectioned, polished and imaged at high resolution by using a field emission SEM. Each image had a size of 2048 x 1536 pixels with a resolution of 0.014 to 0.029 μm/pixel, depending on magnification. For each sample, depending on grain sizes, we made mosaics of 3 x 3 or 6 x 6 overlapping images. Measurements of melt fraction, grain boundary wetness and grain size were carried out on these high resolution mosaics by using ImageJ software. Analyses of mosaics show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt fraction at constant grain size to values well above those

  19. Grain-filling problem in 'super' rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Modern rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, especially the newly bred 'super' rice, have numerous spikelets on a panicle with a large yield capacity. However, these cultivars often fail to achieve their high yield potential due to poor grain-filling of later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to the earlier-flowering superior spikelets). Conventional thinking to explain the poor grain-filling is the consequence of carbon limitation. Recent studies, however, have shown that carbohydrate supply should not be the major problem because they have adequate sucrose at their initial grain-filling stage. The low activities of key enzymes in carbon metabolism may contribute to the poor grain-filling. Proper field practices, such as moderate soil drying during mid- and late grain-filling stages, could solve some problems in poor grain-filling. Further studies are needed by molecular approaches to investigate the signal transport, the hormonal action, the gene expressions, and the biochemical processes in inferior spikelets.

  20. Effect of geometry of rice kernels on drying modeling results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geometry of rice grain is commonly represented by sphere, spheroid or ellipsoid shapes in the drying models. Models using simpler shapes are easy to solve mathematically, however, deviation from the true grain shape might lead to large errors in predictions of drying characteristics such as, moistur...

  1. Dehumidification Grain Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-05-13

    A new technique developed during this project dries grain with mildly heated, dehumidified air in a closed-loop process. This proposed technique uses about one-tenth the energy and dries grain at a lower temperature, producing less damage to the kernels.Approximately 250 million automotive and truck tires are discarded each year in the U.S. The very properties that ensure a safe ride and long service life make the disposal of these scrap tires difficult. In spite of this, scrap tire recycling/reuse has rapidly grown from 10% in 1985 to over 90% today. The majority of scrap tires that are recycled/reused are burned for fuel in power plants and cement kilns. Since tires have somewhat higher heating value than coal, this would at first seem to be an acceptable option. But burning scrap tires recovers only 25% of the energy originally used to manufacture the rubber. An alternative is to use the scrap tires in the form of crumb rubber, by which 98% of the original energy is recovered. This project sought to explore potential formulations of crumb rubber with various thermoplastic binders, with one goal being developing a material for a low-cost, high-performance roofing composition. What was the state-of-the-art of the product/process prior to initiation of the project? Why was the project needed (e.g., performance, quality, cost, time to market)? Describe the strengths and interests of each party and how they are complementary with respect to the project. What KCP expertise was needed and how did it complement the partner's capabilities?

  2. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops."

  3. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  4. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  5. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  6. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  7. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  8. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  9. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p < 0.05) by 5.0 and 2.6 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn increased (p < 0.05) by 3.1 percentage unit with enzyme complex addition. As the effect of enzyme complex was the greatest in corn digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p < 0.05) by 16.0, 2.8 and 1.2 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn starch and hull also increased (p < 0.05) by 8.6 and 0.9 percentage unit, respectively, with enzyme complex addition. In conclusion, the enzyme complex increases in vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  10. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwant, P.B.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-08-23

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to thermal cracking, and subjecting the distillation residue of the cracked product to a combination solvent deasphalting and catalytic hydroconversion.

  11. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  12. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    PubMed Central

    Passoth, Volkmar; Eriksson, Anna; Sandgren, Mats; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Piens, Kathleen; Schnürer, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry) stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production. PMID:19695089

  13. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  14. Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

    2011-08-01

    Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety—preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

  15. Filler leachability of composites stored in distilled water or artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, K J; Mukherjee, R; Longmate, J

    1996-09-01

    Though dental composite materials leach filler elements when stored in distilled water, it is not known whether similar leaching occurs in saliva. The hypothesis to be tested was that due to ion exchange occurring at the filler surfaces, more filler elements leach from composites stored in a salt solution simulating saliva than from composites stored in distilled water. Another aim was to determine how matrix selection, filler composition, and filler silanization affect filler leachability of composites after storage in the simulated saliva and water media. We made 128 batches of experimental composites. Half of these used a bis-GMA/TEGDMA matrix and the other a UEDMA/TEGDMA matrix. Either silica or barium glass filler particles were incorporated into these matrices. Filler silanization was followed by a filler drying at 60 degrees C for 24 h. Half of the silanized particles received an additional heat treatment for 1 h at 110 degrees C in vacuum. One specimen per batch was stored in distilled water and the other in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. After each 30-day interval for one year, the specimens were transferred to either freshly distilled water or newly mixed artificial saliva. The "old" solutions were analyzed by ICP for determination of the Si, Ba, and Al concentrations. Analysis of variance revealed that storage solution, filler composition, and total time in the storage solution had strong effects on the leachability (p < 0.0001 in all cases). The average monthly leakage of Si for quartz-filled composites was 0.22 +/- 0.20 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 2.80 +/- 1.20 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). For barium-glass-filled composites, the corresponding Si leaching values were 0.73 +/- 0.48 microgram/mL and 5.00 +/- 2.20 microgram/mL. The monthly means of the barium leaching values were 2.00 +/- 1.00 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 3.10 +/- 1.80 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). The large difference between leaching in artificial saliva and in

  16. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  17. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  18. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  19. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  20. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...