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Sample records for dried distillers grains

  1. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  3. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  4. Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

  5. Characterization of Physical, Chemical, and Flow Properties of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and DDGS Extrudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct from dry grind ethanol manufacturing. Significant quantities of distillers grains are being produced due to the increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive. Marketing of distillers grains, however, is hampered by inconsistencies ...

  6. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein source in diets of tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research efforts by nutritionists to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains after ...

  7. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein sources in diets of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research efforts by nutritionist to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other more expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains af...

  8. Physico-chemical characteristics of microwave-dried wheat distillers grain with solubles.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Maria Rosario P; Tabil, Lope G; Meda, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-prepared samples of wheat distillers grain with solubles with varying condensed distillers solubles (CDS) content were dried under varying microwave power, and microwave convection settings using a domestic microwave oven to examine their effect on the chemical, structural, color, flow, compression, thermal, and frictional properties of the product, which is dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). As CDS level increased, protein and ash content increased, while fat and fiber content decreased in wheat-based DDGS. Fat content was also markedly effected by the microwave oven drying conditions. While CDS level, microwave power or microwave convection setting, and/or their interactions significantly effected a number of physical properties; results indicated that CDS level had a stronger influence compared to the other factors. DDGS samples with high CDS levels were significantly denser, finer but more differentiated in size, less flowable, and less dispersible. These also produced denser and stronger pellets.

  9. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  10. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles composition, and lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David J; Moreau, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the compositional difference between grain sorghum and corn impact ethanol yields and coproduct value when grain sorghum is incorporated into existing corn ethanol facilities. Fermentation properties of corn and grain sorghum were compared utilizing two fermentation systems (conventional thermal starch liquefaction and native starch hydrolysis). Fermentation results indicated that protease addition influenced the fermentation rate and yield for grain sorghum, improving yields by 1-2% over non-protease treated fermentations. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles produced from sorghum had a statistically significant higher yields and significantly higher protein content relative to corn. Lipid analysis of the Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles showed statistically significant differences between corn and sorghum in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and free fatty acid levels. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Gels of ferulated arabinoxylans extracted from distillers dried grains with solubles: rheology, structural parameters and microstructure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the major by-products of bioethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Maize is one of the main sources for the production of this biofuel. In this way, dietary fiber represents the principal fraction of DDGS, which could be a potential source of added-value biomolecu...

  12. Properties of Low-oil Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol production is exponentially growing in the U.S. As the use of ethanol as a fuel source increases, so does the need to find valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a good source of fiber and protein. Cu...

  13. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24...

  14. Mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene – dried distillers grains with solubles composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Injection molded composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of DDGS, and either 5% of 0% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding and injection mo...

  15. On the physical properties of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a complex heterogeneous granular solid that exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties. This fact is one of the major reasons that livestock nutritionists often find it difficult to include it in their feed rations. The rapid growth of ...

  16. Improving flow ability of distillers dried grains by novel processing techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A distillers dried grains (DDG) sample obtained from MCP Corporation was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Among the various fractions, free flowing particles were obtained that appear to have several opportunities for a range of industrial applications. Rheological p...

  17. Physical Properties of Low Oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol production is exponentially growing in the U.S. As the use of ethanol as a fuel source increases, so does the need to find valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a good source of nutrients, energy, and...

  18. Resistant starch, total dietary fiber and antioxidants in distillers dried grains (DDG)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) is a cereal byproduct of the rapidly growing fuel ethanol industry in United States. Currently, DDG is used for livestock feed since it is high in protein. Because of the shear magnitude of agricultural crop biomass converted to fuel ethanol, large quantities of DDG a...

  19. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  20. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  1. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: II. Effect on metabolic profile

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected metabolic profile, plasma fatty acid profile, and reproductive maturation. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d old) were used in a 24-wee...

  2. Twin screw extrusion processing of feed blends containing distillers dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  3. Supercritical CO2 extraction of lipids from grain sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Weller, Curtis L; Schlegel, Vicki L; Carr, Timothy P; Cuppett, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    Experiments were carried out on a lab supercritical CO(2) extraction system to determine the effects of extraction conditions, including mass ratio of CO(2) consumed to distillers dry grain with solubles (DDGS) extracted, extraction pressure, extraction temperature and time, on yield and composition of extracted lipids. A maximum lipid yield of 150 g/kg DDGS was achieved with a mass ratio approximately 45, an extraction pressure at 27.5 MPa, an extraction temperature at 70 degrees C and an extraction time of 4 h. Under these extraction conditions, the contents of tocols, phytosterols, policosanols and free fatty acids were 0.44, 15.6, 31.2 and 155.3 mg/g in the extract. Experimental results indicated that shorter extraction time and higher flow rate of CO(2) can achieve higher contents of tocols, phytosterols and policosanols but lower content of free fatty acids in the lipid extract. Extraction conditions had no observed effects on the composition of free fatty acids in the extract. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were three main free fatty acids extracted and constituted about 94% of all free fatty acids.

  4. Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-06

    Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

  5. Process simulation of modified dry grind ethanol plant with recycle of pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    Distillers' grains (DG), a co-product of a dry grind ethanol process, is an excellent source of supplemental proteins in livestock feed. Studies have shown that, due to its high polymeric sugar contents and ease of hydrolysis, the distillers' grains have potential as an additional source of fermentable sugars for ethanol fermentation. The benefit of processing the distillers' grains to extract fermentable sugars lies in an increased ethanol yield without significant modification in the current dry grind technology. Three different potential configurations of process alternatives in which pretreated and hydrolyzed distillers' grains are recycled for an enhanced overall ethanol yield are proposed and discussed in this paper based on the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of distillers' grains. Possible limitations of each proposed process are also discussed. This paper presents a compositional analysis of distillers' grains, as well as a simulation of the modified dry grind processes with recycle of distillers' grains. Simulated material balances for the modified dry grind processes are established based on the base case assumptions. These balances are compared to the conventional dry grind process in terms of ethanol yield, compositions of its co-products, and accumulation of fermentation inhibitors. Results show that 14% higher ethanol yield is achievable by processing and hydrolyzing the distillers' grains for additional fermentable sugars, as compared to the conventional dry grind process. Accumulation of fermentation by-products and inhibitory components in the proposed process is predicted to be 2-5 times higher than in the conventional dry grind process. The impact of fermentation inhibitors is reviewed and discussed. The final eDDGS (enhanced dried distillers' grains) from the modified processes has 30-40% greater protein content per mass than DDGS, and its potential as a value-added process is also analyzed. While the case studies used to illustrate the

  6. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Price, Neil Pj

    2013-01-01

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune were examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan from agricultural biomass. Strains were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1% (w/v) distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by the dry grind process. Ten of 11 strains tested produced more than 2 g schizophyllan/L. Two strains, ATCC 20165 and CBS 266.60, produced more than 10 g schizophyllan/L. Schizophyllan from these strains was similar to commercial product in terms of solution viscosity, molecular weight, and surface tension properties, suggesting that they would be equivalent in biomaterial applications.

  7. Development and characterization of thermoplastic films from sorghum distillers dried grains grafted with various methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Shi, Zhen; Temme, Lisa; Xu, Helan; Xu, Lan; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2014-03-19

    Distillers Dried Grains (DDG) obtained during production of ethanol from grain sorghum were grafted with methacrylates and compression molded into films with good dry and wet tensile properties. Since sorghum DDG contains up to 45% proteins that are indigestible by animals, it is necessary to find alternative applications to make sorghum ethanol economically competitive. In this research, sorghum DDG was grafted with methyl, ethyl, and butyl methacrylates, the grafted DDG was compression molded into films, and the properties of the grafted DDG and films were studied. At a grafting ratio of 40%, butyl methacrylate (BMA) grafted films had a strength of 4.8 MPa and elongation of 1.8% when dry and 3.1 MPa and 8.1% when wet, indicating that the films had good strength and wet stability. Films developed from grafted DDG show the potential to overcome the brittleness and poor water stability of biopolymer-based films and be useful for various applications.

  8. Nutrition evaluation and mutagenicity testing of freeze-dried distiller's grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pintauro, S J; al-Nasser, A S

    1989-01-01

    Distiller's grains with solubles (DGS) was obtained from a commercial fermentation of 90% corn and 10% wheat for ethanol production. The DGS was freeze-dried and proximate analysis resulted in 17.6% protein, 5.5% fat, 3.0% ash, 17.3% moisture, 21.6% neutral detergent fiber, and 35% carbohydrate by difference. Fatty acid analysis and amino acid analysis were similar to those of corn. Tryptophan was the limiting amino acid with a chemical score of 47. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) was 1.49. Mutagenicity testing of lipid and aqueous extracts of DGS in the Ames Salmonella mammalian microsome assay were negative.

  9. Feeding value of dried distillers' grains (DDG) in beef feedlot rations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Matsushima, J.K.

    1980-06-01

    Dried distillers' grains (DDG) replaced flaked corn in the feed for steers in the Colorado State University feedlot at rates of 0%, 15%, and 30% of finishing rations. Steers were randomly assigned to six pen treatments with each treatment replicated. No significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency, or general health were observed between treatments. Likewise, differences in carcass quality were negligible. Under the conditions of this experiment ad prevailing prices, DDG was worth $113/ton. If its full value as a protein supplement had been credited, it would have had a value of $131/ton. This compares to the market price at the time of $150/ton for DDG.

  10. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    PubMed

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial.

  11. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  12. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  13. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of reduced-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to broilers from 23 to 31 days of age.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Perryman, K R; Hess, J B

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using male Ross×Ross 708 broiler chicks to determine the effect of oil extraction from corn distillers dried grains with solubles on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility from 23 to 31 d of age. On an as-fed basis, ether extract concentrations were determined as 5.4% (L-distillers dried grains with solubles), 7.9% (M-distillers dried grains with solubles), and 10.5% (H-distillers dried grains with solubles) for the 3 experimental distillers dried grains with solubles sources. Prior to experimentation, each sample (H-distillers dried grains with solubles (control), M-distillers dried grains with solubles and L-distillers dried grains with solubles) was analyzed on an as-fed basis for crude protein (29.2, 27.6, and 27.9%), starch (4.4, 5.2, and 6.1%), neutral detergent fiber (29.5, 33.2, and 29.9%), and total dietary fiber (31.4, 36.6, and 33.6 %). Four hundred and thirty-two male chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.04 m2 per bird) were randomly assigned to 36 battery grower cages. Broilers were fed one of 3 semi-purified diets, which were comprised of 76% L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M- distillers dried grains with solubles, or H-distillers dried grains with solubles as the sole amino acid source from 23 to 31 d of age. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients were negatively affected (P<0.05) by oil extraction for Met (0.722, 0.788, and 0.791), Lys (0.504, 0.510, and 0.552), Thr (0.563, 0.566, and 0.612), Trp (0.708, 0.733, and 0.767), and Arg (0.762, 0.776, and 0.799) for L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M-distillers dried grains with solubles, and H-distillers dried grains with solubles, respectively. Conversely, no differences in apparent amino acid coefficients were reported for Ile, Leu, and Val. These results indicated that L-distillers dried grains with solubles had lower apparent amino acid digestibility coefficients for Met, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Arg compared with H-distillers dried grains with

  14. Analysis of organic gas phase compounds formed by hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Madsen, René B; Christensen, Per S; Houlberg, Kasper; Lappa, Elpiniki; Mørup, Anders J; Klemmer, Maika; Olsen, Eva M; Jensen, Mads M; Becker, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B; Glasius, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive characterization of the gas phase from hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) collected during a 24-h continuous experiment. The gas consisted mainly of CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and C2H6 accounting for 96 v/v% while further analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed additionally 62 compounds of which 54 were tentatively identified. These products included methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, various olefins and several aromatic compounds. The composition provided clear indication of the steady state of the system. Apart from CO2, olefins were the most abundant compound class and could provide a source of revenue.

  15. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  16. Evaluating energy efficient strategies and product quality for distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in dry-grind ethanol plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tian

    The drying of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of dry-grind corn processing to ethanol utilizes about 30% of the total energy required for the production of a liter of fuel ethanol. Therefore, improving DDGS drying energy efficiency could have significant impact on the economics of the dry-grind corn-to-ethanol process. Drying process improvements must take account into the effects of various drying strategies on the final quality of DDGS which is primarily utilized as a feed ingredient. Previous studies in the literature have shown that physical and chemical properties of DDGS vary according to the ratio of the two primarily feed streams, wet distillers grains (WDG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) which make up DDGS. Extensive research using plant-scale and bench-scale experiments have been conducted on the effect of process variables (ratios of WDG, CDS and DDGS add-back) during drying on the physical and chemical properties of DDGS. However, these investigations did not correlate the product characteristics data to drying efficiency. Additionally, it cannot be clearly determined from the literature on DDGS drying that processes used in the industry are optimized for both product quality and energy efficiency. A bench-scale rotary drum dryer heated by an electrically powered heat gun was used to investigate the effects of WDG, CDS and add-back ratios on both energy efficiency, drying performance and DDGS physical and chemical properties. A two stage drying process with the bench-scale rotary dryer was used to simulate the drying of DDGS using ICM (ICM, Inc., Colwich, KS) dry-grind process technology for DDGS drying which uses two rotary drum dryers in series. Effects of drying process variables, CDS content (0, 10, 20 and 40% by mass) and percent DDGS add-back (0, 20, 40 and 60% by mass) on energy performance and product quality were determined. Sixteen different drying strategies based on drying process variable ratios were

  17. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are a major co-product of the ethanol industry, and are principally sold as animal fee...

  18. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are one of the two major co-products (with carbon dioxide) of the corn ethanol industry...

  19. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and ...

  20. Use of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SM) used in the diets of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Six isocaloric (3.22 ± 0.02 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (30.1 ± 0.2% SE) experimental diets were formulate...

  1. Selected factors affecting crude fat analysis of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with ground corn.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With increasing production of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS), both fuel ethanol and animal feed industries are demanding standardized protocols for characterizing its quality. AOCS Approved Procedure (Am 5-04) was used for measuring crude oil content in ground corn (GC) and resulting DD...

  2. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) through a narrowing of particle size distribution followed by aspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve 3 screening and 3 air classification unit operatio...

  3. The Effects of Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to investigate the production of balanced diets for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) feeds. Six isocaloric (3.20 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (31.5% db) ingredient blends were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at a feed...

  4. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior res...

  5. Milk and methane production in lactating dairy cattle consuming distillers dried grains and solubles or canola meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of byproducts as an alternative feed source is becoming increasingly popular among dairy producers. A study using 12 multiparous (79 ± 16 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows, was conducted over 5 months to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or canola meal...

  6. Fate of Free and Conjugated Mycotoxins within the Production of Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Vaclavikova, Marta; Tomaniova, Monika; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-06-22

    Contamination of feed with mycotoxins represents a serious worldwide problem concerning animal health and related economic losses. The present paper provides comprehensive knowledge about the fate of mycotoxins during the production of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The study was carried out using naturally infected maize material in five repetitions. For mycotoxin analysis, a QuEChERS-like ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") isolation approach and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used. A significant increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its glycosylated form, DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc), was observed during the first part of fermentation, when hydrolytic enzymes were added. After yeast addition, the total DON content rapidly decreased. An opposite trend was observed for fumonisin B1 (FB1), in which yeast addition contributed to increase of its content. Further considerable change in mycotoxin content occurred during the drying step, in which approximately two-thirds of the original content was lost.

  7. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  8. Dried distillers grains with solubles with reduced corn silage levels in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Depenbusch, B E; Reinhardt, C D; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Cole, N A; Drouillard, J S

    2010-07-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of 25% dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DDG) in beef cattle finishing diets by partially replacing a portion of the grain and soybean meal in the control diets. In Exp.1, crossbred heifers (n = 377; BW 378 +/- 4.1 kg) were fed diets consisting of steam-flaked corn (SFC) with a control diet containing 0% DDG and 15% corn silage (CS), 25% DDG and 15% CS, or 25% DDG and 5% CS. Compared with the control treatment, heifers fed DDG and 15% CS had a greater proportion of USDA yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses (P = 0.04; 5.68 vs. 14.12), and smaller LM area (P = 0.04; 86.09 vs. 82.48 cm(2)). In Exp. 2, crossbred heifers (n = 582; BW = 377 +/- 27.09 kg) were fed diets similar to Exp. 1 except dry-rolled corn (DRC) and SFC were compared as the basal grain sources. Treatments included DRC or SFC: with control diets containing 0% DDG and 15% CS, 25% DDG and 15% CS, or 25% DDG and 5% CS. Feeding SFC decreased DMI (P < 0.01), improved G:F (P < 0.01) and final shrunk BW (P = 0.05) compared with DRC. Average USDA yield grade was greater for cattle fed DRC than for those fed SFC (P = 0.02), but calculated yield grade was not different among treatments (P = 0.71). Feeding DDG and 5% CS, regardless of grain source, led to decreased DMI and greater G:F than feeding DDG and 15% CS (P = 0.02). When comparing the control treatments with the diets containing 25% DDG and 15% CS shrunk final BW, ADG, and G:F were decreased (P < or = 0.05); however, carcass-adjusted measurements were not different (P > 0.52). Results indicate that roughage levels can be reduced in feedlot diets containing 25% DDG with no adverse effects on BW gain, feed efficiency, or carcass quality.

  9. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed increasing concentrations of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M

    2012-07-01

    In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

  10. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers' dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distiller grains with soluble (DDGS) have roughly three times the amount of oil as regular corn used in feeds, and several studies have shown that DDGS also have higher concentrations of lipophilic bioactives such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls, because the levels found in whole corn...

  11. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  12. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as an alternative ingredient for broilers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Tillman, P B; Payne, R L

    2011-02-01

    The effects of graded levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated as a partial replacement for sources of protein, energy, and other nutrients for broilers when the digestible amino acid balance was maintained. Zero, 8, 16, and 24% DDGS were incorporated into isonutritive diets at the expense of corn, soybean meal, and dl-Met. Poultry oil, l-Lys, and l-Thr additions increased with increasing levels of DDGS. Diets were each fed to 36 Cobb 500 straight-run broilers in 6 floor pens in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed ≥8% DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet during the 0- to 18-d starter period (P = 0.0164) but were almost identical in BW at 42 d (P = 0.9395). The only difference at 42 d was in the carcass fat composition of female broilers: percentage of fat pad decreased with increasing DDGS level (P = 0.0133). Corn DDGS reduced the pellet durability index. However, the pellet durability index was not related to growth or feed utilization. In experiment 2 at 42 d, broilers fed all levels of DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet. Broilers may perform well when fed properly balanced feeds containing up to 24% DDGS despite reduced pellet quality.

  13. The occurrence and concentration of mycotoxins in U.S. distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Caupert, John; Imerman, Paula M; Richard, John L; Shurson, Gerald C

    2009-10-28

    To provide a scientific sound assessment of the prevalence and levels of mycotoxins in U.S. distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), we measured mainly aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone in 235 DDGS samples collected from 20 ethanol plants in the midwestern United States and 23 export shipping containers from 2006 to 2008 using state-of-the-art analytical methodologies. The results suggested that (1) none of the samples contained aflatoxins or deoxynivalenol levels higher than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for use in animal feed; (2) no more than 10% of the samples contained fumonisin levels higher than the recommendation for feeding equids and rabbits, and the rest of the samples contained fumonisins lower than FDA guidelines for use in animal feed; (3) none of the samples contained T-2 toxins higher than the detection limit, and no FDA guidance levels are available for T-2 toxins; (4) most samples contained zearalenone levels lower than the detection limit, and no FDA guidance levels are available for zearalenone; and (5) the containers used for export shipping of DDGS did not seem to contribute to mycotoxin production. This study was based on representative DDGS samples from the U.S. ethanol industry, and the data were collected using reference methods. This study provided a comprehensive and scientifically sound assessment of the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in DDGS from the U.S. ethanol industry.

  14. In vitro ruminal fluid fermentation as influenced by corn-derived dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Miśta, Sdorota; Pecka, Ewa; Zachwieja, Andrzej; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Bodarski, Rafał; Paczyńska, Katarzyna; Tumanowicz, Joanna; Kupczyński, Robert; Adamski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate changes to in vitro ruminal fluid fermentation due to the use of corn-derived dried distillers' grains with solubles (corn DDGS) as a partial or complete replacement for crushed cereal and oilseed meals in the fermentation substrate. The control substrate consisted of mixed cereal and oilseed meals (barley, wheat, soybean and rapeseed), while the experimental substrates were the same meals with increasing portions replaced with corn DDGS. Including corn DDGS decreased the total VFA concentration (P<0.05), ammonia level (P<0.001), methane emission (P<0.05) and total gas production (P<0.001) during microbial fermentation. Using DDGS-containing substrates did not change the proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate, but did decrease the proportions of isobutyrate and isovalerate (P<0.001). The fermentation efficiency, VFA utilization index, cell yield coefficient and pH of the ruminal fluid also remained unchanged. The partial replacement of cereal and oilseed meals with corn DDGS had no deleterious effects on ruminal fluid fermentation.

  15. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E; Ruan, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

  16. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Trupia, S; Winkler-Moser, J K; Guney, A C; Beckstead, R; Chen, C-Y O

    2016-11-01

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller's dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluated. Neither R-DDGS nor L-DDGS at up to 20% of laying hen feeds had a statistically significant impact on hen weight gain, egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg mass, or egg weight. Specific gravity was slightly lower for eggs from hens fed 10% R-DDGS or 20% L-DDGS. Eggs from layers fed DDGS had enhanced levels of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls in the yolk, as well as also increased yolk yellow and red color. Eggs from L-DDGS diet had higher tocopherol content, but eggs from R-DDGS diets had higher xanthophylls. Fatty acid composition in eggs was slightly altered by DDGS, but the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was very similar. Feeding DDGS to layer hens had no effect on lecithin or cholesterol content of the eggs. Thus, inclusion of DDGS in the diet of laying hens resulted in increases of several beneficial lipophilic nutrients in egg yolks with no apparent detrimental effects. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Extruded aquafeeds containing distillers dried grains with solubles: effects on extrudate properties and processing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, Kamal; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2011-12-01

    The tremendous supply and low cost of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) make it an attractive feedstuff for aquaculture diets. Also, several studies have shown that DDGS can be successfully fed to various finfish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of DDGS (0, 250, 500 g kg(-1) ), feed moisture content (350, 450 g kg(-1) ) and die opening area (die A = 18.85 mm(2) , die B = 3988.45 mm(2) ) on the properties of the extrudates and on processing behaviour using a single-screw extruder. Increasing the inclusion rate of DDGS resulted in extrudates with lower unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, water solubility index and brightness (Hunter L) but higher redness (Hunter a) and yellowness (Hunter b). The increase in moisture content affected the extrudate properties in different ways: it increased bulk density, Hunter L, Hunter b and mass flow rate, whereas specific mechanical energy decreased at high moisture content. Increasing the die opening area primarily decreased expansion ratio of extrudates, power consumption and barrel temperatures but increased mass flow rate. Extrudates from all treatments exhibited high durability and floatability, and less energy was required to produce extrudates when DDGS was used compared with soybean meal-based diets. The aquaculture industry can use this information to develop high-quality feeds at low cost. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, John; Ruan, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syngas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5-50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5-62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy content of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650°C and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heating value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of highly flexible thermoplastic films from cyanoethylated corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-03-09

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be made into highly flexible thermoplastic films without the need for plasticizers. DDGS is an abundantly available coproduct of ethanol production that is inexpensive ($80-130/ton) compared to most of the polymers used for thermoplastic applications. In this research, oil-and-zein-free DDGS was cyanoethylated using acrylonitrile, and cyanoethylation conditions were optimized to obtain high percent weight gain of up to 42%. Cyanoethylated DDGS was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA. Cyanoethylated DDGS was compression molded into thermoplastic films, and the tensile properties of the films were studied. It was found that DDGS films with elongation as high as 38% and strength of 14 MPa could be obtained without the use of any plasticizers. Alternatively, films with strength as high as 651 MPa but with relatively low elongation (2.5%) were obtained by varying the extent of cyanoethylation. This research showed that cyanoethylation could be a viable approach to develop biothermoplastics from biopolymers for applications such as packing films, extrudates, and resins for composites.

  20. Content and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in distillers dried grains with solubles in chicks.

    PubMed

    Martinez Amezcua, C; Parsons, C M; Noll, S L

    2004-06-01

    Total phosphorus analysis was performed on 20 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and three experiments were conducted to determine the bioavailability of P in different samples of DDGS varying in Lys digestibility and heat processing (autoclaving). Relative bioavailability of P was estimated from tibia ash using the slope ratio method after chicks were fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with 0.05 or 0.10% P from KH2PO4 or supplemented with 2 levels of the test DDGS (7 to 25%). The mean total P value for the 20 DDGS samples was 0.73 +/- 0.04% (SD), with an average dry matter value of 88 +/- 0.8% (SD). In experiment 1, the bioavailability coefficient for P in a random sample of DDGS relative to KH2PO4 was 69%. In experiment 2, the relative bioavailabilities of P in low digestible Lys DDGS 1, low digestible Lys DDGS 2, and high digestible Lys DDGS 3 were 102, 82 and 75%, respectively (P < 0.05). For experiment 3, the P bioavailability coefficients for a light-colored nonautoclaved DDGS and the same DDGS autoclaved at 121 degrees C and 124 pKa were 75 and 87%, respectively (P < 0.05). Our results showed that the total P content of DDGS was similar to the 0.72% value reported by the NRC (1994), but the relative P bioavailability is higher than the value estimated from NRC (1994) based on table values for total and nonphytate P content. Our results also indicated that there is substantial variability in P bioavailability among different DDGS samples and suggest that increased heat processing may increase the bioavailability of P in DDGS.

  1. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  2. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing level of DDGS in diets. There was a main effect ( < 0.001) of phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P.

  3. Biodiesel from corn distillers dried grains with solubles: preparation, evaluation and properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of dry-grind ethanol fermentation and represents a low-cost feedstock with potential to improve process economics and logistics of biodiesel manufacture through integration of biodiesel and ethanol production. Oil extracted from DDGS...

  4. Effect of process variables on the quality characteristics of pelleted wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Lope Tabil; Anthony Opoku; Maria Rosario Mosqueda; Olaniyi Fadeyi

    2011-04-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol processing plants in Canada has resulted in a significant increase in the production of wheat-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Transportation and flowability problems associated with DDGS necessitate investigations on pelleting. In the present study, the effect of process variables like die temperature (T) and feed moisture content (Mw) on the pellet properties like pellet moisture content, durability and pellet density was explored using a single pelleting machine; further studies on pelleting DDGS using a pilot-scale pellet mill were also conducted to understand the effect of die diameter and steam conditioning on durability and bulk density of pellets. Proximate analysis of DDGS indicated that crude protein and dry matter were in the range of 37.37–40.33% and 91.27–92.60%, respectively. Linear regression models developed for pellet quality attributes like pellet moisture content, pellet density and durability adequately described the single pelleting process with R2 value of 0.97, 0.99 and 0.7, respectively. ANOVA results have indicated that linear terms T and Mw and the interaction term T × Mw were statistically significant at P < 0.01 and P < 0.1 for pellet moisture content and pellet density. Based on the trends of the surface plots, a medium T of about 50–80 °C and a low Mw of about 5.1% resulted in maximum pellet density and durability and minimum pellet moisture content. Results from pilot-scale studies indicated that bulk density, durability and throughput values were 436.8–528.9 kg m-3, 60.3–92.7% and 45.52–68.77 kg h-1, respectively. It was observed that both die diameter and steam addition had a significant effect on the bulk density and the durability values. The highest bulk density and durability were achieved with 6.4 mm die diameter with steam addition compared to 7.9 mm die with or without steam addition.

  5. Interaction of corn processing and distillers dried grains with solubles on health and performance of steers.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Eckerman, S R; Berg, P T; Schauer, C S

    2012-02-01

    Feeding increased concentrations of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to ruminants has been avoided due to risks of S toxicity and concerns about animal performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of feeding an increasing concentration of DDGS and corn processing method on animal performance, incidence of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), and concentration of H(2)S gas in feedlot steers. Sixty steer calves (336 ± 13.2 kg) were individually fed for an average of 136 d in a completely random design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Main effects included concentration of DDGS (20, 40, or 60% DM basis) and corn processing method [high-moisture (HMC; 71.7% DM) vs. dry-rolled corn (DRC; 86.2% DM)] resulting in treatments of 1) 20% DDGS with DRC, 2) 40% DDGS with DRC, 3) 60% DDGS with DRC, 4) 20% DDGS with HMC, 5) 40% DDGS with HMC, and 6) 60% DDGS with HMC. Ruminal H(2)S gas concentrations were measured on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, and 91 via rumen puncture. Animal performance and carcass characteristic data were collected. The day × corn processing × DDGS interaction for H(2)S gas concentrations was not significant (P = 0.91). Ruminal H(2)S concentration increased with increasing DDGS concentration (P < 0.001) and day (P < 0.001), but was not influenced by corn processing method (P = 0.94). Carcass-adjusted final BW decreased linearly (P = 0.009), whereas carcass-adjusted ADG decreased quadratically (P = 0.05) with increasing concentration of DDGS in the diet. Carcass-adjusted G:F was not affected (P ≥ 0.28) by increasing concentration of DDGS in the diet. Carcass characteristics reflected the decrease in final BW with decreased HCW (P = 0.009), as well as decreased fat depth (P = 0.005) with increasing concentrations of DDGS. The combination of decreased HCW and backfat thickness resulted in decreased (P = 0.02) yield grade with increasing DDGS inclusion. There were no confirmed cases of PEM. In conclusion

  6. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles affects composition but not oxidative stability of milk.

    PubMed

    Testroet, E D; Li, G; Beitz, D C; Clark, S

    2015-05-01

    Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in dairy cow diets containing dried distillers grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Linke, P L; Rennich, D R; Abdelqader, M M; Yoon, I

    2010-06-01

    Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (127+/-52 d in milk) were used in 4 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods to evaluate interactions of dietary inclusion of a fermentation product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; XPC, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on production of milk and milk components when fed diets containing approximately 30% dietary neutral detergent fiber with calculated forage neutral detergent fiber of 19.3% of diet dry matter (DM). Treatments were a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with SC included at 0 or 14 g/d and DDGS at 0 or 20% of diet DM. Diets consisted of 27% corn silage, 18% alfalfa hay, and 55% concentrate mix on a DM basis. Diets not containing DDGS included additional corn, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, soyhulls, and rumen inert fat to remain isocaloric and isonitrogenous with DDGS diets. Dry matter intake (26.0 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production increased with the addition of SC to diets (43.6 vs. 42.0 kg/d for diets without SC) and decreased for cows fed diets containing DDGS (42.0 kg/d vs. 43.6 kg/d for diets not containing DDGS). Milk fat percentage (3.05 vs. 3.22% for DDGS and non-DDGS diets, respectively) and yield (1.27 vs. 1.41 kg/d) were decreased by the addition of DDGS but were not affected by the addition of SC. Concentrations of long-chain, polyunsaturated, trans-, and conjugated fatty acids in milk of cows fed DDGS were increased, but milk fatty acid profiles were not affected by SC. Milk true protein concentrations were similar for all diets; however, the addition of SC increased yield of true protein (1.32 vs. 1.27 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen increased when SC was included in the diet with DDGS. The DDGS decreased yields of energy-corrected milk (39.4 vs. 42.1 kg/d) and tended to decrease feed efficiency (1.53 vs. 1.61 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake). Body weights and condition scores were not affected by

  8. Survey of mycotoxins in U.S. distiller's dried grains with solubles from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Caupert, John

    2012-01-18

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a major coproduct of the fuel-ethanol industry and is becoming a popular low-cost ingredient for animal feed. Uncertainties regarding the risk factors in DDGS, such as level of mycotoxins, could limit its application in the animal feed industry. To provide a scientifically sound assessment of the prevalence and levels of mycotoxins in U.S. DDGS, we measured aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone in 67 DDGS samples collected from 8 ethanol plants in the midwestern United States from 2009 to 2011. Among the five mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol was the main focus of the study because the crop year of 2009 was favorable for deoxynivalenol occurrence in corn. We learned that no more than 12% of the samples contained deoxynivalenol levels higher than the minimum advisory level for use in animal feed provided by the U.S. FDA, and the deoxynivalenol levels in all DDGS collected in 2011 were <2 mg/kg. Besides, intensive study showed that the enrichment of deoxynivalenol from contaminated corn to DDGS was about 3.5 times. With regard to the other mycotoxins in DDGS, the study suggested that (1) almost none of the DDGS samples produced in 2010 contained detectable aflatoxins and the highest level of aflatoxins in DDGS was 5.7 μg/kg; (2) no more than 6% of the samples contained fumonisin levels higher than the guidance level for feeding equids and rabbits provided by the U.S. FDA; (3) none of the samples contained T-2 higher than the detection limit; (4) most samples contained zearalenone levels between 100 and 300 μg/kg. This study was based on representative DDGS samples from the U.S. ethanol industry, and the data were collected using state-of-the-art analytical methodology. This study provided a comprehensive and scientifically sound assessment of the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in DDGS produced from 2009 to early 2011 by the U.S. ethanol industry.

  9. Amino acid digestibility in low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Curry, Shelby Marie; Navarro, Diego Mario David Labadan; Almeida, Ferdinando Nielsen; Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Stein, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different concentrations of fat. Twelve growing barrows (initial body weight: 76.1 [Formula: see text] 6.2 kg) were randomly allotted to a replicated 6 × 4 Youden square design with 6 diets and 4 periods. The fat content of the 3 sources of DDGS were 11.5, 7.5, and 6.9% respectively. Diets contained 60% DDGS and fat concentration of the diets were 7.5, 5.2, and 5.2%, respectively. Two additional diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with 7.5 and 6.9% fat were also formulated, and corn oil was added to these diets to increase the concentration of fat in the diets to levels that were calculated to be similar to the diet containing conventional DDGS with 11.5% fat. A N-free diet was also formulated to calculate endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA from the pigs. Pigs were fed experimental diets during four 7-d periods. The first 5 d of each period were an adaptation period and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The apparent ileal digestibililty (AID) and SID of CP and all indispensable AA, except AID Pro and SID of Trp, were greater (P < 0.01) in conventional DDGS than in the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat. Adding oil to the diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat did not consistently increase SID of AA. In conclusion, conventional DDGS has greater SID values for most AA compared with DDGS that contains less fat and inclusion of additional oil to diets containing low-fat DDGS does not increase AID or SID of AA. The lower AA digestibility in low-fat DDGS could not be overcome by the inclusion of additional fat to the diets.

  10. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Depenbusch, B E; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Reinhardt, C D; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and alfalfa hay (AH) or corn silage (CS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility in cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. In trial 1, crossbred heifers (n = 358; BW = 353 +/- 13 kg) were used in a finishing trial to evaluate interactions between corn-DDGS and roughage source (AH or CS) in terms of impact on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets (DM basis) consisted of SFC and 11% CS without DDGS (SFC-CS), SFC and 11% CS with 25% DDGS (DDGS-CS), SFC and 6% AH without DDGS (SFC-AH), and SFC with 25% DDGS and 6% AH (DDGS-AH). Heifers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily for 97 d. Results indicated no interaction between DDGS and roughage source with respect to animal performance. Feeding DDGS did not affect ADG (P = 0.19), DMI (P = 0.14), or feed conversion (P = 0.67). Heifers fed CS had greater DMI than those fed AH (P = 0.05), but ADG (P = 0.56) and G:F (P = 0.63) were not different. There were no differences among treatments with respect to HCW, dressing percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, quality grades, or yield grades (P > 0.20). Cattle fed CS tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores than those fed AH. There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between roughage and DDGS with respect to incidence of liver abscess. The greatest incidence was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when CS was fed, and the least was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when AH was used. In the second trial, ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility were examined in 12 cannulated Holstein steers fed similar diets to those fed in the finishing trial. Ruminal pH for all treatments was below 5.8 for 14 h after feeding. Acetate:propionate ratios were less (P = 0.02) in steers fed 25% DDGS but had greater (P = 0.02) ruminal lactate concentrations compared with cattle fed 0

  11. Growth and physiological responses of growing pigs to wheat-corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, D I; Kiarie, E; Slominski, B A; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-06-01

    Gaining a detailed knowledge on the impact of a feedstuff on pig growth and physiological responses is critical for its effective utilization. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles derived from co-fermentation of wheat and corn (wcDDGS) on performance, carcass and visceral organ weights, whole-body O2 consumption and heat production (HP) in growing barrows. The experimental diets were as follows: corn-soybean meal diet (Control), Control + 15% wcDDGS and Control + 30% wcDDGS. In Exp. 1, 48 pair-housed pigs of average BW 18.6 ± 1.5 kg (mean ± SD) were allotted to the 3 diets (n = 8). Pigs had free access to water and feed for a 28-day period during which ADG and ADFI were calculated weekly. Thereafter, 1 pig/pen was killed to measure carcass and visceral organ weights. Overall, wcDDGS linearly decreased (p < 0.05) ADFI and ADG but had no effect on G:F (p > 0.10). The ADFI was 1.55, 1.45 and 1.36 kg/day for diets containing 0, 15 and 30% wcDDGS respectively; corresponding values for ADG were 0.79, 0.75 and 0.67 kg/day respectively. A linear decline (p = 0.01) in eviscerated hot carcass weight was observed as dietary wcDDGS increased. In Exp. 2, 18 pigs of average BW 20.4 ± 2.4 kg (mean ± SD) were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed the 3 diets (n = 6) at 550 kcal ME kg BW(-0.60) day for a 16-day period followed by measurement of O2 consumption using an indirect calorimeter. Diet had no effect (p > 0.10) on whole-body O2 consumption and HP. In conclusion, increasing wcDDGS content in growing pig diets linearly reduced ADFI, ADG and eviscerated hot carcass weight but had no effect on G:F, visceral organ weights or HP. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P < 0.01) when compared with 25% DDGS inclusion. With 25% DDGS in the diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P < 0.01). A similar response (P < 0.01) occurred for total VFA concentrations at 0 h postfeeding. However, at 3 and 6 h postfeeding, propionate concentrations increased (P ≤ 0.05) in cattle fed the 60% DDGS diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with

  13. Effects of acid extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs.

    PubMed

    de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; van Rooijen, C; Kabel, M A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-12-01

    Commonly used feed processing technologies are not sufficient to affect recalcitrant nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylans present in maize distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Instead, hydrothermal treatments combined with acid catalysts might be more effective to modify these NSP. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal maleic acid treatment (acid extrusion) on the degradability of maize DDGS in growing pigs. It was hypothesized that acid extrusion modifies DDGS cell wall architecture and thereby increases fermentability of NSP. Two diets, containing either 40% (wt/wt) unprocessed or acid-extruded DDGS, were restrictedly fed to groups of gilts (n=11, with 4 pigs per group; initial mean BW: 20.8±0.2 kg) for 18 d and performance and digestibility were analyzed. Acid extrusion tended to decrease apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (approximately 3 percentage units [% units]); P=0.063) and starch (approximately 1% unit; P=0.096). Apparent digestibility of CP and starch measured at the mid colon (2% units, P=0.030, for CP and 0.3% units, P<0.01, for starch) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD; 3% units, P<0.01, for CP and 0.2% units, P=0.024, for starch) were lower for the acid-extruded diet compared with the control diet. Hindgut disappearance was, however, not different between diets, indicating that reduced CP and starch digestibility were mainly due to decreased AID. Acid extrusion tended to increase AID of NSP (6% units; P=0.092) and increased digestibility of NSP measured at the mid colon (6% units; P<0.01), whereas hindgut disappearance and ATTD of NSP did not differ between diets. Greater NSP digestibility was mainly due to greater digestibility of arabinosyl, xylosyl, and glucosyl residues, indicating that both arabinoxylan and cellulose degradability were affected by acid extrusion. In conclusion, these results show that acid extrusion did not improve degradation of DDGS for

  14. Processing method and corn cultivar affected anthocyanin concentration from dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Wang, Zhaoqin; West, Megan; Singh, Vijay; West, Leslie; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with health benefits and potential use as food colorants. The objectives of this work were to (1) determine optimum parameters for the extraction of anthocyanins from dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), (2) develop a method of anthocyanin extraction from DDGS, (3) quantify and identify the extracted anthocyanins, and (4) determine the effect of processing methods and corn cultivars on anthocyanin concentration. DDGS samples were prepared from purple (PC) and dark (DC) corn and processed using conventional enzymes (C) and granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GC). Three independent variables (ethanol concentration (0, 12.5, and 25%); liquid-to-solid ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1 mL/g); and extraction temperature (4, 22, and 40 °C)) and two dependent variables (anthocyanin concentration and a-value (redness)) were used. Results showed that dark corn DDGS gave anthocyanin concentration higher than that of purple corn. The GC process showed total anthocyanin concentration higher than that of the conventional method of DDGS production. The maximum anthocyanin concentration was obtained at 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C for C-PC [321.0 ± 37.3 μg cyanidin-3 glucoside (C3G) equivalent/g DDGS]. For GC-PC, 25% ethanol, 30:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C gave 741.4 ± 12.8 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. For GC-DC, 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 °C extraction gave 1573.4 ± 84.0 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. LC/MS-MS analysis showed that the major anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″-malonyl) glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6″malonyl) glucoside. In conclusion, anthocyanin extraction from colored corn DDGS can be optimized using 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 mL/g ratio, and 22 °C.

  15. Evaluation of various sources of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles for lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmit, D H; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) from different sources on milk production and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous and 4 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments consisted of total mixed diets containing no DDGS (CON), or DDGS from source 1 (DDGS-1), source 2 (DDGS-2), or source 3 (DDGS-3) at 20% of diet dry matter. The processing of DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 was intended to decrease heat damage and improve nutritional quality. The DDGS in the diets replaced a portion of the ground corn and soybean meal, allowing them to be isonitrogenous at 16% crude protein. All diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45. Dry matter intake (21.4 kg/d) did not differ among diets, but cows fed diets containing DDGS had greater yields of milk (34.6 vs. 31.2 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (32.7 vs. 29.6 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (35.4 vs. 32.3) compared with cows fed the CON diet. Feed efficiency was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (1.78 vs. 1.63). Milk fat yield was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with those fed CON (1.26 vs. 1.14 kg/d). Milk protein percentages (3.28, 3.13, 3.19, and 3.17% for CON, DDGS-1, DDGS-2, and DDGS-3, respectively) were greater for CON vs. DDGS and tended to be lower for DDGS-1 than for DDGS-2 and DDGS-3. Milk protein yields tended to be greater for cows fed DDGS than for those fed CON (1.09 vs. 1.02 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were lower in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (9.36 vs. 10.6 mg/dL). Feeding DDGS decreased arterial plasma concentrations of Arg, Ile, Lys, and Thr and increased His and Leu compared with CON. Arterial plasma from cows fed DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 had greater concentrations of Ile, Trp, and Val compared with DDGS-1. In all diets, Lys, Met, and Phe were the first 3 limiting amino acids for protein synthesis with Lys being first limiting in DDGS-1 and DDGS

  16. Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that needs to be utilized beyond animal feeds. We evaluated cornbreads, which were formulated incorporating 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% corn DDGS into co...

  17. Study of lipids and lipid components in corn dried distiller's grains (DDG)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We extracted oil from corn dried distiller’s grains (DDG) with ethanol, hexane, and supercritical CO2 and found that it has a very large amount of some valuable nutraceutical phytochemicals including phytosterols, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The oil fatty acid ...

  18. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune, to our knowledge never before examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan, were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1.0% (w/v) distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by...

  19. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  20. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  1. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  2. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  3. Pretreatment of dried distillers grains with solubles by soaking in aqueous ammonia and subsequent enzymatic/dilute acid hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15% w/w NH4OH solution at a solid:liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied...

  4. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total tract digestibility of nutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d ol...

  5. Alterations in the Colonic Microbiota of Pigs Associated with Feeding Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Burrough, Eric R.; Arruda, Bailey L.; Patience, John F.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species. In the present study, colonic contents collected at necropsy from pigs fed either 30% or no DDGS were analyzed to examine the relative abundance of bacterial taxa associated with feeding this ingredient. No difference in alpha diversity (richness) was detected between diet groups. However, the beta diversity was significantly different between groups with feeding of DDGS being associated with a decreased Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P = .004) and a significantly lower abundance of Lactobacillus spp. (P = .016). Predictive functional profiling of the microbiota revealed more predicted genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein digestion, and degradation of glycans in the microbiota of pigs fed DDGS. Taken together, these findings confirm that alterations in dietary insoluble fiber significantly alter the colonic microbial profile of pigs and suggest the resultant microbiome may predispose to the development of colitis. PMID:26555787

  6. Suitability of some selected maize hybrids from Serbia for the production of bioethanol and dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Semenčenko, Valentina V; Mojović, Ljiljana V; Dukić-Vuković, Aleksandra P; Radosavljević, Milica M; Terzić, Dušanka R; Milašinović Šeremešić, Marija S

    2013-03-15

    Bioethanol is mostly produced from starchy parts of the corn grain kernel leaving significant amounts of valuable by-products such as dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) which can be used as a substitute for traditional feedstuff. The suitability of six maize hybrids from Serbia was investigated for bioethanol and DDGS production. The correlation between physical and chemical characteristics of the grain, bioethanol yield and quality of the corresponding DDGS was assessed. All hybrids had very different chemical composition and physical characteristics which could allow various applications. The highest bioethanol yield (94.5% of theoretical) and volumetric productivity (2.01 g l(-1) h(-1)) were obtained with hybrid ZP 434 and the lowest with ZP 611k. Regarding chemical composition, all DDGS samples manifested good properties as feed components. Their protein content was higher compared to the kernel. In addition, the samples showed high digestibility and high mineral content, especially of calcium and phosphorus. A hybrid ZP 434 was selected as the most promising bioethanol producer. This property is attributed to the highest level of soft endosperm which is more susceptible to starch-hydrolysing enzymes. A high yield potential per hectare makes it the best candidate for commercial bioethanol production. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P < 0.05) CH4. Total N excretion (g/d) differed (P < 0.001) among treatments with WDDGS resulting in the greatest total N excretion (303 g/d) followed by WDDGS+oil (259 g/d), CDDGS (206 g/d), and the control diet (170 g/d), respectively. Compared with the control diet, heifers offered WDDGS, CDDGS, and WDDGS+oil excreted less fecal N (P < 0.001) but more (P < 0.001) urinary N. Results suggest that high-fat CDDGS or WDDGS+oil can mitigate enteric

  8. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) – A Key to the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  9. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of ...

  10. Pond demonstration of production diets using high levels of distiller's dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation for channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the increased availability and potential price advantage of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), there is considerable interest in utilizing this product in aquaculture diets. The response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to practical diets containing 20% and 30% DDGS with and...

  11. Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) containing variable ether extract (EE) concentrations and to develop DE and ME prediction equations based on nutritional measurements. Ether extract content of corn-DDGS ranged...

  12. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  13. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  14. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  15. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  16. The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk production, nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-six Holstein cows, four of which were ruminally cannulated, (mean ± SD, 111 ± 35 DIM; 664 ± 76.5 kg BW) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of brown midrib (bm3) and conventional (DP) corn silages and the inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG...

  17. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on animal performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-four crossbred steers (308 ± 8 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) and steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets with and without 35% wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) derived from corn to determine impacts of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on animal performance and carcass chara...

  18. Effect of fiber removal from ground corn, distillers dried grains with solubles and soybean meal using the Elusieve process on broiler performance and processing yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Elusieve process, a combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), has been found to be effective in fiber separation from ground corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SBM). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of removing fiber fro...

  19. Evaluation of grain distillers dried yeast as a fish meal substitute in practical-type diets of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain distillers dried yeast (GDDY) is a single-cell protein obtained as a co-product during the production of fuel ethanol that may have potential as a protein replacement for rainbow trout. The goal of this study was to examine the suitability of GDDY as a replacement for fishmeal on a digestible ...

  20. Effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and Eimeria acervulina infection on growth performance and the intestinal microbiota of young chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicks were used to determine whether dietary corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may prevent or ameliorate Eimeria acervulina (EA) infection. The experiment had a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 diets (inclusion of 0, 10, or 20% DDGS) × 2 challenge treat...

  1. Effects of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles, high-protein distillers dried grains, and corn germ to growing-finishing pigs on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Wulf, D M; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate pig performance, carcass quality, and palatability of pork from pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG), and corn germ. Eighty-four pigs (initial BW, 22 +/- 1.7 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Diets were fed for 114 d in a 3-phase program. The control treatment was based on corn and soybean meal. Two treatments were formulated using 10 or 20% DDGS in each phase. Two additional treatments contained HP-DDG in amounts sufficient to substitute for either 50 or 100% of the soybean meal used in the control treatment. An additional 2 treatments contained 5 or 10% corn germ, which was calculated to provide the same amount of fat as 10 or 20% DDGS. Results showed that for the entire experiment, pig performance was not affected by DDGS or HP-DDG, but final BW increased (linear, P < 0.05) as corn germ was included in the diets. Carcass composition and muscle quality were not affected by DDGS, but LM area and LM depth decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as HP-DDG was added to the diets. Lean meat percentage increased and drip loss decreased as corn germ was included in the diets (quadratic, P < 0.05). There was no effect of DDGS on fat quality except that belly firmness decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary DDGS concentration increased. Including HP-DDG or corn germ in the diets did not affect fat quality, except that the iodine value increased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed HP-DDG diets and decreased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ diets. Cooking loss, shear force, and bacon distortion score were not affected by the inclusion of DDGS, HP-DDG, or corn germ in the diets, and the overall palatability of the bacon and pork chops was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS or high levels of HP-DDG to growing-finishing pigs did not negatively affect overall pig performance, carcass

  2. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  3. Determination of the Mycotoxin Content in Distiller's Dried Grain with Solubles Using a Multianalyte UHPLC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Campbell, Katrina; Magowan, Elizabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-11-04

    There are more than 300 potential mycotoxins that can contaminate food and feed and cause adverse effects in humans and animals. The data on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in novel animal feed materials, such as distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), are limited. Thus, a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of 77 mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites was used to analyze 169 DDGS samples produced from wheat, maize, and barley and 61 grain samples. All DDGS samples analyzed were contaminated with 13-34 different mycotoxins. Fumonisins were present in all 52 maize DDGS samples (81.0-6890 μg/kg for fumonisin B1), and deoxynivalenol was present in all 99 wheat DDGS samples (39.3-1120 μg/kg). A number of co-occurring mycotoxins were also identified. Due to the high co-occurrence of mycotoxins, routine screening of the animal feed ingredients is highly recommended to allow the highlighted risks to be effectively managed.

  4. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2014-03-05

    The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L(-1)·day(-1) during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows' daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH₄ production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH₄ production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  5. Effect of different inclusion level of condensed distillers solubles ratios and oil content on amino Acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Xu, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S; Ma, X K; Piao, X S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS.

  6. Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-08-24

    Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H2SO4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTSadd. The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTSadd, was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTSadd when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTSadd, showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.

  7. Efficacy of feed enzymes in pig and poultry diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles: a review.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Wlosek, A; Jozefiak, D

    2016-02-01

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of the ethanol industry, are often used as feed material in livestock and poultry nutrition. Results of many experiments have indicated, however, that a high dietary level of DDGS can negatively affect the digestibility of nutrients and the performance of monogastric animals due to their high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Nevertheless, using high levels of DDGS as a protein source in livestock diets can be still economically justifiable in view of the rising prices of soya bean meal and other protein sources. The aim of some recent experiments with poultry and pigs was to improve the nutritional efficacy of high-NSP diets through the addition of feed enzymes. As presented and discussed in this review article, the efficacy of feed enzymes added to poultry and pig diets containing DDGS is not consistent and depends on many factors. However, NSP-hydrolysing enzymes generally seemed to be more efficient than phytases in terms of the digestibility of nutrients and the growth performance of poultry and pigs fed high-DDGS diets. For this reason, supplementation with NSP-hydrolysing enzymes could be an efficient way to enable the use of increased levels of DDGS in poultry and pig diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Comparison of wheat- versus corn-based dried distillers' grains with solubles on meat quality of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Aldai, N; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Robertson, W M; McAllister, T A; Walter, L J; McKinnon, J J

    2010-03-01

    A considerable amount of information has been generated on the feeding value and impact of corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) on meat quality, whereas little is known about the effects of wheat DDGS on meat quality, and no direct comparison of these two sources of DDGS has been completed. The current study was conducted to examine the objective and subjective carcass and meat quality traits of cattle fed diets containing corn or wheat (20% or 40%) DDGS (DM basis) as compared to a standard barley-based finishing diet (control). In general, meat obtained from animals fed the barley-based control diet was slightly darker in colour (lower chroma and hue at 24 h, P<0.01) and less tender (highest proportion of tough shears at 2 d and lowest proportion of tender shears at 20 d). Meat from corn DDGS was rated as more tender and palatable than control samples (P<0.05), and 20% corn samples were rated better for beef flavour intensity (P<0.01) and desirability (P<0.05) than 40% corn DDGS samples. In contrast, meat from steers fed wheat DDGS showed intermediate characteristics between steers fed control and corn DDGS diets. Hence, feeding wheat DDGS had no negative effects, and feeding corn DDGS had some positive effects on meat quality characteristics of beef. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, D P; Hirl, P J; Belia, E

    2008-06-01

    Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles, a co-product of ethanol production, was studied in 2-L anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) under 10 different operating conditions. Methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were quantified for a wide range of operating parameters. Chemical oxygen demand removals of 64 to 95% were achieved at organic loading rates ranging from 1.5 to 22.2 g COD/L x d, solids retention times from 8 to 40 days, and food-to-microorganism ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 g COD/g volatile suspended solids (VSS) x d. Biogas methane content varied from 61 to 74%, with 0.29 L CH4 produced/g COD removed. Roughly 56% of the influent COD and 84% of the COD removed in the ASBRs was converted to methane. Microbial yield (Y) and decay (b) constants were determined to be Y = 0.126 g VSS/g COD removed and b = 0.032 day(-1), respectively. Methane produced from co-products can reduce the costs and fossil-fuel consumption of ethanol manufacture.

  10. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  11. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

    PubMed

    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants.

  12. In vitro study of the effect of corn dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pecka-Kiełb, E; Zawadzki, W; Zachwieja, A; Michel, O; Mazur, M; Miśta, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the in vitro study was to determine the effect of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (corn DDGS), used as a replacement for the concentrate ingredients of sheep diet, on rumen fermentation. The material for the study was the ruminal fluid of Polish Merino sheep which was incubated during 4-, 8- or 24-hour periods. Five groups of samples were prepared for in vitro fermentation: C - control, incubated with the substrate consisting of the concentrate ingredients; D1, D2 and D3, where DDGS was used as a substrate added in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% of dry matter of the concentrate; and D4, where 100% DDGS was used as a substrate. After fermentation, the gas and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analyses were performed using gas chromatography. The ammonia concentration and pH were also determined, and the SCFA utilization index (NGR), the fermentation efficiency (FE) and the index of cell yield of ruminal microorganisms (CY) were calculated. This research showed no effect of DDGS on the methane emission. The positive correlations between the amount of methane and ammonia concentrations in the 8- and 24-hour fermentation periods were found. DDGS addition increased propionate proportion, but decreased production of acetate (p<0.01). Additionally, D1, D2, D3 and D4 substrates lowered isobutyrate (p<0.05) and isovalerate (p<0.01) production. Based on the results obtained, it can be stated that partial substitution of the concentrate ingredients with DDGS did not have deleterious effect on sheep rumen fermentation processes.

  13. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, distillers dried grains with solubles composition, and lipid profiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in utilization of feedstocks other than corn for fuel ethanol production has been increasing due to political as well as environmental reasons. Grain sorghum is an identified alternative that has a number of potential benefits relative to corn in both composition and agronomic traits. Compo...

  14. Influence of dry-rolled corn processing and increasing dried corn distillers grains plus solubles inclusion for finishing cattle on growth performance and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K C; Islas, A; Carlson, Z E; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-four yearling steers (345 ± 4.2 kg BW) were used to study the effects of degree of dry-rolled corn processing and corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) inclusion on feeding and ruminating behavior, G:F, and carcass characteristics. Steers were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental treatments (n = 16 per treatment): 1) coarse-rolled (2.68 mm) corn and 20% DDGS, 2) coarse-rolled corn and 40% DDGS, 3) fine-rolled (1.46 mm) corn and 20% DDGS, and 4) fine-rolled corn and 40% DDGS. Final BW and ADG were not affected by corn processing or DDGS. Dry matter intake (kg/d and % of BW) decreased (P < 0.001) and G:F increased (P < 0.001) with increasing inclusion of DDGS. Meal number increased (P ≤ 0.05) and meal size decreased (P < 0.001) with finer dry-roll corn processing and with increasing inclusion of DDGS. Drinking time decreased (P = 0.03) with finer dry-rolled corn processing and tended to increase (P = 0.06) with increased inclusion of DDGS. Rumination time while standing decreased (P = 0.03) with increased inclusion of DDGS. Increasing inclusion of DDGS from 20 to 40% decreased intake, increased G:F, and altered feeding behavior of finishing steers consuming a 90% concentrate diet without affecting carcass quality. Increasing the degree of dry-roll corn processing did not impact growth performance and did not interact with increasing inclusion of DDGS in finishing diets.

  15. Effects of sex and inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles on slaughter yield and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Adamski, M P; Kowalczyk, A M; Lukaszewicz, E T; Korzeniowska, M

    2011-12-01

    1. The effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) dietary inclusion concentration, and sex, on body weight, slaughter efficiency and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica, strain P55) were studied. 2. Sexed ducklings (n = 160) were divided randomly into 4 groups (each with 4 replicates). From d 1 to d 21, all the birds received the same commercial feed, then from 22 to 49 d of age the ducks were fed in the following groups: control (commercial feed) and three experimental groups (15%, 25% and 30% inclusion of DDGS). All ducks were weighed individually at d 1, 21 and 49. On the day of slaughter, 5 males and 5 females, of body weight close to the average weight for group and sex, were selected from each group, slaughtered and the following parameters were evaluated: slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of particular elements of carcase, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. 3. The results obtained showed that DDGS included from 22 to 49 d of rearing, at concentrations up to 30%, in a commercial Pekin duck diet did not affect the live body weight, slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of breast and leg muscle, skin with subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat. There were no differences in physical characteristics (pH(15), pH(24,) meat colour values L*, a*and b*, and hygroscopicity) of breast muscle, as well as in cholesterol content. DDGS addition at 30% significantly increased fat content in male, and crude protein in female, breast meat. Sex effect was observed only in a few traits and was diet dependent. Final body weight of females fed 30% DDGS was significantly lower than males; in the control and 15% DDGS group females had higher percentage of skin with subcutaneous fat. 4. The results obtained, and relative costs of feeds produced, allows the recommendation of DDGS addition at up to 30% to commercial Pekin duck diets from 22 d of age.

  16. Assessment of caecal parameters in layer hens fed on diets containing wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Richards, P J; Wu, S; Mellits, K H; Wiseman, J

    2015-01-01

    There is much interest in quantifying the nutritional value of UK wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (W-DDGS) for livestock species. A study was designed to evaluate caecal parameters (pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial diversity) in layer hens fed on balanced diets containing graded concentrations of W-DDGS. A total of 32 layer hens (Bovans Brown strain at 27 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments containing W-DDGS at 0, 60, 120 or 180 g/kg. Each treatment was fed to 8 replicate individually housed layer hens over a 5-d acclimatisation period, followed by a 4-week trial. Individual feed intakes were monitored and all eggs were collected daily for weeks 2, 3 and 4 of the trial, weighed and an assessment of eggshell "dirtiness" made. All hens were culled on d 29 and caecal pH and SCFAs measured. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16 S rDNA gene was used to assess total bacterial diversity of luminal caecal content from hens fed the 0 and 180 g W-DDGS/kg diets. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms were generated from DGGE banding patterns. Increasing W-DDGS dietary concentrations resulted in a more acidic caecal environment. Caecal SCFAs were unaffected by diet aside from a quadratic effect for molar proportions of isobutyric acid. Diversity profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from luminal caecal contents were unaffected by W-DDGS inclusion. The results of the current study suggest that W-DDGS can be successfully formulated into nutritionally balanced layer diets (supplemented with xylanase and phytase) at up to 180 g/kg with no detrimental effects to the caecal environment.

  17. Effects of sodium hydroxide treatment of dried distillers' grains on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Freitas, T B; Relling, A E; Pedreira, M S; Santana Junior, H A; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the optimum inclusion of NaOH necessary to buffer the acidity of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and its effects on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis in feedlot steers. Rumen cannulated Angus-crossed steers were blocked by BW (small: 555 ± 42 kg initial BW, = 4; large: 703 ± 85 kg initial BW, = 4) over four 21-d periods in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Steers were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) 50% untreated DDGS, 2) 50% DDGS treated with 0.5% (DM basis) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 3) 50% DDGS treated with 1.0% (DM basis) NaOH, and 4) 50% DDGS treated with 1.5% (DM basis) NaOH. The remainder of the diets, on a DM basis, was composed of 20% corn silage, 20% dry-rolled corn, and 10% supplement. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments ( = 0.56) or by a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.15). In situ NDF and ruminal DM disappearance did not differ ( ≥ 0.49 and ≥ 0.47, respectively) among treatments. Similar to in situ results, apparent total tract DM and NDF digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.33 and ≥ 0.21, respectively) by increasing NaOH inclusion in the diets. Urinary pH increased (linear, < 0.01) with increasing NaOH concentration in the diet. Blood pH was not affected ( ≥ 0.20), and blood total CO and partial pressure of CO were similar ( ≥ 0.56 and ≥ 0.17, respectively) as NaOH increased in the diet. Increasing NaOH in the diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.21) ruminal concentrations of total VFA. There were no linear ( = 0.20) or quadratic ( = 0.20) effects of treatment on ruminal acetate concentrations, nor was there a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.22) for acetate. Furthermore, there were no effects ( ≥ 0.90) of NaOH inclusion on ruminal propionate concentration. However, there was a quadratic response ( = 0.01) of ruminal butyrate concentrations as NaOH inclusion increased in the diet; ruminal butyrate concentrations were greatest with the 0.5 and 1

  18. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Meloche, K J; Kerr, B J; Billor, N; Shurson, G C; Dozier, W A

    2014-06-01

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior research data were used to generate a best-fit equation for AMEn based on proximate analysis. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 4.98 to 14.29% (DM basis) were collected from various dry-grind ethanol plants and were subsequently fed to broiler chicks to determine AMEn content. A corn-soybean meal control diet was formulated to contain 15% dextrose and test diets were created by mixing the control diet with 15% DDGS at the expense of dextrose. In each trial, male Ross × Ross 708 chicks were housed in grower battery cages and received a common starter diet until the experimental period. Each cage was randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments (trial 1 and trial 2: control + 6 test diets, 13 replicates per diet; trial 3: control + 3 test diets, 12 replicates per diet). Experimental diets were fed over a 6-d acclimation period, followed by a 48-h total excreta collection period. On a DM basis, AMEn of the 15 DDGS samples ranged from 1,975 to 3,634 kcal/kg. Analyses were conducted to determine gross energy, CP, EE, DM, starch, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber (CF), acid detergent fiber, and ash content of the DDGS samples. All results were reported on a DM basis. Application of the 4 equations to the validation data resulted in root mean square error (RMSE) values of 335, 381, 488, and 502 kcal/kg, respectively. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique was applied to proximate analysis data for 30 corn coproducts adapted from prior research and resulted in the following best-fit equation: [AMEn (kcal/kg) = 3,673 - (121.35 × CF) + (51.29 × EE) - (121.08 × ash); P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.70; R(2) adj = 0.67; RMSE = 270 kcal/kg]. The RMSE values

  19. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  20. Effects of increasing concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on the egg production and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Lee, E J; Samaraweera, H; Persia, M; Ragheb, H S; Ahn, Dong U

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on egg production and the internal quality of eggs from laying hens. Four diets were formulated to contain 0, 17, 35, or 50% corn DDGS. A total of two hundred forty 54-wk-old Single-Comb White Leghorn laying hens were randomly allotted to 2 birds per cage with 3 consecutive cages representing an experimental unit (EU). Each EU was assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments according to a completely randomized design. Hens were fed for a 24-wk experimental period after transition feeding to gradually increase corn DDGS inclusion over a 4-wk period. Two sets of experimental diets were formulated, and each diet was fed for 12 wk. Egg production, feed consumption, egg component, yolk color, Haugh unit during storage times, and shell breaking strength were measured. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed efficiency were adversely affected by the highest level of DDGS in the diet (50%) during the first 12-wk period. Once diets were reformulated to include an increased concentration of both lysine and methionine, differences among the dietary treatments were reduced, as the performance of the 50% DDGS diets was greatly improved. Over the last 6 wk of study, no differences in egg production, egg weight, and feed intake among DDGS treatments were found. The DDGS diets positively affected the internal quality of eggs during storage. Improved yolk color and Haugh unit were observed as the dietary DDGS levels increased, but the increase for Haugh unit was significant only when the DDGS level was 50%. Shell weight percentage was increased in the 50% DDGS diet, but no differences in yolk and albumen percentage were observed. It was concluded that up to 50% of DDGS could be included in the layer's diet without affecting egg weight, feed intake, egg mass, feed efficiency, and egg production as long as digestible amino acids were

  1. Effects of increasing levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles to steers offered moderate-quality forage.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation of forage-fed livestock has been studied for decades; however, as by-products become available research is needed to determine optimal feeding rates for increased efficiency. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef steers (446 +/- 42 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of increasing level of supplemental corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 25.4% CP, 9.8% fat, DM basis) on DMI, rate and site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of ad libitum quantities of moderate-quality smooth brome hay (10.6% CP; DM basis), free access to water and trace mineral salt block, and 1 of 5 levels of DDGS (0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% of BW daily of DDGS; DM basis). Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated rumen degradable protein requirements (assumed microbial yield = 10.5%). All supplements were fed at 0600 h before forage was fed. Steers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Hay OM intake decreased (linear; P < 0.001), whereas total OM intake increased (linear; P < 0.001) with increasing DDGS level. Total CP intake, duodenal OM and CP flows, and total tract OM and NDF digestibilities increased (linear; P

  2. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  3. Growth Responses and Resistance to Streptococccus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  4. Performance characteristics of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus fed diets containing graded levels of distillers dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two feeding trials were performed to investigate levels of dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) as a supplemental protein source for juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In trial 1, three isocaloric (2.32 ± 0.09 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (28.03 ± 0.03% protein) experimental diets w...

  5. Evaluation of sulfur content of dried distillers grains with solubles in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn or dry-rolled corn.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Schneider, C J; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Hollis, L C; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2011-08-01

    Crossbred yearling steers (n=80; 406 ± 2.7 kg of BW) were used to evaluate the effects of S concentration in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal concentrations of CH(4) and H(2)S in finishing steers fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC) and containing 30% DDGS (DM basis) with moderate S (0.42% S, MS) or high S (0.65% S, HS). Treatments consisted of SFC diets containing MS (SFC-MS), SFC diets containing HS (SFC-HS), DRC diets containing MS (DRC-MS), or DRC diets containing HS (DRC-HS). High S was achieved by adding H(2)SO(4) to DDGS. Ruminal gas samples were analyzed for concentrations of H(2)S and CH(4). Steers were fed once daily in quantities that resulted in traces of residual feed in the bunk the following day for 140 d. No interactions (P ≥ 0.15) between dietary S concentration and grain processing were observed with respect to growth performance or carcass characteristics. Steers fed HS diets had 8.9% less DMI (P < 0.001) and 12.9% less ADG (P=0.006) than steers fed diets with MS, but S concentration had no effect on G:F (P=0.25). Cattle fed HS yielded 4.3% lighter HCW (P = 0.006) and had 16.2% less KPH (P=0.009) than steers fed MS. Steers fed HS had decreased (P=0.04) yield grades compared with steers fed MS. No differences were observed among treatments with respect to dressing percentage, liver abscesses, 12th-rib fat thickness, LM area, or USDA quality grades (P ≥ 0.18). Steers fed SFC had less DMI (P < 0.001) than steers fed DRC. Grain processing had no effect (P > 0.05) on G:F or carcass characteristics. Cattle fed HS had greater (P < 0.001) ruminal concentrations of H(2)S than cattle fed MS. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was inversely related (P ≤ 0.01) to ADG (r=-0.58) and DMI (r=-0.67) in cattle fed SFC, and to DMI (r=-0.40) in cattle fed DRC. Feeding DDGS that are high in dietary S may decrease the DMI of beef steers and compromise the growth

  6. Relationship of protein molecular structure to metabolisable proteins in different types of dried distillers grains with solubles: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang; Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G

    2010-11-01

    To date, there has been no study of protein molecular structures affected by bioethanol processing in relation to protein nutritive values of the new co-products of bioethanol production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between protein molecular structures (in terms of protein α-helix and β-sheet spectral intensity and their ratio and amide I to amide II spectral intensity and their ratio) and protein rumen degradation kinetics (rate and extent), estimated protein intestinal digestibility and total truly absorbed protein in small intestine (metabolisable protein) in different types of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), such as wheat DDGS, maize DDGS and blend DDGS (wheat:maize = 70:30). The protein molecular structures of the different types of DDGS affected by processing were identified using diffuse reflectance IR Fourier transform spectroscopy. The results showed that the protein structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio in the DDGS had a strongly negative correlation with estimated intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded protein (%dRUP, R - 0.95, P = 0.04), tended to have a significant correlation with the protein PC subfraction (which was undegradable and contained proteins associated with lignin and tannins and heat-damaged proteins) (R 0.91, P = 0.09) and had no correlation (P>0.10) with rumen degradation kinetics (rate and extent), total intestinally absorbed protein supply and degraded protein balance. However, the protein amide I to amide II ratio in the DDGS had a strongly positive correlation with soluble crude protein (CP) (R 0.99, P < 0.01), protein PA subfraction (which was instantaneously solubilised at time zero) (R 0.99, P < 0.01), protein PB2 subfraction (which was intermediately degradable) (R - 0.95, P = 0.04) and total digestible CP (R 0.95, P = 0.04). The amide I to amide II ratio also had strongly negative correlations with ruminally undegraded protein (%RUP: R - 0.96, P = 0.03) and the

  7. Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility of high-protein distillers dried grains and corn germ fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Stein, H H

    2007-11-01

    Three experiments were conducted to measure energy, P, and AA digestibility in 2 novel co-products from the ethanol industry [i.e., high-protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and corn germ]. These products are produced by dehulling and degerming corn before it enters the fermentation process. Experiment 1 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure DE and ME in HP DDG, corn germ, and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW, 48.9 +/- 1.99 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on corn, corn and HP DDG, or corn and corn germ. Pigs were allotted to a replicated, 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DE and ME in corn (4,056 and 3,972 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) did not differ from the DE and ME in corn germ (3,979 and 3,866 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). However, HP DDG contained more (P < 0.05) energy (4,763 kcal of DE/kg of DM and 4,476 kcal of ME/kg of DM) than corn or corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and true total tract digestibility of P in HP DDG and corn germ. Thirty growing pigs (initial BW, 33.2 +/- 7.18 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed a diet based on HP DDG or corn germ. A P-free diet was used to measure endogenous P losses. Pigs were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design, with 10 replications per treatment. The ATTD and the retention of P were calculated for the diets containing HP DDG and corn germ, and the endogenous loss of P was estimated from pigs fed the P-free diet. The ATTD was lower (P < 0.05) in corn germ (28.6%) than in the HP DDG (59.6%). The retention of P was also lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ (26.7%) than in pigs fed HP DDG (58.9%). The endogenous loss of P was estimated to be 211 +/- 39 mg per kg of DMI. The true total tract digestibility of P for HP DDG and corn germ was calculated to be 69.3 and 33.7%, respectively. In Exp. 3, apparent ileal digestibility and standardized ileal digestibility values of CP and AA in HP DDG

  8. Feeding distillers dried grains with solubles and organic trace mineral sources to swine and the resulting effect on gaseous emissions.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Powers, W; Hill, G M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the dietary effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with either inorganic or organic trace mineral sources on air emissions. Three diets were compared: a corn- and soybean meal-based control diet (Con), a diet containing 20% DDGS with inorganic trace mineral sources (20In), and a diet containing 20% DDGS with organic trace mineral sources (20Org). Groups of 6 pigs were allocated randomly to 1 of 12 environmentally controlled rooms for a 98-d experiment. A total of 72 pigs were blocked into 3 light and 3 heavy BW groups to minimize BW variation. Average initial BW for the light and heavy blocks were 22.6 kg and 27.0 kg, respectively. Concentrations and airflow of NH₃, H₂S, N₂O, CH(4), CO₂, and nonmethane total hydrocarbons (NMTHC) were measured in the exhaust air from each room. Body weight gain (94 kg per pig; P = 0.36) and G:F (0.39; P = 0.79) were not different as a result of diet, although a reduced feed intake was observed in pigs offered 20Org (P < 0.05). Total daily H₂S emission mass was greater (P = 0.03) in rooms where the 20In diet was offered (462.26 mg) compared with rooms where the Con (354.62 mg) and 20Org (323.10 mg) diets were offered. No dietary effect (P = 0.47) was observed when H₂S emissions were adjusted for S consumption (14.38 mg of H₂S emitted daily per gram of S consumed). Compared with NH₃ emitted on the Con diet, the daily mass of NH₃ emitted decreased by 7.6% when pigs were fed 20In and increased by 11.0% in rooms where the 20Org was fed (P < 0.05). On a N consumption basis, feeding swine 20In significantly reduced NH₃ emissions compared with 20Org and Con, whereas NH₃ emissions from pigs fed 20Org were significantly greater than emissions from pigs fed the Con diet (P < 0.01). The NH₃ emission mass from rooms offered the Con, 20In, and 20Org diets was 120.1, 109.8, and 142.8 mg/g of N consumed/d, respectively (P < 0.01). Feeding DDGS with either inorganic

  9. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P < 0.01). However, when diets contained 30% DDGS, the AID of all SFA was reduced as levels of tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P < 0.01) and tallow (P < 0.01) were included in the diet compared to when either ingredient was excluded. For ileal digestible SFA, an interaction (P < 0.01) between DDGS and tallow was

  10. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P < 0.01) and intake of starch was less (P < 0.01) for the 25DDGS compared with the CON diet. The digestibilities of CP, NDF, ADF, and EE in the total digestive tract were greater (P < 0.05) for 25DDGS vs. CON. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.05) intakes of DM and other nutrients without altering (P=0.40) CP intake. In contrast, digestibilities of DM and other nutrients in the total digestive tract linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing wheat DDGS except for that of EE. Additionally, with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS, mean ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH <5.5 and <5.2, and greater (P=0.01) curve area under pH <5.8 and <5.5 without altering (P > 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively

  11. Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and

  12. Ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids in soybean meal, canola meal, corn, and wheat dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-08-01

    Different protein sources, such as canola meal (CM) or dried distillers grains (DDG), are currently used in dairy rations to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, little data exists comparing their rumen degradation in a single study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and AA of SBM, CM, high-protein corn DDG (HPDDG), and wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS). In situ studies were conducted with 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows fed a diet containing 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate. Each protein source was incubated in the rumen of each cow in nylon bags for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h to determine DM and CP rumen degradation kinetics, whereas additional bags were also incubated for 16 h to evaluate AA ruminal disappearance. Rumen DM and CP degradability was calculated from rumen-undegraded residues corrected or not for small particle loss. Data were fitted to an exponential model to estimate degradation parameters and effective degradability (ED) was calculated with a passage rate of 0.074 h(-1). The WDDGS and SBM had higher uncorrected ED (DM=75.0 and 72.6%; CP=84.8 and 66.0%, respectively) than CM and HPDDG (DM=57.2 and 55.5%; CP=59.3 and 48.2%, respectively), due to higher soluble fraction in WDDGS and a combination of higher potentially degradable fraction and rate of degradation in SBM. Correction for small particle loss from bags, higher for WDDGS than for the other protein sources, decreased estimated ED but did not alter feed ranking. The ruminal disappearance of AA after 16 h of incubation reflected the overall pattern of CP degradation between protein supplements, but the ruminal disappearance of individual AA differed between protein supplements. Overall, these results indicate that, in the current study, (1) SBM and WDDGS were more degradable in the rumen than CM and HPDDG, and (2) that small particle loss correction is relevant but does not alter this

  13. Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599±36 kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square with a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P<0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P<0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P<0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P<0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P<0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P<0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P<0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P<0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P<0.04) acetate and increased (P<0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH<5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These

  14. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  15. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat.

  16. Origin identification of dried distillers grains with solubles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy after in situ oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ph; Fernández Pierna, J A; Abbas, O; Dardenne, P; Baeten, V

    2015-12-15

    The ban on using processed animal proteins in feedstuffs led the feed sector to look for other sources of protein. Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could be considered as an important source in this regard. They are imported into Europe mainly for livestock feed. Identifying their origin is essential when labelling is missing and for feed safety, particularly in a crisis situation resulting from contamination. This study investigated applying attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-MIR) to the oil fraction extracted from samples in situ in order to identify the origin of DDGS. The use of spectroscopic and chemometric tools enabled the botanical and geographical origins of DDGS, as well as the industrial process used to produce them, to be identified. The models developed during the study provided a classification higher than 95% using an external validation set.

  17. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits.

  18. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2013-09-18

    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

  19. Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and ractopamine (Paylean) on quality and shelf-life of fresh pork and bacon.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Puls, C L; Ellis, M; Killefer, J; Carr, T R; Scramlin, S M; England, M B; Gaines, A M; Wolter, B F; Carr, S N; McKeith, F K

    2010-08-01

    Pigs (n = 240) were allotted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS): 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60%, and 2 ractopamine (RAC) levels: 0 and 5 mg/kg. Four pigs per pen (2 barrows, 2 gilts) closest to pen mean BW were used for meat quality evaluation. Loins (n = 119) were evaluated for objective color; moisture and fat; subjective color, marbling, and firmness; and drip loss. Bellies (n = 119) were evaluated for weight, length, width, thickness, objective fat color, and firmness. Cured bellies were evaluated for pump yield, cook loss, and sliced bacon cook loss. Loin thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated on enhanced (salt and phosphate) boneless chops held in modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) packages for 0, 7, 14, and 21 d. Bacon TBARS were evaluated on sliced bacon held in vacuum packages for 0, 28, 56, and 84 d. Fat samples were collected from each jowl and belly and evaluated for fatty acid profile and iodine value (IV). Increasing DDGS decreased subjective marbling (P = 0.0134) and firmness (P = 0.0235), and increased drip loss (P = 0.0046). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin pH, subjective or objective color, percent moisture, or percent fat (P > 0.05). The RAC decreased subjective color (P = 0.0239), marbling (P = 0.0445), and a* (P = 0.0355). Increasing DDGS decreased belly weight (P = 0.0155), length (P = 0.0008), thickness (P = 0.0019), and firmness (P = 0.0054); decreased belly fat L* (P = 0.0818); and increased belly cook loss (P = 0.0890). Ractopamine did not affect any belly measurements, and there were no DDGS x RAC interactions (P > 0.05). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin TBARS at 0, 7, or 14 d. At 21 d, loin TBARS from 30, 45, and 60% DDGS groups were increased compared with 0 and 15% groups (P < 0.05). Ractopamine did not affect (P > 0.05) loin TBARS, and there were no (P > 0.05) DDGS x RAC interactions. Distillers dried

  20. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  1. Effects of calcium oxide treatment of dry and modified wet corn distillers grains plus solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent digestibility of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A R; Duckworth, M J; Shike, D W; Schoonmaker, J P; Felix, T L

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding dried corn distillers grains (DDGS) or modified wet corn distillers grains (MDGS) with or without CaO treatment to feedlot steers on 1) growth performance and carcass characteristics and 2) diet digestibility, pattern of intake, and meal distribution. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 139; average initial BW = 336 ± 75 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): 1) 50% DDGS untreated, 2) 48.8% DDGS treated with 1.2% CaO, 3) 50% MDGS untreated, or 4) 48.8% MDGS treated with 1.2% CaO. The remainder of the diet was corn husklage, dry rolled corn, and vitamin and mineral supplement. In Exp. 2, fistulated steers (n = 8; average initial BW = 540 ± 250 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with the same dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.14) between distillers grains plus solubles (DGS) and CaO inclusion for DMI, ADG, final BW, or USDA yield and quality grades. However, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had decreased (P < 0.01) DMI, regardless of DGS type. Because CaO treatment decreased DMI without affecting (P = 0.66) ADG, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had increased (P < 0.01) G:F compared to steers not fed CaO. The variation in DMI found in this experiment could be explained by differences in meal size and distribution. Steers fed CaO-treated DGS ate a similar (P = 0.36) number of meals but ate smaller (P < 0.01) meals. No effects (P ≥ 0.55) of CaO treatment or its interaction with DGS type were found for apparent total tract DM or NDF digestibility. However, steers fed MDGS had increased (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility compared to steers fed DDGS. In conclusion, CaO treatment of DGS improved feed efficiency when DGS-based diets were fed but did not improve digestibility.

  2. The effects of dry-rolled corn particle size on performance, carcass traits, and starch digestibility in feedlot finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, E F; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D

    2016-03-01

    Crossbred yearling steers ( = 360; 395 ± 33.1 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate the effects of dry-rolled corn (DRC) particle size in diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and starch digestibility. Steers were used in a randomized complete block design and allocated to 36 pens (9 pens/treatment, with 10 animals/pen). Treatments were coarse DRC (4,882 μm), medium DRC (3,760 μm), fine DRC (2,359 μm), and steam-flaked corn (0.35 kg/L; SFC). Final BW and ADG were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). Dry matter intake was greater and G:F was lower ( < 0.05) for steers fed DRC vs. steers fed SFC. There was a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in DMI in the final 5 wk on feed with decreasing DRC particle size. Fecal starch decreased (linear, < 0.01) as DRC particle size decreased. In situ starch disappearance was lower for DRC vs. SFC ( < 0.05) and linearly increased ( < 0.05) with decreasing particle size at 8 and 24 h. Reducing DRC particle size did not influence growth performance but increased starch digestion and influenced DMI of cattle on finishing diets. No differences ( > 0.10) were observed among treatments for any of the carcass traits measured. Results indicate improved ruminal starch digestibility, reduced fecal starch concentration, and reduced DMI with decreasing DRC particle size in feedlot diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains on a DM basis.

  3. The effects of feeder design and dietary dried distillers' grains with solubles on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J R; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a conventional dry (five 30.5-cm spaces 152.4 cm wide; Staco Inc., Schaefferstown, PA) vs. a wet-dry (double sided; each side = 38.1-cm space; Crystal Spring; GroMaster Inc., Omaha, NE) finishing feeder (Exp. 1 and 2) and to evaluate the effects of feeder design and dietary level of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS; >10% oil; Exp. 3) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 1,186 pigs (32.1 kg BW) were used in a 69-d experiment. There were 26 to 28 pigs per pen and 22 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 4 phases. In Exp. 2, 1,236 pigs (28.7 kg BW) were used in a 104-d experiment, with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 23 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 5 phases. Carcass measurements were obtained from 11 pens of each feeder design after harvest. In Exp. 3, 1,080 pigs (35.1 kg BW) were used in a 99-d 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of feeder design (dry vs. wet-dry feeders) and DDGS (20 vs. 60%) with 10 pens of 27 pigs per treatment and all diets fed in 4 phases. Jowl fat samples were collected from 2 pigs per pen for fatty acid analysis and iodine value (IV) determination. In all experiments, pigs fed with the wet-dry feeder had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and final BW. In Exp. 2 and 3, HCW and backfat depth were increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed with a wet-dry feeder, but G:F and fat-free lean index (FFLI) were reduced. Jowl IV was also reduced (P < 0.05) with a wet-dry feeder in Exp. 3. Pigs fed 60% DDGS in Exp. 3 had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, final BW, HCW, and backfat but increased jowl IV and a tendency (P < 0.07) toward greater FFLI regardless of feeder type. In conclusion, pigs fed with this specific type of wet-dry feeder had improved ADG and ADFI, poorer G:F, and increased backfat depth compared to pigs fed with a conventional dry feeder. The poorer growth performance and increased jowl IV of

  4. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) with 25% and 45% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism, and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing beef steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed ...

  5. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  6. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on fatty acids, sensory attributes, and shelf life of loins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-four crossbred steers were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) based finishing rations with or without 35% wet distiller's grain plus solubles (WDGS) to determine effects of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on marbling attributes, sensory attributes, and shelf-life of...

  7. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Wilson, K B; Matulis, R J; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    One hundred ninety-two pigs were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.7 ± 2.3 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts/pen), and within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with main effects of diet form (meal vs. pelleted) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion (0% vs. 30%). Pigs were slaughtered after a 91-d feeding trial, and carcasses were fabricated after a 24-h chilling period. Belly dimensions and flop distance were measured, and an adipose tissue sample from each belly was collected for fatty acid analysis. Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility before being returned to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for further evaluation. Although bellies from pigs fed pelleted diets were 5.3% heavier ( < 0.01) than bellies from meal-fed pigs, belly weight as a percentage of chilled side weight ( = 0.55) and fresh belly dimensions ( ≥ 0.11) were not affected by diet form. Slab bacon weight and cooked yield were greater ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies from pellet-fed than meal-fed pigs. Despite pellet-fed pigs having a 3.1-unit greater iodine value (IV) than meal-fed pigs, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.16) of diet form on commercial bacon slicing yields. Bacon slabs from pellet-fed pigs produced more ( < 0.01) total bacon slices, but 3.1% fewer ( < 0.01) slices per kilogram than slabs from meal fed pigs. Inclusion of 30% DDGS reduced belly thickness ( < 0.001), flop distance ( < 0.001), and initial belly weight ( = 0.04) by 0.32 cm, 4.97 cm, and 2.85, respectively, and increased ( < 0.001) belly fat IV by 7.1 units compared with bellies from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Feeding 0% DDGS produced more ( < 0.01) total bacon slices than feeding 30% DDGS. Distillers dried grains with solubles inclusion had no effect on slice yields ( ≥ 0.14) or slices per kilogram ( = 0.08). Overall, bellies from pellet-fed pigs were heavier and had greater IV but did not differ in

  10. Effects of distillers grain on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) during the finishing phase on beef carcass quality and ribeye steak tenderness. Crossbred beef steers (n = 304) received finishing diets including 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a dry-matter basis. Steers...

  11. Bioavailability of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles relative to lutein in corn gluten meal based on lutein retention in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Seong; Kim, Jong Woong; Lee, Dong Gu; Lee, Sanghyun; Kil, Dong Yong

    2016-08-01

    Dietary lutein and its food sources have gained great attention due to its health-promoting effects on humans, especially for certain eye diseases. However, relative bioavailability (RBV) of lutein among lutein-rich feed ingredients that lead to lutein-enriched egg production has not been determined. Thus, the RBV of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared to lutein in corn gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated based on lutein retention in egg yolk. Increasing inclusion levels of DDGS or CGM in diets increased (linear, P < 0.01) Roche colour score and lutein concentrations of egg yolk without affecting laying performance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the bioavailability of lutein in DDGS was less (P < 0.05) than that of lutein in CGM, with the RBV of lutein in DDGS being 61.6% when the bioavailability of lutein in CGM was assumed to be 100% for lutein retention in egg yolk. The results of the present experiment indicate that the DDGS can be a potential ingredient for laying hens to improve egg yolk colour and lutein concentrations of egg yolk although lutein in DDGS is less bioavailable than lutein in CGM. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  13. High-shear, jet-cooking, and alkali treatment of corn distillers' dried grains to obtain products with enhanced protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Inglett, G E; Chen, D; Rose, D J; Berhow, M

    2010-08-01

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) have potential to be a nutritionally important source of protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants. DDG was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking, with or without alkaline pH adjustment and autoclaving. Soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed for protein, oil and ash. Extracts were analyzed for phenolic acids and antioxidant activity. Protein contents were significantly elevated in the insoluble fractions after treatment and the oil content was drastically increased in the insoluble fraction after high-shear and jet-cooking without pH adjustment. Alkaline pH adjustment resulted in a soluble fraction that was highest in phenolic acids, but not antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the 50% ethanol extract from DDG that had been subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking. These results suggest that high-shear and jet-cooking may be useful processing treatments to increase the value of DDG by producing fractions high in protein, oil and extractable phenolic acids with high antioxidant activity. The DDG fractions and extracts described herein may be useful as food and nutraceutical ingredients, and, if used for these applications, will increase the value of DDG and ease economic burdens on ethanol producers, allowing them to compete in the bio-fuel marketplace.

  14. Preparation of hydrolytic liquid from dried distiller's grains with solubles and fumaric acid fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Yue, Xuemin; Jin, Yuhan; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    Fumaric acid production from lignocellulosic materials is an alternative chemicals production system. This work investigated the suitable conditions for hydrolysis of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The hydrolytic liquid was subsequently used for the production of fumaric acid. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, the most suitable concentration of H2SO4 (2%), hydrolysis temperature (120 °C), hydrolysis time (100min) and solid/liquid ratio (1:10) were obtained. The yield of monosaccharides reached 258 mg/g DDGS and 15.88 g/L glucose, 7.53 g/L xylose and 2.35 g/L arabinose were obtained in unprocessed hydrolytic liquid. The furfural inhibitor in the hydrolytic liquid was also detected and the yield of it was reducing progressively in the pretreatment process. The ferment ability of the hydrolytic liquid from DDGS was tested through the process of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13. The unprocessed hydrolytic liquid was not appropriate for the fermentation process. The yield of fumaric acid from the concentrated processed hydrolytic liquid reached 18.93 g/L, which was close to the yield of fermenting 80 g/L glucose. This result indicated that the commonly used carbon resource glucose could to some extent be replaced by processed hydrolytic liquid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  16. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers' dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve States in the U.S. In 2011.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; McMaster, Nicole J; Musser, Robert; Schmale, David G

    2014-03-26

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g-1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g-1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g-1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g-1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g-1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g-1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g-1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g-1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products.

  17. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets.

  18. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  19. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion.

  20. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminal or fecal contents incubated with corn or wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Yang, H E; Yang, W Z; McKinnon, J J; Alexander, T W; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A

    2010-11-01

    Dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS) is a by-product of ethanol production, and its use as cattle feed has increased as a result of the expansion of the fuel ethanol industry. However, the inclusion of corn DDGS into feedlot diets may increase the shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This study investigated whether corn or wheat DDGS at 2 concentrations (20% or 40% vs. 100% barley grain) affected the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in incubations of ruminal digesta and feces. Neither the type nor the level of DDGS had any effect on fermentation or the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in ruminal digesta. However, there was a time by DDGS interaction (p < 0.05), where the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in feces did not differ after 4 or 12 h of incubation but were greater after 24 h in both 40% wheat and 40% corn DDGS as compared with other treatments. Additionally, after 24 h, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were greater in fecal incubations with corn DDGS than with wheat DDGS (p < 0.05). The differences in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were not attributable to changes in pH or in concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the media. These results suggest that the inclusion of high levels of corn or wheat DDGS in feedlot diets of cattle may encourage the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces.

  1. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed.

  2. Effect of forage level and replacing canola meal with dry distillers grains with solubles in precision-fed heifer diets: Digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Rico, D E; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (DM basis). Diets were fed to allow for 800 g/d of body weight gain and fed 1×/d. Rumen contents were sampled at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 20 h after feeding for rumen fermentation measures. Low-forage rations had greater DM and organic matter apparent digestibility. We detected a quadratic effect for DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber apparent digestibility, with the 14% DDGS inclusion level having the highest values. Nitrogen retention decreased with increasing levels of DDGS. Molar proportions of acetate tended to be greater for HF and decreased as DDGS increased; propionate increased as DDGS increased, resulting in the opposite effect on acetate to propionate ratio. Rumen protozoa count decreased as DDGS increased. Moderate levels (14% of DM) of DDGS appear to enhance nutrient utilization and fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifers fed different F:C diets.

  3. Properties of dried distillers grains with solubles, Paulownia wood, and pine wood reinforced high density polyethylene composites: Effect of maleation, chemical modification, and the mixing of fillers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need to identify usable lignocellulosic materials that can be blended with thermoplastic resins to produced commercial lignocellulosic plastic composites (LPC) at lower costs with improved performance. The core objectives of this study are to: 1) evaluate the use of dried distillers grai...

  4. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  5. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller's Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller's grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters.

  6. Effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in steers fed seventy percent concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S

    2009-09-01

    Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (500 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in growing diets (70% concentrate) on OM intake, site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of 30% grass hay, 6% concentrated separator by-product, 4% supplement, and 60% dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, urea, or DDGS (DM basis). Treatments consisted of increasing DDGS at 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60% of diet DM replacing a combination of dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, and urea. Diets were balanced for growing steers gaining 1.22 kg/d and included 0.25% (DM basis) chromic oxide as a digesta flow marker. Diets were offered to the steers for ad libitum intake each day (10% above the intake of the previous day). Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for collections. Intake of OM responded quadratically (P = 0.004) with greatest intakes at 15% DDGS and least at 60% DDGS. No differences (P >or= 0.14) were observed in CP intake or duodenal flow of OM, CP, and NDF. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestibilities decreased (linear; P or= 0.19). A cubic (P = 0.02) effect was observed for total ruminal fill (as is basis) with the greatest fill at 0% DDGS and the least fill at 45% inclusion. Replacing dry-rolled corn with up to 60% DDGS in 70% concentrate diets resulted in no adverse effects on

  7. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( < 0.01), NDF ( = 0.04), and ADF ( = 0.03). Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased CP digestibility without affecting the digestibility of other nutrients. There were no effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed

  8. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health.

  9. Effects of dietary inclusion and NaOH treatment of dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Murphy, T A; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) can decrease rumen pH because of their inherent acidity. Two replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with ruminally fistulated heifers to determine the effects of dietary inclusion and NaOH treatment of DDGS on rumen metabolism. In Exp. 1, dietary treatments were 0%, 20%, 40%, or 60% DDGS on a DM basis. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, 20% vitamin-mineral supplement, and corn (to replace DDGS) on a DM basis. Dry matter intake decreased (linear; P < 0.01) with increasing dietary inclusion of DDGS. Rumen pH was less than 5.3 from 1.5 to 12 h after feeding regardless of dietary DDGS inclusion, and mean rumen pH tended to decrease (linear; P = 0.08) with increasing DDGS. Rumen fluid S(2-) and rumen H(2)S gas concentrations increased (P < 0.01) with increasing DDGS inclusion at all time points postfeeding. At 3 h after feeding, ruminal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and total VFA increased linearly (P < 0.04) with increasing dietary inclusion of DDGS. Acetate to propionate ratio (A:P) ranged from 0.97 to 1.25 and was not affected (P = 0.88) by diet over time. In Exp. 2, dietary treatments were 1) 25% DDGS inclusion, untreated, 2) 60% DDGS inclusion, untreated, 3) 25% DDGS inclusion, treated with 2% NaOH, and 4) 60% DDGS inclusion, treated with 2% NaOH. Dry matter intake decreased (P < 0.01) when 60% DDGS was included in the diet regardless of NaOH treatment. Mean rumen pH was greater (P < 0.01) when NaOH-treated DDGS was fed regardless of dietary inclusion level. There were interactions (P ≤ 0.06) of NaOH treatment by DDGS inclusion by time for mean H(2)S and S(2-) concentrations. These interactions occurred because the magnitude of the response to NaOH treatment was greater for the 60% DDGS diets than for the 25% DDGS diets only from 1.5 to 9 h postfeeding. There were no interactions (P > 0.05) of NaOH treatment by DDGS inclusion on VFA concentrations. Acetate concentration decreased

  10. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  11. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  12. Fat and starch as additive risk factors for milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the additive effects of starch and fat as risk factors associated with milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles. In experiment 1, 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, averaging 114±14 d in milk and 662±52 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 4×4 Latin square to determine the effect of these risk factors on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. In each 21-d period, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a control diet (CON; ether extract 5.2%, starch 19%); CON with added oil (OL; ether extract 6.4%, starch 18%); CON with added starch (STR; ether extract 5.5%, starch 22%); and CON with added oil and starch (COMBO; ether extract 6.5%, starch 23%). After completion of experiment 1, milk production response was evaluated in a second experiment with a similar approach to diet formulation. Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, averaging 117±17 d in milk and 641±82 kg, were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Results from experiment 1 showed that ruminal pH was not affected by treatment averaging 5.87±0.08. Molar proportion of propionate in rumen fluid was greatest on the COMBO diet, followed by OL and STR, and lowest for CON. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat increased with the COMBO diet. Adding oil, starch, or a combination of both resulted in lower concentration and yield of fatty acids<16 carbons. Compared with the control, OL and STR resulted in 13% lower concentration, whereas the COMBO diet resulted in a 27% reduction; similarly yield was reduced by 24% with the OL and STR treatments and 54% with the COMBO diet. In experiment 2, milk yield, milk protein percentage, and milk protein yield were similar across treatments, averaging 26.6±1.01 kg/d, 3.2±0.05%, and 0.84±0.03 kg/d, respectively. Fat-corrected milk was greatest for CON, 26

  13. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ≤ 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ≥ 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P < 0.01) in bellies from BT15- than YG15-fed pigs. In contrast, proportions of linoleic acid, all PUFA, and iodine value were greater (P < 0

  14. The effect of vitamin E on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Licong; Shan, Anshan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on laying performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and several biochemical parameters of laying hens fed corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the laying period (40 to 63 wk of age). A total of 360 Hy-Line Variety Brown hens were randomly assigned to 6 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 10 hens each. Hens were allocated to diets 1 through 6 in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 levels of DDGS (0, 10, and 20%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 and 200 mg/kg). The results indicated that yolk color and eggshell thickness increased with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). However, increasing DDGS to 20% in laying hen diets significantly reduced feed conversion (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E significantly improved egg production and yolk percentage (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary levels of vitamin E caused a decrease in cholesterol and an increase in the α-tocopherol concentration of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with DDGS decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Supplementation with high levels of vitamin E decreased malondialdehyde and increased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase concentrations of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that DDGS was successfully fed to laying hens at levels up to 10% without adverse effects on laying performance. Additionally, vitamin E supplementation improved egg production and egg quality and provided health benefits to laying hens.

  15. The efficacy of using exogenous enzymes cocktail on production, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites of laying hens fed distiller's dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Chaudhry, M T; Mahrose, K M; Noreldin, A; Emam, M; Alagawany, M

    2017-10-08

    An experiment was performed using 120 Hisex Brown laying hens for evaluating the effects of different inclusion levels of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with or without enzyme cocktail on performance, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites in laying hens through 22-42 weeks of age. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was performed including four substitution levels of DDGS (0, 250, 500 and 750 g/kg respectively) and two enzyme cocktail levels (0 and 250 mg/kg diet). The used enzyme in this study "Gallazyme" composed of xylanase, Trichoderma longibrachiatum (600 units/g), protease, Bacillus subtilis (8,000 units/g) and amylase and Bacillus amyloliquofaciens (800 units/g). The control diet showed the best feed efficiency followed by the intermediate levels of DDGS. The lowest value of feed efficiency was found in the group fed the highest level of DDGS. Enzyme addition improved feed efficiency and decreased laying rate. Increasing DDGS levels was associated with albumin and shell thickness increases. Dietary DDGS depressed all egg components except the organic matter which maximised in enzyme-treated groups. Increasing DDGS level was accompanied by increase in yolk cholesterol and total lipids. No significant impacts were detected with enzymes supplementation on yolk lipids profile. Excepting serum calcium and phosphorous, all serum constituents increased with increasing level of DDGS. Using enzyme markedly depressed serum ammonia by 15.02% and increased calcium by 6.44% compared with enzyme-free diets. Interaction between DDGS and enzyme was significant on most of studied parameters. It could be concluded that using enzyme cocktail in DDGS-based diets may improve feed efficiency and egg quality, in addition to lowering blood ammonia and increasing blood calcium. It is recommended to substitute SBM by DDGS up to 500 g/kg diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  17. Effect of dietary adipic acid and corn dried distillers grains with solubles on laying hen performance and nitrogen loss from stored excreta with or without sodium bisulfate.

    PubMed

    Romero, C; Abdallh, M E; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2012-05-01

    Effects of dietary adipic acid (0 vs. 1%) and corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 20%) were evaluated on hen performance and egg characteristics from 26 to 34 wk of age. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were randomly assigned to blocks of 6 consecutive cages (36 cages per diet; 2 hens per cage). On wk 2 and 7 of the experiment, excreta were collected by cage block, mixed, and equally split into 2 containers. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) was spread (8.8 kg/100 m(2)) on the top surface of half of the containers. All containers were stored uncovered for 14 d at room temperature. Excreta pH, DM, and N content were measured on d 0, 7, and 14 of storage. Feed intake (112 g/d per hen), egg production (96.1%), and egg specific gravity (1.079 g/g) were not affected by diet. On excreta collection day, a synergy (P = 0.014) between dietary adipic acid and DDGS was detected, as the lowest excreta pH was obtained with the diet including both adipic acid and DDGS. On d 7 of storage, excreta pH was still reduced by dietary adipic acid (P = 0.046) and DDGS (P < 0.001), but a week later, only dietary DDGS decreased excreta pH (8.91 vs. 9.21; P < 0.001). Whereas dietary adipic acid had no influence on excreta N loss, excreta from hens fed 20% DDGS lost 19.7% more N (P = 0.039) during storage than hens not eating DDGS. Surface amendment of excreta with SBS increased excreta DM content, with the effect being even more marked on d 14 of storage (increase of 6.7 percentage units; P < 0.001), consistently decreased excreta pH during storage (P < 0.001) and reduced N loss by 26.1% for the 14 d of storage period.

  18. Effect of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles or sugar beet pulp on prevalence of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomson, L W; Pieper, R; Marshall, J K; Van Kessel, A G

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is of concern in the swine industry with relevance for animal health and consumer safety. Nutritional strategies might help to reduce ST infection and transmission. This study examined the potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) to alter intestinal microbial communities and ST shedding using a Trojan model. Weaned pigs (n = 105; 28.5 ± 3.5 d of age) were separated into 3 treatment groups (7 pigs/pen) and fed a wheat-based control diet or the control diet formulated with 15% wheat DDGS or 6% SBP inclusion. Following 12 d of diet adaptation, 2 pigs/pen were inoculated with 2 x 10(9) cfu ST, resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid. Fecal swabs were taken from infected pigs and pen-mates (contact pigs) for 9 d following challenge, enriched in nutrient broth for 24 h, and plated on selective media to determine prevalence of ST. The ranges of prevalence of ST in feces were from 90 to 100% in challenged pigs and 74 to 78% in contact pigs. No influence of treatment on rectal temperature and prevalence of ST in contact pigs were observed. Fifteen contact pigs were euthanized per treatment group on 9 and 10 d postchallenge to enumerate in intestinal contents (ileum, cecum, and proximal colon), Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridium clusters I, VI, and XVIa by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and to determine ST prevalence by selective culture. No significant effects of diet were observed with respect to ST prevalence in feces, ileum, cecum, colon, and lymph nodes of contact pigs. Compared with the control diet, DGGS and SBP diets showed a trend towards increased (P < 0.1) number of Lactobacillus species in the cecum and colon. Although both wheat DGGS and SBP tended to increase the Lactobacillus spp. neither of the feed ingredients affected ST prevalence.

  19. Evaluation of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies in grow-finish swine diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Patience, J F; Myers, A J; Ensley, S; Jacobs, B M; Madson, D

    2014-02-01

    A total of 1,040 growing pigs (initially, 22.9 ± 4.3 kg) were used in a 115-d study to evaluate the effects of 2 mycotoxin mitigation strategies, a preservative blend (PB) and a yeast product (YP), on the growth performance of swine fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON). The PB consists of preservatives, antioxidants, AA, and direct-fed microbials and is included in diets to help pigs cope with the toxic effects of ingested mycotoxins. The YP works as an adsorbent to bind and prevent the absorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs were allotted to pens by initial BW and sex; pens were then assigned to treatments in a randomized block design with initial BW and sex serving as the blocking factors. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments consisting of a positive control (PC) containing <1 mg kg(-1) DON, a negative control (NC) formulated to contain 4 mg kg(-1) DON, NC with PB, and NC with YP. From d 0 to 42 and 42 to 84, no effect of diets containing PB or YP were observed for any of the growth criteria evaluated. From d 84 to 115, pigs fed PC or diets containing PB had improved (P < 0.05) ADG compared to pigs fed NC or diets containing YP, whereas pigs fed YP had improved (P < 0.05) ADG compared to those fed NC. Pigs fed diets containing PB or YP had improved (P < 0.05) ADFI and G:F compared to pigs fed NC. Overall (d 0 to 115), pigs fed diets containing PB had improved (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared to pigs fed NC. These results indicate that PB may be a suitable mycotoxin mitigation strategy in growing swine fed diets naturally contaminated with DON.

  20. Effects of particle size distribution, compositional and color properties of ground corn on quality of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2009-10-01

    Oftentimes, corn processors believe that ground corn (raw material) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are interrelated in certain quality parameters. Yet, previous studies, although rather limited, have not established this relationship. In this study, six ground corn samples and their resulting DDGS were analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), using a series of six selected US standard sieves: Nos. 8, 12, 18, 35, 60, and 100, and a pan. The original sample and sieve sized fractions were measured for contents of moisture, protein, oil, ash and starch, and surface color. Total carbohydrate (CHO) and total non-starch CHO were also calculated. Results show that the geometric mean diameter (d(gw)) of particles varied with individual corn and DDGS samples, and that d(gw) of DDGS was larger than that of corn (0.696 vs. 0.479 mm, average values), indicating that during conversion of corn to DDGS, certain particles became enlarged. For d(gw) and mass frequency of individual particle size classes, the relationship between ground corn and DDGS varied, but PSD of the whole sample was well correlated between them (r=0.807). Upon conversion from corn to DDGS, on an average, protein was concentrated 3.59 times; oil, 3.40 times; ash, 3.32 times; and total non-starch CHO, 2.89 times. There were some positive correlations in contents of protein and non-starch CHO and in L value between corn and DDGS. Yet, variations in nutrients and color attributes were larger in DDGS than in corn. For either corn or DDGS, these variations were larger in sieved fractions than in the whole fraction. Raw material, processing method and addition of yeasts are among major factors considered for causing larger variations in these attributes among DDGS. The study partially supports the common belief by processors that quality attributes of corn affect those of DDGS.

  1. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Liu, Y.; Yin, R. Q.; Yang, X. J.; Yao, J. H.; Sun, F. F.; Li, G. J.; Liu, Y. R.; Sun, Y. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g). The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = −2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p<0.01). Removing gross energy from the model obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = 57.88×ether extracts+87.62×a* (BIC = 254.3, RMSE = 223.5; p<0.01). No correlation was found between color scores and lysine true digestibility (p>0.05). These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation. PMID:25049858

  2. The net energy values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles and wheat bran for laying hens using indirect calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Yuan, J M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  3. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  4. The Net Energy Values of Corn, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Wheat Bran for Laying Hens Using Indirect Calorimetry Method

    PubMed Central

    Ning, D.; Yuan, J. M.; Wang, Y. W.; Peng, Y. Z.; Guo, Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis. PMID:25049945

  5. Evaluation of feeding dried distiller's grains with solubles and dry-rolled corn on the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Drouillard, James S; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G

    2009-03-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are foodborne pathogens that reside in the gut of cattle and are shed in the feces. Previous work indicated a positive association between feeding cattle distiller's grains (DG) and an increase in E. coli O157:H7 prevalence. Feeding processed grains also has been shown to affect fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding DG and dry-rolled corn (DRC), alone or in combination, on fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in finishing cattle. Cattle were allotted to pens (n = 28), and fed dietary treatments (n = 150 days) structured in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement; the factors were 0% or 25% dried corn DG with solubles (DDGS) and 0% or 25% DRC in steam-flaked corn-based high-grain diets. Fecal samples were collected from each pen floor before initiating dietary treatments and at least once every 2 weeks after final diets began. Overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in fecal samples was 5.1%. There were no significant effects of DDGS, DRC, or sampling time on E. coli O157:H7 prevalence (p > 0.20). Overall prevalence of Salmonella in pen floor fecal samples was 23.7%, and sampling week affected prevalence (p < 0.01), ranging from < 1% (week 1) to 77.5% (week 17). Salmonella prevalence was not affected by cattle diet, and no work had previously reported an association between either DG or DRC and Salmonella prevalence. Lack of an association between E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and feeding DG or DRC is contrary to previous observations. Further research is needed to understand inconsistencies between studies of E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and potential associations with DG and grain-processing methods.

  6. Supplementation of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage: I. Altered intake behavior, body condition, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, V C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation to cows fed corn stover and silage during late gestation, 27 multiparous beef cows (674 ± 17 kg; BCS, 5.6 ± 0.1) were divided randomly into 2 pens equipped with electronic feeders. For 10 wk, both groups were fed the basal diet for ad libitum intake while 1 group was supplemented (SUP; = 12) with DDGS at 0.3% of BW (DM basis). Following parturition, all cows received the same diet for an additional 8 wk. During gestation, SUP cows gained BW ( < 0.01), and there was no change in BCS ( 0.79). Nonsupplemented (CON) cows tended to lose BW ( 0.06) and lost BCS ( < 0.01) during gestation. Supplemented cows consumed more forage ( 0.01) and total feed than CON cows. An interaction of treatment and day was observed for time spent consuming forage ( < 0.01); SUP cows consumed forage faster than CON cows ( ≤ 0.01) early in gestation. Control cows ate more meals than SUP cows ( = 0.06) from d 201 to 218 of gestation. Supplemented cows tended ( = 0.09) to consume larger meals than CON cows and spent more ( < 0.01) time eating than CON cows around d 240 of gestation. Calves born to SUP cows tended ( = 0.06) to be heavier than calves born to CON cows. During lactation, both groups gained ( < 0.01) BW. Body condition score was less ( < 0.05) in CON cows than it was in SUP cows at the end of the study. Dry matter intake during lactation increased ( < 0.01) over time but was not influenced ( = 0.44) by treatment. Supplemented cows spent more time ( < 0.01) eating than CON cows after wk 4 of lactation, and they ate faster than CON cows until wk 3 of lactation whereas CON cows ate faster than SUP cows after wk 6 of lactation ( 0.01). The number of meals increased with advancing lactation ( < 0.01) and CON cows averaged more meals daily than SUP cows ( = 0.01). Conversely, meal size decreased as lactation advanced ( < 0.01), and SUP cows consumed larger meals than CON cows ( = 0

  7. Evaluation of nutrient equivalency of microbial phytase in hens in late lay given maize-soybean or distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets.

    PubMed

    Deniz, G; Gezen, S S; Kara, C; Gencoglu, H; Meral, Y; Baser, E

    2013-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 360 Lohmann LSL-Classic White Leghorn layers (64 weeks old) to evaluate the effects of supplementation of microbial phytase on production, egg quality, bone, selected manure parameters and feed costs. 2. Experimental diets were formulated as follows: (1) maize-soybean (CS), (2) CS+300 units of phytase (FTU)/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYCa+P), (3) CS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYtotal), (4) CS+100 g/kg distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), (5) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYCa+P), or (6) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYtotal). 3. Each dietary treatment was assigned to 4 replicate groups with 3 cages and 5 hens per cage. The hens were provided with feed and water ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. 4. CS+PHYCa+P, CS+PHYtotal, DDGS+PHYCa+P and DDGS+PHYtotal diets supplemented with phytase provided similar percentage egg production, egg weight, egg mass, exterior egg quality, initial and final body weight compared with phytase-free diets. 5. However, supplementation of phytase to the experimental diets and calculation of the total nutrient equivalency for enzyme caused increased feed intake and decreased feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. 6. No differences in manure dry matter, crude ash, total nitrogen, tibia crude ash, calcium and phosphorus contents were found among the experimental diets. On the other hand, manure total phosphorus content was significantly decreased in the DDGS diet and diets supplemented with phytase in comparison to the CS diet. 7. It was concluded that the addition of microbial phytase to the CS-based diets or diets with DDGS of hens in late lay and using Ca and available P equivalency of

  8. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  9. Determination of energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed corn distillers' dried grains with solubles containing different lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Dong, Bing; Zang, Jianjun; Gong, Limin

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate the digestibility of energy, nitrogen and amino acids (AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing one of five corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), including three normal oil DDGS (NO-DDGS) and two low oil DDGS (LO-DDGS) samples. Exp. 1 was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content. Six growing barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 35.1 +/- 2.2 kg) were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design, with six periods and six diets. One diet was a corn soybean meal basal diet and the other five diets were based on corn, soybean meal and 28.8% DDGS. The average DE and ME values for the three NO-DDGS samples were 16.0 and 14.9 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). These values were 9 and 13% greater than the LO-DDGS values of 14.7 and 13.2 MJ/kg DM respectively. Exp. 2 was conducted to determine and compare apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility for crude protein and AA in the five DDGS samples. Six growing barrows (initial BW, 32.2 +/- 1.9 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design with six periods and six diets. Five of the diets were based on the five DDGS samples, and the remaining one diet was nitrogen-free diet based on cornstarch and sucrose. Titanium dioxide (0.1%) was used as inert marker. The results of the experiment showed the largest variation among the different samples in AID and SID for lysine (from 41.8 to 65.8% and 53.8 to 73.9% respectively) and threonine (from 54.3 to 73.8% and 65.2 to 79.5% respectively). Also, among the indispensable AA, the SID values for arginine, histidine, threonine and tryptophan observed in LO-DDGS were not different from the values derived from NO-DDGS. In conclusion, LO-DDGS may have decreased energy compared with NO-DDGS because of its lower fat content. However, oil removal during the production of DDGS may not affect amino acid digestibility.

  10. Effects of increasing levels of dried corn distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of yearling heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Coleman, C M; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Three hundred forty-seven crossbred heifers (330 +/- 11 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block study to identify the optimal level of dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DGS) in flaked corn finishing diets. Fifty-four pens were used, with 9 pens per treatment and 6 to 7 heifers per pen. Finishing diets were steam-flaked corn-based and were fed once daily for 148 d. Dietary treatments consisted of 6 levels of DGS (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75%, DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, and final BW responded quadratically (P < or = 0.03) to increasing levels of DGS and were maximized at 15% DGS. However, G:F decreased linearly (P = 0.01) as level of DGS increased. Longissimus muscle areas were not different (P > or = 0.27), whereas 12th-rib fat thicknesses decreased linearly (P = 0.05) for heifers fed increasing levels of DGS. Marbling score and USDA yield grades were not different (P > or = 0.06) for heifers fed different levels of DGS. Number of carcasses grading USDA Prime or Choice were not different (P > or = 0.07), whereas number of carcasses grading USDA Select increased (P = 0.02; linear) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Myofibrillar and overall tenderness increased linearly (P = 0.01) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Juiciness, off-flavor intensity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different (P > or = 0.16) among treatments. Redness of steaks (i.e., a*) was not different (P > or = 0.13) for steaks collected from heifers fed different levels of DGS as evidenced by similar instrumental color measurements after d 0, 3, and 5 of display. However, on d 7, steak color was less red (P = 0.04) and had more metmyoglobin. Concentration of linoleic acid (18:2n-6cis), total n-6 fatty acids, and total PUFA linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing levels of DGS.

  11. Variations in chemical composition and in vitro and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of dried distillers' grains with solubles from European ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Steingass, Herbert; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise variations in the composition and nutritive value of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) for ruminants, and to estimate the undegradable crude protein (UDP) in DDGS. Thirteen samples originating from wheat, corn, barley and blends of different substrates were studied. The rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) was determined using the nylon bag technique. Samples were incubated for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 72 h, and in situ degradation kinetics were determined. The UDP was estimated using a passage rate of 8%/h. In vitro gas production was measured to estimate the metabolisable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NE(L)) and in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM). Chemical profiles varied among samples [in g/kg dry matter (DM) ± standard deviation]; the values were 310 ± 33 CP, 86 ± 37 ether extract, 89 ± 18 crude fibre, 408 ± 39 neutral detergent fibre, 151 ± 39 acid detergent fibre and 62 ± 31 acid detergent lignin, as well as in protein fractions according to the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System [in g/kg CP]; the values were for fractions A, 161 ± 82; B1, 24 ± 11; B2, 404 ± 105; B3, 242 ± 61; and C, 170 ± 87. The ME, NE(L) [MJ/kg DM] and IVDOM [%] also varied among samples: 12.1 ± 0.59, 7.3 ± 0.39 and 72.5 ± 4.30, respectively. The in situ rapidly degradable CP fraction (a) varied from 10.2% to 30.6%, and the potentially degradable fraction (b) averaged to 66.8%. The UDP varied from 8.6% to 62.6% of CP. The present study suggests significant variations in composition and nutritive value among different sources of DDGS. The UDP could be predicted on the basis of analysed CP fractions, but the accuracy of UDP prediction improved upon the inclusion of neutral-detergent insoluble nitrogen, explaining 94% of the variation in the UDP values. We conclude that chemical protein fractions may be used to predict the UDP values of DDGS and that the variability in the protein

  12. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P < 0.01) in IC when compared to PC. Bellies were thicker (P < 0.01) and tended to have greater belly flop distances (P = 0.07) in PC compared to IC, however iodine values (IV) were not altered (P = 0.84). Carcass traits (P ≥ 0.10), cutting yields (P ≥ 0.43), and fresh belly characteristics (P ≥ 0.08) were minimally affected by DDGS feeding strategy. Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P < 0.01) in IC compared with PC. At 7 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 1.57% units greater (P = 0.03) in IC compared with PC. Distiller's grains feeding strategy had no effect (P ≥ 0.83) on boneless carcass cutting yields in IC; while in PC, these yields were 2.32% units less (P < 0.02) in control-fed barrows when compared to other feeding strategies (castration method × feeding strategy; P = 0.03). Bellies from PC tended to be thicker (P = 0.07) and have similar flop distances (P = 0.44) and IV (P = 0.54) when compared with IC. Iodine value

  13. Variation in Distillers Grains Quality and Investigation into Its Underlying Causes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major process for making ethanol from grains is the dry-grind method. The major co-product of the process is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which are widely used as a feed for animals and fish. Income from marketing of DDGS is important to the economic viability of the dry grind ind...

  14. Effects of dried distiller's grains and lasalocid inclusion on feedlot lamb growth, carcass traits, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fluid volatile fatty acid concentrations, and ruminal hydrogen sulfide concentration.

    PubMed

    Crane, A R; Redden, R R; Swanson, K C; Howard, B M; Frick, T J; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Schauer, C S

    2017-07-01

    Our hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion level of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) to feedlot lambs would increase growth and the inclusion of lasalocid (LAS; Bovatec, Alpharma, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ) would increase ADG and G:F, while not affecting digestibility, ruminal VFA concentration, and ruminal pH. Furthermore, we hypothesized that rations containing LAS and higher levels of DDGS would cause increased ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (HS) concentrations. Two hundred forty crossbred (Suffolk × Rambouillet) lambs (31.9 ± 5.87 kg BW; approximately 90 d of age) were allocated to 6 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Lambs were placed into 24 feedlot pens (4 pens/treatment; 10 lambs/pen) for a 111 d finishing study. Main effects included concentration of DDGS (0, 15, or 30% DM basis) and inclusion of LAS (0 or 22.05 g/metric ton LAS) resulting in treatments of: 1) 0% DDGS without LAS (0DDGS-NL), 2) 0% DDGS with LAS (0DDGS-L), 3) 15% DDGS without LAS (15DDGS-NL), 4) 15% DDGS with LAS (15DDGS-L), 5) 30% DDGS without LAS (30DDGS-NL), and 6) 30% DDGS with LAS (30DDGS-L). Two-day weights were taken at the beginning and end of the experiment. Two-hundred-eighteen lambs (64.8 ± 7.99 kg BW) were slaughtered on d 112 at a commercial abattoir and carcass data collected. The inclusion of LAS increased ( ≤ 0.02) final BW, ADG, G:F, and HCW. As DDGS in the ration increased to 30%, DMI decreased linearly ( = 0.03) while G:F increased linearly ( = 0.03). A second study was conducted utilizing the same treatments to evaluate N and S balance, ruminal VFA and H2S concentration, and ruminal pH in 24 crossbred wethers (Suffolk × Rambouillet; 41.2 ± 12.23 kg BW). Daily urinary sulfur excretion and ruminal H2S concentration were linearly increased ( < 0.001) as DDGS increased in the ration. Total ruminal VFA concentration linearly decreased ( = 0.002) as DDGS increased in the ration. The inclusion of

  15. Live production and carcass characteristics of broilers fed a blend of poultry fat and corn oil derived from distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Davis, J D; Loar, R E; Karges, K

    2013-10-01

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are now being further processed to remove corn oil, which may be used as a dietary energy source for poultry. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a poultry fat (PF) and a new DDGS-derived corn oil blend (CO) on live performance and carcass characteristics of 49-d-old broilers. Four corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated with differing blends of PF and CO. All diets contained the same percentage of total fat, but differed in the fat source. One diet had the sole source of fat as PF (100:0% PF:CO) and was then replaced with 25% CO, 75% CO, and a 100% replacement of CO. Each of the diets was fed in a 3-phase feeding program to 6 replicate pens. At day of hatch, Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly allocated to 24 pens composed of 42 birds of equal sex. On d 49, 10 birds from each pen were processed, and carcass, abdominal fat pad, and breast muscle components were determined. There were no significant differences in live performance for the starter phase (0-18 d). For the grower phase (19-35 d), birds fed 75:25% PF:CO significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased BW, BW gain, and decreased feed conversion compared with the control (100:0% PF:CO). Birds fed 0:100% PF:CO also observed similar improvements in BW, BW gain, and feed conversion during the grower phase. There were no significant differences for the finisher phase (36-48 d). On d 49, live weights for birds fed the 0:100% PF:CO diets were significantly lower compared with other treatments. A trend for lower carcass and breast weights and increased abdominal fat was also observed for birds fed the 0:100% PF:CO. The addition of CO led to significant improvements in pellet durability for grower and finisher pellets. The results of this study indicate that DDGS-derived CO can be used to partially replace PF in broiler diets without any detrimental effects.

  16. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  17. Effects of selected feed additives on the performance of laying hens given a diet rich in maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Świątkiewicz, S; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Krawczyk, J; Puchała, M; Józefiak, D

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 192 ISA Brown hens were given diets containing a high concentration of maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and egg quality was determined. 2. Birds were allocated to 8 treatment groups with 12 replicates (cages) of two hens and were given, from week 26 to 55, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets with or without a high concentration of DDGS (200 g/kg). The diet containing DDGS was not supplemented or supplemented with enzymes (xylanase and phytase), sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius) and a mixture of herbal extracts (Taraxaci siccum, Urticae siccum and Salviae siccum), inulin or chitosan. 3. The inclusion of DDGS in the diet had no effect on number of eggs produced, total egg mass, mean egg weight, feed intake or feed conversion ratio. Egg and eggshell quality parameters were also unaffected by dietary DDGS. The yolk colour score (points in Roche scale) was significantly increased by DDGS inclusion. DDGS in the diet caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were rather unfavourable from a dietary perspective (an increase of cholesterol content, and PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio). 4. During the experimental period (26-55 weeks of age) supplementation of the diet containing a high concentration of DDGS with enzymes, inulin as well as chitosan, increased number of eggs produced and daily egg mass. In older hens (50 weeks of age) inulin positively affected eggshell quality parameters, i.e. shell percentage, thickness and density. Diet supplementation with herb extracts, inulin or chitosan, decreased the content of cholesterol in yolks. 5. The results of this study suggest that DDGS may be incorporated up to a concentration of 200 g/kg in the diet of laying hens without any negative effects on egg performance. Moreover, supplementation of xylanase and phytase, as well as inulin and chitosan, can positively affect the performance of

  18. Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 μm. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 μm improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 μm DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 μm had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 μm DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 μm. Compared with a 595 or 818 μm DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 μm reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of

  19. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    PubMed

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (P<0.01). Protein was decreased (P=0.01) and fat was increased (P=0.01) in milk from DDGS compared with CON cows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (P<0.01) and increased long chain FA (P<0.01) at both time points. Saturated FA content of milk was decreased (P<0.01) at both time-points in DDGS compared with CON cows, which resulted in an increase (P<0.01) in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, including cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Daily gain of the DDGS calves was increased (P=0.01) compared with CON calves, resulting in heavier BW on day 129 (P=0.01). Heavier BW of DDGS calves was maintained through weaning (P=0.01). Timed-artificial insemination (TAI) rates were greater for cows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (P<0.02), but dietary treatment had no effect on overall pregnancy rates (P=0.64). In summary, feeding DDGS to lactating beef cows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male

  20. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.

    PubMed

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction

  1. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  2. Xylanase increased the ileal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides and concentration of low molecular weight nondigestible carbohydrates in pigs fed high levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M B; Yu, S; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Lærke, H N

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS-a control diet or 1 of 3 diets with CAX, EX, or EXP-in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 7 d; adaptation lasted 4 d, and the ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7, when spot samples of feces were also collected. Digesta samples were analyzed for NDC, total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), low molecular weight (LMW) NDC, OM, CP, fat, starch, and marker. Compared with the control diet, addition of CAX, EX, and EXP increased the AID of arabinoxylan by 32 (P < 0.001), 28 (P = 0.001), and 24% (P = 0.004), respectively. In addition, EXP increased the AID of noncellulosic polysaccharide glucose by 21% compared with the control (P = 0.005). Compared with the control, addition of EX, EXP, and CAX decreased the concentration of soluble arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P < 0.0001), 40 (P < 0.0001), and 21% (P = 0.022), respectively. Furthermore, addition of CAX, EXP, and EX increased the concentration of LMW arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P = 0.0001), 36 (P = 0.0006), and 24% (P = 0.023), respectively, compared with the control. Addition of EX and EXP decreased the concentration of soluble NSP of ileal digesta by 25 (P = 0.001) and 26% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the control diet. Addition of CAX (P < 0.0001) and EXP (P = 0.013) increased the arabinose-to-xylose ratio in the insoluble arabinoxylan fraction in ileal digesta compared with

  3. Evaluation of high dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles and supplementation of protease and xylanase in the diets of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis challenge.

    PubMed

    Barekatain, M R; Antipatis, C; Rodgers, N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Iji, P A; Choct, M

    2013-06-01

    A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16. The disease challenge and DDGS inclusion significantly (P < 0.01) interacted, depressing BW gain and feed conversion ratio only in wk 3. Disease challenge adversely influenced (P < 0.01) BW gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds in the third week and across the 35-d study. Over the last 2 wk and across the 35-d trial, the interaction between DDGS and enzyme supplementation showed a tendency (P = 0.09) to gain more BW in birds regardless of the disease challenge. Inclusion of 20% DDGS markedly (P < 0.01) interacted with disease challenge, accelerating the proliferation of C. perfringens in the ceca at d 17. Inoculation of birds with C. perfringens resulted in higher (P < 0.01) counts of C. perfringens in both ileal and cecal contents. The necrotic enteritis-related lesions (d 17) were more severe (P < 0.05) in the intestine of infected birds fed DDGS diets than in birds fed the control diet. Incorporation of DDGS to the diets improved (P < 0.01) the IgA and IgG titer at d 13 but interacted with the disease challenge, reducing the concentration of IgA at d 21 and IgM at d 35 in the infected birds. In conclusion, incorporating a high level of DDGS in the diet of broiler chickens may increase susceptibility to necrotic enteritis. Supplementation of enzymes did not reveal significant mitigation effect in infected birds but helped the birds fed DDGS to maintain feed intake and BW gain.

  4. Effects of dietary roughage and sulfur in diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles on hydrogen sulfide production and fermentation by rumen microbes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Binversie, E Y; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Carpenter, A J; Heins, B J; Crawford, G I; DiCostanzo, A; Stern, M D

    2016-09-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) have been used in production animal diets; however, overuse of DDGS can cause toxic concentrations of ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (HS), resulting in polioencephalomalacia, a deleterious brain disease. Because HS gas requires an acidic rumen environment and diet can influence ruminal pH, it has been postulated that dietary manipulation could help mitigate HS production. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary roughage and sulfur concentrations on HS production and rumen fermentation. In Exp. 1, 7 dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in 4 consecutive 9-d periods consisting of 6 d of adaptation followed by 3 d of sampling. At the conclusion of each 9-d continuous culture period, adapted rumen fluid was used for inoculation of 24-h batch culture incubations for Exp. 2. For both experiments, 6 dietary treatments were formulated to consist of 0.3%, 0.4%, or 0.5% dietary sulfur (LS, MS, and HS, respectively) and 3% or 9% dietary roughage (LR and MR, respectively), using grass hay as the roughage source. A corn-based diet without DDGS was used as a control diet. Headspace gas was sampled to determine HS production and concentration. In Exp. 1, greater dietary roughage had no effect ( = 0.14) on HS production but did create a less acidic environment because of an increase ( < 0.01) in the in vitro pH. In Exp. 2, an increase in dietary sulfur caused an increase ( = 0.04) in ruminal HS production, but there was no direct effect ( = 0.25) of dietary roughage on HS production. Greater dietary roughage resulted in a less ( = 0.01) acidic final batch culture pH but a lower ( < 0.01) total VFA concentration. Further investigation is needed to determine a more effective way to mitigate ruminal HS production using dietary manipulation, which could include greater inclusion of dietary roughage or the use of different roughage sources.

  5. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  6. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  7. Metabolizable energy content of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles supplemented with or without a mixture of carbohydrases and protease for broilers and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, A O; Olukosi, O A

    2015-06-01

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to determine the AME and AMEn of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) without or with supplementation of an enzyme mixture containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) in broilers and turkeys. One hundred twenty-six male Ross 308 broilers (Experiment 1) or 126 male BUT 10 turkeys (Experiment 2) were offered a nutrient-adequate diet from d 1 to 14. On d 14, birds in each experiment were allocated to 6 treatments consisting of 3 levels of wheat-DDGS (0, 300, or 600 g/kg) and 2 levels of XAP (0 or 250 mg/kg diet) in a randomized complete block design. The AME or AMEn content of wheat-DDGS was determined from the slope of regression of wheat-DDGS-associated energy intake (kilocalories) against wheat-DDGS intake (kilograms). In Experiment 1, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diets linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention, AME, and AMEn, irrespective of XAP supplementation. The AME of wheat-DDGS without or with XAP for broilers was 3,587 or 3,700 kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,356 and 3,459 kcal/kg DM for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP, respectively. In Experiment 2, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diet linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention irrespective of XAP supplementation. Diet AME and AMEn linearly decreased (P<0.05) as the level of wheat-DDGS increased in the diets without added XAP, whereas there was no effect of increasing wheat-DDGS level on dietary AME or AMEn in the XAP-supplemented diets. The AME of wheat-DDGS without and with supplemental XAP for turkeys were 3,355 and 3,558 kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,109 and 3,294 kcal/kg DM, respectively, for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP. Supplemental XAP increased (P>0.05) the AME and AMEn of wheat-DDGS for broilers and turkeys by up to 6%. It was concluded that wheat-DDGS is a valuable source of AME for broilers and turkeys.

  8. Evaluation of inclusion level of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles with and without protease or β-mannanase on performance and water intake of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Opoku, E Y; Classen, H L; Scott, T A

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming a common practice to use higher levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS) in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of level of inclusion of wDDGS with or without enzyme (E-, i.e., wDDGSE-) supplementation on performance and water consumption of turkey hens (0 to 72 d). Two diets (0 or 30% wDDGS) were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Hybrid Converter turkeys. Diets (0 or 30% wDDGS; starter, grower, and finisher) were then blended to obtain a different level of inclusion (15%) of wDDGS. The 30% wDDGS diet was divided into 3 fractions and 2 fractions supplemented with either protease (P+, i.e., wDDGSP+; 0.126 g/kg) or β-mannanase (M+, i.e., wDDGSM+; 0.05 g/kg). All 5 diets were fed ad libitum as mash. The 700 0-d turkey hens were randomly allocated into groups of 35 birds per replicate with 4 replicate floor pens per treatment, in a completely randomized design. Water consumption per pen was recorded beginning at 7 d. There was no effect of dietary treatment on feed intake. BW of turkey hens (52 d; grower) was significantly higher for 30% wDDGSP+ as compared to 0% wDDGSE- or 15% wDDGSE- diets; but was not different from 30% wDDGSE- or 30% wDDGSM+ diets. FCR (P < 0.01; 28 to 52 d), and total FCR (P < 0.05; 0 to 72 d) was significantly improved for birds fed 15 or 30% wDDGS regardless of enzyme treatment compared to 0% wDDGSE-. Water intake (WI, in mL per bird per day) tended to be higher (P = 0.08) between 7 and 28 d for 30% wDDGSP+ diets compared to other treatments. Similarly, WI of birds fed 30% wDDGSP+ was higher (P < 0.05; 28 to 52 and 52 to 72 d) and total WI (P = 0.07; 7 to 72 d) tended to be higher than other treatments. This study is the first to report the impact of wDDGS on WI. As high as 30% wDDGS can be substituted in turkey hen diets. No effect of P+ or M+ at the inclusion level tested was found on performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Effect of dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles, canola meal, and chloride on electrolyte balance, growth performance, and litter moisture of growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farahat, M H; Hassanein, E I; Abdel-Razik, W M; Noll, S L

    2013-05-01

    A study determined if dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), canola meal (CM), or chloride (Cl) could adversely affect the performance and litter moisture of turkeys. A total of 1,089 Nicholas toms were used in a study during 2 to 14 wk of age. The poults were randomized into 99 pens (11 poults/pen) with number reduced to 10/pen at 8 wk. The factorial arrangement consisted of 3 diet sets [corn-soy (CS), CS + 20% DDGS, CS + 20% DDGS + 10% canola meal] and 3 Cl levels (0.22, 0.32, 0.42%), making 9 treatments distributed in 11 replicate blocks. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric with similar levels of digestible amino acids for each of 4 feeding phases. The dietary electrolyte balance varied with diet set and age period and ranged from 351 to 181 mEq/kg of diet (Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-)) or 184 to -29 mEq/kg (Na(+) + K(+)) - (Cl(-) + S(2-)). Individual BW and pen feed residues were measured at each phase. Samples of litter were collected at 11 and 14 wk for measuring moisture. During 2 to 14 wk, no differences were observed in BW and ADG attributable to diet (P < 0.05). Birds fed diets containing DDGS or with CM consumed 6.0% more ADFI (P > 0.05). No differences were found for Cl or diet × Cl interaction for BW, ADG, or ADFI. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher (P > 0.05) for birds fed diets containing DDGS or CM. A diet × Cl interaction was found for FCR during 8 to 14 wk; increasing Cl over 0.22% significantly increased the FCR by 3.0% only in diets containing DDGS with CM. Litter moisture was increased in diets containing DDGS or with CM, and by increased Cl. Including S in dietary electrolyte balance resulted in a better albeit weak correlation with ADG during 2 to 5 wk (-0.51 vs. -0.36) and FCR during 11 to 14 wk (-0.36 vs. -0.21). Due to the detrimental effect on FCR, high Cl should be avoided with DDGS and CM in turkey grower diets.

  10. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  11. Determination of the energy value of corn distillers dried grains with solubles containing different oil levels when fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-C; Li, P; Liu, D-W; Li, D-F; Wang, F-L; Su, Y-B; Zhu, Z-P; Piao, X-S

    2017-04-01

    This experiment used indirect calorimetry to determine the net energy (NE) content of five corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn DDGS) containing different oil levels and to compare the NE obtained using indirect calorimetry with that calculated using previously published prediction equations. There were two samples of high-oil DDGS, one sample of medium-oil DDGS and two samples of low-oil DDGS. Twelve barrows (initial BW of 32.8 ± 2.0 kg) were used in a repeated 3 × 6 Youden square design with three periods and six diets. The diets were comprised of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and five diets containing 29.25% of one of the corn DDGS added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, the pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 16 days which included 7 days for adaption to feed and environmental conditions. On day 8, the pigs were transferred to respiration chambers and fed one of the six diets at 2300 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day. Faeces and urine were collected from day 9 to 13 and heat production (HP) was also measured. From day 14 to 15, the pigs were fed 893 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day to allow them to adapt from the fed to the fasted state. On the last day of each period (day 16), the pigs were fasted and fasting HP was measured. The digestible energy value was 16.0, 17.1 and 15.3 MJ/kg DM, the metabolizable energy value was 14.6, 15.5 and 13.7 MJ/kg DM and the NE value was 10.7, 11.0 and 9.4 MJ/kg DM, for the high-oil, medium-oil and low-oil corn DDGS, respectively. The NE obtained with indirect calorimetry in the present study did not differ from values calculated using previously published prediction equations.

  12. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol.

  13. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  14. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  15. Effects of adding saturated fat to diets with sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 112 barrows (avg BW of 72 kg) was used in a 65-day growth assay to determine the effects of adding a source of saturated fat (beef tallow) into diets with sorghum-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The pigs were sorted by ancestry and blocked by BW with seven pigs/pen an...

  16. Effects of wheat or corn distillers dried grains with solubles on feedlot performance, fecal shedding, and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Hallewell, J; McAllister, T A; Thomas, J; Booker, C W; Hannon, S; Jim, G K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; May, M L; Peterson, R E; Flaig, C; Hussey, E M; Stanford, K

    2012-08-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a coproduct of the ethanol industry and are often used as a replacement for grain in livestock production. Feeding corn DDGS to cattle has been linked to increased fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7, although in Canada, DDGS are often produced from wheat. This study assessed the effects of including 22.5% wheat or corn DDGS (DM basis) into barley-based diets on performance, carcass characteristics, animal health, and fecal E. coli O157:H7 shedding of commercial feedlot cattle. Cattle (n = 6,817) were randomly allocated to 10 pens per treatment group: WDDGS (diets including 22.5% wheat DDGS), CDDGS (diets including 22.5% corn DDGS), or CTRL (barley substituted for DDGS). Freshly voided fecal pats (n = 588) were collected and pooled monthly for fecal pH measurement and screened for naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and direct plating (DP). Hide swabs (n = 367) were collected from randomly selected cattle from each pen before slaughter. Pen-floor fecal samples (n = 18) were collected from treatment groups at entry to the feedlot (<14 d on the finishing diet) and after adapting to the finishing diet for ≥ 14 d, inoculated (10(9) cfu of a 5 strain naldixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 mixture), incubated (20°C) and evaluated weekly (IMS and DP) to assess fecal E. coli O157:H7 persistence. The WDDGS group had 3.0% poorer ADG (P = 0.007), 5.3% poorer G:F (P < 0.001), and a decreased proportion of Canada Quality Grade AAA carcasses (P = 0.022) compared with CTRL cattle. The CDDGS group had a similar ADG (P = 0.06), a decreased proportion of Canada Yield Grade (YG) 1 (P < 0.001), and greater proportions of Canada YG 2 (P = 0.003) and YG 3 (P < 0.001) carcasses compared with the CTRL group. There were no differences among groups in any of the animal health parameters assessed. Inclusion of DDGS in cattle finishing diets had no effect on fecal shedding (P = 0.650) or persistence

  17. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI and ADG and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) G:F than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P < 0.008) as juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P < 0.05) and serum Ca and P and fecal P were similar (P > 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves

  18. Lactation responses and amino acid utilization of dairy cows fed low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without rumen-protected lysine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Paz, H A; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different amounts of low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without supplementation of rumen-protected Lys (RPL) on lactation responses and AA utilization. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 188 ± 13 DIM were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) 15% low-fat DDGS, (2) 15% low-fat DDGS plus RPL, (3) 30% low-fat DDGS, and (4) 30% low-fat DDGS plus RPL. Periods lasted 21 d, with the last 3 d for data collection. Basal diets (without RPL) were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model [Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute (Chazy, NY)] to be isonitrogenous (16.9% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.63 Mcal/kg) and inclusion of low-fat DDGS increased at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Inclusion rate of low-fat DDGS and RPL supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield, averaging 25.3 ± 0.97 kg/d and 26.9 ± 1.94 kg/d, respectively (means ± standard error of the means). Milk fat and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatments but milk protein concentration decreased in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS compared with those fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS (3.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.12%). Updated predictions from the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model showed a decrease of 25 g of metabolizable protein Lys in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS. Compared with cows fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS, cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS had a marked increase in extraction efficiency (49.4 vs. 61.4 ± 2.51%) and a tendency to increase milk protein concentration (3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 0.12%) with RPL supplementation, which supported that Lys supply was inadequate. Despite differences observed in milk protein concentration, milk protein

  19. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on growing and finishing steer intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and steak color and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S; Maddock, R J

    2009-12-01

    Seventy-two crossbred and purebred beef steers (296 +/- 9 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design to determine effects of 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 29.2% CP, 9.7% fat, DM basis) inclusion during the growing or finishing period on DMI, performance, carcass, and meat quality traits. The resulting treatments were 0:0, 30:0, 0:30, and 30:30 (diet DDGS percentage fed during growing and finishing periods, respectively). Steers were individually fed a growing diet (65% concentrate) for 57 d, then acclimated to and fed a finishing diet (90% concentrate) for 80 or 145 d. Dietary ingredients included dry-rolled corn, corn silage, grass hay, concentrated separator by-product, and supplement. Diets included 27.5 mg/kg of monensin and 11 mg/kg of tylosin and were formulated to contain a minimum of 12.5% CP, 0.70% Ca, and 0.30% P. During the growing period, DMI was not different (P >or= 0.63; 10.22 +/- 0.23 kg/d; 2.42 +/- 0.06% of BW). Steer performance, including ADG (1.75 +/- 0.05 kg/d) and G:F (174.1 +/- 6.8 g/kg), was not affected (P >or= 0.14) by treatment during the growing period, and final BW at the end of the growing period was not different (425 +/- 7 kg; P = 0.99). During the finishing period, DMI was not different (P >or= 0.54; 8.47 +/- 0.66 kg/d; 1.57 +/- 0.09% BW). During the finishing period, no differences (P >or= 0.22) were observed for ADG (1.54 +/- 0.07 kg/d) or G:F (202.4 +/- 28.3 g/kg). As a result, final BW was not different (P >or= 0.28; 551 +/- 15 kg). Longissimus muscle area (77.8 +/- 3.3 cm(2)), 12th-rib fat thickness (1.26 +/- 0.10 cm), and KPH (2.48 +/- 0.16%) were not different (P >or= 0.16). There were no differences (P >or= 0.35) in yield grade (3.33 +/- 0.17) or marbling (431 +/- 21; Small(0) = 400). Results from the trained panel indicated no differences (P >or= 0.16) in tenderness, which averaged 6.03 +/- 0.16 (8-point hedonic scale); however, steaks from steers fed 0:30 or 30:30 tended (P = 0.10) to be

  20. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Pérez, B. I.; Garzón-Proaño, J. S.; López-Soto, M. A.; Barreras, A.; González, V. M.; Plascencia, A.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Ríos-Rincón, F. G.; Zinn, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg) with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis) in substitution for dry-rolled (DR) corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE) of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01), but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM) digestion (linear effect, p<0.01). Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02) duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN) or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N) were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04) as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06) and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08). However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg), reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs. PMID:25049896

  1. Determination and prediction of energy values in corn distillers dried grains with solubles sources with varying oil content for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, D F; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z C; Zhao, P F; Zeng, Z K; Xu, X; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the DE and ME content of 25 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. The 25 samples included 15 full-oil (no oil extracted; ether extract [EE] > 8%) DDGS and 10 reduced-oil (oil extracted; EE < 8%) DDGS collected from 17 ethanol plants in China. A corn–soybean meal diet constituted the basal diet and the other 25 diets replaced a portion of the corn, soybean meal, and lysine of the basal diet with 28.8% of 1 of the 25 corn DDGS sources. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 42.6 ± 6.2 kg) were used in the experiment conducted over 2 consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomized design. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolism cages for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following a 7-d adaptation to the diets. Among the 25 corn DDGS samples, EE, NDF, DE, and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 2.8 to 14.2%, 31.0 to 46.6%, 3,255 to 4,103 kcal/kg, and 2,955 to 3,899 kcal/kg, respectively. Using a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were developed not only among all 25 DDGS but also only within 15 full-oil DDGS and 10 reduced-oil DDGS samples. The best fit equations of DE (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 2,064 – (38.51 × % NDF) + (0.64 × % GE) – (39.70 × % ash), –(87.53 × % ADF) + (1.02 × % GE) – (22.99 × % hemicellulose), and 3,491 – (40.25 × % NDF) + (46.95 × % CP), respectively. The best fit equations for ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 1,554 – (44.11 × % NDF) + (0.77 × % GE) – (68.51 × % ash), 7,898 – (42.08 × % NDF) – (136.17 × % ash) + (101.19 × % EE) (103.83 × % CP), and 4,066 – (46.30 × % NDF) + (45.80 × % CP) – (106.19 × % ash), respectively. Using the sum of squared

  2. Enzymes enhance degradation of the fiber-starch-protein matrix of distillers dried grains with solubles as revealed by a porcine in vitro fermentation model and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jha, R; Woyengo, T A; Li, J; Bedford, M R; Vasanthan, T; Zijlstra, R T

    2015-03-01

    Effects of treating corn and wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with a protease on porcine in vitro fermentation characteristics and the matrix structure of the DGGS before and after the fermentation were studied. Three DDGS samples (wheat DDGS sample 1 [wDDGS1], wheat DDGS sample 2 [wDDGS2], and corn DDGS [cDDGS]) were predigested with pepsin and pancreatin. Residues were then subjected to in vitro fermentation using buffered mineral solution inoculated with fresh pig feces without or with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with protease in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Accumulated gas production was measured for up to 72 h. Concentration of VFA was measured in fermented solutions. The matrix of native DDGS and their residues after fermentation was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine internal and external structures, respectively. On a DM basis, wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS contained 35.5, 43.4, and 29.0% CP; 2.23, 0.51, and 6.40% starch; 0.82, 0.80, and 0.89% available Lys; and 24.8, 22.5, and 23.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides, respectively. The in vitro digestibility of DM for wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS was 67.7, 72.1, and 59.6%, respectively. The cDDGS had greater ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA production than both wheat DDGS. The wDDGS2 had lower ( < 0.05) total gas production than wDDGS1. Multicarbohydrase increased ( < 0.05) total gas production for cDDGS and total VFA production for wDGGS1 but did not increase gas or VFA production for wDDGS2. Addition of protease with multicarbohydrase to DDGS reduced ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA productions and increased ( < 0.05) branched-chain VFA regardless of DDGS type. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that DDGS were mainly aggregates of resistant and nonfermentable starchy and nonstarchy complexes formed during DDGS production. After in vitro

  3. Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid- to late gestation.

    PubMed

    Klein, S I; Steichen, P L; Islas, A; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Dahlen, C R

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six nonlactating beef cows were used to examine effects of dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DG) supplementation strategies to cows fed grass hay during mid- to late gestation on BW, ultrasound body composition characteristics, concentrations of serum NEFA and urea, feeding behavior, and calf birth weight. Cows were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) control, where hay was fed each day of the week (CON), 2) both hay and DG fed daily during the week (DG7), 3) hay fed daily but DG fed 3 d of the week (DG3), and 4) hay fed 4 d of the week alternating with DG fed on the remaining 3 d (DGA). Hay was offered ad libitum on days it was fed. The DG were fed at 0.40% of BW when offered daily and 0.93% of BW when offered 3 d per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday). Feed intake was monitored continuously over the 84-d feeding period. Hay intake and total DMI were reduced (P < 0.05) in DGA compared with DG7 and DG3. Gain and G:F were decreased (P < 0.05) for CON compared with other treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed among treatments for change in BCS, intramuscular fat, rib fat, or rump fat from d 1 to 84. On a day when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG (Friday), DGA had reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of urea compared with DG3 and DG7. On a day when only DG7 received DG (Saturday), urea was greater (P < 0.01) for DG3 and DGA compared with DG7, and concentrations of NEFA were greater (P < 0.01) in CON and DGA compared with DG7. On the second consecutive day when only DG7 received DG (Sunday), concentrations of NEFA were less (P < 0.001) for DG7 compared with other treatments. On days when all cows received hay, DGA spent more time eating (P < 0.05) compared with DG7 and DG3. Cows fed DGA had greater (P < 0.05) hay intake per meal and time per meal compared with other treatments. On days when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG, cows in the DG3 and DGA treatments had greater (P < 0.05) number of DG meals, time spent

  4. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Mahan, D C; Hill, G M; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Inclusion of up to 0.38% S in diets that contain 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has no negative effect on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs, but there is no information about the effects of dietary S on accumulation of S in tissues in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of S in diets containing DDGS affects carcass characteristics, loin quality, or tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 10 replicate pens and 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. At the conclusion of the experiment, the pig in each pen with the BW closest to the pen average was slaughtered. The control diet was based on corn and soybean meal and the finisher diet contained 0.14% S, 0.19 mg/kg Se, and 15.3 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS diet was formulated with corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS and the finisher diet with DDGS contained 0.16% S, 0.32 mg/kg Se, and 14.0 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS plus S (DDGS-S) diet was similar to the DDGS diet, except that 1.10% CaSO4 (16.2% S) was included in this diet, and the finisher diet with DDGS-S contained 0.37% S, 0.35 mg/kg Se, and 13.8 mg/kg Cu. Results indicated that organ weights and loin quality, 24-h pH, drip loss, loin subjective color, marbling, and firmness did not differ among treatments, but loin a* was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the control diet than for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet. Concentrations of S in hair, liver, heart, loin, and all other tissues did not differ among treatments, but urinary S concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet than for pigs fed the other diets. Pigs fed the DDGS diet or the DDGS-S diet had greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of Se in hair, liver, heart, and loin than pigs fed the control diet, but liver concentrations of Cu did not differ among

  5. The effects of medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-02-01

    A total of 288 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 68.9 kg BW) were used in a 67-d study to determine the effects of increasing medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 7.63% ether extract, 30.1% CP, 19.53% ADF, 36.47% NDF, and 4.53% ash; as-fed basis) on growth performance and carcass traits in finishing pigs. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet or the control diet with 15, 30, or 45% medium-oil DDGS. Diets were fed over 2 phases (69 to 100 and 100 to 126 kg) and were not balanced for energy. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the AA, vitamin, and mineral requirements and contained constant standardized ileal digestible lysine levels within phase. Increasing medium-oil DDGS decreased (linear, P < 0.02) ADG and G:F. Average daily gain decreased approximately 2.3% for every 15% added medium-oil DDGS whereas G:F decreased approximately 1.3% with every 15% added DDGS. In addition, final BW, HCW, carcass yield, and loin-eye depth decreased (linear, P < 0.03) and jowl iodine value (IV) increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing medium-oil DDGS. Nutrient digestibility of the DDGS source was determined using pigs (initially 25.6 kg BW) that were fed either a corn-based basal diet (96.6% corn and 3.4% vitamins and minerals) or a DDGS diet, which was a 50:50 blend of the basal diet and medium-oil DDGS. There were 12 replications for each diet consisting of a 5-d adaptation period followed by 2 d of total fecal collection on a timed basis. Feces were analyzed for GE, DM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, and ether extract. On an as-fed basis, corn was analyzed to contain 3,871 and 3,515 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively. Medium-oil DDGS was analyzed to contain 4,585 and 3,356 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively (as-fed basis). Digestibility coefficients of the medium-oil DDGS were 70.3% DM, 82.9% CP, 61.4% ether extract, 77.4% ADF, 67.5% NDF, and 67.2% crude fiber. Caloric efficiency (ADFI × kcal energy intake/kg BW gain) was not

  6. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than

  7. Interactive effects of distillers dried grains with solubles and housing system on reproductive performance and longevity of sows over three reproductive cycles.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Baidoo, S K; Li, Y Z; Shurson, G C; Johnston, L J

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in sow diets and housing systems on reproductive performance and longevity. Sows (311 for parity 0 and 90 for parity 1) were assigned randomly within parity to 1 of 4 treatments and maintained on these treatments for up to 3 reproductive cycles. Sows were fed either fortified corn-soybean meal control diets (CON) during gestation and lactation or diets containing 40% DDGS in gestation and 20% DDGS in lactation and were housed either in individual stalls or group pens with electronic sow feeders during gestation. Sows fed DDGS had smaller (P < 0.05) litter size (born alive, 11.0 vs. 11.6; weaning, 9.8 vs. 10.2) and had more (P < 0.05) stillborns (0.9 vs. 0.7) than sows fed CON. Litters nursing sows fed DDGS gained less weight (P < 0.01) than litters nursing sows fed CON (47.8 vs. 49.8 kg, respectively). Group-housed sows tended to farrow smaller litters (born alive, 11.0 vs. 11.5; P < 0.10) and had fewer pigs at weaning (9.9 vs. 10.2; P < 0.05) compared with stall-housed sows. Litters from group-housed sows tended (P < 0.10) to gain less weight while suckling than those from stall-housed sows (48.3 vs. 49.4 kg, respectively). Diet did not affect the percentage of sows that completed each successive reproductive cycle. Stall housing tended to increase (P = 0.06) the completion rate of sows at the second reproductive cycle (80.0 vs. 68.2%) and increased (P < 0.05) the completion rate of sows in the third reproductive cycle (68.9 vs. 55.8%) compared with group housing. Sows fed DDGS produced fewer (P < 0.05) live-born pigs (26.2 vs. 27.4) and tended (P < 0.10) to have fewer pigs weaned (23.7 vs. 24.5) over 3 reproductive cycles compared with sows fed CON. Stall-housed sows farrowed more (P < 0.05) total pigs (30.1 vs. 26.7) and live pigs (28.4 vs. 25.2) and had more weaned pigs (25.2 vs. 23.1) compared with group-housed sows over 3 reproductive cycles

  8. Pork fat quality of pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles with variable oil content and evaluation of iodine value prediction equations.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C

    2016-03-01

    Back, belly, and jowl fat samples of pigs fed control corn-soybean meal-based diets and diets containing 4 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were used to determine the impact of feeding DDGS with variable oil content on pork fat quality and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of published iodine value (IV) prediction equations. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 corn-soybean meal diets containing 40% DDGS from different sources with 10.7, 5.6, 14.2, or 16.0% ether extract (EE; as-fed) content. Diets did not contain any other supplemental lipid sources. Regardless of fat depot, SFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 5.6% EE DDGS (35.4) was greater ( < 0.05) than that of pigs fed 14.2 or 16.0% EE DDGS sources (34.4 and 30.2, respectively) and tended to be greater ( < 0.10) than that of pigs fed 10.7% EE DDGS (34.6). Pigs fed 10.7 and 14.2% EE DDGS had greater ( < 0.01) SFA concentration than pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS. Regardless of fat depot, MUFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources were similar (43.7, 43.1, and 43.0, respectively) but were greater ( < 0.01) than that of pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS (40.0). A dietary treatment × fat depot interaction was observed for PUFA ( < 0.05) and IV ( = 0.079). Pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources had reduced ( < 0.01) PUFA concentration and IV compared with pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS, but the magnitude of responses in PUFA and IV to the variable oil content of DDGS was greater in backfat than in belly and jowl fat. Carcass fat IV data were used to evaluate prediction error (PE) and bias of published carcass fat IV prediction equations. Equations using dietary C18:2 content or IV product as a single predictor resulted in highly variable PE (g/100 g) ranging from 3.43 to 8.36 and bias (g/100 g) ranging from -5.05 to 5.66. Using equations that included additional diet composition information and pig growth performance factors decreased PE (3.27 to 4.73) and bias (-3.37 to 1.73) of

  9. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  10. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P < 0.01) G:F (0.4) than pigs fed no tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P < 0.01) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth of pigs independent of DDGS. Feeding DDGS reduced (P < 0.01) belly firmness, as measured by belly flop angle, independent of tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P < 0.10). Feeding DDGS and tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P < 0.01) by feeding tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the concentration of PUFA in belly fat but there was no effect of tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and

  11. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, steers fed 0% CaO had the greatest prefeeding ruminal pH, steers fed 0 and 0.8% CaO exhibited the most rapid postfeeding decline in ruminal pH, and steers fed 2.4% CaO exhibited a relatively stable ruminal pH throughout the 24-h period (treatment × time; P ≤ 0.01). Acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentrations increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding with increasing CaO. Propionate at 3 h postfeeding increased from 0 to 1.6% CaO and decreased from 1.6 to 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.10). Urine pH increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) while urine output and urine ammonia decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as CaO inclusion increased

  12. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  13. Comparison of two diet types in the determination of metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Ileleji, K E

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 2 diet types, practical and semi-purified, in the determination of ME and ME(n) contents of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS) for broiler chickens by the regression method. Two hundred eighty-eight 14-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 6 diets consisting of 2 factors in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement: diet type (practical corn-soybean meal or semi-purified nitrogen-free diet) and CDDGS (0, 300, or 600 g/kg). The birds were fed for 7 d, and there were 6 birds per cage and 8 replicate cages per diet in a randomized complete block design. The CDDGS sample used in the present experiment contained (by analysis) 895 g/kg of DM, 4.811 kcal/g of gross energy, 265.7 g/ kg of CP, 107.6 g/kg of crude fat, 61.3 g/kg of crude fiber, and 41.8 g/kg of ash. There was the expected interaction (P < 0.001) between diet type and CDDGS level in nitrogen retention response of the birds with a decrease as CDDGS level in the practical diet increased but an increase in the semi-purified diet. There were interactions (P < 0.001) between diet type and CD-DGS level in energy retention response, ME, and ME(n). Energy retention linearly decreased (P < 0.0001) from 78.6 to 58.6% as CDDGS increased from 0 to 600 g/kg in the practical diets, whereas the decrease was from 86.8 to 75.4% in the semi-purified diet. The ME and ME(n) (kcal/g) contents of the diets linearly decreased (P < 0.0001) from 3.615 and 3.414 to 2.753 and 2.642, respectively, as CDDGS increased from 0 to 600 g/kg in the practical diets. Corresponding linear decrease (P < 0.0001) values for semi-purified diets were 3.210 and 3.227 to 2.732 and 2.697, respectively. Regression of CDDGS-associated ME intake in kilocalories against grams of CDDGS intake generated the following equations for practical and semi-purified diets respectively: Y = 2.904X + 52, r(2) = 0.987 and Y = 3.013X + 67, r(2) = 0.983. The regression equations for CDDGS-associated ME(n) intake in

  14. The effects of deoxynivalenol-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles in nursery pig diets and potential for mitigation by commercially available feed additives.

    PubMed

    Frobose, H L; Fruge, E D; Tokach, M D; Hansen, E L; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Negative Control (NC; 4 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.10% Biofix (Biomin Inc., Herzogenburg, Austria), 4) NC + 0.15% Cel-can (VAST Inc., Mason City, IA) and 0.50% bentonite clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer ( < 0.01) ADG than those fed the PC. Pigs fed Defusion Plus had improved ( < 0.03) ADG over those fed NC, whereas pigs fed Biofix or Cel-can with bentonite clay had reduced ADG ( < 0.01) compared with those fed PC. In Exp. 2, 340 pigs (11.7 ± 0.1 kg BW) were fed 1 of 8 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Low NC (1.5 mg/kg DON), 3) Low NC + 0.15% Biofix, 4) Low NC + 0.30% Biofix, 5) High NC (3.0 mg/kg DON), 6) High NC + 0.30% Biofix, 7) High NC + 0.45% Biofix, and 8) Diet 7 with 5% added water. Increasing the DON level reduced (linear; < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and pig BW, and Biofix did not improve performance. In Exp. 3, 1,008 pigs (12.5 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 6 treatments for 24 d. Diets were 1) PC ( < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion, 4) NC + 0.50% Defusion, 5) Diet 3 with supplemental nutrients, and 6) Diet 5, pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, but adding Defusion improved (linear; < 0.04) ADG and ADFI over pigs fed NC. Pelleting improved ( < 0.01) both ADG and G:F, resulting in ADG above PC pigs. In Exp. 4, 980 pigs (12.0 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 1 of 7 diets in a 28-d trial in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement. The 7 treatments were based on 3 diets fed in meal or pellet form: 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), and 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion. Treatment 7 was Diet 3 with

  15. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

    2014-08-01

    Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar

  16. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  17. Effects of dry-rolled or steam-flaked corn finishing diets with or without twenty-five percent dried distillers grains on ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestion.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Reinhardt, C D; Murray, L; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-11-01

    A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibilities of cattle finishing diets. Holstein steers (n = 16, 351 kg of BW) with ruminal cannulas were fed diets consisting of 0 or 25% dried corn distillers grains (DDG), using dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) as the principal energy source (2 x 2 factorial arrangement). The study was conducted in 2 periods, with 4 steers per treatment in each period. Periods consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase and a 3-d collection phase. Compared with DRC, feeding SFC decreased intakes of DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01), and steers fed SFC excreted less DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, feeding DRC decreased ruminal concentrations of acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, and decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, DRC decreased ruminal propionate, valerate, and lactate concentrations (P < 0.01). When compared with cattle fed SFC, ruminal pH of cattle fed DRC was less at 0 h and greater at 6 h postfeeding (P < 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were greater for DRC vs. SFC at h 0, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 postfeeding (P < 0.05). Feeding DDG decreased consumption of starch and ether extract, but increased NDF intake (P < 0.01). Fecal excretion of ether extract was increased by adding DDG compared with diets without DDG (P < 0.05), resulting in less apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract for cattle fed DDG (P < 0.01). Ruminal lactate concentrations were increased with addition of DDG compared with diets without DDG (P = 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were less for steers fed 25 vs. 0% DDG at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h postfeeding (P < 0.05). We conclude, based on these results, that ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibility of DDG are affected by grain processing.

  18. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  19. Influence of feeding various quantities of wet and dry distillers grains to finishing steers on carcass characteristics, meat quality, retail-case life of ground beef, and fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Koger, T J; Wulf, D M; Weaver, A D; Wright, C L; Tjardes, K E; Mateo, K S; Engle, T E; Maddock, R J; Smart, A J

    2010-10-01

    Two hundred forty Angus crossbred steers were used to determine the influence of feeding various quantities of wet and dry distillers grains to finishing steers on carcass characteristics, meat quality, retail-case life of ground beef, and fatty acid profile of LM. Three replications of 5 dietary treatments were randomly applied to 15 pens in each of 2 yr. A finishing diet containing dry-rolled corn, soybean meal, and alfalfa hay was fed as the control diet. Wet distillers grains with solubles (DGS) or dry DGS was added to the finishing diets at either 20.0 or 40.0% of the dietary DM to replace all soybean meal and part of the cracked corn in treatment diets. Carcasses of steers fed DGS had greater (P < 0.05) fat thickness (1.47 vs. 1.28 cm), greater (P < 0.05) USDA yield grades (3.23 vs. 2.94), and smaller (P < 0.05) percentage of yield grades 1 and 2 (41.1 vs. 60.4%) than carcasses of steers fed the control diet. Longissimus muscle from steers fed dry DGS had greater (P < 0.05) ultimate pH values (5.52 vs. 5.49) than LM from steers fed wet DGS. Ground beef from steers fed DGS had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of α-tocopherol (1.77 vs. 1.43 μg/g) than ground beef from steers fed the control diet. Ground beef from steers fed 40% DGS had greater (P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (2.84 vs. 2.13 mg/kg) on d 2 of retail display than ground beef from steers fed 20% DGS. Longissimus muscle of steers fed DGS had less (P < 0.05) C17:0 and more (P < 0.05) C18:0, C18:1t, C16:1c9, C18:2c9c12 (where t is trans and c is cis), and total PUFA than LM of steers fed the control diet. Feedlot steers fed DGS may need to be marketed earlier than normal to avoid excess external fat and carcasses with a greater numerical yield grade. These data suggest feeding DGS to finishing steers will have no adverse or beneficial effects on glycolytic variables (dark cutters), retail display life of ground beef, or meat tenderness. However, beef from cattle finished on diets

  20. Modification of an AOCS Official Method for Crude Oil Content in Distillers Grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previous study at author’s lab showed that the AOCS official method Am 5-04, based on filter bag technology developed by Ankom Technology Inc. has to be modified in order to have accurate measurement of oil content in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The areas of modification recomme...

  1. Physical properties of extrudates containing distillers grains extruded in a twin screw extruder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  2. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  3. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial body weight = 354 kg +/- 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study w...

  4. The effect of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles, ractopamine, and conjugated linoleic acid on the carcass performance, meat quality, and shelf-life characteristics of fresh pork following three different storage methods.

    PubMed

    Rickard, J W; Wiegand, B R; Pompeu, D; Hinson, R B; Gerlemann, G D; Disselhorst, R; Briscoe, M E; Evans, H L; Allee, G L

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance, carcass and fat quality, and shelf-life of fresh pork from finishing pigs. Barrows (n=72) were fed one of eight treatments consisting of two diet sources (corn-soy and corn-soy+20% DDGS), two levels of RAC (0 and 7.4ppm), and two levels of CLA (0 and 0.6%) for 28days. Loins were portioned (n=3) into one of three storage conditions (fresh, cold, frozen); each followed with seven days of retail display. Feeding RAC improved ADG and G:F (P<0.05), whereas DDGS decreased belly fat firmness (P<0.05). Dietary DDGS increased total polyunsaturated fatty acids in jowl and belly samples and increased Iodine Value (IV) (P<0.05), but addition of CLA decreased IV. Dietary DDGS, RAC, or CLA had minimal impact on pork quality following varied storage methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Johannes; Zimmer, Ulrike; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2007-12-26

    The suitability of the homoarginine reaction for determining the reactive lysine in soy products and corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was tested. For this purpose, some batches were subjected to deliberate heat damage for up to 30 min in an autoclave with 135 degrees C hot steam, and the samples were analyzed for total lysine and reactive lysine. In addition, 84 samples of common soy and 80 samples of corn DDGS were tested for their content of total and reactive lysine, and the contents were compared with those of the autoclave tests. For soy products conclusive results were obtained. In the case of heat treatment, both total lysine and reactive lysine decrease, but the latter is clearly a more sensitive indicator of lysine damage. Most normal products are quite similar, with toasting-induced damage to reactive lysine of ca. 15% compared to untoasted beans. The cause of the constantly occurring residual lysine after guanidination and the poorer reaction balance in the case of damage were explained. For common DDGS samples, however, less favorable results were obtained. Reactive and total lysine decreased almost in parallel due to heat damage, showing a great gap between them. Results showed indeed that variation of total and reactive lysine in DDGS is high, proving that its production conditions are not yet optimal for a feed ingredient.

  6. Evaluating percentage of roughage in lamb finishing diets containing 40% dried distillers grains: growth, serum urea nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin growth factor-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of percentage of roughage on growth, serum urea N, NEFA, and IGF-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid (FA) characteristics were investigated in Rambouillet wether lambs (n = 33). Lambs were individually fed ad libitum pelleted diets for 98 d containing 40% dried distillers grains and other ingredients, with 10% (CSH10), 20% (CSH20), or 30% (CSH30) cottonseed hulls replacing an increasing amount of ground sorghum grain. Results indicated no interaction between diet and day for lamb BW, ADG, or G:F. Percentage of roughage did not affect lamb BW, even though ADG linearly increased (P = 0.005) as cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Increasing percentage of cottonseed hulls in the diet linearly increased (P < 0.001) daily DMI, which resulted in a linear increase (P = 0.001) in degradable protein intake. All lambs had similar G:F: 0.200, 0.181, and 0.190 for lambs fed CSH10, CSH20, and CSH30 diets, respectively. Diet x day interactions were not observed (P > 0.45) for serum urea N, NEFA, or IGF-1 concentrations. Serum urea N linearly increased (P = 0.005) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. All lambs had similar NEFA concentrations, but serum IGF-1 linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Lambs had similar wool fiber characteristics except that average fiber curvature and SD of fiber curvature linearly increased (P = 0.03) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were not affected (P > 0.19) by diet, except for body wall thickness (quadratic, P = 0.03) and a linear decrease in sustained tenderness (P = 0.02) as the percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. As cottonseed hulls increased in the diet, percentages of myristic and palmitoleic (linear, P < 0.05) and arachidic SFA (quadratic, P = 0.03) decreased and cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased (linear, P = 0.007). When sorghum grain and cottonseed hull prices

  7. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of including either wheat-based (W-DDGS) or corn-wheat blend (B-DDGS) dried distillers grains with solubles as the major protein source in low- or high-crude protein (CP) diets fed to dairy cows on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and milk production. Eight lactating Holstein cows (768.5 ± 57.7 kg of body weight; 109.5 ± 40.0 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18d of dietary adaptation and 10d of measurements) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in one Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, urea-N recycling kinetics, and omasal nutrient flow. The treatment factors were type of distillers co-product (W-DDGS vs. B-DDGS) and dietary CP content [15.2 vs. 17.3%; dry matter (DM) basis]. The B-DDGS was produced from a mixture of 15% wheat and 85% corn grain. All diets were formulated to contain 10% W-DDGS or B-DDGS on a DM basis. No diet effect was observed on DM intake. Yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose, and plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations were lower in cows fed the low-CP compared with those fed the high-CP diet. Although feeding B-DDGS tended to reduce ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration compared with feeding W-DDGS (9.3 vs. 10.5mg/dL), no differences were observed in plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations. Additionally, dietary inclusion of B-DDGS compared with W-DDGS did not affect rumen-degradable protein supply, omasal flows of total N, microbial nonammonia N (NAN), rumen-undegradable protein, and total NAN, or urea-N recycling kinetics and milk production. However, cows fed the low-CP diet had lower N intake, rumen-degradable protein supply, ruminal NH3-N concentration, and omasal flows of N, microbial NAN, and total NAN compared with those fed the high-CP diet

  8. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P < 0.01), hunter a* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), and b* values (linear, P < 0.05) with a decrease in hunter L* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P < 0.01) by increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS. In conclusion, feeding diets containing 20% DDGS to laying hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Investigation of the Impact of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber through the Feeding of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on the Incidence and Severity of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wilberts, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Kinyon, Joann M.; Frana, Tim S.; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R.; Madson, Darin M.; Patience, John F.; Burrough, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or “B. hampsonii”) and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the “B. hampsonii” groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery. PMID:25485776

  10. The effects of coarse ground corn, whole sorghum, and a prebiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in broilers fed diets with and without corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, China; Parsons, Carl M

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 21 d of age and evaluated diets containing combinations of fine or coarse ground corn (557 or 1,387 μm, respectively), whole sorghum, 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a prebiotic-type product containing yeast cell wall, lactose, citric acid, and other fermentable carbohydrates. In experiment 1, feed efficiency was decreased (P < 0.001) after the first week of age for broilers fed diets containing whole sorghum, whereas broilers receiving diets with 15% DDGS had increased feed efficiency (P < 0.03) compared with those receiving no DDGS. In the second experiment, BW gain was increased (P < 0.03) after the first week of age for broilers fed diets containing the prebiotic and DDGS compared with their respective controls. In experiment 1, the diet containing sorghum yielded the highest AMEn value (P < 0.03). In experiment 2, diets containing the combination of the prebiotic + DDGS yielded higher AMEn values (P < 0.004) at 7 and 21 d compared with diets containing no combination. The effects of diet on amino acid digestibility were generally small and inconsistent in both experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed the coarse corn or whole sorghum diets had increased (P < 0.0001) relative gizzard weights compared with broilers fed the fine corn diet. Also, diets containing DDGS yielded increased relative gizzard weights (P < 0.05) compared with diets containing no DDGS. In experiment 2, there was a decrease (P < 0.03) in cecal Escherichia coli when the combination of the coarse ground corn, prebiotic, and DDGS was fed in comparison with broilers receiving no prebiotic or DDGS. These results indicate that diets containing coarsely ground corn or whole sorghum in combination with DDGS can be fed to broilers with no long-term adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and that these ingredients can have beneficial effects on AMEn, gizzard size, and cecal microflora in some instances.

  11. A comparison of different dilute solution explosions pretreatment for conversion of distillers' grains into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue-Hong; Zhong, Xia; Deng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of distillers' grains converting to ethanol, 13 dilute solution explosions were evaluated based on the optimization of pure water explosion. To decrease residual inhibitor content, the exploded slurry was dried at 105°C. Using a 1.1 mol/L butanone solution explosion, with the explosion temperature set at 160°C (pressure at 1.9 MPa), the residence time at 10 min, and the dried distillers' grains-to-water ratio at 1:2 (w/w), the yields of total sugar, glucose, and xylose were 86%, 89%, and 84% (w/w), respectively, and the ethanol yield was 25.3 g/100 g distillers' grains dry matter. Moreover, the eight other reagent solution explosions improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, and of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and the residual contents of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid decreased to an acceptable concentration range after detoxification by drying. The results suggested that compared with pure water explosions, the use of volatile solutions lowered the explosive temperature and improved the sugar yield. This study offers a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials with higher starch and hemicelluloses contents as raw materials for converting biomass to bioethanol.

  12. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  13. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  14. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  15. Effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bingdong; Nie, Shaoping; Meng, Qingwei; Qu, Zhe; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Sows (Landrace×Large White) with an average parity of 4·2 with similar body weight were randomly assigned to four groups of thirty each. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the total superoxide dismutase activity but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde of the jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets and decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and l-carnitine on the bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in weaning piglets on day 21 were significantly increased by l-carnitine only in soyabean meal diet, but there was no significant effect of l-carnitine in DDGS-based diet. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the bacterial numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria spp. in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in sows affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets, and by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. In conclusion, dietary

  16. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  17. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, gut morphology, and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of yeast-derived products and distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and innate immune response in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Nine replicates of 5 birds each were assigned to dietary treatments consisting of a control diet without antibiotic (C), and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus, 0.025% of nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On d 21, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and approximately 5-cm long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum segments were collected for intestinal morphology measurements. Cecal tonsils and spleen were collected to measure the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, and IL-4. No significant difference was observed for growth performance parameters. However, diets containing 0.05% of nucleotides and YCW significantly increased (P < 0.05) villus height in the jejunum. Furthermore, the number of the goblet cells per unit area in the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) in diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. The expression of TLR2b in the spleen was down-regulated for diets supplemented with nucleotides and antibiotic. In addition, lower expression of TLR21 and MMR was observed in the spleen of birds receiving yeast-derived products and antibiotic. However, expression of TLR4 in the spleen was up-regulated in diets supplemented with YCW and nucleotides. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 was down-regulated in the spleen of birds fed diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. In addition, inclusion of YCW, Maxi-Gen Plus, or 0.05% of nucleotides down-regulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-4 in the cecal tonsils. In conclusion, down-regulation of receptors and cytokines in spleen and cecal tonsils of

  18. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) N flow to the small intestine. The undegradable intake protein (UIP) value of DDGS was 35%. Postruminal digestion of OM (linear effect, P = 0.04) and fatty acids (linear effect, P = 0.03) and total tract digestion of OM and GE decreased (linear effect, P < 0.03) with increasing level of DDGS substitution. Substitution with DDGS did not affect (P = 0.80) ruminal pH but increased (linear effect, P = 0.01) acetate:propionate molar ratio. In Exp.2, 144 Holsteins steer (112 ± 6 kg) were used in a 305-d trial to evaluate treatment effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. During the initial 126 d, DDGS substitution increased ADG (linear effect, P = 0.03), G:F (quadratic effect, P = 0.03), and dietary NE (quadratic effect, P = 0.02), maximal for both at 20% DDGS inclusion rate. Based on estimated indispensable AA supply to the small intestine as a percentage of requirements during the initial 126-d period, histidine was first limiting followed by methionine. During the final 179-d period and overall (305-d feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf

  19. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Cole, N A; Jenkins, K H; Meyer, B E; McCollum, F T; Preece, S L M; Auvermann, B W; Heflin, K R; MacDonald, J C

    2012-12-01

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial BW = 354 kg ± 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn (SFC)- and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 20% WDGS (0SFC, 20SFC, 0DRC, and 20DRC, respectively). Heifers averaged 154 d on feed and were marketed in 3 groups. There were no interactions between corn processing method and WDGS detected (P ≥ 0.29) for any performance or carcass response variables. Heifers fed diets containing WDGS tended to have greater final BW (P = 0.10) and increased G:F (P = 0.08) compared with heifers fed diets without WDGS. Heifers fed SFC-based diets consumed 7% less feed (P < 0.01) and were 9% more efficient (P < 0.01) than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Carcass characteristics were not affected by corn processing method or WDGS inclusion (P ≥ 0.16). Intakes of OM, N, P, and K were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for heifers fed DRC-based diets than those fed SFC-based diets, which resulted in greater net accumulation of the nutrients in the manure (P ≤ 0.04). Heifers fed diets containing WDGS had greater (P < 0.01) intakes of N, P, and K than heifers fed diets without WDGS. As a result, a greater net accumulation of P and K (P ≤ 0.03) and N (P = 0.10) were present in the manure from cattle fed diets containing WDGS compared with those fed diets without WDGS. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.16) between corn processing and WDGS on N volatilization losses. Nitrogen volatilization losses from manure (expressed as a percentage of intake and g·heifer(-1)·d(-1)) were greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed SFC-based diets than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Feeding DRC-based finishing diets to heifers

  20. Supplementation of corn dried distillers' grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage: II. Impacts on uterine blood flow, circulating estradiol-17β and progesterone, and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, V C; Mordhorst, B R; Gaspers, J J; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Lemley, C O; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS) during late gestation on uterine blood flow (BF), circulating steroid hormones and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzymes, and calf and placental weights. Multiparous beef cows were randomly divided into a control group (CON; = 15) consuming a diet containing 90% corn stover and 10% corn silage (DM basis) for ad libitum intake and a treatment group (SUP; = 12) consuming the same diet and DDGS (0.3% of BW). Corn silage inclusion was increased to 30% as gestation progressed to meet increasing caloric requirements. Ipsilateral and contralateral uterine BF and cross-sectional area (CSA) of each uterine artery were measured by Doppler ultrasonography on d 180, 216, and 246 of pregnancy. Contralateral BF and CSA increased ( < 0.01) as gestation advanced. Ipsilateral BF and CSA was affected by a treatment × day of gestation interaction ( < 0.05). A main effect of treatment ( = 0.02) and day ( < 0.01) was observed for total BF; BF increased over time and SUP cows had greater BF than CON cows. Circulating concentrations of both progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2) were affected by an interaction of treatment and day ( < 0.01). Concentrations of circulating E2 steadily increased throughout the study and were greater in CON cows than in SUP cows by d 242. Concentrations of P4 also increased over time; P4 of CON cows was greater than that of SUP cows by d 242. Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity increased with advancing gestation ( < 0.01). There was greater UGT activity ( < 0.05) and a trend for greater CYP1A activity ( = 0.06) in SUP cows than in CON cows. Activity of cytochrome P450 3A was greater ( < 0.01) in SUP cows and decreased ( < 0.05) with advancing gestation. Supplementing DDGS to cows fed low-quality forage during late gestation increased uterine BF but decreased circulating E2 and P4

  1. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    Excess protein in dairy cattle diets increases production costs and contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplemented with rumen-protected Lys and Met in place of solvent-extracted soybean meal on the performance of late-lactation cows. Two experiments were carried out, with each using 24 late-lactating dairy cows distributed among 4 pens. In trial 1, corn silage was the main forage source. Control (HP1) total mixed ration (TMR) contained 16.3% crude protein (CP) with soybean meal as the main protein source. Treatment TMR (LP1) had 13.7% CP when soybean meal was replaced with DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Forage in trial 2 was ryegrass silage; control TMR (HP2; 15.4% CP) contained soybean meal and rumen-protected Met, whereas treatment TMR (LP2; 13.8% CP) contained DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Trials were analyzed as crossover design using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC) with cow as sampling unit and pen as the experimental unit. Treatments were similar in dry matter intake (21.0 and 20.4 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) and milk yield (20.7 and 20.5 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) during trial 1. Milk composition was similar between treatments, averaging 4.22, 3.73, 4.54, and 9.15, respectively, for fat, protein, lactose, and solids nonfat. Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 17.2 mg/dL for HP1 to 9.93 mg/dL for LP1. In trial 2, no significant differences were observed for dry matter intake (21.4 and 20.9 kg/cow per day for HP2 and LP2, respectively), milk yield (28.1 and 26.6 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), fat yield (0.99 vs. 0.92 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), protein yield (0.94 vs. 0.86 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively) and lactose yield (1.37 vs. 1.28 for HP2 and LP2, respectively). Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 9.88 mg/dL with HP2 to 6.39 mg/dL with the LP2

  2. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  3. New co-products from grain-based fuel ethanol production and their drying performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. and elsewhere is an important and growing industry. In the U.S, about 40% of annual corn production is now converted into fuel ethanol. During co-product recovery, condensed distillers solubles (CDS) has to be mixed with distillers wet grains before drying due to ...

  4. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Jaderborg, J P; Crawford, G I; DiCostanzo, A; Spiehs, M J; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2015-10-01

    The effects of feeding a dry-rolled corn-based diet (DRCB) or a combination of a high-moisture corn-based diet (HMCB) with dry-rolled corn (DRC; 2:1 ratio of high-moisture corn [HMC] and DRC) with 25 and 45% wet distillers' grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, the WDGS × diet type interaction, and period and the random effects of square and steer within square were also included. Treatments consisted of a DRCB with 25% WDGS, a DRCB with 45% WDGS, a combination of HMCB and DRC with 25% WDGS, and a combination of HMCB and DRC with 45% WDGS. Cattle consuming DRCB consumed a greater amount of DM ( < 0.01) and GE intake was also greater when feeding DRCB with 25% WDGS than when feeding DRCB with 45% WDGS ( < 0.01). As a proportion of GE intake, cattle consuming HMCB had a greater fecal energy loss ( = 0.01). Digestible energy loss as a proportion of GE intake was greater when cattle were fed DRCB than when cattle were fed HMCB ( = 0.01) and when WDGS was included at 45% of DM ( = 0.05). As a proportion of GE intake, cattle consuming DRCB and 25% WDGS respired a greater amount of methane (Mcal) than cattle consuming 45% WDGS. As a proportion of GE intake, ME was greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( = 0.01). Within HMCB, 45% WDGS had more megacalories of retained energy than 25% WDGS. Nitrogen excretion (g) was greater in the urine ( < 0.01) and feces ( < 0.05) when 45% WDGS was included. As a proportion of N intake, total N retained was greater when a greater amount of WDGS was included in the diet ( = 0.05). Digestibility was greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( = 0.02). Starch intake, excretion, and digestibility as a proportion of intake were greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( < 0.01) and when WDGS was included at 25% than when WDGS was included at 45% of the diet ( < 0.01). Intake of ether extract was

  5. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  6. Stagewise dilute-acid pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis of distillers' grains and corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Noureddini, Hossein; Byun, Jongwon; Yu, Ta-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Distillers' grains and corn fiber are the coproducts of the corn dry grind and wet milling industries, respectively. Availability of distillers' grains and corn fiber at the ethanol plant and their high levels of lignocellulosic material make these coproducts attractive feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of these coproducts was investigated in a multistage scheme. After the completion of each pretreatment stage, the liquid substrate was separated and reused in the succeeding pretreatment stage with a fresh substrate. The substrate from each stage was also subjected to enzyme hydrolysis in a separate experiment. The sulfuric acid concentration and the substrate loading were maintained at 1.0 vol% and 15.0 wt.%, respectively, and the temperature was maintained at 120 degrees C in all the experiments. Experiments were also performed to study the effect of removing oil from the samples prior to the pretreatment. The highest concentration of monomeric sugars (MS) was observed when three stages of pretreatment were followed by the enzyme reaction. The enzyme hydrolysis of the three-stage pretreated dried distillers' grains and corn fiber yielded 122.6 +/- 5.8 and 184.5 +/- 4.1 mg/mL of MS, respectively. The formation of inhibitory products was also monitored.

  7. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications.

  8. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( < 0.001) and ADFI ( < 0.0001). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and GE were lower for the 30% DDGS diets than the 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.0001). Ractopamine improved ADG ( < 0.0001), G:F ( < 0.0001), and N retention ( < 0.001) and tended to increase daily water intake ( < 0.10). Pigs fed RAC had higher N intake and urinary excretion and lower N retention in Period 2 than in Period 1 ( < 0.05), indicating a decline in the response to RAC over time. Tylosin phosphate did not affect ADFI or G:F but did improve ATTD of N ( < 0.05). There was a tendency for a TP × DDGS interaction ( < 0.10) for ADG, where TP tended to increase ADG in pigs fed 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.10) but not in pigs fed 30% DDGS diets ( > 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC

  9. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-04-01

    Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ≥ 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ≤ 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ≥ 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ≤ 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended

  10. Effects of feeding dry-rolled corn-based diets with and without wet distillers grains with solubles and zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and heat stress in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Shackelford, S D; Wells, J E; King, D A; Hayes, M D; Brown-Brandl, T M; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C; Wheeler, T L

    2014-09-01

    Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) has been approved for use since 2006; however, there is no research on any interactions between ZH and coproducts. Additionally, there is no published information on the potential effects of ZH on heat stress in feedlot cattle. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets with and without wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and ZH on performance, carcass characteristics, and heat stress in feedlot cattle. Four hundred thirty-eight steers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in 16 pens with 26 to 28 steers in each pen. Factors consisted of inclusion of 0 or 30% (on a DM basis) WDGS and inclusion of ZH at 0 or 84 mg/steer daily for 21 d at the end of the finishing period. Therefore, cattle were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of the resulting 4 treatment combinations: 1) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS and 84 mg/steer ZH, 2) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS and no ZH, 3) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS and 84 mg/steer of ZH, and 4) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS and no ZH. Final live BW, carcass-adjusted BW, ADG, and G:F were greater for cattle fed ZH than non-ZH-fed cattle (P < 0.01). Additionally, cattle fed ZH consumed 7.4% less DM than cattle not fed ZH (P < 0.01). Cattle fed ZH for 21 d also had a 2.9% greater HCW (P < 0.01), a 1.1% greater dressing percentage (P < 0.01), 7.3% greater LM area (P < 0.01), and an 8.4% improvement in yield grade (P < 0.01) than cattle not fed ZH. For the main effect of WDGS inclusion, ADG was greater for cattle fed 0 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.04) and G:F also tended to be greater for cattle fed 0 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.07) for the 21-d ZH feeding period. However, when evaluated over the entire experiment, cattle fed 30 vs. 0% WDGS had a greater ADG and G:F (P < 0.01). Furthermore, cattle fed 30 vs. 0% WDGS had a greater dressing percentage and tended to have a greater amount of 12th rib

  11. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P < 0.05) and had greater G:F (0.540 vs. 0.471 and 0.455; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the DDGS or the DDGS-S diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P < 0.01), but there was no difference between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets

  12. Enzyme characterization for hydrolysis of AFEX and liquid hot-water pretreated distillers' grains and their conversion to ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production, was investigated as a feedstock for additional ethanol production. DDGS was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) processes. Cellulose was readily converted to glucose from bo...

  13. Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distiller's grains (DG) are used extensively by beef cattle feeding operations in the United States, including the Southern Great Plains. Our regional research consortium has been conducting research focused on utilization of wet DG in feedlot diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). Effects of DG on...

  14. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  15. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-09-01

    New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal

  16. Optimal energy management in grain drying.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S

    1986-01-01

    Grain drying is very specific to the geographic location, kind of drying system, and the type of grain. Under a given set of conditions, the optimal system can be selected based on careful evaluation. However, a good choice of drying systems, procedures, and management practices can be made from the information already available. The review of several grain-drying procedures has provided some insight in making a quick evaluation of the process and arriving at the most suitable system for a particular application. Despite extensive research efforts, the present knowledge of grain drying is yet insufficient to optimally design each drying process with respect to capacity, quality, and energy requirement. There is a need for incorporating grain and air parameters more accurately. It is also important to develop comprehensive drying simulation models to encompass agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting. Recent efforts indicate a strong influence of planting and harvesting strategies on optimal drying and storage system selection. Results of the varietal trials at Ohio State University indicate that it is now possible to select midseason varieties, which dry down rapidly, without sacrificing yield. Also, low moisture at harvest is important to the energy management process because it affects total drying time and energy required. It is also important from a quality standpoint because kernel damage increases rapidly at harvesting moisture levels above 25%. The trend in grain-dryer design has shifted from focusing on drying capacity and operation reliability to energy consumption. The development in design of energy efficient continuous-flow dryers has been significant. Multistage concurrentflow dryers are excellent examples. Various aspects of dryer staging for efficient operation and control are yet to be determined. Recirculation of the exhaust air is a proven method of improving energy efficiency. Likewise, in batch-in-bin systems, stirring and

  17. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time.

  18. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on nutrient metabolism and enteric gas production in finishing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry rolled (DRC) and high moisture (HMC) corn are common corn processing methods used by feedlots in the Upper Midwest. Research is limited on higher inclusion rates of wet distillers grains with soluble (WDGS). Therefore, the effects of increasing the concentrations of WDGS in dry rolled and high m...

  19. Nutrient content and nutrient availability of sorghum wet distiller's grain in comparison with the parental grain for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Ana I; Bruni, María; Chilibroste, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare wet sorghum distiller's grain (WSDG) with sorghum grain (SG) in terms of: (i) chemical composition; (ii) in situ rumen degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF); (iii) crude protein (CP) sub-fractions; (iv) in situ disappearance at 12 and 48 h; and (v) energy values. The WSDG intestinal digestibility (ID) of undegradable crude protein (UCP) was compared to soybean meal (SBM). Compared to SG, WSDG exhibited: (i) lower (P < 0.01) dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrate content, whereas the other chemical components were higher (P < 0.01); (ii) higher (P < 0.01) degradation rates of OM and NDF and lower (P < 0.01) degradable fraction of OM and NDF; (iii) lower (P < 0.05) contents of CP sub-fractions A, B1 and B2, and higher (P < 0.05) contents of B3 and C; (iv) lower (P < 0.05) protein disappearance at 12 and 48 h and higher UCP; and (v) lower (P < 0.05) energy content. The ID of UCP for WSDG was lower (P < 0.05) compared to SBM. The WSDG as a supplement provides a good source of energy. To enable its use as a protein supplement, further studies should be performed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Stability, across environments, of grain and alcohol yield, in soft wheat varieties grown for grain distilling or bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Swanston, John Stuart; Smith, Pauline L; Thomas, William Tb; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Kindred, Daniel; Brosnan, James M; Bringhurst, Thomas A; Agu, Reginald C

    2014-12-01

    Soft-milling wheat has potential use for both grain whisky distilling and bioethanol production. Varietal comparisons over wide-ranging environments would permit assessment of both grain and alcohol yield potential and also permit the stability across environments, for these parameters, to be compared. For 12 varieties, analysis of variance showed highly significant effects of variety, site, season and fertiliser application on grain and alcohol yield. There were also significant interactions between these factors and, consequently, varieties varied in stability across environments as well as in mean values for the parameters assessed. Alcohol production per hectare was affected more strongly by variation in grain yield than alcohol yield, but increasing grain protein content reduced alcohol yield and, therefore, utility for grain distilling. To maximise energy production, the best varieties for bioethanol would combine high and stable grain yield with slower reduction of alcohol yield as grain protein increases. For grain distilling, where the energy balance is less important, high alcohol yield will remain the key factor. Data derived using near infrared spectroscopy can be valuable in assessing stability of quality traits across environments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  2. Nutrient excretion, phosphorus characterization, and phosphorus solubility in excreta from broiler checks fed diets containing graded levels of wheat distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increase in production of ethanol in North America has led to increased production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the majority of which are fed to livestock. While there is evidence that DDGS can be included into poultry diets at rates as high as 15%, there has been no data reg...

  3. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: In vitro fermentation and hydrogen sulfide production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDG) on in vitro rate of gas production, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were evaluated. Five substrate treatments that were balanced for ether extract content were arran...

  4. Supplementing rumen-protected methionine and lysine in low-protein diets based on corn distillers grains fed to lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and lysine (RPL) may allow feeding lower crude protein (CP) diets to dairy cows, thereby increasing nitrogen efficiency and reducing environmental impact. Moreover, RPL supplementation may improve the value of corn distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS)...

  5. Optimizing use of distillers grains in finishing diets containing steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Sindt, J J; Cole, N A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Two hundred ninety-nine crossbred yearling steers (363 +/- 15 kg initial BW) were fed for an average of 114 d in a finishing study comparing 7 diets in which steam-flaked corn was used as the principal energy source. Forty-nine pens were used in this study with 7 BW blocks, 7 pens per treatment, and 5 to 7 steers per pen. A control diet with no distillers grains with solubles (DGS) was compared with 6 diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). The diets contained wet sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, dried sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, wet corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay, or dried corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay. Apparent total tract digestibilities were calculated by total collection of fecal material from the concrete-surfaced pens over a 72-h period. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, and carcass characteristics were similar (P > or = 0.18) for steers fed finishing diets with or without 15% DGS. However, apparent total tract digestibilities of DM and OM were 2.8% less (P < or = 0.03) for finishing diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics were not different (P > or = 0.09) for steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum or corn DGS. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics also were not different (P > or = 0.10) for steers fed finishing diets containing wet or dried DGS. Steers fed sorghum DGS with 6% hay consumed more DM (P < 0.01) and gained more BW (P < 0.01) than steers fed diets without hay, but G:F were not different (P > 0.78). Sorghum DGS diets containing alfalfa hay were 4% less (P = 0.01) digestible than sorghum DGS diets containing no hay. Carcasses of steers fed sorghum DGS diets without hay were lighter, leaner, and had decreased USDA yield grades (P = 0.01) compared with steers fed sorghum DGS diets containing hay. Feeding moderate levels (i.e., 15%, DM basis) of DGS resulted in growth performance and carcass

  6. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds.

  7. A two-step fermentation of distillers' grains using Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris for fish feed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Li, Shun-Zhou; You, Ling; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Chuan-Ze; Liu, Xiao-Bin

    2013-10-01

    It is important to provide added value or to make full use of the co-product of grains from ethanol production. In order to convert distillers' grains into a high-quality feed, the Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris fermentation were combined and investigated in this study. The T. viride fermentation was carried out in an aerobic fermentation installation in favoring of the growth of the fungi and the degradation of the cellulose, and then the fermentation of R. palustris was performed to increase the content of protein with an anaerobic installation. After the two step fermentations, the true protein content of dried distiller' grains increased from 11.4 to 33.6 % (w/w) (the content of crude protein from 14.5 to 39.7 %), the crude fiber content decreased from 21.3 to 7.6 % (w/w), the crude fat content increased from 5.5 to 7.9 % (w/w), the crude ash decreased from 14.6 to 10.2 % (w/w), the total phosphorus content increased from 0.4 to 1.2 % (w/w), and the water content was 11.8 % (w/w). The dried and fermented grains contain the R. palustris viable count of 5.3 × 10¹¹ CFU/g dry matter. The results may support a new application of an active photosynthetic bacteria fish feed in fisheries industry and offer a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials as raw materials converting into high-quality feed.

  8. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  9. Effect of compositional variability of Distillers' Grains on cellulosic ethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a dry grind ethanol plant, approximately 0.84 kg of dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced per liter of ethanol. The distillers’ grains contain the unhydrolyzed and unprocessed cellulosic fraction of corn kernels, which could be further converted to ethanol or other valuable b...

  10. Impact of using virginiamycin in the fuel ethanol production process on distillers grains coproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotics are frequently used to reduce bacterial contamination in commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, but there is concern that antibiotic residues may persist in the distillers grains (DDG) coproducts that are utilized for cattle feed. A study was conducted in the pilot plant facilities at t...

  11. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles to beef cattle on air and manure quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air quality is becoming a pressing issue for beef feedlot producers. Feeding practices influence the excretion of starch, fiber, nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) in manure, thereby affecting nutrient content and the production of ammonia and odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS...

  12. Substituting steam-flaked corn with 20% whole shelled corn in finishing diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles did not affect performance and feed conversion in feedlot heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous feeding studies suggest there may be an interaction between grain processing method and the feeding of wet distillers grains (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets, such that the growth response to feeding WDGS in beef cattle finishing diets based on dry rolled corn is greater than in steam ...

  13. Meat quality responses to feeding distiller's grains to finishing Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Roeber, D L; Gill, R K; DiCostanzo, A

    2005-10-01

    Strip loins from two experiments were used to evaluate effects of feeding dry (DDG) or wet (WDG) distiller's grains on beef color, tenderness, and sensory traits of Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, conducted at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, dietary treatments consisted of a control whole corn-corn silage diet with soybean meal (SBM) or diets formulated with 12.5% DDG plus urea, 25% DDG, 25% WDG, 50% DDG, or 50% WDG (DM basis). In Exp. 2, conducted at Iowa State University, dietary treatments consisted of cracked corn-corn silage-hay diets with either SBM or urea (Urea) as the control diets, or diets formulated with 10, 20, or 40% DDG or WDG (DM basis). Within each study, strip loins from each of four steers (representing 45.7 and 66.6% of steers in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) in four replicate pens per treatment were aged for 13 d at 4 degrees C for subsequent color, tenderness, and palatability evaluation. Color of steaks was measured objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE spectrophotometer and was subjectively evaluated by a trained panel. Tenderness was measured using the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) instrument on steaks cooked to 70 degrees C. For sensory evaluation, 95 consumers were recruited to evaluate tenderness, juiciness, and flavor of cooked steaks. In Exp. 1, steaks from steers fed 25% WDG had higher (P < 0.05) a* values after 138 h of simulated retail display than all other treatments, except for those from steers fed 12.5% DDG. In Exp. 2, a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of steaks from steers fed 40% DDG or 40% WDG were considered moderately undesirable during retail display (steaks that received a consumer acceptability score of 3 or less). There were no (P = 0.20 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.33 in Exp. 2) differences among treatments in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 for WBSF (1.47 +/- 0.66 kg and 1.58 +/- 0.72 kg, respectively) or taste panel tenderness (5.7 +/- 0.30 and 6.2 +/- 0.22, respectively), beef flavor (6.0 +/- 0.23 and 6.2 +/- 0

  14. Effect of increasing oil from distillers grains or corn oil on lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Bertics, S; Armentano, L E

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate production response and more specifically percentage and yield of fat in milk from dairy cows fed distillers grains with added solubles (DGS). It was hypothesized that the oil present in DGS would decrease milk fat yield. Four dietary treatments consisted of dried DGS replacing soybean meal and soybean hulls. The DGS inclusion rates as a percentage of dry matter (DM) were 0, 5, 10, and 15% DGS. To determine the role of oil in DGS, a fifth diet similar to 0% DGS with added corn oil (OIL) was included. Twenty multiparous Holsteins were assigned to a replicated, 5 x 5 Latin Square design with periods of 21 d. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration. Feeding OIL or 15% DGS resulted in similar production of milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Increasing dietary DGS linearly increased milk production and milk true protein yield. Adding corn oil increased milk yield and, although milk true protein yield also tended to increase with oil, milk true protein concentration decreased. The addition of DGS or OIL did not significantly change fat yield from 0% DGS; however, fat concentration in milk was significantly decreased by DGS due to increased fluid milk production. In diets containing approximately 28% NDF, cottonseed, blood and fish meal, feeding DGS to bring total dietary fatty acids to 5% of diet DM increased milk and milk protein yield without decreasing milk fat yield. Reduced proportions of shorter chain fatty acids and increased proportions of longer chain fatty acids in milk as dietary fatty acid content increased suggests that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland was inhibited but this was offset by increased secretion of long-chain fatty acids, presumably absorbed from the diet. Therefore, our hypothesis that feeding corn oil either as DGS or as pure corn oil would decrease milk fat yield was not correct.

  15. Determination of the Relative Effectiveness of Four Food Additives in Degrading Aflatoxin in Distillers Wet Grains and Condensed Distillers Solubles.

    PubMed

    Shi, H U; Stroshine, Richard L; Ileleji, Klein

    2017-01-01

    The food additives sodium bisulfite, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, and ammonium persulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in degrading aflatoxin in samples of distillers wet grains (DWG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) obtained from an industrial ethanol plant. Aqueous food additive solutions, 0.5% by weight, were added to DWG or CDS at the level of 0.5 ml/g of sample, and the materials were heated at 90°C for 1 h. Sodium bisulfite was not effective in degrading aflatoxin in either DWG or CDS. Among the four food additives tested, sodium hypochlorite was the most effective. However, it bleached the substrate and left an off-odor. Citric acid and ammonium persulfate reduced aflatoxin levels by 31 to 51%. Citric acid is the most promising additive for degrading aflatoxin because it has been classified as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Aflatoxin reduction was enhanced by increasing the citric acid addition level and prolonging the heating time. Reductions of 65 and 80% in DWG and CDS, respectively, were obtained by the addition of 2.5% (by weight) citric acid and heating at 90°C for 1 h. Aflatoxin levels in DWG and CDS were gradually reduced with prolonged heating at 90°C, even without the addition of food additives. Aflatoxin reductions of 53 and 73% were achieved in DWG and CDS as a result of heating at 90°C for 5 h.

  16. Methods to recover value-added coproducts from dry grind processing of grains into fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keshun; Barrows, Frederic T

    2013-07-31

    Three methods are described to fractionate condensed distillers solubles (CDS) into several new coproducts, including a protein-mineral fraction and a glycerol fraction by a chemical method; a protein fraction, an oil fraction and a glycerol-mineral fraction by a physical method; or a protein fraction, an oil fraction, a mineral fraction, and a glycerol fraction by a physicochemical method. Processing factors (ethanol concentration and centrifuge force) were also investigated. Results show that the three methods separated CDS into different fractions, with each fraction enriched with one or more of the five components (protein, oil, ash, glycerol and other carbohydrates) and thus having different targeted end uses. Furthermore, because glycerol, a hygroscopic substance, was mostly shifted to the glycerol or glycerol-mineral fraction, the other fractions had much faster moisture reduction rates than CDS upon drying in a forced air oven at 60 °C. Thus, these methods could effectively solve the dewatering problem of CDS, allowing elimination of the current industrial practice of blending distiller wet grains with CDS for drying together and production of distiller dried grains as a standalone coproduct in addition to a few new fractions.

  17. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  18. Ruminal and intestinal degradability of distillers grains plus solubles varies by source.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmit, D H; Anderson, J L; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R

    2007-06-01

    Currently in the dairy industry, there is a concern about the variability in the nutrient content among sources of distillers grains plus solubles (DG), but little research has evaluated the variability in metabolizable AA among sources. The ruminal degradability of crude protein (CP) in soybean meal (SBM), dried DG from 5 sources (DG1, DG2, DG3, DG4, and DG5), and 1 source of wet DG (WDG) were determined using 2 lactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows. Feeds were incubated in the rumen for 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 h. Intestinal CP digestibility via pepsin and pancreatin and AA profiles were measured on residue from 12-h ruminal incubation of feeds. Ruminal undegradable protein (RUP) was less for SBM (46.4%) than for DG. The WDG (53.6%) had less RUP than dried DG. The RUP concentrations of DG3 (59.1%) and DG5 (60.3%) were lower than DG1 (71.7%) and DG4 (67.5%), with DG1 having more than DG2 (63.7%) and DG4. Intestinal digestibility of RUP was greater for SBM (86.7%) than DG. The DG2 (76.8%) and DG3 (74.2%) had greater intestinal digestibility compared with DG1 (59.2%), DG4 (63.0%), and DG5 (68.1%). The intestinal digestibility in WDG (65.8%) was similar to all other DG except for DG1, which was lower. Total digestibility of CP was greater in SBM (93.9%) compared with DG. Among the DG sources, the CP in DG2 (85.3%) and DG3 (84.9%) was more digestible compared with DG1 (70.7%), DG4 (74.9%), and DG5 (80.8%) but not WDG (81.9%). Based on the milk protein score (MPS), which is an estimate of the proportion of milk protein that a protein source can sustain until the first limiting AA is depleted, Met was the first limiting AA in SBM and Lys in DG. The concentrations of essential AA in the RUP were not different among DG sources, but the greater MPS in WDG (0.306) compared with the dried DG (0.240) sources indicated that WDG may have been the more ideal RUP source; but, the MPS of the metabolizable protein indicated that the protein quality of WDG was similar to that

  19. Measurement of rheology of distiller's grain slurries using a helical impeller viscometer.

    PubMed

    Houchin, Tiffany L; Hanley, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Current research is focused on developing a process to convert the cellulose and hemicellulose in distiller's grains into fermentable sugars, increasing both ethanol yield and the amount of protein in the remaining solid product. The rheologic properties of distiller's grain slurries were determined for concentrations of 21, 23, and 25%. Distiller's grain slurries are non-Newtonian, heterogeneous fluids subject to particle settling. Traditional methods of viscosity measurement, such as cone-and-plate and concentric cylinder viscometers, are not adequate for these fluids. A helical impeller viscometer was employed to measure impeller torque over a range of rotational speeds. Newtonian and non-Newtonian calibration fluids were utilized to obtain constants that relate shear stresses and shear rates to the experimental data. The Newtonian impeller constant, c, was 151; the non-Newtonian shear rate constant, k, was 10.30. Regression analysis of experimental data was utilized for comparison to power law, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson viscosity models with regression coefficients exceeding 0.99 in all cases.

  20. Modeling the effects of pelleting on the logistics of distillers grains shipping.

    PubMed

    Rosentrater, Kurt A; Kongar, Elif

    2009-12-01

    The energy security needs of energy importing nations continue to escalate. It is clear that biofuels can help meet some of the increasing need for energy. Theoretically, these can be produced from a variety of biological materials, including agricultural residues (such as corn stover and wheat straw), perennial grasses, legumes, algae, and other biological materials. Currently, however, the most heavily utilized material is corn starch. Industrial fuel ethanol production in the US primarily uses corn, because it is readily converted into fuel at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of corn-based ethanol in the US is dramatically increasing. As the industry continues to grow, the amount of byproducts and coproducts also increases. At the moment, the nonfermentable residues (which are dried and sold as distillers dried grains with solubles--DDGS) are utilized only as livestock feed. The sale of coproducts provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. Even though these materials are used to feed animals in local markets, as the size and scope of the industry continues to grow, the need to ship large quantities of coproducts grows as well. This includes both domestic as well as international transportation. Value-added processing options offer the potential to increase the sustainability of each ethanol plant, and thus the industry overall. However, implementation of new technologies will be dependent upon how their costs interact with current processing costs and the logistics of coproduct deliveries. The objective of this study was to examine some of these issues by developing a computer model to determine potential cost ramifications of using various alternative technologies during ethanol processing. This paper focuses specifically on adding a densification unit operation (i.e., pelleting) to produce value-added DDGS at a fuel ethanol

  1. Effect of distillers grains or corn supplementation frequency on forage intake and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Loy, T W; MacDonald, J C; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E

    2007-10-01

    Ten ruminally cannulated heifers (BW = 416 kg; SD = 24) were used to test the effect of the form and frequency of supplemental energy on forage DMI and digestibility. Five treatments were arranged in a replicated, 5 x 4 Latin rectangle (n = 8), and included no supplement (control), dry-rolled corn (DRC) fed daily, DRC fed on alternate days (DRC-A), dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) fed daily, and DDGS fed on alternate days (DDGS-A). Supplements fed daily were fed at 0.40% of BW, whereas alternate day-fed supplements were fed at 0.80% of BW every other day. Chopped grass hay (8.2% CP) was fed to allow ad libitum DMI, and the intake pattern was measured. Control heifers had greater (P < 0.01) hay DMI than supplemented heifers (1.88 vs. 1.66% of BW daily, respectively), although total DMI was lower (P < 0.01) for control. Hay DMI did not differ (P = 0.45) between DRC and DDGS, and tended to be lower (P = 0.08) by heifers on DDGS-A and DRC-A than by heifers supplemented daily. Hay intake was lower (P < 0.01) on supplementation days for DDGS-A and DRC-A than on nonsupplemented days. Heifers in alternate-day treatments had fewer (P < 0.01) and larger (P < 0.01) meals and spent less (P < 0.01) time eating than those supplemented daily. Average rumen pH was greater (P = 0.05) for control than supplemented heifers (6.30 vs. 6.19). Control heifers had greater (P = 0.04) rates and extents of NDF disappearance than supplemented heifers. Rate of hay NDF disappearance was lower (P = 0.02) for DRC than for DDGS. Supplementation decreased hay DMI and changed digestion kinetics. Supplementation frequency affected amount and pattern of DMI. Rate of hay NDF disappearance was greater for DDGS than DRC.

  2. Effects of concentration and source of wet distiller's grains on digestibiity of steam-flaked corn-based diet fed to finishing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The source and dietary concentration of wet distiller's grains may affect the digestibility of beef cattle finishing diets. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of graded levels of a sorghum + corn-based wet distiller's grains plus solubles (NMDGS) and corn-based distiller'...

  3. Characterization of key aroma compounds in distiller's grains from wheat as a basis for utilization in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Roth, M; Meiringer, M; Kollmannsberger, H; Zarnkow, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

    2014-11-12

    The limited use of distiller's grains (DG) in the food industry depends occasionally on the characteristic odor of DG. For a better understanding of this typical odor, a sensory evaluation was performed first. The impressions seasoninglike, roasty/breadlike, and malty/caramellike were revealed as the most intensive odors. Furthermore, analysis of volatile flavor compounds was applied on dried DG from wheat. Isolation was performed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and simultaneous distillation/extraction and identification with gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. As a result, 42 odor-active compounds could be identified in total. Among 24 of the 42 odor-active compounds obtained by SAFE, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoninglike) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor, and 7 compounds (3-methylbutanioc acid, dimethyl trisulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-phenylethanol, 2,6-nonadienal, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone) with a FD factor ≥ 32 were identified as key aroma compounds in DG from wheat.

  4. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants.

  5. Hydrolysis of oligosaccharides from distillers grains using organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Jason A; Entorf, Matthew; Eder, Judd; Shanks, Brent H

    2008-08-01

    The use of propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides released by hydrothermal pretreatment of distiller's grains was examined in batch reactor studies. The effectiveness of the catalyst system for oligosaccharide hydrolysis was found to improve significantly with increased reaction temperature. This higher temperature operation allowed for more selective recovery of glucose, but was detrimental to arabinose recovery since significant degradation occurred. Xylose recovery efficiency improved with increasing temperature, but the higher temperature led to increased degradation. Using a model feed, solubilized proteins were found to deactivate the organic-inorganic hybrid catalyst, but a simple pretreatment with activated silica was found to alleviate the deactivation.

  6. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P < 0.05), HCW (P = 0.06), fat thickness (P = 0.10), and % KPH (P = 0.08) responded quadratically to early DDGS supplementation, increasing from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and decreasing from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion, respectively. Marbling score was not affected (P > 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and

  7. Nutrient excretion and odorant production in manure from cattle fed corn wet distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, M J; Varel, V H

    2009-09-01

    Twenty-four cross bred steers (BW 452.5 +/- 15.5 kg) were used to evaluate nutrient excretion and odorous compounds in urine and feces of feedlot steers fed diets containing corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). Cattle were weighed, blocked by BW, and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dry-rolled corn-based diets containing 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS (DM basis). A 96-h total fecal and urine collection was conducted. Orts, feces, and urine were collected daily. Samples were analyzed for moisture, total N, total P, water soluble P, and total S. Fresh fecal samples were collected at the end of the balance trial for analysis of VFA, phenol, p-cresol, indole, skatole, ammonia-N, and lactate concentration. Total P, N, and S intake increased linearly as the amount of WDGS increased in the diet (P or= 0.11). Total N excretion increased linearly as dietary WDGS inclusion increased (P < 0.01) and was due to a linear increase in urinary N excretion (P < 0.01). Total S excretion also increased as WDGS concentration increased in the diet (P < 0.01). Dietary treatment did not affect the concentration of odorous compounds in urine (P >or= 0.07). Total VFA concentration in feces decreased as WDGS increased in the diet (P < 0.01), but branched-chained VFA concentrations (isobutyrate and isovalerate) and phenol in feces increased when WDGS replaced corn in the diet (P or= 0.09). This study indicates that feedlot cattle fed increasing amounts of WDGS had increased P, N, and S intake and excretion, which may contribute to the production of odorous compounds

  8. Whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets with different concentrations of wet distiller's grains plus solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  9. Effect of distiller's grain in steam flaked corn based diets on the fecal microbiota of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and aims: The high demand for ethanol in the United States has generated large stocks of wet distiller's grains (DG) derived as a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Energy dense DG are attractive for use as a feed supplement for beef cattle production....

  10. Evaluation of whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing different concentrations of wet distiller's grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  11. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P < 0.05) AID of DM, N, Ca, and P. Increasing phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) AID of P and Ca, respectively, with AID of Ca showing a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.053). Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) AID of P from 46 to 62%. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, Ca, P, Mg, K, and energy. Contrasts showed that phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID for 8 indispensable AA (Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val), 6 dispensable AA (Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, and Tyr), as well as for total AA. Furthermore, phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P < 0.10) to increase ileal digestibility of Gly. Ileal digestibility of Met, Trp, and Pro were not affected by phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P < 0.05) in AID of 6

  12. Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of wet corn distillers grains with solubles ensiled in combination with whole plant corn.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, Kamal; Kalscheur, Kenneth F; Garcia, Alvaro D

    2011-05-01

    Wet corn distillers grains with solubles (WDG) are prone to aerobic spoilage when stored for an extended period of time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of ensiling WDG with whole plant corn (WPC) using the following combinations: (1) 100% WPC; (2) 75% WPC + 25% WDG; (3) 50% WPC + 50% WDG; and (4) 100% WDG. The initial pH was greatest for 100% WPC and lowest for 100% WDG (5.7, 4.6, 4.0, and 3.1, respectively). Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (12.0, 26.8, 40.7, and 50.8 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) and Crude protein (CP) (98.7, 155.8, 206.8, and 307.9 g kg(-1) of DM) increased with increasing concentrations of WDG. Lactic acid concentration prior to ensiling was greatest for 100% WDG (9.0 g kg(-1) DM) and decreased with WPC in the silage. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were not present prior to ensiling. The pH of the ensiled feeds dropped below 4.0 by day 3, with no further decrease over time. Acetic acid increased from undetected amounts at day 0 to 38.8, 43.9, 43.2, and 2.2 g kg(-1) of DM at day 129 as concentration of WDG increased. Aerobic stability was enhanced with increasing WDG concentration in the silage. Fermentation, nutrient profile, and aerobic stability can be improved when ensiling wet distillers grains with whole plant corn. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG), a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG), and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG), 5S (5% sorghum-based DG), 10S (10% sorghum DG), and 15S (15% sorghum DG) were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet) and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set) were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%), Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%), Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%), Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%), Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%), and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%). Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01), WS3 (p = 0.054), Actinobacteria (p

  14. Dry-distillation of astatine-211 from irradiated bismuth targets: a time-saving procedure with high recovery yields.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jensen, H J

    2001-08-01

    Astatine-211 was produced via the 209Bi(alpha,2n) 211At reaction. The radionuclide was isolated with a novel procedure employing dry-distillation of the irradiated target material. The astatine was condensed as a dry residue in a PEEK-capillary cryotrap. Distillation was completed within 1-2 min with isolation yields of 92 +/- 3%. Subsequent work-up of the nuclide resulted in final recovery yields of 79 +/- 3%.

  15. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  16. Proteomic analysis of coffee grains exposed to different drying process.

    PubMed

    Livramento, Kalynka Gabriella do; Borém, Flávio Meira; José, Anderson Cleiton; Santos, Agenor Valadares; Livramento, Darlan Einstein do; Alves, José Donizeti; Paiva, Luciano Vilela

    2017-04-15

    Many biochemical events occur inside grains during post-harvest processes. Several methods have been developed to relate the chemical composition of the coffee grain to the beverage quality, including identification of possible molecular markers for flavor characterizing. This study was aimed at evaluating the changes in the proteomic profile of pulped and natural C. arabica grains dried in a yard or dryer at 60°C. It was observed that fruits dried in a dryer at 60°C showed an altered proteomic profile, with a reduction in the most abundant proteins compared to those yard-dried grains. Among the identified proteins, those involved in the metabolism of sugars and stress response were highlighted. Results have shown that post-harvest processes that impact coffee quality are related to changes in protein abundance, indicating that proteomic analysis may be effective in the identification of biochemical changes in coffee grains subjected to different post-harvest processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of level of alfalfa hay in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing 25% sorghum wet distiller's grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two hundred forty crossbred yearling steers (379 +/-19 kg) were blocked by weight and used in a completely randomized design study to determine effects of 25% wet distiller's grains (WDG) derived from sorghum in steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets, and to determine effects of level of alfalfa hay (7...

  18. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  19. Ensiling characteristics of distillers wet grains with corn stalks and determination of the feeding potential for dairy heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The characteristics and feeding potential of corn distillers wet grains with solubles (DWGS) ensiled with corn stalks (CS) were evaluated in a two-part experiment. A mix of 66.7 % DWGS and 33.3 % CS (as-fed) was ensiled in two plastic silage bags. One silage bag was left untreated (UNT) and the othe...

  20. Effects of wet distillers grains with solubles on visceral organ mass, trace mineral status, and polioencephalomalacia biomarkers by individually-fed cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers grains can contain high concentratations of sulfur (S). In ruminants, high dietary S concentrations can cause the neurological disorder polioencephalomalacia (polio). To evaluate the effects of dietary wet distillers grains (WDGS) on the risk of polio 24 steers (initial body weight [BW]...

  1. Replacement of starch from corn with nonforage fiber from distillers grains and soyhulls in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ranathunga, S D; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-03-01

    Forty Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 6-wk experimental period to evaluate incremental substitution of nonforage fiber provided by dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and soyhulls (SH) for starch provided by corn in the diet. Diets provided decreasing concentrations of starch: 29% starch with 0% DDGS; 26% starch with 7% DDGS; 23% starch with 14% DDGS; and 20% starch with 21% DDGS. Diets contained 27% corn silage, 22% alfalfa hay, and 51% concentrate mix and were formulated to be 17% crude protein, 4.7% fat, and 23% neutral detergent fiber from forage. Total neutral detergent fiber increased as DDGS and SH were included in the diet. Soyhulls were included in a linear fashion along with DDGS to replace soybean meal and expeller soybean meal, thereby maintaining a similar crude protein content across diets. Dry matter intake decreased linearly; consequently, feed efficiency tended to increase linearly as starch was replaced by nonforage fiber. There was no effect of diet on milk production or milk fat and protein percentage or yield. Milk fatty acid profiles were similar across diets. Other response variables, including 4% fat-corrected milk, total solids, and milk urea nitrogen, were unaffected by dietary treatments. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration did not differ between diets. Concentrations of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar across diets. Results from this research suggest that nonforage fiber from DDGS can partially substitute for starch from corn in dairy cow diets without affecting milk production and milk composition. Economic analysis of the diets showed that feeding DDGS and SH in substitution of corn was cost-effective. Results from this experiment indicate that DDGS and SH can replace corn as an energy source to decrease feed costs.

  2. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A ENERGY SAVING GRAIN DRYING INVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE SHIVVERS

    2005-09-30

    The project goal is to develop the world's best grain dryer, where best is defined in terms of energy efficiency, grain quality protection, and minimal environmental impact. A technique was developed to recapture enthalpy from a continuous flow drying system and to carry that energy back into the grain kernels. Process design assures that the recaptured energy is used to provide latent heat for evaporation of moisture from the kernels. Maximum kernel temperatures are tightly controlled by the design and can be selected through the system controls. The drying system process has been simulated, the mechanical design for a prototype was completed, and the prototype has been fabricated and installed. Simulation results show energy use that is a fraction of that required by the most efficient heat assisted grain dryer systems available at this time. Unfortunately, project time has expired, funding has been exhausted, and the system has yet to be fully run in order to validate the process design. Additional development work is required to run tests with the prototype, improve the simulation model, optimize the process and mechanical design, and bring this energy saving system to market.

  4. Polyamines and ethylene interact in rice grains in response to soil drying during grain filling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yunji; Wang, Jingchao; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the interaction between polyamines and ethylene may mediate the effects of soil drying on grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice cultivars were pot grown. Three treatments, well-watered, moderate soil drying (MD), and severe soil drying (SD), were imposed from 8 d post-anthesis until maturity. The endosperm cell division rate, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of earlier flowering superior spikelets showed no significant differences among the three treatments. However, those of the later flowering inferior spikelets were significantly increased under MD and significantly reduced under SD when compared with those which were well watered. The two cultivars showed the same tendencies. MD increased the contents of free spermidine (Spd) and free spermine (Spm), the activities of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase and Spd synthase, and expression levels of polyamine synthesis genes, and decreased the ethylene evolution rate, the contents of 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and hydrogen peroxide, the activities of ACC synthase, ACC oxidase, and polyamine oxidase, and the expression levels of ethylene synthesis genes in inferior spikelets. SD exhibited the opposite effects. Application of Spd, Spm, or an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis to rice panicles significantly reduced ethylene and ACC levels, but significantly increased Spd and Spm contents, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of inferior spikelets. The results were reversed when ACC or an inhibitor of Spd and Spm synthesis was applied. The results suggest that a potential metabolic interaction between polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis responds to soil drying and mediates the grain filling of inferior spikelets in rice.

  5. Impact of beef cattle diets containing corn or sorghum distillers grains on beef color, fatty acid profiles, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Gill, R K; VanOverbeke, D L; Depenbusch, B; Drouillard, J S; Dicostanzo, A

    2008-04-01

    Strip loins from 236 carcasses from crossbred yearling steers were collected on each of 2 slaughter dates (slaughter 1 or 2) to determine the effects of feeding corn or sorghum distillers grains (DG) on beef color, fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, tenderness, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn (SFC) diet without (control) or with 15% (DM basis) corn dry or wet DG (CDDG and CWDG) or sorghum dry or wet DG (SDDG and SWDG) and alfalfa hay (R). Additional treatments included SDDG or SWDG with no alfalfa hay (NR). In slaughter 2, steaks from steers fed SFC had lesser L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed DG. When comparing sorghum and corn DG steaks, the same color differences were detected. Steaks from steers fed sorghum DG had lower L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed corn DG. Also, L* values in steaks from steers fed SWDG with R were greater (P < 0.05) than those from steers fed SWDG with NR. In slaughter 1, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) steak n-6 fatty acid concentrations compared with SFC. In both slaughter groups, feeding dry DG increased (P < 0.05) steak linoleic acid concentrations compared with wet DG. In slaughter 2, feeding corn DG diets increased (P < 0.05) linoleic acid concentrations of steaks compared with sorghum DG diets. In addition, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid in steaks resulted from feeding SDDG or SWDG with R compared with those sorghum treatments with NR. In each slaughter group, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) the n-6:n-3 ratio of steaks compared with SFC, and feeding corn DG increased (P < 0.05) this ratio compared with sorghum DG. Furthermore, steaks from steers fed corn DG had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of trans-vaccenic acid than those from steers fed sorghum DG. In slaughter 1, the CLA isomer 18:2, trans-10, cis-12 was greater (P < 0.05) in steaks from DG diets. On d 1 of retail display, steaks from

  6. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOEpatents

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G [Dnipropetrovsk, UA; Noyes, Ronald T [Stillwater, OK; Potapovych, Larysa P [Dnipropetrovsk, UA

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  7. Corn distillers grains with solubles derived from a traditional or partial fractionation process: Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Quinn, M J; Corrigan, M E; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2008-09-01

    Six hundred ten crossbred-yearling heifers (347 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were obtained and used in a randomized complete-block design finishing study. Finishing diets were based on steam-flaked corn and ground alfalfa hay. The control (CONT) treatment contained no distillers grains with solubles (DGS), the second diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a traditional dry-grind ethanol process (TRAD), and the third diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a partial fractionation dry-grind process (FRAC). Dry matter intake, ADG, and gain efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.48) for yearling heifers fed CONT when compared with heifers fed DGS. Heifers fed TRAD consumed more (P = 0.01) feed than heifers fed FRAC. However, ADG and feed efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.07) for heifers fed DGS. Moderate inclusion levels of DGS in finishing flaked corn diets yielded satisfactory performance. Growth performance was not different for heifers fed DGS originating from either ethanol processing method.

  8. Effects of grind size when alkaline treating corn residue and impact of ratio of alkaline-treated residue and distillers grains on performance of finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Schneider, C J; Burken, D B; Harding, J L; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to optimize use of alkaline-treated corn stover and wheat straw and distillers grains as partial corn replacements. In Exp. 1, a finishing experiment used 30 pens (12 steers/pen) of calf-fed steers (initial BW = 374 ± 23.9 kg) with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 replications per treatment. Factors were grind size, where corn stover was processed through a 2.54- or 7.62-cm screen, and chemical treatment (corn stover either fed in native, non-treated form [NT; 93.4% DM] or alkaline treated [AT; 5% CaO hydrated to 50% DM]). No interactions (P ≥ 0.38) were noted between grind size and chemical treatment. Feeding AT compared with NT improved (P ≤ 0.02) final BW, ADG, and G:F. Reducing grind size improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG and G:F, and no interaction with chemical treatment was observed. Steers fed AT had similar DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass characteristics compared with a 5% roughage control that contained 15 percentage units (DM basis) more corn. In Exp. 2, 60 individually fed steers (initial BW = 402 ± 61.4 kg) were randomly assigned to 10 diets. Six treatments evaluated 10, 25, or 40% dry-rolled corn (DRC), which was replaced with either a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio (DM basis) of modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) and treated corn stover analyzed as a 2 × 3 factorial. An additional 3 treatments were added where a 3:1 ratio of MDGS:straw were compared with a 3:1 ratio of MDGS:stover. As DRC increased, G:F (P = 0.06) quadratically increased for 3:1 MDGS:stover diets. Increasing DRC increased (P = 0.07) G:F in treated stover diets, regardless of ratio. Increasing DRC increased (P = 0.10) ADG for 3:1 ratios for both straw and stover. Reducing grind size, feeding a maximum of 20% treated crop residue, and maintaining at least 25% corn in the diet are strategies for optimizing cattle performance when replacing dry-rolled and high-moisture corn with treated crop residues and distillers grains.

  9. Effects of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets containing corn wet distillers grains with solubles with differing corn processing methods.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Benton, J R; Luebbe, M K; Laudert, S B

    2013-05-01

    A total of 3,632 crossbred steers were used in 3 separate randomized complete-block designed finishing experiments. Data from Exp. 1 were analyzed separately whereas data were combined for Exp. 2 and 3, based on corn processing method used [Exp.1 = equal combination of dry-rolled and high-moisture (DRC:HMC); Exp. 2 and 3 = steam-flaked (SFC)]. Steers were fed 1 of 5 treatments to evaluate the effects of monensin and tylosin in feedlot diets containing 25% corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis). Treatments included: 1) corn-based diet (no WDGS) with 360 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (CORN+MT), 2) 25% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS-CON), 3) 25% WDGS with 360 mg/d monensin (WDGS+M), 4) WDGS with monensin and tylosin at same levels as treatment 1, and 5) WDGS with 480 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (WDGS+HIMT). In Exp. 1, WDGS+MT increased (P < 0.01) ADG (6.5%), G:F (6.9%), and HCW (3.0%) compared with CORN+MT. Alternatively, in Exp. 2 and 3, WDGS+MT had no effect on ADG (P = 0.18), decreased (P < 0.01) G:F by 3.2%, and did not affect HCW (P = 0.57) compared with CORN+MT. In Exp. 1, addition of monensin to a WDGS diet increased G:F by 3.1% (P = 0.03) and tended to increase G:F in Exp. 2 and 3 (P = 0.09) compared with WDGS-CON. For all experiments, addition of monensin and tylosin in a diet containing WDGS increased G:F (P < 0.01) and reduced total and severe liver abscesses (P < 0.01) compared with WDGS-CON. Additionally, HCW was increased in Exp. 2 and 3 (P < 0.01) and tended to increase in Exp. 1 (P = 0.09) when monensin and tylosin were fed in a WDGS diet compared with WDGS-CON. Feeding WDGS+MT reduced total liver abscesses by 79.3% (Exp. 1) and 57.6% (Exp. 2 and 3) compared with WDGS-CON. Compared with WDGS+MT, minimal differences were observed when monensin was fed at 480 mg/steer daily with tylosin in diets containing WDGS. Inclusion of WDGS in finishing steer diets did not alter effectiveness of monensin with tylosin in

  10. Chewing activities and particle size of rumen digesta and feces of precision-fed dairy heifers fed different forage levels with increasing levels of distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 differing forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) and various levels of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) replacing canola meal in precision-fed dairy heifer rations on chewing behavior, rumen pH and fill, and particle size of rumen contents and feces. A split plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as subplot was administered in a 4-period 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5±0.5 mo of age and 344±15 kg of body weight, respectively) housed in individual stalls were allocated to F:C 50:50 (low forage) or 75:25 [high forage (HF); dry matter basis] and to a sequence of DDGS level (0, 7, 14, and 21%; dry matter basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (dry matter basis). Diets were fed once daily and formulated to provide equal amounts of nutrients and body weight gain. No differences were found for rumen pH between dietary treatments. Time spent eating tended to be longer for HF and was not affected by DDGS inclusion rate. Ruminating time did not differ by F:C, but linearly increased as DDGS increased (422 to 450±21 min/d). Total chewing time tended to be longer for HF and to increase linearly as DDGS increased (553 to 579±33 min/d). Wet rumen digesta weight and volume were greater for HF. Geometric mean particle length of rumen contents was greater for HF 2h prefeeding when analyzed with solubles (particles <0.15 mm). Proportion of rumen solubles decreased as DDGS increased 5h postfeeding. Fecal geometric mean particle length and proportion of particles >1.18 mm increased with increasing levels of DDGS and did not change with F:C. Total chewing time increased by the addition of DDGS and higher F:C. Heifers can compensate for lower physically effective neutral detergent fiber by modifying their chewing behavior. Rumen pH was never at a level that could induce acidosis, and lower eating time at lower F:C was somewhat

  11. Effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn on heifer growth performance and diet digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Arias, R P; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Scholljegerdes, E J; Baird, A N; Johnson, K D; Buckmaster, D; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles (MWDGS; 48% DM) co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC) on growth performance, dietary intake, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 Angus-crossed heifers (2 yr old; 522 ± 49.1 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.1 BCS) were stratified and blocked according to BW and stratified by BCS in each block in a randomized complete block design (24 pens; 4 heifers/pen; 6 treatment replications). Groups were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for a 62 d trial. Treatments were 1) corn silage (CS) and soybean meal (CON), 2) MWDGS co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC; CO-EN), 3) CS mixed with MWDGS at feeding (CS+WDG), and 4) CS mixed with dry distillers grain plus solubles (DDGS) at feeding (CS+DDG). In Exp. 2, 4 crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 278 ± 18 kg) fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used in a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square to test the effects of feeding MWDGS co-ensiled with WC on DM intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and total tract digestibility. There were four 14-d periods, with 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for samples collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used and compared CON vs. diets containing distillers grains (DGD), CO-EN vs. diets where distillers grains were mixed at feeding (MIX), and CS+WDG vs. CS+DDG. In Exp. 1, the CON fed heifers resulted in greater G:F (P = 0.04) compared with those fed DGD. However, ADG (P = 0.03), final BW (P = 0.04), and BW gain (P = 0.03) were greatest for DGD diets compared with CON and greatest (P = 0.04) for CO-EN when compared with MIX. Apart from a slightly greater acetate concentration (P = 0.05), which resulted in a greater acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.03) for the CON diet compared with DGD, no important differences were observed on intake, diet digestibility, or fermentation characteristics when comparing the CON treatment with DGD or when comparing CS

  12. Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage-based diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P F; Cabrita, A R J; Dewhurst, R J; Vicente, T E J; Lopes, Z M C; Fonseca, A J M

    2006-07-01

    The effects of increasing levels of solvent-extracted palm kernel meal (SPKM) and corn distillers dried grains (CDG) in corn silage-based diets on feed intake and milk production were examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows averaging 100 d in milk (DIM) (SD = 61.5) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 4 treatments in 5 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of SPKM in the diet. During a 3-wk preliminary period, cows were fed a standard diet. At the end of the preliminary period, cows were blocked by 4% fat-corrected milk yield, parity number (primiparous and multiparous), and DIM, and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets. The total mixed ration (TMR) consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of SPKM were achieved by replacing protein sources and citrus pulp with SPKM and urea (0, 5, 10, and 15% SPKM and 0.06, 0.22, 0.38, and 0.55% urea for SPKM0, SPKM5, SPKM10, and SPKM15, respectively). In Experiment 2, 18 Holstein cows averaging 93 DIM (SD = 49.1) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatments in 6 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of CDG in the diet. The preliminary period lasted for 2 wk. Assignment of cows to treatments was the same as in Experiment 1. The TMR consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of CDG were achieved by replacing soybean meal and citrus pulp with CDG and urea (0, 7, and 14% CDG and 0, 0.22, and 0.49% urea for CDG0, CDG7, and CDG14, respectively). There were no significant treatment effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition in Experiment 1. Inclusion of SPKM tended to increase protein and lactose contents of milk. The SPKM0 diet promoted body weight loss. There were no

  13. An attempt towards simultaneous biobased solvent based extraction of proteins and enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials from distiller's grains and solubles.

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Bals, B. D.; Lin, Y. J.; Negri, M. C.; Datta, R.; Pasieta, L.; Ahmad, S. F.; Moradia, A. A.; Dale, B. E.; Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems; Michigan State Univ.; Vertec BioSolvents Inc.; Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

    2010-07-01

    Distiller's grains and solubles (DGS) is the major co-product of corn dry mill ethanol production, and is composed of 30% protein and 30-40% polysaccharides. We report a strategy for simultaneous extraction of protein with food-grade biobased solvents (ethyl lactate, d-limonene, and distilled methyl esters) and enzymatic saccharification of glucan in DGS. This approach would produce a high-value animal feed while simultaneously producing additional sugars for ethanol production. Preliminary experiments on protein extraction resulted in recovery of 15-45% of the protein, with hydrophobic biobased solvents obtaining the best results. The integrated hydrolysis and extraction experiments showed that biobased solvent addition did not inhibit hydrolysis of the cellulose. However, only 25-33% of the total protein was extracted from DGS, and the extracted protein largely resided in the aqueous phase, not the solvent phase. We hypothesize that the hydrophobic solvent could not access the proteins surrounded by the aqueous phase inside the fibrous structure of DGS due to poor mass transfer. Further process improvements are needed to overcome this obstacle.

  14. Changes in the phenolic acid content during commercial dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nine fractions (ground corn-1, cooked slurry-2, liquefied slurry-3, fermented mash-4, whole stillage-5, thin stillage-6, condensed distillers soluble (CDS)-7, distillers wet grains (DWG)-8, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-9) were collected from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol ...

  15. Creep of Fine-grained Gabbro in dry Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G.; He, C.

    2008-12-01

    Natural fine-grained gabbro were deformed at 300MPa confining pressure in a paterson-type deformation apparatus in GFZ. Creep tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 950-1150'C, stresses from 25-500 MPa, and strain rates between2.3x10-4 to 6.7x10-8s-1. The fine-grained gabbro is composed of 60 vol percent plagioclase, 30 vol percent pyroxene, 10 vol percent magnetite and ilmenite. The samples were dried at 1000`C for 167 hours before experiments. FTIR measurements show a water content of 0.008 wt percent H2O for starting samples, and 0.03 wt percent H2O for deformed samples. We performed three kinds of tests: stress step creep tests, temperature step creep test and constant stress creep with a long creep time. The data of stress-stepping creep tests and the constant stress creep test with long creep time show that the strain rates under the same stress level were increasing with cumulated creep time beyond a threshold time, which is 24 hours for temperature up to 1050 `C and 5 hours for temperature of 1100 `C, and a linear relation with slope of 1.0 was found between logarithm of strain rate and logarithm of accumulated time, suggesting time-proportional strain-rate enhancement, or equivalently, time-weakening effect of flow strength. Microstructural observations of deformed samples show that melt films occurred between grain boundaries of samples, and the melt contents increase with the creep time, indicating the mechanism of the weakening behavior. The strain rate enhancement related to melt fraction agrees to the data of Dimanov et al. [2000], and is fitted well with the model of Paterson [2000]. In order to determine a steady-state flow law with the effect of melt film excluded, the original steady-state strain rates are converted to the case with t=24 hours for experiments with temperatures up to 1050 `C, and data for temperature of 1100 `C are converted to the case with t=5 hours. The time-corrected creep data were fitted to the most commonly used

  16. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG; < 15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn- (SFC) based diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility of feeedlt ocattle. In Experi...

  17. Production response of lactating cows fed dried versus wet brewers' grain in diets with similar dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bingham, H R; Radloff, H D

    2003-09-01

    Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (20 intact and 4 fitted with rumen cannula) during early lactation (56 +/- 25.3 d in milk) were assigned to two treatments to determine intake and production responses to feeding dried and wet brewers' grain. There were two cows fitted with a rumen cannula in each treatment. Cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily containing either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The diet contained 47% forage and 53% concentrate. The experimental design was a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square with two periods of 5 wk each. First 2 wk in each period were considered as adaptation to diets and data from the last 3 wk were used for treatment comparisons. Dried and wet brewers' diets contained 68.0 and 66.5% DM, respectively. Feeding brewers' grain dry or wet to dairy cows had no influence on feed intake (25.6 vs. 25.1 kg/d), fat corrected milk yield (40.1 vs. 40.7 kg/d), milk composition and feed consumption. The pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acids and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not different between treatments. Fatty acid composition of milk fat from cows fed diets containing dry or wet brewers' grain was identical, except C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids were lower in milk fat from cows fed wet brewers' grain compared with dried brewers' grain. The results from the present study suggest that the performance of cows fed either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of dietary DM was similar when diets had the same DM. The average price for dried and wet brewers' grain in the United States from July 2001 to June 2002 was dollars 145.3 and dollars 96.9/metric tonne DM, respectively. Using wet instead of dried brewers' grain will save dollars 49/metric tonne minus the difference in storage costs. Wet brewers' grain can be fed to dairy cows in areas that are close to the brewery and provides nutritive value similar to the dried brewers' grain.

  18. Grain sterility in relation to dry mass production and distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Puteh, Adam B; Mondal, M Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation.

  19. Grain Sterility in relation to Dry Mass Production and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam B.; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd. Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation. PMID:24895563

  20. Use of dry extrusion coolers for gelatinizing grain starch. Final report. [Use of dry extrusion coolers for gelatinizing grain starch

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, W.; Clary, B.L.

    1983-06-10

    The use of dry extrusion cookers for gelatinizing grain starch has been investigated. It is possible to consistently achieve better conversion with extrusion than with standard batch methods. Best performance was achieved at high temperatures and low moisture content. The effect of temperature gradient along the barrel was also important and appeared to be related to the nature of starch being processed. The effect of substrate concentration, dextrose equivalence, and agitation on the conversion of starch to sugar by a commercially available glucoamylase has been investigated. The effect of alcohol and a typical fungicide is also reported. Rate was independent of the fungicide but considerably affected by starch concentration, dextrose equivalent, and alcohol percentage. Velocity was unaffected by agitation or background glucose level. Enzyme kinetics are defined and discussed. The traditional Michaelis-Menten equation describing enzyme conversion as a function of substrate concentration appears to be a satisfactory for substrate concentrations of 5% solids or less. An equation describing velocity over a substrate range from 0 to 27.5% by weight was determined and presented.

  1. Effects of vitamin E on color stability and palatability of strip loin steaks from cattle fed distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, B D; Hilton, G G; Hanger, K G; Richards, C J; Morgan, J B; VanOverbeke, D L

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preslaughter antioxidant supplementation to cattle fed wet distillers grains on carcass yield and quality grade, and on the color stability and consumer acceptability of steaks. Two hundred five crossbred steers were fed 35% wet distillers grains with the supplementation of 4 different levels of α-tocopheryl acetate: 0, 125, 250, and 500 IU•animal(-1)•d(-1) for 97 d. Chuck rolls (n = 69) and strip loins (n = 185) were collected and processed at 4 and 7 d postslaughter, respectively. Chucks were ground and separated into 0.23-kg samples. Strip loins were faced and cut into 2.54-cm steaks and packaged in a polyvinyl chloride overwrapped (PVC) package, a vacuum package, or modified atmosphere packages (MAP) for further color, α-tocopherol, objective tenderness, palatability, and proximate analysis. Color was measured objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE spectrophotometer (HunterLab Associates Inc., Reston, VA) and subjectively by a trained color panel, and a consumer panel was used to indicate which treatments affected retail acceptability and purchase decisions. Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements were used for objective tenderness, and a trained panel assessed subjective palatability characteristics. Instrumental color measurements revealed little difference for ground beef in both PVC and MAP packages, but diets with 500 and 250 IU•animal(-1)•d(-1) of vitamin E had a longer (P < 0.05) retention of redness and yellowness in steaks as compared with steaks from animals receiving less vitamin E. Subjective color evaluation for strip steaks indicated that greater vitamin E was more likely (P < 0.05) to maintain color stability, overall acceptability, and consumer purchase preference while decreasing percentage of discoloration. No significant differences (P > 0.10) were observed for objective tenderness and sensory attributes of strip steaks, and no differences (P > 0.10) were observed in

  2. Corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility.

    PubMed

    May, M L; DeClerck, J C; Quinn, M J; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Hales, K E; Galyean, M L

    2010-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestion of nutrients. In Exp. 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete block design (initial BW 391.1 +/- 9.51 kg) and fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets consisting of (DM basis) 0% distillers grains (CON), 15% SDG, 30% SDG, 15% CDG, 30% CDG, 15% of a 50:50 blend of SDG and CDG, and 30% of a 50:50 blend of CDG and SDG. Decreased carcass-adjusted final BW and HCW (P < or = 0.05) were noted as the inclusion amount of distillers grains increased in the diet. Body weight gain efficiency did not differ among the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON treatments, but G:F was numerically less with either amount of SDG than for CON, and decreased (P < or = 0.05) as distillers grains were increased from 15 to 30%. Cattle fed CON had greater carcass yield grades than those fed the distillers grain diets (P < or = 0.05). In Exp. 2, crossbred beef steers (n = 36; initial BW 567.3 +/- 53.1 kg) were used in a generalized randomized block design and fed SFC-based diets with 0% distillers grains (CON) and 15% (DM basis) CDG or SDG. Digestibility was determined with a pulse dose of Cr(2)O(3). Feeding steers 15% CDG or SDG increased intakes of CP and NDF (P < or = 0.05), but intakes of DM, OM, and starch did not differ among treatments (P >o r = 0.07). Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and starch (P > or = 0.25) did not differ among the 3 treatments. Fecal pH averaged over all sampling times was not affected by treatment, nor were average fecal pH values for prefeeding samples (0, 24, 48, and 72 h after the pulse dose) or for samples taken after feeding (12, 36, and 60 h after the pulse dose; P > or = 0.11). Results suggest that with 15% distillers grains in the DM, G:F was similar for cattle fed the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON diets

  3. Effect of water yam (Dioscoreaalata) flour fortified with distiller's spent grain on nutritional, chemical, and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Awoyale, Wasiu; Maziya-Dixon, Busie; Sanni, Lateef Oladimeji; Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi

    2016-01-01

    It was envisaged that the inclusion of treated distiller's spent grain (DSG) to yam flour might increase its nutritional value, with the aim of reducing nutritional diseases in communities consuming yam as a staple. Hence, yam flour was fortified with DSG at 5-35%. The effects of this fortification on the nutritional, chemical, and functional properties of yam flour were investigated. The result showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001) in fat, ash, protein, total amino acids, total dietary fiber, and insoluble dietary fiber contents of the blends as DSG increased except for starch and soluble dietary fiber contents, which decreased. The functional properties showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction with DSG inclusion. The inclusion of DSG increased both the tryptophan and methionine contents of the blends. Therefore, the DSG fortified yam flour could contribute to quality protein intake in populations consuming yam as a staple, due to its indispensible amino acid content.

  4. Effect of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles inclusion level in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, M E; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Luebbe, M K; Vander Pol, K J; Meyer, N F; Buckner, C D; Vanness, S J; Hanford, K J

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) level on steer performance and metabolism. In Exp. 1, 480 crossbred steer calves (314 +/- 18 kg of BW) were used in a finishing experiment with a randomized complete block design and a 3 x 4 treatment structure. Diets were based on dry-rolled (DRC), high-moisture (HMC), or steam-flaked corn (SFC) with increasing levels of WDGS (0, 15, 27.5, or 40%; DM basis). A corn processing x WDGS level interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for ADG and G:F. Average daily gain and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) in steers fed DRC; ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04) and G:F increased linearly (P = 0.02) in steers fed HMC; and ADG decreased quadratically (P = 0.02) with no change in G:F (P = 0.52) in steers fed SFC as WDGS increased. In Exp. 2, 7 ruminally fistulated steers (440 +/- 41 kg of BW) were used in a 6-period crossover design with 3 x 2 factorial treatment structure. Diets were the same as those fed in Exp. 1, except they contained only 2 levels of WDGS (0 or 40% of diet DM). Total tract starch digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) for steers fed SFC than for steers fed DRC or HMC. Minimum ruminal pH was less (P < 0.01) for steers fed SFC than for steers fed HMC or DRC. Variance of ruminal pH was different among all 3 processing methods with DRC < HMC < SFC (P < 0.10). In situ 22-h DM digestibility of DRC and HMC and starch digestibility of DRC were greater (P < 0.10) in steers fed DRC compared with steers fed HMC or SFC. Steers fed 0% WDGS had less (P < or = 0.02) intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ether extract compared with steers fed 40% WDGS. Total tract digestibility of DM and OM was greater (P < or = 0.08) and digestibility of ether extract tended (P = 0.11) to be less for steers fed 0% WDGS compared with steers fed 40% WDGS. Maximum ruminal pH and pH variance were greater (P < or = 0.08) in steers fed 0% WDGS. A corn processing x WDGS

  5. Effects of roughage source and inclusion in beef finishing diets containing corn wet distillers' grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Benton, J R; Watson, A K; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Pol, K J Vander; Meyer, N F; Greenquist, M A

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of roughage source and inclusion in diets containing wet distillers' grains plus solubles (WDGS) on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism. In Exp. 1, 385 crossbred steer calves (initial BW = 346 kg [SD 29]) were used in a finishing trial. A control diet with no roughage inclusion was compared with 6 diets containing either alfalfa hay (ALF), corn silage (CSIL), or corn stalks (CSTK) at 2 inclusions as a 3 × 2 factorial. Alfalfa hay was included at 4 (low) or 8% (standard) of diet DM. Diets containing CSIL or CSTK were formulated to provide total dietary NDF equal to the low and standard ALF inclusion diets. The final diets contained 6.13 and 12.26% CSIL or 3.04 and 6.08% CSTK (DM basis). All diets contained 30% WDGS and a 1:1 mixture of dry-rolled and high-moisture corn (DM basis). Cattle fed no roughage had reduced ( < 0.01) DMI and tended ( ≤ 0.10) to have the lowest final BW and ADG compared with cattle fed roughage. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.11) in DMI, ADG, or G:F due to roughage source. Cattle fed a standard inclusion of roughage had greater ( ≤ 0.04) DMI and ADG compared with cattle fed diets with low inclusion, regardless of roughage source. Feed efficiency tended to be different among treatments ( = 0.09), with cattle fed no roughage having greater G:F than all treatments ( ≤ 0.06) except cattle fed the low level of CSTK, which had a similar G:F ( = 0.48). Feed efficiency was not affected by source of roughage ( = 0.23) or inclusion of roughage ( = 0.49). In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally fistulated steers (347 kg BW [SD 25]) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial with ALF or CSTK included at zero, low, or standard levels similar to Exp. 1. Apparent total tract digestibility (%) of DM, OM, and NDF decreased linearly ( ≤ 0.07) due to increasing roughage inclusion. Average, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH increased linearly ( ≤ 0

  6. Costs of Pelleting to Enhance the Logistics of Distillers Grains Shipping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofuels, especially corn-based ethanol, can help meet some of the increasing demand for transportation fuels. Currently, the most heavily utilized substrate is corn grain, which is readily converted into ethanol at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of ethanol...

  7. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH4(+) and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  8. Triboelectrification and razorbacks: geophysical patterns produced in dry grains.

    PubMed

    Shinbrot, Troy; Lamarche, Keirnan; Glasser, Benjamin J

    2006-05-05

    Electrostatic interactions between particles can dramatically affect granular flows, creating industrial safety and handling problems [K. N. Palmer, (Chapman and Hall, London, 1973), pp. 388-389]. We present experimental data demonstrating that charging of grains can also cause spontaneous self-assembly that may generate lasting geological patterns under arid conditions. Paradoxically, we find that grains that tribocharge enough to produce small explosions, ejecting grains meters into the air, leave little net charge on grains. Rather, grains charge into strongly heterogeneous polar clusters. These assemble into stereotyped residual structures that resemble geological features, for example, razorbacks observed on Mars ["The Razorback Mystery," July 16, 2004, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/mer/images.cfm?id=701].

  9. Triboelectrification and Razorbacks: Geophysical Patterns Produced in Dry Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Lamarche, Keirnan; Glasser, Benjamin J.

    2006-05-01

    Electrostatic interactions between particles can dramatically affect granular flows, creating industrial safety and handling problems [K. N. Palmer, Dust Explosions and Fires (Chapman and Hall, London, 1973), pp. 388 389]. We present experimental data demonstrating that charging of grains can also cause spontaneous self-assembly that may generate lasting geological patterns under arid conditions. Paradoxically, we find that grains that tribocharge enough to produce small explosions, ejecting grains meters into the air, leave little net charge on grains. Rather, grains charge into strongly heterogeneous polar clusters. These assemble into stereotyped residual structures that resemble geological features, for example, razorbacks observed on Mars [“The Razorback Mystery,” July 16, 2004, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/mer/images.cfm?id=701].

  10. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to growing-finishing cattle on ammonia concentration in air and manure nutrient composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air quality is a difficult and pressing problem for feedlot producers. This is compounded by feeding practices that influence the excretion of starch, fiber, crude protein, and sulfur (S) by cattle that significantly affect the production of odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (...

  11. Effects of ruminally degradable N in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of degradable nitrogen (N) needs in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) is needed to aid the cattle feeding industry in managing feed costs and potential environmental issues. Yearling steers (n = 525; initial weight = 822 +/- 28 lb) were housed in 56 pens (...

  12. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch.

    PubMed

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol) than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  13. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distiller's grains with solubles on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has increased the use of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of WDGS in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate ...

  14. Effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six hundred crossbred steers (365 + -35 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine effects of a corn- and sorghum-based (< 15% sorghum) wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG) on animal performance and carcass characteristics in steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets. Forty-eig...

  15. Effects of ruminally degradable nitrogen in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of degradable nitrogen (N) needs in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) is needed to aid the cattle industry in managing feed costs. Yearling steers (n = 525; initial weight = 373 +/- 13 kg) were housed in 54 pens (9 to 10 steers/pen) and received treatments...

  16. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distiller's grain with solubles on energy metabolism and enteric methane emissions of finishing cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate of the net energy value of WDGS has yet to be determined. Effects of corn processing method and WDGS on energy metabolis...

  17. Effects of wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) and non-protein nitrogen on growth performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) contain high concentrations of crude protein and ruminally undegradable protein. The requirement for dietary ruminally degradable protein in steam-flaked corn-based beef cattle finishing diets that contain high concentrations of WDGS is not known. Therefor...

  18. Effects of non-protein nitrogen in diets containing 15% wet distiller's grains with solubles and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our previous data suggest that the non-protein nitrogen (NPN) need in diets with 15% wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) for optimum growth performance may be slightly less than in 0% WDGS diets. The objective of the present study was to more clearly define the NPN need in diets with 15% WDG...

  19. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  20. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  1. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  2. Optimization and economic evaluation of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation from gasification of corn stover and distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Demirel, Yasar; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Thermochemical gasification is one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into power, fuels and chemicals. The objectives of this study were to maximize the net energy efficiency for biomass gasification, and to estimate the cost of producing industrial gas and combined heat and power (CHP) at a feedrate of 2000kg/h. Aspen Plus-based model for gasification was combined with a CHP generation model, and optimized using corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as the biomass feedstocks. The cold gas efficiencies for gas production were 57% and 52%, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. The selling price of gas was estimated to be $11.49 and $13.08/GJ, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were as high as 37% and 88%, respectively, for corn stover and 34% and 78%, respectively, for DDGS. The selling price of electricity was estimated to be $0.1351 and $0.1287/kWh for corn stover and DDGS, respectively. Overall, high net energy efficiencies for gas and CHP production from biomass gasification can be achieved with optimized processing conditions. However, the economical feasibility of these conversion processes will depend on the relative local prices of fossil fuels.

  3. Composition and oxidative stability of crude oil extracts of corn germ and distillers grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid composition, Acid Value, and the content and composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and steryl ferulates were determined in corn germ oil and four post-fermentation corn oils from the ethanol dry grind process. The oxidative stability index at 110ºC was ...

  4. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  5. Efficacy of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn with and without corn wet distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Drouillard, J S; Loe, E R; Higgins, J J; Corrigan, M E; Quinn, M J

    2008-09-01

    Three hundred seventy-one crossbred-yearling heifers (299 +/- 9 kg initial BW) were obtained from a common source and used in a randomized complete-block designed finishing study. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with one factor being diet: based on steam-flaked corn finishing diet (SFC) or SFC plus 25% (dry basis) corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). The second factor was feed additives: no added antibiotics (NONE), 300 mg of monensin daily (MONENSIN), or 300 mg of monensin + 90 mg of tylosin daily (MON+TYL). Main effect of diet resulted in no difference in DMI (P = 0.34). Heifers fed SFC gained 9% faster (P = 0.01) and were 7% more efficient (P = 0.01) than heifers fed WDGS. In addition, heifers fed SFC had 3% heavier (P = 0.01) HCW; 1% greater (P = 0.01) dress yield; and had 3% larger (P = 0.05) LM area. Marbling score and carcasses that graded USDA Choice or better were both greater (P /= 0.12) among feed additive treatments. Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat and s.c. fat thickness at the 12th rib were also not different (P >/= 0.55) for main effects of diet and feed additive. There was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a diet x feed additive interaction for the most severe (A+) liver abscesses. Heifers fed NONE yielded the greatest percentage (16%) of A+ livers in the SFC treatment, whereas heifers fed MON+TYL yielded the greatest percentage (10%) in the WDGS treatment. Including wet distillers grains with solubles in diets based on steam-flaked corn decreased finishing heifer performance, HCW, and marbling. Tylosin addition tended to decrease severity of liver abscesses in diets containing SFC, but not in diets containing WDGS. These data indicate that monensin and tylosin may not be

  6. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, M K; Patterson, J M; Jenkins, K H; Buttrey, E K; Davis, T C; Clark, B E; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2012-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDG; <15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility. In Exp. 1, six hundred crossbred steers (364 ± 35 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with 8 replications/treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a dry-rolled corn (DRC) control diet without WDG, a SFC control without WDG, and SFC with 4 WDG concentrations (15, 30, 45, 60% DM basis) replacing SFC, cottonseed meal, urea, and yellow grease. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, and 12th-rib fat depth were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for DRC compared with SFC. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, 12th-rib fat depth, and marbling score decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. In Exp. 2, six ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred steers (481 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design using the same diets as Exp. 1. Ruminal, postruminal, and total tract OM and NDF digestibility were not different (P > 0.14) for DRC compared with SFC. Ruminal and total tract starch digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter and OM intake were not different (P ≥ 0.43) among WDG treatments. Ruminal and total tract OM digestibility decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Intake, ruminal digestibility, and total tract digestibility of NDF increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Starch intake decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Ruminal starch digestibility increased (P = 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Total tract starch digestibility decreased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Feeding SFC improved steer performance compared with DRC. The concentration of WDG and corn

  7. Ultrastructure of mature protein body in the starchy endosperm of dry cereal grain.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuhi; Shigemitsu, Takanari; Tanaka, Kunisuke; Morita, Shigeto; Satoh, Shigeru; Masumura, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    The development of the protein body in the late stage of seed maturation is poorly understood, because electron-microscopy of mature cereal endosperm is technically difficult. In this study, we attempted to modify the existing method of embedding rice grain in resin. The modified method revealed the ultrastructures of the mature protein body in dry cereal grains.

  8. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of wastewaters generated during grain fermentation and distillation of alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Takamura, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes of grain fermentation wastewaters were investigated in this research. The study showed that bench-scale anaerobic stirred reactors were more applicable in treating the substrate than bench-scale anaerobic packed-bed reactors at a temperature of 35/sup 0/C. Results indicate that significant amounts of methane could be generated from the stabilization of the high strength (COD = 70,000 mg/L) acidic (pH less than or equal to4.2) grain fermentation wastewater. The study showed that anaerobic stirred reactors were applicable to the treatment of high strength wastewaters containing high suspended solids content. Anaerobic packed-bed reactors were applicable to soluble substrates. In terms of organic loading rates necessary for design purposes, stirred reactors were applicable at loading rates above 200 lb-COD/1000 ft/sup 3/-day while below this rate packed-bed reactors could be employed. Gas production yields were substantial for both the stirred and packed-bed reactors. Methane yields of 6.2 ft/sup 2/-CH/sub 4//lb-COD added and 6.4 ft/sup 3/-CH/sub 4//lb-COD added were observed for the stirred and packed-bed reactors operated at a theta/sub c/greater than or equal to30 days were 65% CH/sub 4/, 32% CO/sub 2/, and 3% N/sub 2/. Gas composition of packed-bed reactors operated at theta/sub h/greater than or equal to15 days were 65% CH/sub 4/, 32% CO/sub 2/ and 3% N/sub 2/.

  10. Use of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in rainbow trout feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing price and reduced availability of fish meal have prompted feed manufacturers and aquaculture producers to search for sustainable and economical alternative protein sources. The majority of these have come from plants, and many, for example soybean meal, have been successfully incorporated...

  11. Effect of matrix clean-up for aflatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are a group of highly carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. These toxins have a detrimental economic impact on such industries as corn and ethanol production. They are highly regulated by the FDA and as such, a rapid, reliable method with low det...

  12. Steam-air fluidized bed gasification of distillers grains: Effects of steam to biomass ratio, equivalence ratio and gasification temperature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Eskridge, Kent; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2009-03-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass gasification was performed on a bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Distillers grains, a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstock for the gasification. The goal was to investigate the effects of furnace temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition, carbon conversion efficiency and energy conversion efficiency of the product gas. The experiments were conducted using a 3x3x3 full factorial design with temperatures of 650, 750 and 850 degrees C, steam to biomass ratios of 0, 7.30 and 14.29 and equivalence ratios of 0.07, 0.15 and 0.29. Gasification temperature was found to be the most influential factor. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents, carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. Increasing equivalence ratio decreased the hydrogen content but increased carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. The steam to biomass ratio was optimal in the intermediate levels for maximal carbon conversion and energy efficiencies.

  13. Ensiling characteristics of wet distillers grains mixed with soybean hulls and evaluation of the feeding value for growing Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R

    2009-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of ensiled wet corn distillers grains with solubles (WDG) alone or mixed with soybean hulls (SH) and the ability of the mixture to maintain growth performance in dairy heifers. The first experiment was an ensiling study using laboratory silos. Ensiled blends were 100% WDG, 85% WDG with 15% SH, and 70% WDG with 30% SH on an as-fed basis. Silos were opened for analysis on d 0, 3, 7, and 21. The pH was less in the 100% WDG compared with other treatments (P < 0.01), but all treatments had a pH near 4. Lactic acid concentration was greater in 100% WDG compared with the blends of WDG and SH (P < 0.01). Acetic acid was not found in 100% WDG and increased over time in the 2 blends (P < 0.01). Other differences between blends, such as DM, CP, ammonia N, fiber, and fat, were reflective of the different concentrations of WDG and SH in the blends. In the second experiment, the 70% WDG and 30% SH (as-fed) blend was ensiled in a silo bag and then evaluated as a feed for growing dairy heifer diets. Twenty-four heifers were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to be fed 1 of 3 diets: 1) control, 2) low inclusion of WDGSH, and 3) a high inclusion of WDGSH. All treatment diets consisted of 50% brome grass hay on a DM basis. The control diet had 50% of the diet (DM basis) as a grain mix, which was composed of corn, soybean meal, and minerals. The low WDGSH diet contained 24.4% of the blend and 25.6% grain mix. The high WDGSH diet contained 48.7% of the blend and 1.3% mineral mix. Average daily gain and most of the body growth measures were similar among treatments. However, DMI decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as the WDGSH blends were fed, resulting in improved (P = 0.02) G:F. Results from these experiments indicated that WDG can be effectively ensiled with SH and sustain adequate growth rate when fed to growing dairy heifers.

  14. The impact of postharvest interventions on the color stability and, subsequently, the palatability of beef from cattle fed wet distillers grain.

    PubMed

    Knobel, S M; Mafi, G G; De Witt, C Mireles; Morgan, J B; Richards, C J; VanOverbeke, D L

    2013-03-01

    Two hundred forty heifers were fed at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK, in 1 of 2 treatment groups: a dry rolled corn (CON) diet or a diet including 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS). Chuck rolls (n = 60) and paired strip loins (n = 75 pairs; 38 CON and 37 WDGS) were collected from each treatment group and processed at 3 d and 14 d, respectively. After grinding, each chuck was separated into 8 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film overwrapped packages and 8 high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), each containing approximately 0.23 kg of ground beef, for evaluation by a trained color panel, a trained color panel and a trained sensory panel and for thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) analysis. After 14 d, 1 strip loin from each pair was injected with an enhancement solution. Steaks from each strip loin were fabricated and packaged, one-half in PVC and one-half in MAP. In addition to the evaluation by trained color and sensory panels and TBARS analysis, steaks were subjected to instrumental color evaluation using a HunterLab Miniscan XE and Warner-Bratzler Shear Force analysis using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Ground beef exhibited no significant differences in color between dietary treatments; however, sensory panelists did find MAP WDGS had less beefy flavor (P = 0.05) and more painty flavor (P = 0.01) intensities than the MAP CON ground beef. Cattle fed WDGS discolored more (P = 0.01) and had less bright steaks than cattle fed the CON when MAP and enhanced. Distillers fed, nonenhanced (nonE) MAP steaks were redder and yellower than control steaks (P < 0.05) on removal from simulated retail display. There were no other significant (P > 0.05) color differences between dietary treatments using any other combination of postharvest interventions. Sensory panel results indicated WDGS NE PVC products were juicier and more tender (P < 0.05), initially, and contained less connective tissue (5.3 ± 0.1, 5.5 ± 0.1, and 5.9 ± 0

  15. Apatite grain weathering and soil phosphorus availability in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindel, R. C.; Spickard, A. M.; Virginia, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys exist in an arid, cold, and basic environment where mineral weathering is often thought to be negligible. In wetted sediments along stream margins, however, silicate mineral weathering rates are higher than anticipated. Here we focus on the mineral apatite to better understand weathering in an extreme environment and to better explain spatial variation in phosphorus availability in dry valley soils. In an environment devoid of vascular plants, the dissolution of primary apatite is likely a key component of soil phosphorus cycling and a control of soil, stream, and lake productivity. We separated loose apatite grains from glacial drift from the Lake Fryxell and Bonney Basins of Taylor Valley. We used Scanning Electron Microscopy and ImageJ to analyze grain morphology and surface etch features. Apatite grains varied markedly in morphology and degree of etching, and showed signs of significant chemical alteration. In Bonney Basin soils, where extractable phosphorus tends to be low, apatite grains were elongated and retained intact crystal faces. Grain surface etch pits were mostly restricted to grains from wetted soils. In contrast, in Fryxell Basin soils, where extractable phosphorus is high, apatite grains were rounded and lacked intact crystal faces. Here, etch pits were found on grains from both dry and wetted soils. Apatite grains from both basins had unusual etch-pit morphologies in comparison with published images. Our results indicate that apatite weathering occurs in dry valley soils, and that there are significant differences in the rate of apatite weathering between the Fryxell and Bonney Basins related to environment. Future work should explore variation in the etch-pit morphologies and the chemical or biological mechanisms behind their formation. With climate warming, increases in liquid water availability and stream flow may increase rates of apatite weathering, potentially delivering more phosphorus to phosphorus

  16. Microbiological characterization of wet wheat distillers' grain, with focus on isolation of lactobacilli with potential as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, C; Jonsson, H; Lindberg, J E; Roos, S

    2004-03-01

    Wet wheat distillers' grain (WWDG), a residue from ethanol fermentation, was examined from a microbiological perspective. After storage, WWDG was characterized by a high content of lactobacilli, nondetectable levels of other bacteria, occasional occurrence of yeasts, and a pH of about 3.6 and contained a mixture of lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. The composition of lactobacilli in WWDG was simple, including primarily the species Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus panis, and Lactobacillus pontis, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Since the use of WWDG as pig feed has indicated a health-promoting function, some relevant characteristics of three strains of each of these species were examined together with basal physiological parameters, such as carbohydrate utilization and growth temperature. Seven of the strains were isolated from WWDG, and two strains from pig feces were included for comparison. It was clear that all three species could grow at temperatures of 45 to 50 degrees C, with L. amylolyticus being able to grow at temperatures as high as 54 degrees C. This finding could be the explanation for the simple microflora of WWDG, where a low pH together with a high temperature during storage would select for these organisms. Some strains of L. panis and L. pontis showed prolonged survival at pH 2.5 in synthetic stomach juice and good growth in the presence of porcine bile salt. In addition, members of all three species were able to bind to immobilized mucus material in vitro. Especially the isolates from pig feces but, interestingly, some isolates from WWDG as well possessed properties that might be of importance for colonization of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs.

  17. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles on odor and gas production in cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; Varel, V H

    2012-11-01

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has recently increased the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate odorous compound production in urine and feces of feedlot steers fed diets with different concentrations of WDGS and different grain processing methods. In both experiments, a Latin square design was used. In Exp. 1, a 2× 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used and the factors consisted of corn processing method [steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC)] and inclusion of corn-based WDGS (0 or 30% on a DM basis). Thus, the 4 treatment combinations consisted of: 1) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); 3) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and 4) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30). In Exp. 2, all diets were based on SFC and the 4 treatments consisted of: 1) 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) 30% WDGS (SFC-30); and 4) 45% WDGS (SFC-45). In both experiments, diets were balanced for degradable intake protein and ether extract by the addition of cottonseed meal and fat. Fecal slurries were prepared from a 5-d composite of urine and feces collected from each treatment. The slurries were analyzed using a gas chromatograph for VFA, phenol, p-cresol, indole, skatole, hydrogen, methane (CH(4),) and total gas production. In Exp. 1, the DRC fecal slurries had greater initial total VFA concentration compared with the SFC-based slurries and accumulated a greater concentration of total gas throughout the incubation; however, the SFC-based manure resulted in more CH(4) production. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentrations did not differ across all fecal slurries initially and on d 28; however, throughout the incubation, slurries with 0 and 15% WDGS had the greatest total VFA concentration. Overall, the presence of starch in the feces was likely the determining factor for the accumulation of odorous compounds in

  18. Treating thin stillage or condensed distillers solubles with phytase for production of low phytate co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fuel ethanol production from grains is mainly based on dry grind processing, during which phytate is concentrated about three fold in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a major co-product. For reducing phyate in DDGS, two industrial phytase preparations (Natuphos and Ronozyme) were used ...

  19. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction for fast analysis of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Deng, Chunhui; Li, Yan; Ye, Hao; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, a novel method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation-headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is dried before being preserved and used, there is too little water to absorb microwave energy and heat the TCM samples. In the work, carbonyl iron powders (CIP) was added and mixed with the dried TCM sample, which was used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of the TCM. At the same time, SPME was used for the extraction and concentration of essential oil after MD. The dry rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC was used as the model TCM, and used in the study. The MD-HS-SPME parameters including fiber coating, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added CIP, were studied. To demonstrate the method feasibility, the conventional HS-SPME method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in the TCM. Experimental results show that more compounds were isolated and identified by MD-HS-SPME than those by HS-SPME. Compared to conventional HS-SPME, the advantages of the proposed method are: short extraction time and high extraction efficiency. All experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative tool for fast analysis of essential oils in dry TCMs.

  1. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distillers grains with solubles on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2012-09-01

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has increased the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus) finishing diets. Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (Zea mays L.; SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of WDGS in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate of the net energy value of WDGS has yet to be determined. Effects of corn processing method and WDGS on energy metabolism, C and N balance, and enteric methane (CH(4)) production were evaluated in a short-term study using 8 Jersey steers and respiration calorimetry chambers. A 2 by 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a Latin square design. The 4 treatment combinations consisted of: i) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); ii) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); iii) dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and iv) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30). Diets were balanced for degradable intake protein (DIP) and ether extract (EE) by the addition of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) meal and yellow grease. As a proportion of GE, grain processing method did not affect (P ≥ 0.12) fecal, digestible, urinary, and ME, or heat production. Steers consuming SFC-based diets produced less (P < 0.04) CH(4) than steers consuming DRC-based diets. Retained energy tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for cattle consuming SFC- than DRC-based diets. Inclusion of WDGS did not affect (P ≥ 0.17) fecal, digestible, urinary, metabolizable, and retained energy, or heat production as a proportion of GE. Furthermore, neither inclusion of WDGS or grain processing method affected (P ≥ 0.17) daily CO(2) production. Due in part to greater N intake, cattle consuming diets containing 30% WDGS excreted more (P = 0.01) total N and excreted a greater (P < 0.01) quantity of N in the urine. From these results, we conclude that cattle consuming SFC-based diets produce less CH(4) and retain more energy than cattle fed DRC-based diets; however, dietary

  2. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P < 0.01) was noted for final BW, ADG, G:F, and HCW. Greater final BW was observed for treated stover (4.6%) and straw (5.6%) compared with NT residues; however, AT and NT cobs were similar. Treated straw (9.7%) and stover (12.5%) resulted in greater ADG (P < 0.01) and improved G:F (10.7% and 5.0%, respectively; P < 0.01) compared with NT forms. In Exp. 2, ruminally fistulated steers (n = 5) were used in an unbalanced 5 × 7 incomplete Latin square design with a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were crop residue (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and chemical treatment (NT or AT) fed at 25% of diet DM. Greater DM (73.7% vs. 66.1%; P < 0.01), OM (77.0% vs. 68.5%; P < 0.01), fat (89.2 vs. 85.2; P = 0.02), and NDF (66.8% vs. 51.5%; P < 0.01) digestibilities were noted for AT than for NT. However, no difference (P > 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data

  3. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  4. Numerical Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Dry Granular Flow with Deformable Elastic Grain

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, H A; Elander, V; Jin, C; Li, Y; Vasquez, P; Fast, P

    2005-08-11

    The authors consider the dynamics of interacting elastic disks in the plane. This is an experimentally realizable two-dimensional model of dry granular flow where the stresses can be visualized using the photoelastic effect. As the elastic disks move in a vacuum, they interact through collisions with each other and with the surrounding geometry. Because of the finite propagation speed of deformations inside each grain it can be difficult to capture computationally even simple experiments involving just a few interacting grains. The goal of this project is to improve our ability to simulate dense granular flow in complex geometry. They begin this process by reviewing some past work, how they can improve upon previous work. the focus of this project is on capturing the elastic dynamics of each grain in an approximate, computationally tractable, model that can be coupled to a molecular dynamics scheme.

  5. Evaluation of feeding distiller's grains, containing virginiamycin, on antimicrobial susceptibilities in fecal isolates of Enterococcus and Escherichia coli and prevalence of resistance genes in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distiller’s grains (DG), produced from fermentations using no antibiotic (Control) or dosed with 2 or 20 ppm virginiamycin product and containing 0, 0.7, and 8.9 ppm virginiamycin, respectively, were fed to cattle and effects on antibiotic sensitivity and prevalence of resistance genes in comm...

  6. Seed germination of Cistus creticus L. and Cistus laurifolius L. as influenced by dry-heat, soaking in distilled water and gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Tilki, Fahrettin

    2008-03-01

    The effects of dry-heat and seed soaking in distilled water or in gibberellic acid on germination performance of Cistus creticus L. and C. laurifolius L. were studied in the present study Germination percentages of two Cistus species were low due to dormancy Soaking in distilled water for 24 hr resulted in 28% germination in C. creticus and 43% in C. laurifolius. Gibberellic acid applications (20, 100 and 250 mg l(-1)) for 24 hr gave 32, 30 and 23% germination, respectively in Cistus creticus and 33, 37 and 28% germination, respectively in C. laurifolius. Dry-heat pretreatments at 50, 80 and 100 degrees C for several times (1-60 min) also significantly increased germination percentage in two species. The highest germination in C. creticus was obtained with dry-heat at 100 degrees C for 1 or 5 min (80% and 83%, respectively) and in C. laurifolius at 100 degrees C for 5 min (87%). A significant increase in germination rate was also achieved under different pretreatments. The physiological dormancy caused by an impermeable seed coat can be overcome by dry-heat pretreatments in two Cistus species.

  7. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  8. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  9. Effect of substitution of soybean meal by canola meal or distillers grains in dairy rations on amino acid and glucose availability.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-01-01

    Canola meal (CM) or by-products of ethanol production (dried distillers grain, DDG) may offer an economical alternative to soybean meal (SBM) in North American dairy rations. These protein supplements can effectively replace SBM and, in 2 recent meta-analyses, CM had a positive effect on milk and milk protein yields compared with SBM. The objective of this study was to determine if the positive responses observed with inclusion of CM in dairy rations could be explained by an increased availability of His, Lys, Met, or glucose. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods. Cows were fed isonitrogenous (17.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy of lactation) diets formulated to slightly exceed nutrient requirements. Diets contained 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate including SBM, CM, corn high-protein DDG (HPDDG), or wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS) as the single protein supplement. The effect of protein supplements on availability of His, Lys, Met, and glucose was estimated using variations in the whole-body (WB) flux of these nutrients, determined by isotopic dilution. As planned, dry matter intake and milk and milk protein yields were not affected by treatments and averaged 23.7, 31.4, and 1.14 kg/d, respectively. Lactose yield did not differ among diets although milk lactose content tended to be lower with CM and WDDGS diets than with SBM and HPDDG diets. Lysine availability was affected by treatments: the highest WB irreversible loss rate (ILR) was observed for the CM diet (371 g/d) and the lowest for HPDDG diet (290 g/d); values for SBM and WDDGS were intermediate (330 and 316 g/d, respectively). Availability of His and Met did not vary among diets and WB ILR averaged, respectively, 129 and 124 g/d; the CM diet, however, had numerically the highest His and Met ILR. Plasma concentrations of most of the essential AA were higher with the CM diet and lower with the HPDDG diet, the

  10. Effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles co-ensiled with direct-cut forage on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and diet digestibility of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Arias, R P; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Scholljegerdes, E J; Baird, A N; Johnson, K D; Buckmaster, D; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles (MWDGS) co-ensiled with direct-cut forage (DC) to beef steers, on feedlot performance and total tract digestibility. In Exp. 1, sixty-four crossbred Angus steers (n = 64; 329 ± 43 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) corn-silage and soybean meal (CON), 2) DC co-ensiled with MWDGS (CO-EN), 3) haylage mixed with MWDGS at feeding (H+WDG), and 4) haylage mixed with dry distillers grains plus solubles at feeding (H+DDG). Steers were harvested when they reached an endpoint of 1.1 cm of 12th-rib back fat. In Exp. 2, four ruminally cannulated beef steers (initial BW = 556 ± 31 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate digestibility of diets used in Exp. 1. Experimental periods were 14 d in length with 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample collection. Three linear orthogonal contrasts were used to compare effects of 1) CON vs. diets containing distillers grains (DGD), 2) CO-EN vs. diets where distillers grains were mixed at feeding (MIX), and 3) H+WDG vs. H+DDG. In Exp. 1, DMI was less (P < 0.001) for steers fed CON compared with those fed DGD and greatest (P < 0.001) for steers fed CO-EN compared with MIX. Corn-silage- and soybean-meal-fed steers had more days on feed than those fed DGD (P = 0.001). Body weight gain (P = 0.02) was greater for CO-EN compared with MIX. Fat thickness at the 12th and 13th ribs was greater (P = 0.03) for DGD steers compared with CON steers. Hot carcass weight was greater (P = 0.03) for steers fed CO-EN compared with those fed MIX. Steers fed CON resulted in greater marbling scores (P = 0.01) compared DGD-fed steers. Longissimus muscle area was greater (P = 0.01) for CON-fed steers compared with all other treatments. In Exp. 2, no differences (P > 0.10) in DM, OM, or N intakes were observed. Apparent total tract DM (P = 0.01) and N (P = 0.02) digestibility were greatest in

  11. Slope, grain size, and roughness controls on dry sediment transport and storage on steep hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, Roman A.; Lamb, Michael P.; Ganti, Vamsi; Booth, Adam M.

    2017-04-01

    Existing hillslope sediment transport models developed for low-relief, soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the coupling between steep rocky hillslopes and headwater channels. Here we address this knowledge gap using a series of field and numerical experiments to inform a particle-based model of sediment transport by dry ravel—a mechanism of granular transport characteristic of steep hillslopes. We find that particle travel distance increases as a function of the ratio of particle diameter to fine-scale (<1 m) topographic roughness, in agreement with prior laboratory and field experiments. Contrary to models that assume a fixed critical slope, the particle-based model predicts a broad transition as hillslopes steepen from grain-scale to hillslope-scale mean particle travel distances due to the trapping of sediment on slopes more than threefold steeper than the average friction slope. This transition is further broadened by higher macroscale (>1 m) topographic variability associated with rocky landscapes. Applying a 2-D dry-ravel-routing model to lidar-derived surface topography, we show how spatial patterns of local and nonlocal transport control connectivity between hillslopes and steep headwater channels that generate debris flows through failure of ravel-filled channels following wildfire. Our results corroborate field observations of a patchy transition from soil-mantled to bedrock landscapes and suggest that there is a dynamic interplay between sediment storage, roughness, grain sorting, and transport even on hillslopes that well exceed the angle of repose.

  12. Effects of dietary fat and wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four hundred yearling heifers in two experiments were fed for an average of 106 days. Treatments included 0% wet sorghum distiller’s grains plus solubles (WSDGS) and 0% yellow grease (fat), 0% WSDGS and 3% fat, or 15% WSDGS and either 0, 1.5, or 3.0% fat. The WSDGS replaced steam-flaked corn and cot...

  13. Creep of partially molten fine-grained gabbro under dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongsheng; Rybacki, Erik; Wirth, Richard; He, Changrong; Dresen, Georg

    2012-05-01

    Natural fine-grained gabbro was deformed in a Paterson deformation apparatus to evaluate the flow strength of lower crustal rocks containing partial melt. We performed 94 creep stepping tests on seven samples at 300 MPa confining pressure, temperatures between 950°C and 1150°C, and axial stresses of 25-510 MPa, resulting in strain rates between 2.3 × 10-4 and 6.7 × 10-8 s-1. Water content of samples predried at 1000°C at 1 atm was about 0.035 wt % H2O. The drying process induced partial melting of the starting material of ˜1 vol % Si-poor and Fe-rich melt at grain boundaries, which increased further up to ˜2 vol % during creep tests. Creep tests reveal strain rates increasing with duration of the tests related to increasing melt content present in the samples. Microstructural observations of deformed samples show melt in triple junctions and melt films contained in grain boundaries. The observed microstructures indicate that the samples were deformed in the dislocation creep regime. Dislocation walls are present in pyroxene and plagioclase grains. Very fine grained (about 10 μm) pyroxene and olivine were produced by mineral reactions and dynamic recrystallization at temperatures >1000°C. Melt fraction ϕ of creep test samples and annealed samples increases linearly with logarithm of time (log(t)), suggesting that strain rate enhancement by partial melting can be described by an exponential function of melt fraction with an exponent coefficient of 128. After applying a correction for the time-dependent increase of melt content the data were fitted to a power law creep equation, resulting in a stress exponent of n = 4.0 ± 0.3, an activation energy of Q = 644 ± 75 kJ mol-1, and a preexponential factor of A = 1010.3 ± 0.4 MPan s-1 for dry gabbro that contains ˜1 vol % melt. The flow law for gabbro from this study is compared to published flow law parameters of basaltic composition rocks.

  14. Effects of increasing concentrations of wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked corn-based diets of energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased in the Southern Great Plains as a result of the growing ethanol industry. Research evaluating the use of steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets in conjunction with WDGS is limited. Therefore, the effects of increasi...

  15. Effects of adding MIN-AD to steam-flaked corn-based diets with or without wet corn distiller's grain plus solubles on performance by beef cattle during receiving and finishing phases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of wet corn distillers grain (WCDG) and MIN-AD (MIN-AD Inc., Amarillo, TX), a commercial source of calcium-magnesium carbonate, on cattle performance and carcass measurements were evaluated in a 42-d receiving phase (220 steers; initial BW = 279.3 kg) and a subsequent finishing phase (192 s...

  16. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli in feces and feedlot surface manure from cattle fed diets with or without corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and fee...

  17. Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different grain sources as dietary protein for hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. Aureus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different sources on growth performance, hematology, and immunity of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, were evaluated. Sex-reversed, all-male hybrid tilapia (3.72 ± 0.08 g initial weight) were fed diets in which 30% o...

  18. Corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: in vitro fermentation and hydrogen sulfide production.

    PubMed

    May, M L; DeClerck, J C; Leibovich, J; Quinn, M J; DiLorenzo, N; Smith, D R; Hales, K E; Galyean, M L

    2010-07-01

    The effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) on in vitro rate of gas production, IVDMD, H(2)S production, and VFA were evaluated. Five substrate treatments that were balanced for ether extract content were arranged in a 2 x 2 + 1 factorial. Factors were concentration (15 or 30%; DM basis) and source of WDG (corn or sorghum WDG; CDG and SDG, respectively) plus a 0% WDG control in substrates with steam-flaked corn as the basal grain. Control substrates had greater (P < 0.01) IVDMD and total gas production per gram of substrate DM than WDG-based substrates, and IVDMD was greater (P = 0.03) for CDG than for SDG substrates. Increasing WDG inclusion from 15 to 30% decreased IVDMD and total gas production (P < 0.05), but H(2)S production (micromol/g of fermentable DM) increased (P = 0.01) as inclusion of WDG increased. There were no differences (P > or = 0.10) among treatments in proportions of major VFA, acetate:propionate ratio, and total VFA concentration. These results suggest that including WDG in the substrate decreased IVDMD and gas production, which was particularly evident as WDG increased from 15 to 30% of substrate DM. In addition, CDG seemed to be more digestible than SDG. Hydrogen sulfide production increased with increasing WDG in the substrate, reflecting greater S concentrations in WDG, but in vitro VFA profiles were not affected by WDG concentration or source.

  19. A mathematical model for constant and intermittent batch drying of grains in a novel rotating jet spouted bed

    SciTech Connect

    Jumah, R.Y.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    1996-05-01

    A diffusion-based mathematical model is presented for batch drying of corn in a novel rotating jet spouted bed device under constant as well as intermittent drying conditions. Such a device is suited for drying of large particles (e.g. grains, beans, seeds, etc.) for which internal heat and mass transfer rates control the drying kinetics. Based on literature data for moisture diffusivities the model predictions are compared with experimental data for both continuous and time-dependent air supply and/or heat input. Effects of relevant parameters are evaluated and discussed in the light of potential practical applications. 44 refs.

  20. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS.

  1. Computer simulation of dry layered granular flow down an incline composed of grains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Jan, Chyan-Deng

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that gravity-driven dry granular flows are essentially layered for smooth spheres. This paper describes layer-to-layer interaction in the flow. Assuming two-dimensional flow and neglecting the interaction of grains within the same layer, one may idealize the problem as an elastic sphere under external forces moving down an incline within a layer of identical spheres placed equally apart. The moving sphere is thus subjected to the total gravitational force which includes the weight of a specified number of layers of spheres above it and its own weight. With such a mechanical approach, estimates can be made for the magnitudes of collisional and non-collisional stresses.

  2. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  3. Biofuel Co-products as Swine Feed Ingredients: Combining Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Crude Glycerin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of combining corn DDGS with crude glycerin on growth performance and carcass traits to determine if a high level of crude glycerin supplementation could counteract the impact of corn DDGS on fatty acid profile of pork adipose. The experimental d...

  4. Pressurized pyrolysis of dried distillers grains with solubles and canola seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Funda; Miskolczi, Norbert; Saricaoğlu, Beyza

    2015-02-01

    Pressurized pyrolysis of biomasses was carried in a fixed bed reactor to obtain gases, bio-oils and chars at elevated temperatures. The products were characterized by GC-MS, FTIR, viscometer, SEM, BET and EDXRFS methods. Experiments were performed at 1, 5 and 10 bar pressure and 400, 500 and 600°C temperatures. The experimental results show that in all the experimental condition the yield of bio-oil from DDGS as higher than that of canola. Yield of non-condensable gases and chars increased, while that of liquid products decreased by pressure. Increasing pressure favoured the formation of low molecular weight gas, such as H2. Maximum surface area of chars was obtained at atmospheric pressure and the surface areas decreased rapidly with increasing pressure. GC/MS results shows that the amount of fatty acids in bio-oils was increased by increasing pressure and bio-oils showed non-Newtonian behavior. Based on EDXRFS results, bio-oils and char contained lots of elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Twin-screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS)-based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to tremendous increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, the need for alternative protein sources cannot be disregarded. Toward that end, twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally...

  6. Twin-screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS)-based Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The world’s increasing demand for seafood products has resulted in rising demands for fish meal for fish feed, which must be compensated for by searching for effective alternative protein sources. In this study, twin-screw extrusion trials were conducted to study the production of nutritionally-bala...

  7. Twin screw extrusion processing of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, has created the need for alternative protein sources. Twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally-balanced feeds for juvenile yellow perch (Pe...

  8. Influence of distillers grains resulting from a cellulosic ethanol process utilizing corn kernel fiber on nutrient digestibility of lambs and steer feedlot performance.

    PubMed

    Lundy, E L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects on animal performance of traditional wet distillers grains (T-WDG) compared to cellulosic wet distillers grains (C-WDG) from a new process converting corn kernel fiber into cellulosic ethanol. The resulting coproduct has greater CP and decreased starch and ether extract (EE) concentrations (34.0% CP, 1.6% starch, 7.3% EE) compared to T-WDG (32.5% CP, 5.1% starch, 7.7% EE). In Exp. 1, 10 wethers (34.1 ± 2.35 kg, SD) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square to evaluate digestibility of DM, fiber, EE, and N. Diets including a corn-based control with 7.5% T-WDG and 7.5% C-WDG (CORN); 30% or 45% inclusion of T-WDG; and 30% or 45% inclusion of C-WDG. Between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 45% T-WDG, or 45% C-WDG, DMI was not different (P ≥ 0.11), but lambs fed 30% C-WDG had decreased (P ≤ 0.05) DMI compared to other diets. Compared to CORN and 30% T-WDG, DM digestibility was lesser ( P< 0.05) for 45% T-WDG or 30% C-WDG, while 45% C-WDG has lesser (P ≤ 0.05) DM digestibility than all other treatments. Digestibility of NDF was not affected by treatment (P= 0.13), and ADF digestibility was not different ( 0.21) between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 30% C-WDG, or 45% C-WDG. However, digestibility of ADF tended to differ (P = 0.06) between 30% T-WDG and 45% C-WDG and was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed 45% T-WDG compared to other treatments. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (421 ± 23.9 kg, SD) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the impact of C-WDG or T-WDG on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Diets included a corn-based control (CON), 30% T-WDG (TRAD), 30% C-WDG (CEL), and 18% C-WDG and 12% condensed corn distillers solubles (CEL+CCDS; = 7 pens of 6 steers/pen). Steers fed TRAD had improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG, G:F, and HCW compared to steers fed the CON diet. No differences (P ≥ 0.16) in ADG and HCW were noted for steers fed CEL compared to TRAD; however, steers fed CEL had decreased (P = 0.01) G:F due to increased (P = 0

  9. Economic impact of ethanol production on U.S. livestock sector: A spatial analysis of corn and distillers grain shipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'guessan, Yapo Genevier

    2007-12-01

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has increased from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 4,855 million gallons in 2006, representing a 198% growth over the period considered. This growth is favored by the availability of more efficient technologies in the production process of ethanol and is sustained by the high prices of ethanol in the market. The industry is also supported by a favorable public policy, expressed in the form of laws, mandating an increase in the use of ethanol, and also in the form of tax incentives. The tremendous increase in the use of corn for the ethanol industry is made at the expense of the livestock industry that was the traditional destination for much of the U.S. corn grain. As the ethanol industry continues to expand, concerns are raised in regard to its impact as more and more corn is diverted from the livestock sector. This study investigates the economic impact of the ethanol industry on the U.S. livestock sector. Specifically, a shipping cost model is developed to simulate the impact of the ethanol industry on the shipping cost of corn at the national and individual state levels. The dynamics for major livestock producing states are also analyzed at the crop reporting district level. Different scenarios based on assumptions on the availability of corn and the production capacities of the ethanol industry are displayed. Results from the model indicate that nationwide there is a 5 to 22% increase in the shipping cost of corn for the livestock industry due to the ethanol industry, depending on the scenario involved. At the state level, there is an increase in the transportation cost for most of the states, with shipping cost doubling in some cases. Nevertheless, some states benefit from the dynamics created by the development of ethanol plants and are experiencing a reduction in their livestock industry corn transportation cost.

  10. Experimental methods for the Palaeolithic dry distillation of birch bark: implications for the origin and development of Neandertal adhesive technology.

    PubMed

    Kozowyk, P R B; Soressi, M; Pomstra, D; Langejans, G H J

    2017-08-31

    The destructive distillation of birch bark to produce tar has recently featured in debates about the technological and cognitive abilities of Neandertals and modern humans. The abilities to precisely control fire temperatures and to manipulate adhesive properties are believed to require advanced mental traits. However, the significance given to adhesive technology in these debates has quickly outgrown our understanding of birch bark tar and its manufacture using aceramic techniques. In this paper, we detail three experimental methods of Palaeolithic tar production ranging from simple to complex. We recorded the fuel, time, materials, temperatures, and tar yield for each method and compared them with the tar known from the Palaeolithic. Our results indicate that it is possible to obtain useful amounts of tar by combining materials and technology already in use by Neandertals. A ceramic container is not required, and temperature control need not be as precise as previously thought. However, Neandertals must have been able to recognize certain material properties, such as adhesive tack and viscosity. In this way, they could develop the technology from producing small traces of tar on partially burned bark to techniques capable of manufacturing quantities of tar equal to those found in the Middle Palaeolithic archaeological record.

  11. Rapid analysis of the essential oil components of dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim by Fe2O3-magnetic-microsphere-assisted microwave distillation and simultaneous headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing

    2013-06-01

    In this work, microwave distillation assisted by Fe2 O3 magnetic microspheres (FMMS) and headspace single-drop microextraction were combined, and developed for determination of essential oil compounds in dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBM). The FMMS were used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of dried ZBM. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction, and concentration of essential oil compounds can be carried out in a single step. The experimental parameters including extraction solvent, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added FMMS, were studied. The optimal analytical conditions were: 2.0 μL decane as the extraction solvent, microwave power of 300 W, irradiation time of 2 min, and the addition of 0.1 g FMMS to ZBM. The method precision was from 4 to 10%. A total of 52 compounds were identified by the proposed method. The conventional steam distillation method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in dried ZBM and only 31 compounds were identified by steam distillation method. It was found that the proposed method is a simple, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free technique for the determination of volatile compounds in Chinese herbs.

  12. Successive Reduction Dry Milling of Normal and Waxy Corn: Grain, Grit, and Flour Properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh

    2015-06-01

    Dry milling of different corn types resulted in varied proportions of germ, pericarp, grit and flour. Grit and flour produced during different reduction stages varied in particle size and chemical constituents, hence applications in food industry. In this study, recovery of different fractions and variation in physicochemical and pasting properties of grit and flour fractions obtained during 3 successive reduction dry millings of 2 normal (African tall, HQPM1) and 1 waxy corn (IC 550353) were evaluated. Waxy corn grains had the highest L*, a*, b*, ash, fat, and protein content and the lowest weight. Waxy and African tall gave the highest recovery of germ and pericarp, respectively. Waxy corn showed lower grit and flour recovery as compared to normal corn. Flour fractions showed higher L* and lower a* and b* values than grit fractions. Particle size of grit and flour fractions ranged from 840 to 982 μm and 330 to 409 μm, respectively. Fractions with larger particle size showed lower L* value. The b* value showed positive correlation with yellow pigment content. Grit and flour from the 1st reduction stage showed higher ash and fat content. Protein content was correlated positively with ash content and negatively with L* value. Grit and flour fractions with higher protein content had lower pasting viscosities. Pasting viscosities were higher for flours than their corresponding grits. Protein profiling of grit and flour fractions from different stages showed quantitative and qualitative differences in medium (22, 28, and 35 kDa) and low molecular weight (16, 17, and 19 kDa) polypeptides and were related to grit and flour yield.

  13. Compositional changes during grain-based fuel ethanol production and method modifications to recover co-products for human or pet food utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The surge in global supply of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in recent years has stimulated many new investigations into this important co-product of grain-based fuel ethanol production. Compositional changes during the entire dry grind process has been one of them, since DDGS is char...

  14. [Effects of different barnyardgrass species on grain yield of rice and their physiological characteristics under alternate wetting and drying irrigation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-chang; Li, Yong-feng; Yang, Xia; Gu, Tao; Li, Gui

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of different barnyardgrass species on rice yield and physiological characteristics of rice, two rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu (an indica hybrid cultivar) and Nanjing 9108 (a japonica cultivar) , were employed to co-culture with four barnyardgrass species during the period from transplanting to maturity under alternate wetting and moderate drying ir- rigation condition. The treatments were separately designed as follow: weed free ( control) , rice with Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis (T1), rice with E. crusgalli (T2), rice with E. crusgali var. zelayensis (T3) and rice with E. colonum (T4). The results showed that T1, T2, T3 and T4 treatments reduced the Liangyoupeijiu yield by 13.8%, 10.6%, 23.8% and 0.5%, but the corresponding yield loss of Nanjing 9108 could reach up to 45.5%, 36.9%, 60.7% and 15.1%, respectively. The results above showed that T1, T2 and T3 treatments all significantly reduced grain yield, and T4 treatment only reduced grain yield for Nanjing 9108 but not for Liangyoupeijiu. All treatments elevated malondialehyde contents of rice leaf, but the activities of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dimutase, dry matter accumulation in maturity stage, root oxidation activities and contents of indole-3-acetic acid as well as zeatin + zeatin riboside in roots during rice grain filling stage were all decreased. The influence degree of four barnyardgrass against physiological indices of rice had the order of T3 > T1 >T2 > T4. It showed that the reductions in enzyme activities of antioxidant system, root oxidation activities, contents of indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin + zeatin riboside during grain filling stage and accumulation of dry matter in maturity as well as increase in contents of malondialehyde of rice during grain filling stage might be important reasons for grain yield reduction when grew with barnyardgrass.

  15. Impact of management practices and distillers' grains feeding on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ryan C; Popowski, Jackie M; Anderson, Jon E; Dahlberg, Johanna L; Kalyanikutty, Sudha; Crawford, Grant I; DiCostanzo, Alfredo; Cox, Ryan B; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted by contaminated ground beef and is shed naturally in cattle feces. Recent reports indicated that feeding distillers' grains (DG) to cattle increased fecal shedding and prevalence of E. coli O157. In Minnesota, feeding DG with solubles (DGS) to livestock became widespread within the last 10 years, but there is no report about the prevalence of E. coli O157 in beef cattle in this state. This study was undertaken to survey the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle fed diets containing DG and its association with environmental conditions and management practices. Fecal samples were collected from three feedlots during a 1-year period. All animals in those feedlots were fed different DGS levels. E. coli O157 presence was determined using a combination of enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar, and confirmation of isolates by immunoassay and multiplex virulence genes polymerase chain reaction analysis. Overall, E. coli O157 was confirmed in 9.7% of samples. Prevalence during summer was 30% and declined to less than 10% the rest of the year. In animals grouped by dietary DGS concentration, no significant difference in prevalence (12.0 and 5.5%) was detected between the low and the high average groups (less and more than 20%). Previous feeding of DGS before arriving to the feedlot also had no influence on fecal prevalence. The presence of several interacting variables, uncontrolled in a real-life feedlot environment, was the likely reason for our observation and suggested that at the levels studied, DGS had no effect on the STEC O157 prevalence in cattle populations.

  16. Effects of wet corn distillers grains with solubles on visceral organ mass, trace mineral status, and polioencephalomalacia biomarkers of individually-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Ponce, C H; Brown, M S; Osterstock, J B; Cole, N A; Lawrence, T E; Soto-Navarro, S; MacDonald, J; Lambert, B D; Maxwell, C

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-four steers (initial BW = 385 ± 1.1 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments (0, 30, or 60% wet distillers grains with solubles [WDGS]; DM basis) and were fed individually to determine the effect of WDGS on live growth and carcass performance, visceral organ mass, trace mineral status, and polioencephalomalacia biomarkers. Steers were slaughtered at 125, 150, 164, and 192 d (2 blocks/slaughter date) when external fat depth was approximately 1.3 cm based on visual appraisal. Steers fed 30% WDGS had greater DMI than those fed 0 or 60% WDGS (P < 0.05), and steers fed 60% WDGS had the lowest carcass-adjusted ADG (P < 0.09) of the 3 treatments. Nonetheless, WDGS concentration did not alter feed efficiency (P > 0.41) on either live or carcass-adjusted basis. Steers fed 30% WDGS had greater liver S and Mn concentrations (DM basis) and lower liver Fe concentrations than control steers (P < 0.10; initial values used as a covariate), and feeding 60% WDGS decreased liver Cu and increased liver Fe (P < 0.10) compared with feeding 30% WDGS. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in brain tissue tended to be decreased with 60 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.12), and COX activity decreased linearly (P = 0.06) in lung tissue as dietary WDGS concentration increased. Likewise, gut fill linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing WDGS concentration. Feeding 30% WDGS increased fractional mass (g/kg of empty BW) of the small intestine (P < 0.10) compared with controls, whereas 60% WDGS increased fractional kidney mass (P < 0.10) compared with 30% WDGS. Overall, results suggest that gut fill, Cu status, and COX activity seem to be compromised by WDGS when fed at 60% of diet DM in diets based on steam-flaked corn, which suggests a greater susceptibility to polioencephalomalacia.

  17. Effective utilization of distiller's grain soluble-an agro-industrial waste in the feed of cage-reared minor carp Labeo bata in a tropical reservoir, India.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das

    2016-08-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste.

  18. Influence of graded levels of brewers dried grains on pellet quality and performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Denstadli, V; Ballance, S; Knutsen, S H; Westereng, B; Svihus, B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a gradual substitution of wheat and soy with brewers dried grains (BDG) on pellet quality, performance, and organ weights in broiler chickens. Five diets were formulated in which 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40% BDG replaced wheat and soy, with a concomitant gradual reduction in the calculated AME level. Each of the 5 experimental diets was fed to 12-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) kept in 6 pens, with 12 birds/pen. The birds had ad libitum access to feed and water until termination of the experiment at d 33. Feed intake was not affected by BDG inclusion and compensatory feed intake did not occur, perhaps having been neutralized by a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the pellet durability index. The pellet durability index was 85% in the control diet (0% BDG) and decreased significantly (P < 0.001) to 68% in the diet with 40% BDG. Increased levels of BDG reduced BW gain significantly (P < 0.001) and led to a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the feed:gain ratio. The feed:gain ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in birds fed 30 and 40% BDG compared with birds fed 0, 10, and 20% BDG. The apparent ileal digestibility values of protein and energy were significantly reduced by BDG inclusion (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas starch digestibility increased significantly (P < 0.001). The relative gizzard weight increased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas the relative cecal weights were not affected by BDG inclusion. To conclude, 10 to 20% inclusion of BDG supports acceptable growth and feed utilization, and favors the development of a well-functioning gizzard.

  19. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle.

  20. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Total Escherichia coli in Feces and Feedlot Surface Manure from Cattle Fed Diets with and without Corn or Sorghum Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Varel, Vincent H; Hales, Kristin E; Kalchayanand, Norasak

    2017-08-01

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and feedlot pen surfaces of cattle fed WDGS. In the first study, feces from steers fed 0, 20, 40, or 60% corn WDGS were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7. The E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 0% corn WDGS rapidly decreased (P < 0.05), from 6.28 to 2.48 log CFU/g of feces by day 14. In contrast, the E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 20, 40, and 60% corn WDGS were 4.21, 5.59, and 6.13 log CFU/g of feces, respectively, on day 14. A second study evaluated the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces from cattle fed 0 and 40% corn WDGS. Feces were collected before and 28 days after the dietary corn was switched from high-moisture corn to dry-rolled corn. Within dietary corn source, the pathogen persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) in 40% corn WDGS feces at day 7 than in 0% WDGS. For 40% corn WDGS feces, E. coli O157:H7 persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) at day 7 in feces from cattle fed high-moisture corn (5.36 log CFU/g) than from those fed dry-rolled corn (4.27 log CFU/g). The percentage of WDGS had no effect on the E. coli O157:H7 counts in feces from cattle fed steam-flaked corn-based diets containing 0, 15, and 30% sorghum WDGS. Greater persistence of E. coli O157:H7 on the pen surfaces of animals fed corn WDGS was not demonstrated, although these pens had a higher prevalence of the pathogen in the feedlot surface manure after the cattle were removed. Both or either the greater persistence and higher numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment of cattle fed WDGS may play a part in the increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle by increasing the transmission risk.

  1. Feeding wet distillers grains plus solubles with and without a direct-fed microbial to determine performance, carcass characteristics, and fecal shedding of O157:H7 in feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B K; Holland, B P; Step, D L; Jacob, M E; VanOverbeke, D L; Richards, C J; Nagaraja, T G; Krehbiel, C R

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has become a common practice in many regions of the United States due to the expanded production of byproducts and fluctuating corn prices related to ethanol production and other factors. In addition, societal concerns over the continued use of antimicrobials in agriculture production combined with an enhanced interest in disease and pathogen prevention in the food supply have led to an increased interest in use of direct-fed microbials (DFM) in growing and finishing cattle. Direct-fed microbials have been shown to improve ADG and feed efficiency, alter ruminal fermentation, and decrease fecal shedding of potential harmful pathogens in feedlot cattle in some experiments. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of WDGS inclusion with or without a DFM containing (1 × 10 cfu ∙ heifer ∙ d) combined with (1 × 10 cfu ∙ heifer ∙ d) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and O157:H7 shedding in feedlot heifers. In early August, 288 crossbred heifers (initial BW = 295 ± 28 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (12 pens per treatment; 6 heifers per pen) in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Body weights and fecal grab samples were obtained at approximately 28-d intervals throughout the experiment. Across the feeding period, heifers fed 30% WDGS tended ( = 0.09) to have greater ADG and had greater carcass-adjusted ADG ( = 0.05) compared with heifers fed dry-rolled corn (DRC). Dry matter intake was not affected ( = 0.65) by diet, although carcass-adjusted G:F tended ( = 0.10) to be improved for heifers fed WDGS. Heifers fed 30% WDGS tended ( ≤ 0.10) to have greater fat thickness at the 12th rib, lower marbling scores, and higher yield grades. The inclusion of . combined with . in the diet had no effect ( > 0.10) on performance or carcass merit in the present experiment. The incidence of O157:H7 throughout the

  2. Energy conservation in grain (corn) drying with combination high-temperature, low-temperature methods. Final report, July 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, R. Vance; Gustafson, Robert J.; Cloud, Harold A.; Walter, Kenneth L.

    1980-03-01

    The need to conserve energy has led to efforts to improve efficiency of grain drying systems. Combination high-temperature, low-temperature drying offers potential for meeting this need. Combination drying is any system in which high-temperature drying is followed by in-storage cooling and low-temperature drying. The high-temperature (120 to 240/sup 0/F) phase can be a continuous flow or automatic batch dryer, or a bin dryer using elevated air temperatures (continuous flow; unstirred, stirred or recirculated batch. The purpose of the high-temperature dryer is to reduce the corn moisture content to a level where drying can be safely completed with in-storage, low-temperature methods. In-storage drying is accomplished by moving low-temperature air through the grain mass. This process may take from four to eight weeks, or longer, to complete. In fact, drying may be halted in late fall and completed during the following spring. Potential advantages of the combination approach compared to conventional drying with in-drying cooling include: reduced energy requirements, increased drying capacity, and improved grain quality. Combination drying studies from four corn harvest seasons (1975 to 1978) at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station, and results of simulation analysis of the low-tempeature phase of combination drying are presented. The model used for this analysis was validated with experimental data from the field studies. Finally, design and management recommendations, and economic considerations for combination drying are discussed. (LCL)

  3. [Effects of tillage pattern on the flag leaf senescence and grain yield of winter wheat under dry farming].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Wu, Jin-Zhi; Li, You-Jun; Yao, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Can-Jun; Cai, Dian-Xiong; Jin, Ke

    2009-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage patterns, i.e., deep plowing once, no-tillage, subsoiling, and conventional tillage, on the flag leaf senescence and grain yield of winter wheat, as well as the soil moisture and nutrient status under dry farming. No-tillage and subsoiling increased the SOD and POD activities and the chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, decreased the MDA and O2(-.) contents, and postponed the senescence of flag leaf. Under non-tillage and subsoiling, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer at anthesis and grain-filling stages was decreased by 4.13% and 6.23% and by 5.50% and 9.27%, respectively, and the contents of alkali-hydrolysable N, available P, and available K in this soil layer also increased significantly, compared with those under conventional tillage. Deep plowing once decreased the moisture content and increased the nutrients contents in 0-40 cm soil layer, but the decrement and increment were not significant. The post-anthesis biomass, post-anthesis dry matter translocation rate, and grain yield under no-tillage and subsoiling were 4.34% and 4.76%, 15.56% and 13.51%, and 10.22% and 9.26% higher than those under conventional tillage, respectively. It could be concluded that no-tillage and subsoiling provided better soil conditions for the post-anthesis growth of winter wheat, under which, the flag leaf senescence postponed, post-anthesis dry matter accumulation and translocation accelerated, and grain yield increased significantly, being the feasible tillage practices in dry farming winter wheat areas.

  4. Potential odorous volatile organic compound emissions from feces and urine from cattle fed corn-based diets with wet distillers grains and solubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin E.; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2012-12-01

    Odor and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are a concern at animal feeding operations (AFOs). The issue has become more prevalent as human residences move into areas once occupied only by agriculture. Odors near AFOs are generally caused by odorous VOCs emitted from manure, the mixture of feces and urine. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) are a by-product of the ethanol industry, and WDGS have become a staple in many beef cattle finishing diets. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from frozen feces and urine of cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets containing 0, 15, 30, or 45% WDGS. No differences in flux were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, indole, skatole, or 4-methylphenol (P > 0.23). Dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide flux in feces were not different across treatments (P > 0.35) and the flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric were not different across treatments (P > 0.25). There was a tendency for dimethyl disulfide flux from urine to be greater for cattle consuming an SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS than the other diets (P = 0.10). Furthermore, flux of acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, and isovaleric acid from the urine were not different (P > 0.61) across dietary treatment. There were no significant differences in odor activity value (OAV) across treatments for feces, and only a tendency for dimethyl disulfide in the feces (P = 0.09). Thus, there was no obvious indication that feeding WDGS in conjunction with SFC affects flux of odor or odorous VOC from beef manure. The summed OAV was three times higher in the urine than feces, and a single odorous compound (4-methylphenol) accounted for 97.6%and 67.3% of the OAV in urine and feces, respectively. Therefore, engineering or dietary strategies to reduce odor from beef cattle manure should focus on controlling or reducing 4-methylphenol concentrations in the

  5. Odorant production and persistence of Escherichia coli in manure slurries from cattle fed zero, twenty, forty, or sixty percent wet distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Berry, E D; Spiehs, M J; Miller, D N; Ferrell, C L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2008-12-01

    Corn ethanol production removes starch and concentrates the remaining nutrients, including CP and minerals. When wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) are fed to cattle in place of corn, CP and minerals often exceed dietary needs. This may increase N emission, P run-off, and odor production. These variables are evaluated in this study. Crossbred steers (n = 160; 434 +/- 8 kg) were assigned in a completely randomized block design to 9 x 9 m pens with concrete floor (10 animals/pen; 4 pens/treatment). Steers were fed a finishing diet that contained 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a DM basis, and provided 13.3, 15.5, 20.6, or 24.9% CP, respectively. Two kilograms of manure slurry (14 to 23% DM) were collected from each pen monthly (Aug. 20, Sep. 24, and Oct. 22). Samples were analyzed immediately for odorants, DM, pH, NH(3), total alcohol, l-lactate, and concentrations of generic Escherichia coli. After incubation of the samples at 22 degrees C for 2, 4, 7, 10, 15, 21, and 28 d, samples were analyzed for methane production in addition to the above characteristics. Before incubation, NH(3), H(2)S, indole, phenol, isovalerate, isobutyrate, and acetate increased (P < 0.01) with increasing amounts of WDGS in the diet. Other odorants, including skatole, caproate, valerate, butyrate, and propionate, were greater (P < 0.01) in manure slurries from cattle fed 20 or 40% WDGS, compared to 0% WDGS. The l-lactate was greater (P < 0.01) in slurries from cattle fed 0% WDGS (447 mu mol/g of DM) compared with the other treatment slurries (14 to 15 mu mol/g of DM). After incubation, l-lactate contributed to lowered slurry pH (6.3, 7.1, 7.6, and 8.2, respectively, for 0, 20, 40, and 60% WDGS), which inhibited microbial fermentation, E. coli persistence, and methane production. Because of the favorable, more neutral pH in the 40 and 60% WDGS slurries, many of the odorant compounds were rapidly converted to methane during a 28-d static incubation. Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into

  6. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  7. Changes in Composition and Phosphorus Profile during Dry Grind Process of Corn into Ethanol and DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. Dry grind method has been a major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. The process consists of grinding, cooking, liquefactio...

  8. Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

    1999-07-01

    Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

  9. Effects of corn processing method in diets containing sorghum wet distillers grain plus solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle and on in vitro fermentation of diets.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, J; Vasconcelos, J T; Galyean, M L

    2009-06-01

    Two randomized complete block design experiments with a factorial arrangement of treatments were conducted to study the effects of corn processing method and inclusion of sorghum wet distillers grain plus solubles (SWDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. In Exp. 1, 160 crossbred steers (primarily British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 397.6 +/- 29.4 kg) were fed diets based on dry-rolled (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC), with or without the inclusion of 15% SWDGS (DM basis). Corn processing x SWDGS interactions were not detected (P > or = 0.20) for performance and most carcass characteristics. The G:F was less (P < 0.01) with DRC- than with SFC-based diets. Steers fed SFC-based diets had greater 12th-rib fat thickness (P = 0.03), yield grade (P = 0.02), and a smaller LM area (P = 0.08) than steers fed DRC. Inclusion of 15% SWDGS resulted in decreased G:F (P < 0.01) than for diets without SWDGS. In addition, steers fed SWDGS had decreased HCW (P = 0.01) and dressing percent (P = 0.03) than those fed no SWDGS. In Exp. 2, diet samples from Exp. 1 were used to evaluate rate of in vitro gas production, IVDMD, and H(2)S concentrations in gas. No significant corn processing x SWDGS interactions were noted for any of these measurements or for mathematically fitted gas production parameters, except for the predicted maximum value of gas production. The SFC-based diets had greater IVDMD (P = 0.01), area under the gas production curve (AUC; P = 0.02), and rate (k) of gas production (P = 0.02) than DRC-based diets. Inclusion of 15% SWDGS in the substrates decreased IVDMD (P < 0.01), AUC (P = 0.03), and rate of gas production (P = 0.04) compared with 0% SWDGS. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations in gas did not differ (P > 0.10) with corn processing method or addition of SWDGS. Overall, these data suggest that the response to 15% SWDGS in finishing diets was not affected by corn processing method, but including 15% SWDGS in finishing diets decreased G:F, IVDMD, and gas

  10. Composition of corn dry-grind ethanol by-products: DDGS, wet cake, and thin stillage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Rick; Ezeji, Thaddeus; Blaschek, Hans; Dien, Bruce; Cotta, Michael; Dale, Bruce; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    DDGS and wet distillers' grains are the major co-products of the dry grind ethanol facilities. As they are mainly used as animal feed, a typical compositional analysis of the DDGS and wet distillers' grains mainly focuses on defining the feedstock's nutritional characteristics. With an increasing demand for fuel ethanol, the DDGS and wet distillers' grains are viewed as a potential bridge feedstock for ethanol production from other cellulosic biomass. The introduction of DDGS or wet distillers' grains as an additional feed to the existing dry grind plants for increased ethanol yield requires a different approach to the compositional analysis of the material. Rather than focusing on its nutritional value, this new approach aims at determining more detailed chemical composition, especially on polymeric sugars such as cellulose, starch and xylan, which release fermentable sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. In this paper we present a detailed and complete compositional analysis procedure suggested for DDGS and wet distillers' grains, as well as the resulting compositions completed by three different research groups. Polymeric sugars, crude protein, crude oil and ash contents of DDGS and wet distillers' grains were accurately and reproducibly determined by the compositional analysis procedure described in this paper.

  11. Effects of roughage concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Dilorenzo, N; Smith, D R; Galyean, M L

    2011-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) and dietary concentration of alfalfa hay (AH) on performance of finishing beef cattle and in vitro fermentation. In both studies, 7 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial; factors were dietary concentrations (DM basis) of WDG (15 or 30%) and AH (7.5, 10, or 12.5%) plus a non-WDG control diet that contained 10% AH. In Exp. 1, 224 beef steers were used in a randomized complete block (initial BW 342 kg ± 9.03) finishing trial. No WDG × AH interactions were observed (P > 0.12). There were no differences among treatments in final shrunk BW or ADG (P > 0.15), and DMI did not differ with WDG concentration for the overall feeding period (P = 0.38). Increasing dietary AH concentration tended (P < 0.079) to linearly increase DMI, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) G:F and calculated dietary NE(m) and NE(g) concentrations. Carcasses from cattle fed 15% WDG had greater yield grades (P = 0.014), with tendencies for greater 12th-rib fat (P = 0.054) and marbling score (P = 0.053) than those from cattle fed 30% WDG. There were no differences among treatments (P > 0.15) in HCW, dressing percent, LM area, KPH, proportions of cattle grading USDA Choice, and incidence of liver abscesses. In Exp. 2, ruminal fluid was collected from 2 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to a 60% concentrate diet to evaluate in vitro gas production kinetics, H(2)S production, IVDMD, and VFA. Relative to the control substrate, including WDG in substrates increased (P < 0.01) H(2)S production and decreased total gas production (P = 0.01) and rate of gas production (P = 0.03). Increasing substrate WDG from 15 to 30% increased (P < 0.05) H(2)S production and decreased (P < 0.001) total gas production, with a tendency (P = 0.073) to decrease IVDMD and fractional rate of gas production (P = 0.063). Treatments did not significantly affect (P > 0.09) molar proportions or total concentration of VFA

  12. Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked non-waxy long-grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Donlao, Natthawuddhi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    Wet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e. hot-air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated. Cooked rice obtained from hot-air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun-drying. Among samples from hot-air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature, except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot-air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI. The results indicated that cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Drying Kinetics of DDGS under Varying CDS and Temperature Levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is mainly used as animal feed, as it has high energy and protein contents. There is a growing need to transport DDGS over long distances. But transportation of DDGS is often troublesome due to caking of the particles. DDGS is formed by combining condensed...

  14. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed products, dry grains, and corn ears intended for fresh consumption in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A M; Kommers, C M; Lehmann, F K M; Fonseca, A S K; Ikuta, N; Lunge, V R

    2016-10-17

    Conventional and genetically modified (GM) maize cultivars have been widely planted in Brazil to produce grains for processed food, feed, or to be consumed fresh as corn ears. This study used real-time PCR to detect GM maize in processed products and fresh commercial corn ears produced in the last two years in South Brazil. Eighteen conventional and GM maize cultivars were obtained from seed production companies and 50 commercial samples (including canned corn, corn flour, dry grains, and fresh corn ears) were purchased in small local stores and supermarkets. All samples were analyzed by real time TaqMan PCR to detect one constitutive maize gene (hmg) and three genetic regions present in GM plants (p-35S promoter, major gene cry 1A.105, and t-Nos terminator). Each commercial sample was classified as conventional or GM based on the PCR results. PCR targeting the hmg gene generated positive results from all DNA samples, which were further tested with the GM targets. These targets were not detected in the five conventional maize cultivars, but were detected in the GM seeds hosting these fragments. Analysis of processed foods identified four cultivars as conventional and six as GM, which were mostly correctly labeled. Seven (53.8%) dry grain samples were classified as conventional, while six (46.2%) were classified as GM. Three (11.1%) corn ear samples were identified as conventional, and the remaining 24 (88.9%) were GM maize. These results demonstrate the high frequency of GM maize in processed products, including fresh corn ears intended for consumption in South Brazil.

  15. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  16. Changes in oil content, fatty acid composition, and functional lipid profiles during dry grind ethanol production from corn.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. The dry grind method has been the major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. This presentation reports our study to monitor ...

  17. Effects of feeding wet corn distillers grains with solubles with or without monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne pathogenic and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M E; Fox, J T; Narayanan, S K; Drouillard, J S; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-05-01

    Distillers grains, a coproduct of ethanol production from cereal grains, are composed principally of the bran, protein, and germ fractions and are commonly supplemented in ruminant diets. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle. Cattle were fed 0 or 25% WDGS in steam-flaked corn-based diets with the addition of no antimicrobials, monensin, or monensin and tylosin. Fecal samples were collected from each animal (n = 370) on d 122 and 136 of the 150-d finishing period and cultured for Escherichia coli O157. Fecal samples were also pooled by pen (n = 54) and cultured for E. coli O157, Salmonella, commensal E. coli, and Enterococcus species. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by determining antimicrobial susceptibilities of pen bacterial isolates and quantifying antimicrobial resistance genes in fecal samples by real-time PCR. Individual animal prevalence of E. coli O157 in feces collected from cattle fed WDGS was greater (P < 0.001) compared with cattle not fed WDGS on d 122 but not on d 136. There were no treatment effects on the prevalence of E. coli O157 or Salmonella spp. in pooled fecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed Enterococcus isolates from cattle fed monensin or monensin and tylosin had greater levels of resistance toward macrolides (P = 0.01). There was no effect of diet or antimicrobials on concentrations of 2 antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB or tetM, in fecal samples. Results from this study indicate that WDGS may have an effect on the prevalence of E. coli O157 and the concentration of selected antimicrobial resistance genes, but does not appear to affect antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Enterococcus and generic E. coli isolates.

  18. The Influence of Grain Boundary Fluids on the Recrystallization Behavior in Calcite: A Comparison of "dry" and "wet" Marble Mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, O.; Urai, J.; Evans, B.

    2003-12-01

    Carbonate rocks are able to accumulate large amounts of strain and deform crystal-plastically even at low p-T conditions and thus, marble sequences are often the site of strain localization in the upper crust during late-stage deformation in mountain building processes. In this study we sought to identify the effect of fluids on grain boundary morphology and recrystallization processes in marble mylonites during shear zone evolution, as fluids play a major role in the flow behavior of many rock materials during deformation (e.g. quartz, olivine, halite, feldspar). We compared calcite marble mylonites from two geological settings: (a) Schneeberg Complex, Southern Tyrole, Italy and (b) Naxos Metamorphic Core Complex, Greece. The shear zones of the selected areas are suitable for comparison, because they consist of similar lithology and the marble mylonites resemble each other in chemical composition. In addition, calcite-dolomite solvus geothermometry and TEM observations indicate similar p-T conditions for the shear zones formation. However, the two settings are different in the availability of fluids during the shear zone evolution: In the Schneeberg mylonites, both the alteration of minerals during retrograde metamorphism of neighboring micaschists and the existence of veins suggest that fluids were present during mylonitization. The absence of these features in the Naxos samples indicates that fluids were not present during deformation of these mylonites. This difference is also supported by the signature of stable isotopes. Microstructural investigations using optical and scanning electron microscopes on broken and planar surfaces did not indicate major differences between wet and dry mylonites: Grain boundaries of both types of samples display pores with shapes controlled by crystallography, and pore morphologies that are similar to observations from crack and grain-boundary healing experiments. Grain size reduction was predominantly the result of subgrain

  19. Chemical weathering trends in fine-grained ephemeral stream sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated chemical weathering trends within the fine-grained (< 63 μm; silt and clay) fraction of sediments collected from meltwater streams emanating from glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV; Wright and Taylor Valleys) by integrating grain size, BET surface area, and whole-rock geochemistry. While both valleys currently host cold-based glaciers, the sediment underlying the ephemeral glacial streams was deposited under differing glacial conditions. In Wright Valley (Clark Glacier stream), Brownworth and Trilogy drifts were deposited via cold-based glaciation, whereas the Ross Sea drift that underlies Delta Stream in Taylor Valley likely reflects contributions from wet-based ice. Wright Valley stream sediments are typically coarser grained and have a higher silt content as compared to Taylor Valley sediments. These sediments consist primarily of pyroxenes, quartz, and feldspars, with the percentages of pyroxenes and quartz systematically increasing downstream. The percentage of phyllosilicates ranges from 4 to 18% and decreases with downstream distance. In contrast, Taylor Valley sediments (Delta Stream) are finer-grained and exhibit lower percentages of both pyroxene and quartz and a significantly higher percentage of phyllosilicates (30-43%). Concentrations of all mineral phases remain relatively consistent in abundance with downstream transport in the Delta Stream transect as compared to Clark Glacier stream sediments. Standard chemical weathering indices, such as the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), indicate that chemical weathering is occurring within the silt and clay fractions of Antarctic stream sediments and is particularly pronounced in Delta Stream sediments that have BET surface area measurements > 40 m2/g. Utilization of MFW (mafic-felsic-weathered) and A-CN-K (Al2O3-CaO + Na2O-K2O) plots, however, are more effective in discerning the extent and nature of chemical weathering in these stream systems. Ca and Na depletion observed within the

  20. Dry-rolled or steam-flaked grain-based diets and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Fox, J T; Depenbusch, B E; Drouillard, J S; Nagaraja, T G

    2007-05-01

    Hindgut is a major colonization site for Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. In this study, diets were formulated to effect changes in hindgut fermentation to test our hypothesis that changes in the hindgut ecosystem could have an impact on fecal shedding of E. coli O157. Feedlot heifers (n = 347) were prescreened for the prevalence of E. coli O157 by fecal and rectoanal mucosal swab cultures. A subset of 40 heifers identified as being positive for fecal shedding of E. coli O157 was selected, housed in individual pens, and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial, with factor 1 consisting of grain type (sorghum or wheat) and factor 2 being method of grain processing (steam-flaking or dry-rolling). Four transition diets, each fed for 4 d, were used to adapt the animals to final diets that contained 93% concentrate and 7% roughage. The grain fraction consisted of dry-rolled sorghum, steam-flaked sorghum, a mixture of dry-rolled wheat and steam-flaked corn, or a mixture of steam-flaked wheat and steam-flaked corn. Wheat diets contained 52% wheat and 31% steam-flaked corn (DM basis). Fecal and rectoanal mucosal swab samples were obtained 3 times a week to isolate (enrichment, immunomagenetic separation, and plating on selective medium) and identify (sorbitol negative, indole production, and agglutination test) E. coli O157. The data were analyzed as repeated measures of binomial response (positive or negative) on each sampling day. Method of processing (dry-rolled vs. steam-flaked), sampling day, and the grain type x day interaction were significant (P < 0.05), but not the method of processing x grain type interaction. The average prevalence of E. coli O157 from d 9 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed steam-flaked grains (65%) compared with those fed dry-rolled grains (30%). Average prevalence in cattle fed sorghum (51%) or wheat (43%) were similar (P > 0.10) on most sampling days. Results from this study indicate that

  1. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distillers grains with solubles on enteric methane emissions of finishing cattle.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased because of the growing U.S. ethanol industry. However, few studies have evaluated the use of WDGS in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC), the processing method used extensively in the Southern Great P...

  2. Use of distiller’s dried grains with solubles, which had been used as substrate for black soldier fly larvae, in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (MFM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black...

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus mucosae on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Dried Brewers Grain, Methane Production and Bacterial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Alvin P; Mamuad, Lovelia L; Kim, Seon-Ho; Choi, Yeon Jae; Jeong, Chang Dae; Bae, Gui Seck; Chang, Moon Baek; Lee, S Suk

    2014-11-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus mucosae (L. mucosae), a potential direct fed microbial previously isolated from the rumen of Korean native goat, on the rumen fermentation profile of brewers grain were evaluated. Fermentation was conducted in serum bottles each containing 1% dry matter (DM) of the test substrate and either no L. mucosae (control), 1% 24 h broth culture of L. mucosae (T1), or 1% inoculation with the cell-free culture supernatant (T2). Each serum bottle was filled anaerobically with 100 mL of buffered rumen fluid and sealed prior to incubation for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h from which fermentation parameters were monitored and the microbial diversity was evaluated. The results revealed that T1 had higher total gas production (65.00 mL) than the control (61.33 mL) and T2 (62.00 mL) (p<0.05) at 48 h. Consequently, T1 had significantly lower pH values (p<0.05) than the other groups at 48 h. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and acetate:propionate ratio were higher in T1 and T2 than the control, but T1 and T2 were comparable for these parameters. Total methane (CH4) production and carbon dioxide (CO2) were highest in T1. The percent DM and organic matter digestibilities were comparable between all groups at all times of incubation. The total bacterial population was significantly higher in T1 (p<0.05) at 24 h, but then decreased to levels comparable to the control and T2 at 48 h. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile of the total bacterial 16s rRNA showed higher similarity between T1 and T2 at 24 h and between the control and T1 at 48 h. Overall, these results suggest that addition of L. mucosae and cell-free supernatant during the in vitro fermentation of dried brewers grain increases the VFA production, but has no effect on digestibility. The addition of L. mucosae can also increase the total bacterial population, but has no significant effect on the total microbial diversity. However

  4. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  5. Effects of Varying CDS Levels and Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Flowability Properties of DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for alternative fuels and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, have triggered the growth of corn-based ethanol production, and this is expected to rise in future years. Transportation of the co-product distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from this industry occurs under vari...

  6. Effects of Varying CDS, Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Glass Transition Temperature of DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co product of the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is used widely as an animal feed. Due to increased demand for DDGS in livestock markets it has become essential to transport DDGS over long distances. Flowability problems in DDGS, due to particle cak...

  7. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  8. New value-added co-products from grain-based ethanol production by a patent-pending recovery method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The production of fuel ethanol in the United States and elsewhere is a quickly growing industry. At present, a major co-product of the ethanol industry is corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the primary use is in the livestock industry. However, DDGS typically has characteristics t...

  9. Determination of cross-grain properties of clearwood samples under kiln-drying conditions at temperature up to 140 C

    SciTech Connect

    Keep, L.B.; Keey, R.B.

    2000-07-01

    Small specimens of Pinus radiata have been tested to determine the creep strain that occurs during the kiln drying of boards. The samples have been tested over a range of temperatures from 20 C to 140 C. The samples, measuring 150 x 50 x 5 mm, were conditioned at various relative humidities in a pilot-plant kiln, in which the experiments at constant moisture content (MC) in the range of 5--20% MC were undertaken to eliminate mechano-sorptive strains. To determine the creep strain, the samples were brought to their equilibrium moisture content (EMC), then mechanically loaded under tension in the direction perpendicular to the grain. The strain was measured using small linear position sensors (LPS) which detect any elongation or shrinkage in the sample. The instantaneous compliance was measured within 60 sec of the application of the load (stress). The subsequent creep was monitored by the continued logging of strain data from the LPS units. The results of these experiments are consistent with previous studies of Wu and Milota (1995) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii). An increase in temperature or moisture content causes a rise in the creep strain while the sample is under tension. Values for the instantaneous compliance range from 1.7 x 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.28 x 10{sup {minus}2} M/Pa at temperatures between 20 C and 140 C and moisture content in the range of 5--20%. The rates of change of the creep strains are in the order of magnitude 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}8 s{sup {minus}1}} for these temperatures and moisture contents. The experimental data have been fitted to the constitutive equations of Wu and Milota (1996) for Douglas-fir to give material parameters for the instantaneous and creep strain components for Pinus radiata.

  10. High sulfur content in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) protects against oxidized lipids in DDGS by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some sources of DDGS contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during production process, but it is unclear whether these oxidized lipids negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status in pigs. The objective of this study was to compare t...

  11. Biochanin A, an isoflavone produced by red clover, promotes weight gain of steers grazed in mixed grass pastures and fed dried-distillers' grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifloium pratense L.) that can inhibit hyper-ammonia producing bacteria (HAB) to reduce deamination in the rumen and increase the feed amino acids available for gastric digestion. An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect...

  12. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: III. Effects on long-term reproductive and lactation performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the prepubertal growth phase, 33 Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d old) were used in a 24-week randomized complete block design. Treatments included: 1) a control diet (CON) containing ground corn (15.9% of DM) and soybean products (17.9%); 2) a low-fat diet (LFDG) formulated with 21.9% fat-extrac...

  13. Effect of Corn Dry Fractionation on the Distribution of Mycotoxins in Pre-fermentation Ethanol Co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  14. Effect of corn dry fractionation on the distribution of mycotoxins in pre-fermentation ethanol co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  15. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  16. Effects of twenty percent alkaline-treated corn stover without or with yucca extract on performance and nutrient mass balance of finishing steers fed modified distillers grains-based diets.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Erickson, G E; Rincker, M J; Cecava, M J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 192 steers each (during the winter [November to May] or summer [June to October]) to evaluate 3 diets with or without Yucca schidigera extract in a 3 × 2 factorial on steer growth performance and N mass balance. One factor was diet (DM basis): 1) 5% untreated corn stover, 51% corn, and 40% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS; CON); 2) 20% calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaO added at 5% of stover DM), 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (TRT); or 3) 20% untreated corn stover, 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (NONTRT). The other factor was dietary extract at 0 (NOYE) or 1.0 g/d per steer (YE). No interaction between diet and YE was detected (P > 0.51) for growth performance and carcass traits in winter and only for DMI in summer. Final BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.28) between cattle fed CON and TRT, whereas cattle fed NONTRT had lesser ADG, HCW, and G:F compared to CON and TRT in the winter experiment. During the summer, final BW and ADG tended to be greater (P ≥ 0.07) for CON compared to TRT. Cattle fed TRT had reduced (P < 0.01) G:F compared to CON. No difference was observed (P ≥ 0.36) between YE and NOYE in the winter experiment for performance or carcass traits. In the summer, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.02) HCW, ADG, and DMI compared to NOYE. In the summer experiment, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.01) N intake, N excretion, and amount of N lost (kg/steer) compared to NOYE, but no difference (P = 0.33) was observed for percentage of N volatilized (% of excretion). Diet had no effect (P > 0.18) on amount (kg/steer) or percentage of N volatized in the winter or summer. All diets had similar amounts (P > 0.13) of DM and OM removed from the pen surface in both summer and winter. Feeding CaO-treated corn stover as a partial grain replacement had no impact on performance in winter but decreased G:F in summer. Although high-fiber diets increased the amount of OM on pen surfaces, they did not impact N

  17. The influence of dry lakebeds, degraded sandy grasslands and abandoned farmland in the arid inlands of northern China on the grain size distribution of East Asian aeolian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Rong; Yue, Le-Ping; Li, Zhi-Pei

    2008-02-01

    Dry lakes, degraded sandy grasslands, abandoned farmland and mobile dunes which are widely distributed throughout the arid areas of northern China have been investigated in this work. Gain-size distribution of the surface sediments of Manas lake in Junggar basin, Juyan lake in the Alxa plateau, Zhuye lake in Minqin basin and most deserts (such as Mu Us desert, Otindag desert, Horqin desert and Hulun Buir desert) in China have been analyzed. The results show clay with particle sized <10 μm on the surface sediments of dry lakebed and sandy grassland developed from dry lakebed, respectively, account for >60% and ˜50% of the total mass. Since the tiny particles on the surface of abandoned farmland are blown away easily and rapidly, the content of clay particles in Minqin basin is <14%. The grain-size distribution of mobile dunes in northern China mainly consists of particles >63 μm and few particles <10 μm. Consequently, although sand/dust storms originate primarily in the western deserts, the gobi areas of the Alxa plateau, the north and east of Hexi Corridor and in central Mongolia, the widely distributed dry lakebeds, sandy grasslands and abandoned farmland adjacent to the deserts also contribute to aeolian dusts. Hence, the material sources for sand dust storm in East Asia include inland deserts, but also dry lakes, sandy grasslands and abandoned farmland, which are widely distributed throughout the arid inlands of northern China.

  18. Sulfur in Distillers Grains for Dairy Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sulfur is an essential element needed by animals for many functions. About 0.15% of the body weight is sulfur. It is found in the amino acids methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, and taurine; in chondroitin sulfate of cartilage; and in the B-vitamins, thiamin and biotin. Methionine, thiam...

  19. Isotope anomalies induced in laboratory distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esat, T. M.; Spear, R. H.; Taylor, S. R.

    1986-02-01

    High-temperature distillation experiments have been carried out at 0.00005 torr on terrestrial pyroxene crystals in order to measure the concentrations of Mg-24, Mg-25, and Mg-26. The isotope measurements were carried out using a 61-cm multi-cup mass spectrometer. The raw spectrometric data were corrected for isotope fractionation using a power law and the Rayleigh law. It is found that the sample residues were depleted in Mg-26 and the condensates were enriched in Mg-26 relative to non-distilled standards. The depletion of the sample residues mimics the isotope anomalies observed in Allende coarse-grained and fine-grained inclusions. The distillation-induced fractionation and residual isotope effects in Mg are listed in a table.

  20. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance.

    PubMed

    Polania, Jose A; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  1. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  2. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  3. Effects of increasing concentrations of wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked, corn-based diets on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-02-01

    The use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased in the Southern Great Plains as a result of the growing ethanol industry. Nutrient balance and respiration calorimetry research evaluating the use of steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets in conjunction with WDGS is limited. Therefore, the effects of increasing concentrations of WDGS in a SFC-based diet on energy metabolism, C, and N balance, and enteric methane (CH4) production was evaluated in Jersey steers fed at 2 times maintenance, using respiration calorimetry chambers. Four treatments were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs, using 8 steers. Treatments consisted of: 1) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); and 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45). Diets were balanced for degradable intake protein (DIP) by adding cottonseed meal to the SFC-0 diet. As a proportion of GE, fecal, urinary, and CH4 energy increased linearly (P < 0.03) as WDGS concentration increased in the diet. In contrast, DE, ME, and retained energy decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as a proportion of GE as WDGS concentration increased. Increasing concentration of WDGS in the diet did not affect (P > 0.78) heat production as a proportion of GE. As a result of greater N intake, total N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDGS inclusion in the diet. Fecal C loss and CH4-C respired increased linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration increased in the diet whereas CO2-C respired decreased (linear, P = 0.05) as WDGS concentration increased. We conclude that CH4 production as a proportion of GE increases linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration in the diet is increased; however, dietary inclusion of WDGS at up to 45% seems to have no effect (P > 0.78) on heat production as a proportion of GE. The reason for a linear decrease in retained energy as WDGS increased was likely because of increased fecal energy loss

  4. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  5. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  6. Pressures at the base of dry flows of angular rock fragments as a function of grain size and flow volume: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, B.; Romano, G. P.

    2010-10-01

    Geophysical granular flows such as pyroclastic flows and rock avalanches kill people and damage properties worldwide. The pressures exerted at their base affect the retarding forces that act on them and, for this reason, affect also their mobility that is important to foresee when assessing natural hazards in mountain regions. Here we present the results of experiments obtained by measuring with a load cell the basal pressures exerted by dry and cohesionless granular flows that descend a curved chute in the laboratory. The interaction between these flows and the chute surface on which they travel is dominated by collisions of particles (and or clusters of particles). A dimensional analysis suggests that the energy dissipation of these flows increases as grain size increases and as flow volume decreases (all the other features equal). Therefore the smaller the grain size and the larger the volume, the larger is expected to be flow mobility. Although, the longer travel distances of the centre of mass of finer grain size flows are easily discernible in our experiments, the effect of volume is probably hidden by additional phenomena such as the deposition first of the frontal portion of longer flows on the less-steep more-distal part of the slope that prevents the rear portion and the centre of mass of the flows to travel further downhill.

  7. Establishment and assessment of a novel cleaner production process of corn grain fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhang, Guiying; Yang, Xizhao; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2013-11-01

    An integrated corn ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to solve the problem of stillage handling, where thin stillage was treated by anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the following ethanol fermentation. This system was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage ran steadily with total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98% at laboratory scale and 97% at pilot scale. Ethanol production was not influenced by recycling anaerobic digestion effluent at laboratory and pilot scale. Compared with dried distillers' grains with solubles produced in conventional process, dried distillers' grains in the proposed system exhibited higher quality because of increased protein concentration and decreased salts concentration. Energetic assessment indicated that application of this novel process enhanced the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 (conventional process) to 1.76. In conclusion, the proposed system possessed technical advantage over the conventional process for corn fuel ethanol production.

  8. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  9. Utilization of condensed distillers solubles as nutrient supplement for production of nisin and lactic acid from whey.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W

    2007-04-01

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  10. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture compris