Stability of drift waves with the integral eigenmode equation
Chen, L.; Ke, F.J.; Xu, M.J.; Tsai, S.T.; Lee, Y.C.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.
1981-11-01
An analytical theory on the stability properties of drift-wave eigenmodes in a slab plasma with finite magnetic shear is presented. The corresponding eigenmode equation is the integral equation first given by Coppi, Rosenbluth, and Sagdeev (1967) and rederived here, in a relatively simpler fashion, via the gyrokinetic equation. It is then proved that the universal drift-wave eigenmodes remain absolutely stable and finite electron temperature gradients do not alter the stability.
Drift-wave stability in the field-reversed configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, C. K.; Fulton, D. P.; Holod, I.; Lin, Z.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.; Schmitz, L.
2017-08-01
Gyrokinetic simulations of C-2-like field-reversed configuration (FRC) find that electrostatic drift-waves are locally stable in the core. The stabilization mechanisms include finite Larmor radius effects, magnetic well (negative grad-B), and fast electron short circuit effects. In the scrape-off layer (SOL), collisionless electrostatic drift-waves in the ion-to-electron-scale are destabilized by electron temperature gradients due to the resonance with locally barely trapped electrons. Collisions can suppress this instability, but a collisional drift-wave instability still exists at realistic pressure gradients. Simulation results are in qualitative agreement with C-2 FRC experiments. In particular, the lack of ion-scale instability in the core is not inconsistent with experimental measurements of a fluctuation spectrum showing a depression at ion-scales. The pressure gradient thresholds for the SOL instability from simulations are also consistent with the critical gradient behavior observed in experiments.
Drift wave stability and transport in tandem mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratt, Jane Lillian
In recent years experimental advances at the GAMMA-10 facility in Tsukuba, Japan have shown that tandem mirrors should remain an important subject for theoretical study. The absence of toroidal curvature and relatively weak internal plasma parallel currents in a tandem mirror gives the mirror system strongly favorable stability and transport properties compared with toroidal systems. GAMMA-10 experiments (T. Cho et al. PRL (97), 2006) demonstrate that sheared plasma rotation suppresses turbulent radial losses by controlling radial potential profiles. Achievements of the GAMMA-10 include 2.5 keV ion confining potentials and electron temperatures approaching 1 keV (T. Cho, Private correspondence, Dec 24th, 2006). Total energy confinement times for the GAMMA-10 experiment are significantly larger than corresponding empirical confinement times in toroidal devices. At the temperatures currently achieved in the GAMMA-10, the end loss rate tau∣∣ ≃ 100 ms so that radial losses determine the energy confinement time tauE, as intended in tandem mirror reactor designs (R. F. Post, T.K. Fowler, et al., Fusion Science and Technology, (47), 2005). The most current measurements of tauE are on the order of 72 ms. Tandem mirrors exhibit a qualitatively different type of drift wave transport than do toroidal devices, as we have shown by developing confinement time scaling predictions (J. Pratt and W. Horton, Phys. Plasmas (13), 2006. W. Horton, J. Pratt, H.L. Berk, M. Hirata. Proceedings of the Open Magnetic Systems For Plasma Confinement Conference. Tsukuba, Japan, July 17-21, 2006). These predictions use a variety of standard transport models, e.g., Bohm, gyro-Bohm, and electron-temperature gradient models. We analyze electrostatic drift wave eigenmodes for the electrostatic potential and the magnetic perturbation in the GAMMA-10. We use teraFLOPS speed, large scale parallel computers to integrate the orbits in models of the drift wave losses in the GAMMA-10. We extrapolate
Fast wave stabilization/destabilization of drift waves in a plasma
Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-03-15
Four wave-nonlinear coupling of a large amplitude whistler with low frequency drift wave and whistler wave sidebands is examined. The pump and whistler sidebands exert a low frequency ponderomotive force on electrons introducing a frequency shift in the drift wave. For whistler pump propagating along the ambient magnetic field B{sub s}z-caret with wave number k(vector sign){sub 0}, drift waves of wave number k(vector sign)=k(vector sign){sub Up-Tack }+k{sub ||}z-caret see an upward frequency shift when k{sub Up-Tack }{sup 2}/k{sub 0}{sup 2}>4k{sub ||}/k{sub 0} and are stabilized once the whistler power exceeds a threshold value. The drift waves of low transverse wavelength tend to be destabilized by the nonlinear coupling. Oblique propagating whistler pump with transverse wave vector parallel to k(vector sign){sub Up-Tack} is also effective but with reduced effectiveness.
Resistive Drift Waves in a Bumpy Torus
J.L.V. Lewandowski
2004-01-12
A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a bumpy torus is presented. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.
Drift wave stabilized by an additional streaming ion or plasma population.
Bashir, M F; Vranjes, J
2015-03-01
It is shown that the universally unstable kinetic drift wave in an electron-ion plasma can very effectively be suppressed by adding an extra flowing ion (or plasma) population. The effect of the flow of the added ions is essential, their response is of the type (vph-vf0)exp[-(vph-vf0)2], where vf0 is the flow speed and vph is the phase speed parallel to the magnetic field vector. The damping is strong and it is mainly due to this ion exponential term, and this remains so for vf0
Drift wave stabilized by an additional streaming ion or plasma population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashir, M. F.; Vranjes, J.
2015-03-01
It is shown that the universally unstable kinetic drift wave in an electron-ion plasma can very effectively be suppressed by adding an extra flowing ion (or plasma) population. The effect of the flow of the added ions is essential, their response is of the type (vp h-vf 0) exp[-(vph-vf 0) 2] , where vf 0 is the flow speed and vp h is the phase speed parallel to the magnetic field vector. The damping is strong and it is mainly due to this ion exponential term, and this remains so for vf 0
Collisional Drift Waves in Stellarator Plasmas
J.L.V. Lewandowski
2003-10-07
A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a stellarator with an helical magnetic axis is presented. Three coupled field equations, describing the collisional drift wave dynamics in the linear approximation, are solved as an initial-value problem along the magnetic field line. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.
Stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone waves in H-mode plasmas
Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.
2016-05-24
The drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode was first studied in mirror machines. In such devices, particles with small pitch angles are not confined, creating a hole in the velocity distribution function that is a source of free energy and leads to micro-instabilities in the cyclotron-range of frequencies. In the edge region of tokamak devices operating under H-mode conditions, ion loss also occurs. In this case, gradient drift carries ions moving opposite to the plasma current preferentially into the divertor, creating a one-sided loss cone. A simple analysis shows that for the quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D the critical gradient for instability is exceeded within 2 cm of the separatrix, and the maximum growth rate at the separatrix is 3×10^{7} s^{-1}.
Stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone waves in H-mode plasmas
Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.
2016-05-24
The drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode was first studied in mirror machines. In such devices, particles with small pitch angles are not confined, creating a hole in the velocity distribution function that is a source of free energy and leads to micro-instabilities in the cyclotron-range of frequencies. In the edge region of tokamak devices operating under H-mode conditions, ion loss also occurs. In this case, gradient drift carries ions moving opposite to the plasma current preferentially into the divertor, creating a one-sided loss cone. A simple analysis shows that for the quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D the critical gradient for instability is exceeded within 2 cm of the separatrix, and the maximum growth rate at the separatrix is 3×10^{7} s^{-1}.
Stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone waves in H-mode plasmas
Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.
2016-05-24
The drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode was first studied in mirror machines. In such devices, particles with small pitch angles are not confined, creating a hole in the velocity distribution function that is a source of free energy and leads to micro-instabilities in the cyclotron-range of frequencies. In the edge region of tokamak devices operating under H-mode conditions, ion loss also occurs. In this case, gradient drift carries ions moving opposite to the plasma current preferentially into the divertor, creating a one-sided loss cone. A simple analysis shows that for the quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D the critical gradient for instability ismore » exceeded within 2 cm of the separatrix, and the maximum growth rate at the separatrix is 3×107 s-1.« less
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Lee, Wonjae Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Angus, J. R.
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Drift waves in helically symmetric stellarators
Rafiq, T.; Hegna, C.
2005-11-15
The local linear stability of electron drift waves and ion temperature gradient modes (ITG) is investigated in a quasihelically symmetric (QHS) stellarator and a conventional asymmetric (Mirror) stellarator. The geometric details of the different equilibria are emphasized. Eigenvalue equations for the models are derived using the ballooning mode formalism and solved numerically using a standard shooting technique in a fully three-dimensional stellarator configuration. While the eigenfunctions have a similar shape in both magnetic geometries, they are slightly more localized along the field line in the QHS case. The most unstable electron drift modes are strongly localized at the symmetry points (where stellarator symmetry is present) and in the regions where normal curvature is unfavorable and magnitude of the local magnetic shear and magnetic field is minimum. The presence of a large positive local magnetic shear in the bad curvature region is found to be destabilizing. Electron drift modes are found to be more affected by the normal curvature than by the geodesic curvature. The threshold of stability of the ITG modes in terms of {eta}{sub i} is found to be 2/3 in this fluid model consistent with the smallest threshold for toroidal geometry with adiabatic electrons. Optimization to favorable drift wave stability has small field line curvature, short connection lengths, the proper combination of geodesic curvature and local magnetic shear, large values of local magnetic shear, and the compression of flux surfaces in the unfavorable curvature region.
Drift waves in stellarator geometry
Persson, M.; Nadeem, M.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Gardner, H.J.
2000-02-07
Drift waves are investigated in a real three-dimensional stellarator geometry. A linear system, based on the cold ion fluid model and a ballooning mode formalism, is solved numerically in the geometry of the stellarator H1-NF. The spectra of stable and unstable modes, as well as localization, are discussed. The dependence of the spectrum of the unstable modes on the wavevector, plasma density variation, and the location in the plasma is presented.
Autoresonant control of drift waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shagalov, A. G.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Naulin, V.
2017-03-01
The control of nonlinear drift waves in a magnetized plasmas column has been investigated. The studies are based on the Hasegawa–Mima model, which is solved on a disk domain with radial inhomogeneity of the plasma density. The system is forced by a rotating potential with varying frequency defined on the boundary. To excite and control the waves we apply the autoresonant effect, taking place when the amplitude of the forcing exceeds a threshold value and the waves are phase-locked with the forcing. We demonstrate that the autoresonant approach is applicable for excitation of a range of steady nonlinear waves of the lowest azimuthal mode numbers and for controlling their amplitudes and phases. We also demonstrate the excitation of zonal flows (m = 0 modes), which are controlled via the forced modes.
Zhang, Yanzeng; Krasheninnikov, S. I.
2017-09-29
The modified Hasegawa-Mima equation retaining all nonlinearities is investigated from the point of view of the formation of blobs. The linear analysis shows that the amplitude of the drift wave packet propagating in the direction of decreasing background plasma density increases and eventually saturates due to nonlinear effects. Nonlinear modification of the time averaged plasma density profile results in the formation of large amplitude modes locked in the radial direction, but still propagating in the poloidal direction, which resembles the experimentally observed chain of blobs propagating in the poloidal direction. Such specific density profiles, causing the locking of drift waves,more » could form naturally at the edge of tokamak due to a neutral ionization source. Thus, locked modes can grow in situ due to plasma instabilities, e.g., caused by finite resistivity. Furthermore, the modulation instability (in the poloidal direction) of these locked modes can result in a blob-like burst of plasma density.« less
On the drift magnetosonic waves in anisotropic low beta plasmas
Naim, Hafsa; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.
2014-10-15
A generalized dispersion relation of obliquely propagating drift magnetosonic waves is derived by using the gyrokinetic theory for anisotropic low beta plasmas. The stability analysis applicable to a wide range of plasma parameters is performed to understand the stabilization mechanism of the drift magnetosonic instability and the estimation of the growth rate is also presented. It is noted that the growth rate of the drift instability enhances for small anisotropy (A{sub e,i} = T{sub ⊥e,i}/T{sub ∥e,i} < 1) whereas it is suppressed for large anisotropy (A{sub e,i} > 1)
Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence
J.L.V. Lewandowski
2003-04-25
A multi-grid part-in-cell algorithm for a shearless slab drift wave model with kinetic electrons is presented. The algorithm, which is based on an exact separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, is used to investigate the presence of strange attractors in drift wave turbulence. Although the simulation model has a large number of degrees of freedom, it is found that the strange attractor is low-dimensional and that it is strongly affected by dissipative (collisional) effects.
Finite-beta stabilization of the universal drift instability - Revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huba, J. D.; Gary, S. P.
1982-01-01
A numerical study has been made of the universal drift instability in finite beta plasmas, and a marginal stability curve has been plotted. Several limits have been considered to illustrate the various influences of finite beta. The mode is found to be stable for beta larger than or equal to 0.135; the most difficult waves to stabilize are those that have arbitrarily small wavenumbers. The stabilization mechanism is the ion Landau resonance which is enhanced by the coupling of electrostatic and transverse electromagneticc oscillations.
Drift Wave Simulations with Reduced Stellarator Equilibria
J.L.V. Lewandowski
1999-12-10
A three-field model to study drift-resistive, low-frequency waves in low-beta, non-axisymmetric plasmas [J.L.V. Lewandowski, Phys. Plasmas, 4 (11) 4023 (1997)] is used to analyze the effect of the inhomogeneities in the stellarator magnetic field on the fastest (linear) growth rate, gamma. Extensive numerical calculations for a toroidal heliac show that not all Fourier components in the representation of the equilibrium configuration are important as far as gamma is concerned.
Drift wave simulations with reduced stellarator equilibria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewandowski, J. L. V.
1999-12-01
A three-field model to study drift-resistive, low-frequency waves in low-β, nonaxisymmetric plasmas [J. L. V. Lewandowski, Phys. Plasmas 4, 4023 (1997)] is used to analyze the effect of the inhomogeneities in the stellarator magnetic field on the fastest (linear) growth rate, γ. Extensive numerical calculations for a toroidal heliac show that not all Fourier components in the representation of the equilibrium configuration are important as far as γ is concerned.
Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinn, Brenda E.
An extensive qualitative and quantitative study of Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence in the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model is presented. This includes details of two generation mechanisms of the zonal flows, evidence of the nonlocal nature of this turbulence and of the energy exchange between the small and large scales. The modulational instability study shows that for strong primary waves the most unstable modes are perpendicular to the primary wave, which corresponds to the generation of a zonal flow if the primary wave is purely meridional. For weak waves, the maximum growth occurs for off-zonal modulations that are close to being in three-wave resonance with the primary wave. Nonlinear jet pinching is observed for all nonlinearity levels but the subsequent dynamics differ between strong and weak primary waves. The jets of the former further roll up into Karman-like vortex streets and saturate, while for the latter, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet and a dominant primary wave. A critical level of nonlinearity is defined which separates the two regimes. Some of these characteristics are captured by truncated models. Numerical proof of the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence is presented. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively-well conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjortoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the wellknown drift wave - zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation
Algebraic study of drifting spiral waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wellner, Marcel
2016-10-01
This two-dimensional study is motivated by cardiac electrophysiology, and focuses on rotating spiral waves in reaction-diffusion (RD) models. Here we deal with a spiral's translational drift under a constant externally imposed gradient G . A long-standing problem may be stated as follows: Given the dimensionless drift velocity V /G , find its nontrivial direction angle Γ relative to G . A deductive algebraic treatment yields a solution, cosΓ =-V /G . Three features are worth noting: the combination of algebraic and RD contexts; a somewhat extensive derivation contrasting with a compact result; and the generality due to the absence of reaction details in the formula. Agreement with a computational database is good to fair, if spirals of very low density are excluded.
Drift waves in general toroidal geometry
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2000-02-07
A model, based on gyro-kinetic ions and fluid electrons, to study drift waves in low-beta [beta = (kinetic pressure)/(magnetic pressure)] stellarator plasmas is presented. The model equations are written in straight-field-line coordinates and are valid for arbitrary, fully three-dimensional configurations with closed, nested magnetic surfaces. An implicit method, coupled with a subcycling technique for the electrons, is used to solve the time-dependent, along-the-field-line equations. Numerical calculations are carried out for a 3-field-period toroidal heliac. The geometrical effects that enter the model equations are calculated and displayed in physical space using advanced visualization techniques.
Drift wave simulations with reduced stellarator equilibria
Lewandowski, J.L.
1999-12-01
A three-field model to study drift-resistive, low-frequency waves in low-{beta}, nonaxisymmetric plasmas [J. L. V. Lewandowski, Phys. Plasmas {bold 4}, 4023 (1997)] is used to analyze the effect of the inhomogeneities in the stellarator magnetic field on the fastest (linear) growth rate, {gamma}. Extensive numerical calculations for a toroidal heliac show that not all Fourier components in the representation of the equilibrium configuration are important as far as {gamma} is concerned. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Lower hybrid drift waves: space observations.
Norgren, Cecilia; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V; André, Mats
2012-08-03
Lower hybrid drift waves (LHDWs) are commonly observed at plasma boundaries in space and laboratory, often having the strongest measured electric fields within these regions. We use data from two of the Cluster satellites (C3 and C4) located in Earth's magnetotail and separated by a distance of the order of the electron gyroscale. These conditions allow us, for the first time, to make cross-spacecraft correlations of the LHDWs and to determine the phase velocity and wavelength of the LHDWs. Our results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. We show that the electrostatic potential of LHDWs is linearly related to fluctuations in the magnetic field magnitude, which allows us to determine the velocity vector through the relation ∫δEdt·v = ϕ(δB)(∥). The electrostatic potential fluctuations correspond to ∼10% of the electron temperature, which suggests that the waves can strongly affect the electron dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chao; Liu, Yue
2015-10-01
> The effect of a parallel viscous force induced damping and the magnetic precessional drift resonance induced damping on the stability of the resistive wall mode (RWM) is numerically investigated for one of the advanced steady-state scenarios in international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The key element of the investigation is to study how different plasma rotation profiles affect the stability prediction. The single-fluid, toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code MARS-F (Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 7, 2000, p. 3681) and the MHD-kinetic hybrid code MARS-K (Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 15, 2008, 112503) are used for this purpose. Three extreme rotation profiles are considered: (a) a uniform profile with no shear, (b) a profile with negative flow shear at the rational surface ( is the equilibrium safety factor), and (c) a profile with positive shear at . The parallel viscous force is found to be effective for the mode stabilization at high plasma flow speed (about a few percent of the Alfven speed) for the no shear flow profile and the negative shear flow profile, but the stable domain does not appear with the positive shear flow profile. The predicted eigenmode structure is different with different rotation profiles. With a self-consistent inclusion of the magnetic precession drift resonance of thermal particles in MARS-K computations, a lower critical flow speed, i.e. the minimum speed needed for full suppression of the mode, is obtained. Likewise the eigenmode structure is also modified by different rotation profiles in the kinetic results.
Coherent Vortex Evolution in Drift Wave Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gatto, R.; Terry, P. W.
1998-11-01
Localized structures in turbulence are subject to loss of coherence by mixing. Phase space structures, such as drift-hole, (P. W. Terry, P. H. Diamond, T. S. Hahm, Phys. Fluids B) 2 9 2048 (1990) possess a self-electric field, which if sufficiently large maintains particle trapping against the tidal deformations of ambient turbulence. We show here that intense vortices in fluid drift wave turbulence avoid mixing by suppressing ambient turbulence with the strong flow shear of the vortex edge. Analysis of turbulence evolution in the vortex edge recovers Rapid Distortion Theory (G. K. Batchelor and I. Proudman, Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math.) 7 83 (1954) as the short time limit and the shear suppression scaling theory (H. Biglari, P. H. Diamond and P. W. Terry, Phys. Fluids B) 2 1 (1990) as the long time limit. Shear suppression leads to an amplitude condition for coherence and delineates the Gaussian core from the non Gaussian tail of the probability distribution function. The amplitude condition of shear suppression is compared with the trapping condition for phase space holes. The possibility of nonlinear vortex growth will be examined by considering electron dynamics in the vortex evolution.
Drift wave simulations in stellarator geometry
Lewandowski, J. L. V.
2000-08-01
A model, based on gyro-kinetic ions and fluid electrons, to study drift waves in low-{beta} [{beta}=(kinetic pressure)/(magnetic pressure)] stellarator plasmas is presented. The model equations are written in straight-field-line coordinates and are valid for arbitrary, fully three-dimensional configurations with closed, nested magnetic surfaces. An implicit method, coupled with a subcycling technique for the electrons, is used to solve the time-dependent, along-the-field-line equations. Numerical calculations are carried out for a three-field-period toroidal heliac. The geometrical effects that enter the model equations are calculated and displayed in physical space using advanced visualization techniques. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Drift kinetic Alfvén wave in temperature anisotropic plasma
Naim, Hafsa Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.
2014-03-15
By using the gyrokinetic theory, the kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) are discussed to emphasize the drift effects through the density inhomogeneity and the temperature anisotropy on their dispersion characteristics. The dependence of stabilization mechanism of the drift-Alfvén wave instability on the temperature anisotropy is highlighted. The estimate of the growth rate and the threshold condition for a wide range of parameters are also discussed.
Spatiotemporal mode structure of nonlinearly coupled drift wave modes
Brandt, Christian; Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas; Negrete, Jose Jr.; Bousselin, Guillaume; Brochard, Frederic; Bonhomme, Gerard; Oldenbuerger, Stella
2011-11-15
This paper presents full cross-section measurements of drift waves in the linear magnetized plasma of the Mirabelle device. Drift wave modes are studied in regimes of weakly developed turbulence. The drift wave modes develop azimuthal space-time structures of plasma density, plasma potential, and visible light fluctuations. A fast camera diagnostic is used to record visible light fluctuations of the plasma column in an azimuthal cross section with a temporal resolution of 10 {mu}s corresponding approximately to 10% of the typical drift wave period. Mode coupling and drift wave dispersion are studied by spatiotemporal Fourier decomposition of the camera frames. The observed coupling between modes is compared to calculations of nonlinearly coupled oscillators described by the Kuramoto model.
Dust gravitational drift wave in complex plasma under gravity
Salahshoor, M. Niknam, A. R.
2014-12-15
The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in a complex plasma under gravity is presented. It is assumed that the waves propagate parallel to the external fields. The effects of weak electric field, neutral drag force, and ion drag force are also taken into account. The dispersion relation is numerically examined in an appropriate parameter space in which the gravity plays the dominant role in the dynamics of microparticles. The numerical results show that, in the low pressure complex plasma under gravity, a low frequency drift wave can be developed in the long wavelength limit. The stability state of this wave is switched at a certain critical wavenumber in such a way that the damped mode is transformed into a growing one. Furthermore, the influence of the external fields on the dispersion properties is analyzed. It is shown that the wave instability is essentially due to the electrostatic streaming of plasma particles. It is also found that by increasing the electric field strength, the stability switching occurs at smaller wavenumbers.
Drift laws for spiral waves on curved anisotropic surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dierckx, Hans; Brisard, Evelien; Verschelde, Henri; Panfilov, Alexander V.
2013-07-01
Rotating spiral waves organize spatial patterns in chemical, physical, and biological excitable systems. Factors affecting their dynamics, such as spatiotemporal drift, are of great interest for particular applications. Here, we propose a quantitative description for spiral wave dynamics on curved surfaces which shows that for a wide class of systems, including the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and anisotropic cardiac tissue, the Ricci curvature scalar of the surface is the main determinant of spiral wave drift. The theory provides explicit equations for spiral wave drift direction, drift velocity, and the period of rotation. Depending on the parameters, the drift can be directed to the regions of either maximal or minimal Ricci scalar curvature, which was verified by direct numerical simulations.
The Development of Drift Wave Turbulence in Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMurtrie, L.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M. M.
2013-12-01
An important feature in collisionless magnetic reconnection is the development of sharp discontinuities along the separatrices bounding the Alfvenic outflow. The typical scale length of these features is ρs (the Larmor radius based on the sound speed) for guide field reconnection. Temperature gradients in the inflowing plasma (as might be found in the magnetopause) can lead to instabilities at these separatrices, specifically drift wave turbulence. We present standalone 2D and 3D PIC simulations of drift wave turbulence to investigate scaling properties and growth rates. Further investigations of the relative importance of drift wave turbulence in the development of reconnection will also be considered.
Global theory to understand toroidal drift waves in steep gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Hua-sheng; Li, Bo
2016-08-01
Toroidal drift waves with unconventional mode structures and non-ground eigenstates, which differ from a typical ballooning structure mode, are found to be important recently by large scale global gyrokinetic simulations and especially become dominant at strong gradient edge plasmas [cf. H. S. Xie and Y. Xiao, Phys. Plasmas 22, 090703 (2015)]. The global stability and mode structures of drift wave in this steep edge density and temperature gradients are examined by both direct numerical solutions of a model two-dimensional eigen equation and analytical theory employing WKB-ballooning approach. Theory agrees with numerical solutions quite well. Our results indicate that (i) non-ground eigenstates and unconventional mode structures generally exist and can be roughly described by two parameters "quantum number" l and ballooning angle ϑk , (ii) local model can overestimate the growth rate largely, say, >50 % , and (iii) the narrow steep equilibrium profile leads to twisting (triangle-like) radial mode structures. With velocity space integral, semi-local theory predicts that the critical jump gradient of the most unstable ion temperature gradient mode from ground state l = 0 to non-ground state l = 1 is LT-1R ˜50 . These features can have important consequences to turbulent transport.
Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, T. E.; Lee, D. L.; Leja, I.
1979-01-01
Four areas of surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were investigated and a number of 401.2 MHz oscillators were constructed that showed improved performance. Aging studies on SAW devices packaged in HC36/U cold weld enclosures produced frequency drifts as low as 0.4 ppm in 35 weeks and drift rates well under 0.5 ppm/year. Temperature compensation circuits have substantially improved oscillator temperature stability, with a deviation of + or - 4 ppm observed over the range -45 C to + 40 C. High efficiency amplifiers were constructed for SAW oscillators and a dc to RF efficiency of 44 percent was obtained for an RF output of 25 mW. Shock and vibration tests were made on four oscillators and all survived 500 G shock pulses unchanged. Only when white noise vibration (20 Hz to 2000 Hz) levels of 20 G's rms were applied did some of the devices fail.
Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, T. E.
1978-01-01
A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.
Lower-Hybrid-Drift Wave Turbulence in the Distant Magnetotail
1978-05-01
Rayleigh - Taylor instability ) is excited which can nonlinearly produce short wave- length drift waves. We propose a similar phenomenon may exist in the...Cyclotron Instability in a Non-Uniform Plasma," Spy. Phys. JETP, 17, 626, I963. Papadopoulos, K., A Review of Anomalous Resistivity for the Ionosphere ...and magnetic noise in the distant magnetotail (Gumett et al., 1976) can be explained by the excitation of the lower-hybrid-drift instability . In
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-09-23
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.
Antenna excitation of drift wave in a toroidal plasma
Diallo, A.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.; Skiff, F.
2007-10-15
In a magnetized toroidal plasma, an antenna tunable in vertical wave number is used to excite density perturbations. Coherent detection is performed by means of Langmuir probes to directly determine both the wave vector and the plasma response induced by the antenna. Comparison between the theoretical density response predicted by the generalized Hasegawa-Wakatani model, and the experimentally determined density response enables us the identification of one peak of the plasma response as a drift wave.
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.
2014-10-15
A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.
Asymmetric drift instability of magnetosonic waves in anisotropic plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashir, M. F.; Chen, Lunjin
2016-10-01
The general dispersion relation of obliquely propagating magneto-sonic (MS) waves for the inhomogeneous and anisotropic plasmas is analyzed including the effect of wave-particle interaction. The numerical analysis is performed without expanding both the plasma dispersion and the modified Bessel functions to highlight the effects of density inhomogeneity and the temperature anisotropy. The obtained results are compared with the recent work [Naim et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 062117 (2015)], where only drift mode near the magnetosonic frequency is investigated. In our paper, we additionally analyzed two related modes depicting that the drift effect leads to an asymmetric behavior in the dispersion properties of drift MS waves. The possible application to the solar coronal heating problem has also been discussed.
Drift Wave Test Particle Transport in Reversed Shear Profile
Horton, W.; Park, H.B.; Kwon, J.M.; Stronzzi, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Choi, D.I.
1998-06-01
Drift wave maps, area preserving maps that describe the motion of charged particles in drift waves, are derived. The maps allow the integration of particle orbits on the long time scale needed to describe transport. Calculations using the drift wave maps show that dramatic improvement in the particle confinement, in the presence of a given level and spectrum of E x B turbulence, can occur for q(r)-profiles with reversed shear. A similar reduction in the transport, i.e. one that is independent of the turbulence, is observed in the presence of an equilibrium radial electric field with shear. The transport reduction, caused by the combined effects of radial electric field shear and both monotonic and reversed shear magnetic q-profiles, is also investigated.
Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver
2015-06-01
Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.
Route to Drift Wave Chaos and Turbulence in a Bounded Low-{beta} Plasma Experiment
Klinger, T.; Latten, A.; Piel, A.; Bonhomme, G.; Pierre, T.; Dudok de Wit, T.
1997-11-01
The transition scenario from stability to drift wave turbulence is experimentally investigated in a magnetized low-{beta} plasma with cylindrical geometry. It is demonstrated that the temporal dynamics is determined by the interaction and destabilization of spatiotemporal patterns, in particular, traveling waves. The analysis of the temporal and the spatiotemporal data shows that the bifurcations sequence towards weakly developed turbulence follows the Ruelle-Takens scenario. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence
Jerome L.V. Lewandowski
2003-09-03
There are growing experimental, numerical and theoretical evidences that the anomalous transport observed in tokamaks and stellarators is caused by slow, drift-type modes (such as trapped electron modes and ion-temperature gradient-driven modes). Although typical collision frequencies in hot, magnetized fusion plasmas can be quite low in absolute values, collisional effects are nevertheless important since they act as dissipative sinks. As it is well known, dissipative systems with many (strictly speaking more than two) degrees of freedom are often chaotic and may evolve towards a so-called attractor.
Drift wave coherent vortex structures in inhomogeneous plasmas
Su, X.N.
1992-01-01
Nonlinear drift wave vortex structures in magnetized plasmas are studied theoretically and numerically in the various physical environments. The effects of density and temperature gradients on drift wave vortex dynamics are analyzed using a fully nonlinear model with the Boltzmann density distribution. The equation, based on the full Boltzmann relation, possess no localized monopole solution in the short wavelength ([approximately][rho][sub s]) region, while in the longer wavelength ([approximately]([rho][sub s](r)[sub n])[sup [1/2
Polarization of drifting pairs at decameter waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazhenko, A. I.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Abranin, E. P.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Vashchishin, R. V.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.
2006-08-01
The results of polarization researches of drifting pairs (DP) observed during Type III bursts storm in July[S:,:S][Author ID2: at Fri Jul 14 10:33:00 2006 ] 11-21, 2002 with radio telescope URAN-2 are presented. The array of the radio telescope consists of 512 broadband cross dipoles, that enables to receive signals of two polarizations, has the area about of 28000 m^2 and works in 9-30 MHz range. Circular polarization measurements were made at frequency 24.75 MHz in frequency band 10 μHz with time resolution 10 ms. Some hundreds bursts, both forward and reverse DPs, which have been registered with radio telescope UTR-2 in the frequency range 18-32 μHz, were analyzed. For the first time we find that DP polarizations strongly depend on the location of the active area associated with these bursts. When an active area is near to the central meridian, polarizations of both DP components have the same signs and their values are up to 30%. In other days in most cases polarizations of both components have opposite signs and only for some bursts polarization reaches 10%. In all cases both DP components have comparable polarization degrees.
Particle drift in the field of internal gravity wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinshpun, S. A.; Redcoborody, Yu. N.; Kravchuk, S. G.; Zadorozhnii, V. I.; Zhdanov, V. I.
2000-08-01
Similarly to an acoustic wave, an internal gravity wave (IGW) can cause the drift of a dispersed component in a two-component system, e.g. in a hydrosol or an aerosol. The IGW-caused particle drift may play a significance role in many natural processes occurring in very large water reservoirs or air volumes and thus is of interest for atmospheric and oceanic research. The analytical and numerical calculations of the IGW-caused particle drift motion were performed in this study for the following two sets of conditions: (i) propagating IGW in a horizontal infinite waveguide and (ii) standing IGW in a rectangular resonator. It was shown that particles concentrate in certain areas of an IGW field as a result of their migration. When IGW is propagating in an infinite waveguide, the particle drift causes the vertical stratification and horizontal unidirectional motion. The particle size affects the shape of the particle trajectories and the vertical component of the drift velocity in an infinite waveguide. In contrast, the shape of trajectories in the IGW rectangular resonator is not affected by the particle size and IGW intensity. The IGW-caused particle drift was shown to result in purification of a two-component system or in its "structurization" (the formation of purified areas of the fluid alternating with the areas loaded with particles). These effects were found to be low energy consuming: ∼10 J/m3 of liquid. However, the particle migration in the infinite waveguide and rectangular resonator is a very slow process, and the time needed for an efficient purification of a fluid increases quickly with the decrease of particle size. The particle coagulation is expected to significantly accelerate the fluid purification. Another way to reduce this characteristic time is proposed through utilizing the horizontal component of the particle drift in the semi-infinite IGW waveguide.
A refined understanding of compressibility effects on the stability of drift ballooning modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhee, T.; Park, G. Y.; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Singh, R.
2017-07-01
A study is conducted on the impact of plasma compressibility on the stability of drift ballooning modes. The two-fluid and four-field model developed by Hazeltine et al. [Phys. Fluids 28, 2466 (1985)] is employed in this study. Results of linear numerical simulations show that finite compressibility destabilizes ballooning modes which are otherwise stable due to the ion diamagnetic drift effect. A systematic study reveals that the parallel compressibility originating from the two-fluid effect, rather than the drift-acoustic wave coupling suggested by Hastie et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 4405 (2003)], plays the most important role in destabilizing the ballooning modes. An analytic evaluation of the dispersion relation underpins the strong sensitivity of this parallel compressibility term in the ballooning mode stability. The potential impact of this new understanding on the physics of small edge localized modes is discussed.
Field stability in two-stem drift-tube linacs
Billen, J.H.; Spalek, G.; Shapiro, A.H.
1988-01-01
Drift tubes supported by two stems have been considered for cryogenic drift-tube linacs (DTLs) to reduce vibrations and to minimize drift-tube deflections upon cool down. We investigated rf properties of two-stem DTL structures at room temperature and low power. Even apart is inherently more stable against tuning errors than a similar structure with single stems. The increased stability is higher for DTLs with shorter drift tubes. Ordinary quarter-wavelength-long post couplers actually destabilize the two-stem DTL fields; the extra stem raises the post coupler frequency compared to the frequency of the same post coupler extended beyond the tank wall into coaxial stub tuners. Adjustment of the stub lengths tunes the post-coupler frequencies, but post-coupler lengths in the tank have no effect, which suggests a field pattern different from traditional post couplers. The stabilized DTL resembles multiple-stem DTLs in which the angle between stems is varied to achieve stabilization. Adjusting the coaxial stub length is mechanically simpler than changing the stem azimuth angle. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Applications of the wave kinetic approach: from laser wakefields to drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trines, R. M. G. M.; Bingham, R.; Silva, L. O.; Mendonça, J. T.; Shukla, P. K.; Murphy, C. D.; Dunlop, M. W.; Davies, J. A.; Bamford, R.; Vaivads, A.; Norreys, P. A.
2010-12-01
Nonlinear wave-driven processes in plasmas are normally described by either a monochromatic pump wave that couples to other monochromatic waves, or as a random phase wave coupling to other random phase waves. An alternative approach involves a random or broadband pump coupling to monochromatic and/or coherent structures in the plasma. This approach can be implemented through the wave-kinetic model. In this model, the incoming pump wave is described by either a bunch (for coherent waves) or a sea (for random phase waves) of quasi-particles. This approach has been applied to both photon acceleration in laser wakefields and drift wave turbulence in magnetized plasma edge configurations. Numerical simulations have been compared to experiments, varying from photon acceleration to drift mode-zonal flow turbulence, and good qualitative correspondences have been found in all cases.
Drift waves and chaos in a LAPTAG plasma physics experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Birge-Lee, Henry; Wise, Joe; Katz, Cami; Wolman, Ben; Baker, Bob; Marmie, Ken; Patankar, Vedang; Bridges, Gabriel; Buckley-Bonanno, Samuel; Buckley, Susan; Ge, Andrew; Thomas, Sam
2016-02-01
In a project involving an alliance between universities and high schools, a magnetized plasma column with a steep pressure gradient was established in an experimental device. A two-dimensional probe measured fluctuations in the plasma column in a plane transverse to the background magnetic field. Correlation techniques determined that the fluctuations were that of electrostatic drift waves. The time series data were used to generate the Bandt-Pompe entropy and Jensen-Shannon complexity for the data. These quantities, when plotted against one another, revealed that a combination of drift waves and other background fluctuations were a deterministically chaotic system. Our analysis can be used to tell the difference between deterministic chaos and random noise, making it a potentially useful technique in nonlinear dynamics.
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
Diamond, P. H.; McDevitt, C. J.; Guercan, Oe. D.; Hahm, T. S.; Naulin, V.
2008-01-15
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and nonresonant off-diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves and particles is accounted for. Two related momentum conservation theorems are derived. These relate the resonant particle momentum flux, the wave momentum flux, and the refractive force. A perturbative calculation, in the spirit of Chapman-Enskog theory, is used to obtain the wave momentum flux, which contributes significantly to the residual stress. A general equation for mean k{sub parallel} (
Transition from collisional drift-wave to multi-instability turbulence in a helicon plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Ashourvan, A.; Cui, L.; Diamond, P.; Holland, C.; Hong, R.; Tynan, G.; Vaezi, P.; McKee, J.; Scime, E.; Sears, S.
2015-11-01
Recent studies in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation eXperiment reported a sharp non-monotonic global transition in the plasma dynamics during the transition to broadband turbulence. Using a combination of probes, high speed imaging and laser induced fluorescence, we find that below a threshold magnetic field, the plasma is dominated by density gradient driven resistive drift waves. Above this threshold a new global equilibrium occurs, characterized by steepened density and ion temperature gradients and both azimuthal and parallel velocity shear layers, along with multiple plasma instabilities. At the center, high azimuthal mode number fluctuations are observed rotating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction, while in the density gradient region, drift waves propagate in the electron diamagnetic direction. Outside of this zone, velocity shear-driven fluctuations are observed. Simultaneously a very bright helicon blue core forms, and appears to be associated with a radial particle transport barrier. This new regime shows very rich plasma dynamics including intermittency, blobs, radial transport barrier, inward particle flux against density gradients etc. Above the threshold conditions, linear stability analysis show co-existence of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability and velocity shear instability together with collisional electron drift waves. Supported by CMTFO # DE-SC0008378, US DoE # DE-FG02-04ER54738 and NSF # PHY-1360278.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, L.; Takahashi, K.; Wygant, J. R.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Thaller, S. A.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Funsten, H. O.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H.
2013-12-01
Charged particles trapped in the magnetosphere undergo a longitudinal drift motion around the Earth induced by the magnetic field curvature and gradient. The resonant wave-particle interaction associated with the drift motion is important for understanding the dynamics of the ring current and radiation belt particles. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (RBSP) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (E φ ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed associated with radial magnetic field (Br) oscillations in the dawn-noon sector near but south of the magnetic equator at L~5. The observed wave period, Eφ/Br, and the 90 degrees phase lag between Br and Eφ are all consistent with fundamental mode standing poloidal waves. Phase shifts between particle fluxes and wave electric fields clearly demonstrate a drift resonance with ~90 keV ring current ions. The estimated earthward gradient of ion phase space density provides free energy source for wave generation through the drift-resonance instability. To our knowledge, this is the first unambiguous observation of drift-resonance wave-particle interaction driving poloidal wave oscillations in the magnetosphere. Similar drift-resonance process should occur ubiquitously in collisionless plasma systems. One example is the ';fishbone' instability in fusion plasma devices. In addition, our observations have important implications for the long-standing mysterious origin of Giant Pulsations detected on the ground.
Excitation of poloidal standing Alfvén waves through drift resonance wave-particle interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Lei; Takahashi, Kazue; Wygant, John R.; Chen, Liu; Bonnell, John; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Thaller, Scott; Kletzing, Craig; Smith, Charles W.; MacDowall, Robert J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Funsten, Herbert O.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.
2013-08-01
Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated with radial magnetic field (Br) oscillations in the dawn-noon sector near but south of the magnetic equator at L˜5. The observed wave period, Eφ/Br ratio and the 90° phase lag between Br and Eφ are all consistent with fundamental mode standing Poloidal waves. Phase shifts between particle fluxes and wave electric fields clearly demonstrate a drift resonance with ˜90 keV ring current ions. The estimated earthward gradient of ion phase space density provides a free energy source for wave generation through the drift-resonance instability. A similar drift-resonance process should occur ubiquitously in collisionless plasma systems. One specific example is the "fishbone" instability in fusion plasma devices. In addition, our observations have important implications for the long-standing mysterious origin of Giant Pulsations.
Kinetic instability of drift magnetosonic wave in anisotropic low beta plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naim, H.; Bashir, M. F.; Vranjes, J.; Murtaza, G.
2015-06-01
The kinetic instability of the obliquely propagating drift magnetosonic wave for temperature anisotropic low beta plasmas is studied by using the gyro-kinetic model. The interplay between the temperature anisotropy and the density inhomogeneity free energy sources is discussed in order to provide stabilization of drift instability by the temperature anisotropy effect. It is shown that the anisotropy suppresses the growth rate when the anisotropy ratio A e , i ( = T ⊥ ( e , i ) / T ∥ ( e , i ) ) is greater than unity, whereas it enhances the growth rate for A e , i < 1 . Comparison of kinetic instability with reactive instability [Naim et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 102112 (2014)] and the scaling of growth time with the diffusion and the anisotropy relaxation times are presented. Additionally, the stability analysis applicable to a wide range of plasma parameters is also performed.
Statistical properties and correlation functions for drift waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horton, W.
1986-01-01
The dissipative one-field drift wave equation is solved using the pseudospectral method to generate steady-state fluctuations. The fluctuations are analyzed in terms of space-time correlation functions and modal probability distributions. Nearly Gaussian statistics and exponential decay of the two-time correlation functions occur in the presence of electron dissipation, while in the absence of electron dissipation long-lived vortical structures occur. Formulas from renormalized, Markovianized statistical turbulence theory are given in a local approximation to interpret the dissipative turbulence.
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Drift Vortex in Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong; Chen, Yinhua; Wang, Ge
2008-02-01
In a quasi-two-dimensional model, the scattering of incident ordinary electromagnetic waves by a dipole-electrostatic drift vortex is studied with first-order Born approximation. The distribution of the scattering cross-section and total cross-section are evaluated analytically in different approximate conditions, and the physical interpretations are discussed. When the wavelength of incident wave is much longer than the vortex radius (kia ll 1), it is found that the angle at which the scattering cross-section reaches its maxim depends significantly on the approximation of the parameters of the vortex used. It is also found that the total scattering cross-section has an affinitive relation with the parameters of the plasma, while it is irrelevant to the frequency of the incident wave in a wide range of parameters of the vortex. In a totally different range of parameters when incident wave is in the radar-frequency range (then kia ll 1, the wavelength of incident wave is much shorter than the vortex radius), the numerical procedure is conducted with computer in order to obtain the distribution and the total expression of the scattering cross-section. Then it is found that the total scattering cross-section in the low frequency range is much larger than that in high frequency range, so the scattering is more effective in the low frequency range than in high frequency range.
Integrated Study of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Collisional Drift Wave Turbulence
George R. Tynan
2012-04-24
An existing linear magnetized plasma device, the Controlled Shear Decorrelation experiment (CSDX) was used to study the transition from a state of coherent wave like activity to a state of turbulent activity using the magnetic field and thus magnetization of the plasma as the control parameter. The results show the onset of coherent drift waves consistent with linear stability analysis. As the magnetization is raised, at first multiple harmonics appear, consistent with wave steepening. This period is then followed by the beginning of nonlinear interactions between different wave modes, which then results in the formation of narrow frequency but distributed azimuthal wave number fluctuations that are consistent with the formation of long-lived coherent nonlinear structures within the plasmas. These structures, termed quasicoherent modes, persist as the magnetic field is raised. Measurements of turbulent momentum flux indicate that the plasma is also forming an azimuthally symmetric radially sheared fluid flow that is nonlinearly driven by smaller scaled turbulent fluctuations. Further increases in the magnetic field result in the breakup of the quasicoherent mode, and the clear formation of the sheared flow. Numerical simulations of the experiment reproduce the formation of the sheared flow via a vortex merging process, and confirm that the experiment is providing the first clear experimental evidence of the formation of sheared zonal flows from drift turbulent fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.
Drift-wave transport in the velocity shear layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosalem, K. C.; Roberto, M.; Caldas, I. L.
2016-07-01
Particle drift driven by electrostatic wave fluctuations is numerically computed to describe the transport in a gradient velocity layer at the tokamak plasma edge. We consider an equilibrium plasma in large aspect ratio approximation with E × B flow and specified toroidal plasma velocity, electric field, and magnetic field profiles. A symplectic map, previously derived for infinite coherent time modes, is used to describe the transport dependence on the electric, magnetic, and plasma velocity shears. We also show that resonant perturbations and their correspondent islands in the Poincaré maps are much affected by the toroidal velocity profiles. Moreover, shearless transport barriers, identified by extremum values of the perturbed rotation number profiles of the invariant curves, allow chaotic trajectories trapped into the plasma. We investigate the influence of the toroidal plasma velocity profile on these shearless transport barriers.
Directional change of particles in dissipative drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadoch, Benjamin; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Schneider, Kai
2016-10-01
We analyze the statistical properties of Lagrangian particle transport in dissipative drift-wave turbulence modeled by the Hasegawa-Wakatani system. The angle between subsequent particle displacement increments is evaluated as a function of the timelag and thus multi-scale geometric statistics can be performed. The evolution of the mean angle with the time lag is studied and the probability density function of the directional change are analyzed for the different flow regimes. By varying the adiabaticity parameter the flow regime can be modified from the hydrodynamic limit to a geostrophic limit, including the quasi adiabatic regime which has some relevance for edge turbulence of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. Support by the French Research Federation for Fusion Studies within the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) is thankfully acknowledged.
Drift stabilizer for reciprocating free-piston devices
Ward, William C.; Corey, John A.; Swift, Gregory W.
2003-05-20
A free-piston device has a stabilized piston drift. A piston having a frequency of reciprocation over a stroke length and with first and second sides facing first and second variable volumes, respectively, for containing a working fluid defining an acoustic wavelength at the frequency of reciprocation. A bypass tube waveguide connects the first and second variable volumes at all times during reciprocation of the piston. The waveguide has a relatively low impedance for steady flow and a relatively high impedance for oscillating flow at the frequency of reciprocation of the piston, so that steady flow returns fluid leakage from about the piston between the first and second volumes while oscillating flow is not diverted through the waveguide. Thus, net leakage about the piston is returned during each stroke of the piston while oscillating leakage is not allowed and pressure buildup on either the first or second side of the piston is avoided to provide a stable piston location.
Impact of ion diamagnetic drift on ideal ballooning mode stability in rotating tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aiba, N.
2016-04-01
Drift magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations have been derived in order to investigate the ion diamagnetic drift effect on the stability to ideal MHD modes in rotating plasmas. These drift MHD equations have been simplified with the Frieman-Rotenberg formalism under the incompressible assumption, and a new code, MINERVA-DI, has been developed to solve the derived extended Frieman-Rotenberg equation. Benchmark results of the MINERVA-DI code show good agreements with the analytic theory discussing the stability to an internal kink mode and that to a ballooning mode in static plasmas. The stability analyses of the ballooning mode with respect to toroidal rotation with the ion diamagnetic drift effect have been performed using MINERVA-DI. The stabilizing effect by the ion diamagnetic drift is found to be negligible when the rotation frequency is large compared to the ion diamagnetic drift frequency. The direction of plasma rotation affects the ballooning mode stability when the ion diamagnetic drift effect is taken into account. It is identified that there are two physics mechanisms responsible for the dependence of MHD stability on the rotation direction. One is the correction of the dynamic pressure effect on MHD stability by the ion diamagnetic drift, and the other is the change of the MHD eigenmode structure by the combined effect of plasma rotation and ion diamagnetic drift.
Nonlinear saturation spectra of electric fields and density fluctuations in drift wave turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, M. C.
1982-01-01
The detection of drift waves in the nonlinear evolution of a space plasma process driven at long wavelengths is considered, adducing measurements of the electric field and density fluctuation power spectra as evidence. Since the driving mechanism is clearly at long wavelengths, the detection of drift waves suggests that they may play an important role in the transfer of wave energy from long to short wavelengths in a low beta plasma. The saturated spectral density is compared with theoretical results in order to estimate the anomalous diffusion rate. The observed spectral form and amplitude is in excellent agreement with drift wave predictions.
Theoretical studies of interaction between drift waves and zonal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zehua
The size scaling of confinement properties in magnetized plasmas is one of the crucial and challenging problems of fusion energy research. It has been pointed out [64] that turbulence spreading is responsible for the local turbulence intensity dependence on the global equilibrium properties, i.e. the system size, and, ultimately, for the size scaling of turbulent transport coefficients. In the present work, first we investigate the slab analysis [46] for the spatio-temporal evolution of the drift wave(DW) radial envelope and zonal flow(ZF) amplitude. The derived two-field DW-ZF description reduces to the well-known coherent four-wave modulation interaction model [13] when separating the pump wave and its side bands. Stationary solution of the resulting coupled partial differential equations in a simple limit suggests formation of DW-ZF solitons, due to competition between DW dispersion and nonlinear ZF modulation. It is shown that the hyperbolic-secant DW soliton structure can propagate at group velocity which depends on the envelope peak amplitude. Additional interesting physics, i.e. birth and death, collision, reflection of solitons, can be produced by effects of linear growth/damping, dissipation and equilibrium nonuniformities. Turbulence bursting or intermittency can also be understood within soliton dynamics. The propagation of soliton causes significant radial spreading of initially localized DW turbulence and therefore can affect transport scaling by increasing the radial turbulent region. Further discussion about the correspondence to the two-field DW-ZF description in toroidal geometry [14] will also be presented.
Nonlinear ion turbulent heating in electron drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lei; Diamond, Patrick H.
2012-10-01
The total turbulent heat transfer is composed of quasilinear electron cooling, quasilinear ion heating, nonlinear ion heating and zonal flow frictional heating. In a previous paper [1], we discussed quasilinear turbulent heating and zonal flow frictional heating. Here we apply weak turbulence theory to calculate the nonlinear ion turbulent heating via the beat mode resonance in electron drift wave turbulence [2]. The nonlinear diffusion in velocity space, affected by E x B motion and by the parallel velocity scattering, is further analyzed. This calculation proposes and analyzes a new collisionless turbulent energy transfer channel through nonlinear Landau damping. This process enters the electron-ion energy coupling. We estimate it by using the saturation balance. The results show that the collisionless turbulent energy transfer through the nonlinear Landau damping and the zonal flow frictional damping can both be important in a low collisionality, electron heated plasma, such as ITER. [4pt] [1] L. Zhao and P. H. Diamond, submitted to Phys. Plasma, 2012.[0pt] [2] W.M. Manheimer and T.H. Dupree, Phys. Fluid, 11, 2709 (1968).
Modelling enhanced confinement in drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Ashourvan, A.; Tynan, G. R.
2017-06-01
The results of modeling studies of an enhanced confinement in the drift wave turbulent plasma of the CSDX linear device are presented. The mechanism of enhanced confinement is investigated here using a reduced 1D, time-dependent model, which illustrates the exchange of enstrophy between two disparate scale structures: the mesoscale flow and profile, and the turbulence intensity fields. Mean density, mean vorticity, and turbulent potential enstrophy are the variables for this model. Total potential enstrophy is conserved in this model. Vorticity mixing occurs on a scale length related to an effective Rhines' scale of turbulence, and shrinks as both density and vorticity gradients steepen. Numerical results obtained from solution of the model agree well with the experimental data from CSDX showing: (i) a steepening of the mean density profile, indicating a radial transport barrier formation, (ii) the development of a radially sheared azimuthal flow velocity that coincides with the density steepening and initiates a turbulence quench, and (iii) negative Reynolds work values, indicating that fluctuations drive the shear flow. These observations as the magnitude of the magnetic field B increases are recovered using purely diffusive expressions for the vorticity and density fluxes. A new dimensionless turbulence parameter RDT-defined as the ratio of the integrated potential enstrophy transfer from turbulence to the flow, to the integrated potential enstrophy production due to relaxation of the density gradient is introduced as a turbulence collapse indicator that detects when the enhanced confinement state is triggered.
Propagation of cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave in an inhomogeneous plasma
Liu Haifeng; Wang Shiqing; Fazhan Yang; Li Kehua; Wang Zhanhe; Zhang Weibing; Wang Zhilong; Qiangxiang; Kaihuang; Yaoliu; Silili; Lanchang
2013-04-15
The nonlinear cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave in an inhomogeneous, magnetized plasma with the combined effects of electron density inhomogeneity and electron temperature inhomogeneity is investigated in a two-fluid model. The amplitude and width of the solitary wave are found to decrease as the electronic density inhomogeneity increases. When the electron temperature inhomogeneity grows, the amplitude of the soliton decays and the width never changes. It is noted that the decrease of diamagnetic drift velocity will strengthen the cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave height and width.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burston, Robert; Astin, Ivan; Mitchell, Cathryn; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Pedersen, Todd; Skone, Susan
2009-07-01
A model is developed of the gradient drift instability growth rate in the north polar cap ionosphere, utilizing a novel approach employing an ionospheric imaging algorithm. The growth rate values calculated by this model are in turn used to estimate how the amplitudes of actual gradient drift waves vary over time as the plasma drifts and the growth rates change with time. Ionospheric imaging is again used in order to determine plasma drift velocities. The final output from the model is in turn used to assess the linear correlation between the scintillation indices S4 and σ $\\phi$ recorded by several GPS L1 band scintillation receivers stationed in the north polar cap and mean gradient drift wave amplitudes. Four separate magnetic storm periods, totaling 13 days, are analyzed in this way. The results show weak but significant linear correlations between the mean wave amplitudes calculated and the observed scintillation indices at F layer altitudes.
Hu, Shilin; Qu, Hongpeng; Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.
2014-10-15
Resistive drift wave instability is investigated numerically in tokamak edge plasma confined by sheared slab magnetic field geometry with an embedded magnetic island. The focus is on the structural characteristics of eigenmode inside the island, where the density profile tends to be flattened. A transition of the dominant eigenmode occurs around a critical island width w{sub c}. For thin islands with a width below w{sub c}, two global long wavelength eigenmodes with approximately the same growth rate but different eigenfrequency are excited, which are stabilized by the magnetic island through two-dimensional mode coupling in both x and y (corresponding to radial and poloidal in tokamak) directions. On the other hand, a short wavelength eigenmode, which is destabilized by thick islands with a width above w{sub c}, dominates the edge fluctuation, showing a prominent structural localization in the region between the X-point and the O-point of the magnetic island. The main destabilization mechanism is identified as the mode coupling in the y direction, which is similar to the so-called toroidal coupling in tokamak plasmas. These three eigenmodes may coexist in the drift wave fluctuation for the island with a width around w{sub c}. It is demonstrated that the structural localization results mainly from the quasilinear flattening of density profile inside the magnetic island.
The mean drift forces and yaw moment on multiple-cylinders in waves and current
Kinoshita, Takeshi; Bao, Weiguang; Sunahara, Shunji
1996-12-31
In the present work, the interaction of an assembly of circular cylinders with regular waves and slow current is considered. The interaction among cylinders is represented by additional waves emitting from adjacent cylinders towards the cylinders under consideration. By means of eigenfunction expansion, drift forces, as well as yaw moment, are evaluated by the far field method and the wave drift damping is deduced from these results semi-analytically. The contribution from the second order steady potential which is quadratic in wave amplitude is also considered. Calculated examples are presented in various wave direction. Those results are also compared with experimental measurements to verify the present theory.
Streamers generation by small-scale drift-Alfvén waves
Zhao, J. S.; Yu, M. Y.
2014-10-15
Excitation of streamers by modulationally unstable small-scale drift-Alfvén wave (SSDAW) is investigated. It is found that the excitation depends strongly on the propagation direction of the SSDAW, and the ion and electron diamagnetic drift waves are both unstable due to the generation of streamers. It is also shown that zonal flows can be effectively excited by the SSDAW with the propagation direction different from that for streamer excitation.
Tariq, Sabeen; Mirza, Arshad M.; Masood, W.
2010-10-15
The propagation of high and low frequency (in comparison with the cyclotron frequency) electrostatic drift-waves is investigated in a nonuniform, dense magnetoplasma (composed of electrons and ions), in the presence of parallel shear flow, by employing the quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using QMHD model, a new set of equations is presented in order to investigate linear properties of electrostatic drift-waves with sheared plasma flows for dense plasmas. In this regard, dispersion relations for coupled electron-thermal and drift-ion acoustic modes are derived and several interesting limiting cases are discussed. For instance, it is found that sheared ion flow parallel to the external magnetic field can drive the quantum drift-ion acoustic wave unstable, etc. The present investigation may have relevance in dense astrophysical environments where quantum effects are significant.
Fluid simulations of nonlocal dissipative drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, X. Q.; Cohen, R. H.; Crotinger, J. A.; Shestakov, A. I.
1995-03-01
A two-dimensional [2d(x,y)] fluid code has been developed to explore nonlocal dissipative drift-wave turbulence and anomalous transport. In order to obtain steady-state turbulence, the y-averaged fluctuating density
Experimental investigation of the nonlinear evolution of an impurity-driven drift wave
Allen, G.R.; Yamada, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1982-04-01
An impurity-driven drift wave is observed to be destabilized by the reversed density gradient of a singly-ionized heavy-impurity-ion population in a Q-machine plasma. The evolution of the instability is investigated as it progresses from the initial linear exponential growth phase, into a nonlinear saturated state, whereupon strong radially outward anomalous diffusion is observed. The relationship between the anomalous diffusion coefficient and the wave amplitude is in agreement with estimates obtained from the nonlinear drift-wave turbulence theory of Dupree.
Instability of Drift Waves in Two-Component Solid-State Plasma
Bulgakov, A.A.; Shramkova, O.V.
2005-09-15
The instabilities of longitudinal waves in infinite semiconductor plasma containing charge carriers of two types are considered under the assumption that the thermal velocity of electrons slightly exceeds that of holes. The main result of this study is that instability can occur in intrinsic semiconductors if the electron drift velocity is lower than the thermal velocity. Drift wave instabilities are studied in intrinsic semiconductors and semiconductors with identical plasma frequencies of electrons and holes. The influence of dissipation on the instability of these waves is also considered.
A Computer Simulation Study of Anatomy Induced Drift of Spiral Waves in the Human Atrium
Kharche, Sanjay R.; Biktasheva, Irina V.; Seemann, Gunnar; Zhang, Henggui; Biktashev, Vadim N.
2015-01-01
The interaction of spiral waves of excitation with atrial anatomy remains unclear. This simulation study isolates the role of atrial anatomical structures on spiral wave spontaneous drift in the human atrium. We implemented realistic and idealised 3D human atria models to investigate the functional impact of anatomical structures on the long-term (∼40 s) behaviour of spiral waves. The drift of a spiral wave was quantified by tracing its tip trajectory, which was correlated to atrial anatomical features. The interaction of spiral waves with the following idealised geometries was investigated: (a) a wedge-like structure with a continuously varying atrial wall thickness; (b) a ridge-like structure with a sudden change in atrial wall thickness; (c) multiple bridge-like structures consisting of a bridge connected to the atrial wall. Spiral waves drifted from thicker to thinner regions and along ridge-like structures. Breakthrough patterns caused by pectinate muscles (PM) bridges were also observed, albeit infrequently. Apparent anchoring close to PM-atrial wall junctions was observed. These observations were similar in both the realistic and the idealised models. We conclude that spatially altering atrial wall thickness is a significant cause of drift of spiral waves. PM bridges cause breakthrough patterns and induce transient anchoring of spiral waves. PMID:26587545
Effects of electron drifts on collisionless damping of kinetic Alfvén waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Yuguang; Bale, Stuart; Chen, Christopher; Salem, Chadi; Verscharen, Daniel
2015-04-01
Collisionless dissipation of obliquely propogating Alfvén waves has been a promising candidate to solve the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies have examined kinetic properties of Alfvén waves in simple Maxwellian or Bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the solar wind electron velocity distribution function is more complex. A study of Alfvén waves in a plasma, whose electrons consist of two drifting populations in the proton bulk frame, is reported here. We numerically solve the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations and find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for Alfven waves have been significantly modified in such plasmas, comparing to their counterparts without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind.
Effects of electron drifts on collisionless damping of Alfvén waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Y.; Bale, S. D.; Chen, C. H. K.
2014-12-01
Collisionless dissipation of obliquely propogating Alfvén waves has been a promising candidate to solve the coronal and the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies have examined kinetic properties of Alfvén waves in simple Maxwellian or Bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the solar wind electron velocity distribution function is more complex. A study of Alfvén waves in a plasma, whose electrons consist of two drifting populations in the proton bulk frame, is reported here. By numerically solving the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations, we find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for Alfven waves have been significantly modified in such plasmas, comparing to their counterparts without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind.
Mushtaq, A.; Saeed, R.; Haque, Q.
2011-04-15
Linear and nonlinear coupled electrostatic drift and ion acoustic waves are studied in inhomogeneous, collisional pair ion-electron plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation for a medium where both dispersion and dissipation are present is derived. An attempt is made to obtain exact solution of KdVB equation by using modified tanh-coth method for arbitrary velocity of nonlinear drift wave. Another exact solution for KdVB is obtained, which gives a structure of shock wave. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations are derived in limiting cases with solitary and monotonic shock solutions, respectively. Effects of species density, magnetic field, obliqueness, and the acoustic to drift velocity ratio on the solitary and shock solutions are investigated. The results discussed are useful in understanding of low frequency electrostatic waves at laboratory pair ion plasmas.
Observation of drift compressional waves with a mid-latitude decameter coherent radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chelpanov, Maksim; Mager, Pavel; Klimushkin, Dmitriy; Berngardt, Oleg; Mager, Olga
2016-06-01
Magnetospheric Pc5 pulsations observed on December 26, 2014 are analyzed. They were recorded in the nightside magnetosphere with a mid-latitude coherent decameter radar located near Ekaterinburg. It registers velocity variations in electric drift of ionospheric plasma caused by ULF waves in the magnetosphere. The westward direction of azimuthal propagation of wave coincides with the direction of magnetic drift of protons. A cross-wavelet analysis reveals that the frequency of oscillations depends on the wave number m, and the correlation between them is 0.90. The frequency increase from 2.5 to 5 mHz was followed by an increase in the absolute value m from 20 to 80. These features of the wave under study testify that it should be classified as a drift compressional mode which is typical for the ULF mode in kinetics. Existence conditions for it are the terminal pressure of plasma and its inhomogeneity across magnetic shells.
Up-gradient particle flux in a drift wave-zonal flow system
Cui, L.; Tynan, G. R.; Thakur, S. C.; Diamond, P. H.; Brandt, C.
2015-05-15
We report a net inward, up-gradient turbulent particle flux in a cylindrical plasma when collisional drift waves generate a sufficiently strong sheared azimuthal flow that drives positive (negative) density fluctuations up (down) the background density gradient, resulting in a steepening of the mean density gradient. The results show the existence of a saturation mechanism for drift-turbulence driven sheared flows that can cause up-gradient particle transport and density profile steepening.
Non-linear Paradigm for Drift Wave - Zonal Flow interplay: coherence, chaos and turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, Fulvio
2003-10-01
Non-linear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift wave (DW) envelope and zonal flow (ZF) amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent 4-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin and White(chen00). For the sake of simplicity, in this work we assume electrostatic fluctuations; but our formalism is readily extended to electromagnetic fluctuations(chen01). In the local limit, i.e. neglecting equilibrium profile variations, the coherent 4-wave DW-ZF modulation interaction model has successfully demonstrated spontaneous generation of ZFs and non-linear DW/ITG-ZF dynamics in toroidal plasmas(chen00). The present work is an extension of previous analyses to allow both (slow) temporal and spatial variations of the DW/ITG radial envelope; thus, it naturally incorporates the effects of equilibrium variations; i.e., turbulence spreading and size-dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients(lin99). This approach makes it possible to treat equilibrium profile variations and non-linear interactions on the same footing, assuming that coupling among different DWs on the shortest non-linear time scale is mediated by ZF only. At this level, the competition between linear drive/damping, DW spreading due to finite linear (and nonlinear) group velocity(lin02,chen02,kim02) and non-linear energy transfer between DWs and ZF, determines the saturation levels of the fluctuating fields. Despite the coherence of the underlying non-linear dynamics at this level, this system exhibits both chaotic behavior and intermittency, depending on system size and proximity to marginal stability(chen02). The present model can be further extended to include longer time-scale physics such as 3-wave interactions and collisionless damping of zonal flows. 9 chen00 Liu Chen, Zhihong Lin and Roscoe White, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129, (2000). chen01 L. Chen, Z. Lin, R.B. White and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, S. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, Z. R.
2016-07-01
Drift kinetic stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) is computationally investigated using MHD-kinetic hybrid code MARS-K following the non-perturbative approach (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503), for both reversed field pinch (RFP) and tokamak plasmas. Toroidal precessional drift resonance effects from trapped energetic ions (EIs) and various kinetic resonances between the mode and the guiding center drift motions of thermal particles are included into the self-consistent toroidal computations. The results show cancellation effects of the drift kinetic damping on the RWM between the thermal particles and EIs contributions, in both RFP and tokamak plasmas, even though each species alone can provide damping and stabilize RWM instability by respective kinetic resonances. The degree of cancellation generally depends on the EIs equilibrium distribution, the particle birth energy, as well as the toroidal flow speed of the plasma.
Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2016-09-01
Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow.
Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma
Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2016-01-01
Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894
Drift wave turbulence in the edge region of MST reversed field pinch plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thuecks, D. J.; Almagri, A. F.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.
2016-10-01
Measurements of electric field fluctuations reveal activity consistent with drift waves in the edge region of standard-confinement MST plasmas. The fluctuations are broadband and strongly anisotropic, with a power spectral index that is steeper in the direction parallel to the mean magnetic field direction than it is in the perpendicular direction. The power in the fluctuating kinetic energy, 1/2 minivẼ×B0 2 , exceeds the power in magnetic fluctuation energy for frequencies above 80 kHz. At lower frequencies (20-40 kHz), magnetic energy associated with unstable global tearing modes dominates. A lack of equipartition in the turbulent cascade coincides with measured signatures of independent fluctuation activity broadly consistent with drift-wave fluctuations. Statistical coherence measurements reveal mode activity at high frequencies (>=80 kHz) that is compressive, has high coherence in regions of the plasma with strong density gradients, and has a phase speed comparable to the electron drift speed. Elevated coherency associated with this fluctuation feature of the drift wave fluctuations return more quickly following magnetic reconnection events than corresponding coherence associated with the tearing activity. This suggests the drift-wave fluctuations may be excited by the large edge-localized thermal pressure gradient, but they could also be excited nonlinearly in a turbulent cascade driven by the tearing modes. Work supported by DOE and NSF.
Modulation of drift-wave envelopes in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma
Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com
2014-04-15
We study the amplitude modulation of low-frequency, long-wavelength electrostatic drift-wave envelopes in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma consisting of cold ions and degenerate electrons. The effects of tunneling associated with the quantum Bohm potential and the Fermi pressure for nonrelativistic degenerate electrons, as well as the equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities are taken into account. Starting from a set of quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations, we derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) that governs the dynamics of the modulated quantum drift-wave packets. The NLSE is used to study the modulational instability (MI) of a Stoke's wave train to a small plane wave perturbation. It is shown that the quantum tunneling effect as well as the scale length of inhomogeneity plays crucial roles for the MI of the drift-wave packets. Thus, the latter can propagate in the form of bright and dark envelope solitons or as drift-wave rogons in degenerate dense magnetoplasmas.
Drift Wave Chaos and Turbulence in a LAPTAG Plasma Physics experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Cami; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Wise, Joe; Birge-Lee, Henry; Baker, Bob; Marmie, Ken; Thomas, Sam; Buckley-Bonnano, Samuel
2015-11-01
Whenever there is a pressure gradient in a magnetized plasma drift waves occur spontaneously. Drift waves have density and electrical potential fluctuations but no self magnetic field. In our experiment the drift waves form spontaneously in a narrow plasma column. (ne = 5 ×1011 cm3 , Te = 5 eV , B = 200 Gauss, dia = 25 cm , L = 1 . 5 m). As the drift waves grow from noise simple averaging techniques cannot be used to map them out in space and time. The ion saturation current Isat n√{Te} is recorded for an ensemble of 50 shots on a fixed probe located on the density gradient and for a movable probe. The probe signals are not sinusoidal and are filtered to calculate the cross-spectral function CSF = ∫ ∑ nshot Ifix, ωr->1 , tImov , ω (r->1 + δr-> , t + τ) dt , which can be used to extract the temporal and spatially varying wave patterns. The dominant wave at 18 kHz is a rotating spiral with m =2. LAPTAG is a university-high school alliance outreach program, which has been in existence for over 20 years. Work done at the BaPSF and supported by NSF/DOE.
Studying the interaction mechanisms of the tearing mode and drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, S. D.; Brennan, D. P.; Holland, C.; Izacard, O.
2016-10-01
Understanding the mechanisms through which turbulence and MHD instabilities interact is vital to the success of magnetically confined fusion. Simulating the self-consistent evolution of turbulence and MHD instabilities is a challenging numerical problem due to the disparate scales involved. We use a newly developed code, TURBO, to perform nonlinear simulations of a three-field model which couples the evolution of drift-wave turbulence to Ohm's Law. TURBO evolves the density, vorticity, and magnetic flux in a slab geometry using an equilibrium with prescribed stability properties and turbulent drives. By imposing a propagating boundary condition on the magnetic flux we examine the dependence of an asymmetry in the density flux on the propagation velocity of the boundary condition. We present results showing the influence of the turbulence on the stability of the tearing mode and the energy transport between them via a turbulent resistivity. For the case of a static island in a poloidal flow, results indicate that the energy transport and density flux display a spatial asymmetry in the poloidal direction and are peaked away from the X-point. A recent study of ITG turbulence in the presence of a magnetic island found analogous effects and we discuss the relation to our work. Supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0007851.
Resonant drift of spiral waves in the complex ginzburg-landau equation.
Biktasheva, I V; Elkin, Y E; Biktashev, V N
1999-06-01
Weak periodic external perturbations of an autowave medium can cause large-distance directed motion of the spiral wave. This happens when the period of the perturbation coincides with, or is close to the rotation period of a spiral wave, or its multiple. Such motion is called resonant or parametric drift. It may be used for low-voltage defibrillation of heart tissue. Theory of the resonant drift exists, but so far was used only qualitatively. In this paper, we show good quantitative agreement of the theory with direct numerical simulations. This is done for Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation, one of the simplest autowave models.
On the Role of Drift Waves in Short-Scale Density Structures Observed During Ionospheric Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antani, S. N.; Guzdar, P. N.
1998-11-01
Short-scale electron density structures excited during ionospheric heating by high power radio waves have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. For example, rocket observations and radar backscattering data [Kelley et al., J. Geophysical Res., 100, 17,367, 1995; Arce et al., To appear in Radio Science, 1998.] of the heated volume at Arecibo suggest that drift waves may be potentially important in explaining a break in the power-law slope of the measured density spectrum. Drift waves are also thought to be responsible for producing smaller scales and in determining the overall fate of the "needle-like" filaments seen in the heated region. In this paper we consider local excitation of drift waves in such a filament due to density and temperature gradients. The model is that of a cylindrical plasma column with a radial size of about 10 meters and axial extent of tens of kilometers. The earth's magnetic field is taken along the axis of the cylinder, while the equilibrium density and temperature are assumed to have radial profiles. Two-fluid equations for a warm, collisional plasma are used for simplicity. The drift wave dispersion relation is obtained and the corresponding growth rate is calculated. This will be further analyzed and evaluated for parameters typical to the F region of the ionosphere.
Neutral stability, drift, and the diversification of languages.
Pawlowitsch, Christina; Mertikopoulos, Panayotis; Ritt, Nikolaus
2011-10-21
The diversification of languages is one of the most interesting facts about language that seek explanation from an evolutionary point of view. Conceptually the question is related to explaining mechanisms of speciation. An argument that prominently figures in evolutionary accounts of language diversification is that it serves the formation of group markers which help to enhance in-group cooperation. In this paper we use the theory of evolutionary games to show that language diversification on the level of the meaning of lexical items can come about in a perfectly cooperative world solely as a result of the effects of frequency-dependent selection. Importantly, our argument does not rely on some stipulated function of language diversification in some co-evolutionary process, but comes about as an endogenous feature of the model. The model that we propose is an evolutionary language game in the style of Nowak et al. (1999) [The evolutionary language game. J. Theor. Biol. 200, 147-162], which has been used to explain the rise of a signaling system or protolanguage from a prelinguistic environment. Our analysis focuses on the existence of neutrally stable polymorphisms in this model, where, on the level of the population, a signal can be used for more than one concept or a concept can be inferred by more than one signal. Specifically, such states cannot be invaded by a mutation for bidirectionality, that is, a mutation that tries to resolve the existing ambiguity by linking each concept to exactly one signal in a bijective way. However, such states are not resistant against drift between the selectively neutral variants that are present in such a state. Neutral drift can be a pathway for a mutation for bidirectionality that was blocked before but that finally will take over the population. Different directions of neutral drift open the door for a mutation for bidirectionality to appear on different resident types. This mechanism-which can be seen as a form of shifting
Acute amiodarone promotes drift and early termination of spiral wave re-entry.
Nakagawa, Harumichi; Honjo, Haruo; Ishiguro, Yuko S; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Okuno, Yusuke; Harada, Masahide; Takanari, Hiroki; Sakuma, Ichiro; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kodama, Itsuo
2010-07-01
Intravenous application of amiodarone is commonly used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the acute effects of amiodarone on spiral wave (SW) re-entry, the primary organization machinery of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF), in comparison with lidocaine. A two-dimensional ventricular myocardial layer was obtained from 24 Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, and epicardial excitations were analyzed by high-resolution optical mapping. During basic stimulation, amiodarone (5 microM) caused prolongation of action potential duration (APD) by 5.6%-9.1%, whereas lidocaine (15 microM) caused APD shortening by 5.0%-6.4%. Amiodarone and lidocaine reduced conduction velocity similarly. Ventricular tachycardias induced by DC stimulation in the presence of amiodarone were of shorter duration (sustained-VTs >30 s/total VTs: 2/58, amiodarone vs 13/52, control), whereas those with lidocaine were of longer duration (22/73, lidocaine vs 14/58, control). Amiodarone caused prolongation of VT cycle length and destabilization of SW re-entry, which is characterized by marked prolongation of functional block lines, frequent wavefront-tail interactions near the rotation center, and considerable drift, leading to its early annihilation via collision with anatomical boundaries. Spiral wave re-entry in the presence of lidocaine was more stabilized than in control. In the anisotropic ventricular myocardium, amiodarone destabilizes SW re-entry facilitating its early termination. Lidocaine, in contrast, stabilizes SW re-entry resulting in its persistence.
Drifting waves in Saturn's C ring, evidence for changes in Saturn's interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedman, Matthew M.; El Moutamid, Maryame; Nicholson, Philip D.
2017-06-01
Recent analyses of spiral density waves in Saturn's C ring have revealed that many of these waves are generated by either normal-mode oscillations or asymmetries in Saturn's interior. The waves generated by normal-mode oscillations exhibit remarkably stable pattern speeds, indicating that the oscillations inside the planet that generate these waves have frequencies that remain constant for years to decades. However, close inspection of the waves with pattern speeds close to Saturn's rotation rate reveals that several of these waves have been moving inwards over the course of the Cassini mission at rates of around 1 kilometer per year. These "drifting waves" suggest that the frequencies of the relevant driving forces are increasing over time. Hence some aspect of Saturn's internal structure must be slowly changing on decadal timescales. Furthermore, since these waves are generated by forces that are not strictly periodic, they provide new opportunities to examine how disturbances propagate within dense rings.
Shear driven electromagnetic drift-waves in a nonuniform dense magnetoplasma
Tariq, Sabeen; Mirza, Arshad M.; Masood, Waqas
2011-08-15
Linear characteristic properties of high- and low-frequency (in comparison with the cyclotron frequency) electromagnetic drift-waves are studied in a nonuniform, dense magnetoplasma (composed of electrons and ions), in the presence of parallel (magnetic field-aligned) velocity shear, by using quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. By applying the drift-approximation (viz., |{partial_derivative} {sub t}|<<{omega}{sub ci}<<{omega}{sub ce}) to the quantum momentum equations, together with the continuity equations and the Poisson equation, we derive the governing equations for electromagnetic drift-waves with the shear flow. These linear equations are then Fourier transformed to obtain the dispersion relation in both high-frequency and low-frequency regimes. The dispersion relations are then discussed under various limiting cases.
Regulating drift-wave plasma turbulence into spatiotemporal patterns by pinning coupling.
Liu, Panpan; Yang, Lei; Deng, Zhigang; Wang, Xingang
2011-07-01
Using the technique of pinning coupling in chaos control, we investigate how the two-dimensional drift-wave plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Mima equation can be regulated into different spatiotemporal patterns. It is shown both analytically and numerically that, depending on the pattern structure of the target, the pinning strength necessary for regulating the turbulence could have a large variation. More specifically, with the increase of the wave number of the target, the critical pinning strength is found to be increased by a power-law scaling. Moreover, in both the transition and transient process of the pinning regulation, the modes of the turbulence are found to be suppressed in a hierarchical fashion, that is, by the sequence of mode wave number. The findings give insight into the dynamics of drift-wave turbulence, as well as indicative to the design of new control techniques for real-world turbulence.
A probe array for the investigation of spatio-temporal structures in drift wave turbulence
Latten, A.; Klinger, T.; Piel, A.; Pierre, T.
1995-05-01
A probe array with 64 azimuthally arranged Langmuir probes is presented as a new diagnostic tool for the investigation of drift waves. A parallel data acquisition system provides full spatio-temporal data of azimuthally propagating waves. For both regular and turbulent states of current-driven drift waves, the information provided by such space-time patterns is compared with results obtained from conventional two-point correlation methods. The probe array allows one to directly estimate the time-averaged wave number spectrum. In a turbulent state, the spectrum yields to a power law of {ital S}({ital k}){proportional_to}{ital k}{sup {minus}3.6{plus_minus}0.1}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
The Use of the Information Wave Function in a Drift Dependent Option Price: A Simple Example
Haven, Emmanuel
2009-03-10
This paper briefly describes how a drift-dependent option price is obtained, following the work of Tan. We briefly argue how the information wave function concept, which has now been used in various financial settings, can be used in this type of option price.
Dust magneto-gravitational drift wave in g×B configuration
Salahshoor, M. Niknam, A. R.
2014-11-15
The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in a magnetized complex plasma under gravity is presented. It is assumed that the waves propagate perpendicular to the external fields. The effects of weak electric field, neutral drag force, and ion drag force are also taken into account. The dispersion relation is numerically examined in an appropriate parameter space in which the gravity plays the dominant role in the dynamics of magnetized microparticles. The numerical results show that an unstable low frequency drift wave can be developed in the long wavelength limit. This unstable mode is transformed into an aperiodic stationary structure at a cut-off wavenumber. Furthermore, the influence of the external fields on the dispersion properties is analyzed. It is shown that the instability is essentially due to the E×B drift motion of plasma particles. However, in the absence of weak electric field, the g×B drift motion of microparticles can cause the instability in a wide range of wavenumbers. It is also found that by increasing the magnetic field strength, the wave frequency is first increased and then decreased. This behaviour is explained by the existence of an extremum point in the dust magneto-gravitational drift velocity.
Rotation induced nonlinear dispersive dust drift waves can be the progenitors of spokes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.; Hasnain, H.; Haque, Q.
2012-03-01
Rotation induced dispersive dust drift waves are suggested as the possible cause of the formation of spokes in the Saturn's B ring. Using the plasma parameters found in the Saturn's B ring, it has been shown that the theoretically predicted spatio-temporal scalelengths agree well with the satellites and Hubble Space telescope observations of the spokes.
Dynamics of Zonal FLow Instability and Saturation in Drift Wave Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katt, S. T.; Kim, E.; Diamond, P. H.
2001-10-01
We study generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) instability as a saturation mechanism for a collisionless zonal flow in the background of drift waves. By treating drift waves as adiabatically modified by GKH, we investigate the modulation instability of drift waves due to GKH modes as well as the linear inflection-type instability of zonal flow. In the case where zonal flows evolve on the time scale much larger than GKH mode, GKH mode is shown to become destabilized not only by the linear instability of zonal flow but also by coupling to drift waves, with a growth rate which is enhanced over the linear value. Furthermore, the nonlinear (modulational) generation of a zonal flow is estimated to dominate over that of GKH. Our results indicate that GKH may not play an important role in a collisionless saturation of zonal flow, in contrast to [1] and [2]. The effect of temperature fluctuation will be discussed. [1] B.N. Rogers, W. Dorland, and M. Kotschenreuther, PRL, 85, 5336, (2000). [2] Y. Idomura, M. Wakatani, and S. Tokuda, PoP, 7, 3551, (2000).
Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. I. Variational formulation
Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu
2014-07-15
A unified theoretical framework is presented for analyzing various branches of drift Alfvén waves and describing their linear and nonlinear behaviors, covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Nonlinear gyrokinetic quasineutrality condition and vorticity equation, derived for drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles in fusion plasmas, are cast in integral form, which is generally variational in the linear limit; and the corresponding gyrokinetic energy principle is obtained. Well known forms of the kinetic energy principle are readily recovered from this general formulation. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate that the general fishbone like dispersion relation, obtained within the present theoretical framework, provides a unified description of drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles as either Alfvén eigenmodes or energetic particle modes. The advantage of the present approach stands in its capability of extracting underlying linear and nonlinear physics as well as spatial and temporal scales of the considered fluctuation spectrum. For these reasons, this unified theoretical framework can help understanding experimental observations as well as numerical simulation and analytic results with different levels of approximation. Examples and applications are given in Paper II [F. Zonca and L. Chen, “Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. II. The general fishbone-like dispersion relation,” Phys. Plasmas 21, 072121 (2014)].
Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. I. Variational formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu
2014-07-01
A unified theoretical framework is presented for analyzing various branches of drift Alfvén waves and describing their linear and nonlinear behaviors, covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Nonlinear gyrokinetic quasineutrality condition and vorticity equation, derived for drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles in fusion plasmas, are cast in integral form, which is generally variational in the linear limit; and the corresponding gyrokinetic energy principle is obtained. Well known forms of the kinetic energy principle are readily recovered from this general formulation. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate that the general fishbone like dispersion relation, obtained within the present theoretical framework, provides a unified description of drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles as either Alfvén eigenmodes or energetic particle modes. The advantage of the present approach stands in its capability of extracting underlying linear and nonlinear physics as well as spatial and temporal scales of the considered fluctuation spectrum. For these reasons, this unified theoretical framework can help understanding experimental observations as well as numerical simulation and analytic results with different levels of approximation. Examples and applications are given in Paper II [F. Zonca and L. Chen, "Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. II. The general fishbone-like dispersion relation," Phys. Plasmas 21, 072121 (2014)].
The Entropy and Complexity of Drift waves in a LAPTAG Plasma Physics Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birge-Lee, Henry; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Wise, Joe; Katz, Cami; Baker, Bob; Marmie, Ken; Thomas, Sam; Buckley-Bonnano, Samuel
2015-11-01
Drift waves grow from noise on a density gradient in a narrow (dia = 3 cm, L = 1.5 m) magnetized (Boz = 160G) plasma column. A two-dimensional probe drive measured fluctuations in the plasma column in a plane transverse to the background magnetic field. Correlation techniques determined that the fluctuations were that of electrostatic drift waves. The time series data was used to generate the Bandt-Pompe/Shannon entropy, H, and Jensen-Shannon complexity, CJS. C-H diagrams can be used to tell the difference between deterministic chaos, random noise and stochastic processes and simple waves, which makes it a powerful tool in nonlinear dynamics. The C-H diagram in this experiment, reveal that the combination of drift waves and other background fluctuations is a deterministically chaotic system. The PDF of the time series, the wave spectra the spatial dependence of the entropy wave complexity will be presented. LAPTAG is a university-high school alliance outreach program, which has been in existence for over 20 years. Work done at BaPSF at UCLA and supported by NSF and DOE.
Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth
Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L.
2011-11-15
We report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device. By introducing a mesh with a variable bias 12-17 cm from the anode, we developed a technique to produce a drifting dusty plasma. A secondary dust cloud, free of dust acoustic waves, was trapped adjacent to the anode side of the mesh. When the mesh was returned to its floating potential, the secondary cloud was released and streamed towards the anode and primary dust cloud, spontaneously exciting dust acoustic waves. The amplitude growth of the excited dust acoustic waves was measured directly along with the wavelength and Doppler shifted frequency. These measurements were compared to fluid and kinetic dust acoustic wave theories. As the wave growth saturated a transition from linear to nonlinear waves was observed. The merging of the secondary and primary dust clouds was also observed.
Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L.
2011-11-01
We report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device. By introducing a mesh with a variable bias 12-17 cm from the anode, we developed a technique to produce a drifting dusty plasma. A secondary dust cloud, free of dust acoustic waves, was trapped adjacent to the anode side of the mesh. When the mesh was returned to its floating potential, the secondary cloud was released and streamed towards the anode and primary dust cloud, spontaneously exciting dust acoustic waves. The amplitude growth of the excited dust acoustic waves was measured directly along with the wavelength and Doppler shifted frequency. These measurements were compared to fluid and kinetic dust acoustic wave theories. As the wave growth saturated a transition from linear to nonlinear waves was observed. The merging of the secondary and primary dust clouds was also observed.
Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath
Tsurutani, B.T.; Smith, E.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Scudder, J.D.; Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.
1982-08-01
A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T/sup -//sub perpendicular//T/sup -//sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B/sup 2//8..pi..N, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ..omega../sub max/ = A/sup -/..cap omega../sup -//(A/sup -/+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated.
Generation of zonal flows by coupled electrostatic drift and ion-acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaladze, T. D.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.
2017-07-01
Generation of sheared zonal flow by low-frequency coupled electrostatic drift and ion-acoustic waves is presented. Primary waves of different (small, intermediate, and large) scales are considered, and the appropriate system of equations consisting of generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation for the electrostatic potential (involving both vector and scalar nonlinearities) and equation of parallel to magnetic field ions motion is obtained. It is shown that along with the mean poloidal flow with strong variation in minor radius mean sheared toroidal flow can also be generated. According to laboratory plasma experiments, main attention to large scale drift-ion-acoustic wave is given. Peculiarities of the Korteweg-de Vries type scalar nonlinearity due to the electrons temperature non-homogeneity in the formation of zonal flow by large-scale turbulence are widely discussed. Namely, it is observed that such type of flows need no generation condition and can be spontaneously excited.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ergun, R. E.; Chen, L.-J.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Eriksson, S.; Usanova, M. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Holmes, J. C.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Newman, D. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Burch, J. L.; Webster, J. M.; Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Cassak, P. A.; Swisdak, M.; Shay, M. A.; Graham, D. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Hesse, M.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Phan, T. D.; Goldman, M. V.; Stawarz, J. E.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Hwang, K.-J.; Nakamura, R.; Wang, S.
2017-04-01
Observations of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause often display asymmetric structures that are accompanied by strong magnetic field (B) fluctuations and large-amplitude parallel electric fields (E||). The B turbulence is most intense at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency and below the lower hybrid frequency. The B fluctuations are consistent with a thin, oscillating current sheet that is corrugated along the electron flow direction (along the X line), which is a type of electromagnetic drift wave. Near the X line, electron flow is primarily due to a Hall electric field, which diverts ion flow in asymmetric reconnection and accompanies the instability. Importantly, the drift waves appear to drive strong parallel currents which, in turn, generate large-amplitude ( 100 mV/m) E|| in the form of nonlinear waves and structures. These observations suggest that turbulence may be common in asymmetric reconnection, penetrate into the electron diffusion region, and possibly influence the magnetic reconnection process.
Parallel-velocity-shear-modified drift wave in negative ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichiki, R.; Kaneko, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tamura, S.; Hatakeyama, R.
2009-03-01
A systematic investigation of the effects of a parallel velocity shear and negative ions on the collisionless drift wave instability has for the first time been realized by simultaneously using a segmented tungsten hot plate of a Q-machine and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas in a magnetized potassium plasma. The parallel velocity shear of the positive ion flow tends to decrease the fluctuation level of the drift wave. The introduction of negative ions first increases the fluctuation level and then starts to decrease it at the negative ion exchange fraction of around 10%, while keeping the above-mentioned shear effect qualitatively. In addition, a simple dispersion relation based on the local model has been calculated to show that it can predict wave characteristics similar to the experimental results. Our findings provide a potential for gaining a more profound insight into the physics of space/circumterrestrial plasmas.
Long-term stability and zero drift of digital barometric pressure gauges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kojima, M.; Kobata, T.; Fujii, K.
2015-04-01
Several digital pressure gauges at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) have been calibrated in the barometric pressure range on a regular basis for over ten years. The long-term stability of the zero and span readings for these pressure gauges was evaluated using their historical calibration data. The evaluation showed that most of the gauges have quite good long-term stabilities for the span readings, but some have large zero drifts with rates of about (10 to 50) Pa yr-1. This paper discusses the causes for this drift: it can be explained by the combination of a small leak and gas emissions from the sensor volume, which are estimated from the typical drift rates. The zero drift of a particular gauge is well-approximated by an exponential function of time; the fitting function may give a good estimation of the zero drift in the future. This indicates that continuous characterization of a pressure gauge may enable appropriate correction of the indication and provide users more reliable data with less calibration work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Xie; Shang-Zhuo, Zhao; William, Perrie; He, Fang; Wen-Jin, Yu; Yi-Jun, He
2016-06-01
To study the electromagnetic backscattering from a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface, a fractal sea surface wave-current model is derived, based on the mechanism of wave-current interactions. The numerical results show the effect of the ocean current on the wave. Wave amplitude decreases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height increase, spectrum intensity decreases and shifts towards lower frequencies when the current occurs parallel to the direction of the ocean wave. By comparison, wave amplitude increases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height decrease, spectrum intensity increases and shifts towards higher frequencies if the current is in the opposite direction to the direction of ocean wave. The wave-current interaction effect of the ocean current is much stronger than that of the nonlinear wave-wave interaction. The kurtosis of the nonlinear fractal ocean surface is larger than that of linear fractal ocean surface. The effect of the current on skewness of the probability distribution function is negligible. Therefore, the ocean wave spectrum is notably changed by the surface current and the change should be detectable in the electromagnetic backscattering signal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276187), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), Program for the Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship Team in Jiangsu Province, China, the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development, and the Canadian World Class Tanker Safety Service.
Impurity transport due to electromagnetic drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, S.; Pusztai, I.; Mollén, A.; Fülöp, T.
2012-03-01
Finite β effects on impurity transport are studied through local linear gyrokinetic simulations with GYRO [J. Candy and E. Belli, General Atomics Report No. GA-A26818, 2011]; in particular, we investigate the parametric dependences of the impurity peaking factor (zero-flux density gradient) and the onset of the kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs). We find that electromagnetic effects even at low β can have significant impact on the impurity transport. The KBM instability threshold depends on the plasma parameters, particularly strongly on plasma shape. We have shown that magnetic geometry significantly influences the results, and the commonly used s-α model overestimates the KBM growth rates and ITG stabilization at high β. In the β range, where the KBM is the dominant instability the impurity peaking factor is strongly reduced, with very little dependence on β and the impurity charge.
Effects of Drift-Shell Splitting by Chorus Waves on Radiation Belt Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, A. A.; Zheng, L.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Elkington, S. R.; Albert, J.
2015-12-01
Drift shell splitting in the radiation belts breaks all three adiabatic invariants of charged particle motion via pitch angle scattering, and produces new diffusion terms that fully populate the diffusion tensor in the Fokker-Planck equation. Based on the stochastic differential equation method, the Radbelt Electron Model (REM) simulation code allows us to solve such a fully three-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation, and to elucidate the sources and transport mechanisms behind the phase space density variations. REM has been used to perform simulations with an empirical initial phase space density followed by a seed electron injection, with a Tsyganenko 1989 magnetic field model, and with chorus wave and ULF wave diffusion models. Our simulation results show that adding drift shell splitting changes the phase space location of the source to smaller L shells, which typically reduces local electron energization (compared to neglecting drift-shell splitting effects). Simulation results with and without drift-shell splitting effects are compared with Van Allen Probe measurements.
Kune, Christopher; Far, Johann; De Pauw, Edwin
2016-12-06
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a gas phase separation technique, which relies on differences in collision cross section (CCS) of ions. Ionic clouds of unresolved conformers overlap if the CCS difference is below the instrumental resolution expressed as CCS/ΔCCS. The experimental arrival time distribution (ATD) peak is then a superimposition of the various contributions weighted by their relative intensities. This paper introduces a strategy for accurate drift time determination using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) of poorly resolved or unresolved conformers. This method implements through a calibration procedure the link between the peak full width at half-maximum (fwhm) and the drift time of model compounds for wide range of settings for wave heights and velocities. We modified a Gaussian equation, which achieves the deconvolution of ATD peaks where the fwhm is fixed according to our calibration procedure. The new fitting Gaussian equation only depends on two parameters: The apex of the peak (A) and the mean drift time value (μ). The standard deviation parameter (correlated to fwhm) becomes a function of the drift time. This correlation function between μ and fwhm is obtained using the TWIMS calibration procedure which determines the maximum instrumental ion beam diffusion under limited and controlled space charge effect using ionic compounds which are detected as single conformers in the gas phase. This deconvolution process has been used to highlight the presence of poorly resolved conformers of crown ether complexes and peptides leading to more accurate CCS determinations in better agreement with quantum chemistry predictions.
A link between nonlinear self-organization and dissipation in drift-wave turbulence
Manz, P.; Birkenmeier, G.; Stroth, U.; Ramisch, M.
2012-08-15
Structure formation and self-organization in two-dimensional drift-wave turbulence show up in many different faces. Fluctuation data from a magnetized plasma are analyzed and three mechanisms transferring kinetic energy to large-scale structures are identified. Beside the common vortex merger, clustering of vortices constituting a large-scale strain field and vortex thinning, where due to the interactions of vortices of different scales larger vortices are amplified by the smaller ones, are observed. The vortex thinning mechanism appears to be the most efficient one to generate large scale structures in drift-wave turbulence. Vortex merging as well as vortex clustering are accompanied by strong energy transfer to small-scale noncoherent fluctuations (dissipation) balancing the negative entropy generation due to the self-organization process.
Shear flow driven drift waves and the counter-rotating vortices
Haque, Q.; Saleem, H.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2005-10-01
It is shown that the drift waves can become unstable due to the shear flow produced by externally applied electric field. The modified Rayleigh instability condition is obtained which is applicable to both electron-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas. It is proposed that the shear flow driven drift waves can be responsible for large amplitude electrostatic fluctuations in tokamak edges. In the nonlinear regime the stationary structures may appear in electron-positron-ion plasmas as well as electron-ion plasmas. A particular form of the shear flow can give rise to counter-rotating dipole vortices and vortex chains. The speed and amplitude of the structures are affected by the presence of positrons in the electron ion plasma. The relevance of this investigation to laboratory and astrophysical plasmas is pointed out.
Brochard, F.; Bonhomme, G.; Gravier, E.; Oldenbuerger, S.; Philipp, M.
2006-05-15
An open-loop spatiotemporal synchronization method is applied to flute modes in a cylindrical magnetized plasma. It is demonstrated that synchronization can be achieved only if the exciter signal rotates in the same direction as the propagating mode. Moreover, the efficiency of the synchronization is shown to depend on the radial properties of the instability under consideration. It is also demonstrated that the control disposition can alternatively be used to produce strongly developed turbulence of drift waves or flute instabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Compernolle, Bart; Morales, George; Maggs, James; Sydora, Richard
2016-10-01
Results of a basic heat transport experiment involving an off-axis heat source are presented. Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. A ring-shaped electron beam source injects low energy electrons (below ionization energy) along a strong magnetic field into a preexisting, large and cold plasma. The injected electrons are thermalized by Coulomb collisions within a short distance and provide an off-axis heat source that results in a long, hollow, cylindrical region of elevated plasma pressure embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the machine walls. The off-axis source is active for a period long compared to the density decay time, i.e. as time progresses the power per particle increases. Two distinct regimes are observed to take place, an initial regime dominated by avalanches, identified as sudden intermittent rearrangements of the pressure profile, and a second regime dominated by sustained drift-Alfvén wave activity. The transition between the two regimes is sudden, affects the full radial profile and is preceded by the growth of drift Alfvén waves. Langmuir probe data will be shown on the evolution of the density, temperature and flow profiles during the transition. The character of the sustained drift wave activity will also be presented. Work supported by NSF/DOE Grant 1619505, and performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility, sponsored jointly by DOE and NSF.
Anatomy of Drift Ridges Revealed by Shallow Seismic Shear Wave Profiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, A. C.
2005-12-01
Ridges, up to 30 m high and generally oriented NE-SW across the Illinois Episode drift plain in southern Illinois, USA, have been variously interpreted as eskers, crevasse fills, moraines, and kames. The ice contact diamictons and sorted sediments that occur in these ridges are typically Illinois Episode in age and likely record the final melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet near its southernmost extent in the continental U.S. Shallow shear wave seismic profiles across several of these ridges help reveal their complex origins. Borehole control includes sediment cores with shear wave and natural gamma logs. The shear wave profiles reveal m-scale features of drift and bedrock over a depth range of 1 up to 100 m. Terrapin Ridge overlies a bedrock valley with drift up to 70 m thick. Dipping seismic reflectors on the stoss side are interpreted as imbricated till sheets, whereas horizontal reflectors on the lee side are interpreted as mainly outwash sediments over basal till and glacilacustrine sediment. Although most ridges were probably formed during the Illinois Episode, based on current data, the core of this particular ridge may be a remnant moraine from a pre-Illinois Episode glaciation.
An analysis of the role of drift waves in equatorial spread F
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Labelle, J.; Kelley, M. C.; Seyler, C. E.
1986-01-01
An account is given of results of rocket measurements of the wave number spectrum of equatorial spread F irregularities, with emphasis on wavelengths less than 100 m. The measurements were made from two sounding rockets launched from Peru as part of Project Condor. The Condor density fluctuation spectra display a break at a wavelength near 100 m, identical to that found in the PLUMEX experiment (Kelley et al., 1982). The Condor data also confirm a subrange in which the density and the wave potential obey the Boltzmann relation - a strong indication of the presence of low-frequency electrostatic waves with finite wavelength parallel to the magnetic field, perhaps low-frequency drift waves as proposed by Kelley et al. The Condor data are also consistent with the previous conjecture that drift waves only exist above 300 km altitude. To investigate the difference in spectra observed over two altitude ranges, the data must be fitted to a form for the power spectrum taken from Keskinen and Ossakow (1981). The fitted spectrum, along with empirically determined growth and dissipation rates, is used to calculate the energy pumped into the spectrum at long wavelengths as well as the energy dissipated at shorter wavelengths. It is found that the energy is balanced by classical collisional effects in the low-altitude case, but energy balance in the high-altitude case requires an enhanced dissipation of about 500 times that due to classical diffusion. The model is consistent with, but does not uniquely imply, an inverse cascade of drift wave turbulence in equatorial spread F.
Ambipolar potential effect on a drift-wave mode in a tandem-mirror plasma
Mase, A.; Jeong, J.H.; Itakura, A.; Ishii, K.; Inutake, M.; Miyoshi, S. )
1990-05-07
The {bold k}-{omega} spectra of low-frequency waves which exist in a tandem-mirror plasma are observed by using the Fraunhofer-diffraction method. The observed dispersion relations are in good agreement with those of drift waves including a Doppler shift due to {bold E}{times}{bold B} rotation velocity. The fluctuation level is observed to depend sensitively on the radial profile of a plasma potential. It has a maximum value when a slightly negative electric field is formed, and decreases with increase in an electric field regardless of its sign.
Nonlinear theory of the current instability of short-wave drift oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotnikov, V. I.; Shapiro, V. D.; Shevchenko, V. I.
1980-02-01
The paper examines the current instability of an inhomogeneous plasma which leads to the excitation of short-wave drift oscillations whose frequency is near lower hybrid resonance. The saturation of the instability is associated with the spectral pumping of oscillations into the short-wave region conditioned by modulational instability; maximum amplitudes of the electric fields of the oscillations are determined. Finally, it is shown that the Parker-Sweet diffusion model of magnetic field reconnection, modified by taking into account the mechanism of anomalous resistance, yields a value for the width of the magnetopause that agrees well with experimental results.
Effects of thin film and Stokes drift on the generation of vorticity by surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parfenyev, V. M.; Vergeles, S. S.; Lebedev, V. V.
2016-11-01
Recently a theoretical scheme explaining the vorticity generation by surface waves in liquids was developed [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 054501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.054501]. Here we study how a thin (monomolecular) film presented on the surface of liquid affects the generated vorticity. We demonstrate that the vorticity becomes parametrically larger than for the case of liquid with a free surface, and the parameter is the quality factor of surface waves up to numerical factor. We also discuss the PIV experimental scheme intended to observe the generated vorticity and find that Stokes drift influences the measured velocity field. Explicit expression for the vertical vorticity was obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosuga, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.; Diamond, P. H.; Itoh, K.; Lesur, M.
2017-07-01
In fusion plasmas, several mechanisms such as heating, wave-particle interaction etc can drive deviations of distribution function from Maxwelian to form phase space structures. This article discusses the impact of phase space structures in drift wave turbulence on dynamics and transport modeling. The two cases of (i) coherent holes and (ii) incoherent granulations (clusters of correlated resonant particles with finite life time) are treated. Their dynamical impact on driving subcritical instability is analyzed by explicitly calculating the nonlinear growth rate. The role of zonal flows is also addressed. It is explained how phase space structures can be related to transient events and non-diffusive transport, issues in current confinement research.
Simulating the effects of stellarator geometry on gyrokinetic drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgaertel, Jessica Ann
Nuclear fusion is a clean, safe form of energy with abundant fuel. In magnetic fusion energy (MFE) experiments, the plasma fuel is confined by magnetic fields at very high temperatures and densities. One fusion reactor design is the non-axisymmetric, torus-shaped stellarator. Its fully-3D fields have advantages over the simpler, better-understood axisymmetric tokamak, including the ability to optimize magnetic configurations for desired properties, such as lower transport (longer confinement time). Turbulence in the plasma can break MFE confinement. While turbulent transport is known to cause a significant amount of heat loss in tokamaks, it is a new area of research in stellarators. Gyrokinetics is a good mathematical model of the drift-wave instabilities that cause turbulence. Multiple gyrokinetic turbulence codes that had great success comparing to tokamak experiments are being converted for use with stellarator geometry. This thesis describes such adaptations of the gyrokinetic turbulence code, GS2. Herein a new computational grid generator and upgrades to GS2 itself are described, tested, and benchmarked against three other gyrokinetic codes. Using GS2, detailed linear studies using the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) geometry were conducted. The first compares stability in two equilibria with different β=(plasma pressure)/(magnetic pressure). Overall, the higher β case was more stable than the lower β case. As high β is important for MFE experiments, this is encouraging. The second compares NCSX linear stability to a tokamak case. NCSX was more stable with a 20% higher critical temperature gradient normalized by the minor radius, suggesting that the fusion power might be enhanced by ˜ 50%. In addition, the first nonlinear, non-axisymmetric GS2 simulations are presented. Finally, linear stability of two locations in a W7-AS plasma were compared. The experimentally-measured parameters used were from a W7-AS shot in which measured heat fluxes
Asymptotic Linear Stability of Solitary Water Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pego, Robert L.; Sun, Shu-Ming
2016-12-01
We prove an asymptotic stability result for the water wave equations linearized around small solitary waves. The equations we consider govern irrotational flow of a fluid with constant density bounded below by a rigid horizontal bottom and above by a free surface under the influence of gravity neglecting surface tension. For sufficiently small amplitude waves, with waveform well-approximated by the well-known sech-squared shape of the KdV soliton, solutions of the linearized equations decay at an exponential rate in an energy norm with exponential weight translated with the wave profile. This holds for all solutions with no component in (that is, symplectically orthogonal to) the two-dimensional neutral-mode space arising from infinitesimal translational and wave-speed variation of solitary waves. We also obtain spectral stability in an unweighted energy norm.
Finite system size effects on drift wave stability
Militello, F.; Wynn, A.
2014-02-15
Unstable electrostatic resistive modes, driven by density gradients, are identified in a bounded sheared slab. The boundary conditions play a crucial role and are shown to change the nature of the problem, which is related to so called “universal” mode. The dispersion relation and the structure of the eigenmodes of the instability are derived and are shown to depend on a limited set of dimensionless parameters. The occurrence and possible impact of these modes on numerical simulations and actual plasmas are discussed.
The Stabilization of Postoperative Exo-drift in Intermittent Exotropia after Surgical Treatment
Park, Hoon; Kim, Won Jae
2016-01-01
Purpose To investigate the long-term clinical course of intermittent exotropia after surgical treatment to determine whether and when postoperative exo-drift stabilizes, and the required postsurgery follow-up duration in cases of intermittent exotropia. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with intermittent exotropia who underwent surgical treatment between January 1992 and January 2006 at Yeungnam University Hospital and postoperatively performed regular follow-up examinations for up to 7 years. We also analyzed the difference in exo-drift stabilization, according to surgical procedure. Results A total of 101 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one patients underwent lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection (R&R) and 70 patients underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR). The postoperative angles of deviation increased significantly during the initial 36 months, but no subsequent significant changes were observed for up to 84 months. Follow-ups for 7 years revealed that more than 50% of the total amount of exo-drift was observed within the first postoperative year. In addition, the angles of deviation at 1 year correlated with those at 7 years postoperatively (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.517, p < 0.001). No significant exo-drift was observed after 36 months in patients who underwent BLR, whereas after 18 months in patients who underwent R&R. Conclusions The minimum postoperative follow-up required after surgical treatment to ensure stable results is 36 months. In particular, careful follow-up is necessary during the first postoperative year to detect rapid exo-drift. Patients who underwent BLR required a longer follow-up than those who underwent R&R to ensure stable postoperative alignment. PMID:26865805
The Stabilization of Postoperative Exo-drift in Intermittent Exotropia after Surgical Treatment.
Park, Hoon; Kim, Won Jae; Kim, Myung Mi
2016-02-01
To investigate the long-term clinical course of intermittent exotropia after surgical treatment to determine whether and when postoperative exo-drift stabilizes, and the required postsurgery follow-up duration in cases of intermittent exotropia. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with intermittent exotropia who underwent surgical treatment between January 1992 and January 2006 at Yeungnam University Hospital and postoperatively performed regular follow-up examinations for up to 7 years. We also analyzed the difference in exo-drift stabilization, according to surgical procedure. A total of 101 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one patients underwent lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection (R&R) and 70 patients underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR). The postoperative angles of deviation increased significantly during the initial 36 months, but no subsequent significant changes were observed for up to 84 months. Follow-ups for 7 years revealed that more than 50% of the total amount of exo-drift was observed within the first postoperative year. In addition, the angles of deviation at 1 year correlated with those at 7 years postoperatively (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.517, p < 0.001). No significant exo-drift was observed after 36 months in patients who underwent BLR, whereas after 18 months in patients who underwent R&R. The minimum postoperative follow-up required after surgical treatment to ensure stable results is 36 months. In particular, careful follow-up is necessary during the first postoperative year to detect rapid exo-drift. Patients who underwent BLR required a longer follow-up than those who underwent R&R to ensure stable postoperative alignment.
On the onset of surface wind drift at short fetches as observed in a wind wave flume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Robles, Lucia
2014-05-01
Ocean surface drift is of great relevance to properly model wind waves and specially the early stages of surface waves development and ocean-atmosphere fluxes during incipient wind events and storms. In particular, wave models are not so accurate predicting wave behaviour at short fetches, where wind drift onset might be very important. The onset of surface drift induced by wind and waves is being studied through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Wind stress over the water surface, waves and surface drift are measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. While momentum fluxes are estimated directly through the eddy correlation method in a station about the middle of the tank, they provide reference information to the corresponding surface drift onset recorded at rather short non-dimensional fetches. At each experimental run very low wind was on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0. Surface drift values were up to 0.5 cm/s for the highest wind while very distinctive shear was detected in the upper 1.5 cm. Rather linear variation of surface drift was observed with depth. Evolution of the surface drift velocity is analysed and onset behaviour is addressed with particular emphasis in accelerated winds. This work represents a RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. The support from ANUIES-ECOS M09-U01 project, CONACYT-187112 Estancia Sabática, and Institute Carnot, is greatly acknowledged.
Electrostatic drift waves in a 2D magnetic current sheet - a new kinetic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fruit, G.; Louarn, P.; Tur, A.
2015-12-01
In the general context of understanding the possible destabilization of the magnetotail before a substorm, a kinetic model for electromagnetic instabilities in resonant interaction with trapped bouncing electrons has been proposed for several years. Fruit et al. 2013 already used it to investigate the possibilities for electrostatic instabilities. Tur et al. 2014 generalizes the model for full electromagnetic perturbations.It turns out that some corrections should be added to the electrostatic version of Fruit et al. 2013. We propose to revist the theory in this present paper.Starting with a modified 2D Harris sheet as equilibrium state, the linearized gyrokinetic Vlasov equation is solved for electrostatic fluctuations with period of the order of the electron bounce period (a few seconds). The particle motion is restricted to its first Fourier component along the magnetic field and this allows the complete time integration of the non local perturbed distribution functions. The dispersion relation for electrostatic modes is finally obtained through the quasineutrality condition.The new feature of the present model is the inclusion of diamagnetic drift effects due to the density gradient in the tail. It is well known in MHD theory that drift waves are driven unstable through collisions or other dissipative effects. Here electrostatic drift waves are revisited in this more complete kinetic model including bouncing electrons and finite Larmor radius effects. A new mode has been found with original propagation proprieties. It is moreover mildly unstable due to electron or ion damping (dissipative instability).
Transition from flute modes to drift waves in a magnetized plasma column
Brochard, F.; Gravier, E.; Bonhomme, G.
2005-06-15
Recent experiments performed on the low {beta} plasma device Mirabelle [T. Pierre, G. Leclert, and F. Braun, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 6 (1987)] using a limiter have shown that transitions between various gradient driven instabilities occurred on increasing the magnetic field strength. New thorough measurements allow to identify unambiguously three instability regimes. At low magnetic field the strong ExB velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, whereas at high magnetic field drift waves are only observed. A centrifugal (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability is also observed in between when the ExB velocity is shearless and strong enough. A close connection is made between the ratio {rho}{sub s}/L{sub perpendicular} of the drift parameter to the radial density gradient length and each instability regime.
Kinetic Electron Closures for Electromagnetic Simulation of Drift and Shear-Alfven Waves (II)
Cohen, B I; Dimits, A M; Nevins, W M; Chen, Y; Parker, S
2001-10-11
An electromagnetic hybrid scheme (fluid electrons and gyrokinetic ions) is elaborated in example calculations and extended to toroidal geometry. The scheme includes a kinetic electron closure valid for {beta}{sub e} > m{sub e}/m{sub i} ({beta}{sub e} is the ratio of the plasma electron pressure to the magnetic field energy density). The new scheme incorporates partially linearized ({delta}f) drift-kinetic electrons whose pressure and number density moments are used to close the fluid momentum equation for the electron fluid (Ohm's law). The test cases used are small-amplitude kinetic shear-Alfven waves with electron Landau damping, the ion-temperature-gradient instability, and the collisionless drift instability (universal mode) in an unsheared slab as a function of the plasma {beta}{sub e}. Attention is given to resolution and convergence issues in simulations of turbulent steady states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaukat, Muzzamal I.; Masood, W.; Shah, H. A.; Iqbal, M. J.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2016-10-01
In the present investigation, linear and nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in the presence of trapped electrons with quantizing magnetic field and finite electron temperature effects in dense plasmas have been studied. The linear dispersion relation of the ion drift wave has been derived and it has been found that the Landau quantization and finite temperature effects significantly alter the linear propagation characteristics of the wave under consideration. Employing the Sagdeev potential approach, the formation of finite amplitude drift solitary structures has been investigated in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field for both fully and partially degenerate plasmas. Both compressive and rarefactive drift solitary structures have been obtained for different values of quantizing magnetic field and finite electron temperature effects. The theoretical results obtained have been analyzed numerically for the parameters typically found in white dwarfs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrhaug, Dag; Wang, Hong; Holmedal, Lars Erik
2016-04-01
The Stokes drift represents an important transport component of ocean circulation models. Locally it is responsible for transport of e.g. contaminated ballast water from ships, oil spills, plankton and larvae. It also plays an important role in mixing processes across the interphase between the atmosphere and the ocean. The Stokes drift is the mean Lagrangian velocity obtained from the water particle trajectory in the wave propagation direction; it is maximum at the surface, decreasing rapidly with the depth below the surface. The total mean mass transport is obtained by integrating the Stokes drift over the water depth; this is also referred to as the volume Stokes transport. The paper provides a simple analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth based on short-term variation of wave conditions. This is achieved by using a joint distribution of individual wave heights and wave periods together with an explicit solution of the wave dispersion equation. The mean values of the surface Stokes drift and the volume Stokes transport for individual random waves within a sea state are presented, and the effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth parameter are discussed. Furthermore, example of results corresponding to typical field conditions are presented to demonstrate the application of the method, including the Stokes drift profile in the water column beneath the surface. Thus, the present analytical method can be used to estimate the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth for random waves within a sea state based on available wave statistics.
Anomalous electron-ion energy coupling in electron drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lei
Turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, and it is well known that turbulence couples energy input to dissipation by cascade processes. Plasma turbulence play a critical role in tokamak confinement. Magnetized plasma turbulence is quasi 2D, anisotropic, wave like and two fluid (i.e. electrons and ions) in structure. Thus, weakly collisional plasma turbulence can mediate electron and ion energy transfer. The issue of anomalous electron and ion energy coupling is particularly important for low collisionality, electron heated plasmas, such as ITER. In this work, we reconsider the classic problem of turbulent heating and energy transfer pathways in drift wave turbulence. The total turbulent heating, composed of quasilinear electron cooling, quasilinear ion heating, nonlinear ion heating and zonal flow frictional heating, is analyzed. In Chapter 2, the electron and ion energy exchange via linear wave and particle resonance will be computed. To address net heating, we show the turbulent heating in an annulus arises due to a wave energy flux differential across this region. We show this net heating is proportional to the Reynolds work on the zonal flow. Zonal flow friction heats ions, thus the turbulence and zonal flow interaction enters as an important energy transfer channel. Since zonal flows are nonlinearly generated, it follows that we should apply weak turbulence theory to calculate the nonlinear ion turbulent heating via the virtual mode resonance in the electron drift wave turbulence, which will be discussed in Chapter 3. We defines a new collisionless turbulent energy transfer channel through nonlinear Landau damping in the electron and ion energy coupling process. The result shows that nonlinear ion heating can exceed quasilinear ion heating, so that nonlinear heating becomes the principal collisionless wave energy dissipation channel in electron drift wave turbulence. This follows since the beat mode resonates with the bulk of the ion distribution, in
Impact of ion diamagnetic drift on MHD stability at edge pedestal in JT-60U rotating plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aiba, N.; Honda, M.; Kamiya, K.
2017-02-01
The effect of ion diamagnetic drift on the stability of peeling-ballooning modes in rotating tokamak plasmas has been analyzed numerically. The results show that plasma toroidal rotation can not only destabilize the peeling-ballooning mode but also can reduce the ion diamagnetic drift effect on the mode stability, even though the ion diamagnetic drift effect stabilizes the mode in a static plasma. Plasma poloidal rotation can also destabilize the mode and cancel the ion diamagnetic drift effect, even when the rotation frequency is much smaller than the toroidal one. These impacts of the rotation on the stability can resolve the discrepancy between the result of the numerical stability analysis and the experimental result in type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas in JT-60U. The reduction of the ion diamagnetic drift effect on ELM stability due to plasma rotation is shown to depend on the direction of the rotation, so that the ion diamagnetic drift effect becomes negligible only when the JT-60U plasma rotates in the direction counter to the plasma current.
Predator prey oscillations in a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence
Berionni, V.; Guercan, Oe. D.
2011-11-15
A reduced three shell limit of a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence, which emphasizes nonlocal interactions with a large scale mode, is considered. It is shown to describe both the well known predator prey dynamics between the drift waves and zonal flows and to reduce to the standard three wave interaction equations. Here, this model is considered as a dynamical system whose characteristics are investigated. The analytical solutions for the purely nonlinear limit are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. An approximate analytical solution involving Jacobi elliptic functions and exponential growth is computed using scale separation for the case of unstable solutions that are observed when the energy injection rate is high. The fixed points of the system are determined, and the behavior around these fixed points is studied. The system is shown to display periodic solutions corresponding to limit cycle oscillations, apparently chaotic phase space orbits, as well as unstable solutions that grow slowly while oscillating rapidly. The period doubling route to transition to chaos is examined.
Suppression of drift wave instability due to sheared field-aligned flow and negative ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichiki, Ryuta; Hayashi, Kenichiro; Kaneko, Toshiro; Hatakeyama, Rikizo
2006-10-01
Sheared field-aligned plasma flow is a significant topic in space/circumterrestrial plasmas. Taking into account negative ions or dust grains will make the space plasma physics more general and accurate. Using the QT-Upgrade Machine, we have conducted laboratory experiments to examine negative ion effects on shear-modified drift waves. Field-aligned K^+ ion flow and its shear strength are controlled with a concentrically segmented W hot plate. Negative ions SF6^- are produced by introducing SF6 gas in the plasma. The drift wave shows a gradual monotonic decrease in amplitude as the shear strength is increased from zero. However, as the shear strength is decreased from zero to negative values, the amplitude increases up to a certain shear strength and rapidly decreases after the peaking. The negative ion introduction, in general, suppresses this instability while retaining the dependence of the amplitude on the shear. These wave characteristics are interpreted using the theories of current-driven (kinetic) and of D’Angelo (fluid) instabilities.
Supersonic Wave Interference Affecting Stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Love, Eugene S.
1958-01-01
Some of the significant interference fields that may affect stability of aircraft at supersonic speeds are briefly summarized. Illustrations and calculations are presented to indicate the importance of interference fields created by wings, bodies, wing-body combinations, jets, and nacelles.
Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence
Thoul, A.A. ); Similon, P.L. ); Sudan, R.N. )
1994-03-01
The method developed in Thoul, Similon, and Sudan [Phys. Plasmas [bold 1], 579 (1994)] is used to calculate the transport due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence, in which electromagnetic effects such as the fluttering of the magnetic field lines are important. Explicit expressions are obtained for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma. Although the magnetic terms leave the transport by trapped electrons unaffected, they are important for the transport by circulating electrons.
Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-Alfvén-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoul, Anne A.; Similon, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.
1994-03-01
The method developed in Thoul, Similon, and Sudan [Phys. Plasmas 1, 579 (1994)] is used to calculate the transport due to drift-Alfvén-wave turbulence, in which electromagnetic effects such as the fluttering of the magnetic field lines are important. Explicit expressions are obtained for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma. Although the magnetic terms leave the transport by trapped electrons unaffected, they are important for the transport by circulating electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.
2017-01-01
We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions' polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD) parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions' polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.
Stability evaluation of the Panel 1 rooms and the E140 drift at WIPP
Maleki, H.; Chaturvedi, L.
1996-08-01
WIPP, intended for underground permanent disposal of defense transuranic waste, is located 40 km east of Carlsbad at a depth of 655 m in the salt beds of the 600-m thick Permian Salado Formation. It will consist of 56 ``rooms`` each 91.5 m long, 10 m wide, and 4 m high, grouped in 8 ``panels`` of 7 rooms each. About 7.5 km of access drifts will also be provided. Excavation began in 1982 and surface/access/test facilities and one panel were completed by 1988, many years before it could be used. Current plans are to start emplacing waste in WIPP in 1998 and continue for 35 years. The north- south drift E140 is the widest (25 ft) of the four main north-south drifts and is the main north-south passage. Plans to conduct experiments with waste in 1993 were abandoned, and the plan now is to use panel 1 for permanent disposal of waste starting in 1998. The stability evaluation resulted in the conclusion that, while it would be possible to safely use portions of panel 1 for waste emplacement, it would be best to abandon panel 1 and mine a new panel after the decision has been made to use WIPP as a repository and the necessary permits obtained.
On the nonlinear theory of current instability of short-wave drift oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotnikov, V. I.; Shapiro, V. D.; Shevchenko, V. I.
1981-01-01
The paper deals with the studies of current instability in the inhomogeneous plasma resulting in excitation of short-wave drift oscillations with a frequency near the low-hybrid resonance. It is shown that the saturation of such an instability is associated with the spectral pumping of oscillations into the short-wave region that occurs due to the modulation instability; and maximum amplitudes of the electrical fields of oscillations are determined. The effective frequency of electron collisions due to current instability is calculated. It is indicated that the diffusion model of the Parker-Sweet magnetic field reconnection modified taking into account the anomalous resistance mechanism studied here leads to the estimate of the magnetopause width being in satisfactory agreement with the experiment.
Effects of thin film and Stokes drift on the generation of vorticity by surface waves.
Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Lebedev, V V
2016-11-01
Recently a theoretical scheme explaining the vorticity generation by surface waves in liquids was developed [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 054501 (2016)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.116.054501]. Here we study how a thin (monomolecular) film presented on the surface of liquid affects the generated vorticity. We demonstrate that the vorticity becomes parametrically larger than for the case of liquid with a free surface, and the parameter is the quality factor of surface waves up to numerical factor. We also discuss the PIV experimental scheme intended to observe the generated vorticity and find that Stokes drift influences the measured velocity field. Explicit expression for the vertical vorticity was obtained.
Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on secondary structures in drift-wave turbulence
Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.
2011-08-15
Recent experiments showed a decrease of long range correlations during the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) [Y. Xu et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 063020 (2011)]. This finding suggests that RMPs damp zonal flows. To elucidate the effect of the RMPs on zonal structures in drift wave turbulence, we construct a generalized Hasegawa-Wakatani model including RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large RMP amplitude. A predator-prey model coupling the primary drift wave dynamics to the zonal modes evolution is derived. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. The novel regime has a power threshold which increases with RMP amplitude as {gamma}{sub c}{approx}[({delta}B{sub r}/B)]{sup 2}.
Straightforward and accurate technique for post-coupler stabilization in drift tube linac structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalvati, Mohammad Reza; Ramberger, Suitbert
2016-04-01
The axial electric field of Alvarez drift tube linacs (DTLs) is known to be susceptible to variations due to static and dynamic effects like manufacturing tolerances and beam loading. Post-couplers are used to stabilize the accelerating fields of DTLs against tuning errors. Tilt sensitivity and its slope have been introduced as measures for the stability right from the invention of post-couplers but since then the actual stabilization has mostly been done by tedious iteration. In the present article, the local tilt-sensitivity slope TSn' is established as the principal measure for stabilization instead of tilt sensitivity or some visual slope, and its significance is developed on the basis of an equivalent-circuit diagram of the DTL. Experimental and 3D simulation results are used to analyze its behavior and to define a technique for stabilization that allows finding the best post-coupler settings with just four tilt-sensitivity measurements. CERN's Linac4 DTL Tank 2 and Tank 3 have been stabilized successfully using this technique. The final tilt-sensitivity error has been reduced from ±100 %/MHz down to ±3 %/MHz for Tank 2 and down to ±1 %/MHz for Tank 3. Finally, an accurate procedure for tuning the structure using slug tuners is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Tiantian; Zhao, Hongying; Liu, Sijie; Wang, Lu
2015-03-01
Videos from a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are always unstable because of the wobble of the vehicle and the impact of surroundings, especially when the motion has a large drifting. Electronic image stabilization aims at removing the unwanted wobble and obtaining the stable video. Then estimation of intended motion, which represents the tendency of global motion, becomes the key to image stabilization. It is usually impossible for general methods of intended motion estimation to obtain stable intended motion remaining as much information of video images and getting a path as much close to the real flying path at the same time. This paper proposed a fuzzy Kalman filtering method to estimate the intended motion to solve these problems. Comparing with traditional methods, the fuzzy Kalman filtering method can achieve better effect to estimate the intended motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Brum, Christiano GM; Batista, Paulo P.; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Pancheva, Dora; Bageston, Jose V.; Batista, Inez S.; Takahashi, Hisao
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the role of eastward and upward propagating fast (FK) and ultrafast Kelvin (UFK) waves in the day-to-day variability of equatorial evening prereversal vertical drift and post sunset generation of spread F/plasma bubble irregularities. Meteor wind data from Cariri and Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil) and medium frequency (MF) radar wind data from Tirunelveli (India) are analyzed together with Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (TIMED/SABER) temperature in the 40- to 100-km region to characterize the zonal and vertical propagations of these waves. Also analyzed are the F region evening vertical drift and spread F (ESF) development features as diagnosed by Digisonde (Lowell Digisonde International, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA) operated at Fortaleza and Sao Luis in Brazil. The SABER temperature data permitted determination of the upward propagation characteristics of the FK (E1) waves with propagation speed in the range of 4 km/day. The radar mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) winds in the widely separated longitude sectors have yielded the eastward phase velocity of both the FK and UFK waves. The vertical propagation of these waves cause strong oscillation in the F region evening prereversal vertical drift, observed for the first time at both FK and UFK periodicities. A delay of a few (approximately 10) days is observed in the F region vertical drift perturbation with respect to the corresponding FK/UFK zonal wind oscillations, or temperature oscillations in the MLT region, which has permitted a direct identification of the sunset electrodynamic coupling process as being responsible for the generation of the FK/UFK-induced vertical drift oscillation. The vertical drift oscillations are found to cause significant modulation in the spread F/plasma bubble irregularity development. The overall results highlight the role of FK/UFK waves in the day
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnett Marques Brum, C.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, P. P.; Gurubaran, S.; Pancheva, D.; Bageston, J. V.; Batista, I. S.; Takahashi, H.
2014-12-01
In this paper we investigate the role of eastward and upward propagating Fast (FK) and Ultrafast Kelvin (UFK) waves in the day-to-day variability of equatorial evening prereversal vertical drift and post sunset generation of spread F/plasma bubbles irregularities. Meteor wind data from Cariri and Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil) and medium Frequency (MF) radar wind data from Tirunelveli (India) are analyzed together with TIMED/SABER temperature in the 40 km - 100 km region to characterize the zonal and vertical propagations of these waves. Also analyzed are the F region evening vertical drift and spread F (ESF) development features as diagnosed by Digisondes operated at Fortaleza and Sao Luis in Brazil. The SABER temperature data permitted determination of the upward propagation characteristics of the FK (E1) waves with propagation speed in the range of 4 km/day. The radar Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) winds in the widely separated longitude sectors have yielded the eastward phase velocity of the both the FK and UFK waves. The vertical propagation of these waves cause strong oscillation in the F region evening prereversal vertical drift, observed for the first time at both FK and UFK periodicities. A delay of a few (~10) days is observed in the F region vertical drift perturbation with respect to the corresponding FK/UFK zonal wind oscillations, or temperature oscillations in the MLT region, which has permitted a direct identification of the sunset electro dynamic coupling process as responsible for the generation of the FK/UFK induced vertical drift oscillation. The vertical drift oscillations are found to cause significant modulation in the spread F/ plasma bubble irregularity development. The overall results highlight the role of FK/UFK waves in the day-to-day variability of the ESF in its occurrence season.
Evidence for drift waves in the turbulence of reversed field pinch plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thuecks, D. J.; Almagri, A. F.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.
2017-02-01
A detailed characterization of the high-frequency range of the fluctuation spectrum in reversed field pinch plasmas is presented, revealing a variety of new features distinct from global tearing modes and the cascade that they are thought to drive. The anisotropic broadband spectrum of the fluctuating electric field is measured. The power in the fluctuating kinetic energy ( 1 / 2 ) m i n i V˜ E ˜ × B 0 2 , previously measured to be smaller than the magnetic energy in the tearing-mode-unstable frequency range, becomes greater than and diverges from the magnetic energy above 60-80 kHz. The lack of equipartition at high frequencies coincides with the measured signatures of the independent fluctuation activity broadly consistent with the drift-wave fluctuations. Statistical coherence measurements reveal the mode activity that is compressive with a large amplitude in the vicinity of strong density gradients and with a phase speed comparable to the electron drift speed. There is a distinct high-frequency correlation between the fluctuations of density and the parallel magnetic field. Elevated coherences associated with this fluctuation feature return more quickly after a sawtooth event than the corresponding coherences associated with tearing activity.
Solar Microwave Drifting Spikes and Solitary Kinetic Alfvén Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, D. J.; Huang, J.; Tang, J. F.; Yan, Y. H.
2007-08-01
Mechanisms driving eruptive phenomena and elementary processes occurring at the smallest coherent scales have been outstanding problems in solar physics. In this Letter, a novel kind of fine structures of solar radio bursts, ``solar microwave drifting spikes'' (SMDSs), is reported. Our analysis shows that the SMDSs can be produced by a group of ``solitary kinetic Alfvén waves'' (SKAWs) with small cross-field scales, in which the electrons in the SKAWs are accelerated self-consistently by the SKAW electric fields to tens of keV and trapped within the SKAW potential wells. It is these trapped electrons that trigger the SMDSs. And the frequency drifts of the SMDSs are attributed to the SKAW propagation along the magnetic field. The SKAWs are exact solutions of two-fluid equations for a low-β plasma and have been experimentally verified in the magnetosphere, where they accelerate auroral electrons to several keV. We believe the SMDSs represent a new observational signature of SKAWs in the solar atmosphere.
A flowing plasma model to describe drift waves in a cylindrical helicon discharge
Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Corr, C. S.
2011-04-15
A two-fluid model developed originally to describe wave oscillations in the vacuum arc centrifuge, a cylindrical, rapidly rotating, low temperature, and confined plasma column, is applied to interpret plasma oscillations in a RF generated linear magnetized plasma [WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence)], with similar density and field strength. Compared to typical centrifuge plasmas, WOMBAT plasmas have slower normalized rotation frequency, lower temperature, and lower axial velocity. Despite these differences, the two-fluid model provides a consistent description of the WOMBAT plasma configuration and yields qualitative agreement between measured and predicted wave oscillation frequencies with axial field strength. In addition, the radial profile of the density perturbation predicted by this model is consistent with the data. Parameter scans show that the dispersion curve is sensitive to the axial field strength and the electron temperature, and the dependence of oscillation frequency with electron temperature matches the experiment. These results consolidate earlier claims that the density and floating potential oscillations are a resistive drift mode, driven by the density gradient. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed physics model of flowing plasmas in the diffusion region away from the RF source. Possible extensions to the model, including temperature nonuniformity and magnetic field oscillations, are also discussed.
Drift-Alfven wave mediated particle transport in an elongated density depression
Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter
2006-06-15
Cross-field particle transport due to drift-Alfven waves is measured in an elongated density depression within an otherwise uniform, magnetized helium plasma column. The depression is formed by drawing an electron current to a biased copper plate with cross-field dimensions of 28x0.24 ion sound-gyroradii {rho}{sub s}=c{sub s}/{omega}{sub ci}. The process of density depletion and replenishment via particle flux repeats in a quasiperiodic fashion for the duration of the current collection. The mode structure of the wave density fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field is revealed using a two-probe correlation technique. The particle flux as a function of frequency is measured using a linear array of Langmuir probes and the only significant transport occurs for waves with frequencies between 15%-25% of the ion cyclotron frequency (measured in the laboratory frame) and with perpendicular wavelengths k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub s}{approx}0.7. The frequency-integrated particle flux is in rough agreement with observed increases in density in the center of the depletion as a function of time. The experiments are carried out in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the Basic Plasma Science Facility located at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Small scale coherent vortex generation in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence
Guo, Z. B. Hahm, T. S.; Diamond, P. H.
2015-12-15
We present a paradigm for the generation of small scale coherent vortex (SSCV) in drift wave-zonal flow (DW-ZF) turbulence. We demonstrate that phases of DWs can couple coherently, mediated by the ZF shearing. A SSCV is formed when the phases of the DWs are “attracted” to form a stable “phase cluster.” We show that the ZF shearing induces asymmetry between “attractive” and “repulsive” phase couplings, so that a net attractive phase coupling results. The turbulent DWs will (partially)synchronize into a stable SSCV at locations, where the attractive phase coupling induced by the ZF shearing exceeds the “detuning” effects by the DW dispersion and random phase scattering. We also discuss the “self-binding” effect of the newly formed SSCV.
Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2014-02-15
Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) by Drift Wave (DW) turbulence are investigated based on nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. The coupled nonlinear equations describing parametric decay of DW into GAM and DW lower sideband are derived and then solved both analytically and numerically to investigate the effects on the parametric decay process due to system nonuniformities, such as nonuniform diamagnetic frequency, finite radial envelope of DW pump, and kinetic dispersiveness. It is found that the parametric decay process is a convective instability for typical tokamak parameters when finite group velocities of DW and GAM associated with kinetic dispersiveness and finite radial envelope are taken into account. When, however, nonuniformity of diamagnetic frequency is taken into account, the parametric decay process becomes, time asymptotically, a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability.
Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-wave turbulence
Thoul, A.A. ); Similon, P.L. ); Sudan, R.N. )
1994-03-01
A new method for calculating the anomalous transport in tokamak plasmas is presented. The renormalized nonlinear plasma response function is derived using the direct-interaction approximation (DIA). A complete calculation for the case of electrostatic drift-wave turbulence is presented. Explicit expressions for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma are obtained. The anomalous transport matrix calculated using the DIA does not have the Onsager symmetry. As an example of application, the parameters of the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) [Nucl. Technol. Fusion [bold 1], 479 (1981)] are used to evaluate all transport coefficients numerically, as well as the spectrum modulation. The relation between the theoretical results and the experimental data is discussed. Although this paper focuses on electron transport for simplicity, the method can also be used to calculate anomalous transport due to ion instabilities, such as the ion-temperature-gradient instability.
Gyroaverage effects on chaotic transport by drift waves in zonal flows
Martinell, J.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B
2013-01-01
Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E x B test particle chaotic transport in the presence of zonal flows is studied. The FLR effects are introduced by the gyro-average of a simplified E x B guiding center model consisting of the linear superposition of a non-monotonic zonal flow and drift waves. Non-monotonic zonal flows play a critical role on transport because they exhibit robust barriers to chaotic transport in the region(s) where the shear vanishes. In addition, the non-monotonicity gives rise to nontrivial changes in the topology of the orbits of the E x B Hamiltonian due to separatrix reconnection. The present study focuses on the role of FLR effects on these two signatures of non-monotonic zonal flows: shearless transport barriers and separatrix reconnection. It is shown that, as the Larmor radius increases, the effective zonal flow profile bifurcates and multiple shearless regions are created. As a result, the topology of the gyro-averaged Hamiltonian exhibits very complex separatrix reconnection bifurcations. It is also shown that FLR effects tend to reduce chaotic transport. In particular, the restoration of destroyed transport barriers is observed as the Larmor radius increases. A detailed numerical study is presented on the onset of global chaotic transport as function of the amplitude of the drift waves and the Larmor radius. For a given amplitude, the threshold for the destruction of the shearless transport barrier, as function of the Larmor radius, exhibits a fractal-like structure. The FLR effects on a thermal distribution of test particles are also studied. In particular, the fraction of confined particles with a Maxwellian distribution of gyroradii is computed, and an effective transport suppression is found for high enough temperatures.
Modeling studies of transport bifurcation phenomena in a collisional drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajjar, Rima; Diamond, Patrick; Tynan, Georges; Ashourvan, Arash
2016-10-01
Self-organization of drift wave turbulence via particle transport and Reynolds stresses is a mechanism for turbulence suppression and reduction of cross field transport. This energy transfer mechanism between microscale drift waves and mesoscale zonal flows can create a transport bifurcation and trigger the formation of an internal transport barrier. We report here on studies investigating transport bifurcation dynamics in the CSDX linear device using a 1D reduced turbulence and mean field evolution model. This two-mixing scale Hasegawa-Wakatani based model evolves spatio-temporal variations of three plasma fields: the mean density n, the mean vorticity u and the turbulent potential enstrophy e. The model adopts inhomogeneous potential vorticity mixing on a mixing length the expression of which is related to the Rhines' scale and to the mode scale (i.e. is ∇n and ∇u dependent). The model is based on expressions for turbulent fluxes of n, u and e derived from mixing length concepts. Turbulent particle and enstrophy transport are written as diffusive, but a residual stress part is included in the expression for the vorticity flux. Mixed boundary conditions are used at both ends of the domain and an external boundary fueling source is added. Simulation results show a steepening in the particle density profiles with B along with the formation of a net flow shear layer resulting from the vorticity mixing. These results suggest that the system dynamic is capable of sustaining the plasma core by means of a purely diffusive particle flux, without any explicit inward particle pinch.
Gyroaverage effects on chaotic transport by drift waves in zonal flows
Martinell, Julio J.; Castillo-Negrete, Diego del
2013-02-15
Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E Multiplication-Sign B test particle chaotic transport in the presence of zonal flows is studied. The FLR effects are introduced by the gyro-average of a simplified E Multiplication-Sign B guiding center model consisting of the linear superposition of a non-monotonic zonal flow and drift waves. Non-monotonic zonal flows play a critical role on transport because they exhibit robust barriers to chaotic transport in the region(s) where the shear vanishes. In addition, the non-monotonicity gives rise to nontrivial changes in the topology of the orbits of the E Multiplication-Sign B Hamiltonian due to separatrix reconnection. The present study focuses on the role of FLR effects on these two signatures of non-monotonic zonal flows: shearless transport barriers and separatrix reconnection. It is shown that, as the Larmor radius increases, the effective zonal flow profile bifurcates and multiple shearless regions are created. As a result, the topology of the gyro-averaged Hamiltonian exhibits very complex separatrix reconnection bifurcations. It is also shown that FLR effects tend to reduce chaotic transport. In particular, the restoration of destroyed transport barriers is observed as the Larmor radius increases. A detailed numerical study is presented on the onset of global chaotic transport as function of the amplitude of the drift waves and the Larmor radius. For a given amplitude, the threshold for the destruction of the shearless transport barrier, as function of the Larmor radius, exhibits a fractal-like structure. The FLR effects on a thermal distribution of test particles are also studied. In particular, the fraction of confined particles with a Maxwellian distribution of gyroradii is computed, and an effective transport suppression is found for high enough temperatures.
Effects of Electron Drifts on the Collisionless Damping of Kinetic Alfvén Waves in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Yuguang; Bale, Stuart D.; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Salem, Chadi S.; Verscharen, Daniel
2015-05-01
The collisionless dissipation of anisotropic Alfvénic turbulence is a promising candidate to solve the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies examined the kinetic properties of Alfvén waves in simple Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the observed electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind are more complex. In this study, we analyze the properties of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in a plasma with two drifting electron populations. We numerically solve the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations and find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for KAWs are significantly modified in such plasmas, compared to plasmas without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind or other β ˜ 1 astrophysical plasmas.
Bonhomme, G.; Brochard, F.; Gravier, E.; Oldenbuerger, S.; Philipp, M.
2006-01-15
We report on experiments performed on the low-{beta} plasma device MIRABELLE. Using a limiter, we recently observed that when increasing the magnetic field strength transitions between various gradient driven instabilities occur. New thorough measurements allow to identify unambiguously three instability regimes. At low magnetic field the strong ErxB velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, whereas at high magnetic field drift waves are only observed. A centrifugal (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability is also observed in between when the poloidal velocity field is shearless and strong enough. A close connection is made between the ratio {rho}s /L perpendicular of the drift parameter to the radial density gradient length and each instability regime. The transition scenario from regular waves to turbulence was experimentally investigated. As for drift waves the transition from regular state to spatio-temporal chaos and turbulence follows the quasi-periodicity (or Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse) route. Eventually we present new results on the efficiency of control and synchronization methods on Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor spatio-temporal chaos in comparison with drift waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crabbe, R. S.; McCooeye, M.; Mickle, R. E.
1994-04-01
Measurements of drift cloud mass from 11 cases selected from a study of wind-borne droplet drift from ultra low-volume aerial spray applications over northern Ontario forests are presented as a function of atmospheric stability. Six swaths were overlaid onto a flight line in 30 min to obtain ensemble-averaged data from rotary atomizer emissions from an agricultural spray plane flying at about 21 and 26 m above ground level. The estimated volume median diameters of the spray were 100 µm for the 21-m height and 70 µm for the 26-m height. The mass of spray material in the drift cloud was measured at 400, 1200, and 2200 m downwind of the (crosswind) flight line using Rotorods' suspended from tethered blimps. Wind speed at aircraft height varied from 2 to 5 m s1 and meteorological conditions varied from moderately stable to moderately unstable.Analysis of the data revealed that 35% more drift occurred in stable than in unstable conditions. The lowest drift was measured when the aircraft was flown in the morning mixing layer beneath a low capping inversion. Under thee conditions, only 18% of the emission drifted put 400 m downwind and 10% past 1200 m. The highest drift occurred in moderately stable flow, 71% past 400 m and 50% past 2200 m in 3 m s1 wind speeds and, in slightly stable flow, 77% past 400 m and 27% past 2200 m in 5 m s1 wind speeds.Within experimental error, little difference was observed between wind drift of the 100-µm-diameter droplets and the 70-µm-diameter droplets past 400 m downwind although farther downwind, drift from the larger-droplet emission was less. This difference is discussed in terms of the descent rate of the aircraft vortex wake in stable conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdu, Mangalathayil; Sobral, José; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Batista, Inez S.; Souza, Jonas
2016-07-01
The characteristics of large-scale wave structure in the equatorial bottomside F region that are present during daytime as precursor to post sunset development of the spread F/plasma bubble irregularities are investigated in this paper. Digisonde data from three equatorial sites in Brazil (Fortaleza, Sao Luis and Cachimbo) for a period of few months at low to medium/high solar activity phases are analyzed. Small amplitude oscillations in the F layer true heights, representing wave structure in polarization electric field, are identified as upward propagating gravity waves having zonal scale of a few hundred kilometers. Their amplitudes undergo amplification towards sunset, and depending on the amplitude of the prereversal vertical drift (PRE) they may lead to post sunset generation of ESF/plasma bubble irregularities. On days of their larger amplitudes they appear to occur in phase coherence on all days, and correspondingly the PRE vertical drift velocities are larger than on days of the smaller amplitudes of the wave structure that appear at random phase on the different days. The sustenance of these precursor waves structures is supported by the relatively large ratio (approaching unity) of the F region-to- total field line integrated Pedersen conductivities as calculated using the SUPIM simulation of the low latitude ionosphere. This study examines the role of the wave structure relative to that of the prereversal vertical drift in the post sunset spread F irregularity development.
Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda
2015-12-01
A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from
Stability of spherical converging shock wave
Murakami, M.; Sanz, J.; Iwamoto, Y.
2015-07-15
Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓ{sub c}, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓ{sub c} are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory.
Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert
2016-04-01
Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we
Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on secondary structures in Drift-Wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leconte, Michael
2011-10-01
In this work, we study the effects of RMPs on turbulence, flows and confinement, in the framework of two paradigmatic models, resistive ballooning and resistive drift waves. For resistive ballooning turbulence, we use 3D global numerical simulations, including RMP fields and (externally-imposed) sheared rotation profile. Without RMPs, relaxation oscillations of the pressure profile occur. With RMPs, results show that long-lived convection cells are generated by the combined effects of pressure modulation and toroidal curvature coupling. These modify the global structure of the turbulence and eliminate relaxation oscillations. This effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of residual magnetic island chains. Hence convection-cell generation increases for increasing δBr/B0. For RMP effect on zonal flows in drift wave turbulence, we extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large δBr/B0. Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress), and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolution of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters, and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find a novel set of system states that are similar to the Hmode-like state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude and low collisionality, both the ambient turbulence and zonal flow energy increase with δBr/B0. For larger RMP strength, the turbulence energy increases, but the energy of zonal flows decreases with δBr/B0, corresponding to a damping of zonal flows. At high
Complete classification of discrete resonant Rossby/drift wave triads on periodic domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bustamante, Miguel D.; Hayat, Umar
2013-09-01
We consider the set of Diophantine equations that arise in the context of the partial differential equation called "barotropic vorticity equation" on periodic domains, when nonlinear wave interactions are studied to leading order in the amplitudes. The solutions to this set of Diophantine equations are of interest in atmosphere (Rossby waves) and Tokamak plasmas (drift waves), because they provide the values of the spectral wavevectors that interact resonantly via three-wave interactions. These wavenumbers come in "triads", i.e., groups of three wavevectors. We provide the full solution to the Diophantine equations in the physically sensible limit when the Rossby deformation radius is infinite. The method is completely new, and relies on mapping the unknown variables via rational transformations, first to rational points on elliptic curves and surfaces, and from there to rational points on quadratic forms of "Minkowski" type (such as the familiar space-time in special relativity). Classical methods invented centuries ago by Fermat, Euler, Lagrange, Minkowski, are used to classify all solutions to our original Diophantine equations, thus providing a computational method to generate numerically all the resonant triads in the system. Computationally speaking, our method has a clear advantage over brute-force numerical search: on a 10,0002 grid, the brute-force search would take 15 years using optimised C codes on a cluster, whereas our method takes about 40 min using a laptop. Moreover, the method is extended to generate so-called quasi-resonant triads, which are defined by relaxing the resonant condition on the frequencies, allowing for a small mismatch. Quasi-resonant triads' distribution in wavevector space is robust with respect to physical perturbations, unlike resonant triads' distribution. Therefore, the extended method is really valuable in practical terms. We show that the set of quasi-resonant triads form an intricate network of connected triads, forming
Jurneczko, Ewa; Kalapothakis, Jason; Campuzano, Iain D G; Morris, Michael; Barran, Perdita E
2012-10-16
There has been a significant increase in the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to investigate conformations of proteins and protein complexes following electrospray ionization. Investigations which employ traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TW IM-MS) instrumentation rely on the use of calibrants to convert the arrival times of ions to collision cross sections (CCS) providing "hard numbers" of use to structural biology. It is common to use nitrogen as the buffer gas in TW IM-MS instruments and to calibrate by extrapolating from CCS measured in helium via drift tube (DT) IM-MS. In this work, both DT and TW IM-MS instruments are used to investigate the effects of different drift gases (helium, neon, nitrogen, and argon) on the transport of multiply charged ions of the protein myoglobin, frequently used as a standard in TW IM-MS studies. Irrespective of the drift gas used, recorded mass spectra are found to be highly similar. In contrast, the recorded arrival time distributions and the derived CCS differ greatly. At low charge states (7 ≤ z ≤ 11) where the protein is compact, the CCS scale with the polarizability of the gas; this is also the case for higher charge states (12 ≤ z ≤ 22) where the protein is more unfolded for the heavy gases (neon, argon, and nitrogen) but not the case for helium. This is here interpreted as a different conformational landscape being sampled by the lighter gas and potentially attributable to increased field heating by helium. Under nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) conditions, where myoglobin is sprayed from an aqueous solution buffered to pH 6.8 with 20 mM ammonium acetate, in the DT IM-MS instrument, each buffer gas can yield a different arrival time distribution (ATD) for any given charge state.
Reentrant stability of BEC standing wave patterns
Kalas, Ryan M; Solenov, Dmitry; Timmermans, Eddy M
2009-01-01
We describe standing wave patterns induced by an attractive finite-ranged external potential in a large Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). As the potential depth increases, the time independent Gross-Pitaevskii equation develops pairs of solutions that have nodes in their wavefunction. We elucidate the nature of these states and study their dynamical stability. Although we study the problem in a two-dimensional BEC subject to a cylindrically symmetric square-well potential of a radius that is comparable to the coherence length of the BEC, our analysis reveals general trends, valid in two and three dimensions, independent of the symmetry of the localized potential well, and suggestive of the behavior in general, short- and large-range potentials. One set of nodal BEC wavefunctions resembles the single particle n node bound state wavefunction of the potential well, the other wavefunctions resemble the n - 1 node bound-state wavefunction with a kink state pinned by the potential. The second state, though corresponding to the lower free energy value of the pair of n node BEC states, is always unstable, whereas the first can be dynamically stable in intervals of the potential well depth, implying that the standing wave BEC can evolve from a dynamically unstable to stable, and back to unstable status as the potential well is adiabatically deepened, a phenomenon that we refer to as 'reentrant dynamical stability'.
Self-regulating Drift wave -- Zonal Flow turbulence in a linear plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Jinlin; Chen, Ran; Hu, Guanghai; Jin, Xiaoli; Li, Hong; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan
2012-10-01
Here we report new and interesting results about the DW-ZF system in a linear plasma device with much better control environments to illustrate important Zonal flow physics: (1) The three-dimensional spectral features of the LFZF have been provided. In particular, it is identified that the LFZF damping is dominated by ion-neutral collision in our case. Also experimental evidence of the shearing effect of ZF on DW has been given. (2) A zonal flow dominated state of the DW-ZF system has been achieved. Theoretically, it has been predicted that a significant portion of the turbulence energy can be stored in the Zonal Flows for the case of low collisionality plasmas. In our experiments we achieve a zonal flow dominated state, in which the maximum ratio of the ZF energy to the total turbulence energy is about 80%, which seems to support the hypothesis of zonostropic state in geostrophic turbulence. (3) The self-regulating dynamics in the DW-ZF system is clearly elucidated. The evolution of the energy partition ratio of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow is investigated with varying magnetic field strength, which is found consistent with the general prey-predator model.
Impact of resonant magnetic perturbations on nonlinearly driven modes in drift-wave turbulence
Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.
2012-05-15
In this work, we study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows, and confinement in the framework of resistive drift wave turbulence. We extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large ({delta}B{sub r}/B{sub 0}). Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress) and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolution of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find states that are similar to the ZF-dominated state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude, the energy of zonal flows decreases and the turbulence energy increases with ({delta}B{sub r}/B{sub 0}), corresponding to a damping of zonal flows.
Comparison of Collisional Drift-Wave Simulation with CSDX Experimental Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaezi, Payam; Holland, Christopher; Tynan, George; Thakur, Saikat; Brandt, Christian; Dudson, Benjamin; Friedman, Brett; Carter, Troy
2013-10-01
Recent upgrades to the linear Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment (CSDX) [Burin et al., PoP 2005] at UCSD (maximum Bz from 1 kG to 2.4 kG, increase of helicon source diameter from 10 cm to 15 cm) have revealed a rich array of turbulence dynamics at previously inaccessible conditions. We report initial comparisons of linear and nonlinear collisional drift-wave physics made using analytic theory and the BOUT + + code [Dudson et al., CPC 2009] against these observations, focusing upon the transition from nonlinearly coupled but distinct eigenmodes at 0.9 kG to fully developed broadband turbulence at 2.4 kG. Comparisons of predicted linear eigenmode structures, frequencies, and density-potential cross-phases to measurement are presented, as well as predictions for nonlinear frequency power spectra and saturated fluctuation levels. We also report progress on the development and implementation of synthetic Langmuir probe and fast framing camera diagnostics for improving the fidelity of our model-experiment comparisons.
Radial Spreading of Drift Wave-Zonal Flow Turbulence via Soliton Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zehua; Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio
2009-05-01
Recently, it has been shown that turbulence spreading is responsible for the local turbulence intensity dependence on the global nonuniform equilibrium properties, i.e. the size scaling of turbulent transport coefficients. In the present work, first we investigate the slab model for the spatio-temporal evolution of the drift wave(DW) radial envelope and zonal flow(ZF) amplitude. Stationary solution of the coupled partial differential equations in a simple limit yields formation of DW-ZF solitons. It is shown that the DW-ZF soliton structures propagate at group velocity which depends on the envelope peak amplitude. Additional interesting physics, e.g. birth/death, collision, and reflection of solitons, as well as turbulence bursting can also be observed due to effects of linear growth/damping, dissipation, equilibrium nonuniformities and soliton dynamics. The propagation of soliton causes significant radial spreading of DW turbulence and therefore can affect transport scaling by increasing the turbulent region. Discussion on the correspondence to the two-field DW-ZF description in toroidal geometry will also be presented.
Dynamics of zonal flow saturation in strong collisionless drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P. H.
2002-11-01
Generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) instability is examined as a mechanism for the saturation of zonal flows in the collisionless regime. By focusing on strong turbulence regimes, GKH instability is analyzed in the presence of a background of finite-amplitude drift waves. A detailed study of a simple model with cold ions shows that nonlinear excitation of GKH modes via modulational instability can be comparable to their linear generation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that zonal flows are likely to grow faster than GKH mode near marginality, with insignificant turbulent viscous damping by linear GKH. The effect of finite ion temperature fluctuations is incorporated in a simple toroidal ion temperature gradient model, within which both zonal flow and temperature are generated by modulational instability. The phase between the two is calculated self-consistently and shown to be positive. Furthermore, the correction to nonlinear generation of GKH modes appears to be small, being of order O(ρi2k2). Thus, the role of linear GKH instability in the saturation of collisionless zonal flows, in general, seems dubious.
Zhu, Fan; Tan, Xinran; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang
2016-08-15
An autocollimation (AC) setup with ultra-high resolution and stability for micro-angle measurement is presented. The telephoto objective, which is characterized in long focal length at a compact structure size, and the optical enlargement unit, which can magnify the image displacement to improve its measurement resolution and accuracy, are used to obtain an ultra-high measurement resolution of the AC. The common-path beam drift compensation is used to suppress the drift of measurement results, which is evident in the high-resolution AC, thus to obtain a high measurement stability. Experimental results indicate that an effective resolution of better than 0.0005 arc sec (2.42 nrad) over a measurement range of ±30 arc sec and a 2-h stability of 0.0061 arc sec (29.57 nrad) can be achieved.
Collective behavior of stabilized reaction-diffusion waves
Steele, Aaron J.; Tinsley, Mark; Showalter, Kenneth
2008-06-15
Stabilized wave segments in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction are directionally controlled with intensity gradients in the applied illumination. The constant-velocity waves behave like self-propelled particles, and multiple waves interact via an applied interaction potential. Alignment arises from the intrinsic properties of the interacting waves, leading to processional and rotational behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Jun; Jia, Ya; Ma, Jun; Yi, Ming
2009-05-01
Based on the Tang-Othmer Ca2+ model, the drift behavior of intracellular Ca2+ spiral waves under the influence of weak electric field is investigated. Numerical results show that the dependence of drift velocity of the spiral tip on dc electric field is similar to experimental observations in BZ system. When an ac electric field is applied, interesting resonant-drift phenomenon is observed with ω = 2Ω0. All results can be explained analytically using a proximate method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fung, Shing
2007-01-01
By analyzing CRRES and GOES observations on Aug. 27 1991, Tan et al. [2004] reported evidence of magnetospheric relativistic electron acceleration by resonant interactions with PC5 ULF waves. The event showed strong ULF wave activities after a storm sudden commencement (SSC) and energetic electron fluxes were enhanced in 2 hours. The electron flux peak observed in energy channels (0.6 - 1.1 MeV) were modulated by local electric field observed by CRRES. In this study, we set up a drift-resonant interaction model between ULF wave and magnetospheric relativistic electrons to model the observed electron flux in the event. In this model, the poloidal mode wave is concentrated in the dayside and the toroidal mode wave is concentrated in two flanks. The toroidal mode waves in the dawn and dusk flanks are in anti-phase. We found that electron can be accelerated jointly by the poloidal wave in the dayside and toroidal wave in flanks. The dayside poloidal wave serves as the dominant source of electron acceleration. The simulated electron flux variations agree well with observations both in fine details and long period behavior. These agreements in electron behavior indicate that the ULF wave plays an important role in accelerating MeV relativistic electrons around the geosynchronous orbit.
Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubin, Daniel H. E.
2015-11-01
This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.
On wave stability in relativistic cosmic-ray hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, G. M.
1989-01-01
Wave stability of a two-fluid hydrodynamical model describing the acceleration of cosmic rays by the first-order Fermi mechanism in relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shocks is investigated. For a uniform background state, the short- and long-wavelength wave speeds are shown to interlace, thus assuring wave stability in this case. A JWKB analysis is performed to investigate the stability of short-wavelength thermal gas sound waves in the smooth, decelerating supersonic flow upstream of a relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shock. The stability of the waves is assessed both in terms of the fluid velocity and density perturbations, as well as in terms of the wave action. The stability and interaction of the short-wavelength cosmic-ray coherent mode with the background flow is also studied.
Validation study of a drift-wave turbulence model for CSDX linear plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaezi, P.; Holland, C.; Thakur, S. C.; Tynan, G. R.
2017-09-01
A validation study of self-regulating drift-wave turbulence/zonal flow dynamics in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment linear plasma device using Langmuir probe synthetic diagnostics is presented in this paper. We use a set of nonlocal 3D equations, which evolve density, vorticity, and electron temperature fluctuations, and include proper sheath boundary conditions. Nonlinear simulations of these equations are carried out using BOUndary Turbulence (BOUT++) framework. To identify the dominant parametric dependencies of the model, a linear growth rate sensitivity analysis is performed using input parameter uncertainties, which are taken from the experimental measurements. For the direct comparison of nonlinear simulation results to experiment, we use synthetic Langmuir probe diagnostics to generate a set of synthetic ion saturation current and floating potential fluctuations. In addition, comparisons of azimuthal velocities determined via time-delay estimation, and nonlinear energy transfer are shown. We observe a significant improvement of model-experiment agreement relative to the previous 2D simulations. An essential component of this improved agreement is found to be the effect of electron temperature fluctuations on floating potential measurements, which introduces clear amplitude and phase shifts relative to the plasma potential fluctuations in synthetically measured quantities, where the simulations capture the experimental measurements in the core of plasma. However, the simulations overpredict the fluctuation levels at larger radii. Moreover, systematic simulation scans show that the self-generated E × B zonal flows profile is very sensitive to the steepening of density equilibrium profile. This suggests that evolving both fluctuations and equilibrium profiles, along with the inclusion of modest axial variation of radial profiles in the model are needed for further improvement of simulation results against the experimental measurements.
Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould waves: Frequency, functional form, and stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubin, D. H. E.; Ashourvan, A.
2015-10-01
This paper considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability of nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling waves and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L /rp≫1 . In this regime, TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitude, and nonlinear theories that include a small number of harmonics, such as three-wave parametric resonance theory, also fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. It is found that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of three-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. It is found that traveling waves are linearly stable for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to three-wave theory.
Parsa, Behnoosh; Terekhov, Alexander; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L
2017-02-01
We address the nature of unintentional changes in performance in two papers. This first paper tested a hypothesis that unintentional changes in performance variables during continuous tasks without visual feedback are due to two processes. First, there is a drift of the referent coordinate for the salient performance variable toward the actual coordinate of the effector. Second, there is a drift toward minimum of a cost function. We tested this hypothesis in four-finger isometric pressing tasks that required the accurate production of a combination of total moment and total force with natural and modified finger involvement. Subjects performed accurate force-moment production tasks under visual feedback, and then visual feedback was removed for some or all of the salient variables. Analytical inverse optimization was used to compute a cost function. Without visual feedback, both force and moment drifted slowly toward lower absolute magnitudes. Over 15 s, the force drop could reach 20% of its initial magnitude while moment drop could reach 30% of its initial magnitude. Individual finger forces could show drifts toward both higher and lower forces. The cost function estimated using the analytical inverse optimization reduced its value as a consequence of the drift. We interpret the results within the framework of hierarchical control with referent spatial coordinates for salient variables at each level of the hierarchy combined with synergic control of salient variables. The force drift is discussed as a natural relaxation process toward states with lower potential energy in the physical (physiological) system involved in the task.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meek, C. E.; Reid, I. M.
1984-01-01
It has been suggested that the velocities produced by the spaced antenna partial-reflection drift experiment may constitute a measure of the vertical oscillations due to short-period gravity waves rather than the mean horizontal flow. The contention is that the interference between say two scatterers, one of which is traveling upward, and the other down, will create a pattern which sweeps across the ground in the direction (or anti-parallel) of the wave propagation. Since the expected result, viz., spurious drift directions, is seldom, if ever, seen in spaced antenna drift velocities, this speculation is tested in an atmospheric model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu
2014-07-01
The theoretical framework of the general fishbone-like dispersion relation (GFLDR), presented and discussed in the Companion Paper [Phys. Plasmas 21, 072120 (2014)], is applied to cases of practical interest of shear/drift Alfvén waves (SAWs/DAWs) excited by energetic particles (EPs) in toroidal fusion plasmas. These applications demonstrate that the GFLDR provides a unified approach that allows analytical and numerical calculations of stability properties, as well as mode structures and, in general, nonlinear evolutions, based on different models and with different levels of approximation. They also show the crucial importance of kinetic descriptions, accurate geometries and boundary conditions for predicting linear as well as nonlinear SAW/DAW and EP behaviors in burning plasmas. Thus, the GFLDR unified theoretical framework elevates the interpretative capability for both experimental and numerical simulation results.
Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu
2014-07-15
The theoretical framework of the general fishbone-like dispersion relation (GFLDR), presented and discussed in the Companion Paper [Phys. Plasmas 21, 072120 (2014)], is applied to cases of practical interest of shear/drift Alfvén waves (SAWs/DAWs) excited by energetic particles (EPs) in toroidal fusion plasmas. These applications demonstrate that the GFLDR provides a unified approach that allows analytical and numerical calculations of stability properties, as well as mode structures and, in general, nonlinear evolutions, based on different models and with different levels of approximation. They also show the crucial importance of kinetic descriptions, accurate geometries and boundary conditions for predicting linear as well as nonlinear SAW/DAW and EP behaviors in burning plasmas. Thus, the GFLDR unified theoretical framework elevates the interpretative capability for both experimental and numerical simulation results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pfaff, R. F.; Kelley, M. C.; Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B. G.; Baker, K. D.
1987-01-01
The results of electric field and plasma density measurements in the strongly driven daytime equatorial electrojet over Peru, made during the March 1983 Condor electrojet experiment from Punta Lobos, Peru, are discussed together with the rocket instrumentation used for the measurements and the pertinent payload dynamics. The overall characteristics of the irregularity layer observed in situ in the electrojet are described. Special consideration is given to the waves generated by the gradient drift instability (observed between 90 and 106.5 km) and to primary and secondary two-stream waves detected by the two probes on the topside between 103 and 111 km, where the electron current was considered to be strongest.
Stability Design and Response to Waves by Batoids.
Fish, Frank E; Hoffman, Jessica L
2015-10-01
Unsteady flows in the marine environment can affect the stability and locomotor costs of animals. For fish swimming at shallow depths, waves represent a form of unsteady flow. Waves consist of cyclic oscillations, during which the water moves in circular or elliptical orbits. Large gravity waves have the potential to displace fish both cyclically and in the direction of wave celerity for animals floating in the water column or holding station on the bottom. Displacement of a fish can exceed its stability control capability when the size of the wave orbit is equivalent to the size of the fish. Previous research into compensatory behaviors of fishes to waves has focused on pelagic osteichthyan fishes with laterally compressed bodies. However, dorsoventrally compressed batoid rays must also contend with waves. Examination of rays subjected to waves showed differing strategies for stability between pelagic and demersal species. Pelagic cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) would glide through or be transported by waves, maintaining a positive dihedral of the wing-like pectoral fins. Demersal Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) and freshwater rays (Potamotrygon motoro) maintained contact with the bottom and performed compensatory fin motions and body postures. The ability to limit displacement due to wave action by the demersal rays was also a function of the bottom texture. The ability of rays to maintain stability due to wave action suggests mechanisms to compensate for the velocity flux of the water impinging on the large projected area of the enlarged pectoral fins of rays.
Long-range correlations induced by the self-regulation of zonal flows and drift-wave turbulence
Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.
2010-11-15
By means of a unique probe array, the interaction between zonal flows and broad-band drift-wave turbulence has been investigated experimentally in a magnetized toroidal plasma. Homogeneous potential fluctuations on a magnetic flux surface, previously reported as long range correlations, could be traced back to a predator-prey-like interaction between the turbulence and the zonal flow. At higher frequency the nonlocal transfer of energy to the zonal flow is dominant and the low-frequency oscillations are shown to result from the reduced turbulence activity due to this energy loss. This self-regulation process turns out to be enhanced with increased background shear flows.
Boie, R.A.; Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.M.
1980-11-01
The feasibility of using an anode wire and surrounding electrodes in drift chambers as a transmission line for second coordinate readout has been studied. The method is based on propagation of the electromagnetic wave along the anode wire is determined by measurement, in an optimized electronic readout system, of the time difference between the arrivals of the signal to the ends of the wire. The resolution obtained on long wires (approx. 2 meters) is about 2 cm FWHM for minimum ionizing particles at a gas gain of approx. = 10/sup 5/.
Temporal indications of atmospheric stability affecting off-target spray drift in the midsouth U S
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
This study was designed to determine atmospheric conditions favorable for long-distance spray drift deleterious to susceptible crops. A tall meteorological monitoring tower equipped with six precision (and periodically calibrated) thermistors at six heights to 27.4 m and wind speed anemometers at fo...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soto-chavez, A. R.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Gerrard, A. J.; Manweiler, J. W.; Kim, H.
2016-12-01
We report on high beta ( > 1) plasma observations made by the RBSPICE instruments onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. The data presented covers almost two years of continuous measurements (March 9, 2013 to December 31, 2014). This coverage provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify and characterize high-beta plasma occurrences in the inner magnetosphere and their characteristics. It is known that high-beta events involve complex plasma physics dynamics. These events can also have global effects on Earth's magnetosphere. Here we show that on July 6, 2013 (one of many high-beta events) a Pc5 (˜ 2.5 min period) wave was locally generated in the magnetosphere through the drift-mirror instability. We describe the wave characteristics and its effects on particle modulations, specifically ring current ions (˜ 50-500 keV).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.; Xu, Y.
2014-01-01
We study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows and confinement in the framework of resistive drift-wave turbulence. This work was motivated, in parts, by experiments reported at the IAEA 2010 conference (Xu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 062030) which showed a decrease of long-range correlations during the application of RMPs. We derive and apply a zero-dimensional predator-prey model coupling the drift-wave-zonal-mode system (Leconte and Diamond 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 055903) to the evolution of mean quantities. This model has both density-gradient drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. This model allows a description of the full L-H transition evolution with RMPs, including the mean sheared flow evolution. The key results are the following: (i) the L-I and I-H power thresholds both increase with RMP amplitude |\\tilde b_x| , the relative increase of the L-I threshold scales as \\Delta P_LI \\propto |\\tilde b_x|^2 \
Inertialess multilayer film flow with surfactant: Stability and traveling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, J.; Blyth, M. G.
2016-10-01
Multilayer film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an insoluble surfactant is investigated with particular emphasis on determining flow stability and investigating the possibility of traveling-wave solutions. The investigation is conducted for two or three layers under conditions of Stokes flow and, separately, on the basis of a long-wave assumption. A normal mode linear stability analysis for Stokes flow shows that adding surfactant to one of the film surfaces can destabilize an otherwise stable flow configuration. For the long-wave system, periodic traveling-wave branches are detected and traced, revealing solutions with pulselike solitary waves on each film surface traveling in phase with each other, traveling waves with capillary ridge structures, and solutions with two of the film surfaces almost in contact. Time-periodic traveling-wave solutions are also found. The stability of the traveling waves is determined by solving initial-value problems and by computing eigenvalue spectra. Boundary element simulations for Stokes flow confirm the existence of traveling waves outside the long-wave regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakouzi, Elias; Totz, Jan Frederik; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver; Engel, Harald
2016-02-01
Dissipative patterns in excitable reaction-diffusion systems can be strongly affected by spatial heterogeneities. Using the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we show a hysteresis effect in the transition between free and pinned spiral rotation. The latter state involves the rotation around a disk-shaped obstacle with an impermeable and inert boundary. The transition is controlled by changes in light intensity. For permeable heterogeneities of higher excitability, we observe spiral drift along both linear and circular boundaries. Our results confirm recent theoretical predictions and, in the case of spiral drift, are further reproduced by numerical simulations with a modified Oregonator model. Additional simulations with a cardiac model show that orbital motion can also exist in anisotropic and three-dimensional systems.
Nakouzi, Elias; Totz, Jan Frederik; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver; Engel, Harald
2016-02-01
Dissipative patterns in excitable reaction-diffusion systems can be strongly affected by spatial heterogeneities. Using the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we show a hysteresis effect in the transition between free and pinned spiral rotation. The latter state involves the rotation around a disk-shaped obstacle with an impermeable and inert boundary. The transition is controlled by changes in light intensity. For permeable heterogeneities of higher excitability, we observe spiral drift along both linear and circular boundaries. Our results confirm recent theoretical predictions and, in the case of spiral drift, are further reproduced by numerical simulations with a modified Oregonator model. Additional simulations with a cardiac model show that orbital motion can also exist in anisotropic and three-dimensional systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.; Abe, Y.; Steffen, J. E.; Malcolm, P. R.
1985-01-01
Orthogonal probes on a free-flying plasma diagnostics payload are used to study ELF electric disturbances in the auroral ionosphere that are due to the injection of powerful electron beams. Frequency spectrograms are presented for various pitch angles, pulsing characteristics, and other properties of the injected beams; the large scale DC ionospheric convection electric field is measured, together with auroral particle precipitation, visual auroral forms, and ionospheric parameters. In view of the experimental results obtained, it is postulated that the observed ELF waves are in the Alfven and drift modes, and are generated by the positive vehicle potential during beam injection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, A. A.; Zheng, L.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Albert, J.; Elkington, S. R.
2016-12-01
Recent simulations made with the REM (Radiation belt Electron Model, a 3D diffusion code that uses stochastic differential equation methods) show that an enhancement produced by strong chorus-wave interactions will typically be reduced when drift-shell splitting is included in the calculations. Including drift-shell splitting causes the diffusion tensor in adiabatic-invariant coordinates to become fully populated, and at first sight the increased complexity of the corresponding diffusion equation makes it difficult to find a simple interpretation of the simulation results. However, by exploiting a relatively little-known property of matrices under congruence transformations called Sylvester's Law of Inertia, plus some generic features of radiation belt dynamics in the presence of strong chorus waves, a useful theoretical picture emerges that predicts the decreased enhancements and provides useful physical insights into the effects of drift-shell splitting in the presence of chorus waves.
Stabilizing eroding streambanks in sand drift areas of the Lake States.
Edward A. Hansen
1968-01-01
Banks are stabilized to protect adjacent high-value items such as cabins and campgrounds, or to reduce reservoir or lake sedimentation rates. Also, bank stabilization is undertaken as one part of fish habitat improvement programs. Rock rip-rap is the best material for bank stabilization in most cases. It does not deteriorate with time and it blends in well with the...
Lower hybrid drift instability with temperature gradient in a perpendicular shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Y. M.; Wong, H. K.; Wu, C. S.
1983-01-01
Finite beta effects and an electron temperature gradient are included in the present study of the perpendicular bow shock geometry's lower hybrid instability, where the flute mode that is stable at the shock for constant electron temperature is destabilized in the case of a sufficiently great temperature gradient. Numerical solutions are given for cases in which the ion distribution is either drifting Maxwellian or consists of two Maxwellians, to represent the effect of reflected ions at the shock. A discussion is presented of the implications of results obtained for ion and electron heating and electron acceleration at the bow shock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, Ana; Semedo, Alvaro; Behrens, Arno; Weisse, Ralf; Breivik, Øyvind; Saetra, Øyvind; Håkon Christensen, Kai
2016-04-01
The global wave-induced current (the Stokes Drift - SD) is an important feature of the ocean surface, with mean values close to 10 cm/s along the extra-tropical storm tracks in both hemispheres. Besides the horizontal displacement of large volumes of water the SD also plays an important role in the ocean mix-layer turbulence structure, particularly in stormy or high wind speed areas. The role of the wave-induced currents in the ocean mix-layer and in the sea surface temperature (SST) is currently a hot topic of air-sea interaction research, from forecast to climate ranges. The SD is mostly driven by wind sea waves and highly sensitive to changes in the overlaying wind speed and direction. The impact of climate change in the global wave-induced current climate will be presented. The wave model WAM has been forced by the global climate model (GCM) ECHAM5 wind speed (at 10 m height) and ice, for present-day and potential future climate conditions towards the end of the end of the twenty-first century, represented by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) CMIP3 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 3) A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (usually referred to as a ''medium-high emissions'' scenario). Several wave parameters were stored as output in the WAM model simulations, including the wave spectra. The 6 hourly and 0.5°×0.5°, temporal and space resolution, wave spectra were used to compute the SD global climate of two 32-yr periods, representative of the end of the twentieth (1959-1990) and twenty-first (1969-2100) centuries. Comparisons of the present climate run with the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-40 reanalysis are used to assess the capability of the WAM-ECHAM5 runs to produce realistic SD results. This study is part of the WRCP-JCOMM COWCLIP (Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project) effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathias, A. C.; Viana, R. L.; Kroetz, T.; Caldas, I. L.
2017-03-01
Chaotic dynamics in open Hamiltonian dynamical systems typically presents a number of fractal structures in phase space derived from the interwoven structure of invariant manifolds and the corresponding chaotic saddle. These structures are thought to play an important role in the transport properties related to the chaotic motion. Such properties can explain some aspects of the non-uniform nature of the anomalous transport observed in magnetically confined plasmas. Accordingly we consider a theoretical model for the interaction of charged test particles with drift waves. We describe the exit basin structure of the corresponding chaotic orbit in phase space and interpret it in terms of the invariant manifold structure underlying chaotic dynamics. As a result, the exit basin boundary is shown to be a fractal curve, by direct calculation of its box-counting dimension. Moreover, when there are more than two basins, we verify the existence of the Wada property, an extreme form of fractality.
Stability for line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Yohei
2017-04-01
In this paper, we consider the stability for line solitary waves of the two dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation on R ×TL which is one of a high dimensional generalization of Korteweg-de Vries equation, where TL is the torus with the 2 πL period. The orbital and asymptotic stability of the one soliton of Korteweg-de Vries equation on the energy space was proved by Benjamin [2], Pego and Weinstein [41] and Martel and Merle [30]. We regard the one soliton of Korteweg-de Vries equation as a line solitary wave of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation on R ×TL. We prove the stability and the transverse instability of the line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by applying the method of Evans' function and the argument of Rousset and Tzvetkov [44]. Moreover, we prove the asymptotic stability for orbitally stable line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by using the argument of Martel and Merle [30-32] and a Liouville type theorem. If L is the critical period with respect to a line solitary wave, the line solitary wave is orbitally stable. However, since this line solitary wave is a bifurcation point of the stationary equation, the linearized operator of the stationary equation is degenerate. Because of the degeneracy of the linearized operator, we can not show the Liouville type theorem for the line solitary wave by using the usual virial type estimate. To show the Liouville type theorem for the line solitary wave, we modify a virial type estimate.
Furukawa, M.; Tokuda, S.
2012-10-15
A matching method using a finite-width inner region is extended for stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic mode including diamagnetic drift effect. The inclusion of the diamagnetic drift effect is accomplished by a newly developed ordering scheme in the outer region. The ordering scheme enables us to derive a hierarchy of generalized Newcomb equations. Higher-order equations give us correction of outer solution due to the diamagnetic drift effect as well as inertia and resistivity. By this correction, the accuracy of the dispersion relation is improved. Several numerical results are presented to demonstrate good performance of the matching method. Dropping the diamagnetic drift effect in the outer region leads to less accurate results.
Second order kinetic theory of parallel momentum transport in collisionless drift wave turbulence
Li, Yang; Gao, Zhe; Chen, Jiale
2016-08-15
A second order kinetic model for turbulent ion parallel momentum transport is presented. A new nonresonant second order parallel momentum flux term is calculated. The resonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force is the momentum source, while the nonresonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force compensates for that of the nonresonant second order parallel momentum flux. The resonant component of the kinetic momentum flux can be divided into three parts, including the pinch term, the diffusive term, and the residual stress. By reassembling the pinch term and the residual stress, the residual stress can be considered as a pinch term of parallel wave-particle resonant velocity, and, therefore, may be called as “resonant velocity pinch” term. Considering the resonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force is the transfer rate between resonant ions and waves (or, equivalently, nonresonant ions), a conservation equation of the parallel momentum of resonant ions and waves is obtained.
Ion-wave stabilization of an inductively coupled plasma
Camparo, J.C.; Mackay, R.
2006-04-24
Stabilization of the rf power driving an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has implications for fields ranging from atomic clocks to analytical chemistry to illumination technology. Here, we demonstrate a technique in which the plasma itself acts as a probe of radio wave power, and provides a correction signal for active rf-power control. Our technique takes advantage of the resonant nature of forced ion waves in the plasma, and their observation in the ICP's optical emission.
SUNWARD PROPAGATING ALFVÉN WAVES IN ASSOCIATION WITH SUNWARD DRIFTING PROTON BEAMS IN THE SOLAR WIND
He, Jiansen; Pei, Zhongtian; Wang, Linghua; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei; Marsch, Eckart; Salem, Chadi
2015-06-01
Using measurements from the WIND spacecraft, here we report the observation of sunward propagating Alfvén waves (AWs) in solar wind that is magnetically disconnected from the Earth's bow shock. In the sunward magnetic field sector, we find a period lasting for more than three days in which there existed (during most time intervals) a negative correlation between the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations, thus indicating that the related AWs are mainly propagating sunward. Simultaneous observations of counter-streaming suprathermal electrons suggest that these sunward AWs may not simply be due to the deflection of an open magnetic field line. Moreover, no interplanetary coronal mass ejection appears to be associated with the counter-streaming suprathermal electrons. As the scale goes from the magnetohydrodynamic down to the ion kinetic regime, the wave vector of magnetic fluctuations usually becomes more orthogonal to the mean magnetic field direction, and the fluctuations become increasingly compressible, which are both features consistent with quasi-perpendicular kinetic AWs. However, in the case studied here, we find clear signatures of quasi-parallel sunward propagating ion-cyclotron waves. Concurrently, the solar wind proton velocity distribution reveals a sunward field-aligned beam that drifts at about the local Alfvén speed. This beam is found to run in the opposite direction of the normally observed (anti-sunward) proton beam, and is apparently associated with sunward propagating Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves. The results and conclusions of this study enrich our knowledge of solar wind turbulence and foster our understanding of proton heating and acceleration within a complex magnetic field geometry.
Note on the stability of viscous roll waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Blake; Johnson, Mathew A.; Noble, Pascal; Rodrigues, Luis Miguel; Zumbrun, Kevin
2017-02-01
In this note, we announce a complete classification of the stability of periodic roll-wave solutions of the viscous shallow water equations, from their onset at Froude number F ≈ 2 up to the infinite Froude limit. For intermediate Froude numbers, we obtain numerically a particularly simple power-law relation between F and the boundaries of the region of stable periods, which appears potentially useful in hydraulic engineering applications. In the asymptotic regime F → 2 (onset), we provide an analytic expression of the stability boundaries, whereas in the limit F → ∞, we show that roll waves are always unstable.
Stability of Waves in Semiconductor-Ferrite-Metamaterials Waveguide Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shabat, M. M.; Hamada, M. S.; El-Astal, A. H.; Mohammad, H. A. H.
In recent years, the properties of electromagnetic waves propagating in various waveguide structures containing metamaterials have attracted increasing and growing attention. In this paper, the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a layered structure consisting of ferrite film bounded by a semiconductor cover and a metamaterial substrate was analyzed and discussed. The stability of magnetostatic surface waves through mentioned three waveguide structures has been obtained by implementing the perturbation method and the lighthill criteria has also been checked to find out the possibility of existence of magnetostatic envelope Solitons.
Stability of a steady, large amplitude whistler wave.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmadesso, P. J.; Schmidt, G.
1972-01-01
Study of the behavior of weak electrostatic waves in a collisionless magnetoplasma supporting a steady large amplitude whistler wave. All waves are assumed to propagate parallel to a uniform background magnetic field B sub zero. In the presence of the whistler wave fields each particle executes an oscillatory motion parallel to B sub zero, in addition to a translation along B sub zero and transverse motions. This oscillation causes the Landau resonance to be replaced by a series of new resonances between particles and the electrostatic modes. A distribution function for the perturbed plasma is constructed by solving the Vlasov equation, linearized in the electrostatic wave amplitudes. A dispersion relation is obtained and solved approximately for the growth/damping rate of the perturbations. Growing electrostatic modes are found to be approximately uncoupled. Trapped particles have a strong influence on the stability of the system.
Effect of the magnetic field curvature on the generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves
Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Kovalishen, E. A.; Shirokov, M. S.; Tsypin, V. S.; Galvao, R. M. O.
2007-05-15
The generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves is studied with allowance for magnetic curvature effects. The basic plasmadynamic equations relating the electrostatic potential, vector potential, and perturbed plasma density are the vorticity equation, longitudinal Ohm's law, and continuity equation. The basic equations are analyzed by applying a parametric formalism similar to that used in the theory of the generation of convective cells. In contrast to most previous investigations on the subject, consideration is given to primary modes having an arbitrary spectrum rather than to an individual monochromatic wave packet. The parametric approach so modified makes it possible to reveal a new class of instabilities of zonal flows that are analogous to two-stream instabilities in linear theory. It is shown that, in the standard theory of zonal flows, the zonal components of the vector potential and perturbed density are not excited. It is pointed out that zonal flows can be generated both in the case of a magnetic hill and in the case of a magnetic well. In the first case, the instabilities of zonal flows are analogous to negative-mass instabilities in linear theory, and, in the second case, they are analogous to two-stream instabilities.
A tunable low-drift laser stabilized to an atomic reference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leopold, T.; Schmöger, L.; Feuchtenbeiner, S.; Grebing, C.; Micke, P.; Scharnhorst, N.; Leroux, I. D.; López-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Schmidt, P. O.
2016-09-01
We present a laser system with a linewidth and long-term frequency stability at the 50 kHz level. It is based on a Ti:Sapphire laser emitting radiation at 882 nm which is referenced to an atomic transition. For this, the length of an evacuated transfer cavity is stabilized to a reference laser at 780 nm locked to the ^{85}Rb D_2-line via modulation transfer spectroscopy. Gapless frequency tuning of the spectroscopy laser is realized using the sideband-locking technique to the transfer cavity. In this configuration , the linewidth of the spectroscopy laser is derived from the transfer cavity, while the long-term stability is derived from the atomic resonance. Using an optical frequency comb, the frequency stability and linewidth of both lasers are characterized by comparison against an active hydrogen maser frequency standard and an ultra-narrow linewidth laser, respectively. The laser system presented here will be used for spectroscopy of the 1s22s22p 2P_{1/2} - 2P_{3/2} transition in sympathetically cooled Ar^{13+} ions at 441 nm after frequency doubling.
Analogues as a check of predicted drift stability at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Stuckless, J.S.
2006-01-01
Calculations made by the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project as part of the licensing of a proposed geologic repository in southwestern Nevada for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, predict that emplacement tunnels will remain open with little collapse long after ground support has disintegrated. This conclusion includes the effects of anticipated seismic events. Natural analogues cannot provide a quantitative test of this conclusion, but they can provide a reasonableness test by examining the naturally occuring and anthropogenic examples of stability of subterranean openings. Available data from a variety of sources, combined with limited observations by the author, show that natural underground openings tend to resist collapse for millions of years and that anthropogenic subterranean openings have remained open from before recorded history through today. This stability is true even in seismically active areas. In fact, the archaeological record is heavily skewed toward preservation of underground structures relative to those found at the surface.
Natural Analoges as a Check of Predicted Drift Stability at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
J. Stuckless
2006-03-10
Calculations made by the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project as part of the licensing of a proposed geologic repository (in southwestern Nevada) for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, predict that emplacement tunnels will remain open with little collapse long after ground support has disintegrated. This conclusion includes the effects of anticipated seismic events. Natural analogues cannot provide a quantitative test of this conclusion, but they can provide a reasonableness test by examining the natural and anthropogenic examples of stability of subterranean openings. Available data from a variety of sources, combined with limited observations by the author, show that natural underground openings tend to resist collapse for millions of years and that anthropogenic subterranean openings have remained open from before recorded history through today. This stability is true even in seismically active areas. In fact, the archaeological record is heavily skewed toward preservation of underground structures relative to those found at the surface.
Maneva, Y. G.; Araneda, J. A.; Marsch, E.
2014-03-10
We study the preferential heating and differential acceleration of minor ions by dissipation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) generated by parametric instabilities of a finite-amplitude monochromatic Alfvén-cyclotron pump wave. We consider the associated kinetic effects of Landau damping and nonlinear pitch-angle scattering of protons and α particles in the tenuous plasma of coronal holes and the fast solar wind. Various data collected by Wind spacecraft show signatures for a local transverse heating of the minor ions, presumably by Alfvén-cyclotron wave dissipation, and an unexpected parallel heating by a so far unknown mechanism. Here, we present the results from a set of 1.5 dimensional hybrid simulations in search for a plausible explanation for the observed field-aligned kinetic features in the fast solar wind minor ions. We investigate the origin and regulation of ion relative drifts and temperature anisotropies in low plasma β, fast solar wind conditions. Depending on their initial drifts, both ion species can heat up not only transversely through cyclotron resonance and non-resonant wave-particle interactions, but also strongly in the parallel direction by Landau damping of the daughter IAWs. We discuss the dependence of the relative ion drifts and temperature anisotropies on the plasma β of the individual species and we describe the effect of the pump wave amplitude on the ion heating and acceleration.
Batool, Nazia; Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2012-08-15
The effects of nonthermal electron distributions on electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven drift-wave instabilities in the presence of equilibrium density, temperature, and magnetic field gradients are investigated here. By using Braginskii's transport equations for ions and Cairns as well as Kappa distribution for electrons, the coupled mode equations are derived. The modified ITG driven modes are derived, and it is found both analytically as well as numerically that the nonthermal distribution of electrons significantly modify the real frequencies as well as the growth rate of the ITG driven drift wave instability. The growth rate of ion-temperature-gradient driven instability is found to be maximum for Cairns, intermediate for Kappa, and minimum for the Maxwellian distributed electron case. The results of present investigation might be helpful to understand several wave phenomena in space and laboratory plasmas in the presence of nonthermal electrons.
Stability of traveling waves of a diffusive susceptible-infective-removed (SIR) epidemic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan; Li, Wan-Tong; Yang, Yun-Rui
2016-04-01
This paper is concerned with the stability and uniqueness of traveling waves of a delayed diffusive susceptible-infective-removed (SIR) epidemic model. We first prove the exponential stability of traveling waves by using the weighted energy method, where the traveling waves are allowed to be non-monotone. Then we establish the exact asymptotic behavior of traveling waves at -∞ by using Ikehara's theorem. Finally, the uniqueness of traveling waves is proved by the stability result of traveling waves.
Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability
2013-01-01
Background The role of gulls in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American gulls frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed Gull contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American gull and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as gulls. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed Gull virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable “triple reassortant internal gene” core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the
Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability
Hall, Jeffrey S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy; Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien; Ip, Hon S.
2013-01-01
Background: The role of gulls in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American gulls frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed Gull contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American gull and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods: We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results: We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as gulls. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed Gull virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions: This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable "triple reassortant internal gene" core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the
Gas scintillation drift chambers with wave shifter read-out for hard X-ray astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadoulet, Bernard; Lin, Robert P.; Weiss, Steven C.
1987-01-01
A major improvement in hard X-ray and gamma ray astrophysics could be provided by high pressure xenon time projection chambers where gas scintillation is used both for the measurement of the time of interaction and for the detection of the extracted electrons. This allows three dimensional imaging of naturally complex events (photoelectric interaction with escape photon, Compton scatter, and pair production). A novel read-out system based on wave shifter fibers, which is well suited to the high pressures and large areas required of a hard X-ray telescope is proposed. Expected performances are computed, potential problems are outlined, and the experimental effort to solve these problems are described.
Longitudinal stability in multiharmonic standing wave linacs
Carver, L. R.; Jones, R. M.; Jiang, Y.; ...
2016-09-22
Accelerating cavities that excite multiple modes at integer harmonics of the fundamental frequency have the potential to be used to suppress the onset of rf breakdown and reduce the pulsed surface heating at high accelerating gradients. Understanding the effect of an additional harmonic cavity mode on the longitudinal beam dynamics is important to their development and use. A Hamiltonian that describes the longitudinal motion of a particle as it traverses a chain of multiharmonic cavities has been derived and is applied to the case of a second harmonic cavity. The Hamiltonian is based upon formalisms found in literature for themore » fundamental harmonic and is extended to include different longitudinal field distributions and harmonic frequencies. The study initially explores the longitudinal motion for moderate accelerating gradients with high-β protons, as this will allow fundamental properties of the stable region (acceptance and shape of the rf bucket) to be determined. High accelerating gradients are also investigated but the focus will be on phase stability throughout. Finally, this work concludes by considering the longitudinal dynamics of a modified European Spallation Source accelerator, comprised of multiharmonic cavities that has specifications broadly consistent with the accelerator.« less
Longitudinal stability in multiharmonic standing wave linacs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carver, L. R.; Jones, R. M.; Jiang, Y.; Hirshfield, J. L.
2016-09-01
Accelerating cavities that excite multiple modes at integer harmonics of the fundamental frequency have the potential to be used to suppress the onset of rf breakdown and reduce the pulsed surface heating at high accelerating gradients. Understanding the effect of an additional harmonic cavity mode on the longitudinal beam dynamics is important to their development and use. A Hamiltonian that describes the longitudinal motion of a particle as it traverses a chain of multiharmonic cavities has been derived and is applied to the case of a second harmonic cavity. The Hamiltonian is based upon formalisms found in literature for the fundamental harmonic and is extended to include different longitudinal field distributions and harmonic frequencies. The study initially explores the longitudinal motion for moderate accelerating gradients with high-β protons, as this will allow fundamental properties of the stable region (acceptance and shape of the rf bucket) to be determined. High accelerating gradients are also investigated but the focus will be on phase stability throughout. This work concludes by considering the longitudinal dynamics of a modified European Spallation Source accelerator, comprised of multiharmonic cavities that has specifications broadly consistent with the accelerator.
Drift Mode Calculations in Nonaxisymmetric Geometry
G. Rewoldt; L.-P. Ku; W.A. Cooper; W.M. Tang
1999-07-01
A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for nonaxisymmetric (stellarator) geometry, in the electrostatic limit. This calculation is a comprehensive solution of the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities, with a model collision operator. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by temperature gradients and/or trapped particle dynamics are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria generated as part of a design effort for a quasiaxisymmetric stellarator. Comparisons of these results with those obtained for typical tokamak cases indicate that the basic trends are similar.
Stability of traveling wave solutions to the Whitham equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, Nathan; Kodama, Keri; Carter, John D.; Kalisch, Henrik
2014-06-01
The Whitham equation was proposed as an alternate model equation for the simplified description of unidirectional wave motion at the surface of an inviscid fluid. An advantage of the Whitham equation over the KdV equation is that it provides a more faithful description of short waves of small amplitude. Recently, Ehrnström and Kalisch [19] established that the Whitham equation admits periodic traveling-wave solutions. The focus of this work is the stability of these solutions. The numerical results presented here suggest that all large-amplitude solutions are unstable, while small-amplitude solutions with large enough wavelength L are stable. Additionally, periodic solutions with wavelength smaller than a certain cut-off period always exhibit modulational instability. The cut-off wavelength is characterized by kh0=1.145, where k=2π/L is the wave number and h0 is the mean fluid depth.
Stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvo, David C.; Akylas, T. R.
2002-02-01
The stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water is numerically investigated using the full nonlinear water-wave equations with surface tension. Out of the two solution branches that bifurcate at the minimum gravity capillary phase speed, solitary waves of depression are found to be stable both in the small-amplitude limit when they are in the form of wavepackets and at finite steepness when they consist of a single trough, consistent with observations. The elevation-wave solution branch, on the other hand, is unstable close to the bifurcation point but becomes stable at finite steepness as a limit point is passed and the wave profile features two well-separated troughs. Motivated by the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), we also consider the forced problem of a localized pressure distribution applied to the free surface of a stream with speed below the minimum gravity capillary phase speed. We find that the finite-amplitude forced solitary-wave solution branch computed by Vanden-Broeck & Dias (1992) is unstable but the branch corresponding to Rayleigh’s linearized solution is stable, in agreement also with a weakly nonlinear analysis based on a forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The significance of viscous effects is assessed using the approach proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1997): while for free elevation waves the instability predicted on the basis of potential-flow theory is relatively weak compared with viscous damping, the opposite turns out to be the case in the forced problem when the forcing is strong. In this régime, which is relevant to the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), the effects of instability can easily dominate viscous effects, and the results of the stability analysis are used to propose a theoretical explanation for the persistent unsteadiness of the forced wave profiles observed in the experiments.
Nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas
Haque, Q.; Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.
2008-08-15
The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB)-type equation is obtained using the quantum hydrodynamic model in an inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion quantum magnetoplasma with neutral particles in the background. The KdV-type solitary waves, Burgers-type monotonic, and oscillatory shock like solutions are discussed in different limits. The quantum parameter is also dependent on the positron concentration in dense multicomponent plasmas. It is found that both solitary hump and dip are formed and their amplitude and width are dependent on percentage presence of positrons in electron-ion plasmas. The height of the monotonic shock is decreased with the increase of positron concentration and it is independent of the quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion magnetized quantum plasmas. However, the amplitude of the oscillatory shock is dependent on positron concentration and quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion plasmas.
The effects of thunderstorm-generated atmospheric gravity waves on mid-latitude F-region drifts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, V. V.; Parkinson, M. L.; Dyson, P. L.; Burns, G. B.
2009-12-01
Superposed epoch analysis (SEA) was used to examine ionospheric drift velocities measured by a digital ionosonde located at the mid-latitude station Bundoora (145.1°E, 37.7°S geographic), near Melbourne. The control times for the SEA were the times of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning strokes measured from August 2003 to August 2004 by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). Statistically, regions of concentrated lightning activity migrated from west to east across Bundoora, and the stroke frequency was higher the day prior the activity reached the station, and lower on the day after it passed to the east. For the SEA, CG strokes were separated into four directional quadrants centred on north, south, east and west. No SEA results are shown for the south quadrant due to the relatively low detection frequency of strokes across the Southern Ocean (6% of all events). The strongest downward vertical perturbations in F-region drifts, -4.5 m s-1, were found for lightning located towards the west during -30 to -16 h (i.e., the afternoon prior the activity passed near the station at t=0 h). The downward perturbation decreased in amplitude to -1.5 m s-1 for lightning located towards the north during -6-+6 h, and was weakest (-0.7 m s-1) for lightning located towards the east during +16-+28 h (i.e., the next afternoon). There were directionally consistent perturbations in the drift azimuths associated with the lightning located in their respective quadrants; lightning located to the west of the station caused eastward azimuth enhancements, northward lightning caused southward enhancements, and eastward lightning caused westward enhancements. Velocity magnitudes and fluctuations tended to increase during the passage of lightning. The observed responses were stronger when the SEA was performed with data selected using time windows of <2 min on either side of each lightning stroke. However, they persisted at longer time scales and were strong when thunderstorm onsets
A Kinetic Approach to Propagation and Stability of Detonation Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monaco, R.; Bianchi, M. Pandolfi; Soares, A. J.
2008-12-01
The problem of the steady propagation and linear stability of a detonation wave is formulated in the kinetic frame for a quaternary gas mixture in which a reversible bimolecular reaction takes place. The reactive Euler equations and related Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are deduced from the mesoscopic description of the process. The steady propagation problem is solved for a Zeldovich, von Neuman and Doering (ZND) wave, providing the detonation profiles and the wave thickness for different overdrive degrees. The one-dimensional stability of such detonation wave is then studied in terms of an initial value problem coupled with an acoustic radiation condition at the equilibrium final state. The stability equations and their initial data are deduced from the linearized reactive Euler equations and related Rankine-Hugoniot conditions through a normal mode analysis referred to the complex disturbances of the steady state variables. Some numerical simulations for an elementary reaction of the hydrogen-oxygen chain are proposed in order to describe the time and space evolution of the instabilities induced by the shock front perturbation.
On the dependence of travelling wave stability on basic state wave phase speed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manney, Gloria L.
1991-01-01
The dependence of stability on basic state wave phase speed is examined in a nondivergent barotropic model on a sphere for planetary scale waves with phase speeds typical of waves observed in the atmosphere. Triad interactions are examined analytically and compared to numerical results from a full spectral model. A number of triads may result in growth of the perturbation components for each basic state wave; for each triad there is a basic state wave phase speed where it is resonant, identified as the point where the critical amplitude for instability to that perturbation becomes zero. Critical amplitudes for instability obtained using the full spectral model generally agree well with triad results. Since the basic state wave phase speed determines which triad will grow, spatial structure and critical amplitudes for instability for the growing disturbances depend strongly on basic state wave phase speed. The results of this idealized study suggest that phase speed may be an important factor in determining the stability of planetary scale waves in the atmosphere.
A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport
Fonseca, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B.; Sokolov, Igor M.; Caldas, Ibere L.
2016-08-25
Here, a statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic driftwaves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, K_{0}, becomes K_{0}J_{0}($\\hat{p}$), where J_{0} is the zeroth-order Bessel function and $\\hat{p}$ s the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for $\\hat{p}$ , we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturba- tion amplitude K_{0}J_{0}($\\hat{p}$). Using these results, we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), P_{c} provides an upper bound for the escape rate, and that P_{t }rovides a good estimate of the particle trapping rate. Lastly. the analytical results are compared with direct numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of particle transport.
A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport
Fonseca, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B.; Sokolov, Igor M.; ...
2016-08-25
Here, a statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic driftwaves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, K0, becomes K0J0(more » $$\\hat{p}$$), where J0 is the zeroth-order Bessel function and $$\\hat{p}$$ s the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for $$\\hat{p}$$ , we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturba- tion amplitude K0J0($$\\hat{p}$$). Using these results, we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), Pc provides an upper bound for the escape rate, and that Pt rovides a good estimate of the particle trapping rate. Lastly. the analytical results are compared with direct numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of particle transport.« less
A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport
Fonseca, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B.; Sokolov, Igor M.; Caldas, Ibere L.
2016-08-25
Here, a statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic driftwaves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, K_{0}, becomes K_{0}J_{0}($\\hat{p}$), where J_{0} is the zeroth-order Bessel function and $\\hat{p}$ s the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for $\\hat{p}$ , we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturba- tion amplitude K_{0}J_{0}($\\hat{p}$). Using these results, we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), P_{c} provides an upper bound for the escape rate, and that P_{t }rovides a good estimate of the particle trapping rate. Lastly. the analytical results are compared with direct numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of particle transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paraskevov, A. V.; Zendrikov, D. K.
2017-04-01
We show that in model neuronal cultures, where the probability of interneuronal connection formation decreases exponentially with increasing distance between the neurons, there exists a small number of spatial nucleation centers of a network spike, from where the synchronous spiking activity starts propagating in the network typically in the form of circular traveling waves. The number of nucleation centers and their spatial locations are unique and unchanged for a given realization of neuronal network but are different for different networks. In contrast, if the probability of interneuronal connection formation is independent of the distance between neurons, then the nucleation centers do not arise and the synchronization of spiking activity during a network spike occurs spatially uniform throughout the network. Therefore one can conclude that spatial proximity of connections between neurons is important for the formation of nucleation centers. It is also shown that fluctuations of the spatial density of neurons at their random homogeneous distribution typical for the experiments in vitro do not determine the locations of the nucleation centers. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations.
Carniel, S; Umgiesser, G; Sclavo, M; Kantha, L H; Monti, S
2002-01-01
This paper describes the use of numerical models to infer the path of a floating human body in the Ligurian Sea (north-west Mediterranean) during the month of January 2001. The prevailing oceanic currents were obtained from a state-of-the-art real-time nowcast/forecast ocean circulation model, while the sea state was inferred from a numerical model of the surface gravity waves, both driven by regional atmospheric models. The surface currents (from the ocean model) and the drift ones at the ocean surface, as inferred from the wave model, were used to drive a Lagrangian model of the drifting body to deduce its plausible trajectory along the Ligurian coast. The inferred path is reasonably consistent with location and time of the discovery on the French coast. This note illustrates the utility of numerical prediction models at the disposal of modern forensic science in the fields of ocean sciences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curcic, Milan; Chen, Shuyi S.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.
2016-03-01
Hurricane Isaac induced large surface waves and a significant change in upper ocean circulation in the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall at the Louisiana coast on 29 August 2012. Isaac was observed by 194 surface drifters during the Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD). A coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model was used to forecast hurricane impacts during GLAD. The coupled model and drifter observations provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the impacts of hurricane-induced Stokes drift on ocean surface currents. The Stokes drift induced a cyclonic (anticyclonic) rotational flow on the left (right) side of the hurricane and accounted for up to 20% of the average Lagrangian velocity. In a significant deviation from drifter measurements prior to Isaac, the scale-dependent relative diffusivity is estimated to be 6 times larger during the hurricane, which represents a deviation from Okubo's (1971) canonical results for lateral dispersion in nonhurricane conditions at the ocean surface.
Local stability analysis for a planar shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, M. D.
1984-01-01
A procedure to study the local stability of planar shock waves is presented. The procedure is applied to a Rankine-Hugoniot shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, to an isentropic shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, and to Rankine-Hugoniot shocks attached to wedges and cones. It is shown that for each case, the equation governing the shock motion is equivalent to the damped harmonic oscillator equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
C, Santosh K.; Zhang, Chenxi; Hong, Suklyun; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae
2015-09-01
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been investigated extensively for potential application as device materials in recent years. TMDs are found to be stable in trigonal prismatic (H), octahedral (T), or distorted octahedral (Td) coordination of the transition metal. However, the detailed understanding of stabilities of TMDs in a particular phase is lacking. In this work, the detailed TMD phase stability using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) has been investigated to clarify the mechanism of phase stabilities of TMDs, consistent with the experimental observation. Our results indicate that the phase stability of TMDs can be explained considering the relative strength of two competing mechanisms: ligand field stabilization of d-orbitals corresponding to transition metal coordination geometry, and charge density wave (CDW) instability accompanied by a periodic lattice distortion (PLD) causing the phase transition in particular TMDs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ly, Aliou; Szymanski, Benjamin; Bretenaker, Fabien
2015-08-01
We present an experimental technique allowing to stabilize the frequency of the non-resonant wave in a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) down to the kHz level, much below the pump frequency noise level. By comparing the frequency of the non-resonant wave with a reference cavity, the pump frequency noise is imposed to the frequency of the resonant wave and is thus subtracted from the frequency of the non-resonant wave. This permits the non-resonant wave obtained from such a SRO to be simultaneously powerful and frequency stable, which is usually impossible to obtain when the resonant wave frequency is stabilized.
Feedback control for stabilizing chaotic spiral waves during cardiac ventricular fibrillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uzelac, Ilija; Wikswo, John; Gray, Richard
2011-03-01
The cardiac arrhythmias that lead to ventricular fibrillation (VF) arise from electrical spiral waves (SW) rotating within the heart with a characteristic period τ . A single drifting SW can degenerate into a chaotic system of multiple SWs and VF. Hence early SW detection and termination is crucial to prevent VF. Time-delayed feedback control (TDFC) is well known approach for stabilizing unstable periodic orbits embedded in chaotic attractors. We hypothesize that cardiac SWs can be stabilized by TDFC with a time-delay of τ . Implementing this approach will require precise, closed-loop control of the charge delivered to the heart during the defibrillation process. To do this, we have developed a 2 kW arbitrary-waveform voltage-to-current converter (V2CC) with a 1 kHz bandwidth that can deliver up to 5 A at 400 V for 500 ms, and a photodiode system for recording in real time an optical electrocardiogram, OECG(t). The feedback signal driving the V2CC will be the time-difference (OECG(t) - OECG(t-T), where we hypothesize that T is τ , the period of the SW. This may dramatically decrease defibrillation voltages by using a defibrillation waveform customized to the VF event, unlike commercial capacitor defibrillators. Supported in part by NIH R01 HL58241-11 through ARRA 2009.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abraham-Shrauner, B.
1986-01-01
Upper hybrid drift waves are found as a special solution to a Vlasov-Maxwell plasma which has a longitudinal electric field and a perpendicular uniform magnetic field. A single-species plasma with a constant-density mobile neutralizing background supports spatially varying disturbances that oscillate at the upper hybrid frequency. The general functional dependences of the electric field, the plasma number density, and the one-particle distribution function for the special case are found from more general Vlasov-Maxwell equations invariant under a Lie group point transformation. The one-particle distribution function for the plasma is a function of the Liouville invariant, which is the energy in the generalized Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) reference frame, and the momentum in the drift direction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abraham-Shrauner, B.
1986-01-01
Upper hybrid drift waves are found as a special solution to a Vlasov-Maxwell plasma which has a longitudinal electric field and a perpendicular uniform magnetic field. A single-species plasma with a constant-density mobile neutralizing background supports spatially varying disturbances that oscillate at the upper hybrid frequency. The general functional dependences of the electric field, the plasma number density, and the one-particle distribution function for the special case are found from more general Vlasov-Maxwell equations invariant under a Lie group point transformation. The one-particle distribution function for the plasma is a function of the Liouville invariant, which is the energy in the generalized Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) reference frame, and the momentum in the drift direction.
Stability of the Wave Bearing on an Elastic Support
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G., Jr.
2006-01-01
Numerical computation predicts that an elastic support can substantially improve the stability of the wave bearing if the dynamic stiffness and damping of this support are in a specific range of values. To experimentally validate this prediction, the housing of a gas bearing was mounted on elastic O-rings and the threshold of sub-synchronous whirl motion was experimentally observed when the bearing runs unloaded with a rotating speed up to 30,000 RPM. The O-ring system was also dynamically characterized by measuring its stiffness and damping at various frequencies up to 500 Hz. Good correlation exists between the experimental data and numerical prediction.
Stability analysis for extended models of gap solitary waves
Schollmann; Mayer
2000-05-01
A numerical linear stability analysis has been carried out for stationary spatially localized solutions of several systems of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE's) with two and more complex variables. These coupled PDE's have recently been discussed in the literature, mostly in the context of physical systems with a frequency gap in the dispersion relation of their linear excitations, and they are extensions of the Mills-Trullinger gap soliton model. Translational and oscillatory instabilities are identified, and their associated growth rates are computed as functions of certain parameters characterizing the solitary waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golfinopoulos, Theodore
2013-10-01
Experiments indicate that short-wavelength, k⊥ρs ~ 0 . 1 , drift-Alfvénic turbulence plays an important role in C-Mod edge plasma transport. A Quasi-Coherent Mode (QCM, 50 < f < 150 kHz, k⊥ ~ 1 . 5 cm-1) regulates particle and impurity transport in C-Mod's EDA H-modes. A Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM, 150 < f < 500 kHz, k⊥ ~ 1 . 5 cm-1) plays a similar role in I-mode discharges, suppressing the formation of a density pedestal while maintaining a temperature pedestal. ELMs are not present in either confinement regime. With the idea of exciting, probing, and perhaps exploiting this transport behavior, we have developed a novel antenna system to excite drift-Alfvén-like modes at the outer midplane. A winding with a ``shoelace'' geometry is placed ~ 3 - 5 mm from the LCFS. The principal design parameters, k⊥ = 1 . 5 +/- 0 . 1 cm-1 and 45 < f < 300 kHz, match the QCM and WCM properties, so that the antenna induces parallel currents in the boundary plasma that mimic those observed for the intrinsic modes. Phase-locking to intrinsic modes is also accomplished via a custom circuit. The antenna produces perturbations in density and field comparable to amplitudes of the intrinsic QCM. The plasma response exhibits a resonance near the natural QCM frequency, which generally satisfies the drift wave dispersion relation. While a driven B~θ fluctuation is visible throughout the discharge, the driven ñe is only observed during H-mode, though it precedes the onset of the intrinsic QCM. Like the QCM, the driven mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic drift direction and is approximately field-aligned. Recent mirror probe measurements show the intrinsic QCM structure is predominantly drift-Alfvénic, and we might expect the same of the driven mode. However, the induced perturbation is not global, but is localized to field lines which map to the antenna, suggesting a damped response, and direct measurements of the damping rate indicate γ /ω0 ~ 5 %. If the antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Guo, Yunxi
2017-09-01
In this paper, we developed, for the first time, the exact expressions of several periodic travelling wave solutions and a solitary wave solution for a shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude. Then, we present the existence theorem of the global weak solutions. Finally, we prove the stability of solution in L1(R) space for the Cauchy problem of the equation.
Stability of shock waves in high temperature plasmas
Das, Madhusmita; Bhattacharya, Chandrani; Menon, S. V. G.
2011-10-15
The Dyakov-Kontorovich criteria for spontaneous emission of acoustic waves behind shock fronts are investigated for high temperature aluminum and beryllium plasmas. To this end, the Dyakov and critical stability parameters are calculated from Rankine-Hugoniot curves using a more realistic equation of state (EOS). The cold and ionic contributions to the EOS are obtained via scaled binding energy and mean field theory, respectively. A screened hydrogenic model, including l-splitting, is used to calculate the bound electron contribution to the electronic EOS. The free electron EOS is obtained from Fermi-Dirac statistics. Predictions of the model for ionization curves and shock Hugoniot are found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. It is observed that the electronic EOS has significant effect on the stability of the planar shock front. While the shock is stable for low temperatures and pressures, instability sets in as temperature rises. The basic reason is ionization of electronic shells and consequent increase in electronic specific heat. The temperatures and densities of the unstable region correspond to those where electronic shells get ionized. With the correct modeling of bound electrons, we find that shock instability for Al occurs at a compression ratio {approx}5.4, contrary to the value {approx}3 reported in the literature. Free electrons generated in the ionization process carry energy from the shock front, thereby giving rise to spontaneously emitted waves, which decay the shock front.
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.
2016-05-15
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.
2016-05-01
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.
Tsai, Je-Chiang; Sneyd, James
2007-04-01
Traveling waves of calcium are widely observed under the condition that the free cytosolic calcium is buffered. Thus it is of physiological interest to determine how buffers affect the properties of calcium waves. Here we summarise and extend previous results on the existence, uniqueness and stability of traveling wave solutions of the buffered bistable equation, which is the simplest possible model of the upstroke of a calcium wave. Taken together, the results show that immobile buffers do not change the existence, uniqueness or stability of the traveling wave, while mobile buffers can eliminate a traveling wave. However, if a wave exists in the latter case, it remains unique and stable.
Reexamination of dynamical stabilization of matter-wave solitons
Itin, Alexander; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi
2006-09-15
We consider dynamical stabilization of Bose-Einstein condensates by time-dependent modulation of the scattering length. The problem has been studied before by several methods: Gaussian variational approximation, the method of moments, the method of modulated Townes soliton, and the direct averaging of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We summarize these methods and find that the numerically obtained stabilized solution has a different configuration than that assumed by the theoretical methods (in particular a phase of the wave function is not quadratic with r). We show that there is presently no clear evidence for stabilization in a strict sense, because in the numerical experiments only metastable (slowly decaying) solutions have been obtained. In other words, neither numerical nor mathematical evidence for a new kind of soliton solutions has been revealed so far. The existence of the metastable solutions is nevertheless an interesting and complicated phenomenon on its own. We try some non-Gaussian variational trial functions to obtain better predictions for the critical nonlinearity g{sub cr} for metastabilization but other dynamical properties of the solutions remain difficult to predict.
Design of stabilization system for medium wave infrared laser power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zhong-kui; Wang, Lin; Shi, Xue-shun; Xu, Jun
2013-12-01
The 3~5um Medium Wave Infrared(MWIR) laser has gained a lot of attention for its important application values in remote sensing, medical, military and many other fields. However, there are many technical difficulties to fabricate those kind lasers, and the performance of their output power stabilities remain to be improved. In a practical application, the MWIR's output power will be instability when the temperature changes and the current varies. So a system of reducing MWIR power fluctuation should be established. In this paper, a photoelectric system of stabilizing the output power of He-Ne laser is developed, which is designed based on the theory of feedback control. Some primary devices and technologies are presented and the functions of each module are described in detail. Among of those, an auxiliary visible light path is designed to aid to adjust WMIR optical system. A converging lens as spatial filter is employed to eliminate stray light well. Dewar temperature control equipment is also used to reduce circuit noise in IR detector. The power supply of AD conversion circuit is independently designed to avoid the crosstalk caused by the analog section and digital section. Then the system has the advantages of good controllability, stability and high precision after above designation. Finally, the measurement precision of the system is also analyzed and verified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.
2010-01-01
Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves
Ahmad, Yousif; Shun-Shin, Matthew J.; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Petraco, Ricardo; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P.; Sen, Sayan; Davies, Justin E.
2016-01-01
Background— Small drifts in intracoronary pressure measurements (±2 mm Hg) can affect stenosis categorization using pressure indices. This has not previously been assessed for fractional flow reserve (FFR), instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), and whole-cycle distal pressure/proximal pressure (Pd/Pa) indices. Methods and Results—Four hundred forty-seven stenoses were assessed with FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa. Cut point values for significance were predefined as ≤0.8, <0.90, and <0.93, respectively. Pressure wire drift was simulated by offsetting the distal coronary pressure trace by ±2 mm Hg. FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa indices were recalculated and stenosis misclassification quantified. Median (±median absolute deviation) values for FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa were 0.81 (±0.11), 0.90 (±0.07), and 0.93 (±0.06), respectively. For the cut point of FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa, 34.6% (155), 50.1% (224), and 62.2% (278) of values, respectively, lay within ±0.05 U. With ±2 mm Hg pressure wire drift, 21% (94), 25% (110), and 33% (148) of the study population were misclassified with FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa, respectively. Both FFR and iFR had significantly lower misclassification than whole-cycle Pd/Pa (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the diagnostic performance of FFR and iFR (P=0.125). Conclusions— In a substantial proportion of cases, small amounts of pressure wire drift are enough to cause stenoses to change classification. Whole-cycle Pd/Pa is more vulnerable to such reclassification than FFR and iFR. PMID:27076571
Jupiter's winds and Arnol'd's second stability theorem: Slowly moving waves and neutral stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stamp, Andrew P.; Dowling, Timothy E.
1993-01-01
Since the Voyager encounters in 1979, it has been known that Jupiter's cloud-top zonal winds violate the barotropic stability criterion. A vortex-tube stretching analysis of the Voyager wind data indicates that the more general Charney-Stern stability criterion is also violated. On the other hand, the zonal winds determined by tracking cloud features in Hubble Space Telescope images taken in 1991 precisely match the zonal winds determined by tracking cloud features in Voyager images, and it is hard to understand how a complicated zonal wind profile like Jupiter's could be unstable and yet not change at all in 12 years. In fact, there are at least two unknown ways to violate the Charney-Stern stability criterion and still have a stable flow. The better known of these is called Fjortoft's theorem, or Arnol'd's 1st theorem for the case of large-amplitude perturbations. Although the Fjortoft-Arnol'd theorem has been extended from the quasi-geostrophic equations to the primitive equations, the basic requirement that the potential vorticity be an increasing function of streamfunction is opposite to the case found in Jupiter, where the Voyager data indicate that the potential vorticity is a decreasing function of streamfunction. But this second case is precisely that which is covered by Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. In fact, the Voyager data suggest that Jupiter's zonal winds are neutrally stable with respect to Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. Here, we analyze the linear stability problem of a one-parameter family of sinusoidal zonal wind profiles that are close to neutral stability with respect to Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. We find numerically that the most unstable mode is always stationary, which may help to explain the slowly moving mode 10 waves observed on Jupiter. We find that violation of Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem is both necessary and sufficient for instability of sinusoidal profiles. However, there appears to be no simple extension of Arnol'd's 2
Jupiter's winds and Arnol'd's second stability theorem: Slowly moving waves and neutral stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stamp, Andrew P.; Dowling, Timothy E.
1993-01-01
Since the Voyager encounters in 1979, it has been known that Jupiter's cloud-top zonal winds violate the barotropic stability criterion. A vortex-tube stretching analysis of the Voyager wind data indicates that the more general Charney-Stern stability criterion is also violated. On the other hand, the zonal winds determined by tracking cloud features in Hubble Space Telescope images taken in 1991 precisely match the zonal winds determined by tracking cloud features in Voyager images, and it is hard to understand how a complicated zonal wind profile like Jupiter's could be unstable and yet not change at all in 12 years. In fact, there are at least two unknown ways to violate the Charney-Stern stability criterion and still have a stable flow. The better known of these is called Fjortoft's theorem, or Arnol'd's 1st theorem for the case of large-amplitude perturbations. Although the Fjortoft-Arnol'd theorem has been extended from the quasi-geostrophic equations to the primitive equations, the basic requirement that the potential vorticity be an increasing function of streamfunction is opposite to the case found in Jupiter, where the Voyager data indicate that the potential vorticity is a decreasing function of streamfunction. But this second case is precisely that which is covered by Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. In fact, the Voyager data suggest that Jupiter's zonal winds are neutrally stable with respect to Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. Here, we analyze the linear stability problem of a one-parameter family of sinusoidal zonal wind profiles that are close to neutral stability with respect to Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. We find numerically that the most unstable mode is always stationary, which may help to explain the slowly moving mode 10 waves observed on Jupiter. We find that violation of Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem is both necessary and sufficient for instability of sinusoidal profiles. However, there appears to be no simple extension of Arnol'd's 2
Lu, Z. X.
2015-05-15
The complex mixed Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB)-full-wave approach is applied to the 2D mode structure analysis of ion temperature gradient/collisionless trapped electron mode drift waves in tokamak plasmas. The parallel mode structure is calculated with the full-wave approach, while the radial envelope is calculated with the complex WKB method. The tilting of the global mode structure along radius is demonstrated analytically. The effects of the phase and amplitude variation of the radial envelope on the parallel mode structure are included in terms of a complex radial wave vector in the parallel mode equation. It is shown that the radial equilibrium non-uniformity leads to the asymmetry of the parallel mode structure not only in configuration space but also in spectrum space. The mixed approach provides a practical way to analyze the asymmetric component of the global mode structure due to radial equilibrium non-uniformity.
Stability of Brillouin Flow in Slow-Wave Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, David; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoffrey; Wong, Patrick; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Hoff, Brad
2016-10-01
For the first time, we include a slow-wave structure (SWS) to study the stability of Brillouin flow in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. The resonant interaction of the SWS circuit mode and the corresponding smooth-bore diocotron-like mode is found to be the dominant cause for instability, overwhelming the intrinsic negative (positive) mass property of electrons in the inverted (conventional) magnetron geometry. It severely restricts the wavenumber for instability to the narrow range in which the cold tube frequency of the SWS is within a few percent of the corresponding smooth bore diocotron-like mode in the Brillouin flow. This resonant interaction is absent in a smooth bore magnetron. Work supported by ONR N00014-13-1-0566 and N00014-16-1-2353, AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0097, and L-3 Communications Electron Device Division.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, S. B.; Fok, M. C. H.; Li, W.; Komar, C. M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Glocer, A.; Buzulukova, N.
2016-12-01
A flux dropout is a sudden and considerable decrease in the relativistic electron population of the outer radiation belt occurring over timescales of a few hours. A significant dropout of electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 to 7MeV was observed by Van Allen Probes during the storm on June 1, 2013. To understand the physical mechanisms of this dropout, we simulate flux and phase space density of energetic electrons with event specific plasma waves using the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere and Ionosphere (CIMI) model. We update the magnetic field configuration every 30 seconds using the Tsyganenko 2004 empirical magnetic field model. Likewise, the electric field is updated every 10 seconds using a self-consistent convection potential from ring current pressure to reproduce fluctuations comparable to ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. CIMI reproduces the significant dropout with the last closed drift shell estimated to be L* < 5 during this event. The results also show large electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations comparable to the drift period, which can result in outward radial transport of energetic electrons. We conclude that outward radial transport results from electric and magnetic fluctuations and the Dst effect. These effects combine together and result in electron losses for a wide range of energies to the magnetopause and are the primary driver of the deep dropout over a large range of L values.
Stabilization of three-wave vortex beams in the waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gammal, Arnaldo; Malomed, Boris A.
2015-04-01
We consider two-dimensional (2D) localized vortical modes in the three-wave system with the quadratic ({{χ }(2)}) nonlinearity, alias nondegenerate second-harmonic (SH)-generating system, guided by the isotropic harmonic-oscillator (alias parabolic) confining potential. In addition to the straightforward realization in optics, the system models mixed atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates. The main issue is stability of the vortex modes, which is investigated through computation of instability growth rates for eigenmodes of small perturbations, and by means of direct simulations. The threshold of parametric instability for single-color beams, represented solely by the SH with zero vorticity, is found in an analytical form with the help of the variational approximation. Trapped states with vorticities ≤ft( +1,-1,0 \\right) in the two fundamental-frequency components and the SH one (the so-called hidden-vorticity modes) are completely unstable. Also unstable are semi-vortices, with component vorticities ≤ft( 1,0,1 \\right). However, full vortices, with charges ≤ft( 1,1,2 \\right), have a well-defined stability region. Unstable full vortices feature regions of robust dynamical behavior, where they periodically split and recombine, keeping their vortical content.
Dewhurst, J. M.; Hnat, B.; Dendy, R. O.
2009-07-15
The extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations generate fully nonlinear self-consistent solutions for coupled density n and vorticity {nabla}{sup 2}{phi}, where {phi} is electrostatic potential, in a plasma with background density inhomogeneity {kappa}=-{partial_derivative} ln n{sub 0}/{partial_derivative}x and magnetic field strength inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. Finite C introduces interchange effects and {nabla}B drifts into the framework of drift turbulence through compressibility of the ExB and diamagnetic drifts. This paper addresses the direct computation of the radial ExB density flux {gamma}{sub n}=-n{partial_derivative}{phi}/{partial_derivative}y, tracer particle transport, the statistical properties of the turbulent fluctuations that drive {gamma}{sub n} and tracer motion, and analytical underpinnings. Systematic trends emerge in the dependence on C of the skewness of the distribution of pointwise {gamma}{sub n} and in the relative phase of density-velocity and density-potential pairings. It is shown how these effects, together with conservation of potential vorticity {pi}={nabla}{sup 2}{phi}-n+({kappa}-C)x, account for much of the transport phenomenology. Simple analytical arguments yield a Fickian relation {gamma}{sub n}=({kappa}-C)D{sub x} between the radial density flux {gamma}{sub n} and the radial tracer diffusivity D{sub x}, which is shown to explain key trends in the simulations.
Drift mode calculations for the Large Helical Device
G. Rewoldt; L.-P. Ku; W.M. Tang; H. Sugama; N. Nakajima; K.Y. Watanabe; S. Murakami; H. Yamada; W.A. Cooper
2000-06-08
A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for a case for the Large Helical Device (LHD) [A.Iiyoshi, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1998, Nucl.Fusion 39, 1245 (1999)]. This calculation retains the important effects in the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities in the electrostatic limit. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by trapped particle dynamics and ion temperature gradients are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics equilibria reconstructed from experimental measurements. The effects of helically-trapped particles and helical curvature are investigated.
Stability of ion acoustic nonlinear waves and solitons in magnetized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldstein, Piotr; Infeld, Eryk
2016-12-01
Early results concerning the shape and stability of ion acoustic waves are generalized to propagation at an angle to the magnetic field lines. Each wave has a critical angle for stability. Known soliton results are recovered as special cases. A historical overview of the problem concludes the paper.
Orbital stability of periodic traveling-wave solutions for the log-KdV equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natali, Fábio; Pastor, Ademir; Cristófani, Fabrício
2017-09-01
In this paper we establish the orbital stability of periodic waves related to the logarithmic Korteweg-de Vries equation. Our motivation is inspired in the recent work [3], in which the authors established the well-posedness and the linear stability of Gaussian solitary waves. By using the approach put forward recently in [20] to construct a smooth branch of periodic waves as well as to get the spectral properties of the associated linearized operator, we apply the abstract theories in [13] and [25] to deduce the orbital stability of the periodic traveling waves in the energy space.
Stability of negative solitary waves for an integrable modified Camassa-Holm equation
Yin Jiuli; Tian Lixin; Fan Xinghua
2010-05-15
In this paper, we prove that the modified Camassa-Holm equation is Painleve integrable. We also study the orbital stability problem of negative solitary waves for this integrable equation. It is shown that the negative solitary waves are stable for arbitrary wave speed of propagation.
Stability of the magnetosonic wave in a cometary multi-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreekala, G.; Varghese, Anu; Jayakumar, Neethu; Michael, Manesh; Sebastian, Sijo; Venugopal, Chandu
2017-05-01
A generalized dispersion relation of the magnetosonic wave in a four component plasma consisting of electrons and hydrogen ions of solar origin and positively and negatively charged oxygen ions of cometary origin has been derived by using the Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic model. Parallel to the magnetic field, the hydrogen and electron components are modeled by a drifting Maxwellian distribution; perpendicular to the magnetic field, we use a loss cone type distribution obtained by the subtraction of two Maxwellian distributions having different temperatures. The effect of change in the drift velocity of streaming components and number densities and temperatures of each species in driving the instability has been analyzed both analytically and numerically. For typical parameters at comet Halley, we find that both positively and negatively charged oxygen ions can drive the wave unstable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, K.; Amano, T.; Saito, S.; Kamiya, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Matsumoto, Y.
2016-12-01
Terrestrial inner magnetosphere is the region where different plasma regimes over a wide range of energy such as the plasmasphere, ring current, and radiation belt coexist. Among them, the ring current carries most of plasma pressure and is thus responsible for deformation of the magnetic field. Since the deformation changes drift paths of charged particles including the ring current ions, it is important to describe this coupling between the ring current and electric/magnetic fields self-consistently. It is known that short-timescale phenomena such as ULF waves and substorm related ion injections from the plasma sheet play important roles in the inner magnetospheric dynamics during magnetic storms. While ULF waves contribute to the radial transport of relativistic electrons to form the radiation belt, the ion injections contribute to excitation of storm-time Pc5 ULF waves as well as to plasma supply to the ring current from the magnetotail. Aiming at a self-consistent description of the coupling between ring current ions and electric/magnetic fields, we have developed a global ring current model (GEMSIS-RC model). The model is a self-consistent and kinetic numerical simulation code solving the five-dimensional collisionless drift-kinetic equation for the ring-current ions coupled with Maxwell equations. Without assuming a force-balanced equilibrium, the GEMSIS-RC model allows the force-imbalance to exist, which generates induced electric field through the polarization current. In this study, we applied the GEMSIS-RC model for simulation of ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere with a focus on the short-timescale phenomena described above. Comparison between runs with/without ring current ions show that the existence of hot ring current ions can deform and amplify the original sinusoidal waveforms. The deformation causes the energy cascade to higher frequency range (Pc4 and Pc3 ranges). The cascade is more pronounced in high plasma beta cases. It is also shown that
Sharp wave ripples during learning stabilize the hippocampal spatial map.
Roux, Lisa; Hu, Bo; Eichler, Ronny; Stark, Eran; Buzsáki, György
2017-04-10
Cognitive representation of the environment requires a stable hippocampal map, but the mechanisms maintaining a given map are unknown. Because sharp wave-ripples (SPW-R) orchestrate both retrospective and prospective spatial information, we hypothesized that disrupting neuronal activity during SPW-Rs affects spatial representation. Mice learned new sets of three goal locations daily in a multiwell maze. We used closed-loop SPW-R detection at goal locations to trigger optogenetic silencing of a subset of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Control place cells (nonsilenced or silenced outside SPW-Rs) largely maintained the location of their place fields after learning and showed increased spatial information content. In contrast, the place fields of SPW-R-silenced place cells remapped, and their spatial information remained unaltered. SPW-R silencing did not impact the firing rates or proportions of place cells. These results suggest that interference with SPW-R-associated activity during learning prevents stabilization and refinement of hippocampal maps.
Drift suppression in a dual-polarization fiber optic gyroscope caused by the Faraday effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Pan; Li, Xuyou; Guang, Xingxing; Xu, Zhenlong; Ling, Weiwei; Yang, Hanrui
2017-07-01
An investigation of the drift caused by the Faraday effect in a dual-polarization interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) is presented. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the Faraday effect phase drifts in two orthogonal polarizations of polarization-maintaining fiber always have opposite polarities that can be compensated effectively. When the interference signals of the two orthogonal polarized light waves are added up, the bias stability of the IFOG is improved significantly. This study is promising for reducing the drift of IFOG caused by the Faraday effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xaplanteris, Constantine L.
2011-06-01
A suitable modification on the plasma production device makes the plasma column length changeable; the axially propagating wave strikes on the movable circular base of the cavity and the reflected wave is affected enough. A tightening on the azimouthally propagating wave makes the amplitude measurements precarious, and the previous experimental results for fixed cavity length are valid. A strong boundaries' influence on the instability's reinforcement makes clear the need to extend even more the thermonuclear reactor's dimensions. In the present paper, an extended research of plasma parameters has been carried out, a corresponding theoretical model is developed to explain the phenomena and the comparison to the simulated results has been confirmed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogata, D.; Newman, D. E.; Sánchez, R.
2017-07-01
The reduction of turbulent transport across sheared flow regions has been known for a long time in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas. However, details of the dynamics are still unclear, in particular, in what refers to the changes caused by the flow on the nature of radial transport itself. In Paper II, we have shown in a simplified model of drift wave turbulence that, when the background profile is allowed to evolve self-consistently with fluctuations, a variety of transport regimes ranging from superdiffusive to subdiffusive open up depending on the properties of the underlying turbulence [D. Ogata et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 052307 (2017)]. In this paper, we show that externally applied sheared flows can, under the proper conditions, cause the transport dynamics to be diffusive or subdiffusive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, Richard
Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72 h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches.
Slosh wave excitation and stability of spacecraft fluid systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.
1990-01-01
The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh waves with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.
On the stability of the moments of the maximum entropy wind wave spectrum
Pena, H.G.
1983-03-01
The stability of some current wind wave parameters as a function of high-frequency cut-off and degrees of freedom of the spectrum has been numerically investigated when computed in terms of the moments of the wave energy spectrum. From the Pierson-Moskovitz wave spectrum type, a sea surface profile is simulated and its wave energy spectrum is estimated by the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM). As the degrees of freedom of the MEM spectral estimation are varied, the results show a much better stability of the wave parameters as compared to the classical periodogram and correlogram spectral approaches. The stability of wave parameters as a function of high-frequency cut-off has the same result as obtained by the classical techniques.
Ince-Strutt stability charts for ship parametric roll resonance in irregular waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao; Yang, He-zhen; Xiao, Fei; Xu, Pei-ji
2017-08-01
Ince-Strutt stability chart of ship parametric roll resonance in irregular waves is conducted and utilized for the exploration of the parametric roll resonance in irregular waves. Ship parametric roll resonance will lead to large amplitude roll motion and even wreck. Firstly, the equation describing the parametric roll resonance in irregular waves is derived according to Grim's effective theory and the corresponding Ince-Strutt stability charts are obtained. Secondly, the differences of stability charts for the parametric roll resonance in irregular and regular waves are compared. Thirdly, wave phases and peak periods are taken into consideration to obtain a more realistic sea condition. The influence of random wave phases should be taken into consideration when the analyzed points are located near the instability boundary. Stability charts for different wave peak periods are various. Stability charts are helpful for the parameter determination in design stage to better adapt to sailing condition. Last, ship variables are analyzed according to stability charts by a statistical approach. The increase of the metacentric height will help improve ship stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Robles, Lucia
2015-04-01
Ocean surface drift is of great relevance to properly model exchange processes between the ocean and the atmosphere. It is also important to better understand the early stages of surface waves development and their implications in the momentum transfer across the sea surface. In this work we study the the onset of surface drift induced by wind and waves through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Momentum transfer through the water surface, waves and surface drift were being measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. In a station in the middle of the tank momentum fluxes were estimated directly through the eddy correlation method to provide reference information for the corresponding surface drift onset recorded at very short fetch. During each experimental run very low wind was set on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0 at the end of each experiment. The 3-d velocity vertical profile is measured with an acoustic sensor (Nortek Vectrino Profiler), with a vertical resolution of 0.1 cm and sampling rate of 100 Hz, over a column of 3.5 cm in length. Under the highest wind conditions a very distinctive shear was detected in the upper 1.5 cm while the strongest surface drift was recorded as about 0.5 cm/s. A rather linear variation of surface drift was observed with depth under cases of low to moderate wind speed. Evolution of the surface drift velocity is analysed and onset behaviour is addressed with particular emphasis in accelerated winds. A strong surface drift is expected to play a major role in the early stages of surface wave spectrum development, which is to be addressed in terms of frequency spectra estimated from a capacitance gauge deployed in the vicinity of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Hong; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ming
2016-04-01
The Doppler effect is a fundamental physical phenomenon observed for waves propagating in vacuum or various media, commonly gaseous or liquid. Here, we report on the occurrence of a Doppler effect in a solid medium. Instead of a real object, a topological soliton, i.e., a magnetic domain wall (DW) traveling in a current-carrying ferromagnetic nanowire, plays the role of the moving wave source. The Larmor precession of the DW in an external field stimulates emission of monochromatic spin waves (SWs) during its motion, which show a significant Doppler effect, comparable to the acoustic one of a train whistle. This process involves two prominent spin-transfer-torque effects simultaneously, the current-driven DW motion and the current-induced SW Doppler shift. The latter gives rise to an interesting feature, i.e., the observed SW Doppler effect appears resulting from a stationary source and a moving observer, contrary to the laboratory frame.
Stabilized high-power laser system for the gravitational wave detector advanced LIGO.
Kwee, P; Bogan, C; Danzmann, K; Frede, M; Kim, H; King, P; Pöld, J; Puncken, O; Savage, R L; Seifert, F; Wessels, P; Winkelmann, L; Willke, B
2012-05-07
An ultra-stable, high-power cw Nd:YAG laser system, developed for the ground-based gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), was comprehensively characterized. Laser power, frequency, beam pointing and beam quality were simultaneously stabilized using different active and passive schemes. The output beam, the performance of the stabilization, and the cross-coupling between different stabilization feedback control loops were characterized and found to fulfill most design requirements. The employed stabilization schemes and the achieved performance are of relevance to many high-precision optical experiments.
3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.
Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.
Stability of a family of travelling wave solutions in a feedforward chain of phase oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanford, O. E., III; Mintchev, S. M.
2015-01-01
Travelling waves are an important class of signal propagation phenomena in extended systems with a preferred direction of information flow. We study the generation of travelling waves in unidirectional chains of coupled oscillators communicating via a phase-dependent pulse-response interaction borrowed from mathematical neuroscience. Within the context of such systems, we develop a widely applicable, jointly numerical and analytical methodology for deducing existence and stability of periodic travelling waves. We provide careful numerical studies that support the existence of a periodic travelling wave solution as well as the asymptotic relaxation of a single oscillator to the wave when it is forced with the wave profile. Using this evidence as an assumption, we analytically prove global stability of waves in the infinite chain, with respect to initial perturbations of downstream sites. This rigorous stability result suggests that asymptotic relaxation to the travelling wave occurs even when the forcing is perturbed from the wave profile, a property of the motivating system that is supported by previous work as well as the convergence of the more sophisticated numerical algorithm that we propose in order to compute a high-precision approximation to the solution. We provide additional numerical studies that show that the wave is part of a one-parameter family, and we illustrate the structural robustness of this family with respect to changes in the coupling strength.
Drift of Scroll Wave Filaments in an Anisotropic Model of the Left Ventricle of the Human Heart
Pravdin, Sergei; Dierckx, Hans; Markhasin, Vladimir S.; Panfilov, Alexander V.
2015-01-01
Scroll waves are three-dimensional vortices which occur in excitable media. Their formation in the heart results in the onset of cardiac arrhythmias, and the dynamics of their filaments determine the arrhythmia type. Most studies of filament dynamics were performed in domains with simple geometries and generic description of the anisotropy of cardiac tissue. Recently, we developed an analytical model of fibre structure and anatomy of the left ventricle (LV) of the human heart. Here, we perform a systematic study of the dynamics of scroll wave filaments for the cases of positive and negative tension in this anatomical model. We study the various possible shapes of LV and different degree of anisotropy of cardiac tissue. We show that, for positive filament tension, the final position of scroll wave filament is mainly determined by the thickness of the myocardial wall but, however, anisotropy attracts the filament to the LV apex. For negative filament tension, the filament buckles, and for most cases, tends to the apex of the heart with no or slight dependency on the thickness of the LV. We discuss the mechanisms of the observed phenomena and their implications for cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:26539486
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo
2017-10-01
A novel multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface is proposed by combining the use of free-surface Green function and Rankine source function. A cylindrical control surface is introduced to subdivide the fluid domain into external and internal domains. Unlike the traditional domain decomposition strategy or multi-block method, the control surface here is not panelized, on which the velocity potential and normal velocity components are analytically expressed as a series of base functions composed of Laguerre function in vertical coordinate and Fourier series in the circumference. Free-surface Green function is applied in the external domain, and the boundary integral equation is constructed on the control surface in the sense of Galerkin collocation via integrating test functions orthogonal to base functions over the control surface. The external solution gives rise to the so-called Dirichlet-to-Neumann [DN2] and Neumann-to-Dirichlet [ND2] relations on the control surface. Irregular frequencies, which are only dependent on the radius of the control surface, are present in the external solution, and they are removed by extending the boundary integral equation to the interior free surface (circular disc) on which the null normal derivative of potential is imposed, and the dipole distribution is expressed as Fourier-Bessel expansion on the disc. In the internal domain, where the Rankine source function is adopted, new boundary integral equations are formulated. The point collocation is imposed over the body surface and free surface, while the collocation of the Galerkin type is applied on the control surface. The present method is valid in the computation of both linear and second-order mean drift wave loads. Furthermore, the second-order mean drift force based on the middle-field formulation can be calculated analytically by using the coefficients of the Fourier-Laguerre expansion.
Spectral stability of periodic waves in the generalized reduced Ostrovsky equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geyer, Anna; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.
2017-02-01
We consider stability of periodic travelling waves in the generalized reduced Ostrovsky equation with respect to co-periodic perturbations. Compared to the recent literature, we give a simple argument that proves spectral stability of all smooth periodic travelling waves independent of the nonlinearity power. The argument is based on the energy convexity and does not use coordinate transformations of the reduced Ostrovsky equations to the semi-linear equations of the Klein-Gordon type.
Spectral stability of periodic waves in the generalized reduced Ostrovsky equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geyer, Anna; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.
2017-07-01
We consider stability of periodic travelling waves in the generalized reduced Ostrovsky equation with respect to co-periodic perturbations. Compared to the recent literature, we give a simple argument that proves spectral stability of all smooth periodic travelling waves independent of the nonlinearity power. The argument is based on the energy convexity and does not use coordinate transformations of the reduced Ostrovsky equations to the semi-linear equations of the Klein-Gordon type.
Asymptotic linear stability of Benney-Luke line solitary waves in 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizumachi, Tetsu; Shimabukuro, Yusuke
2017-09-01
In this paper, we study transverse linear stability of line solitary waves to the two-dimensional Benney-Luke equation which arises in the study of small amplitude long water waves in 3D. In the case where the surface tension is weak or negligible, we find a curve of resonant continuous eigenvalues of the linearized operator in a neighborhood of \
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manney, G. L.; Elson, L. S.; Mechoso, C. R.; Farrara, J. D.
1991-01-01
A barotropic stability model linearized about a zonally symmetric flow is used to examine the stability characteristics of horizontal zonal-mean flow profiles representative of the Southern Hemisphere middle stratosphere during winter and early spring, with emphasis on periods when planetary wave growth appears confined to the stratosphere. Unstable modes of eastward-travelling waves 2 and 3 are found to have period sand spatial structures, similar to observations. Wave-2 and wave-3 momentum fluxes are similar in observations and model results and are consistent with the transfer of kinetic energy from the zonal-mean flow to the wave. When a barotropic model with a zonally symmetric basic flow is used, wave 3 is usually most unstable. Including a stationary wave 1 in the basic flow destabilizes both wave 2 and wave 3, but has little effect on their periods or spatial structures. The similarity between observed fields and model results in a number of cases when wave 2 appears to grow within the stratosphere suggests that in situ instabilities play a role in the evolution of the eastward-traveling wave-2 characteristic of the Southern Hemisphere winter and early spring stratosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mager, Pavel N.; Berngardt, Oleg I.; Klimushkin, Dmitri Yu.; Zolotukhina, Nina A.; Mager, Olga V.
2015-08-01
A continuous experiment was carried out at the Ekaterinburg (EKB) stereoradar of the Russian segment of SuperDARN in order to examine the spatio-temporal characteristics of radar-detected magnetospheric ULF waves. The study of magnetospheric oscillations is based on analysis of scattering from field-aligned F-layer irregularities. Their E × B drift Doppler velocity at F-layer heights is associated with the background electric field in the ionosphere. During the experiment one of the radar channels operates in 0-2 beam scanning, with an integration time of 6 s, which corresponds to the total 18-s time resolution at each beam. This allows detecting magnetospheric ULF waves with periods of 40 s and up. Beam 0 is along the 132 magnetic meridian, so the registered velocity oscillations correspond to the wave electric field azimuthal component. Operation of the radar in this mode was started in December 2013. The first ULF wave events observed in the experiment and presented here occurred on 14 December 2013 and 2 January 2014 in the nightside magnetosphere during two geomagnetic disturbances classified as small magnetic storms and associated with high speed streams from coronal holes. Both the ULF events occurred after substorm-like auroral disturbances. The ULF waves observed during these events are classified as Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations. Two oscillation branches were observed, the higher and the lower frequency ones. As the azimuthal wave numbers m increase, the branches converge and merge into a single oscillation branch at some critical azimuthal wave number value m⋆. This ω(m) dependence is characteristic of the coupled Alfvén and drift-compressional waves which according to theory merge if the azimuthal wave number exceeds some critical value. This merged single oscillation branch represents an unstable drift ballooning coupling mode. Thus, the following interpretation of the observed events can be suggested; at m
Wave Propagation and Stability for Finite Difference Schemes.
1982-05-01
DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRE...numerical errors, ror both smooth and parasitic waves. The reflection and transmission of waves at boundaries and interfaces are then studied at length. The...together this group and for guiding our work with patience and good 1.1 Dispersion relations and modified equatios ... 13 natue. he the stdens inolvd hve
Co-periodic stability of periodic waves in some Hamiltonian PDEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benzoni-Gavage, S.; Mietka, C.; Rodrigues, L. M.
2016-10-01
The stability of periodic traveling wave solutions to dispersive PDEs with respect to ‘arbitrary’ perturbations is still widely open. The focus is put here on stability with respect to perturbations of the same period as the wave, for KdV-like systems of one-dimensional Hamiltonian PDEs. Stability criteria are derived and investigated first in a general abstract framework, and then applied to three basic examples that are very closely related, and ubiquitous in mathematical physics, namely, a quasilinear version of the generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation (qKdV), and the Euler-Korteweg system in both Eulerian coordinates (EKE) and in mass Lagrangian coordinates (EKL). Those criteria consist of a necessary condition for spectral stability, and of a sufficient condition for orbital stability. Both are expressed in terms of a single function, the abbreviated action integral along the orbits of waves in the phase plane, which is the counterpart of the solitary waves moment of instability introduced by Boussinesq. Regarding solitary waves, the celebrated Grillakis-Shatah-Strauss stability criteria amount to looking for the sign of the second derivative of the moment of instability with respect to the wave speed. For periodic waves, the most striking results obtained here can be summarized as: an odd value for the difference between N—the size of the PDE system—and the negative signature of the Hessian of the action implies spectral instability, whereas a negative signature of the same Hessian being equal to N implies orbital stability. Since these stability criteria are merely encoded by the negative signature of matrices, they can at least be checked numerically. Various numerical experiments are presented, which clearly discriminate between stable cases and unstable cases for (qKdV), (EKE) and (EKL).
Christianson, M.
1989-04-01
This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the effects of variation of rock joint parameters on stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical emplacement. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for times of initial excavation and after 50 years heating. 82 refs., 93 figs.
Stability of the solitary wave solutions to a coupled BBM system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hongqiu; Wang, Xiaojun
2016-07-01
In this work, we present a stability criteria for the solitary wave solutions to a BBM system that contains coupled nonlinear terms. Using the idea by Bona, Chen and Karakashian [5] and exploiting the accurate point spectrum information of the associated Schrödinger operator, we improve the stability results previously gotten by Pereira [15].
Orbital stability of periodic traveling wave solutions for the Kawahara equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Andrade, Thiago Pinguello; Cristófani, Fabrício; Natali, Fábio
2017-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the orbital stability of periodic traveling waves for the Kawahara equation. We prove that the periodic traveling wave, under certain conditions, minimizes a convenient functional by using an adaptation of the method developed by Grillakis et al. [J. Funct. Anal. 74, 160-197 (1987)]. The required spectral properties to ensure the orbital stability are obtained by knowing the positiveness of the Fourier transform of the associated periodic wave established by Angulo and Natali [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 40, 1123-1151 (2008)].
The stability of freak waves with regard to external impact and perturbation of initial data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnova, Anna; Shamin, Roman
2014-05-01
We investigate solutions of the equations, describing freak waves, in perspective of stability with regard to external impact and perturbation of initial data. The modeling of freak waves is based on numerical solution of equations describing a non-stationary potential flow of the ideal fluid with a free surface. We consider the two-dimensional infinitely deep flow. For waves modeling we use the equations in conformal variables. The variant of these equations is offered in [1]. Mathematical correctness of these equations was discussed in [2]. These works establish the uniqueness of solutions, offer the effective numerical solution calculation methods, prove the numerical convergence of these methods. The important aspect of numerical modeling of freak waves is the stability of solutions, describing these waves. In this work we study the questions of stability with regards to external impact and perturbation of initial data. We showed the stability of freak waves numerical model, corresponding to the external impact. We performed series of computational experiments with various freak wave initial data and random external impact. This impact means the power density on free surface. In each experiment examine two waves: the wave that was formed by external impact and without one. In all the experiments we see the stability of equation`s solutions. The random external impact practically does not change the time of freak wave formation and its form. Later our work progresses to the investigation of solution's stability under perturbations of initial data. We take the initial data that provide a freak wave and get the numerical solution. In common we take the numerical solution of equation with perturbation of initial data. The computing experiments showed that the freak waves equations solutions are stable under perturbations of initial data.So we can make a conclusion that freak waves are stable relatively external perturbation and perturbation of initial data both. 1
Experimental Evaluation of Journal Bearing Stability and New Gas Wave Bearing Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin
1998-01-01
A gas journal bearing, with a wavy surfaces was tested in a range of speeds up to 18,000 RPM to determine its stability in an unloaded condition as a function of the wave amplitude. The bearing, was 50 mm in diameter, 58 mm long and had 0.01 65 mm radial clearance. Three waves were created on the inner surface by deforming the bearing sleeve. The ratio of the wave amplitude to the radial clearance (the wave amplitude ratio) was varied from zero to 0.3.
Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, R.
2008-01-01
Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72??h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches. ?? 2007 NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).
The Structure and Stability of Three Dimensional Detonation Waves
1990-04-30
stability - a paradigm for flickering diffusion flames’. J. Buckmaster and N. Peters. Proceedings of the 21st (International) Symposium on Combustion...stability of flame-balls: a NEF analysis’ C. J. Lee and J. Buckmaster. 6 Abstracts of Technical Reports. TR1. Diffusion flames on tube burners flicker at...necessary in the age of the supercomputer. The three problems are: the lifting of turbulent diffusion flames; hydrogen flame bubbles (TR7); and nonlinear
Stability of Three-Wave Simplex Estimates of Reliability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coenders, Germa; Saris, Willem E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Andreenkova, Anna
1999-01-01
Illustrates that sampling variance can be very large when a three-wave quasi simplex model is used to obtain reliability estimates. Also shows that, for the reliability parameter to be identified, the model assumes a Markov process. These problems are evaluated with both real and Monte Carlo data. (SLD)
Does the brain make waves to improve stability?
McIntyre, Joseph; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E
2008-04-15
In many ways, roboticians and the human brain are faced with the same problem: How does one control movement from a distance? In both cases, delays in the transmission of information play an important role, either because the distances to be covered are long (imagine controlling a robot arm on the moon from a command center on Earth), or because the underlying hardware is slow (nerves transmit information much more slowly than wires, radio waves or light). Delays have a debilitating effect on feedback control systems; causes and effects can bounce back and forth between distant sites, resulting in oscillatory behavior that can grow without bound. Control engineers have developed the concept of wave variables to combat this problem-by mimicking a flexible rod, wave variables constrain movement of the master and slave during the delay, ensuring stable overall behavior [G. Niemeyer, J.J.E. Slotine, Stable adaptive teleoperation, IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 16 (1991) 152-162; G. Niemeyer, J.J.E. Slotine, Toward bilateral internet teleoperation, in: Beyond Webcams, an Introduction to Online Robots, MIT Press, 2002]. Mother Nature may, however, deserve the patent on this solution. As we show here, the properties of nerves, muscles and sensory organs combine to form a natural wave variable control system that is immune to the problems of feedback delays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocian, Mateusz; Burn, Jeremy F.; Macdonald, John H. G.; Brownjohn, James M. W.
2017-03-01
The subject of this paper pertains to the contentious issue of synchronisation of walking pedestrians to lateral structural motion, which is the mechanism most commonly purported to cause lateral dynamic instability. Tests have been conducted on a custom-built experimental setup consisting of an instrumented treadmill laterally driven by a hydraulic shaking table. The experimental setup can accommodate adaptive pedestrian behaviour via a bespoke speed feedback control mechanism that allows automatic adjustment of the treadmill belt speed to that of the walker. 15 people participated in a total of 137 walking tests during which the treadmill underwent lateral sinusoidal motion. The amplitude of this motion was set from 5 to 15 mm and the frequency was set from 0.54 to 1.1 Hz. A variety of stepping behaviours are identified in the kinematic data obtained using a motion capture system. The most common behaviour is for the timing of footsteps to be essentially unaffected by the structural motion, but a few instances of synchronisation are found. A plausible mechanism comprising an intermediate state between unsynchronised and synchronised pedestrian and structural motion is observed. This mechanism, characterised by a weak form of modulation of the timing of footsteps, could possibly explain the under-estimation of negative damping coefficients in models and laboratory trials compared with previously reported site measurements. The results from tests conducted on the setup for which synchronisation is identified are evaluated in the context of structural stability and related to the predictions of the inverted pendulum model, providing insight into fundamental relations governing pedestrian behaviour on laterally oscillating structures.
Stability of Viscous St. Venant Roll Waves: From Onset to Infinite Froude Number Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Blake; Johnson, Mathew A.; Noble, Pascal; Rodrigues, L. Miguel; Zumbrun, Kevin
2017-02-01
We study the spectral stability of roll wave solutions of the viscous St. Venant equations modeling inclined shallow water flow, both at onset in the small Froude number or "weakly unstable" limit F→ 2^+ and for general values of the Froude number F, including the limit F→ +∞ . In the former, F→ 2^+, limit, the shallow water equations are formally approximated by a Korteweg-de Vries/Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KdV-KS) equation that is a singular perturbation of the standard Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation modeling horizontal shallow water flow. Our main analytical result is to rigorously validate this formal limit, showing that stability as F→ 2^+ is equivalent to stability of the corresponding KdV-KS waves in the KdV limit. Together with recent results obtained for KdV-KS by Johnson-Noble-Rodrigues-Zumbrun and Barker, this gives not only the first rigorous verification of stability for any single viscous St. Venant roll wave, but a complete classification of stability in the weakly unstable limit. In the remainder of the paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the evolution of the stability diagram as Froude number increases to infinity. Notably, we find transition at around F=2.3 from weakly unstable to different, large- F behavior, with stability determined by simple power-law relations. The latter stability criteria are potentially useful in hydraulic engineering applications, for which typically 2.5≤ F≤ 6.0.
Process Stability of Ultrasonic-Wave-Assisted Gas Metal Arc Welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Chenglei; Xie, Weifeng; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao; Fan, Yangyang
2017-10-01
As a newly developed arc welding method, ultrasonic-wave-assisted arc welding successfully introduced power ultrasound into the arc and weld pool, during which the ultrasonic acts on the top of the arc in the coaxial alignment direction. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by using an additional ultrasonic field. Compared with the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW), the welding arc is compressed, the droplet size is decreased, and the droplet transfer frequency is increased significantly in ultrasonic-wave-assisted GMAW (U-GMAW). However, the stability of the metal transfer has deep influence on the welding quality equally, and the ultrasonic wave effect on the stability of the metal transfer is a phenomenon that is not completely understood. In this article, the stabilities of the short-circuiting transfer process and globular transfer process are studied systematically, and the effect of ultrasonic wave on the metal transfer is analyzed further. The transfer frequency and process stability of the U-GMAW process are much higher than those of the conventional GMAW. Analytical results show that the additional ultrasonic wave is helpful for improving welding stability.
Modeling the influence of storms on sand wave formation: A linear stability approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campmans, G. H. P.; Roos, P. C.; de Vriend, H. J.; Hulscher, S. J. M. H.
2017-04-01
We present an idealized process-based morphodynamic model to study the effect of storms on sand wave formation. To this end, we include wind waves, wind-driven flow and, in addition to bed load transport, suspended load sediment transport. A linear stability analysis is applied to systematically study the influence of wave and wind conditions on growth and migration rates of small-amplitude wavy bed undulations. The effects of the wind and waves of various magnitudes and directions are investigated. Waves turn out to decrease the growth rate of sand waves, because their effect on the downhill gravitational transport component is stronger than their growth-enhancing effect. The wind wave effect is strongest for wind waves perpendicular to the tidal current. In the case of a symmetrical tidal current, wind-driven flow tends to breach the symmetry, thus causing sand wave migration. Wind effects on sand wave behavior are strongly influenced by the Coriolis effect, in magnitude as well as direction. Stirring due to wind waves enhances sand wave migration. Next to bed load transport, suspended load also has a growing and a decaying mechanism, being the perturbed flow and the perturbed suspended sediment concentration respectively. The decaying mechanism outcompetes the growing mechanism for bed forms with shorter wavelengths, resulting in an increase in the preferred wavelength. Wind waves increase the growth rate due to suspended load, but this is outcompeted by the reduction in growth rate by wind waves due to bed load transport. We conclude that storms significantly influence sand wave dynamics in their formation stage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrei, C.
2017-08-01
Intact ship stability assessment to prevent stability failure in heavy weather conditions is of paramount importance on board vessel. The possibility of assessment the causes that can lead to loss of ship’s stability as well as the assessment of intact stability in heavy seas is a important problem and has attracted a huge interest of the national and international regulatory authorities. Despite the regulations in force, referring to intact ship stability, many ships continued to lose the stability and or capsize due to failure modes that presently are not covered by such regulations. Based on this aspect has been identified the necessity of modelling an updated criteria for assessment of ship’s stability taking into consideration actual possible situations for loss of stability in heavy seas as a measure of increasing she safety of ships. In this respect, the goal of this paper is to illustrate a possible criteria for assessment ship’s stability in heavy seas through a method of determination the possible problems in a form of dynamic stability criteria. A new intact stability criteria is proposed and developed based on separate levels for assessment of vulnerability and susceptibility of ships in situations of parametric rolling and pure loss of stability encountered in extreme sea conditions. Mathematical models correlated with ship’s construction particulars and weather conditions were developed for every separate level in order to assess the ship’s stability. The objective of the proposed criteria is to bring to officers on board ships the possibility of assessment the ship’s intact stability, as a measure of prevention and improvement of safety during the voyage.
Analysis of a Stabilized CNLF Method with Fast Slow Wave Splittings for Flow Problems
Jiang, Nan; Tran, Hoang A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we study Crank-Nicolson leap-frog (CNLF) methods with fast-slow wave splittings for Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) with a rotation/Coriolis force term, which is a simplification of geophysical flows. We propose a new stabilized CNLF method where the added stabilization completely removes the method's CFL time step condition. A comprehensive stability and error analysis is given. We also prove that for Oseen equations with the rotation term, the unstable mode (for which u(n+1) + u(n-1) equivalent to 0) of CNLF is asymptotically stable. Numerical results are provided to verify the stability and the convergence of the methods.
Analysis of a Stabilized CNLF Method with Fast Slow Wave Splittings for Flow Problems
Jiang, Nan; Tran, Hoang A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we study Crank-Nicolson leap-frog (CNLF) methods with fast-slow wave splittings for Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) with a rotation/Coriolis force term, which is a simplification of geophysical flows. We propose a new stabilized CNLF method where the added stabilization completely removes the method's CFL time step condition. A comprehensive stability and error analysis is given. We also prove that for Oseen equations with the rotation term, the unstable mode (for which u(n+1) + u(n-1) equivalent to 0) of CNLF is asymptotically stable. Numerical results are provided to verify the stability and the convergence of the methods.
Stability of matter-wave solitons in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sk. Golam; Roy, S. K.; Talukdar, B.
2010-08-01
We consider localized states of both single- and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in a potential resulting from the superposition of linear and nonlinear optical lattices and make use of Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion to investigate the effect of nonlinear lattice on the stability of the soliton solutions in the linear optical lattice (LOL). For the single-component case we show that a weak nonlinear lattice has very little effect on the stability of such solitons while sufficiently strong nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) squeezes them to produce narrow bound states. For two-component condensates we find that when the strength of the NOL (γ1) is less than that of the LOL (V0) a relatively weak intra-atomic interaction (IAI) has little effect on the stability of the component solitons. This is true for both attractive and repulsive IAI. A strong attractive IAI, however, squeezes the BEC solitons while a similar repulsive IAI makes the component solitons wider. For γ1 > V0, only a strong attractive IAI squeezes the BEC solitons but the squeezing effect is less prominent than that found for γ1 < V0. We make useful checks on the results of our semianalytical stability analysis by solving the appropriate Gross-Pitaevskii equations numerically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan
2007-09-01
This article deals with the time interval measurement device, which is based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter as a time interpolator. The operating principle is based on the fact that a transversal SAW filter excited by a short pulse can generate a finite signal with highly suppressed spectra outside a narrow frequency band. If the responses to two excitations are sampled at clock ticks, they can be precisely reconstructed from a finite number of samples and then compared so as to determine the time interval between the two excitations. We have designed and constructed a two-channel time interval measurement device which allows independent timing of two events and evaluation of the time interval between them. The device has been constructed using commercially available components. The experimental results proved the concept. We have assessed the single-shot time interval measurement precision of 1.3ps rms that corresponds to the time of arrival precision of 0.9ps rms in each channel. The temperature drift of the measured time interval on temperature is lower than 0.5ps/K, and the long term stability is better than ±0.2ps/h. These are to our knowledge the best values reported for the time interval measurement device. The results are in good agreement with the error budget based on the theoretical analysis.
Spreckelsen, Florian; Hornung, Daniel; Steinbock, Oliver; Parlitz, Ulrich; Luther, Stefan
2015-10-01
Scroll waves in a three-dimensional medium with negative filament tension may break up and display spatiotemporal chaos. The presence of heterogeneities can influence the evolution of the medium, in particular scroll waves may pin to such heterogeneities. We show that as a result the medium may be stabilized by heterogeneities of a suitably chosen geometry. Thin rodlike heterogeneities suppress otherwise developing spatiotemporal chaos and additionally clear out already existing chaotic excitation patterns.
A stability index for detonation waves in Majda’s model for reacting flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyng, Gregory; Zumbrun, Kevin
2004-07-01
Using Evans function techniques, we develop a stability index for weak and strong detonation waves analogous to that developed for shock waves in [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 32 (2001) 929; Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 51 (7) (1998) 797], yielding useful necessary conditions for stability. Here, we carry out the analysis in the context of the Majda model, a simplified model for reacting flow; the method is extended to the full Navier-Stokes equations of reacting flow in [G. Lyng, One dimensional stability of detonation waves, Doctoral Thesis, Indiana University, 2002; G. Lyng, K. Zumbrun, Stability of detonation waves, Preprint, 2003]. The resulting stability condition is satisfied for all nondegenerate, i.e., spatially exponentially decaying, weak and strong detonations of the Majda model in agreement with numerical experiments of [SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 7u (1986) 1059] and analytical results of [Commun. Math. Phys. 204 (3) (1999) 551; Commun. Math. Phys. 202 (3) (1999) 547] for a related model of Majda and Rosales. We discuss also the role in the ZND limit of degenerate, subalgebraically decaying weak detonation and (for a modified, “bump-type” ignition function) deflagration profiles, as discussed in [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 24 (1993) 968; SIAM J. Appl. Math. 55 (1995) 175] for the full equations.
Stabilization of collapsing scroll waves in systems with random heterogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weingard, Daniel; Blanco, Wilfredo; Steinbock, Oliver; Bertram, Richard
2017-04-01
In three-dimensional reaction-diffusion systems, excitation waves may form and rotate around a one-dimensional phase singularity called the filament. If the filament forms a closed curve, it will shrink over time and eventually collapse. However, filaments may pin to non-reactive objects present in the medium, reducing their rate of collapse or even allowing them to persist indefinitely. We use numerical simulations to study how different arrangements of non-reactive spheres affect the dynamics of circular filaments. As the filament contracts, it gets closer to and eventually touches and pins to objects in its path. This causes two possible behaviors. The filament can detach from the spheres in its path, slowing down the rate of contraction, or it can remain pinned to a collection of spheres. In general, more or larger spheres increase the chance that the filament remains pinned, but there are exceptions. It is possible for a small number of small spheres to support the filament and possible for the filament to pass through a large number of large spheres. Our work yields insights into the pinning of scroll waves in excitable tissue such as cardiac muscle, where scar tissue acts in a way similar to the non-reactive domains.
Scale effect of spherical projectiles for stabilization of oblique detonation waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, S.; Sumiya, S.; Kasahara, J.; Matsuo, A.
2015-03-01
Oblique detonation waves (ODWs) were stabilized by launching a spherical projectile with 1.2-1.4 times the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) velocity into detonable mixtures at rest. We used smaller projectiles (3.18 mm diameter) than those (4.76 mm diameter) in our previous studies and investigated the effect of the projectile scale on the stabilization of ODWs. We carried out high time resolution schlieren visualization using a high-speed camera. The detonable mixtures used were stoichiometric oxygen mixtures with acetylene, ethylene or hydrogen. They were diluted with argon with a 50 % volumetric fraction, and a dilute mixture containing 75 % argon was also tested for the acetylene/oxygen mixture. Here, we discuss the detonation stability in terms of the curvature effect arising from the three-dimensional nature of a stabilized ODW around a projectile. The curvature effect attenuated the detonation wave to below its C-J velocity in the vicinity of the projectile before the wave velocity asymptotically reached the C-J velocity in the far field. Our previous study showed that the propagation limit of the curvature effect is responsible for the stabilizing criticality of detonation waves. By obtaining detailed distributions of the wave propagation velocity and radius of curvature at the stabilizing criticality, we showed that the radius of curvature at the local minimum point of the wave propagation velocity represents the critical radius of curvature required for curved self-sustained detonation. In this study, we focused on this critical mode of the stabilized ODW for a small projectile (3.18 mm diameter). Distributions of the wave velocity and radius of curvature were obtained in the critical mode of the stabilized ODW. We compare these distributions with those for a larger projectile (4.76 mm diameter) and discuss the stabilizing criticality. For the small projectile, the observed combustion regimes had qualitatively the same trend for the initial pressure of the mixture
Drift-tearing magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas
Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2008-01-15
A systematic fluid theory of nonlinear magnetic island dynamics in conventional low-{beta}, large aspect-ratio, circular cross-section tokamak plasmas is developed using an extended magnetohydrodynamics model that incorporates diamagnetic flows, ion gyroviscosity, fast parallel electron heat transport, the ion sound wave, the drift wave, and average magnetic field-line curvature. The model excludes the compressible Alfven wave, geodesic field-line curvature, neoclassical effects, and ion Landau damping. A collisional closure is used for plasma dynamics parallel to the magnetic field. Two distinct branches of island solutions are found, namely the 'sonic' and 'hypersonic' branches. Both branches are investigated analytically, using suitable ordering schemes, and in each case the problem is reduced to a relatively simple set of nonlinear differential equations that can be solved numerically via iteration. The solution determines the island phase velocity, relative to the plasma, and the effect of local currents on the island stability. Sonic islands are relatively wide, flatten both the temperature and density profiles, and tend to propagate close to the local ion fluid velocity. Hypersonic islands, on the other hand, are relatively narrow, only flatten the temperature profile, radiate drift-acoustic waves, and tend to propagate close to the local electron fluid velocity. The hypersonic solution branch ceases to exist above a critical island width. Under normal circumstances, both types of island are stabilized by local ion polarization currents.
A Stability Analysis for a Hydrodynamic Three-Wave Journal Bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ene, Nicoleta M.; Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G., Jr.
2007-01-01
The influence of the wave amplitude and oil supply pressure on the dynamic behavior of a hydrodynamic three-wave journal bearing is presented. Both, a transient and a small perturbation technique, were used to predict the threshold to fractional frequency whirl (FFW). In addition, the behavior of the rotor after FFW appeared was determined from the transient analysis. The turbulent effects were also included in the computations. Bearings having a diameter of 30 mm, a length of 27.5 mm, and a clearance of 35 microns were analyzed. Numerical results were compared to experimental results obtained at the NASA GRC. Numerical and experimental results showed that the above-mentioned wave bearing with a wave amplitude ratio of 0.305 operates stably at rotational speeds up to 60,000 rpm, regardless of the oil supply pressure. For smaller wave amplitude ratios, a threshold of stability was found. It was observed that the threshold of stability for lower wave amplitude strongly depends on the oil supply pressure and on the wave amplitude. When the FFW occurs, the journal center maintains its trajectory inside the bearing clearance and therefore the rotor can be run safely without damaging the bearing surfaces.
A Stability Analysis for a Hydrodynamic Three-Wave Journal Bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ene, Nicoleta M.; Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G., Jr.
2007-01-01
The influence of the wave amplitude and oil supply pressure on the dynamic behavior of a hydrodynamic three-wave journal bearing is presented. Both, a transient and a small perturbation technique, were used to predict the threshold to fractional frequency whirl (FFW). In addition, the behavior of the rotor after FFW appeared was determined from the transient analysis. The turbulent effects were also included in the computations. Bearings having a diameter of 30 mm, a length of 27.5 mm, and a clearance of 35 microns were analyzed. Numerical results were compared to experimental results obtained at the NASA GRC. Numerical and experimental results showed that the above-mentioned wave bearing with a wave amplitude ratio of 0.305 operates stably at rotational speeds up to 60,000 rpm, regardless of the oil supply pressure. For smaller wave amplitude ratios, a threshold of stability was found. It was observed that the threshold of stability for lower wave amplitude strongly depends on the oil supply pressure and on the wave amplitude. When the FFW occurs, the journal center maintains its trajectory inside the bearing clearance and therefore the rotor can be run safely without damaging the bearing surfaces.
Gradient Drift Instabilities in Two Dimensional Hybrid Hall Thruster Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aley, Jacob; Dowdy, Caleb; Fernandez, Eduardo
2014-10-01
Instabilities triggered by a variety of mechanisms have been theoretically predicted for Hall thruster plasmas. Experimentally, fluctuations spanning a wide range of frequencies and wave numbers have been observed. Perhaps more importantly, fluctuations have been postulated to play a role in regulating cross-field electron transport in Hall thrusters. However, a clear understanding of what instabilities are responsible for such transport is presently lacking. In this work we focus on analysis of long wavelength gradient drift instability in the Hall thruster via two dimensional hybrid fluid-PIC simulations that resolve azimuthal dynamics. Recent theoretical analysis by Frias et al. shows that previous stability criteria for drift instabilities are modified due to compressibility of the electron flow. In our simulations, we test this improved criterion by examining the transient waves that emerge in the simulation from a smooth initial condition. The simulations give good agreement with the theory, both in the frequency/growth rate characteristics of the waves as well as the region of the thruster where such disturbances are predicted to emerge. These results suggest that gradient drift instabilities play a significant role in Hall thruster plasmas. Jacob Aley, Caleb Dowdy, and Eduardo Fernandez are supported by a grant from the II-VI Foundation.
Nonlinear electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Srivastava, Krishna M.
1993-01-01
Nonlinear analysis of electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is performed. It is shown that the analysis leads to the propagation of the weakly nonlinear dispersive waves, and the nonlinear behavior is governed by the nonlinear Burger's equation.
Traveling waves in natural counterflow filtration combustion and their stability
Schult, D.A.; Bayliss, A.; Matkowsky, B.J.
1998-06-01
The authors consider two-dimensional filtration combustion in a porous medium in which an exothermic reaction takes place between the solid and a pure gaseous oxidant which is delivered to the reaction zone by filtration through the pores of the medium. As a result of the reaction, oxidant is consumed and a solid product is formed. The consumption of gas in the reaction causes a pressure gradient which drives filtration. Since no external forcing is required, this arrangement is termed natural filtration combustion. The samples are assumed to be open to gas permeation at one end with ignition at the other end so that gas flow is opposite to the direction of reaction propagation. This configuration is termed counterflow, so they study natural counterflow filtration combustion. This reaction scheme and configuration describe conditions of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), in which combustion waves are employed to synthesize advanced materials.
PROPAGATION AND STABILITY OF SUPERLUMINAL WAVES IN PULSAR WINDS
Mochol, Iwona; Kirk, John G. E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de
2013-07-01
Nonlinear electromagnetic waves with superluminal phase velocity can propagate in the winds around isolated pulsars, and around some pulsars in binary systems. Using a short-wavelength approximation, we find and analyze an integrable system of equations that govern their evolution in spherical geometry. A confined mode is identified that stagnates to finite pressure at large radius and can form a precursor to the termination shock. Using a simplified criterion, we find this mode is stable for most isolated pulsars, but may be unstable if the external pressure is high, such as in the pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies and in W44. Pulsar winds in eccentric binary systems, such as PSR 1259-63, may go through phases with stable and unstable electromagnetic precursors, as well as phases in which the density is too high for these modes to propagate.
Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...
Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...
Stability of steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on arbitrary shear currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian
2016-04-01
A versatile solver for the two-dimensional Euler equations with an unknown free-surface has been developed. This code offers the possibility to calculate two-dimensional, steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on an arbitrary shear current. Written in PYTHON the code incorporates both pseudo-spectral and finite-difference methods in the discretisation of the equations and thus allows the user to capture waves with large steepnesses. As such it has been possible to establish that, in a counter-flowing situation, the existence of wave solutions is not guaranteed and depends on a pair of parameters representing mass flux and vorticity. This result was predicted, for linear solutions, by Constantin. Furthermore, experimental comparisons, both with and without vorticity, have proven the precision of this code. Finally, waves propagating on top of highly realistic shear currents (exponential profiles under the surface) have been calculated following current profiles such as those used by Nwogu. In addition, a stability analysis routine has been developed to study the stability regimes of base waves calculated with the two-dimensional code. This linear stability analysis is based on three dimensional perturbations of the steady situation which lead to a generalised eigenvalue problem. Common instabilities of the first and second class have been detected, while a third class of wave-instability appears due to the presence of strong vorticity. {1} Adrian Constantin and Walter Strauss. {Exact steady periodic water waves with vorticity}. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 57(4):481-527, April 2004. Okey G. Nwogu. {Interaction of finite-amplitude waves with vertically sheared current fields}. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 627:179, May 2009.
Stability analysis of an interactive system of wave equation and heat equation with memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qiong
2014-10-01
This paper is devoted to the stability analysis of an interaction system comprised of a wave equation and a heat equation with memory, where the hereditary heat conduction is due to Gurtin-Pipkin law or Coleman-Gurtin law. First, we show the strong asymptotic stability of solutions to this system. Then, the exponential stability of the interaction system is obtained when the hereditary heat conduction is of Gurtin-Pipkin type. Further, we show the lack of uniform decay of the interaction system when the heat conduction law is of Coleman-Gurtin type.
Stability and emergence of gravitational waves in the quantum cosmic phantom models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozas-Fernández, Alberto
2017-07-01
We provide an alternative interpretation of the quantum cosmic phantom models, in which the current acceleration of the universe is due to the existence of an entropy of entanglement. Subsequently, we study their stability as well as the emergence of gravitational waves.
Study of a harmonic mode lock stability under external continuous-wave injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semaan, Georges; Komarov, Andrey; Salhi, Mohamed; Sanchez, François
2017-03-01
In this paper, we investigate experimentally the effect of an injected continuous external optical laser in a stable passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser operating in the anomalous dispersion regime. Under specific conditions, the continuous-wave significantly increases the stability of the harmonic mode-locked regime. This occurs for a discrete set of wavelengths and below a critical injected power.
Effects of Mechano-Electric Feedback on Scroll Wave Stability in Human Ventricular Fibrillation
Hu, Yuxuan; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Constantino, Jason; Bayer, Jason D.; Trayanova, Natalia A.
2013-01-01
Recruitment of stretch-activated channels, one of the mechanisms of mechano-electric feedback, has been shown to influence the stability of scroll waves, the waves that underlie reentrant arrhythmias. However, a comprehensive study to examine the effects of recruitment of stretch-activated channels with different reversal potentials and conductances on scroll wave stability has not been undertaken; the mechanisms by which stretch-activated channel opening alters scroll wave stability are also not well understood. The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that recruitment of stretch-activated channels affects scroll wave stability differently depending on stretch-activated channel reversal potential and channel conductance, and to uncover the relevant mechanisms underlying the observed behaviors. We developed a strongly-coupled model of human ventricular electromechanics that incorporated human ventricular geometry and fiber and sheet orientation reconstructed from MR and diffusion tensor MR images. Since a wide variety of reversal potentials and channel conductances have been reported for stretch-activated channels, two reversal potentials, −60 mV and −10 mV, and a range of channel conductances (0 to 0.07 mS/µF) were implemented. Opening of stretch-activated channels with a reversal potential of −60 mV diminished scroll wave breakup for all values of conductances by flattening heterogeneously the action potential duration restitution curve. Opening of stretch-activated channels with a reversal potential of −10 mV inhibited partially scroll wave breakup at low conductance values (from 0.02 to 0.04 mS/µF) by flattening heterogeneously the conduction velocity restitution relation. For large conductance values (>0.05 mS/µF), recruitment of stretch-activated channels with a reversal potential of −10 mV did not reduce the likelihood of scroll wave breakup because Na channel inactivation in regions of large stretch led to conduction block, which
Waves and linear stability of magnetoconvection in a rotating cylindrical annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hori, K.; Takehiro, S.; Shimizu, H.
2014-11-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a rapidly rotating planetary core can cause the magnetic secular variation. To strengthen our understanding of the physical basis, we revisit the linear stability analyses of thermal convection in a quasi-geostrophic rotating cylindrical annulus with an applied toroidal magnetic field, and we extend the investigation of the oscillatory modes to a broader range of the parameters. Particular attention is paid to influence of thermal boundary conditions, either fixed temperature or heat-flux conditions. While the non-dissipative approximation yields a slow wave propagating retrograde, termed as a Magnetic-Coriolis (MC) Rossby wave, dissipative effects produce a variety of waves. When magnetic diffusion is stronger than thermal diffusion, this can cause a very slow wave propagating prograde. Retrograde-traveling slow waves appear when magnetic diffusion is weaker. Emergence of the slow modes allows convection to occur at lower critical Rayleigh numbers than in the nonmagnetic case. When magnetic diffusion is strong, the onset of the convection occurs with the prograde-propagating slow wave, whereas when it is weak, a slow MC-Rossby mode yields the critical convection. Fixed heat-flux boundary conditions have profound effects on the marginal curves, which monotonically increase with the azimuthal wavenumber, and favor larger length scales at the onset of the convection, provided there is sufficient field strength that the Coriolis force is balanced with the Lorentz force. The effect, however, becomes less clear as magnetic diffusion is weakened and various MHD waves emerge.
Stability of Traveling Waves of Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Nonzero Condition at Infinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhengping; Zeng, Chongchun
2016-10-01
We study the stability of traveling waves of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonzero condition at infinity obtained via a constrained variational approach. Two important physical models for this are the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation and the cubic-quintic equation. First, under a non-degeneracy condition we prove a sharp instability criterion for 3D traveling waves of (GP), which had been conjectured in the physical literature. This result is also extended for general nonlinearity and higher dimensions, including 4D (GP) and 3D cubic-quintic equations. Second, for cubic-quintic type nonlinearity, we construct slow traveling waves and prove their nonlinear instability in any dimension. For dimension two, the non-degeneracy condition is also proved for these slow traveling waves. For general traveling waves without vortices (that is nonvanishing) and with general nonlinearity in any dimension, we find a sharp condition for linear instability. Third, we prove that any 2D traveling wave of (GP) is transversally unstable, and we find the sharp interval of unstable transversal wave numbers. Near unstable traveling waves of all of the above cases, we construct unstable and stable invariant manifolds.
Stability of position control of traveling waves in reaction-diffusion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löber, Jakob
2014-06-01
We consider the stability of position control of traveling waves in reaction-diffusion systems as proposed in Löber and Engel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 148305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.148305]. Instead of analyzing the controlled reaction-diffusion system, stability is studied on the reduced level of the equation of motion for the position over time of perturbed traveling waves. We find an interval of perturbations of initial conditions for which position control is stable. This interval can be interpreted as a localized region where traveling waves are susceptible to perturbations. For stationary solutions of reaction-diffusion systems with reflection symmetry, this region does not exist. Analytical results are in qualitative agreement with numerical simulations of the controlled Schlögl model.
Stability of the ground state of a harmonic oscillator in a monochromatic wave.
Berman, Gennady P.; James, Daniel F. V.; Kamenev, Dmitry I.
2001-09-01
The stability of the ground state of a harmonic oscillator in a monochromatic wave is studied. This model describes, in particular, the dynamics of a cold ion in a linear ion trap, interacting with two laser fields with close frequencies. The stability of the "classical ground state"-the vicinity of the point (x=0,p=0)-is analyzed analytically and numerically. For the quantum case, a method for studying a stability of the quantum ground state is developed, based on the quasienergy representation. It is demonstrated that stability of the ground state may be substantially improved by increasing the resonance number, l, where l=Omega/omega+delta, Omega and omega are, respectively, the wave frequency and the oscillator frequency, l=1,2, em leader, mid R:deltamid R:<1; or by detuning the system from exact resonance, so that delta not equal 0. The influence of a large-amplitude wave (in the presence of chaos) on the stability of the ground state is analyzed for different parameters of the model in both the quantum and classical cases. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Floquet analysis of Kuznetsov-Ma breathers: A path towards spectral stability of rogue waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuevas-Maraver, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Karachalios, N. I.; Haragus, M.; James, G.
2017-07-01
In the present work, we aim at taking a step towards the spectral stability analysis of Peregrine solitons, i.e., wave structures that are used to emulate extreme wave events. Given the space-time localized nature of Peregrine solitons, this is a priori a nontrivial task. Our main tool in this effort will be the study of the spectral stability of the periodic generalization of the Peregrine soliton in the evolution variable, namely the Kuznetsov-Ma breather. Given the periodic structure of the latter, we compute the corresponding Floquet multipliers, and examine them in the limit where the period of the orbit tends to infinity. This way, we extrapolate towards the stability of the limiting structure, namely the Peregrine soliton. We find that multiple unstable modes of the background are enhanced, yet no additional unstable eigenmodes arise as the Peregrine limit is approached. We explore the instability evolution also in direct numerical simulations.
The refined inviscid stability condition and cellular instability of viscous shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zumbrun, Kevin
2010-07-01
Combining the work of Serre and Zumbrun, Benzoni-Gavage, Serre, and Zumbrun, and Texier and Zumbrun, we propose as a mechanism for the onset of cellular instability of viscous shock and detonation waves in a finite-cross-section duct, the violation of the refined planar stability condition of Zumbrun-Serre, a viscous correction of the inviscid planar stability condition of Majda. More precisely, we show for a model problem involving flow in a rectangular duct with artificial periodic boundary conditions that transition to multidimensional instability through violation of the refined stability condition of planar viscous shock waves on the whole space generically implies for a duct of sufficiently large cross-section, a cascade of Hopf bifurcations involving more and more complicated cellular instabilities. The refined condition is numerically calculable as described by Benzoni-Gavage-Serre-Zumbrun.
Mammalian spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are amplitude-stabilized cochlear standing waves.
Shera, Christopher A
2003-07-01
Mammalian spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) have been suggested to arise by three different mechanisms. The local-oscillator model, dating back to the work of Thomas Gold, supposes that SOAEs arise through the local, autonomous oscillation of some cellular constituent of the organ of Corti (e.g., the "active process" underlying the cochlear amplifier). Two other models, by contrast, both suppose that SOAEs are a global collective phenomenon--cochlear standing waves created by multiple internal reflection--but differ on the nature of the proposed power source: Whereas the "passive" standing-wave model supposes that SOAEs are biological noise, passively amplified by cochlear standing-wave resonances acting as narrow-band nonlinear filters, the "active" standing-wave model supposes that standing-wave amplitudes are actively maintained by coherent wave amplification within the cochlea. Quantitative tests of key predictions that distinguish the local-oscillator and global standing-wave models are presented and shown to support the global standing-wave model. In addition to predicting the existence of multiple emissions with a characteristic minimum frequency spacing, the global standing-wave model accurately predicts the mean value of this spacing, its standard deviation, and its power-law dependence on SOAE frequency. Furthermore, the global standing-wave model accounts for the magnitude, sign, and frequency dependence of changes in SOAE frequency that result from modulations in middle-ear stiffness. Although some of these SOAE characteristics may be replicable through artful ad hoc adjustment of local-oscillator models, they all arise quite naturally in the standing-wave framework. Finally, the statistics of SOAE time waveforms demonstrate that SOAEs are coherent, amplitude-stabilized signals, as predicted by the active standing-wave model. Taken together, the results imply that SOAEs are amplitude-stabilized standing waves produced by the cochlea acting as a
Stability analysis for acoustic wave propagation in tilted TI media by finite differences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakker, Peter M.; Duveneck, Eric
2011-05-01
Several papers in recent years have reported instabilities in P-wave modelling, based on an acoustic approximation, for inhomogeneous transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axis (TTI media). In particular, instabilities tend to occur if the axis of symmetry varies rapidly in combination with strong contrasts of medium parameters, which is typically the case at the foot of a steeply dipping salt flank. In a recent paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a P-wave modelling approach for TTI media, based on rotated stress and strain tensors, in which the wave equations reduce to a coupled set of two second-order partial differential equations for two scalar stress components: a normal component along the variable axis of symmetry and a lateral component of stress in the plane perpendicular to that axis. Spatially constant density is assumed in this approach. A numerical discretization scheme was proposed which uses discrete second-derivative operators for the non-mixed second-order derivatives in the wave equations, and combined first-derivative operators for the mixed second-order derivatives. This paper provides a complete and rigorous stability analysis, assuming a uniformly sampled grid. Although the spatial discretization operator for the TTI acoustic wave equation is not self-adjoint, this operator still defines a complete basis of eigenfunctions of the solution space, provided that the solution space is somewhat restricted at locations where the medium is elliptically anisotropic. First, a stability analysis is given for a discretization scheme, which is purely based on first-derivative operators. It is shown that the coefficients of the central difference operators should satisfy certain conditions. In view of numerical artefacts, such a discretization scheme is not attractive, and the non-mixed second-order derivatives of the wave equation are discretized directly by second-derivative operators. It is shown that this modification preserves
Linear stability of free planetary waves in the presence of radiative-photochemical feedbacks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathan, Terrence R.; Li, Long
1991-01-01
The diabatic effects of Newtonian cooling and ozone-dynamics interaction on the linear stability of free planetary waves in the atmosphere have been studied using a simple beta-plane model. The model couples radiative transfer, ozone advection, and ozone photochemistry with the quasi-geostrophic dynamical circulation. An analytical expression is derived which demonstrates the following: (1) the influence of meridional ozone advection on wave growth or decay depends on the wave and basic state vertical structures; and (2) photochemically accelerated cooling, which predominates in the upper stratosphere, augments the Newtonian cooling rate and is stabilizing. Attention is also given to the 1D linear stability problem which is numerically solved for a Charney basic state and for zonal mean basic states. It is shown that ozone heating generated by ozone-dynamics interaction in the stratosphere can reduce (enhance) the damping rates due to Newtonian cooling by as much as 50 percent for planetary waves of large vertical scale and maximum amplitude in the stratosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhengping; Luo, Weihua; Lan, Jiaping; Chang, Shanshan
2017-06-01
Recent studies on the equatorial atmosphere-ionosphere coupling system have shown that planetary-wave-type oscillations, as an important seeding mechanism for equatorial spread F (ESF), play an important role in ESF irregularity development and its day-to-day variability in the equatorial latitudes. In this study, ionosonde virtual height and ESF measurements over Sanya (18.4° N, 109.6° E; 12.8° N dip latitude) and meteor radar neutral-wind measurements over Fuke (19.5° N, 109.1° E; 14° N dip latitude) during 2013 are used to investigate the features of planetary-wave-type oscillations in both the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere and their possible influences on ESF occurrence under the weak solar maximum year. The ˜ 3-day and ˜ 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations have been observed in the neutral zonal winds and the time rate of change in F-layer virtual heights. According to the propagation characteristics, the 3-day and 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations are basically recognized as ultrafast and fast Kelvin waves, respectively. With increasing heights, the 3-day wave oscillations are gradually amplified, while the 7-day wave oscillations are generally constant. By performing a cross-wavelet transform on the onsets of ESF and the vertical drifts of the F layer, we found that there are simultaneously occurring 7-day and 3-day common wave oscillations between them. The 7-day waves are mainly in the inversion phase, while the 3-day waves are mostly in an in-phase state, indicating that the 7-day waves may play a main role in ESF initiation. Approximate delays of 6 days for the 7-day waves and 5 days for the 3-day waves in their propagation upward from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere are evaluated with wavelet power spectrum analysis. The estimated upward velocities from these time delays provide consistent evidence that the 7-day and 3-day waves propagate vertically upward with typical Kelvin wave characteristics. The results highlight the
Wave propagation in elastic and damped structures with stabilized negative-stiffness components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drugan, W. J.
2017-09-01
Effects on wave propagation achievable by introduction of a negative-stiffness component are investigated via perhaps the simplest discrete repeating element that can remain stable in the component's presence. When the system is elastic, appropriate tuning of the stabilized component's negative stiffness introduces a no-pass zone theoretically extending from zero to an arbitrarily high frequency, tunable by a mass ratio adjustment. When the negative-stiffness component is tuned to the system's stability limit and a mass ratio is sufficiently small, the system restricts propagation to waves of approximately a single arbitrary frequency, adjustable by tuning the stiffness ratio of the positive-stiffness components. The elastic system's general solutions are closed-form and transparent. When damping is added, the general solutions are still closed-form, but so complex that they do not clearly display how the negative stiffness component affects the system's response and how it should best be tuned to achieve desired effects. Approximate solutions having these features are obtained via four perturbation analyses: one for long wavelengths; one for small damping; and two for small mass ratios. The long-wavelengths solution shows that appropriate tuning of the negative-stiffness component can prevent propagation of long-wavelength waves. The small damping solution shows that the zero-damping low-frequency no-pass zone remains, while waves that do propagate are highly damped when a mass ratio is made small. Finally, very interesting effects are achievable at the full system's stability limit. For small mass ratios, the wavelength range of waves prohibited from propagation can be adjusted, from all to none, by tuning the system's damping: When one mass ratio is small, all waves with wavelengths larger than an arbitrary damping-adjusted value can be prohibited from propagation, while when the inverse of this mass ratio is small, all waves with wavelengths outside an
Stability analysis for two-dimensional ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasmas
Seadawy, A. R.
2014-05-15
The quantum hydrodynamic model is applied to two-dimensional ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasmas. The two-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model is used to obtain a deformed Kortewegde Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive perturbation method. By using the solution of auxiliary ordinary equations, a extended direct algebraic method is described to construct the exact solutions for nonlinear quantum dKdV equation. The present results are describing the generation and evolution of such waves, their interactions, and their stability.
Forecast of iceberg ensemble drift
El-Tahan, M.S.; El-Tahan, H.W.; Venkatesh, S.
1983-05-01
The objectives of the study are to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of iceberg motion and the factors controlling iceberg drift, and to develop an iceberg ensemble drift forecast system to be operated by the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service. An extensive review of field and theoretical studies on iceberg behaviour, and the factors controlling iceberg motion has been carried out. Long term and short term behaviour of icebergs are critically examined. A quantitative assessment of the effects of the factors controlling iceberg motion is presented. The study indicated that wind and currents are the primary driving forces. Coriolis Force and ocean surface slope also have significant effects. As for waves, only the higher waves have a significant effect. Iceberg drift is also affected by iceberg size characteristics. Based on the findings of the study a comprehensive computerized forecast system to predict the drift of iceberg ensembles off Canada's east coast has been designed. The expected accuracy of the forecast system is discussed and recommendations are made for future improvements to the system.
Formation mechanism of steep wave front in magnetized plasmas
Sasaki, M. Kasuya, N.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kobayashi, T.; Arakawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Fukunaga, K.; Yamada, T.; Yagi, M.
2015-03-15
Bifurcation from a streamer to a solitary drift wave is obtained in three dimensional simulation of resistive drift waves in cylindrical plasmas. The solitary drift wave is observed in the regime where the collisional transport is important as well as fluctuation induced transport. The solitary drift wave forms a steep wave front in the azimuthal direction. The phase of higher harmonic modes are locked to that of the fundamental mode, so that the steep wave front is sustained for a long time compared to the typical time scale of the drift wave oscillation. The phase entrainment between the fundamental and second harmonic modes is studied, and the azimuthal structure of the stationary solution is found to be characterized by a parameter which is determined by the deviation of the fluctuations from the Boltzmann relation. There are two solutions of the azimuthal structures, which have steep wave front facing forward and backward in the wave propagation direction, respectively. The selection criterion of these solutions is derived theoretically from the stability of the phase entrainment. The simulation result and experimental observations are found to be consistent with the theoretical prediction.
The stabilization of unstable detonation waves for the mixture of nitromethane/methanol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Utkin, A. V.; Koldunov, S. A.; Mochalova, V. M.; Torunov, S. I.; Lapin, S. M.
2015-11-01
Using a laser interferometer VISAR the measurements of the particle velocity profiles in detonation waves for nitromethane/methanol mixtures with additions of a sensitizer diethylenetriamine were conducted. It is shown that the detonation front in a mixture of nitromethane/methanol is unstable and sensitizer is an effective method for the flow stabilization. If the diluent concentration is less than 10%, the detonation front is stabilized by adding of 1% diethylenetriamine. At higher concentrations of methanol, the sensitizer does not reject instability, but the amplitude of oscillations decreases in several times. An increase of the limit concentration of methanol at the addition of diethylenetriamine to the mixture was found.
Stability of Steep Gravity--Capillary Solitary Waves in Deep Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akylas, T. R.; Calvo, D. C.
2000-11-01
The stability of steep gravity--capillary solitary waves in deep water is numerically investigated using the full nonlinear water-wave equations with surface tension. As was found in prior work based on model equations for small-amplitude solitary waves in shallow water, out of the two solution branches that bifurcate at the minimum gravity--capillary phase speed, solitary waves of depression again turn out to be stable while those of elevation are unstable to small disturbances. Motivated by the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (Phys. Fluids 9:1963--1968, 1997), we also consider the forced problem of a localised pressure distribution applied to the free surface of a stream with speed below the minimum gravity--capillary phase speed. We find that the finite-amplitude forced solitary-wave solution branch computed by Vanden-Broeck & Dias (J. Fluid Mech. 240:549--557, 1992) is unstable but the branch corresponding to Rayleigh's linearised solution is stable. The significance of viscous effects is assessed; the effects of instability in steep waves generally are comparable to, and in some cases greater than, those of dissipation. These findings are discussed in connection with the experimental observations of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang.
Note: Silicon Carbide Telescope Dimensional Stability for Space-based Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanjuah, J.; Korytov, D.; Mueller, G.; Spannagel, R.; Braxmaier, C.; Preston, A.; Livas, J.
2012-01-01
Space-based gravitational wave detectors are conceived to detect gravitational waves in the low frequency range by measuring the distance between proof masses in spacecraft separated by millions of kilometers. One of the key elements is the telescope which has to have a dimensional stability better than 1 pm Hz(exp -1/2) at 3 mHz. In addition, the telescope structure must be light, strong, and stiff. For this reason a potential telescope structure consisting of a silicon carbide quadpod has been designed, constructed, and tested. We present dimensional stability results meeting the requirements at room temperature. Results at -60 C are also shown although the requirements are not met due to temperature fluctuations in the setup.
Note: silicon carbide telescope dimensional stability for space-based gravitational wave detectors.
Sanjuán, J; Korytov, D; Mueller, G; Spannagel, R; Braxmaier, C; Preston, A; Livas, J
2012-11-01
Space-based gravitational wave detectors are conceived to detect gravitational waves in the low frequency range by measuring the distance between proof masses in spacecraft separated by millions of kilometers. One of the key elements is the telescope which has to have a dimensional stability better than 1 pm Hz(-1/2) at 3 mHz. In addition, the telescope structure must be light, strong, and stiff. For this reason a potential telescope structure consisting of a silicon carbide quadpod has been designed, constructed, and tested. We present dimensional stability results meeting the requirements at room temperature. Results at -60 °C are also shown although the requirements are not met due to temperature fluctuations in the setup.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marques, Wilson, Jr.; Jacinta Soares, Ana; Pandolfi Bianchi, Miriam; Kremer, Gilberto M.
2015-06-01
A shock wave structure problem, like the one which can be formulated for the planar detonation wave, is analyzed here for a binary mixture of ideal gases undergoing the symmetric reaction {{A}1}+{{A}1}\\rightleftharpoons {{A}2}+{{A}2}. The problem is studied at the hydrodynamic Euler limit of a kinetic model of the reactive Boltzmann equation. The chemical rate law is deduced in this frame with a second-order reaction rate, in a chemical regime such that the gas flow is not far away from the chemical equilibrium. The caloric and the thermal equations of state for the specific internal energy and temperature are employed to close the system of balance laws. With respect to other approaches known in the kinetic literature for detonation problems with a reversible reaction, this paper aims to improve some aspects of the wave solution. Within the mathematical analysis of the detonation model, the equation of the equilibrium Hugoniot curve of the final states is explicitly derived for the first time and used to define the correct location of the equilibrium Chapman-Jouguet point in the Hugoniot diagram. The parametric space is widened to investigate the response of the detonation solution to the activation energy of the chemical reaction. Finally, the mathematical formulation of the linear stability problem is given for the wave detonation structure via a normal-mode approach, when bidimensional disturbances perturb the steady solution. The stability equations with their boundary conditions and the radiation condition of the considered model are explicitly derived for small transversal deviations of the shock wave location. The paper shows how a second-order chemical kinetics description, derived at the microscopic level, and an analytic deduction of the equilibrium Hugoniot curve, lead to an accurate picture of the steady detonation with reversible reaction, as well as to a proper bidimensional linear stability analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Elliott R.; Parker, Christopher D.; Molvar, Karen M.; Stephan, Karl D.
1992-01-01
A semiconfocal open-cavity resonator has been used to stabilize a resonant-tunneling-diode waveguide oscillator at frequencies near 100 GHz. The high quality factor of the open cavity resulted in a linewidth of approximately 10 kHz at 10 dB below the peak, which is about 100 times narrower than the linewidth of an unstabilized waveguide oscillator. This technique is well suited for resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators in the submillimeter-wave region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, A. J. A.; Souza, M. W. P.
2017-04-01
In this article, we have studied the transmission problem of a system of hyperbolic equations consisting of a free wave equation and a wave equation with dissipation on the boundary, each one acting on a part of its one-dimensional domain. This paper proves the equivalence between the exponential stability previously proven by Liu and Williams (Bull Aust Math Soc 97:305-327, 1998) and the inequality observability on the boundary as a result of this paper. First of all, we have built an auxiliary problem on where we extracted some slogans to be used later. Then we have introduced a number X>0 representing the difference between the speed of wave propagation in each part of the domain, and we proved one observability inequality on the boundary. Finally, we proved the equivalence between the two properties.
Yamanoi, K.; Yokotani, Y.; Cui, X.; Yakata, S.; Kimura, T.
2015-12-21
We have investigated the stability for the resonant spin precession under the strong microwave magnetic field by a specially developed detection method using the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. The electrically separated excitation and detection circuits enable us to investigate the influence of the heating effect and the nonuniform spin dynamics independently. The large detecting current is found to induce the field shift of the resonant spectra because of the Joule heating. From the microwave power dependence, we found that the linear response regime for the standing spin wave is larger than that for the ferromagnetic resonance. This robust characteristic of the standing spin wave is an important advantage for the high power operation of the spin-wave device.
The generalized drift flux approach: Identification of the void-drift closure law
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boure, J. A.
1989-01-01
The main characteristics and the potential advantages of generalized drift flux models are presented. In particular it is stressed that the issue on the propagation properties and on the mathematical nature (hyperbolic or not) of the model and the problem of closure are easier to tackle than in two fluid models. The problem of identifying the differential void-drift closure law inherent to generalized drift flux models is then addressed. Such a void-drift closure, based on wave properties, is proposed for bubbly flows. It involves a drift relaxation time which is of the order of 0.25 s. It is observed that, although wave properties provide essential closure validity tests, they do not represent an easily usable source of quantitative information on the closure laws.
The stability of freely-propagating ion acoustic waves in 2D systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan
2014-10-01
The stability of a freely-propagating ion acoustic wave (IAW) is a basic science problem that is made difficult by the need to resolve electron kinetic effects over a timescale that greatly exceeds the IAW period during numerical simulation. Recent results examining IAW stability using a 1D+1V Vlasov-Poisson solver indicate that instability is a fundamental property of IAWs that occurs over most if not all of the parameter space of relevance to ICF experiments. We present here new results addressing the fundamental question of IAW stability across a broad range of plasma conditions in a 2D+2V system using LOKI, ranging from a regime of relatively weak to a regime of relatively strong ion kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL (DE-AC52-07NA27344) and funded by the LDRD Program at LLNL (12-ERD-061).
Multi-stability of circadian phase wave within early postnatal suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Jeong, Byeongha; Hong, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyun; Choe, Han Kyoung; Kim, Kyungjin; Lee, Kyoung J
2016-02-19
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a group of cells that functions as a biological master clock. In different SCN cells, oscillations of biochemical markers such as the expression-level of clock genes, are not synchronized but instead form slow circadian phase waves propagating over the whole cell population spatio-temporal structure is a fixed property set by the anatomy of a given SCN. Here, we show that this is not the case in early postnatal SCN. Earlier studies presumed that their Based on bioluminescence imaging experiments with Per2-Luciferase mice SCN cultures which guided computer simulations of a realistic model of the SCN, we demonstrate that the wave is not unique but can be in various modes including phase- coherent oscillation, crescent-shaped wave, and most notably, a rotating pinwheel wave that conceptually resembles a wall clock with a rotating hand. Furthermore, mode transitions can be induced by a pulse of 38.5 °C temperature perturbation. Importantly, the waves support a significantly different period, suggesting that neither a spatially-fixed phase ordering nor a specialized pacemaker having a fixed period exist in these studied SCNs. These results lead to new important questions of what the observed multi-stability means for the proper function of an SCN and its arrhythmia.
Multi-stability of circadian phase wave within early postnatal suprachiasmatic nucleus
Jeong, Byeongha; Hong, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyun; Choe, Han Kyoung; Kim, Kyungjin; Lee, Kyoung J.
2016-01-01
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a group of cells that functions as a biological master clock. In different SCN cells, oscillations of biochemical markers such as the expression-level of clock genes, are not synchronized but instead form slow circadian phase waves propagating over the whole cell population spatio-temporal struc- ture is a fixed property set by the anatomy of a given SCN. Here, we show that this is not the case in early postnatal SCN. Earlier studies presumed that their Based on bioluminescence imaging experiments with Per2-Luciferase mice SCN cultures which guided computer simulations of a realistic model of the SCN, we demonstrate that the wave is not unique but can be in various modes including phase- coherent oscillation, crescent-shaped wave, and most notably, a rotating pinwheel wave that conceptually resembles a wall clock with a rotating hand. Furthermore, mode transitions can be induced by a pulse of 38.5 °C temperature perturbation. Importantly, the waves support a significantly different period, suggesting that neither a spatially-fixed phase ordering nor a specialized pacemaker having a fixed period exist in these studied SCNs. These results lead to new important questions of what the observed multi-stability means for the proper function of an SCN and its arrhythmia. PMID:26891917
Non-resonant instability of coupled Alfvén and drift compressional modes in magnetospheric plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mager, Pavel N.; Klimushkin, Dmitri Yu
2017-09-01
A new mechanism of generation of the high-m compressional ULF waves in the magnetosphere is considered. It is suggested that the wave can be generated by the non-resonant instability of coupled Alfvén and drift compressional modes in the energetic component of the magnetospheric plasma. A stability analysis of the of the coupled modes in the inhomogeneous finite-β plasma in the dipole-like field in gyrokinetics is performed. A quadratic equation was obtained that determines mode frequency and the growth rate. The frequencies of both modes depend on the azimuthal wave number, m. The branches are merged at some critical m value, forming a mode with both real and imaginary parts of the wave frequency. This mode is amplified due to the instability called the drift coupling instability. The instability criterion was found. Its growth rate is determined by the mode coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, V. A.; Zhuravskaya, T. A.
2017-03-01
Stabilization of a detonation wave in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture flowing at a supersonic velocity into a plane symmetric channel with constriction has been studied in the framework of a detailed kinetic mechanism of the chemical interaction. Conditions ensuring the formation of a thrust-producing f low with a stabilized detonation wave in the channel are determined. The inf luence of the inf low Mach number, dustiness of the combustible gas mixture supplied to the channel, and output cross-section size on the position of a stabilized detonation wave in the f low has been analyzed with a view to increasing the efficiency of detonation combustion of the gas mixture. It is established that thrust-producing flow with a stabilized detonation wave can be formed in the channel without any energy consumption.
Interaction between a drifting spiral and defects
Zou, X.; Levine, H. ); Kessler, D.A. )
1993-02-01
Spiral waves, a type of reentrant excitation,'' are believed to be associated with the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Recent experimental findings have implicated defective regions as a means of trapping spirals which would otherwise drift and (eventually) disappear. Here, we model the myocardium as a simple excitable medium and study via simulation the interaction between a drifting spiral and one or more such defects. We interpret our results in terms of a criterion for the transition between trapped and untrapped drifting spirals.
Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui
2011-06-01
We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c(*) are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c(*).
Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui
2011-01-01
We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c* such that for each wave speed c ≤ c*, there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c* are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c*. PMID:21572575
Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA
Y. Sun
2004-07-09
The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c).
Geometric phase in the Hopf bundle and the stability of non-linear waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grudzien, Colin J.; Bridges, Thomas J.; Jones, Christopher K. R. T.
2016-11-01
We develop a stability index for the traveling waves of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations using the geometric phase induced on the Hopf bundle S 2 n - 1 ⊂Cn. This can be viewed as an alternative formulation of the winding number calculation of the Evans function, whose zeros correspond to the eigenvalues of the linearization of reaction-diffusion operators about the wave. The stability of a traveling wave can be determined by the existence of eigenvalues of positive real part for the linear operator. Our method of geometric phase for locating and counting eigenvalues is inspired by the numerical results in Way's Dynamics in the Hopf bundle, the geometric phase and implications for dynamical systems Way (2009). We provide a detailed proof of the relationship between the phase and eigenvalues for dynamical systems defined on C2 and sketch the proof of the method of geometric phase for Cn and its generalization to boundary-value problems. Implementing the numerical method, modified from Way (2009), we conclude with open questions inspired from the results.
Numerical Stability Analysis of Linear Wave Propagation in Extended MHD Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Yu; Jardin, Stephen
2006-10-01
Extended MHD (2-fluid) modeling of fusion plasmas using a split semi-implicit time-advance based on a particular high-order finite element with C^1 continuity has been shown to offer significant advantages in efficiency and accuracy[1,2]. However, the method requires the introduction of several viscosity and hyper-viscosity coefficients to provide robust numerical stability. As a code-validation exercise, we report on a systematic study of the simulation of wave propagation in the linear regime. We initialize the simulation in a stable linear eigenmode of the extended MHD equations and follow the evolution to measure the numerical dispersion relation for the 3 sets of MHD waves. We present results showing how the stability, dispersion and dissipation depend on grid size, time step, and the magnitude of the viscosity and hyper-viscosity coefficients. These linear perturbation tests act as useful benchmarks and guides for numerical stability for nonlinear simulations. [1] S. Jardin, J. Comput. Phys. 200 (2004) 133 [2] S. Jardin and J. Breslau, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056101 (2005)
Dynamics and stability of relativistic gamma-ray-bursts blast waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.
2010-09-01
Aims: In gamma-ray-bursts (GRBs), ultra-relativistic blast waves are ejected into the circumburst medium. We analyse in unprecedented detail the deceleration of a self-similar Blandford-McKee blast wave from a Lorentz factor 25 to the nonrelativistic Sedov phase. Our goal is to determine the stability properties of its frontal shock. Methods: We carried out a grid-adaptive relativistic 2D hydro-simulation at extreme resolving power, following the GRB jet during the entire afterglow phase. We investigate the effect of the finite initial jet opening angle on the deceleration of the blast wave, and identify the growth of various instabilities throughout the coasting shock front. Results: We find that during the relativistic phase, the blast wave is subject to pressure-ram pressure instabilities that ripple and fragment the frontal shock. These instabilities manifest themselves in the ultra-relativistic phase alone, remain in full agreement with causality arguments, and decay slowly to finally disappear in the near-Newtonian phase as the shell Lorentz factor drops below 3. From then on, the compression rate decreases to levels predicted to be stable by a linear analysis of the Sedov phase. Our simulations confirm previous findings that the shell also spreads laterally because a rarefaction wave slowly propagates to the jet axis, inducing a clear shell deformation from its initial spherical shape. The blast front becomes meridionally stratified, with decreasing speed from axis to jet edge. In the wings of the jetted flow, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities occur, which are of negligible importance from the energetic viewpoint. Conclusions: Relativistic blast waves are subject to hydrodynamical instabilities that can significantly affect their deceleration properties. Future work will quantify their effect on the afterglow light curves.
An, Z.G.
1982-01-01
Four topics are presented in this dissertation. In chapter one, the electromagnetic cyclotron instabilities occurring in a relativistic electron beam propagating in an external magnetic field are studied by considering the electron motions inside the self-consistent electromagnetic field. When the number of electrons in a subgroup is greater than two, or when the phases are random, the linear dispersion relation obtained agrees with that of Chu et al. for a gyrotron in a ring model. The effects of plasma waves on the electron runaway production rate are studied in chapter two. For a wave packet with a one-dimensional spectrum directed along the electric field and with phase velocity range containing the critical velocity v/sub c/ for runaway, the runaway production rate is found to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. In chapter three the effect of ion waves on the runaway ion production is studied by solving a Fokker-Planck equation with a quasi-linear diffusion operator. It is shown that the presence of a wave packet with a one-dimensional spectrum can considerably enhance the population of the energetic runaway ions. The cylindrical spheromak, an optimal force-free cylindrical plasma configuration, having internal toroidal and poloidal fields and external poloidal field, is analyzed in chapter four for its equilibrium and stability properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ventrice, M.
1979-01-01
The amplification of a Reynolds number dependent process by wave distortion and the possibility of applying the results to other similar Reynolds number dependent processes were investigated. The process investigated was that associated with the operation of a constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer. The application of vaporization limited combustion, the type of combustion typically associated with liquid propellant rocket engines, was studied. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of wave distortion on a Reynolds number dependent process and to establish the analogy between the anemometer process and the combustion process. Parametric trends, behavior common to different chamber geometries, and stability boundaries were identified. The results indicate a high degree of similarity between the two processes and the possibility of using the anemometer system to investigate combustion instability. The nonlinear aspects of a Reynolds number dependent process appear to be the dominant mechanisms controlling instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsokaros, Antonios; Ruiz, Milton; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Baiotti, Luca; Uryō, Kūji
2017-06-01
Targets for ground-based gravitational wave interferometers include continuous, quasiperiodic sources of gravitational radiation, such as isolated, spinning neutron stars. In this work, we perform evolution simulations of uniformly rotating, triaxially deformed stars, the compressible analogs in general relativity of incompressible, Newtonian Jacobi ellipsoids. We investigate their stability and gravitational wave emission. We employ five models, both normal and supramassive, and track their evolution with different grid setups and resolutions, as well as with two different evolution codes. We find that all models are dynamically stable and produce a strain that is approximately one-tenth the average value of a merging binary system. We track their secular evolution and find that all our stars evolve toward axisymmetry, maintaining their uniform rotation, rotational kinetic energy, and angular momentum profiles while losing their triaxiality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penelet, Guillaume; Guedra, Matthieu; Gusev, Vitalyi
2012-09-01
This study focuses on the transient regime of wave amplitude growth and stabilization occuring into a standing wave thermoacoustic engine. Experiments are performed on a standing wave thermoacoustic oscillator. They show that the transient regime leading to steady state sound exhibits complicated dynamics, like the systematic overshoot of wave amplitude before its final stabilization, and the spontaneous and periodic switch on/off of the thermoacoustic instability at constant heat power supply. A simplified model is presented which describes wave amplitude growth from the coupled equations governing thermoacoustic amplification and unsteady heat transfer. In this model, the assumption of a one-dimensional temperature profile is retained and the equations describing heat transfer through the thermoacoustic core are coupled to that describing wave amplitude growth. These equations include the simplified description of two processes saturating wave amplitude growth, i.e. thermoacoustic heat pumping by acoustic waves and heat convection by Rayleigh streaming. It is notably shown that both effects could be responsible of the observed overshoot process.
High Stability Low Scatter Telescope for a Space-based Gravitational Wave Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livas, Jeffrey; Sankar, Shannon
2017-01-01
A laser interferometer space-based gravitational wave observatory requires an optical telescope to efficiently transfer laser light between pairs of widely-separated sciencecraft. The application is precision interferometric metrology, and therefore requires the telescope to have high optical pathlength stability, and low scattered light performance. We discuss the expected on-orbit environment and present the latest design, including materials choice trades, surface roughness and cleanliness requirements, and an optical prescription optimized to reduce scattered light. We will also discuss some of the remaining system-level trades. This work is supported by NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant 14-SAT14-0014.
Four-wave mixing stability in hybrid photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths.
Sévigny, Benoit; Vanvincq, Olivier; Valentin, Constance; Chen, Na; Quiquempois, Yves; Bouwmans, Géraud
2013-12-16
The four-wave mixing process in optical fibers is generally sensitive to dispersion uniformity along the fiber length. However, some specific phase matching conditions show increased robustness to longitudinal fluctuations in fiber dimensions, which affect the dispersion, even for signal and idler wavelengths far from the pump. In this paper, we present the method by which this point is found, how the fiber design characteristics impact on the stable point and demonstrate the stability through propagation simulations using the non-linear Schrödinger equation.
The advanced cosmic microwave explorer - A millimeter-wave telescope and stabilized platform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meinhold, P. R.; Chingcuanco, A. O.; Gundersen, J. O.; Schuster, J. A.; Seiffert, M. D.; Lubin, P. M.; Morris, D.; Villela, T.
1993-01-01
We have developed and flown a 1 m diameter Gregorian telescope system for measurements of anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR). The telescope is incorporated in a balloon-borne stabilized platform with arcminute stabilization capability. To date, the system has flown four times and observed from the ground at the South Pole twice. The telescope has used both coherent and incoherent detectors. We describe the development of the telescope, pointing platform, and one of the receivers employed in making measurements of the CBR. Performance of the system during the first flight and operation on the ground at the South Pole are described, and the quality of the South Pole as a millimeter wave observing site is discussed.
The advanced cosmic microwave explorer - A millimeter-wave telescope and stabilized platform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meinhold, P. R.; Chingcuanco, A. O.; Gundersen, J. O.; Schuster, J. A.; Seiffert, M. D.; Lubin, P. M.; Morris, D.; Villela, T.
1993-01-01
We have developed and flown a 1 m diameter Gregorian telescope system for measurements of anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR). The telescope is incorporated in a balloon-borne stabilized platform with arcminute stabilization capability. To date, the system has flown four times and observed from the ground at the South Pole twice. The telescope has used both coherent and incoherent detectors. We describe the development of the telescope, pointing platform, and one of the receivers employed in making measurements of the CBR. Performance of the system during the first flight and operation on the ground at the South Pole are described, and the quality of the South Pole as a millimeter wave observing site is discussed.
Wave-number stability of a laser diode mounted in a closed cycle helium refrigerator.
Steinberg, G N
1979-12-01
The wave-number stability of a laser diode mounted in a closed cycle helium refrigerator was examined using a CO(2) laser heterodyne spectrometer. The set current supplied by a commercial laser diode supply appeared stable enough over the time periods normally used. Temperature control was achieved through both passive and active loop control. A stage of open loop control of the cold tip allowed the closed loop control of diode heat sink to be operated at higher gains than conventionally used. Long-term stability of the center of the line shape function was better than 10 MHz per hour and the 1-min average was better than +/-5 MHz. Vibration of the diode mount determined the instrument line shape in spite of steps taken to eliminate the vibrations. The line shape had a half-width of 10 MHz with broad shoulders out to 50 MHz.
Numerical solution of wave equations for the stability of the inner cometo-sheath
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, Krishna M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Goldstein, Bruce E.
1993-01-01
Numerical solution of the MHD wave equations for stability of the cometary sheath determined by the balance between the inward Lorentz body force and the outward ion-neutral drag force is obtained by using a two-point boundary value method. The eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions are obtained numerically by treating the cometary inner sheath as a layer of finite thickness, bounded by the contact surface, i.e., the diamagnetic cavity boundary. The magnetic field structure discovered in the ionosphere of Comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner is found to be unstable. The effects of finite plasma pressure, dissociative recombination, and mass loading due to photoionization are found to be stabilizing but are unable to quench the instability completely. It is also found that the higher the neutral production rate the lesser is the growth rate for the instability.
Lee, Natalie K.; Fok, Ka Wai; White, Amanda; Wilson, Nicole H.; O'Leary, Conor J.; Cox, Hayley L.; Michael, Magdalene; Yap, Alpha S.; Cooper, Helen M.
2016-01-01
To maintain tissue integrity during epithelial morphogenesis, adherens junctions (AJs) must resist the mechanical stresses exerted by dynamic tissue movements. Junctional stability is dependent on actomyosin contractility within the actin ring. Here we describe a novel function for the axon guidance receptor, Neogenin, as a key component of the actin nucleation machinery governing junctional stability. Loss of Neogenin perturbs AJs and attenuates junctional tension. Neogenin promotes actin nucleation at AJs by recruiting the Wave regulatory complex (WRC) and Arp2/3. A direct interaction between the Neogenin WIRS domain and the WRC is crucial for the spatially restricted recruitment of the WRC to the junction. Thus, we provide the first example of a functional WIRS–WRC interaction in epithelia. We further show that Neogenin regulates cadherin recycling at the AJ. In summary, we identify Neogenin as a pivotal component of the AJ, where it influences both cadherin dynamics and junctional tension. PMID:27029596
Gao Dongning; Wang Canglong; Yang Xue; Duan Wenshan; Yang Lei
2012-12-15
Theoretical and numerical studies are carried out for the stability of the electron acoustic waves under the transverse perturbation in a magnetized quantum plasma. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation of the electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) is given by using the reductive perturbation technique. The cut-off frequency is obtained by applying a transverse sinusoidal perturbation to the plane soliton solution of the ZK equation. The propagation velocity of solitary waves, the real cut-off frequency, as well as the growth rate of the higher order perturbation to the traveling solitary wave are obtained.
Transient-induced climate drift
Johansson, A.; Reinhold, B.; Saha, S. )
1993-05-01
The climate drift of various quantities associated with deep, planetary-scale, equilibrated, transient Rossby waves are estimated for the Southern Hemisphere extratropical summer as revealed by the DERF II (Dynamical Extended Range Forecasting) dataset. It is found that the vertical structures of these waves systematically become too baroclinic during the course of integration. There are two time scales associated with this climate drift. There is one very short time scale, estimated to be of the order of one day, when the waves become more barotropic. It is followed by a period when the wave baroclinicity monotonically increases, and after roughly 10 days the model structures appear to have reached their statistically equilibrated state. In the meantime, the kinetic energy of the transient waves decreases substantially to roughly half the observed value. After this initial drop, however, the transient kinetic energy increases again, and it is not clear if an equilibrium value has been reached after 30 days, which is the limit of the DERF II dataset. This third time scale is not found in the quantities directly associated with the vertical structures per se, but it is hypothesized to be a consequence of these errors. A theory is utilized that in a simplified way takes into account the processes that determine the vertical structure of baroclinic waves as well as their robustness as a means of understanding the processes leading to these errors. The implications from this theory are that the formulation and magnitude of the dissipative and diffusive processes in the model are the most likely problem, but there are other possibilities. 37 refs., 10 figs.
Ballooning instability and structure of diamagnetic hydromagnetic waves in a model magnetosphere
Miura, A.; Ohtani, S.; Tamao, T. )
1989-11-01
A linear eigenmode analysis of ballooning instability of an Alfven wave and a drift-Alfven wave is performed for a curved magnetic field line configuration in finite-{beta} plasma to examine stability of the tail plasma sheet and to find a generation mechanism of diamagnetic storm time Pc 5 pulsations, which are characterized by a large azimuthal mode number (m>50). Only fundamental mode is unstable to the ballooning instability, which is driven by the pressure gradient combined with the unfavorable magnetic field line curvature, while higher harmonic modes are stable. The eigenfunction of the unstable wave (fundamental mode) is evanescent or decaying exponential toward the ionosphere along the field line and strongly confined near the equator with its plasma pressure and magnetic pressure being out of phase. The stable higher harmonic modes, on the other hand, have standing Alfven mode structures along the field line and have frequencies determined by oscillation periods of the standing Alfven modes. In the absence of the coupling to the drift wave, the unstable fundamental wave is aperiodic with zero real frequency. When the unstable fundamental wave is coupled to the drift wave; however, the unstable wave (drift-Alfven wave) has a real frequency determined by an ion diamagnetic drift speed. The obtained oscillation period of a few hundred seconds for the unstable drift-Alfven wave with an azimuthal number m = 50, its westward propagation, diamagnetic relationship between the perturbed magnetic and plasma pressures, and strong spatial confinement of the unstable wave near the equator suggest of the authors that the unstable drift-Alfven wave destabilized by the ballooning instability is a strong candidate mechanism for explaining the observed storm time Pc 5 pulsations.
E. Gaffiney
2004-11-23
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).
Nouh, Mostafa; Aldraihem, Osama; Baz, Amr
2014-02-01
Standing wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric (TAP) energy harvesters convert thermal energy, such as solar or waste heat energy, directly into electrical energy without the need for any moving components. The input thermal energy generates a steep temperature gradient along a porous medium called "stack." At a critical threshold of the temperature gradient, self-sustained acoustic waves are developed inside an acoustic resonator. The associated pressure fluctuations impinge on a piezoelectric diaphragm, placed at the end of the resonator, to generate electricity. The behavior of this multi-field system is modeled using the electrical analogy approach. The developed model combines the descriptions of the acoustic resonator and the stack with the characteristics of the piezoelectric diaphragm. The equivalent electric network is analyzed to determine the system's stability and predict the temperature gradient necessary to developing self-sustained oscillations inside the harvester. The developed network is utilized also to investigate the transient performance of the harvester by employing the network theory and Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis software package. The established stability boundaries are validated against the predictions of the root locus technique. Furthermore, the obtained results are compared with experimental results extracted from testing a prototype of the harvester. The developed approach presents an innovative tool for the design of TAP energy harvesters.
Tofan-Lazar, Julia; Situm, Arthur; Al-Abadleh, Hind A
2013-10-10
Surface water plays a crucial role in facilitating or inhibiting surface reactions in atmospheric aerosols. However, little is known about the role of surface water in the complexation of organic acid molecules to transition metals in multicomponent aerosol systems. We report herein results from real time DRIFTS experiments that show in situ complexation of catechol to Fe(III) under humid conditions. Catechol was schosen as a simple model for humic-like substances (HULIS) in aerosols and aged polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It was also detected in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with benzene. Given the importance of the iron content in aerosols and its biogeochemistry, our studies were conducted using FeCl3. For comparison, these surface-sensitive studies were complemented with bulk aqueous ATR-FTIR, UV-vis, and HPLC measurements for structural, quantitative, and qualitative information about complexes in the bulk, and potential degradation products in the dark. Under dry conditions, DRIFTS spectra show that gas phase catechol adsorbs molecularly and is fully protonated on samples containing FeCl3 with no evidence of complexation to Fe(III). Upon increasing the relative humidity to a value below the deliquescence of FeCl3, surface water facilitates ionic mobility resulting in the formation of monodentate catechol-Fe complexes. These complexes are stable at the gas/solid interface and do not undergo any further degradation in the dark as shown from bulk UV-vis and HPLC experiments. The implications of our studies on understanding interfacial and condensed phase chemistry relevant to multicomponent aerosols, water thin films on buildings, and ocean surfaces containing transition metals are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasso, Francesco; Paoli, Roberto
1999-11-01
Shock wave reflections in steady flows have been widely studied in the last decades for their importance in many aerospace applications, such as supersonic intakes and wind tunnel technologies. One of the yet unresolved problems is the understanding of the physical mechanism responsible for the transition between regular and Mach reflections and the hysteresis phenomenon (i.e. the attainement of different shock configurations for the same incident shock angle) as well as the stability of shock wave configurations. In the present paper we study the influence of thermochemical relaxation phenomena on shock reflections by means of a two-temperature model for the thermal nonequilibrium and the reduced Park's model for finite rate chemistry. Stable shock wave configurations are characterized by invoking Prigogine minimum entropy production principle. For that purpose we formulate the entropy budget for nonequilibrium flows and identify the different contributions to the evolution of entropy due to translational and vibrational heat conduction and species diffusion, as well as dissociation reactions and translational vibrational energy exchanges. A study of shock reflection transition is carried out at two Mach numbers (M=7.5 and M=9.8) both for air and nitrogen. In order to identify the controlling mechanisms that affect the transition and the hysteresis we also carry out simulations assuming an ideal gas behaviour.
On the orbital stability of Gaussian solitary waves in the log-KdV equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carles, Rémi; Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2014-12-01
We consider the logarithmic Korteweg-de Vries (log-KdV) equation, which models solitary waves in anharmonic chains with Hertzian interaction forces. By using an approximating sequence of global solutions of the regularized generalized KdV equation in H^1({R}) with conserved L2 norm and energy, we construct a weak global solution of the log-KdV equation in a subset of H^1({R}) . This construction yields conditional orbital stability of Gaussian solitary waves of the log-KdV equation, provided that uniqueness and continuous dependence of the constructed solution holds. Furthermore, we study the linearized log-KdV equation at the Gaussian solitary wave and prove that the associated linearized operator has a purely discrete spectrum consisting of simple purely imaginary eigenvalues in addition to the double zero eigenvalue. The eigenfunctions, however, do not decay like Gaussian functions but have algebraic decay. Using numerical approximations, we show that the Gaussian initial data do not spread out but produce visible radiation at the left slope of the Gaussian-like pulse in the time evolution of the linearized log-KdV equation.
Forced generation of solitary waves in a rotating fluid and their stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Wooyoung
The primary objective of this graduate research is to study forced generation of solitary waves in a rotating fluid and their stability properties. For axisymmetric flow of a non-uniformly rotating fluid within a long cylindrical tube, an analysis is presented to predict the periodic generation of upstream-advancing vortex solitons by axisymmetric disturbance steadily moving with a transcritical velocity as a forcing agent. The phenomenon is simulated using the forced Korteweg-de Vries (fKdV) equation to model the amplitude function of the Stokes stream function for describing this family of rotating flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid. The numerical results for the weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave motion show that a sequence of well-defined axisymmetrical recirculating eddies is periodically produced and emitted to radiate upstream of the disturbance, soon becoming permanent in the form as a procession of vortex solitons, which we call vortons. Two primary flows, the Rankine vortex and the Burgers vortex, are adopted to exhibit in detail the process of producing the upstream vortons by the critical motion of a slender body moving along the central axis, with the Burgers vortex being found the more effective of the two in the generation of vortons. To investigate the evolution of free or forced waves within a tube of non-uniform radius, a new forced KdV equation is derived which models the variable geometry with variable coefficients. A set of section-mean conservation laws is derived specially for this class of rotational tube flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid, in both differential and integral forms. A new aspect of stability theory is analyzed for possible instabilities of the axisymmetric solitary waves subject to non-axisymmetric disturbances. The present linear analysis based on the model equation involving the bending mode shows that the axisymmetric solitary wave is neutrally stable with respect to small bending mode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Information was exchanged between people directly involved with the development, use, and/or potential use of free drifting buoys. Tracking systems and techniques, where methods and accuracy of optical, radio, radar, satellite, and sonic tracking of free-drifting buoys were discussed. Deployment and retrieval covering methods currently used or planned in the deployment and retrieval of free-drifting buoys from boats, ships, helicopters, fixed platforms, and fixed-wing aircraft were reported. Simulation, sensors, and data emphasizing the status of water circulation modeling, and sensors useful on free-drifting buoys, and data display and analysis were described.
Linear stability analysis for travelling waves of second order in time PDE's
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanislavova, Milena; Stefanov, Atanas
2012-09-01
We study travelling waves φc of second order in time PDE's u_{tt}+{ L} u+N(u)=0 . The linear stability analysis for these models is reduced to the question of the stability of quadratic pencils in the form \\lambda^2Id+2c\\lambda \\partial_x+{ H}_c , where { H}_c=c^2 \\partial_{xx}+{ L}+N'(\\varphi_c) . If { H}_c is a self-adjoint operator, with a simple negative eigenvalue and a simple eigenvalue at zero, then we completely characterize the linear stability of φc. More precisely, we introduce an explicitly computable index \\omega^*({ H}_c)\\in (0, \\infty] , so that the wave φc is stable if and only if |c|\\geq \\omega^*({ H}_c) . The results are applicable both in the periodic case and in the whole line case. The method of proof involves a delicate analysis of a function { G} , associated with { H} , whose positive zeros are exactly the positive (unstable) eigenvalues of the pencil \\lambda^2Id+2c\\lambda \\partial_x+{ H} . We would like to emphasize that the function { G} is not the Evans function for the problem, but rather a new object that we define herein, which fits the situation rather well. As an application, we consider three classical models—the ‘good’ Boussinesq equation, the Klein-Gordon-Zakharov (KGZ) system and the fourth order beam equation. In the whole line case, for the Boussinesq case and the KGZ system (and as a direct application of the main results), we compute explicitly the set of speeds which give rise to linearly stable travelling waves (and for all powers of p in the case of Boussinesq). This result is new for the KGZ system, while it generalizes the results of Alexander et al (2012, personal communication) and Alexander and Sachs (1995 Nonlinear World 2 471-507), which apply to the case p = 2. For the beam equation, we provide an implicit formula (depending only on the function \\|\\varphi_c'\\|_{L^2}) , which works for all p and for both the periodic and the whole line cases. Our results complement (and exactly match
THERMAL TEST ALCOVE HEATED DRIFT GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS
S. Bonabian
1996-10-03
The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to analyze the stability of the Thermal Test Facility Heated Drift and to design a ground support system. The stability of the Heated Drift is analyzed considering in situ, seismic, and thermal loading conditions. A ground support system is recommended to provide a stable opening for the Heated Drift. This report summarizes the results of the analyses and provides the details of the recommended ground support system for the Heated Drift. The details of the ground support system are then incorporated into the design output documents for implementation in the field.
Experimental Investigation of Hexagon Stability in Two Frequency Forced Faraday Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Yu; Umbanhowar, Paul
2003-03-01
We have conducted experiments on a deep layer of silicone oil vertically oscillated with an acceleration a(t) = Am sin(m ω t + φ_m) + An sin(n ω t + φ_n). The stability of hexagonal surface wave patterns is investigated as a function of the overall acceleration, the ratio m:n, and the phase of the two rationally related driving frequencies. When the ratio A_m/An is chosen so the system is near a co-dimension two point, the stability of hexagons above onset is determined by the acceleration amplitude and the relative phase. Recent results by Porter and Silver (J. Porter and M. Silber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 084501, 2002) predicts that the range of pattern stability above onset as a function of acceleration is determined by cos(Φ), where Φ = π/4 - m φn / 2- n φm /2. We have tested this prediction for a number of m:n ratios and for various values of the dimensionless damping coefficient γ. We find that the patterns exhibit the predicted functional dependence on s(Φ) but with an additional phase offset. We measure the phase offset as a function of m:n and γ for varying frequency ω and fluid viscosity 5 cS <= ν <= 30 cS.
Hypersonic drift-tearing magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas
Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2007-12-15
A two-fluid theory of long wavelength, hypersonic, drift-tearing magnetic islands in low-collisionality, low-{beta} plasmas possessing relatively weak magnetic shear is developed. The model assumes both slab geometry and cold ions, and neglects electron temperature and equilibrium current gradient effects. The problem is solved in three asymptotically matched regions. The 'inner region' contains the island. However, the island emits electrostatic drift-acoustic waves that propagate into the surrounding 'intermediate region', where they are absorbed by the plasma. Since the waves carry momentum, the inner region exerts a net force on the intermediate region, and vice versa, giving rise to strong velocity shear in the region immediately surrounding the island. The intermediate region is matched to the surrounding 'outer region', in which ideal magnetohydrodynamic holds. Isolated hypersonic islands propagate with a velocity that lies between those of the unperturbed local ion and electron fluids, but is much closer to the latter. The ion polarization current is stabilizing, and increases with increasing island width. Finally, the hypersonic branch of isolated island solutions ceases to exist above a certain critical island width. Hypersonic islands whose widths exceed the critical width are hypothesized to bifurcate to the so-called 'sonic' solution branch.
Gomberoff, L.
2008-02-15
It has been shown that a large amplitude Alfven wave can stabilize linear magnetosonic instabilities triggered by an ion beam. This phenomenon occurs for large amplitude waves above a threshold value. Here the effect of a second ion beam on the threshold amplitude for stabilization of the magnetosonic instability is studied. It is shown that the second beam modifies the threshold amplitude behavior for complete saturation of the magnetosonic instability. The effect of the second beam on the properties of purely electrostatic nonlinear instabilities triggered by the finite amplitude wave is also studied. Apart from the changes induced by the second beam on the threshold amplitude behavior, it is shown that in some cases there are two regimes of the nonlinear ion-acousticlike instability. These results should be of importance in those environments where the interplay of the two beams should not be ignored like, e.g., in the fast solar wind.
Booktalking: Avoiding Summer Drift
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whittingham, Jeff; Rickman, Wendy A.
2015-01-01
Summer drift, otherwise known as loss of reading comprehension skills or reading achievement, has been a well-known and well-documented phenomenon of public education for decades. Studies from the late twentieth century to the present have demonstrated a slowdown in summer drift attributed to specific summer reading programs addressing motivation…
J.T. Birkholzer
2004-11-01
This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.
Exploring the stability and dynamics of dipolar matter-wave dark solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmonds, M. J.; Bland, T.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.
2016-06-01
We study the stability, form, and interaction of single and multiple dark solitons in quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates. The solitons are found numerically as stationary solutions in the moving frame of a nonlocal Gross Pitaevskii equation and characterized as a function of the key experimental parameters, namely the ratio of the dipolar atomic interactions to the van der Waals interactions, the polarization angle, and the condensate width. The solutions and their integrals of motion are strongly affected by the phonon and roton instabilities of the system. Dipolar matter-wave dark solitons propagate without dispersion and collide elastically away from these instabilities, with the dipolar interactions contributing an additional repulsion or attraction to the soliton-soliton interaction. However, close to the instabilities, the collisions are weakly dissipative.
Stability of Solitary Waves and Vortices in a 2D Nonlinear Dirac Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Saxena, Avadh; Comech, Andrew; Lan, Ruomeng
2016-05-01
We explore a prototypical two-dimensional massive model of the nonlinear Dirac type and examine its solitary wave and vortex solutions. In addition to identifying the stationary states, we provide a systematic spectral stability analysis, illustrating the potential of spinor solutions to be neutrally stable in a wide parametric interval of frequencies. Solutions of higher vorticity are generically unstable and split into lower charge vortices in a way that preserves the total vorticity. These conclusions are found not to be restricted to the case of cubic two-dimensional nonlinearities but are found to be extended to the case of quintic nonlinearity, as well as to that of three spatial dimensions. Our results also reveal nontrivial differences with respect to the better understood nonrelativistic analogue of the model, namely the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Stability of Solitary Waves and Vortices in a 2D Nonlinear Dirac Model.
Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Saxena, Avadh; Comech, Andrew; Lan, Ruomeng
2016-05-27
We explore a prototypical two-dimensional massive model of the nonlinear Dirac type and examine its solitary wave and vortex solutions. In addition to identifying the stationary states, we provide a systematic spectral stability analysis, illustrating the potential of spinor solutions to be neutrally stable in a wide parametric interval of frequencies. Solutions of higher vorticity are generically unstable and split into lower charge vortices in a way that preserves the total vorticity. These conclusions are found not to be restricted to the case of cubic two-dimensional nonlinearities but are found to be extended to the case of quintic nonlinearity, as well as to that of three spatial dimensions. Our results also reveal nontrivial differences with respect to the better understood nonrelativistic analogue of the model, namely the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Ortiz, Sabine; Lerisson, Gaétan
2016-11-01
Triadic instability is a very generic mechanism by which a primary wave of finite amplitude is destabilized by two secondary (daugther) waves forming a resonant triad. For gravity wave in the ocean, as shown by Phillips, O.M. (CUP, 1967) the resonant triads form several continuous family that may be represented in twodimension (2D) as resonant lines in the 2D wave vector space of the secondary wave. We show here that the crossing of two od these branches may results in a double triadic instability where the instability is reduced. Building on McEwan, A.D. & Plumb, R.A. (Dyn. Atm. & Oceans, 1977) we show that this double triadic instability stabilization domain expends from a singular point to a finite significant region when the amplitude of the primary wave is increased. Comparison with direct computation of the instability branches shows that, from very small to order unity primary wave amplitude, the theoretical prediction stay valid and is able to explain the strong departure from the classical triadic instability theory. Support by DGA is acknowledged.
Volpe, F A; Hyatt, A; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Lohr, J; Prater, R; Strait, E J; Welander, A
2015-10-23
Nonrotating ("locked") magnetic islands often lead to complete losses of confinement in tokamak plasmas, called major disruptions. Here locked islands were suppressed for the first time, by a combination of applied three-dimensional magnetic fields and injected millimeter waves. The applied fields were used to control the phase of locking and so align the island O point with the region where the injected waves generated noninductive currents. This resulted in stabilization of the locked island, disruption avoidance, recovery of high confinement, and high pressure, in accordance with the expected dependencies upon wave power and relative phase between the O point and driven current.
Mathieu, Vincent; Anagnostou, Fani; Soffer, Emmanuel; Haiat, Guillaume
2011-06-01
Osseointegration of dental implants remains poorly understood. The objective of this numerical study is to understand the propagation phenomena of ultrasonic waves in prototypes cylindrically shaped implants and to investigate the sensitivity of their ultrasonic response to the surrounding bone biomechanical properties. The 10 MHz ultrasonic response of the implant was calculated using a finite difference numerical simulation tool and was compared to rf signals taken from a recent experimental study by Mathieu et al. [Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37, 262-270 (2011a)]. Reflection and mode conversion phenomena were analyzed to understand the origin of the different echoes and the importance of lateral wave propagation was evidenced. The sensitivity of the ultrasonic response of the implant to changes of (i) amount of bone in contact with the implant, (ii) cortical bone thickness, and (iii) surrounding bone material properties, was compared to the reproducibility of the measurements. The results show that, either a change of 1 mm of bone in contact with the implant, or 1.1 mm of cortical thickness or 12% of trabecular bone mass density should be detectable. This study paves the way for the investigation of the use of quantitative ultrasound techniques for the evaluation of bone-implant interface properties and implant stability. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Propagation and stability of quantum dust-ion-acoustic shock waves in planar and nonplanar geometry
Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Nargis, Shahida; Mirza, Arshad M.
2009-01-15
Dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and dust by employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. In this context, a Korteweg-deVries-Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by employing the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of the quantum DIA shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for the planar geometry. The effects of quantum Bohm potential, dust concentration, and kinematic viscosity on the quantum DIA shock structure are also investigated. The temporal evolution of DIA KdV solitons and Burger shocks are also studied by putting the dissipative and dispersive coefficients equal to zero, respectively. The effects of the quantum Bohm potential on the stability of the DIA shock is also investigated. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the dissipative and dispersive processes that may occur in the quantum dusty plasmas found in microelectronic devices as well as in astrophysical plasmas.
Bashir, M. F.; Behery, E. E.; El-Taibany, W. F.
2015-06-15
Employing the reductive perturbation technique, Zakharov–Kuznetzov (ZK) equation is derived for dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which consists the effects of dust anisotropic pressure, arbitrary charged dust particles, Boltzmann distributed ions, and Kappa distributed superthermal electrons. The ZK solitary wave solution is obtained. Using the small-k expansion method, the stability analysis for DA solitary waves is also discussed. The effects of the dust pressure anisotropy and the electron superthermality on the basic characteristics of DA waves as well as on the three-dimensional instability criterion are highlighted. It is found that the DA solitary wave is rarefactive (compressive) for negative (positive) dust. In addition, the growth rate of instability increases rapidly as the superthermal spectral index of electrons increases with either positive or negative dust grains. A brief discussion for possible applications is included.
Stability of Brillouin flow in the presence of slow-wave structure
Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.; Wong, P.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B.
2016-09-15
Including a slow-wave structure (SWS) on the anode in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron, we systematically study the linear stability of Brillouin flow, which is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. The analytic treatment is fully relativistic and fully electromagnetic, and it incorporates the equilibrium density profile, flow profile, and electric field and magnetic field profiles in the linear stability analysis. Using parameters similar to the University of Michigan's recirculating planar magnetron, the numerical data show that the resonant interaction of the vacuum circuit mode and the corresponding smooth-bore diocotron-like mode is the dominant cause for instability. This resonant interaction is far more important than the intrinsic negative (positive) mass property of electrons in the inverted (conventional) magnetron geometry. It is absent in either the smooth-bore magnetron or under the electrostatic assumption, one or both of which was almost always adopted in prior analytical formulation. This resonant interaction severely restricts the wavenumber for instability to the narrow range in which the cold tube frequency of the SWS is within a few percent of the corresponding smooth bore diocotron-like mode in the Brillouin flow.
Stability of Brillouin flow in the presence of slow-wave structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.; Wong, P.; Hoff, B.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2016-09-01
Including a slow-wave structure (SWS) on the anode in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron, we systematically study the linear stability of Brillouin flow, which is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. The analytic treatment is fully relativistic and fully electromagnetic, and it incorporates the equilibrium density profile, flow profile, and electric field and magnetic field profiles in the linear stability analysis. Using parameters similar to the University of Michigan's recirculating planar magnetron, the numerical data show that the resonant interaction of the vacuum circuit mode and the corresponding smooth-bore diocotron-like mode is the dominant cause for instability. This resonant interaction is far more important than the intrinsic negative (positive) mass property of electrons in the inverted (conventional) magnetron geometry. It is absent in either the smooth-bore magnetron or under the electrostatic assumption, one or both of which was almost always adopted in prior analytical formulation. This resonant interaction severely restricts the wavenumber for instability to the narrow range in which the cold tube frequency of the SWS is within a few percent of the corresponding smooth bore diocotron-like mode in the Brillouin flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, M. A.; Lerche, I.
1979-01-01
Clemmow's (1974) work is extended to include the case of large-amplitude self-consistent waves in warm plasmas both with and without a constant embedded magnetic field. Attention is given to determining the structure and basic properties of large-amplitude self-consistent waves in a warm plasma in the presence of a constant embedded magnetic field. It is shown that the class of large-amplitude self-consistent waves found by Clemmow for a cold plasma can be extended to allow for a thermal spread in the particles' motions. Some of the interesting variations and dependences of such waves with a constant embedded magnetic field are emphasized.
Jiang, Peng; Nelson, Jeffrey D; Leng, Ning; Collins, Michael; Swanson, Scott; Dewey, Colin N; Thomson, James A; Stewart, Ron
2017-06-15
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) has long been the subject of biological research, primarily owing to its outstanding regenerative capabilities. However, the gene expression programs governing its embryonic development are particularly underexplored, especially when compared to other amphibian model species. Therefore, we performed whole transcriptome polyA+ RNA sequencing experiments on 17 stages of embryonic development. As the axolotl genome is unsequenced and its gene annotation is incomplete, we built de novo transcriptome assemblies for each stage and garnered functional annotation by comparing expressed contigs with known genes in other organisms. In evaluating the number of differentially expressed genes over time, we identify three waves of substantial transcriptome upheaval each followed by a period of relative transcriptome stability. The first wave of upheaval is between the one and two cell stage. We show that the number of differentially expressed genes per unit time is higher between the one and two cell stage than it is across the mid-blastula transition (MBT), the period of zygotic genome activation. We use total RNA sequencing to demonstrate that the vast majority of genes with increasing polyA+ signal between the one and two cell stage result from polyadenylation rather than de novo transcription. The first stable phase begins after the two cell stage and continues until the mid-blastula transition, corresponding with the pre-MBT phase of transcriptional quiescence in amphibian development. Following this is a peak of differential gene expression corresponding with the activation of the zygotic genome and a phase of transcriptomic stability from stages 9-11. We observe a third wave of transcriptomic change between stages 11 and 14, followed by a final stable period. The last two stable phases have not been documented in amphibians previously and correspond to times of major morphogenic change in the axolotl embryo: gastrulation and neurulation
Takemoto, Yoshio; Takanari, Hiroki; Honjo, Haruo; Ueda, Norihiro; Harada, Masahide; Kato, Sara; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Sakuma, Ichiro; Opthof, Tobias; Kodama, Itsuo; Kamiya, Kaichiro
2012-09-01
Spiral-wave (SW) reentry is a major organizing principle of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF). We tested a hypothesis that pharmacological modification of gap junction (GJ) conductance affects the stability of SW reentry in a two-dimensional (2D) epicardial ventricular muscle layer prepared by endocardial cryoablation of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Action potential signals were recorded and analyzed by high-resolution optical mapping. Carbenoxolone (CBX; 30 μM) and rotigaptide (RG, 0.1 μM) were used to inhibit and enhance GJ coupling, respectively. CBX decreased the space constant (λ) by 36%, whereas RG increased it by 22-24% (n = 5; P < 0.01). During centrifugal propagation, there was a linear relationship between the wavefront curvature (κ) and local conduction velocity (LCV): LCV = LCV(0) - D·κ (D, diffusion coefficient; LCV(0), LCV at κ = 0). CBX decreased LCV(0) and D by 27 ± 3 and 57 ± 3%, respectively (n = 5; P < 0.01). RG increased LCV(0) and D by 18 ± 3 and 54 ± 5%, respectively (n = 5, P < 0.01). The regression lines with and without RG crossed, resulting in a paradoxical decrease of LCV with RG at κ > ~60 cm(-1). SW reentry induced after CBX was stable, and the incidence of sustained VTs (>30 s) increased from 38 ± 4 to 85 ± 4% after CBX (n = 18; P < 0.01). SW reentry induced after RG was characterized by decremental conduction near the rotation center, prominent drift and self-termination by collision with the anatomical boundaries, and the incidence of sustained VTs decreased from 40 ± 5 to 17 ± 6% after RG (n = 13; P < 0.05). These results suggest that decreased intercellular coupling stabilizes SW reentry in 2D cardiac muscle, whereas increased coupling facilitates its early self-termination.
Mitori, T.
2013-12-01
A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) target’s flight through a low Reynolds number and high Mach number regime was analyzed with computational fluid dynamics software. This regime consisted of xenon gas at 1,050 K and approximately 6,670 Pa. Simulations with similar flow conditions were performed with a sphere and compared with experimental data and published correlations for validation purposes. Transient considerations of the developing flow around the target were explored. Simulations of the target at different velocities were used to determine correlations for the drag coefficient and Nusselt number as functions of the Reynolds number. Simulations with different angles of attack were used to determine the aerodynamic coefficients of drag, lift, Magnus moment, and overturning moment as well as target stability. The drag force, lift force, and overturning moment changed minimally with spin. Above an angle of attack of 15°, the overturning moment would be destabilizing. At low angles of attack (less than 15°), the overturning moment would tend to decrease the target’s angle of attack, indicating the lack of a need for spin for stability at small angles. This stabilizing moment would cause the target to move in a mildly damped oscillation about the axis parallel to the free-stream velocity vector through the target’s center of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colli Franzone, P.; Pavarino, L. F.; Scacchi, S.
2017-09-01
In this work, we investigate the influence of cardiac tissue deformation on re-entrant wave dynamics. We have developed a 3D strongly coupled electro-mechanical Bidomain model posed on an ideal monoventricular geometry, including fiber direction anisotropy and stretch-activated currents (SACs). The cardiac mechanical deformation influences the bioelectrical activity with two main mechanical feedback: (a) the geometric feedback (GEF) due to the presence of the deformation gradient in the diffusion coefficients and in a convective term depending on the deformation rate and (b) the mechano-electric feedback (MEF) due to SACs. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of these two factors with respect to scroll wave stability. We extend the previous works [Keldermann et al., Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 299, H134-H143 (2010) and Hu et al., PLoS One 8(4), e60287 (2013)] that were based on the Monodomain model and a simple non-selective linear SAC, while here we consider the full Bidomain model and both selective and non-selective components of SACs. Our simulation results show that the stability of cardiac scroll waves is influenced by MEF, which in case of low reversal potential of non-selective SACs might be responsible for the onset of ventricular fibrillation; GEF increases the scroll wave meandering but does not determine the scroll wave stability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meeus, Wim; Van de Schoot, Rens; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan
2011-01-01
We examined change and stability of the 3 personality types identified by Block and Block (1980) and studied their links with adjustment and relationships. We used data from a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents, thereby covering the ages of 12-20 years. In Study 1, systematic evidence for personality change was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meeus, Wim; Van de Schoot, Rens; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan
2011-01-01
We examined change and stability of the 3 personality types identified by Block and Block (1980) and studied their links with adjustment and relationships. We used data from a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents, thereby covering the ages of 12-20 years. In Study 1, systematic evidence for personality change was…
Continental drift before 1900.
Rupke, N A
1970-07-25
The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event.
Lithium drifted germanium system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fjarlie, E. J.
1969-01-01
General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Chertok, I. M.; Slemzin, V. A.; Filippov, B. P.; Egorov, Y. I.; Fainshtein, V. G.; Afanasyev, A. N.; Prestage, N. P.; Temmer, M.
2014-04-01
We continue our study (Grechnev et al., 2013, doi:10.1007/s11207-013-0316-6; Paper I) on the 18 November 2003 geoffective event. To understand possible impact on geospace of coronal transients observed on that day, we investigated their properties from solar near-surface manifestations in extreme ultraviolet, LASCO white-light images, and dynamic radio spectra. We reconcile near-surface activity with the expansion of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and determine their orientation relative to the earthward direction. The kinematic measurements, dynamic radio spectra, and microwave and X-ray light curves all contribute to the overall picture of the complex event and confirm an additional eruption at 08:07 - 08:20 UT close to the solar disk center presumed in Paper I. Unusual characteristics of the ejection appear to match those expected for a source of the 20 November superstorm but make its detection in LASCO images hopeless. On the other hand, none of the CMEs observed by LASCO seem to be a promising candidate for a source of the superstorm being able to produce, at most, a glancing blow on the Earth's magnetosphere. Our analysis confirms free propagation of shock waves revealed in the event and reconciles their kinematics with "EUV waves" and dynamic radio spectra up to decameters.
Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.
2011-09-15
The dynamics of two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Instead of the usual excitation of the waves with a laser pulse, the PIC code was directly initialized with the numerical solutions from the fluid plasma model. This technique allows the analysis of different scenarios including the theoretical problems of the solitary wave stability and their collision as well as features already measured during laser-plasma experiments such as the emission of electromagnetic bursts when the waves reach the plasma-vacuum interface, or their expansion on the ion time scale, usually named post-soliton evolution. Waves with a single density depression are stable whereas multihump solutions decay to several waves. Contrary to solitons, two waves always interact through a force that depends on their relative phases, their amplitudes, and the distance between them. On the other hand, the radiation pattern at the plasma-vacuum interface was characterized, and the evolution of the diameter of different waves was computed and compared with the ''snow plow'' model.
On the Stability of Wave Disturbances in Non-Pressure Round-Cylindrical Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagoshidze, Shalva
2015-04-01
In hydraulic engineering practice, is well know of and take into account the fact that for a nearly fully filled gravity-flow tunnel with a circular cross section the water flows with shocks, i.e. unstable. Such a phenomenon also occurs when emptying a bottle, but no mathematical confirmation has so far been found for it. In the paper, the estimate of the flow stability is obtained for two limiting cases: - when the channel of circular cross-section is nearly fully filled with water and when it is nearly empty, i.e. the water flow in the channel has a small depth as compared with the radius of the water conduit. Wave equations written in a cylindrical system of coordinates x,r,θ where the x- axis coincides with the axis of the channel; r is the radius vector, θ is the angle counted off from the equatorial plane of the channel upward (with sign "+') and downward (with sign "-') are simplified by neglecting the change of the polar angle (π 2 -θ)in limit of a small width of the free surface of the flow. As a result of this simplification the Helmholtz equation for the wave potential reduces to a Bessel equation with respect to the function ψ(r) not depending on the angle θ and its asymptotic solution will be expressed by the relation ° -- R0 ψ(r) = C -r-cosh k(R0 - r). (1) Dispersion relations will take the form σ = kU0 ± i°gk-tanh-k(R0--h) (2) - for channels with nearly full filling, and ° -------- σ = kU0 ± gktanhk(R0 - h) (3) - for round-cylindrical channels with a small water depth. In these relations, R0 is the radius of the channel, U0 is the stationary water flow velocity, i is the imaginary unit, h is the distance between the horizontal axis and the water level in the channel, σ is the wave disturbance frequency, k is the wave number, C is an arbitrary constant. In the first case, the relation (2) indicates the occurrence of Helmholtz instability of wave disturbances independently of a velocity value of stationary water flow. This result fully
Investigations of SPS Orbit Drifts
Drøsdal, Lene; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Wenninger, Jorg; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana
2014-07-01
The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mochalova, V.; Utkin, A.
2014-05-01
Instability of detonation front in the nitromethane/acetone (NM/A) solution was observed in our previous work: at 10% of acetone the amplitude of heterogeneities was about 20 microns and at 20% of acetone this size was 50 microns. It is known that small additions of diethylenetriamine (DETA) considerably increase the initial rate of chemical reaction in detonation waves for NM. It was expected that DETA would influence the stability of detonation waves in the NM/A solution too. To investigate this phenomenon the laser interferometer VISAR was used for the recording of particle velocity profiles in detonation waves for NM/A. It was found that at the addition of 0.5% DETA to NM/A 90/10 the oscillations in the velocity profile decreased several times over. At the addition of 1% DETA the profile is smooth, i.e. the heterogeneities disappear and detonation wave becomes steady-state. In NM/A 80/20 at the addition of 5% DETA the heterogeneities size is reduced by the order. The increase of detonation wave velocity of NM/A grater than 1% was observed at small concentrations of DETA. Thus it was found that small additions of DETA to the NM/A solution with an unstable detonation front resulted not only in the decrease of heterogeneities size but in their disappearance and stabilization of detonation waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, D. P.; Dhar, A. K.
2015-12-01
A nonlinear spectral transport equation for the narrow band Gaussian random surface wave trains is derived from a fourth order nonlinear evolution equation, which is a good starting point for the study of nonlinear water waves. The effect of randomness on the stability of deep water capillary gravity waves in the presence of air flowing over water is investigated. The stability is then considered for an initial homogenous wave spectrum having a simple normal form to small oblique long wave length perturbations for a range of spectral widths. An expression for the growth rate of instability is obtained; in which a higher order contribution comes from the fourth order term in the evolution equation, which is responsible for wave induced mean flow. This higher order contribution produces a decrease in the growth rate. The growth rate of instability is found to decrease with the increase of spectral width and the instability disappears if the spectral width increases beyond a certain critical value, which is not influenced by the fourth order term in the evolution equation.
Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts
F. Duan
2000-04-25
The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10{sup -5} adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M&O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Vainchtein, Anna; Xu, Haitao
2017-09-01
In this work, we provide two complementary perspectives for the (spectral) stability of solitary traveling waves in Hamiltonian nonlinear dynamical lattices, of which the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and the Toda lattice are prototypical examples. One is as an eigenvalue problem for a stationary solution in a cotraveling frame, while the other is as a periodic orbit modulo shifts. We connect the eigenvalues of the former with the Floquet multipliers of the latter and using this formulation derive an energy-based spectral stability criterion. It states that a sufficient (but not necessary) condition for a change in the wave stability occurs when the functional dependence of the energy (Hamiltonian) H of the model on the wave velocity c changes its monotonicity. Moreover, near the critical velocity where the change of stability occurs, we provide an explicit leading-order computation of the unstable eigenvalues, based on the second derivative of the Hamiltonian H''(c0) evaluated at the critical velocity c0. We corroborate this conclusion with a series of analytically and numerically tractable examples and discuss its parallels with a recent energy-based criterion for the stability of discrete breathers.
Stability of Flame-Shock Coupling in Detonation Waves: 1D Dynamics (Preprint)
2011-09-01
be known as the ZND model for a detonation wave. While the true structure of detonation waves inevitably calls for multidimensional effects, the... ZND model for a detonation wave. While the true structure of detonation waves inevitably calls for multi- dimensional effects, the simple 1D structure
Ionospheric vertical drift response at a mid-latitude station
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouba, Daniel; Koucká Knížová, Petra
2016-07-01
equinox. In general, the detected values of the observed vertical drift are of lower magnitudes compare to low latitudes. Drift data in midlatitudes seems to be more influenced by the atmospheric waves than data in lower latitudes.
J. Rutqvist
2004-10-07
This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a
Dynamical Stability Limit for the Charge Density Wave in K_{0.3}MoO_{3}.
Mankowsky, R; Liu, B; Rajasekaran, S; Liu, H Y; Mou, D; Zhou, X J; Merlin, R; Först, M; Cavalleri, A
2017-03-17
We study the response of the one-dimensional charge density wave in K_{0.3}MoO_{3} to different types of excitation with femtosecond optical pulses. We compare direct excitation of the lattice at midinfrared frequencies with injection of quasiparticles across the low energy charge density wave gap and with charge transfer excitation in the near infrared. For all three cases, we observe a fluence threshold above which the amplitude-mode oscillation frequency is softened and the mode becomes increasingly damped. We show that all the data can be collapsed onto a universal curve in which the melting of the charge density wave occurs abruptly at a critical lattice excursion. These data highlight the existence of a universal stability limit for a charge density wave, reminiscent of the Lindemann criterion for the melting of a crystal lattice.
Dynamical Stability Limit for the Charge Density Wave in K0.3MoO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mankowsky, R.; Liu, B.; Rajasekaran, S.; Liu, H. Y.; Mou, D.; Zhou, X. J.; Merlin, R.; Först, M.; Cavalleri, A.
2017-03-01
We study the response of the one-dimensional charge density wave in K0.3MoO3 to different types of excitation with femtosecond optical pulses. We compare direct excitation of the lattice at midinfrared frequencies with injection of quasiparticles across the low energy charge density wave gap and with charge transfer excitation in the near infrared. For all three cases, we observe a fluence threshold above which the amplitude-mode oscillation frequency is softened and the mode becomes increasingly damped. We show that all the data can be collapsed onto a universal curve in which the melting of the charge density wave occurs abruptly at a critical lattice excursion. These data highlight the existence of a universal stability limit for a charge density wave, reminiscent of the Lindemann criterion for the melting of a crystal lattice.
M.H. Redi; C.L. Fiore; W. Dorland; D.R. Mikkelsen; G. Rewoldt; P.T. Bonoli; D.R. Ernst; J.E. Rice; S.J. Wukitch
2003-11-20
Recent H-mode experiments on Alcator C-Mod [I.H. Hutchinson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 1511] which exhibit an internal transport barrier (ITB), have been examined with flux tube geometry gyrokinetic simulations, using the massively parallel code GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88 (1995) 128]. The simulations support the picture of ion/electron temperature gradient (ITG/ETG) microturbulence driving high xi/ xe and that suppressed ITG causes reduced particle transport and improved ci on C-Mod. Nonlinear calculations for C-Mod confirm initial linear simulations, which predicted ITG stability in the barrier region just before ITB formation, without invoking E x B shear suppression of turbulence. Nonlinear fluxes are compared to experiment, which both show low heat transport in the ITB and higher transport within and outside of the barrier region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-04-01
By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its
Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA
D. Tang
2004-02-26
The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository non-emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for non-emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). This calculation will provide input for the development of LA documents. The scope of this calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts including access mains, ramps, exhaust mains, turnouts, intersections between access mains and turnouts, and intersections between exhaust mains and emplacement drifts, portals, TBM launch chambers, observation drift and test alcove in the performance confirmation (PC) facilities, etc. The calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts subjected to a combined loading of in-situ stress, seismic stress, and/or thermal stress. Other effects such as hydrological and chemical effects are not considered in this analysis.
Stability of non-monotone critical traveling waves for reaction-diffusion equations with time-delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chern, I.-Liang; Mei, Ming; Yang, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qifeng
2015-08-01
This paper is concerned with the stability of critical traveling waves for a kind of non-monotone time-delayed reaction-diffusion equations including Nicholson's blowflies equation which models the population dynamics of a single species with maturation delay. Such delayed reaction-diffusion equations possess monotone or oscillatory traveling waves. The latter occurs when the birth rate function is non-monotone and the time-delay is big. It has been shown that such traveling waves ϕ (x + ct) exist for all c ≥c* and are exponentially stable for all wave speed c >c*[13], where c* is called the critical wave speed. In this paper, we prove that the critical traveling waves ϕ (x +c* t) (monotone or oscillatory) are also time-asymptotically stable, when the initial perturbations are small in a certain weighted Sobolev norm. The adopted method is the technical weighted-energy method with some new flavors to handle the critical oscillatory waves. Finally, numerical simulations for various cases are carried out to support our theoretical results.
D. Kicker
2004-09-16
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sáenz, P. J.; Valluri, P.; Sefiane, K.; Karapetsas, G.; Matar, O. K.
2013-09-01
A shallow planar layer of liquid bounded from above by gas is set into motion via the thermocapillary effect resulting from a thermal gradient applied along its interface. Depending on the physical properties of the liquid and the strength of the gradient, the system is prone to departure from its equilibrium state and to the consequent development of an oscillatory regime. This problem is numerically investigated for the first time by means of two-phase direct numerical simulations fully taking into account the presence of a deformable interface. Obliquely travelling hydrothermal waves (HTWs), similar to those first described by Smith and Davis [J. Fluid Mech. 132, 119-144 (1983)], 10.1017/S0022112083001512, are reported presenting good agreement with linear stability theory and experiments. The nonlinear spatiotemporal growth of the instabilities is discussed extensively along with the final bulk flow for both the liquid and gas phases. Our study reveals the presence of interface deformations which accompany the HTWs pattern with a certain time-delay. The local interface heat fluxes are found to be significantly affected by the transient nature of the HTWs, contradicting the results of previous single-phase studies.
SAA drift: Experimental results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.
According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.
Spiral silicon drift detectors
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.
1988-01-01
An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, Steven E.; Einaudi, F.; Dorian, Paul B.; Lang, Stephen; Heymsfield, Gerald M.
1993-01-01
A summary of the results of a detailed study of the vertical structure of mesoscale gravity waves conducted during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) is presented. Pressure perturbation fields derived from the Doppler wind fields are compared with the vertical structure of eigenfunctions resulting from a solution to the Taylor-Goldstein linear wave equation for an atmosphere whose mean state is described by vertical profiles obtained from a representative CCOPE sounding. An analysis of the potential for shear instability is also performed on all of the soundings taken on this day to assess the representativeness of the one chosen for the linear theoretical analysis.
Gravity jitter effected slosh waves and the stability of a rotating bubble under microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.
1991-01-01
The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh wave with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eltayeb, I. A.; Elbashir, T. B. A.
2017-08-01
The linear and nonlinear stabilities of second sound waves in a rotating porous Darcy-Brinkman layer in local thermal non-equilibrium are studied when the heat flux in the solid obeys the Cattaneo law. The simultaneous action of the Brinkman effect (effective viscosity) and rotation is shown to destabilise the layer, as compared to either of them acting alone, for both stationary and overstable modes. The effective viscosity tends to favour overstable modes while rotation tends to favour stationary convection. Rapid rotation invokes a negative viscosity effect that suppresses the stabilising effect of porosity so that the stability characteristics resemble those of the classical rotating Benard layer. A formal weakly nonlinear analysis yields evolution equations of the Landau-Stuart type governing the slow time development of the amplitudes of the unstable waves. The equilibrium points of the evolution equations are analysed and the overall development of the amplitudes is examined. Both overstable and stationary modes can exhibit supercritical stability; supercritical instability, subcritical instability and stability are not possible. The dependence of the supercritical stability on the relative values of the six dimensionless parameters representing thermal non-equilibrium, rotation, porosity, relaxation time, thermal diffusivities and Brinkman effect is illustrated as regions in regime diagrams in the parameter space. The dependence of the heat transfer and the mean heat flux on the parameters of the problem is also discussed.
Sardar, Sankirtan; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Das, K. P.
2016-07-15
A three-dimensional KP (Kadomtsev Petviashvili) equation is derived here describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive dust ion acoustic wave in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, static negatively charged dust grains, nonthermal electrons, and isothermal positrons. When the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the KP-equation vanishes an appropriate modified KP (MKP) equation describing the propagation of dust ion acoustic wave is derived. Again when the coefficient of the nonlinear term of this MKP equation vanishes, a further modified KP equation is derived. Finally, the stability of the solitary wave solutions of the KP and the different modified KP equations are investigated by the small-k perturbation expansion method of Rowlands and Infeld [J. Plasma Phys. 3, 567 (1969); 8, 105 (1972); 10, 293 (1973); 33, 171 (1985); 41, 139 (1989); Sov. Phys. - JETP 38, 494 (1974)] at the lowest order of k, where k is the wave number of a long-wavelength plane-wave perturbation. The solitary wave solutions of the different evolution equations are found to be stable at this order.
Theoretical Studies of Drift-Alfven and Energetic Particle Physics in Fusion Plasmas
Liu Chen
2005-07-06
Nonlinear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift-wave envelope and zonal flow amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent four-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin, and White [Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129 (2000)]. Solutions clearly demonstrate turbulence spreading due to nonlinearly dispersiveness and, consequently, the device-size dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selima, Ehab S.; Seadawy, Aly R.; Yao, Xiaohua
2016-12-01
The three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear and dispersive PDEs system for surface waves propagating at undisturbed water surface under the gravity force and surface tension effects are studied. By applying the reductive perturbation method, we derive the (2 + 1) -dimensions form of the Davey-Stewartson (DS) system for the modulation of 2-D harmonic waves. By using the simplest equation method, we find exact traveling wave solutions and a general form of the multiple-soliton solution of the DS model. The dispersion analysis as well as the conservation law of the DS system are discussed. It is revealed that the consistency of the results with the conservation of the potential energy increases with increasing Ursell parameter. Also, the stability of the ODEs form of the DS system is presented by using the phase portrait method.
Spin-wave spectra and stability of the in-plane vortex state in two-dimensional magnetic nanorings
Mamica, S.
2013-12-21
We study theoretically two-dimensional nanorings assumed to have the in-plane vortex magnetic configuration. Using a discrete dipole model we examine the spectrum of normal spin-wave modes vs. the dipolar-to-exchange interaction ratio. We systematize the spin-wave excitations by their azimuthal and radial wave numbers. The lowest-frequency mode, the fundamental (quasiuniform) mode, and the mode hybridization are analyzed; the discussion of the influence of effective pinning at the ring boundaries is provided as well. We study the stability of the in-plane vortex state and discuss the role of the size of the ring and the type of lattice arrangement of the magnetic moments within it. To facilitate comparison with our results we provide the relationships between microscopic parameters, used in our model, and those used in the case of continuous medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalaby, M.; EL-Labany, S. K.; EL-Shamy, E. F.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Khaled, M. A.
2009-12-01
Obliquely propagating dust ion acoustic solitary waves (DIASWs) are investigated in hot adiabatic magnetized dusty plasmas consisting of hot adiabatic inertial ions, hot adiabatic inertialess electrons, and negatively/positively charged static dust grains. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The effects of the concentration of negatively/positively charged dust particles and ion-neutral collision on the basic characteristics of DIASWs are studied. The three-dimensional stability of these waves is examined by the use of small-k (long wavelength plane wave) perturbation expansion technique. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on external magnetic field, obliqueness, the concentration of charged dust grains, ion-neutral, and ion-dust collisions.
D.M. Jolley
1999-12-02
As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.
High resolution drift chambers
Va'vra, J.
1985-07-01
High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.
Craton Development and Stabilization: Insights from SE Canada using P and S Wave Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyce, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Ellwood, A.; Levin, V. L.; Menke, W. H.
2015-12-01
Cratons, the ancient cores of the continents, are the longest-lived parts of Earth's surface that have survived thermal and mechanical erosion during multiple Wilson cycles. They are visible in tomographic images due to their thick (>200km), seismically fast keels or roots. The Laurentian keel beneath North America is intriguing since its root is thought to extend beneath both the Archean Superior craton and the Proterozoic Grenville province thus implying that keel formation may not have been restricted to Archean times. In order to address this issue we present a P and S wave relative arrival-time tomographic study using data from seismograph networks in SE Canada and the NE US, stretching from the southern tip of Hudson Bay within the Superior craton to the coastal Phanerozoic Appalachian terranes. The tomographic images display three broad zones of increasing mantle wavespeed from globally "slow" in the Appalachian terranes, to a "fast" Grenville Province and "extremely fast" Superior craton. We observe a linear low-velocity feature resulting from modification of the Laurentian keel by the passage of the Great Meteor hotspot. This feature is progressively offset southwestward with depth, potentially due to viscous coupling with mantle flow. No major plate-scale underthrusting during the Grenville Orogeny is apparent, which contradicts the inferred results from crustal seismic reflection and refraction studies. Our results therefore may have fundamental implications for the nature of the Grenville orogenic collision and cratonic stabilization of North America. The results also support the developing consensus that keels form in two stages: a chemically depleted core of Archean age followed by a thermally developed, less-depleted lithosphere during Proterozoic times, highlighted by an abrupt wavespeed contrast in the tomographic images.
Drift scale thermomechanical analysis for thermal loading and retrievability studies
Tsai, F.C.
1995-12-31
Currently, the repository portion of the Mined Geologic Disposal System for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste is in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) stage. As a part of the Thermal Loading Systems Study and the Retrievability Period Systems Study, a numerical method was used to estimate the stability of emplacement drifts. Drift stability is an important performance issue, particularly for the concept of a waste package (WP) in an open drift. Drift stability is both a preclosure and postclosure issue. Specifically, preclosure worker safety and WP retrievability can be affected by drift stability. Important postclosure drift stability issues are the potential for rockfall which might damage a WP or the potential formation of cracks and upheaval of rock masses which may alter the hydrologic performance of the repository. In the current study, thermomechanical analyses, using the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) numerical code, were performed to support the thermal loading study and the retrievability study. The coupled effects between thermal and mechanical behavior induced by the excavation, thermal loading and rapid cooling were analyzed using rock-mass models. Input data for the jointed-rock pattern, in situ stress condition, and the material properties of intact rock and rock joints were adopted from the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.
NA
2002-03-04
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.
Orbital stability of periodic waves in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Edward R.; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.
2016-09-01
Periodic travelling waves are considered in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations that describe low-frequency internal waves in the presence of rotation. The reduced Ostrovsky equations with either quadratic or cubic nonlinearities can be transformed to integrable equations of the Klein-Gordon type by means of a change of coordinates. By using the conserved momentum and energy as well as an additional conserved quantity due to integrability, we prove that small-amplitude periodic waves are orbitally stable with respect to subharmonic perturbations, with period equal to an integer multiple of the period of the wave. The proof is based on construction of a Lyapunov functional, which is convex at the periodic wave and is conserved in the time evolution. We also show numerically that convexity of the Lyapunov functional holds for periodic waves of arbitrary amplitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Deng-Shan; Han, Wei; Shi, Yuren; Li, Zaidong; Liu, Wu-Ming
2016-07-01
The spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standing light wave can be described by three coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with a periodic potential. In this paper, nine families of stationary solutions without phase structures in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions are proposed, and their stabilities are analyzed by both linear stability analysis and dynamical evolutions. Taking the ferromagnetic 87Rb atoms and antiferromagnetic (polar) 23Na atoms as examples, we investigate the stability regions of the nine stationary solutions, which are given in term of elliptic modulus k. It is shown that for the same stationary solution the stability regions of condensates with antiferromagnetic (polar) spin-dependent interactions are larger than that of the condensates with ferromagnetic ones. The dn-dn-dn stationary solution is the most stable solution among the nine families of stationary solutions. Moreover, in the same standing light wave, the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates are more stable than the scalar Bose-Einstein condensate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Wenxian
2017-09-01
This paper is concerned with the stability of transition waves and strictly positive entire solutions of random and nonlocal dispersal evolution equations of Fisher-KPP type with general time and space dependence, including time and space periodic or almost periodic dependence as special cases. We first show the existence, uniqueness, and stability of strictly positive entire solutions of such equations. Next, we show the stability of uniformly continuous transition waves connecting the unique strictly positive entire solution and the trivial solution zero and satisfying certain decay property at the end close to the trivial solution zero (if it exists). The existence of transition waves has been studied in Liang and Zhao (2010 J. Funct. Anal. 259 857-903), Nadin (2009 J. Math. Pures Appl. 92 232-62), Nolen et al (2005 Dyn. PDE 2 1-24), Nolen and Xin (2005 Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 13 1217-34) and Weinberger (2002 J. Math. Biol. 45 511-48) for random dispersal Fisher-KPP equations with time and space periodic dependence, in Nadin and Rossi (2012 J. Math. Pures Appl. 98 633-53), Nadin and Rossi (2015 Anal. PDE 8 1351-77), Nadin and Rossi (2017 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 223 1239-67), Shen (2010 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 362 5125-68), Shen (2011 J. Dynam. Differ. Equ. 23 1-44), Shen (2011 J. Appl. Anal. Comput. 1 69-93), Tao et al (2014 Nonlinearity 27 2409-16) and Zlatoš (2012 J. Math. Pures Appl. 98 89-102) for random dispersal Fisher-KPP equations with quite general time and/or space dependence, and in Coville et al (2013 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 30 179-223), Rawal et al (2015 Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 35 1609-40) and Shen and Zhang (2012 Comm. Appl. Nonlinear Anal. 19 73-101) for nonlocal dispersal Fisher-KPP equations with time and/or space periodic dependence. The stability result established in this paper implies that the transition waves obtained in many of the above mentioned papers are asymptotically stable for well-fitted perturbation. Up to the author
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hua-Cheng; Guo, Bao-Zhu
2017-08-01
In this paper, we consider boundary output feedback stabilization for a multi-dimensional wave equation with boundary control matched unknown nonlinear internal uncertainty and external disturbance. A new unknown input type extended state observer is proposed to recover both state and total disturbance which consists of internal uncertainty and external disturbance. A key feature of the proposed observer in this paper is that we do not use the high-gain to estimate the disturbance. By the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy, the total disturbance is compensated (canceled) in the feedback loop, which together with a collocated stabilizing controller without uncertainty, leads to an output feedback stabilizing feedback control. It is shown that the resulting closed-loop system is well-posed and asymptotically stable under weak assumption on internal uncertainty and external disturbance. The numerical experiments are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, A. V.; Mikhaylov, A. L.; Men'Shikh, A. V.; Nazarov, D. V.; Finyushin, S. A.; Davydov, V. A.
2010-10-01
We performed experimental studies on the stability of the detonation wave front in mixtures of the liquids tetranitromethane (TNM) and nitrobenzene (NB). Tetranitromethane is an oxygen-rich explosive and nitrobenzene was used as a solvent or dilutant. (NB is not classed as an explosive but as an explosive would be oxygen poor and fuel rich.) The primary diagnostic was a laser velocimetry method with high temporal resolution. Data obtained were compared with the detonation parameters of the TNM/NB mixtures. In previous experimental work [1,2] it was shown that the detonation wave front in liquid explosives may be either smooth or rough. Rough detonation fronts have been reported in nitromethane, as well as nitromethane mixed with a solvent. Smooth detonation fronts have been reported in tetranitromethane. Previously, we conducted studies on the structure of the detonation wave front in liquid explosives containing tetranitromethane [3-5]. Smooth, stable fronts were recorded in pure tetranitromethane and in a 46/54 mixture of tetranitromethane and nitromethane. A pulsating, unstable detonation wave front was recorded in a 74/26 mixture of tetranitromethane and nitrobenzene. The goal of the present work is to extend our research on the structure of the detonation wave front in mixtures of tetranitromethane diluted with less energetic nitrobenzene. To this end, the following TNM/NB mixtures were studied: 95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20, 74/26, and 50/50.
Observation of Up-gradient Particle Flux in Collisional Drift-ITG Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Lang
2015-11-01
We report the observation of a net inward, up-gradient turbulent particle flux from two independent diagnostics in collisional drift-ITG plasma turbulence. At low magnetic fields (B <= 1.0 kG), particle transport is outward at all radii and the predominantly collisional electron drift wave turbulence drives a sheared ExB zonal flow. As the magnetic field is further increased (B >= 1.2 kG) the drift-waves persist, an up-gradient inward particle flux develops, fluctuations propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction develop and a pronounced steepening of the ion temperature and mean density gradients occurs. The two different types of fluctuation features modulate and compete with each other and dominate in different radial location and magnetic field region. Linear stability analyses show that a robust ITG instability is excited for these conditions. The onset of net inward flux also coincides with the development of a strong intrinsic parallel flow shear that can drive an inward pinch when it is coupled with grad-Ti. However, we find that the ITG-driven inward pinch is more dominant in our experiments. This basic experiment provides for a detailed examination of turbulent-driven particle pinches and up-gradient fluxes in the presence of multiple free-energy sources. Moreover, the coexistence and competition of DWs and ITG have been observed to influence tokamak transport and remains a topic of interest for both magnetically confined fusion plasmas and space plasma systems. A detailed experimental study complemented by theory and linear and nonlinear simulations of these experiments is used to elucidate the physics of up-gradient particle transport. Supported by DOE (DE- SC0001961).
Effects of Drift Degradation on Environmental Conditions in Drifts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manepally, C.; Fedors, R. W.; Adams, G. R.; Green, S. T.
2003-12-01
Drift degradation is anticipated to significantly influence the environment inside waste emplacement drifts at the proposed repository for high level waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This poster presents the calculated effects of drift degradation on the waste package and drip shield temperatures. Natural backfilling caused by degradation of the fractured tuff wallrock may occur gradually throughout the repository drifts, with all drifts estimated to be backfilled within 1,000 years after closure. Model results indicate prominent increases in waste package and drip shield temperatures due to the insulating effect of the backfill material. An algorithm linking drift degradation to estimates of waste package and drip shield temperature will be presented. Components of the different in-drift heat-transfer processes-including, conduction, convection and thermal radiation-are analyzed for relative importance. The results indicate that thermal radiation and convection dominate the in-drift heat transfer in the absence of drift degradation effects. In the case where drift degradation created a natural backfill, conduction through the backfill was the dominant heat transfer process. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses showed that the in-drift temperatures were very sensitive to the assumed thermal properties of the natural backfill. Ongoing numerical modeling that incorporates hydrologic effects on environmental conditions will also be discussed. This poster is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the view or regulatory position of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George
2004-01-01
When multi-ion plasma consisting of heavy and light ions is permeated by a low-frequency Alfven (LFA) wave, the crossed-electric-and-magnetic field (E x B), and the polarization drifts of the different ion species and the electrons could be quite different. The relative drifts between the charged-particle species drive waves, which energize the plasma. Using 2.5-dimensional (2.5-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we study this process of wave generation and its nonlinear consequences in terms of acceleration and heating plasma. Specifically, we study the situation for LFA wave frequency being lower than the heavy-ion cyclotron frequency in a multi-ion plasma. We impose such a wave to the plasma assuming that its wavelength is much larger than that of the waves generated by the relative drifts. For better understanding, the LFA-wave driven simulations are augmented by those driven by initialized ion beams. The driven high-frequency (HF) wave modes critically depend on the heavy ion density nh; for small values of nh, the lower hybrid (LH) waves dominate. On the other hand, for large nh a significantly enhanced level of waves occurs over a much broader frequency spectrum below the LH frequency and such waves are interpreted here as the ion Bernstein (IB) mode near the light ion cyclotron harmonics. Irrespective of the driven wave modes, both the light and heavy ions undergo significant transverse acceleration, but for the large heavy-ion densities, even the electrons are significantly accelerated in the parallel direction by the waves below the LH frequency. Even when the LFA wave drive is maintained, the ion heating leads to the cessation of HF wave excitation just after a few cycles of the former wave. On the basis of marginal stability seen in the simulations, an empirical relation for LFA wave amplitude, frequency and ion temperature is given.
Stability of giant sand waves in eastern Long Island Sound, U.S.A.
Fenster, M.S.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Bohlen, W.F.; Lewis, R.S.; Baldwin, C.T.
1990-01-01
A combination of a highly accurate bathymetric surveying technique and in-situ submersible observations and measurements were used to assess the migrational trends and morphological changes of large sand waves (Ht ??? 17 m) in eastern Long Island Sound. Although residing in a high-energy tidal environment characterized by a net westward sediment flux, the large bedforms are relatively stable over the short term. Over a 7 month period, 55.1% of a total 2942 m of sand wave crestline lengths migrated less than the horizontal accuracy limits of navigation (2 m). Approximately 35% of the remaining sand wave crests migrated less than 4 m. Net migration of the sand wave crests in the study area was 0.2 m. In addition, the bulk form (center of area in profile view) or the base of the sand waves showed little, if any, movement. These data, in conjunction with flow data within the sand wave field, suggest that net migration rates are greater than the time span of this study and/or the sand waves move in response to large residual flows created by high-energy, aperiodic storm events. The latter scenerio suggests that day to day processes only serve to rework and modify the sand waves. ?? 1990.
Diogene pictorial drift chamber
Gosset, J.
1984-01-01
A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, W. A.; Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.
2014-02-01
We analyse the time-stepping stability for the 3-D acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two types of methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method. Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog time-stepping scheme, which is second-order accurate and conditionally stable, leads to a fully explicit scheme. We provide estimates of its stability limit for simple cases, namely, the reference element with Neumann boundary conditions, its distorted version of arbitrary shape, the unit cube that can be partitioned into six tetrahedra with periodic boundary conditions and its distortions. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability limit contains an element diameter for which we considered different options. The one based on the sum of the eigenvalues of the spatial operator for the first-degree mass-lumped element gives the best results. It resembles the diameter of the inscribed sphere but is slightly easier to compute. The stability estimates show that the mass-lumped continuous and the discontinuous Galerkin finite elements of degree 2 have comparable stability conditions, whereas the mass-lumped elements of degree one and three allow for larger time steps.
Novel stability diagrams for continuous-wave solid-state laser resonators
De Silvestri, S.; Laporta, P.; Magni, V.
1986-08-01
Two novel stability diagrams are proposed, which provide a clear understanding of the behavior of solid-state laser resonators with focusing rods. By means of this graphic analysis, information on the stability boundaries, dynamic stability, misalignment sensitivity, and spot size in the rod can be obtained. On the basis of these diagrams the complicated experimental output power curves of a cw Nd:YAG laser have been easily interpreted.
Quantum stability of nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass parameter in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngman; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Pak, D. G.; Park, Chanyong; Tsukioka, Takuya
2017-09-01
The problem of the existence of a stable vacuum field in pure QCD is revised. Our approach is based on using classical stationary nonlinear wave type solutions with an intrinsic mass scale parameter. Such solutions can be treated as quantum-mechanical wave functions describing massive spinless states in quantum theory. We verify whether nonlinear wave type solutions can form a stable vacuum field background within the framework of the effective action formalism. We demonstrate that there is a special class of stationary generalized Wu-Yang monopole solutions that are stable against quantum gluon fluctuations.
Davidson, Andrew J; Ura, Seiji; Thomason, Peter A; Kalna, Gabriela; Insall, Robert H
2013-11-01
The SCAR/WAVE complex drives actin-based protrusion, cell migration, and cell separation during cytokinesis. However, the contribution of the individual complex members to the activity of the whole remains a mystery. This is primarily because complex members depend on one another for stability, which limits the scope for experimental manipulation. Several studies suggest that Abi, a relatively small complex member, connects signaling to SCAR/WAVE complex localization and activation through its polyproline C-terminal tail. We generated a deletion series of the Dictyostelium discoideum Abi to investigate its exact role in regulation of the SCAR complex and identified a minimal fragment that would stabilize the complex. Surprisingly, loss of either the N terminus of Abi or the C-terminal polyproline tail conferred no detectable defect in complex recruitment to the leading edge or the formation of pseudopods. A fragment containing approximately 20% Abi--and none of the sites that couple to known signaling pathways--allowed the SCAR complex to function with normal localization and kinetics. However, expression of N-terminal Abi deletions exacerbated the cytokinesis defect of the Dictyostelium abi mutant, which was earlier shown to be caused by the inappropriate activation of SCAR. This demonstrates, unexpectedly, that Abi does not mediate the SCAR complex's ability to make pseudopods, beyond its role in complex stability. Instead, we propose that Abi has a modulatory role when the SCAR complex is activated through other mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitenkova, S.; Singh, N.; Stepanyants, Y.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we revisit the problem of modulation stability of quasi-monochromatic wave-trains propagating in a media with the double dispersion occurring both at small and large wavenumbers. We start with the shallow-water equations derived by Shrira [Izv., Acad. Sci., USSR, Atmos. Ocean. Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 17, 55-59 (1981)] which describes both surface and internal long waves in a rotating fluid. The small-scale (Boussinesq-type) dispersion is assumed to be weak, whereas the large-scale (Coriolis-type) dispersion is considered as without any restriction. For unidirectional waves propagating in one direction, only the considered set of equations reduces to the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation which is applicable only within a finite range of wavenumbers. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) which describes the evolution of narrow-band wave-trains and show that within a more general bi-directional equation the wave-trains, similar to that derived from the Ostrovsky equation, are also modulationally stable at relatively small wavenumbers k < kc and unstable at k > kc, where kc is some critical wavenumber. The NLSE derived here has a wider range of applicability: it is valid for arbitrarily small wavenumbers. We present the analysis of coefficients of the NLSE for different signs of coefficients of the governing equation and compare them with those derived from the Ostrovsky equation. The analysis shows that for weakly dispersive waves in the range of parameters where the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation is valid, the cubic nonlinearity does not contribute to the nonlinear coefficient of NLSE; therefore, the NLSE can be correctly derived from the Ostrovsky equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viechnicki, John Thomas
1999-12-01
Instantaneous phase stability in acoustic wavefields measured during the 1994 Acoustic Engineering Test (AET) is examined. AET is one of several preliminary Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) experiments conducted in the past several years. Internal waves are assumed to be the mechanism responsible for phase decorrelation over time scales of ten to thirty minutes. The AET experiment had a center frequency of 75 Hz and a 3 megameter path length. Comparison of numerical simulations to experimental results provide insight into how internal waves scatter sound and can be used to constrain statistical descriptors of realistic deep ocean internal wave fields. Ray-based wavefield simulations are performed using both Deterministic Ray Theory (DRT) and Stochastic Ray Theory (SRT), while full wave simulations are performed using the co insensitive parabolic equation model. This work complements recent similar inference studies of Colosi et al. (1994) and Heaney (1997) on other preliminary ATOC experiments. Working within the framework of the Garrett- Munk internal wave spectrum, phase coherence time, which was observed to be roughly ten to fifteen minutes in the AET experiment, is found to be dependent on the vertically integrated potential energy density, ɛ, and the bounds on the horizontal wavenumber spectrum, k min and kmax. Results suggest that phase coherence is insensitive to mode number cutoff, jmax . Two manifestations of the phase decorrelation observed in simulations are studied. Temporal wavefront wander as defined by Flatté et al. (1979) is examined over the decorrelation period as a function of the horizontal wavenumber spectrum. Intermittent structure that appears and disappears throughout the wavefront on time scales of ten to thirty minutes is examined. This intermittent structure is observed in both full wave modeling and DRT but not SRT.
Nikitenkova, S; Singh, N; Stepanyants, Y
2015-12-01
In this paper, we revisit the problem of modulation stability of quasi-monochromatic wave-trains propagating in a media with the double dispersion occurring both at small and large wavenumbers. We start with the shallow-water equations derived by Shrira [Izv., Acad. Sci., USSR, Atmos. Ocean. Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 17, 55-59 (1981)] which describes both surface and internal long waves in a rotating fluid. The small-scale (Boussinesq-type) dispersion is assumed to be weak, whereas the large-scale (Coriolis-type) dispersion is considered as without any restriction. For unidirectional waves propagating in one direction, only the considered set of equations reduces to the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation which is applicable only within a finite range of wavenumbers. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) which describes the evolution of narrow-band wave-trains and show that within a more general bi-directional equation the wave-trains, similar to that derived from the Ostrovsky equation, are also modulationally stable at relatively small wavenumbers k < kc and unstable at k > kc, where kc is some critical wavenumber. The NLSE derived here has a wider range of applicability: it is valid for arbitrarily small wavenumbers. We present the analysis of coefficients of the NLSE for different signs of coefficients of the governing equation and compare them with those derived from the Ostrovsky equation. The analysis shows that for weakly dispersive waves in the range of parameters where the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation is valid, the cubic nonlinearity does not contribute to the nonlinear coefficient of NLSE; therefore, the NLSE can be correctly derived from the Ostrovsky equation.
Emplacement Drift System Description Document
Eric Loros
2001-07-31
The Emplacement Drift System is part of the Engineered Barrier System and provides the interface between the various waste package (WP) systems and the Ground Control System. In conjunction with the various WPs, the Emplacement Drift System limits the release and transport of radionuclides from the WP to the Natural Barrier following waste emplacement. Collectively, the Emplacement Drift System consists of the structural support hardware (emplacement drift invert and WP emplacement pallet) and any performance-enhancing barriers (drip shields and invert ballast) installed or placed in the emplacement drifts. The Emplacement Drift System is entirely located within the emplacement drifts in the subsurface portion of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR); specifically, it is physically bounded by the Subsurface Facility System, the Ground Support System, and the Natural Barrier. The Emplacement Drift System supports the key MGR functions of limiting radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier, minimizing the likelihood of a criticality external to the WPs, limiting natural and induced environmental effects, and providing WP support. The Emplacement Drift System limits radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier by controlling the movement of radionuclides within the emplacement drift and to the Natural Barrier, and by limiting water contact with the WPs. The Emplacement Drift System provides physical support and barriers for emplaced WPs that reduce water contact. The Emplacement Drift WP spacing supports the thermal loading performance by complimenting drift layout and orientation as described in the system description document for the Subsurface Facility System. The Emplacement Drift System supports the WP and also provides an environment that aids in enhancing WP confinement performance. As part of the Engineered Barrier System, the Emplacement Drift System interfaces with the WP systems. The Emplacement Drift System also interfaces with the Natural Barrier
A theoretical model of asymmetric wave ripples
Blondeaux, P.; Foti, E.; Vittori, G.
2015-01-01
The time development of ripples under sea waves is investigated by means of the weakly nonlinear stability analysis of a flat sandy bottom subjected to the viscous oscillatory flow that is present in the boundary layer at the bottom of propagating sea waves. Second-order effects in the wave steepness are considered, to take into account the presence of the steady drift generated by the surface waves. Hence, the work of Vittori & Blondeaux (1990 J. Fluid Mech. 218, 19–39 (doi:10.1017/S002211209000091X)) is extended by considering steeper waves and/or less deep waters. As shown by the linear analysis of Blondeaux et al. (2000 Eur. J. Mech. B 19, 285–301 (doi:10.1016/S0997-7546(90)00106-I)), because of the presence of a steady velocity component in the direction of wave propagation, ripples migrate at a constant rate that depends on sediment and wave characteristics. The weakly nonlinear analysis shows that the ripple profile is no longer symmetric with respect to ripple crests and troughs and the symmetry index is computed as a function of the parameters of the problem. In particular, a relationship is determined between the symmetry index and the strength of the steady drift. A fair agreement between model results and laboratory data is obtained, albeit further data and analyses are necessary to determine the behaviour of vortex ripples and to be conclusive. PMID:25512587
A theoretical model of asymmetric wave ripples.
Blondeaux, P; Foti, E; Vittori, G
2015-01-28
The time development of ripples under sea waves is investigated by means of the weakly nonlinear stability analysis of a flat sandy bottom subjected to the viscous oscillatory flow that is present in the boundary layer at the bottom of propagating sea waves. Second-order effects in the wave steepness are considered, to take into account the presence of the steady drift generated by the surface waves. Hence, the work of Vittori & Blondeaux (1990 J. Fluid Mech. 218, 19-39 (doi:10.1017/S002211209000091X)) is extended by considering steeper waves and/or less deep waters. As shown by the linear analysis of Blondeaux et al. (2000 Eur. J. Mech. B 19, 285-301 (doi:10.1016/S0997-7546(90)00106-I)), because of the presence of a steady velocity component in the direction of wave propagation, ripples migrate at a constant rate that depends on sediment and wave characteristics. The weakly nonlinear analysis shows that the ripple profile is no longer symmetric with respect to ripple crests and troughs and the symmetry index is computed as a function of the parameters of the problem. In particular, a relationship is determined between the symmetry index and the strength of the steady drift. A fair agreement between model results and laboratory data is obtained, albeit further data and analyses are necessary to determine the behaviour of vortex ripples and to be conclusive.
Wu, Shuang; Ma, Li; Wu, Yibo; Zeng, Rong; Zhu, Xueliang
2012-08-01
The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), consisting of WAVE, Sra, Nap, Abi, and HSPC300, activates the Arp2/3 complex to control branched actin polymerization in response to Rac activation. How the WRC is assembled in vivo is not clear. Here we show that Nudel, a protein critical for lamellipodia formation, dramatically stabilized the Sra1-Nap1-Abi1 complex against degradation in cells through a dynamic binding to Sra1, whereas its physical interaction with HSPC300 protected free HSPC300 from the proteasome-mediated degradation and stimulated the HSPC300-WAVE2 complex formation. By contrast, Nudel showed little or no interactions with the Sra1-Nap1-Abi1-WAVE2 and the Sra1-Nap1-Abi1-HSPC300 complexes as well as the mature WRC. Depletion of Nudel by RNAi led to general subunit degradation and markedly attenuated the levels of mature WRC. It also abolished the WRC-dependent actin polymerization in vitro and the Rac1-induced lamellipodial actin network formation during cell spreading. Therefore, Nudel is important for the early steps of the WRC assembly in vivo by antagonizing the instability of certain WRC subunits and subcomplexes.
Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.
2014-06-26
The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. The stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ge; Bao, Jian; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Brizard, Alain; Lin, Zhihong; Porazik, Peter
2017-08-01
The compressional component of magnetic perturbation δ B ∥ can play an important role in drift-Alfvenic instabilities in tokamaks, especially as the plasma β increases (β is the ratio of kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure). In this work, we have formulated a gyrokinetic particle simulation model incorporating δ B ∥ , and verified the model in kinetic Alfven wave simulations using the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code in slab geometry. Simulations of drift-Alfvenic instabilities in tokamak geometry shows that the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) growth rate decreases more than 20% when δ B ∥ is neglected for β e = 0.02 , and that δ B ∥ has stabilizing effects on the ion temperature gradient instability, but negligible effects on the collisionless trapped electron mode. The KBM growth rate decreases about 15% when equilibrium current is neglected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenjun
2014-11-01
In this paper, we consider a wave equation with space variable coefficients. Due to physical considerations, a distributed delay damping is acted on the part of the boundary. Under suitable assumptions, we prove the exponential stability of the energy based on the use of Riemannian geometry method, the perturbed energy argument, and some observability inequalities. From the applications point of view, our results may provide some qualitative analysis and intuition for the researchers in fields such as engineering, biophysics, and mechanics. And the method is rather general and can be adapted to other evolution systems with variable coefficients (e. g. elasticity plates) as well.
Long-term wavelength drift compensation of tunable pulsed dye laser for sodium detection lidar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yuan; Cheng, Xuewu; Li, Faquan; Wang, Jihong; Yang, Yong; Lin, Xin; Gong, Shunsheng
2015-11-01
Wavelength stabilization for a pulsed laser presents more challenges than that of continuous wave laser. We have developed a simple and efficient long-term wavelength drifts compensation technique for tunable pulsed dye lasers (PDL) applied in sodium detection lidar system. Wavelength calibration and locking are implemented by using optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy in a Na hollow cathode lamp (HCL) in conjunction with a digital control software. Optimization of OG signals for better laser wavelength discrimination and feedback control is performed. Test results indicate that locking the multimode broadband PDL to the Na atomic transition corresponding to 589.158 nm is well achieved although the temperature in the laboratory is unstable. Through active compensation, the maximum wavelength drift is reduced from over 5 pm to 0.42 pm in 10 h and the maximum wavelength drift rate of the PDL is improved from 3.3 pm/h to 0.3 pm/h. It has been used to efficient sodium resonance fluorescence lidar detection. This technique is economical and easy to implement, and it provides flexible wavelength control and allows generalization for some other applications which require the wavelength of tunable pulsed lasers to be fixed at an atomic resonance transition references.
Price, Rebecca M; Andrews, Tessa C; McElhinny, Teresa L; Mead, Louise S; Abraham, Joel K; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E
2014-01-01
Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures upper-division students' understanding of this concept. We used an iterative approach that included extensive interviews and field tests involving 1723 students across five different undergraduate campuses. The GeDI consists of 22 agree-disagree statements that assess four key concepts and six misconceptions. Student scores ranged from 4/22 to 22/22. Statements ranged in mean difficulty from 0.29 to 0.80 and in discrimination from 0.09 to 0.46. The internal consistency, as measured with Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.58 to 0.88 across five iterations. Test-retest analysis resulted in a coefficient of stability of 0.82. The true-false format means that the GeDI can test how well students grasp key concepts central to understanding genetic drift, while simultaneously testing for the presence of misconceptions that indicate an incomplete understanding of genetic drift. The insights gained from this testing will, over time, allow us to improve instruction about this key component of evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberleithner, Kilian; Rukes, Lothar; Paschereit, Oliver; Soria, Julio
2014-11-01
We report on a number of experimental and theoretical investigations of shear flow instabilities in jet flows. In these studies, linear stability analysis is employed to the time-averaged flow taken from experiments, contrasting the ``classic'' stability approach that is based on a stationary base flow. The eigenmodes of the time-averaged flow are considered as models for the nonlinearly saturated state of the instability waves. The accuracy of these models is validated through a detailed comparison with experiments. In this talk we outline the potential and limitation of these flow models for convectively and globally unstable jet flows. The first author was supported by a fellowship within the Postdoc-Program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). The support of the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) is greatfully acknowledged.
Michael L. Wilson
2001-02-08
Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing
Drift mode growth rates and associated transport
Redd, A.J.; Kritz, A.H.; Bateman, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1999-04-01
Drift mode linear growth rates and quasilinear transport are investigated using the FULL kinetic stability code [Rewoldt {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 5}, 1815 (1998)] and a version of the Weiland transport model [Strand {ital et al.}, Nucl. Fusion {bold 38}, 545 (1998)]. It is shown that the drift mode growth rates (as well as the marginal stability temperature gradient) obtained using the FULL code are dependent on the accuracy of the equilibrium employed. In particular, when an approximate equilibrium model is utilized by the FULL code, the results can differ significantly from those obtained using a more accurate numerical equilibrium. Also investigated are the effects of including full electron physics. It is shown, using both the FULL code and the Weiland model, that the nonadiabatic (e.g., trapped) electron response produces a significant increase in the linear growth rate of the ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven branch of the drift instability. Other consequences of the nonadiabatic electron response include a reduction in the marginal temperature gradient for the onset of the ITG mode and an additional contribution to transport due to the excitation of the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM). Physical explanations are given for the sensitivity of the mode growth rates to the equilibrium and the nonadiabatic electron response. Finally, linear growth rates for the ITG mode computed using the FULL code are compared with growth rates obtained using the Weiland model. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, R. D.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Manuel, P.; Bombardi, A.; Martin, C.; Chapon, L. C.; Radaelli, P. G.
2016-05-01
Through a combination of neutron diffraction and Landau theory we describe the spin ordering in the ground state of the quadruple perovskite manganite CaMn7O12 —a magnetic multiferroic supporting an incommensurate orbital density wave that onsets above the magnetic ordering temperature, TN 1=90 K. The multi-k magnetic structure in the ground state was found to be a nearly-constant-moment helix with modulated spin helicity, which oscillates in phase with the orbital occupancies on the Mn3 + sites via trilinear magneto-orbital coupling. Our phenomenological model also shows that, above TN 2=48 K, the primary magnetic order parameter is locked into the orbital wave by an admixture of helical and collinear spin density wave structures. Furthermore, our model naturally explains the lack of a sharp dielectric anomaly at TN 1 and the unusual temperature dependence of the electrical polarization.
De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené
2016-01-01
Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sirmas, N; Radulescu, M I
2015-02-01
Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston-driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic, with a constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density nonuniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found to be comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtained analytically and numerically. Analysis of these curves indicates that the instability is not of the Bethe-Zeldovich-Thompson or D'yakov-Kontorovich type. Analysis of the shock relaxation rates and rates for clustering in a convected fluid element with the same thermodynamic history ruled out the clustering instability of a homogeneous granular gas. Instead, wave reconstruction of the early transient evolution indicates that the onset of instability occurs during repressurization of the gas following the initial relaxation of the medium behind the lead shock. This repressurization gives rise to internal pressure waves in the presence of strong density gradients. This indicates that the mechanism of instability is more likely of the vorticity-generating Richtmyer-Meshkov type, relying on the action of the inner pressure wave development during the transient relaxation.
Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breivik, Oyvind; Bidlot, Jea-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Mogensen, Kristian
2016-04-01
Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons against parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. Of the two Stokes drift profiles explored here, the profile based on the Phillips spectrum is by far the best. In particular, the shear near the surface is almost identical to that influenced by the f-5 tail of spectral wave models. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. The ECWMF coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system now includes these wave effects in the ocean model component (NEMO).
Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking
Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.
2014-01-01
Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals. PMID:25354545
Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport
J. Houseworth
2004-09-22
The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the
Boundary Observability and Stabilization for Westervelt Type Wave Equations without Interior Damping
Kaltenbacher, Barbara
2010-12-15
In this paper we show boundary observability and boundary stabilizability by linear feedbacks for a class of nonlinear wave equations including the undamped Westervelt model used in nonlinear acoustics. We prove local existence for undamped generalized Westervelt equations with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions as well as global existence and exponential decay with absorbing type boundary conditions.
Concentration of Laplace Eigenfunctions and Stabilization of Weakly Damped Wave Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burq, N.; Zuily, C.
2016-08-01
In this article, we prove some universal bounds on the speed of concentration on small (frequency-dependent) neighbourhoods of sub-manifolds of L 2-norms of quasi modes for Laplace operators on compact manifolds. We deduce new results on the rate of decay of weakly damped wave equations.
Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma
Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sekine, Megumi; Okamura, Masahiro; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter
2013-04-19
An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.
Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Kazumasa; Okamura, Masahiro; Sekine, Megumi; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter
2013-04-01
An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.
Drift-scale thermomechanical analysis for the retrievability systems study
Tsai, F.C.
1996-04-01
A numerical method was used to estimate the stability of potential emplacement drifts without considering a ground support system as a part of the Thermal Loading Systems Study for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The stability of the drift is evaluated with two variables: the level of thermal loading and the diameter of the emplacement drift. The analyses include the thermomechanical effects generated by the excavation of the drift, subsequently by the thermal loads from heat-emitting waste packages, and finally by the thermal reduction resulting from rapid cooling ventilation required for the waste retrieval if required. The Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) code was used to analyze the thermomechanical response of the rock mass of multiple blocks separated by joints. The result of this stability analysis is used to discuss the geomechanical considerations for the advanced conceptual design (ACD) with respect to retrievability. In particular, based on the rock mass strength of the host rock described in the current version of the Reference Information Base, the computed thermal stresses, generated by 111 MTU/acre thermal loads in the near field at 100 years after waste emplacement, is beyond the criterion for the rock mass strength used to predict the stability of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift.
Role of long waves in the stability of the plane wake.
Scarsoglio, Stefania; Tordella, Daniela; Criminale, William O
2010-03-01
This work is directed toward investigating the fate of three-dimensional long perturbation waves in a plane incompressible wake. The analysis is posed as an initial-value problem in space. More specifically, input is made at an initial location in the downstream direction and then tracing the resulting behavior further downstream subject to the restriction of finite kinetic energy. This presentation follows the outline given by Criminale and Drazin [W. O. Criminale and P. G. Drazin, Stud. Appl. Math. 83, 123 (1990)] that describes the system in terms of perturbation vorticity and velocity. The analysis is based on large scale waves and expansions using multiscales and multitimes for the partial differential equations. The multiscaling is based on an approach where the small parameter is linked to the perturbation property independently from the flow control parameter. Solutions of the perturbative equations are determined numerically after the introduction of a regular perturbation scheme analytically deduced up to the second order. Numerically, the complete linear system is also integrated. Since the results relevant to the complete problem are in very good agreement with the results of the first-order analysis, the numerical solution at the second order was deemed not necessary. The use for an arbitrary initial-value problem will be shown to contain a wealth of information for the different transient behaviors associated to the symmetry, angle of obliquity, and spatial decay of the long waves. The amplification factor of transversal perturbations never presents the trend--a growth followed by a long damping--usually seen in waves with wave number of order one or less. Asymptotical instability is always observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sund, Richard; Scharer, John
2002-11-01
We examine a new method for generating sheared flows in advanced tokamak D-T reactors with the goal of creating and controlling internal transport barriers. Ion-Bernstein waves (IBWs) have the recognized capacity to create internal transport barriers through sheared plasma flows resulting from ion absorption. Under reactor conditions, the IBW can be generated by mode conversion of a fast magnetosonic wave incident from the high-field side (HFS) on the second harmonic resonance of a minority hydrogen component, with near 100200 MHz) minimizes parasitic absorption and permits the converted IBW to approach the fifth tritium harmonic. It also facilitates compact antennas and feeds, and efficient fast wave launch. Placement of the 5T absorption layer on the HFS is advantageous for shear production. The scheme is applicable to reactors with aspect ratio < 3 such that the conversion and absorption layers are both on the high field side of the magnetic axis. Various factors (adequate separation of the mode conversion layer from the magnetic axis, concentration of the fast wave near the midplane, large machine size, and plasma elongation) minimize poloidal field effects in the conversion zone and permit a slab analysis. We use a 1-D full-wave code to analyze the conversion and absorption. A 2-D ray-tracing code incorporating poloidal magnetic fields is used to follow the IBW for various equilibria. Within this analysis a weak bean shape appears most favorable. This is an attractive scheme for future advanced tokamak reactors. *Research supported by the Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
Role of long waves in the stability of the plane wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarsoglio, Stefania; Tordella, Daniela; Criminale, William O.
2010-03-01
This work is directed toward investigating the fate of three-dimensional long perturbation waves in a plane incompressible wake. The analysis is posed as an initial-value problem in space. More specifically, input is made at an initial location in the downstream direction and then tracing the resulting behavior further downstream subject to the restriction of finite kinetic energy. This presentation follows the outline given by Criminale and Drazin [W. O. Criminale and P. G. Drazin, Stud. Appl. Math. 83, 123 (1990)] that describes the system in terms of perturbation vorticity and velocity. The analysis is based on large scale waves and expansions using multiscales and multitimes for the partial differential equations. The multiscaling is based on an approach where the small parameter is linked to the perturbation property independently from the flow control parameter. Solutions of the perturbative equations are determined numerically after the introduction of a regular perturbation scheme analytically deduced up to the second order. Numerically, the complete linear system is also integrated. Since the results relevant to the complete problem are in very good agreement with the results of the first-order analysis, the numerical solution at the second order was deemed not necessary. The use for an arbitrary initial-value problem will be shown to contain a wealth of information for the different transient behaviors associated to the symmetry, angle of obliquity, and spatial decay of the long waves. The amplification factor of transversal perturbations never presents the trend—a growth followed by a long damping—usually seen in waves with wave number of order one or less. Asymptotical instability is always observed.
Detecting the Drift of Quantum Sources: Not the de Finetti Theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Lucia; van Enk, S. J.
2011-05-01
We propose and analyze a method to detect and characterize the drift of a nonstationary quantum source. It generalizes a standard measurement for detecting phase diffusion of laser fields to quantum systems of arbitrary Hilbert space dimension, qubits in particular. We distinguish diffusive and systematic drifts, and examine how quickly one can determine that a source is drifting. We show that for single-photon wave packets our measurement is implemented by the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.
Detecting the drift of quantum sources: not the de Finetti theorem.
Schwarz, Lucia; van Enk, S J
2011-05-06
We propose and analyze a method to detect and characterize the drift of a nonstationary quantum source. It generalizes a standard measurement for detecting phase diffusion of laser fields to quantum systems of arbitrary Hilbert space dimension, qubits in particular. We distinguish diffusive and systematic drifts, and examine how quickly one can determine that a source is drifting. We show that for single-photon wave packets our measurement is implemented by the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.
Repository Drift Backfilling Demonstrator
Londe, I.; Dubois, J.Ph.; Bauer, C.
2008-07-01
The 'Backfilling Demonstrator' is one of the technological demonstrators developed by ANDRA in the framework of the feasibility studies for a geological repository for high-level long-lived (HL-LL waste) within a clay formation. The demonstrator concerns the standard and supporting backfills as defined in Andra's 2005 design. The standard backfill is intended to fill up almost all drifts of the underground repository in order to limit any deformation of the rock after the degradation of the drift lining. The supporting backfill only concerns a small portion of the volume to be backfilled in order to counter the swelling pressure of the swelling clay contained in the sealing structures. The first objective of the demonstrator was to show the possibility of manufacturing a satisfactory backfill, in spite of the exiguity of the underground structures, and of reusing as much as possible the argillite muck. For the purpose of this experiment, the argillite muck was collected on Andra's work-site for the implementation of an underground research laboratory. Still ongoing, the second objective is to follow up the long-term evolution of the backfill. Approximately 200 m{sup 3} of compacted backfill material have been gathered in a large concrete tube simulating a repository drift. The standard backfill was manufactured exclusively with argillite. The supporting backfill was made by forming a mixture of argillite and sand. Operations were carried out mostly at Richwiller, close to Mulhouse, France. The objectives of the demonstrator were met: an application method was tested and proven satisfactory. The resulting dry densities are relatively high, although the moduli of deformation do not always reach the set goal. The selected objective for the demonstrator was a dry density corresponding to a relatively high compaction level (95% of the standard Proctor optimum [SPO]), for both pure argillite and the argillite-sand mixture. The plate-percussion compaction technique was
Drift-induced Benjamin-Feir instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Patti, F.; Fanelli, D.; Carletti, T.
2016-06-01
A modified version of the Ginzburg-Landau equation is introduced which accounts for asymmetric couplings between neighbors sites on a one-dimensional lattice, with periodic boundary conditions. The drift term which reflects the imposed microscopic asymmetry seeds a generalized class of instabilities, reminiscent of the Benjamin-Feir type. The uniformly synchronized solution is spontaneously destabilized outside the region of parameters classically associated to the Benjamin-Feir instability, upon injection of a nonhomogeneous perturbation. The ensuing patterns can be of the traveling wave type or display a patchy, colorful mosaic for the modulus of the complex oscillators amplitude.
MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.
1981-01-01
Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.
Drift-Alfven eigenmodes in inhomogeneous plasma
Vranjes, J.; Poedts, S.
2006-03-15
A set of three nonlinear equations describing drift-Alfven waves in a nonuniform magnetized plasma is derived and discussed both in linear and nonlinear limits. In the case of a cylindric radially bounded plasma with a Gaussian density distribution in the radial direction the linearized equations are solved exactly yielding general solutions for modes with quantized frequencies and with radially dependent amplitudes. The full set of nonlinear equations is also solved yielding particular solutions in the form of rotating radially limited structures. The results should be applicable to the description of electromagnetic perturbations in solar magnetic structures and in astrophysical column-like objects including cosmic tornados.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1984-03-01
This is the final report for the subject contract under which The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) built, tested and delivered an engineering model and three flight versions of the Drift Scintillation Meter (DSM) to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory for flight on the Air Force DMSP satellites. The report is divided into three sections. Section 1 contains the instrument description and theory of operation. Section 2 contains a description of planned spacecraft-level instrument testing, stimulation requirements and instrument handling and safety. Section 3 contains an instrument interconnection diagram and a list of the schematics, drawings, parts lists and wiring lists that describe the as-built configuration of the instrument. This documentation is available in the R&D Equipment Information Reports that were submitted to AFGL after each instrument delivery.
Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR
Y. Sun
2000-04-07
This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k_0=0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the
A class of reduced-order models in the theory of waves and stability
Sorokin, S. V.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a class of approximations to a type of wave field for which the dispersion relation is transcendental. The approximations have two defining characteristics: (i) they give the field shape exactly when the frequency and wavenumber lie on a grid of points in the (frequency, wavenumber) plane and (ii) the approximate dispersion relations are polynomials that pass exactly through points on this grid. Thus, the method is interpolatory in nature, but the interpolation takes place in (frequency, wavenumber) space, rather than in physical space. Full details are presented for a non-trivial example, that of antisymmetric elastic waves in a layer. The method is related to partial fraction expansions and barycentric representations of functions. An asymptotic analysis is presented, involving Stirling's approximation to the psi function, and a logarithmic correction to the polynomial dispersion relation. PMID:27118895
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balázs, Csaba; Fowlie, Andrew; Mazumdar, Anupam; White, Graham A.
2017-02-01
A new gauge singlet scalar field can undergo a strongly first-order phase transition (PT) leading to gravitational waves (GW) potentially observable at aLIGO and stabilizes the electroweak vacuum at the same time by ensuring that the Higgs quartic coupling remains positive up to at least the grand unification (GUT) scale. aLIGO (O5) is potentially sensitive to cosmological PTs at 1 07- 1 08 GeV , which coincides with the requirement that the singlet scale is less than the standard model (SM) vacuum instability scale, which is between 1 08 GeV and 1 014 GeV . After sampling its parameter space, we identify three benchmark points with a PT at about T ≈1 07 GeV in a gauge singlet extension of the SM. We calculate the nucleation temperature, order parameter, characteristic time scale, and peak amplitude and frequency of GW from bubble collisions during the PT for the benchmarks and find that, in an optimistic scenario, GW from such a PT may be in reach of aLIGO (O5). We confirm that the singlet stabilizes the electroweak vacuum while remaining consistent with zero-temperature phenomenology as well. Thus, this scenario presents an intriguing possibility that aLIGO may detect traces of fundamental physics motivated by vacuum stability at an energy scale that is well above the reach of any other experiment.