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Sample records for drinking behavior

  1. Similarity in romantic couples' drinking motivations and drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Leonard, Kenneth E; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-07-20

    Research suggests that enhancement, conformity, social, coping-with-anxiety, and coping-with-depression drinking motives are linked to specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically expected manner. Social learning theory suggests that people who spend more time together emulate each other's behavior to acquire reinforcing outcomes. The present study sought to integrate drinking motives theory and social learning theory to investigate similarity in drinking behaviors and drinking motives in romantic couples. We hypothesized that couples would be more similar than chance in their drinking behaviors and motives. We also hypothesized that demographics reflecting time around and interactions with romantic partners (e.g., days spent drinking together) would positively correlate with similarity in drinking behaviors and motivations. The present study tested hypotheses in 203 romantic couples. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back measure and the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised to track their alcohol use and drinking motives. Similarity profiles were calculated using McCrae's (J Pers Assess. 2008;90:105-109) coefficient of profile agreement, rpa. Couples were more similar in their drinking behavioral and motivational profiles than could be explained by chance. Days spent drinking together and days with face-to-face contact predicted increased similarity in drinking behavior profiles, but not similarity in drinking motives profiles. Results are partially consistent with social learning theory and suggest that social influences within couples could be important intervention targets to prevent escalations in drinking.

  2. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  3. Drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Kim, YoungHo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of drinking behavior and sex differences were examined. A possible relationship between drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) also was investigated among a convenience sample of 582 Korean college students (309 men, 273 women). A drinking habit scale (from AUDIT-K) and drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire (DRSEQ-R) were administered. Results indicated 74.4% of the students drank alcohol and 80.1% of the students were regular drinkers (> 2 to 4 times per month). There were significant differences in drinking behavior by sex and in the DRSE constructs for current drinking statuses. Drinking behavior was significantly associated with sex and DRSE. The present study offers more information about practical interventions aimed at reasonably controlling the drinking behavior of Korean college students in a university setting. The findings may provide better understanding of Korean students' drinking behavior.

  4. Drinking motives and drinking behavior over time: a full cross-lagged panel study among adults.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Drinking motives are among the most proximal factors for drinking behavior and serve as a mechanism through which more distal factors are mediated. However, it is less clear whether drinking motives are precursors of drinking or, in contrast, shaped by previous drinking experiences (reciprocal effects), or both. Moreover, in adults it is unclear whether drinking motives, usually shaped in adolescence, influence each other over time. In this longitudinal study (N = 2440, 47% women, average age 53 years), drinking motives and drinking behavior (i.e., number of drinks on the heaviest drinking day and number of drinking days; both during the past week) were assessed at 2 time points, separated by 3 months. Full cross-lagged regression models revealed that drinking motives were positively associated with drinking behavior over time and that drinking motives are shaped by the number of drinking days (i.e., reciprocal effects). Furthermore, coping and enhancement motives, as well as social and conformity motives, positively reinforced each other. Moreover, social motives were positively associated with enhancement motives over time. In conclusion, drinking motives influence each other over a 3-month period in adulthood and predict drinking behavior over time, making them important candidates for prevention efforts. Drinking motives are likely to be modifiable and might be used to stimulate drinking decrease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Drinking Motives and Drinking Behaviors among Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jounghwa; Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Myung Soon

    2017-01-01

    College drinking is an important public health issue in many countries, especially in South Korea. This study aims to explore drinking motives and their relationship with drinking behaviors and drinking outcomes among Korean college students (N = 553). Utilizing a Web-based survey, this study found some similarities and differences relative to…

  6. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior.

  7. Evaluating a cognitive model of ALDH2 and drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hendershot, Christian S.; Witkiewitz, Katie; George, William H.; Wall, Tamara L.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Liang, Tiebing; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite evidence for genetic influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related cognitions, genetic factors and endophenotypes are rarely incorporated in cognitive models of drinking behavior. This study evaluated a model of ALDH2 and drinking behavior stipulating cognitive factors and alcohol sensitivity as accounting for genetic influences on drinking outcomes. Methods Participants were Asian-American young adults (n = 171) who completed measures of alcohol cognitions (drinking motives, drinking refusal self-efficacy and alcohol expectancies), alcohol sensitivity, drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems as part a prospective study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) evaluated a model of drinking behavior that stipulated indirect effects of ALDH2 on drinking outcomes through cognitive variables and alcohol sensitivity. Results The full model provided an adequate fit to the observed data, with the measurement model explaining 63% of the variance in baseline heavy drinking and 50% of the variance in alcohol-related problems at follow-up. Associations of ALDH2 with cognitive factors and alcohol sensitivity were significant, whereas the association of ALDH2 with drinking was not significant with these factors included in the model. Mediation tests indicated significant indirect effects of ALDH2 through drinking motives, drinking refusal self-efficacy and alcohol sensitivity. Conclusions Results are consistent with the perspective that genetic influences on drinking behavior can be partly explained by learning mechanisms and implicate cognitive factors as important for characterizing associations of ALDH2 and drinking. PMID:21039630

  8. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  9. Neighborhood education inequality and drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Félice; Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Background The neighborhood distribution of education (education inequality) may influence substance use among neighborhood residents. Methods Using data from the New York Social Environment Study (conducted in 2005; n=4,000), we examined the associations of neighborhood education inequality (measured using Gini coefficients of education) with alcohol use prevalence and levels of alcohol consumption among alcohol users. Analyses were adjusted for neighborhood education level, income level, and income inequality, as well as for individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and history of drinking prior to residence in the current neighborhood. Neighborhood social norms about drinking were examined as a possible mediator. Results In adjusted generalized estimating equation regression models, one-standard-deviationhigher education inequality was associated with 1.18 times higher odds of alcohol use (logistic regression odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.30) but 0.79 times lower average daily alcohol consumption among alcohol users (Poisson regression relative rate = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.68–0.92). The results tended to differ in magnitude depending on respondents’ individual educational levels. There was no evidence that these associations were mediated by social drinking norms, although norms did vary with education inequality. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence of a relation between education inequality and drinking behavior while illustrating the importance of considering different drinking outcomes and heterogeneity between neighborhood subgroups. Future research could fruitfully consider other potential mechanisms, such as alcohol availability or the role of stress; research that considers multiple mechanisms and their combined effects may be most informative. PMID:20541875

  10. College binge drinking: deviant versus mainstream behavior.

    PubMed

    Leppel, Karen

    2006-01-01

    College binge drinking is examined from the perspectives of two cultures. The traditional culture views binging as deviant; the second culture promotes it. In this context, logit regression is used to explore the effects of various factors, including student employment and parental education. Employed students are less likely to binge than are students who are not employed. Also, students whose mother is a college graduate, but whose father is not, are more likely to binge than other students. The prescriptions for reducing binge drinking are different when the behavior is perceived as mainstream rather than deviant. The research calls for the development of a process for promoting cultural change in an environment of continually changing student leadership.

  11. Perceived historical drinking norms and current drinking behavior: using the theory of normative social behavior as a framework for assessment.

    PubMed

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Jensen, Jakob D

    2012-01-01

    Social norms are sustained and disseminated, both implicitly and explicitly, through the act of communication. As a result, communication researchers have sought to classify and target normative perceptions to enact social change. In line with this research, the current study investigated whether perceptions of past normative behavior, referred to here as historical norms, were significantly related to current behavior. Using the theory of normative behavior as a guiding framework, two studies were conducted to assess whether college student drinking behavior was related to one of two perceived historical drinking norms measures: historical consumption norms (i.e., the perceived percentage of students who drank over time) and historical tradition norms (i.e., the perception of drinking as a university tradition). Study 1 revealed that although historical consumption norms was not directly related to drinking behavior, it moderated the effect of descriptive norms on drinking behavior (p = .03). A full assessment of the theory of normative social behavior was conducted in study 2 to determine whether perceived historical drinking norms influenced behavior above and beyond both descriptive and injunctive norms. Findings demonstrated that historical tradition norms were significantly related to drinking behavior (p = .001), and marginally moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking behavior (p = .09). These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of measuring perceived historical drinking norms in future campaigns and interventions designed to reduce drinking behavior.

  12. Relationship between age and drinking instructions on the modification of drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanni; Leow, Li Pyn; Yoon, Wai Lam; Rickard Liow, Susan J; Chua, Kia Chong

    2012-06-01

    Making appropriate recommendations for safe drinking behavior among different age groups requires understanding of differences between young and older adults in following them. The purpose of this study was to investigate how drinking behavior in terms of drinking speed and bolus size differs between young and older adults following instructions to change drinking rate. Thirty young (mean age 24.7 years) and 30 older (mean age 66.9 years) healthy female participants were recruited. All participants drank water under different drinking instructions: "as they normally would", "as quickly as is comfortably possible", and "slowly". Results showed that when asked to drink quickly, both age groups increased drinking speed to a similar extent. When asked to drink slowly, older adults were unable to slow their drinking rate as much as young adults (P < .001). When drinking slowly, older adults had significantly larger bolus size than young adults'. These suggest that in a healthcare setting, the often prescribed advice to "drinking slowly" may be insufficient precaution for older patients. Prudence is suggested to carefully observe patients drinking after they've been asked to drink slowly, before making a clinical judgment if additional, more specific strategies may be indicated.

  13. Collegiate Drinking Behavior: A Test of Neutralization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodder, Richard; Hughes, Stella P.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed drinking patterns and problem-related behavior of 534 college students. Modified Norris-Dodder Neutralization Scale for juvenile delinquency to measure orientations toward drinking. Results indicated that greater acceptance of neutralizations related consistently to greater quantity and frequency of drinking as well as to more…

  14. Collegiate Drinking Behavior: A Test of Neutralization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodder, Richard; Hughes, Stella P.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed drinking patterns and problem-related behavior of 534 college students. Modified Norris-Dodder Neutralization Scale for juvenile delinquency to measure orientations toward drinking. Results indicated that greater acceptance of neutralizations related consistently to greater quantity and frequency of drinking as well as to more…

  15. Satiety splits drinking behavior into bouts: Organization of drinking in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Rusakovica, J; Plötz, T; Kremer, V D; Rohlf, P; Kyriazakis, I

    2017-03-01

    The regulation of the drinking behavior of animals is usually overlooked, and the traits associated with it are not well defined. We used a unique data set of measurements of individual drinking behavior in turkeys 1) to validate the system of data generation, 2) to develop a methodology to allow clustering of drinking events and splitting behavior into bouts, and 3) to develop traits related to drinking behavior and its regulation and investigate how these traits may be affected by bird genotype. Visits to drinkers were generated by an electronic, custom-made equipment that automatically measures the individual drinking behavior of a large number of turkeys from 3 different genetic lines. The overall reliability of the electronic system was estimated from video observations and resulted in a predictability of 98.8% and sensitivity of 98.6%. A novel method based on mixture distribution models allowed clustering of drinking events and splitting behavior into bouts by estimating the shortest interval between visits to the drinker that was considered to be part of a bout (bout criterion). The method predicted that after the end of a given bout the probability of the bird initiating the next bout was low but increased with time since the last bout. As a result, drinking bouts were not randomly distributed but were predicated on the physiological principle of satiety, suggesting that they constitute biologically appropriate units for expressing drinking behavior. The applied method resulted in bout criteria estimates of 665, 672, and 602 s for genetic lines A, B, and C, respectively. On the basis of this methodology, a number of drinking behavior traits, such as bout duration and frequency, and water intake per bout were identified that revealed differences ( < 0.01) in the drinking behavior between the turkey genetic lines. Similarly, time accumulation patterns of drinking behavior traits within a day differed ( < 0.01) within and between genetic lines, suggesting that

  16. Young adult veteran perceptions of peers' drinking behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-02-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  18. Sexual Assault, Drinking Norms, and Drinking Behavior among a National Sample of Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Granato, Hollie F.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) are strongly associated with women’s alcohol use and the rates of both alcohol use and sexual assault history are higher among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women. Although descriptive drinking norms are one of the highest predictors of alcohol use in emerging adults, this is the first study to examine the relationship between sexual assault history, drinking norms, and alcohol use in lesbian and bisexual women. We found that CSA severity was associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing more severe alcohol-involved ASA, more severe physically forced ASA, and was indirectly associated with more drinking behavior and higher drinking norms. Additionally, more severe alcohol-involved ASA was associated with higher drinking norms and more drinking behavior, but physically forced ASA was not. These findings help explain previous contradictory findings and provide information for interventions. PMID:24360780

  19. Sexual assault, drinking norms, and drinking behavior among a national sample of lesbian and bisexual women.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Granato, Hollie F; Hughes, Tonda L; Kaysen, Debra

    2014-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) are strongly associated with women's alcohol use and the rates of both alcohol use and sexual assault history are higher among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women. Although descriptive drinking norms are one of the highest predictors of alcohol use in emerging adults, this is the first study to examine the relationship between sexual assault history, drinking norms, and alcohol use in lesbian and bisexual women. We found that CSA severity was associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing more severe alcohol-involved ASA, more severe physically forced ASA, and was indirectly associated with more drinking behavior and higher drinking norms. Additionally, more severe alcohol-involved ASA was associated with higher drinking norms and more drinking behavior, but physically forced ASA was not. These findings help explain previous contradictory findings and provide information for interventions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control.

    PubMed

    Howard, Meagan A; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2010-12-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of glucose energy drinks (e.g., Amp, Monster, and Red Bull) in the past decade, particularly among high school and college students. However, little laboratory research has examined the acute objective and subjective effects of energy drinks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a glucose energy drink (Red Bull) on cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: 1.8 ml/kg energy drink, 3.6 ml/kg energy drink, 5.4 ml/kg energy drink, placebo beverage, or no drink. Participants completed a well-validated behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, and mental fatigue both before and 30 minutes following beverage administration. The results indicated that compared with the placebo and no drink conditions, the energy drink doses decreased reaction times on the behavioral control task, increased subjective ratings of stimulation and decreased ratings of mental fatigue. Greatest improvements in reaction times and subjective measures were observed with the lowest dose and improvements diminished as the dose increased. The findings suggest that energy drink consumption can improve cognitive performance on a behavioral control task, potentially explaining the dramatic rise in popularity of these controversial new beverages.

  1. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies, and Drinking Motives in a Model of College Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as intervening factors in the relationship between expectancies and alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the present cross-sectional study aimed to test the indirect effect of expectancies (i.e., social facilitation) on alcohol outcomes through drinking motives and PBS use. Participants were 520 (358 female) college student drinkers with a mean age of 20.80 (SD = 4.61) years old. Students completed measures of expectancies, drinking motives, PBS use, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that drinking motives and PBS mediated the relationship between social expectancies and alcohol use. In particular, expectancies were associated with greater positive drinking motives, drinking motives were associated with less PBS use, and PBS was associated with less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems. Given the key role of PBS in explaining drinking outcomes in our model, active efforts to incorporate PBS in alcohol interventions may be particularly beneficial for college students. Further, our findings support the consideration of PBS use as a part of the motivational model of alcohol use in future work. PMID:25134035

  2. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Regrettable Drinking-Related Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Katz, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Research has shown that alcohol outcome expectancies are predictive of heavy alcohol consumption, which can lead to risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of various low-risk social behaviors while drinking among college students. Such social behaviors may later be regretted (referred to as regrettable social behaviors) and include electronic and in-person communications. Methods College students (N = 236) completed measures of alcohol outcome expectancies and regrettable social behaviors. Results Regrettable social behaviors were reported by 66.1% of participants, suggesting that they may occur at a much higher rate than more serious drinking-related consequences (e.g. drinking and driving, violence, etc.). Expectancies for social facilitation predicted regrettable social behavior. Further, this relationship was mediated by amount of alcohol consumed. Conclusion Given the high incidence, regrettable social behaviors may be effective targets in alcohol prevention programming. PMID:25820611

  3. The Influence of Alcohol Advertising on Students' Drinking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Peggy J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perceived influence of alcohol advertising in a daily campus newspaper on the drinking behaviors of students. Findings indicated that college students do perceive that their drinking patterns are influenced by alcohol promotions in the campus newspaper and, furthermore, that self-identified binge drinkers were influenced significantly…

  4. Nursing Students' Alcohol Knowledge and Drinking Behavior over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engs, Ruth C.; Hanson, David J.

    The knowledge of alcohol and drinking behavior of collegiate nursing students was studied in 1982-1983 and 1984-1985. The questionnaire included demographic items, questions regarding the consumption of alcohol, 36 items tapping knowledge of alcohol, and 17 items concerning possible consequences of drinking. The 1982 sample consisted of 291…

  5. Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of Incoming Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah H.; Sedlacek, William E.

    An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…

  6. [Social networks in drinking behaviors among Japanese: support network, drinking network, and intervening network].

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji

    2005-10-01

    The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.

  7. Energy Drinks, Race, and Problem Behaviors among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study examined relationships between energy drink consumption and problem behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults. It was hypothesized that frequent consumption of energy drinks would be positively associated with substance abuse and other risky behaviors and that these relationships would be moderated by race. Methods Cross-sectional, self-report survey data were collected from 602 Western New York undergraduate students in the spring of 2006. Differences in problem behaviors by frequency of energy drink consumption were assessed with multivariate linear and logistic regressions, controlling for gender, race, age, parental education, and college grade point average. Follow-up regressions were conducted to test for a moderating effect of race. Results Frequency of energy drink consumption was positively associated with marijuana use, sexual risk-taking, fighting, seatbelt omission, and taking risks on a dare for the sample as a whole, and associated with smoking, drinking, alcohol problems, and illicit prescription drug use for white students but not for black students. Conclusions These findings suggest that energy drink consumption is closely associated with a problem behavior syndrome, particularly among whites. Frequent consumption of energy drinks may serve as a useful screening indicator to identify students at risk for substance use and/or other health-compromising behavior. PMID:18848678

  8. Binge drinking in undergraduates: Relationships with gender, drinking behaviors, impulsivity and the perceived effects of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Balodis, Iris M.; Potenza, Marc N.; Olmstead, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. In order to determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge-drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion that was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than previous studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared to men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for gender-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses PMID:19730367

  9. Binge drinking in undergraduates: relationships with sex, drinking behaviors, impulsivity, and the perceived effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C

    2009-09-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.

  10. Parental rules, parent and peer attachment, and adolescent drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.

  11. Drinking behavior and exercise-thermal stress: role of drink carbonation.

    PubMed

    Hickey, M S; Costill, D L; Trappe, S W

    1994-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of drink carbonation and carbohydrate content on ad libitum drinking behavior and body fluid and electrolyte responses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Eight competitive male runners completed three 2-hr treadmill runs at 60% VO2max in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 degrees C and 40% RH. Three test drinks were used: 8% carbohydrate, low carbonation (8%-C); 8% carbohydrate, noncarbonated (8%-NC), and water (0%-NC). Blood samples were taken preexercise (0), at 60 and 120 min of exercise, and at 60 min of recovery (+60 min). The data suggest that while reports of heartburn tend to be higher on 8% carbohydrate drinks than on 0%-NC, this does not appear to be a function of drink carbonation. Similarly, the increased frequency of heartburn did not significantly reduce fluid consumption either during exercise or during a 60-min recovery period. Importantly, no differences were observed between fluid and electrolyte, or thermoregulatory responses to the three sport drinks. Thus, consumption of low-carbonation beverages does not appear to significantly influence drinking behavior or the related physiological responses during prolonged exercise in the heat.

  12. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  13. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  14. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: An evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

  15. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. © 2013.

  16. Bipolar illness: factors in drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Dunner, D L; Hensel, B M; Fieve, R R

    1979-04-01

    Alcohol use and abuse was investigated in 73 patients with bipolar I manic-depressive illness who were attending a lithium clinic. Alcohol-related problems were identified in 7 of the male and none of the female patients. Family data revealed a higher morbid risk for alcoholism among relatives of patients with drinking problems than among relatives of patients without drinking problems. Morbid risks for affective disorder for these two groups of relatives were similar, suggesting that alcoholism among relatives of patients with bipolar illness is not solely "genotypically" related to the affective disorder.

  17. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Caitlin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417

  18. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Caitlin K; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2016-06-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% ("high end") of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages.

  19. Interactive Effects within the Prototype Willingness Model: Predicting the Drinking Behavior of Indigenous Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Brian E.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Gentzler, Kari C.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Prototype/Willingness Model of Adolescent Risk Behavior we used longitudinal data collected from North American Indigenous early adolescents (ages 10–12 years) to examine the interactive effects of favorable drinker prototypes, perceived drinking norms, and past year drinking behavior on subsequent drinking behavior (i.e., drinking behavior 1 year later and growth in drinking behavior from 1–5 years later). We found that the positive association between favorable drinker prototypes and drinking one year later was strongest for adolescents who were high in past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The interaction pattern for growth in drinking was more complex and suggested an important pattern; specifically, favorable drinker prototypes were positively associated with drinking five years later, but only for adolescents who reported no past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26999351

  20. Gender differences in predictors of drinking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Chiang, I-Chyun; Huang, Song-Yuan

    2006-10-01

    This study explored the differences in the risk factors associated with alcohol use, problem drinking, and related consequences between male and female high school students in eastern Taiwan. A total of 771 10th grade students, including 327 boys (42.4%) and 444 girls (57.6%), from four randomly selected high schools in eastern Taiwan were included in the survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. In conclusion, paternal drinking was found to be an important factor for the development of alcohol use in adolescent boys but had less impact on girls when compared with maternal drinking. Peer norms and peer relationships had greater effects on drinking behavior in female than in male adolescents. Alcohol use appeared to be much more closely related to family relationships in female than in male adolescents. In adolescent boys, deviant self-image was the real factor causing problem drinking. Therefore, preventive intervention for boys should focus on managing psychological distress and strengthening positive self-image, while correcting peer drinking norms, learning of drinking refusal self-efficacy, establishing friendships without drinking, and positive parent-child communication should be enhanced for girls.

  1. Addiction, Drinking Behavior, and Driving Under the Influence

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Chepke, Lindsey M.; Davis, Dontrell V.

    2012-01-01

    Using a survey of drinkers (N=1,634), we evaluated alternative explanations of heavy and binge drinking, driving under the influence (DUI), DUI arrests, speeding citations, and chargeable accidents. Explanations included socializing, short-term decision-making, unrealistic optimism, risk preferring behavior, and addiction. Most consistent relationships were between substance use and alcohol addiction and dependent variables for (1) binge drinking and (2) DUI episodes. Respondent characteristics (age, marital and employment status, race) had important roles for DUI arrests. Drinker-drivers and those arrested for DUI are partially overlapping groups with implications for treatment and policies detecting and incapacitating persons from drinking and driving. PMID:24304171

  2. Addiction, drinking behavior, and driving under the influence.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Davis, Dontrell V

    2014-05-01

    Using a survey of drinkers (N = 1,634), we evaluated alternative explanations of heavy and binge drinking, driving under the influence (DUI), DUI arrests, speeding citations, and chargeable accidents. Explanations included socializing, short-term decision-making, unrealistic optimism, risk preferring behavior, and addiction. Most consistent relationships were between substance use and alcohol addiction and dependent variables for (1) binge drinking and (2) DUI episodes. Respondent characteristics (age, marital and employment status, race, etc.) had important roles for DUI arrests. Drinker-drivers and those arrested for DUI are partially overlapping groups with implications for treatment and policies detecting and incapacitating persons from drinking and driving.

  3. Behavior of sheep drinking ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, J R; Deam, D R; Denton, D A; Tarjan, E; Weisinger, R S

    1995-06-01

    Sheep that were habituated to drinking 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution instead of water were subjected to proven thirst stimuli to study the effect of chronic ethanol intake on brain mechanisms subserving thirst. Sheep that had not previously drunk 10% ethanol were also tested. All sheep were trained to press a pedal that delivered 50 ml/press of fluid (either 10% ethanol or water) into a drinking cup. In some experiments, fluids were presented in bins. All animals had access to only one fluid at a time. Five ethanol-drinking sheep appeared healthy and maintained body weight over 18 mo. They always preferred water to 10% ethanol. The intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) at 3.8 micrograms/h for 2 h increased ethanol intake from 15 +/- 10 to 200 +/- 55 ml in the 1st h, but 2,850 +/- 320 ml of water was drunk in the 2nd h. The icv infusion of 500 mM NaCl had a similar effect. After fluid deprivation for 22 or 46 h, ethanol intake in 1 h of access was only 280 +/- 40 and 400 +/- 90 ml, respectively, and 24-h intake was not increased. Water-drinking sheep drank 1,300 +/- 195 ml of water in 1 h after 22-h water deprivation, and 24-h intake was 1.5 times normal. The icv infusion of ANG II in these sheep increased water intake in 1 h from 10 +/- 10 to 1,630 +/- 250 ml and intake of 10% ethanol to only 310 +/- 60 ml. In conclusion, sheep accept 10% ethanol as a substitute for water for daily drinking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Perceived behavioral alcohol norms predict drinking for college students while studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2009-11-01

    College students who study abroad may represent a subgroup at risk for increased drinking while living in foreign countries. The present study explores this idea as well as the extent to which students' pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad student drinking are related to actual drinking while abroad. Ninety-one students planning to study abroad completed an online survey of demographics, pre-abroad drinking behavior, perceptions of study-abroad student drinking behavior while abroad, and intentions to drink while abroad. Halfway into their study-abroad experience, participants completed a follow-up survey assessing drinking while abroad. Pre-abroad intentions of drinking and pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad drinking were associated with actual drinking while abroad. However, perceptions predicted actual drinking while abroad over and above intended drinking. In addition, although participants overall did not significantly increase their drinking while studying abroad, participants with higher pre-abroad perceived norms significantly increased their own drinking behavior while abroad. As in other samples of college students, perceived norms appear to be an important correlate of study-abroad student drinking behavior. Findings suggest that perceptions of study-abroad student-specific drinking predicted not only actual drinking while abroad but also increases in drinking from pre-abroad levels. Findings provide preliminary support for the idea that presenting prospective study-abroad students with accurate norms of study-abroad student-drinking behavior may help prevent increased or heavy drinking during this period.

  5. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  6. Examining the Relationship Between Alcohol Energy Drink Risk Profiles and High-Risk Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Cleveland, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mixing of alcohol and energy drinks (AMEDs) is a trend among college students associated with higher rates of heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The goals of the present study were to take a person-centered approach to identify distinct risk profiles of college students based on AMED-specific constructs (expectancies, attitudes, and norms) and examine longitudinal associations between AMED use, drinking, and consequences. Method A random sample of incoming freshmen (n = 387, 59% female) completed measures of AMED use, AMED-specific expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs, and drinking quantity and alcohol-related consequences. Data were collected at two occasions: spring semester of freshmen year and fall semester of sophomore year. Results Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified four subgroups of individuals: occasional AMED, anti-AMED, pro-AMED, and strong peer influence. Individuals in the pro-AMED group reported the most AMED use, drinking, and consequences. There was a unique association between profile membership and AMED use, even after controlling for drinking. Conclusions Findings highlighted the importance of AMED-specific expectancies, attitudes, and norms. The unique association between AMED risk profiles and AMED use suggests AMED use is a distinct behavior that could be targeted by AMED-specific messages included in existing brief interventions for alcohol use. PMID:23527941

  7. Alcohol drinking behaviors among Turkish high school students.

    PubMed

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Erginöz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioral patterns and correlates of regular alcohol drinking in high school students. This cross-sectional study involved the completion of a modified version of "Health Behavior in School Age Children" (HBSC 1997/1998) questionnaire by 4,153 grade 9-11 students from 26 randomly selected high schools in Istanbul. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation test and forward stepwise multiple logistic regression model were used for statistical analyses as appropriate. Overall, 61% of students were experimental drinkers, and 46% of the students were current drinkers. There was a significant difference between female and male students with respect to reporting current alcohol drinking at grade 9 and 11 (p > 0.05 for each comparison). Regular drinking was reported by 6% of students. Male students were more likely than female students to report regular drinking at each grade (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Nineteen percent of the students reported that they had been really drunk at least once during their lifetime. Malestudents were more likely than female students to report an occasion of drunkenness at each grade (p < 0.05 for each comparison). All types of drinking behavior rates tended to increase across grades for both genders (p < 0.05 for each comparison). In logistic regression analysis the following were all independently associated with regular drinking: being in grade 11, smoking cigarettes currently, lifetime drug use, bullying others, being sexually active, playing computer games > or = 4 h/week, exercising < or = 1 h/week, spending > or = four evenings with friends, at ease in talking to same gender friends, tiredness in the morning, perceived as good-looking/beautiful, higher educational level of the mother and perceived poor academic achievement. The results of this study showed that alcohol consumption is prevalent among high school students. There is therefore a need for school-based alcohol prevention

  8. An Examination of Risky Drinking Behaviors and Motivations for Alcohol Use in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Brynn E.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined (1) drinking motives as a mediator of risky drinking behaviors (ie, pregaming and drinking games) and alcohol-related problems and (2) whether gender moderates the association between risky drinking behaviors and negative consequences. Participants: Participants ("N" = 368; 68% female) were drinkers…

  9. Drinking behavior among female high school students in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2009-12-01

    To study the drinking behavior and factors associated with drinking among female High School students in central Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 6,176 female students from central Thailand, who were classified into 2 groups according to their alcohol drinking practices in the past year (yes = 612, no = 5,564). Information was collected by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: socio-demographic factors, and alcohol drinking behavior during the past year from December 2007 to February 2008. Descriptive statistics, a chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Of all these respondents 9.91% admitted to drinking alcohol. Most of the students were 15 years old or younger (61.80%). Univariate analysis revealed that socio-demographic factors such as age, educational level, residence, grade point average (GPA), having a job for earning money, and having family members with alcohol or drug problems were significantly associated with the student alcohol drinking (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, showed that only four factors were associated with alcohol consumption: the educational level (OR mathayomsuksa 5 = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.55-7.41; OR mathayomsuksa 3 = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.71-3.09), residence in a private dormitory (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.01-10.27) and family members with alcohol or drug problems (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.43-2.08), and a GPA greater than 3 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.86) (p < 0.05). The following for drinking practices were considered as inappropriate drinking behavior (20% drank over 2 times a month, 40% drank greater than 2 standard drinks each time, nearly 47% had experienced binge drinking, and one third had experienced drunkenness). The results suggested that preventive measures for alcohol abuse among female high school students should consider the educational level, residence within a private dormitory and family members with

  10. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  11. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  12. Sexual Risk Behavior and Heavy Drinking Among Weekly Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Caswell, Amy J.; Magill, Molly; Monti, Peter M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sexual behavior that incurs increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV incidence is associated with both heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Whereas detrimental effects of alcohol on increased sexual risk have been documented in event-level and laboratory studies, less is known about the combined use of alcohol and marijuana and their relative impact on sexual risk behavior. We examined the degree to which both heavy drinking and marijuana use were associated with condomless sexual intercourse with casual versus main partners in a sample of weekly marijuana smokers. Method: Participants reported substance use and sexual activity using a 60-day Timeline Followback interview method (n = 112). Results: Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that both alcohol and marijuana use were independently associated with greater odds of having sexual intercourse but were not associated with greater odds of unprotected sex with a casual partner. Heavy drinking on a given day was associated with increased odds of having casual protected sex. Using both substances synergistically increased the likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner. Conclusions: Findings suggest that behaviors posing higher sexual risk (condomless intercourse or sex with casual partners) occur on days when alcohol use exceeds moderate drinking guidelines. Interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors may need to specifically target heavy drinking alone or when used with marijuana. PMID:26751360

  13. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    PubMed

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.

  14. Drinking spout orifice size affects licking behavior in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Spector, Alan C

    2005-08-07

    Using a lickometer, we assessed the effect of drinking spout orifice size on the licking behavior of inbred mice [C57BL/6J, SWR/J, 129P3/J and DBA/2J]. Animals licked from drinking spout sipper tubes that had what were defined as either a large (2.7 mm) or a small (1.5 mm) orifice. Mice took approximately twice as many licks from a stationary single small orifice drinking spout than when licking from a spout with a large orifice during separate 30-min sessions. However, their total intake volume was approximately the same. We calculated that mice received a mean of 0.55 muL per lick from the drinking tubes with a small orifice and a mean of 1.15 muL per lick from the drinking tubes with a large orifice. Thus, the animals appear to have regulated their fluid intake by proportionally adjusting their licking as a function of the lick volume. On average, this regulation occurred through modulation of the size of licking bursts and not their frequency. However, strain differences in compensation strategy were observed. When licking was restricted to a series of 5-s trials in a 30-min brief access test session, the smaller orifice size increased the range of responsiveness that was expressed. Mice increased their average licks per trial by 20% and took 60% more trials when licking from a spout with a small orifice. Interestingly, when the orifice size was quasi-randomly varied within a brief access session, licking was greater from large orifice drinking spouts, suggesting that water delivered from the two orifice sizes differs in its reinforcement efficacy. These findings demonstrate that drinking spout orifice size can significantly influence experimental outcomes in licking tests involving mice and care should be taken in controlling this variable in testing the effects of taste or other factors on ingestive behavior.

  15. Academic and social motives and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2009-12-01

    This longitudinal study of 1,447 first-time college students tested separate time-varying covariate models of the relations between academic and social motives/behaviors and alcohol use and related problems from senior year of high school through the end of the second year in college. Structural equation models identified small but significant inverse relations between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all time points, with relations of somewhat larger magnitude between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems across all semesters other than senior year in high school. At all time points, there were much larger positive relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all semesters, with smaller but significant relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Multi-group models found considerable consistency in the relations between motives/behaviors and alcohol-related outcomes across gender, race/ethnicity, and family history of alcohol problems, although academic motives/behaviors played a stronger protective role for women, and social motives were a more robust risk factor for Caucasian and Latino students and individuals with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Implications for alcohol prevention efforts among college students are discussed.

  16. Alcohol and risky sexual behavior among heavy drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B

    2010-08-01

    Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline follow-back interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those reporting both sexual events concurrent with heavy drinking and when no alcohol was consumed. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed a more complex pattern. Among women, but not men, less condom use was associated with steady versus casual sexual partners, but partner type interacted with alcohol consumption such that less condom use occurred when heavy drinking preceded sex with steady partners. At the event-level, alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students leads to risky sexual behavior but the relation differs by gender and partner type.

  17. Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Behaviors among College Students with Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Christina C.; Curry, John F.; Looney, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. Participants: The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent…

  18. Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Behaviors among College Students with Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Christina C.; Curry, John F.; Looney, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. Participants: The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent…

  19. Alcohol expectancies and drinking behaviors among college students with disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Rush, Christina C; Curry, John F; Looney, John G

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent drinkers. Participants anonymously completed a survey as part of a universal alcohol abuse prevention program between September 2007 and April 2008. Co-occurring disordered eating behaviors and binge drinking characterized 17.1% of males and 19.0% of females. Rates of binge drinking were higher in those with disordered eating behaviors. Students with disordered eating behaviors also had more positive and negative alcohol expectancies and engaged in more risky and fewer protective drinking behaviors than their counterparts. Students with disordered eating behaviors have outcome expectancies and behavior patterns associated with problematic drinking. These findings may enhance prevention and intervention programs.

  20. The effect of drink price and next-day responsibilities on college student drinking: a behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

    2011-03-01

    More than [3/4] of U.S. college students report a heavy drinking episode (HDE; 5 (for men) and 4 (for women) drinks during an occasion) in the previous 90 days. This pattern of drinking is associated with various risks and social problems for both the heavy drinkers and the larger college community. According to behavioral economics, college student drinking is a contextually bound phenomenon that is impacted by contingencies such as price and competing alternative reinforcers, including next-day responsibilities such as college classes. This study systematically examines the role of these variables by using hypothetical alcohol purchase tasks to analyze alcohol consumption and expenditures among college students who reported recent heavy drinking (N = 207, 53.1% women). The impact of gender and the personality risk factor sensation seeking (SS) were also assessed. Students were asked how many drinks they would purchase and consume across 17 drink prices and 3 next-day responsibility scenarios. Mean levels of hypothetical consumption were highly sensitive to both drink price and next-day responsibility, with the lowest drinking levels associated with high drink prices and a next-day test. Men and participants with greater levels of SS reported more demand overall (greater consumption and expenditures) than women and students with low SS personality. Contrary to our hypotheses women appeared to be less sensitive to increases in price than men. The results suggest that increasing drink prices and morning academic requirements may be useful in preventing heavy drinking among college students.

  1. Perceived Behavioral Alcohol Norms Predict Drinking for College Students While Studying Abroad*

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: College students who study abroad may represent a subgroup at risk for increased drinking while living in foreign countries. The present study explores this idea as well as the extent to which students' pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad student drinking are related to actual drinking while abroad. Method: Ninety-one students planning to study abroad completed an online survey of demographics, pre-abroad drinking behavior, perceptions of study-abroad student drinking behavior while abroad, and intentions to drink while abroad. Halfway into their study-abroad experience, participants completed a follow-up survey assessing drinking while abroad. Results: Pre-abroad intentions of drinking and pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad drinking were associated with actual drinking while abroad. However, perceptions predicted actual drinking while abroad over and above intended drinking. In addition, although participants overall did not significantly increase their drinking while studying abroad, participants with higher pre-abroad perceived norms significantly increased their own drinking behavior while abroad. Conclusions: As in other samples of college students, perceived norms appear to be an important correlate of study-abroad student drinking behavior. Findings suggest that perceptions of study-abroad student-specific drinking predicted not only actual drinking while abroad but also increases in drinking from pre-abroad levels. Findings provide preliminary support for the idea that presenting prospective study-abroad students with accurate norms of study-abroad student-drinking behavior may help prevent increased or heavy drinking during this period. PMID:19895769

  2. Behavioral effects of developmental methylmercury drinking water exposure in rodents.

    PubMed

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao B T; Aschner, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed.

  3. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  4. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Drinking Behaviors of Previously Deployed Military Personnel and Matched Civilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Miles, Jeremy; Schell, Terry; Jaycox, Lisa; Marshall, Grant N.; Tanielian, Terri

    2011-01-01

    We examined drinking behaviors (frequency of use, quantity of use, and frequency of binge drinking) and correlates of frequency of use and binge drinking in a representative sample of previously deployed personnel from the US military (n = 1887). Drinking behaviors were compared with a matched sample of adults in U.S. households (n = 17,533). Comparable patterns of alcohol consumption were reported in both samples: 70% of previously deployed personnel and 69% of US adults reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days though, civilians drank on average more drinks on the days that they drank than did previously deployed military personnel. Regression analyses indicated that among previously deployed military personnel, deployment-related experiences (e.g., combat-related traumas) and psychological distress (e.g., symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder) were associated with frequency of drinking behaviors. We discuss the implication of our findings for developing interventions to modify drinking behaviors for military personnel. PMID:25324594

  6. Are social norms campaigns really magic bullets? assessing the effects of students' misperceptions on drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Campo, Shelly; Brossard, Dominique; Frazer, M Somjen; Marchell, Timothy; Lewis, Deborah; Talbot, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to curb excessive drinking on college campuses, many universities have turned to "social norms" marketing campaigns. Despite widespread acceptance among health educators, empirical results are clouded by measurement problems. This study, based on a random sample of 550 students, examined the effects of misperceptions of friends' and typical college students' drinking on one's drinking behavior. Results indicate that drinking behavior is positively related to perceptions of friends' drinking as suggested by the theory of planned behavior, which emphasizes subjective as opposed to social norms.

  7. [Epidemiological research on drinking of women. (Part 2). Effects of consciousness or attitude concerning about drinking and life events on drinking behavior].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, M

    1989-02-01

    Women drinkers are on the increase, in recent 20 years, according to greater participation of women in public affairs and the change of life style and so on. So, the consciousness or attitude of drinking or alcoholic beverages among women have been changed by the new customs of drinking. In this paper the relationship between women drinking behavior and their consciousness of drinking or life events, was investigated statistically using the data of sending questionnaires concerning about drinking behavior, consciousness and drinking history in Kusatsu city. The subject of investigation was 4,105 women who were aged 30 years and more, and 1,650 answers were available. Then the following findings were obtained; 1) The pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages changed fairly from 1960, but in recent years, it seems to keep balance and yearly consumption of pure alcohol per adult has leveled off about 8 l. 2) Distribution of PAC (Pure Alcohol Consumption per year) of women exceeding the limit of a liter per year was against the logarithmic normal curve. The median value of PAC of women in Kusatsu was estimated about 0.55 l, and it seemed to be smaller than that of men. QFI (Quantity-Frequency Index) of women was large among those who were full-time workers being in their thirties and forties, and had mother of regular drinker who drank once and more a week. 3) The estimated ratio of excessive drinkers among women by adopting Ledermann's model was larger than the practical ratio. For estimating the women excessive drinkers accurately, it is necessary to use exact P.A.C. of women. 4) The 20 opinions concerning with drinking or alcoholic beverages were grouped into four basic consciousness by using the method of factor analysis. The 1st was 'necessity or values' of drinking, the 2nd was 'method or manner' for taking the pleasure of drinking and of correct drinking, the 3rd was 'regulation' of alcoholic slot machine, minor drinking or drunk and the 4th was 'harmfulness

  8. Testing the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior for Predicting Binge Drinking Among Young People.

    PubMed

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Cristini, Francesca; Scacchi, Luca; Monaci, Maria Grazia

    2017-03-21

    One of the most problematic modes of alcohol consumption in young adults is risky drinking in single episodes, which typically takes place in social contexts. Several studies have applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to drinking intentions and behavior in young people. However, previous studies show that this model lacks a "bridge" that links a mental process like intentions to a physical process represented by the actual action. The aim of the present study is to test the predictive power of the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior plus social influences in order to overcome theory of planned behavior gaps in predicting binge-drinking behavior in young people. 404 undergraduates completed a questionnaire containing measures for the MGB variables, social identity, and group norms. Two weeks later, participants reported how many times they had had five/four or more alcoholic drinks on a single occasion. Structural equation modeling revealed strong support for model validity. The final equation accounted for 66% in intentions to binge drink, and 48% in drinking behavior, while a planned behavior model accounted for the 47% of variance in intentions to binge and 37% of the drinking behavior. Social influences positively affected desire and intentions to drink. Our findings suggest that, compared to other attitude-behavior frameworks, the MGB is preferable in modeling the proximal determinants of binge drinking. Therefore, the distinction between desire and intention and the consideration of social influences seem to be essential to improve the prediction of binge drinking among young people.

  9. The Effect of Drink Price and Next-Day Responsibilities on College Student Drinking: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Jessica R.; Murphy, James G.

    2010-01-01

    More than ¾ of U.S. college students report a heavy drinking episode (HDE; 5/4 or more drinks during an occasion for a man/woman) in the previous 90 days. This pattern of drinking is associated with various risks and social problems for both the heavy-drinkers and the larger college community. According to behavioral economics, college student drinking is a contextually-bound phenomenon that is impacted by contingencies such as price and competing alternative reinforcers, including next-day responsibilities such as college classes. The current study systematically examined the role of these variables by using hypothetical alcohol purchase tasks to analyze alcohol consumption and expenditures among college students who reported recent heavy drinking (N = 207, 53.1% women). The impact of gender and the personality risk factor sensation-seeking were also assessed. Students were asked how many drinks they would purchase and consume across 17 drink prices and 3 next-day responsibility scenarios (no responsibilities, a 10:00 AM class without a test, and a 10:00 AM class with a test). Mean levels of hypothetical consumption were highly sensitive to both drink price and next-day responsibility, with the lowest drinking levels associated with high drink prices and a next-day test. Men and participants with greater levels of sensation-seeking reported more demand overall (greater consumption and expenditures) than women and students with low sensation-seeking personality. Contrary to our hypotheses women appeared to be less sensitive to increases in price than men. The results suggest that increasing drink prices and morning academic requirements may be useful in preventing heavy drinking among college students. PMID:21142332

  10. Behavioral Effects of Developmental Methylmercury Drinking Water Exposure in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao BT; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed. PMID:24210169

  11. Anticipating Problem Drinking Risk from Preschoolers' Drinking Behavior: Evidence for a Common Delinquency-Related Diathesis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayzer. Roni; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A common diathesis model with precursive patterns of aggression and delinquent behavior from preschool onward is examined whether it anticipates early first drinking (EFD). It was found that EFD and delinquent behavior have a common diathesis that is evident before school entry. It is suggested that interventions should aim at dismantling the…

  12. Identifying Future Drinkers: Behavioral Analysis of Monkeys Initiating Drinking to Intoxication is Predictive of Future Drinking Classification.

    PubMed

    Baker, Erich J; Walter, Nicole A R; Salo, Alex; Rivas Perea, Pablo; Moore, Sharon; Gonzales, Steven; Grant, Kathleen A

    2017-03-01

    The Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is a repository and analytics platform for detailed data derived from well-documented nonhuman primate (NHP) alcohol self-administration studies. This macaque model has demonstrated categorical drinking norms reflective of human drinking populations, resulting in consumption pattern classifications of very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD) individuals. Here, we expand on previous findings that suggest ethanol drinking patterns during initial drinking to intoxication can reliably predict future drinking category assignment. The classification strategy uses a machine-learning approach to examine an extensive set of daily drinking attributes during 90 sessions of induction across 7 cohorts of 5 to 8 monkeys for a total of 50 animals. A Random Forest classifier is employed to accurately predict categorical drinking after 12 months of self-administration. Predictive outcome accuracy is approximately 78% when classes are aggregated into 2 groups, "LD and BD" and "HD and VHD." A subsequent 2-step classification model distinguishes individual LD and BD categories with 90% accuracy and between HD and VHD categories with 95% accuracy. Average 4-category classification accuracy is 74%, and provides putative distinguishing behavioral characteristics between groupings. We demonstrate that data derived from the induction phase of this ethanol self-administration protocol have significant predictive power for future ethanol consumption patterns. Importantly, numerous predictive factors are longitudinal, measuring the change of drinking patterns through 3 stages of induction. Factors during induction that predict future heavy drinkers include being younger at the time of first intoxication and developing a shorter latency to first ethanol drink. Overall, this analysis identifies predictive characteristics in future very heavy drinkers that optimize intoxication, such as having

  13. Circadian rhythms of hedonic drinking behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Bainier, Claire; Mateo, Maria; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Mendoza, Jorge

    2017-05-04

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the site of the main circadian clock, synchronized by the light-dark cycle, which generates behavioral rhythms like feeding, drinking and activity. Notwithstanding, the main role of the SCN clock on the control of all circadian rhythms has been questioned due to the presence of clock activity in many brain areas, including those implicated in the regulation of feeding and reward. Moreover, whether circadian rhythms of particular motivated behaviors exist is unknown. Here, we evaluated the spontaneous daily and circadian behavior of consumption of a sweet caloric solution (5-10% sucrose), and the effects of sucrose intake on the expression of clock genes in the mouse brain. Mice showed a daily (in a light-dark cycle) and a circadian (in constant darkness conditions) rhythm in the intake and sucrose preference with a rise for both parameters at night (or subjective night). In addition, we observed changes in the circadian day-night expression of the clock gene Per2 in the SCN, cortex and striatum of animals ingesting sucrose compared to control mice on pure water. Finally, daily rhythms of sucrose intake and preference were abolished in Per2(Brdm1)- and double Per1(-/-)Per2(Brdm1)-mutant animals. These data indicate that the expression of circadian rhythms of hedonic feeding behaviors may be controlled by brain circadian clocks and Per gene expression. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p < .001), (b) drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely (36.3% vs. 17.0%, p < .001), and (c) be a passenger when they knew the driver had too much alcohol to drive safely (44.1% vs. 23.6%, p < .001). Combined users were significantly more likely (p < .001) to report indicators of high-risk alcohol use, such as larger number of drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  15. Energy drink consumption and associated health behaviors among university students in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Spierer, David K; Blanding, Nineequa; Santella, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe energy drink consumption and health behaviors among college students attending a predominantly minority university. Undergraduate and graduate students attending a private, minority-serving university were invited to participate in an online survey between September 2009 and August 2010. Out of 2,500 students, 407 participated yielding a response of 16 %. Analysis assessed energy drink consumption as well as participation in sport activities and high-risk behaviors. Energy drink consumption is significantly related with drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving (r = .14, p < .05) and to riding with a drunk driver (r = .15, p < .05). Athletes were more likely to engage in drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving F (1, 186) = 6.12, p < .02. Energy drink consumption is a common practice among racial minority university students. Tailored health promotion strategies and interventions are needed to address misconceptions of energy drink and alcohol mixing.

  16. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model to Predict High-Risk Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert E.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph; Jordan, Tim; Yingling, Faith

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the Integrated Behavioral Model's (IBM) utility in explaining high-risk drinking among college students. A total of 356 participants completed a four-page questionnaire based on the (IBM) theory and their drinking behavior. The results from a path analysis revealed three significant constructs (p<0.05) which predicted…

  17. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  18. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model to Predict High-Risk Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert E.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph; Jordan, Tim; Yingling, Faith

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the Integrated Behavioral Model's (IBM) utility in explaining high-risk drinking among college students. A total of 356 participants completed a four-page questionnaire based on the (IBM) theory and their drinking behavior. The results from a path analysis revealed three significant constructs (p<0.05) which predicted…

  19. Maternal drinking and risky sexual behavior in offspring.

    PubMed

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D

    2015-04-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers' substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth.

  20. Maternal Drinking and Risky Sexual Behavior in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers’ substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12–18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth. PMID:25156314

  1. Normative Perceptions and Past-year Consequences as Predictors of Subjective Evaluations and Weekly Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study with primary aims to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N=96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported – weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. PMID:23899424

  2. Drinking Norm-Behavior Association Over Time Using Retrospective and Daily Measures*

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, Jerry; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Social norm-based interventions in college drinking are common but show mixed efficacy. Although such interventions assume a passive social-influence process, past research relied heavily on retrospective measures, leaving open the possibility that heuristic biases during recall may alternatively account for or inflate estimates of social influence from prospective norm—drinking associations. The present study examined this possibility, using retrospective and daily aggregated measures of self and perceived peer drinking behavior. Method: For each of 3 years, students (N = 574; 288 men) reported on their drinking levels and perceptions of descriptive drinking norms, using conventional retrospective reports over a month period and daily diary reports for 30 days. Using structural equation modeling, we tested cross-lag longitudinal models for evidence of social-influence/ alternative processes and compared cross-lag effects across retrospective and daily aggregate models to determine the extent to which heuristic recall biases contribute to the norm—behavior association. Results: Perceptions of social norms had a small but reliable effect on changing drinking behavior across years, as indicated by model comparisons. Past drinking behavior also consistently shaped changing perceptions of drinking norms. These effects were not attributable to, nor inflated by, heuristic biases during retrospective reporting of personal and peer behavior. Conclusions: These results suggest that social influence and not heuristic biases contribute to the long-term norm—drinking association but that alternative processes, whereby past drinking behavior shapes norm perceptions, contribute more to the norm—drinking association. Implications for interventions designed to reduce college drinking are discussed. PMID:20731984

  3. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    HAMILTON, KRISTEN R.; ANSELL, EMILY B.; REYNOLDS, BRADY; POTENZA, MARC N.; SINHA, RAJITA

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control. PMID:22376044

  4. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  5. Reward and Cognition: Integrating Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Drinking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope; Boyes, Mark; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Both Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory have been applied to understanding drinking behavior. We propose that theoretical relationships between these models support an integrated approach to understanding alcohol use and misuse. We aimed to test an integrated model in which the relationships between reward sensitivity and drinking behavior (alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and symptoms of dependence) were mediated by alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest were completed by 443 Australian adults (M age = 26.40, sd = 1.83) in 2013 and 2014. Path analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects and implicated two pathways to drinking behavior with differential outcomes. Drinking refusal self-efficacy both in social situations and for emotional relief was related to alcohol consumption. Sensitivity to reward was associated with alcohol-related problems, but operated through expectations of increased confidence and personal belief in the ability to limit drinking in social situations. Conversely, sensitivity to punishment operated through negative expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy for emotional relief to predict symptoms of dependence. Two pathways relating reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy may underlie social and dependent drinking, which has implications for development of intervention to limit harmful drinking.

  6. Energy Drink and Alcohol mixed Energy Drink use among high school adolescents: Association with risk taking behavior, social characteristics.

    PubMed

    Scalese, Marco; Denoth, Francesca; Siciliano, Valeria; Bastiani, Luca; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Cutilli, Arianna; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the study were to: a) examine the prevalence of energy drink (ED) and alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption; b) investigate the relationships between ED and AmED with alcohol, binge drinking and drugs accounting for at risk behaviors among a representative sample of Italian adolescents. A representative sample of 30,588 Italian high school students, aged 15-19years, was studied. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent association of the potential predictors' characteristics with the ED and AmED drinking during the last year. Respectively 41.4% and 23.2% of respondents reported drinking EDs and AmEDs in the last year. Multivariate analysis revealed that consumption of EDs and AmEDs during the last year were significantly associated with daily smoking, binge drinking, use of cannabis and other psychotropic drugs. Among life habits and risky behaviors the following were positively associated: going out with friends for fun, participating in sports, experiencing physical fights/accidents or injury, engaging in sexual intercourse without protection and being involved in accidents while driving. This study demonstrates the popularity of ED and AmED consumption among the Italian school population aged 15-19years old: 4 out of 10 students consumed EDs in the last year and 2 out of 10 AmED. Multivariate analysis highlighted the association with illicit drug consumption and harming behaviors, confirming that consumption of EDs and AmEDs is a compelling issue especially during adolescence, as it can effect health as well as risk taking behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent Sexual Victimization and Drinking Behavior in Newly Matriculated College Students: A Latent Growth Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Melissa J.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: College matriculation is a time of developmental and social change, and is often a time of heavy drinking. Sexual victimization (SV) is prevalent in late adolescence and poses additional risk for problem drinking behavior. Thus, matriculating students with a SV history may be at heightened risk for maladaptive alcohol use while transitioning through the first year of college. Further, victimization that has occurred close to college matriculation may confer particular risk for problem alcohol use, as the added stressor of coping with a SV while negotiating the transition into college may lead to risky drinking behavior. Therefore, examining the influence of SV timing (i.e., recency) on drinking patterns in freshman year was the aim of the present study. Methods: Matriculating undergraduates with a history of SV were assessed at six points during freshman year. Using latent growth curve modeling, we tested differences in trajectories of drinking behavior (i.e., alcohol use, binge drinking) between students who reported a recent SV and those who reported a more distal SV. Results: Students endorsing a recent SV evidenced greater overall levels of alcohol use and higher levels of binge drinking than individuals with SV that was less recent. Moreover, the recent SV group showed significantly more variability in drinking outcomes over freshman year, with escalations mapping onto more salient periods of transition over the first college year. Conclusion: Sexual victimization that occurs close to college entry is associated with specific and persistent risk for maladaptive drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students. PMID:23528195

  8. Recent sexual victimization and drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students: a latent growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Melissa J; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    College matriculation is a time of developmental and social change and is often a time of heavy drinking. Sexual victimization (SV) is prevalent in late adolescence and poses additional risk for problem drinking behavior. Thus, matriculating students with a SV history may be at heightened risk for maladaptive alcohol use while transitioning through the first year of college. Furthermore, victimization that has occurred close to college matriculation may confer particular risk for problem alcohol use, because the added stressor of coping with a SV while negotiating the transition into college may lead to risky drinking behavior. Therefore, examining the influence of SV timing (i.e., recency) on drinking patterns in freshman year was the aim of the present study. Matriculating undergraduates with a history of SV were assessed at six points during freshman year. Using latent growth curve modeling, we tested differences in trajectories of drinking behavior (i.e., alcohol use, binge drinking) between students who reported a recent SV and those who reported a more distal SV. Students endorsing a recent SV evidenced greater overall levels of alcohol use and higher levels of binge drinking than individuals with SV that was less recent. Moreover, the recent SV group showed significantly more variability in drinking outcomes over freshman year, with escalations mapping onto more salient periods of transition over the first college year. SV that occurs close to college entry is associated with specific and persistent risk for maladaptive drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students.

  9. The relationships between states' DUI penalties and HIV-positive adults' drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephanie L; Collins, Rebecca L; Elliott, Marc N; Ringel, Jeanne; Kanouse, David E; Beckman, Robin

    2010-08-01

    Evidence that persons with HIV who reside in states with stricter DUI penalties drink less might suggest that changes to alcohol policy might improve the health of persons with HIV and reduce the rate of new infections. Using multi-level modeling and data from the national HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study, we examined how states' DUI-related fines, jail time, license suspension, and court-referred treatment/education policies were related to past month drinking/not (n = 2,255) and among drinkers (n = 1,117), drinking frequency, drinks per occasion, and engagement in frequent heavy drinking. Fine strictness was negatively related to all outcomes. Residents in states with court-referred treatment/education had more current drinkers. Results suggested that punitive DUI policies might curb a variety of drinking behaviors whereas harm reduction DUI policies (e.g., court treatment programs) might have been established in response to higher drinking rates.

  10. The Impact of Alcohol-Specific Rules, Parental Norms about Early Drinking and Parental Alcohol Use on Adolescents' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim; Dekovic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents' drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which in turn prevents alcohol use by adolescent…

  11. Behaviors and attitudes associated with low drinking water intake among US adults, Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Alyson B; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Park, Sohyun; Nebeling, Linda; Yaroch, Amy L

    2013-04-11

    Water is vital for life, and plain water is a calorie-free option for hydration. Increasing consumption of drinking water is a strategy to reduce energy intake and lose or maintain weight; however, information on the characteristics of consumers who drink water is limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of people who have a low intake of drinking water and to determine associations between their behaviors and attitudes and their intake of water. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 3,397 US adults who participated in the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors and attitudes associated with self-reported drinking water intake of less than 4 cups per day. Overall, 7% of adults reported no daily consumption of drinking water, 36% reported drinking 1 to 3 cups, 35% reported drinking 4 to 7 cups, and 22% reported drinking 8 cups or more. The likelihood of drinking less than 4 cups of water daily was significantly higher among participants aged 55 years or older than among those aged 18 to 34 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.3), among residents of the Northeast than among residents of the South (AOR, 1.4), among participants who consumed 1 cup or less of fruits or vegetables per day than among those who consumed 4.5 cups or more (AOR, 3.0), among participants who did not exercise than among those who exercised 150 minutes or more per week (AOR, 1.7), and among participants who were neither trying to gain nor lose weight than among those trying to lose weight (AOR, 1.3). Low drinking water intake was associated with age, region of residence, and several unhealthful behaviors and attitudes. Understanding characteristics associated with low drinking water intake may help to identify populations that could benefit from interventions to help adults drink more water.

  12. Patterns of Drinking-related Protective and Risk Behaviors in College Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anne E.; Stapleton, Jerod; Turrisi, Rob; Philion, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Drinking-related protective (e.g., pacing consumption) and risk (e.g., participating in drinking games) behaviors influence both the amount of alcohol consumed and the consequences experienced by college students. Previous studies of these behaviors have typically examined use and predictors of these constructs separately. In the current study, latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to identify latent subgroups of drinkers with distinct patterns of use of both drinking-related protective and risk behaviors in a sample of college students. A random sample of first year student drinkers (N = 229, 59.4% female) at a large, public university in the Northeastern United States completed a web-based assessment of drinking-related protective and risk behaviors, alcohol use, and related consequences. Three patterns of use were identified, including: 1) students who used protective behaviors frequently and seldom engaged in risk behaviors (10%), 2) students who used risk behaviors more frequently and used protective behaviors less often (30%), and 3) students who used both risk and protective behaviors at similar frequencies (60%). Significant differences in the distribution of profiles was observed when considering gender, age of onset of alcohol use, and recent drinking outcomes including weekend alcohol use, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems. Prevention and intervention programs may benefit from a focus on not only increasing protective actions, but on also reducing risk behaviors beyond that of quantity and frequency of alcohol use alone. PMID:22281283

  13. The Theory of Planned Behavior as a Predictor of Growth in Risky College Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Larimer, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a predictor of growth in risky college drinking over a 3-month period. As predicted by the TPB model, it was hypothesized that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control would predict intention to engage in risky drinking, which would in turn predict growth in future risky drinking. Method: Participants were 837 college drinkers (64.2% female) who were randomly selected from two U.S. West Coast universities to participate in a larger study on college drinking norms. This study used latent growth analyses to test the ability of the TPB to predict baseline levels of as well as linear and quadratic growth in risky college drinking (i.e., heavy episodic drinking and peak drinking quantity). Results: Chi-square tests and fit indices indicated close fit for the final structural models. Self-efficacy, attitudes, and subjective norms significantly predicted baseline intention, which in turn predicted future heavy episodic drinking. Self-efficacy and attitudes were also related to intention in the model of peak drinking; however, subjective norms were not a significant predictor of intention in the peak drinking model. Mediation analyses showed that intention to engage in risky drinking mediated the effects of self-efficacy and attitudes on growth in risky drinking. Conclusions: Findings supported the TPB in predicting risky college drinking. Although the current findings should be replicated before definitive conclusions are drawn, results suggest that feedback on self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to engage in risky drinking may be a helpful addition to personalized feedback interventions for this population. PMID:21388605

  14. Associations between binge and heavy drinking and health behaviors in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lisa A; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Frueh, B Christopher; Ellis, Charles; Egede, Leonard E

    2011-12-01

    Binge and heavy drinking are noted in the literature for their relatively high prevalence and adverse health-related effects. We used data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to determine the associations between binge and heavy drinking and a wide range of health-related variables, including positive and negative health behaviors, preventive care practices, and quality of life indices in a nationally representative sample of 344,793 adults. Rates of binge and heavy drinking in the current sample were 15% and 5%, respectively. Binge and heavy drinking were more common among men, younger adults, and individuals with higher incomes and at least some college education. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, binge and heavy drinking were associated with a number of adverse health-related and preventive care behaviors (e.g., smoking, failing to receive a mammogram), as well as less life satisfaction and a greater number of poor mental health days than those who did not engage in these drinking behaviors. Interestingly, binge and heavy drinking were also associated with some positive health-related variables (e.g., recent physical activity, positive perceptions of one's own health). The current study findings provide additional information regarding the relations between health-related attitudes and behaviors and binge and heavy drinking in the U.S. population. Implications of study findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students.

  16. Energy drink enhances the behavioral effects of alcohol in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; da Silva Quaresma, Renata; Schibuola, Helen Gomes; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Manhães, Alex C; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson

    2017-06-09

    Mixing alcohol with energy drinks has become increasingly popular among teenagers and young adults due to the prevailing view that the stimulant properties of energy drinks decrease the depressant effects of alcohol. Surprisingly, in spite of energy drinks being heavily marketed to and consumed by adolescents, there is scarcely available preclinical data on the neurobehavioral effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol during adolescence. Thus, here we examine the effects of the combined exposure to alcohol and energy drink on adolescent mice using a variety of behavioral tasks to assess locomotor activity, righting reflex and motor coordination. At postnatal day 40, male and female Swiss mice were assigned to the following experimental groups: alcohol diluted in energy drink (Ed+Etoh), alcohol diluted in water (Etoh) or controls (Ctrl: energy drink or water). Alcohol and energy drink (Red Bull) concentrations were 4g/kg and 8ml/kg, respectively, and all solutions were administered via oral gavage. When compared to Etoh mice, Ed+Etoh animals displayed greater locomotor activity and increased anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field, lost their righting reflexes sooner and displayed poorer motor coordination in the rotarod. Collectively, our findings indicate that alcohol-induced deficits in adolescent mice are worsened by energy drink and go against the view that the stimulant properties of energy drinks can antagonize the adverse effects of alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  18. [An attempt at the objective evaluation of systems quanta in the drinking behavior of rats].

    PubMed

    Tolpygo, S M; Pevtsova, E I; Kotov, A V; Sudakov, K V

    1997-01-01

    The system architectonics of "systemoquanta" of rat drinking behavior was objectively evaluated in the dynamic process of its formation by means of studying intermediate and final results. The developed experimental equipment made it possible to determine characteristic features of formation and realization of drinking "systemoquanta" and the dynamics of their internal structure. Various "strategies" of system organization of identical behavior were revealed in rats of different groups. The revealed peculiarities of the internal structure of "systemoquanta" in rats of different groups are probably determined by the innate individual differences in the processes of prediction and estimation of intermediate and final results in the framework of strategic "systemoquantum" of drinking behavior.

  19. Alcohol Expectancies and Context-Specific Drinking Behaviors among Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies have been associated with drinking behaviors among college students. Few studies, however, have focused on researcher-labeled ''positive'' and ''negative'' expectancies as well as the valuations (i.e., desirability) of these expectancies. Moreover, research on the correlates of heavy drinking among female college athletes…

  20. Exploring the Drinking/Driving Behaviors and Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, E. Scott

    While there is little research specifically dealing with college students and drunk driving, there is ample evidence of frequent, heavy drinking by students. A series of projects was undertaken to explore college students' drinking behavior and attitudes related to alcohol-impaired driving. These projects included: (1) analysis of behavioral…

  1. The Influence of Religiosity and Spirituality on Drinking Behaviors: Differences between Students Attending Two Southern Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Cox, William; Black, Anne; Muller, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students (n = 431) from two southern universities--one in the "buckle" of the Bible-belt, the other a southern "border" state--have different drinking behaviors depending on their religiosity and spirituality. Approximately 95% of students indicated that they had at least one drink of alcohol during…

  2. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  3. Drinking Behaviors, Expectancies and Perceived Social Norms among Diverse College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piane, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Drinking behaviors, positive expectancies regarding alcohol, and perceptions of social norms regarding drinking on campus of female college students were compared to the responses of the men. The survey responses of 935 university students attending a large, ethnically diverse, public university were analyzed by gender and ethnicity. Females…

  4. The role of personality dispositions to risky behavior in predicting first-year college drinking.

    PubMed

    Cyders, Melissa A; Flory, Kate; Rainer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-02-01

    US college student drinking is associated with enormous risks to health, safety and productivity. Recent advances in personality research that have delineated multiple, separate dispositions to engage in risky behaviors may help to clarify the personality contribution to risk for this problem. The authors compared the prospective roles of sensation seeking, lack of planning, lack of perseverance, negative urgency and positive urgency (dispositions to engage in rash action when in an unusually negative or positive mood, respectively) in predicting increases in drinking frequency, drinking quantity and negative outcomes from consumption across the first year of college. University of Kentucky campus. A total of 418 first-year US college students enrolled in an Introduction to Psychology course during the first assessment; 293 participants completed both phases of the study. Participants completed self-report measures of personality and drinking behavior twice during the first year of college [the UPPS-R Impulsive Behavior Scale, positive urgency measure (PUM) and Drinking Styles Questionnaire (DSQ)]. Whereas sensation seeking related to increases in the frequency with which college students drank alcohol, positive urgency predicted increases in (i) the quantity of alcohol students consumed at any given drinking episode and (ii) negative outcomes experienced from drinking. It appears that although sensation seeking is a risk factor for participation in drinking behaviors, risk for increased quantity of consumption and its negative outcomes may be more a function of dyscontrol stemming from high positive mood for college students.

  5. The Influence of Religiosity and Spirituality on Drinking Behaviors: Differences between Students Attending Two Southern Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Cox, William; Black, Anne; Muller, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students (n = 431) from two southern universities--one in the "buckle" of the Bible-belt, the other a southern "border" state--have different drinking behaviors depending on their religiosity and spirituality. Approximately 95% of students indicated that they had at least one drink of alcohol during…

  6. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  7. Using Alcohol Expectancies to Predict Adolescent Drinking Behavior after One Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Bruce A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined power of expectancies measured in early adolescents to predict self-reported drinking onset and drinking behavior measured one year later. Results showed that five of seven expectancy scores readily discriminated between nonproblem drinkers and those subsequently beginning problem drinkers and accounted for large portion of variance in…

  8. Alcohol Expectancies and Context-Specific Drinking Behaviors among Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies have been associated with drinking behaviors among college students. Few studies, however, have focused on researcher-labeled ''positive'' and ''negative'' expectancies as well as the valuations (i.e., desirability) of these expectancies. Moreover, research on the correlates of heavy drinking among female college athletes…

  9. Exploring the Drinking/Driving Behaviors and Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, E. Scott

    While there is little research specifically dealing with college students and drunk driving, there is ample evidence of frequent, heavy drinking by students. A series of projects was undertaken to explore college students' drinking behavior and attitudes related to alcohol-impaired driving. These projects included: (1) analysis of behavioral…

  10. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Underage Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Research ... be the victim of physical or sexual assault. Underage Drinking Warning Signs Academic and/or behavioral problems Changing ...

  11. Drinking Group Characteristics Related to Willingness to Engage in Protective Behaviors with the Group at Nightclubs

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Electronic Music Dance Events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol/drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engaged in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives are to: 1) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group; and 2) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Method Nightclub patrons (N=215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual and group-level characteristics were measured in relation to willingness to intervene with peers. Mixed model regressions were conducted, accounting for nesting by drinking group. Results : Analyses show that participants were willing to intervene with their peers. Groups that knew each other well and had lower expectations for members’ drinking were more willing to intervene. Women, younger and older participants were also more willing to intervene. Conclusions Findings show that club patrons are willing to intervene with their drinking groups to protect them from harmful consequences of heavy drinking and drug use. Findings indicate characteristics of both individuals and drinking groups that could be targeted in interventions among young adults largely not being reached by college interventions. PMID:26999349

  12. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students.

  13. When in Rome: Factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior one month prior to departure and one-month post-study abroad return. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted pre-departure preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  14. Association of Solitary Binge Drinking and Suicidal Behavior Among Emerging Adult College Students

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N = 182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly 4 times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it would appear that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976

  15. The way one thinks affects the way one drinks: subjective evaluations of alcohol consequences predict subsequent change in drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Read, Jennifer P; Barnett, Nancy P

    2013-03-01

    Heavy alcohol use and related consequences are common during the college years and are associated with deleterious outcomes for both the students themselves and the college community. Some college students make self-initiated changes to their drinking to avoid such outcomes, but little is known about how such adjustments occur, or characteristics that are associated with making these adjustments. Based on Social Learning Theory (SLT), one cognitive factor that may predict within-person changes in drinking is the subjective evaluations of alcohol consequences (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether subjective evaluations of recently experienced consequences influence within-person changes in drinking behavior. In 10 weekly, web-based surveys, regularly drinking college students (N = 96, 50 female) reported on their previous week alcohol use and experience of 24 alcohol-related consequences, as well as their subjective evaluations of those consequences. Results demonstrated that evaluations across the consequences varied, and that in addition to differing from one another, students' evaluations of consequences differed at the within-person level over time. Most important, hierarchical linear model tests revealed that students drank less and experienced fewer consequences following weeks in which they rated their consequences as more negative (relative to their own typical subjective evaluations), suggesting that viewing one's recent consequences as aversive prompts self-initiated behavior change. Findings of the present study have potential to inform interventions for college drinking, particularly those that target how individuals think about their behavior and its consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A comparison of general self-efficacy and drinking refusal self-efficacy in predicting drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Oei, Tian P S; Hasking, Penelope; Phillips, Louise

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested that task specific self-efficacy has more influence over behavior than general self-efficacy. However, little research has compared the impact of task-specific self-efficacy beliefs to the impact of general self-efficacy in predicting alcohol consumption. This study aimed to compare the contribution of general self-efficacy and drinking refusal self-efficacy (a form of task-specific self-efficacy) to volume and frequency of alcohol consumption. Regression analyses were performed in samples of community (n = 298) and clinical (n = 296) drinkers. Overall, drinking refusal self-efficacy was found to be a significant predictor of alcohol consumption in the community sample, while general self-efficacy was found to be a significant predictor of drinking in the clinical sample. These differences highlight the differential roles of general and task specific self-efficacy in governing drinking behavior and suggest future directions for prevention and treatment of alcohol problems.

  17. Social networking and young adults' drinking practices: innovative qualitative methods for health behavior research.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; McCreanor, Tim; Griffin, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Understandings of health behaviors can be enriched by using innovative qualitative research designs. We illustrate this with a project that used multiple qualitative methods to explore the confluence of young adults' drinking behaviors and social networking practices in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Participants were 18-25 year old males and females from diverse ethnic, class, and occupational backgrounds. In Stage 1, 34 friendship focus group discussions were video-recorded with 141 young adults who talked about their drinking and social networking practices. In Stage 2, 23 individual interviews were conducted using screen-capture software and video to record participants showing and discussing their Facebook pages. In Stage 3, a database of Web-based material regarding drinking and alcohol was developed and analyzed. In friendship group data, young adults co-constructed accounts of drinking practices and networking about drinking via Facebook as intensely social and pleasurable. However, this pleasure was less prominent in individual interviews, where there was greater explication of unpleasant or problematic experiences and practices. The pleasure derived from drinking and social networking practices was also differentiated by ethnicity, gender, and social class. Juxtaposing the Web-based data with participants' talk about their drinking and social media use showed the deep penetration of online alcohol marketing into young people's social worlds. Multiple qualitative methods, generating multimodal datasets, allowed valuable nuanced insights into young adults' drinking practices and social networking behaviors. This knowledge can usefully inform health policy, health promotion strategies, and targeted health interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effects of Issue Involvement and Framing of a Responsible Drinking Message on Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Anneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the prevalence and the amount of alcohol consumption among students, health messages advocating responsible alcohol behavior can be used. However, it is unclear whether responsible drinking messages are most effective when they use a gain frame, presenting the advantages of responsible drinking, or a loss frame, presenting the disadvantages of irresponsible drinking. This study tests the effects of framing and the moderating role of involvement with the issue of responsible drinking. A three-wave, between-subjects, experimental study was conducted, in which participants (N = 90) were exposed to either a gain- or loss-framed message about responsible drinking behavior at Wave 2. At all three waves, attitudes, intentions and behavior toward responsible drinking were measured. Results showed that for participants with low issue- involvement, a gain frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a loss frame did not have any effects for them. For participants with high issue involvement, a loss frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a gain frame did not have an effect on attitude and only a delayed effect on intention. However, there were no effects of frame and issue involvement on adhering to the guideline of responsible alcohol use and average drinking behavior.

  19. Heavy Drinking in University Students With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions of Drinking Motives and Protective Behavioral Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L; Pritchard, Tyler R

    2017-01-01

    This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31) compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146). Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1.44 times higher than students with ADHD and met screening criteria for problematic alcohol use at a rate of 1.54 times higher than students with ADHD. Other key findings were, first, that drinking to enhance positive affect (e.g., drinking because it is exciting), but not to cope with negative affect (e.g., drinking to forget your worries), predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Second, only protective behavioral strategies that emphasize alcohol avoidance predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Contrary to expectations, we found no ADHD-related moderation of effects of motives or protective strategies on our alcohol outcomes. Results of this study are limited by the small sample of students with ADHD but highlight tentative similarities and differences in effects of motives and strategies on drinking behaviors and alcohol problems reported by students with and without ADHD. PMID:28814878

  20. Factors affecting the drinking behavior of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro Américo D; Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Coyohua-Fuentes, Alejandro; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for animals, and is particularly critical for thermoregulation. Animals obtain water from three main sources, free water, water contained in food, and water produced in the body during metabolism. Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) spend a small proportion of their time drinking water and some populations have not been observed drinking, suggesting they obtain most of their water requirements in food or by metabolism. However, when howler monkeys have been observed drinking there is evidence suggesting the drinking is associated with low precipitation, temperature, and fruit consumption, and high mature leaf consumption, although it remains unclear which factors determine drinking by this genus. In this study we tested the hypothesis that drinking by howler monkeys results from increased hydration requirements in drier climates and from lower consumption of foods rich in water (e.g., new leaves, fruit). We tested this hypothesis by comparative analysis of 14 groups of Yucatán black howler monkeys (A. pigra) living under different climatic conditions. From April 2005 to November 2008 we collected a total of 3,747.2 focal observation hours of the feeding and drinking behavior of 60 individuals, with data on ambient temperature and rainfall. Individuals spent more time drinking when they lived in habitats with higher maximum temperature and when they consumed more mature leaves. For this species, therefore, drinking seems to be linked to heat stress and a low availability of water in ingested food.

  1. Media alcohol advertising with drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Hsueh-Yu; Tseng, Fang-Yi; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Chen, Wei J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate potential effects of alcohol ads in six major marketing channels on drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan. The data were derived from the Alcohol-Related Experiences among Children study. The baseline sample was comprised of 1926 seventh-eighth graders from 11 public middle schools in Taipei in 2010; follow-up was conducted one year later (follow-up rate=97%). Information concerning individual sociodemographics, family characteristics, exposure to media portrayals of drinking and alcohol ads on major marketing channels, and drinking experience was collected through web-based self-administered questionnaires. Complex survey analyses were used to evaluate the association estimates, with stratification by prior drinking experiences in childhood. Television, in-store displays, and websites are the three most common marketing channels for young adolescents to report past-month alcohol advertising exposure. With statistical adjustment for potential confounders and six market channels, exposure to alcohol ads on television was associated with subsequent increased drinking initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.62; 95% CI=1.14-6.02). For those who have initiated alcohol use in childhood, the exposure to ads on the web (aOR=1.50; 95% CI=1.04-2.15) and radio (aOR=2.58; 95% CI=1.60-4.15) may elevate subsequent risk of occasional drinking. Exposure to media drinking portrayals was not related to subsequent drinking behaviors in this sample. Our results demonstrated that the effects of alcohol advertising on drinking behaviors in early adolescence may differ by marketing channels. Preventive strategies targeting underage drinking should consider restraining marketing channels (e.g., websites and radio) from certain advertising content and placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between selected state laws and teenagers’ drinking and driving behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Schootman, Mario; Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined the associations between selected state level graduated driving licensing laws (GDL) and use-and-lose laws (laws that allow for the suspension of a driver’s license for underage alcohol violations including purchase, possession, or consumption) with individual level alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors among high school youth. Methods Logistic regression models with fixed effects for state were used to examine the associations between the selected state-level laws and youth (ages 16–17 years old) drinking and driving behaviors (obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, responses dichotomized as “0 times” or “1 or more times”) over an extended period of time (1999–2009). Results 11.7% of students reported having driven after drinking any alcohol and 28.2% reported riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking on one or more occasions in the past 30 days. Restrictive GDL laws and use-and-lose laws were associated with decreased driving after drinking any alcohol and riding in a car with a driver who has been drinking alcohol. Conclusions Restrictive graduated driving licensing laws and use-and-lose laws may help to bolster societal expectations and values about the hazards of drinking and driving behaviors and are therefore partly responsible for the decline in these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors. PMID:22702907

  3. Associations between selected state laws and teenagers' drinking and driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Chaloupka, Frank J; Schootman, Mario; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-09-01

    We examined the associations between selected state-level graduated driving licensing (GDL) laws and use-and-lose laws (laws that allow for the suspension of a driver's license for underage alcohol violations including purchase, possession, or consumption) with individual-level alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors among high school youth. Logistic regression models with fixed effects for state were used to examine the associations between the selected state-level laws and drinking and driving behaviors youth aged 16 to 17 years (obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS); responses dichotomized as "0 times" or "1 or more times") over an extended period of time (1999 to 2009). A total of 11.7% of students reported having driven after drinking any alcohol and 28.2% reported riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking on 1 or more occasions in the past 30 days. Restrictive GDL laws and use-and-lose laws were associated with decreased driving after drinking any alcohol and riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Restrictive GDL and use-and-lose laws may help to bolster societal expectations and values about the hazards of drinking and driving behaviors and are therefore partly responsible for the decline in these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-Regulation as a Protective Factor against Risky Drinking and Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Prior research suggests that high dispositional self-regulation leads to decreased levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior in adolescence and the early years of college. Self-regulation may be especially important when individuals have easy access to alcohol and freedom to pursue sexual opportunities. In the current one-year longitudinal study, we followed a sample of N = 1,136 college students who had recently reached the legal age to purchase alcohol and enter bars and clubs in order to test whether self-regulation protected against heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems, and unprotected sex. We tested main effects of self-regulation and interactions among self-regulation and established risk factors (e.g., sensation seeking) on risky drinking and sexual behavior. High self-regulation inversely predicted heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems, and unprotected sex, even when taking into account gender and risk factors. Moreover, in predicting unprotected sex, we found three-way interactions among self-regulation, sensation seeking, and heavy episodic drinking. Self-Regulation buffered against risk associated with heavy drinking but only among those low in sensation seeking. The protective effects of self-regulation for risky drinking and sexual behavior make it a promising target for intervention, with the caveat that self-regulation may be less protective among those who are more drawn to socially and emotionally rewarding stimuli. PMID:20853922

  6. Self-regulation as a protective factor against risky drinking and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2010-09-01

    Prior research suggests that high dispositional self-regulation leads to decreased levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior in adolescence and the early years of college. Self-regulation may be especially important when individuals have easy access to alcohol and freedom to pursue sexual opportunities. In the current 1-year longitudinal study, we followed a sample of N = 1,136 college students who had recently reached the legal age to purchase alcohol and enter bars and clubs to test whether self-regulation protected against heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems, and unprotected sex. We tested main effects of self-regulation and interactions among self-regulation and established risk factors (e.g., sensation seeking) on risky drinking and sexual behavior. High self-regulation inversely predicted heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems, and unprotected sex, even when taking into account gender and risk factors. Moreover, in predicting unprotected sex, we found three-way interactions among self-regulation, sensation seeking, and heavy episodic drinking. Self-regulation buffered against risk associated with heavy drinking but only among those low in sensation seeking. The protective effects of self-regulation for risky drinking and sexual behavior make it a promising target for intervention, with the caveat that self-regulation may be less protective among those who are more drawn to socially and emotionally rewarding stimuli.

  7. Behavior of organic polymers in drinking water purification.

    PubMed

    Lee, J F; Liao, P M; Tseng, D H; Wen, P T

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the undesired effects resulted from chlorination and the enhanced attenuation of toxic organic compounds in drinking water from using synthetic organic polymer coagulants were investigated. In the simulated drinking water purification processes, synthetic organic polymers were used as coagulant aids, reacted with a disinfectant(chlorine) and formed a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Chloroform and benzene which, are carcinogenic compounds, had the maximum formation potential. Experimental results indicated that the total formation potential of these disinfection by-products significantly increased in the presence of turbidity. On the other hand, adding organic polymers to the coagulation systems resulted in more extensive remove of toxic organic compounds and turbidity. In coagulation and flocculation processes, the formation of clay/polymer complexes can facilitate the removal of toxic organic compounds in contaminated water.

  8. Workplace harassment, stress, and drinking behavior over time: gender differences in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Fujishiro, Kaori; Shannon, Candice A; Richman, Judith A

    2008-07-01

    Research suggests that workplace harassment (WH) significantly predicts alcohol use and problem drinking behavior, but has generally failed to consider concurrent effects of other sources of stress. This two-wave study (n=1418) is the first to explore whether sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) predict increased drinking independently of the effects of job and life stress, and whether effects differ by gender, in a nationally representative sample. SH and GWH predicted increases in problem drinking one year later for men but not women, while life stress was associated with increased problem drinking for women but not men. This study confirms the importance of examining the associations between different types of stressors and drinking-related outcomes in gendered contexts.

  9. Workplace harassment, stress, and drinking behavior over time: Gender differences in a national sample

    PubMed Central

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Fujishiro, Kaori; Shannon, Candice A.; Richman, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that workplace harassment (WH) significantly predicts alcohol use and problem drinking behavior, but has generally failed to consider concurrent effects of other sources of stress. This two-wave study (n=1418) is the first to explore whether sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) predict increased drinking independently of the effects of job and life stress, and whether effects differ by gender, in a nationally representative sample. SH and GWH predicted increases in problem drinking one year later for men but not women, while life stress was associated with increased problem drinking for women but not men. This study confirms the importance of examining the associations between different types of stressors and drinking-related outcomes in gendered contexts. PMID:18384975

  10. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  11. Drinking game behaviors among college students: how often and how much?

    PubMed

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Ham, Lindsay S; Olthuis, Janine V; Huang, Shi; Kim, Su Yeong; Hudson, Monika; Forthun, Larry F; Bersamin, Melina; Weisskirch, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Participation in drinking games (DG) has been identified as a common health-risk behavior among college students. However, research suggests that the frequency of DG participation alone may not pose a significant health risk; rather, gaming may be most hazardous when large amounts of alcohol are consumed. The present study was designed to examine whether specific gaming behaviors (frequency of play and amount of consumption) place gamers at elevated risk for negative drinking outcomes. Students from 30 U.S. colleges completed self-report questionnaires via the Internet about their drinking attitudes and behaviors. Four groups of student gamers (N = 2,230) were examined: low frequency/low consumption (n = 1,047), low frequency/high consumption (n = 453), high frequency/low consumption (n = 326), and high frequency/high consumption (n = 404). Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the frequency x consumption interaction emerged as a significant predictor of negative drinking consequences. Follow-up analyses indicated that quantity of alcohol consumed during DG predicted negative drinking consequences for high-frequency gamers only. CONCLUSIONS/SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTION: The present results challenge the assumption that all drinking-gaming practices pose equivalent health risks for gamers. Considering only participation in or level of consumption during DG may not tell the complete story with respect to the health hazards involved with gaming behaviors among college students.

  12. Assessing DUI risk: examination of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS).

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jeremy D; Hupp, Stephen D A; Segrist, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Despite research findings indicating attitudinal differences among drivers with and without a history of driving under the influence (DUI) offenses, there are no well-established instruments specifically designed to clinically assess drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors among adults. The purpose of this current series of three studies was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS). The BADDS was developed in previous studies by the authors and assesses respondents' rationalizations for drinking and driving, likelihood of future drinking and driving, drinking and driving behaviors, and riding with a drinking driver behavior in the previous month. Study 1 (N=179) and Study 2 (N=338) assessed college participants, while Study 3 gathered data from adult DUI offenders (N=160) and non-DUI offenders (N=166). Results indicate good to excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency estimates for BADDS scale scores. Support for the construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive criterion validity of BADDS scores was also demonstrated. Potential applications for the measure, as well as need for future research are described.

  13. Association between protective behavioral strategies and problem drinking among college students in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghee; Park, Sunhee

    2015-12-01

    The literature indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been effective in addressing problem drinking among college students. However, the effects of PBS on problem drinking have not been thoroughly investigated among Korean college students. Thus, the two study aims were to (a) examine drinking behavior among Korean college students and (b) investigate the effects of PBS on problem drinking. A pilot study was first conducted to obtain information needed to determine a sample size and to examine the understandability and reliability of seven instruments. The instruments were then used to collect data from full-time college students (N=479). The data were analyzed using (a) descriptive statistics such as frequencies and means for the first aim and (b) multivariate logistic regression for the second aim. Approximately 93% of the respondents had drunk alcohol during the month before the survey, and 72.7% were problem drinkers. The use of PBS significantly decreased the odds of problem drinking (odds ratio [OR]=0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.93]). In addition, male gender and positive alcohol expectancy were associated with increased odds of problem drinking (ORs=3.32 [95% CI, 1.59-6.94] and 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.08]), whereas greater age of drinking onset was associated with decreased odds of problem drinking (OR=0.81 [95% CI, 0.70-0.94]). Given the prevalence of the drinking problem among Korean college students, it is important to develop and implement interventions that will encourage students to use PBS in order to avoid problem drinking and its negative consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behaviors and Attitudes Associated With Low Drinking Water Intake Among US Adults, Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Park, Sohyun; Nebeling, Linda; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Water is vital for life, and plain water is a calorie-free option for hydration. Increasing consumption of drinking water is a strategy to reduce energy intake and lose or maintain weight; however, information on the characteristics of consumers who drink water is limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of people who have a low intake of drinking water and to determine associations between their behaviors and attitudes and their intake of water. Methods We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 3,397 US adults who participated in the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors and attitudes associated with self-reported drinking water intake of less than 4 cups per day. Results Overall, 7% of adults reported no daily consumption of drinking water, 36% reported drinking 1 to 3 cups, 35% reported drinking 4 to 7 cups, and 22% reported drinking 8 cups or more. The likelihood of drinking less than 4 cups of water daily was significantly higher among participants aged 55 years or older than among those aged 18 to 34 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.3), among residents of the Northeast than among residents of the South (AOR, 1.4), among participants who consumed 1 cup or less of fruits or vegetables per day than among those who consumed 4.5 cups or more (AOR, 3.0), among participants who did not exercise than among those who exercised 150 minutes or more per week (AOR, 1.7), and among participants who were neither trying to gain nor lose weight than among those trying to lose weight (AOR, 1.3). Conclusion Low drinking water intake was associated with age, region of residence, and several unhealthful behaviors and attitudes. Understanding characteristics associated with low drinking water intake may help to identify populations that could benefit from interventions to help adults

  15. Assessing barriers to change in drinking behavior: results of an online employee screening program.

    PubMed

    Aseltine, Robert H; Demarco, Frank J; Wallenstein, Gene V; Jacobs, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    The impact of alcohol abuse on worker productivity is considerable and appears to be increasing over time. Although early screening and intervention may help prevent or reduce the damaging health and productivity effects of problem drinking, barriers to behavioral change may render broad-based prevention efforts ineffectual. This study examined the correlates of two potential barriers to changes in drinking behavior--underestimation of drinking and lack of knowledge of helping resources--using data from web-based employee alcohol screenings. Anonymous screening data from 1185 employees of ten companies participating in the 2003 National Alcohol Screening Day were analyzed. The AUDIT, a 10-item screening instrument developed by the World Health Organization, was used to measure drinking behavior; employees' subjective assessments of their drinking were also obtained. Over 53% of participants subjectively underestimated their drinking relative to their AUDIT results, and 58% of respondents did not know whether their medical insurance included benefits for alcohol treatment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that younger and male respondents tended to have the highest AUDIT scores and also (along with married respondents) were most likely to underestimate their drinking. Younger, unmarried respondents were least likely to be aware of their alcohol treatment insurance benefits. Current corporate efforts to curtail problem drinking among employees may not adequately address barriers to change. Targeting at-risk employee groups for alcohol screening and dissemination of information about health insurance benefits and treatment options is recommended, as is providing personalized feedback based on screening results to raise awareness of at-risk drinking and available helping resources.

  16. Association of the firewater myth with drinking behavior among American Indian and Alaska Native college students.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Skewes, Monica C

    2016-12-01

    The firewater myth (FM) is the notion that American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) are more susceptible to the effects of alcohol and vulnerable to alcohol problems due to biological or genetic differences. Believing that one is vulnerable to problems with alcohol may have negative effects on expectancies and drinking behavior among AI/ANs who drink; however, the association of belief in the FM with alcohol outcomes has not previously been examined. In this study we examined the factor structure of a revised version of the Firewater Myth Scale (FMS; LaMarr, 2003) and the association of belief in the FM with alcohol use, consequences, attitudes, and expectancies with 159 AI/AN college students who drink. On average, participants "slightly agreed" with the FM and scores were normally distributed. There were significant small to moderate positive associations between believing that AI/ANs have a biological vulnerability to problems with alcohol (i.e., the FM) and drinks consumed per week, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol consequences, as well as belief in a disease model of "alcoholism," attempts to control drinking, guilt over drinking small amounts of alcohol, both positive and negative alcohol expectancies, temptation to drink heavily, and lack of self-efficacy to drink moderately. Although this is only an initial examination of potential consequences of belief in the FM for AI/AN students who drink, the results suggest that this belief may be harmful and have negative effects on attempts to moderate drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Attributions of causality for drinking behavior made by alcoholics and by normal drinkers.

    PubMed

    Vuchinich, R E; Tucker, J A; Bordini, E; Sullwold, A F

    1981-11-01

    Alcoholic individuals often are assumed to deny personal responsibility for their alcholism and to assign causation to external situational factors. To evaluate this assumption, 20 alchololics and 14 nonalcoholics made causal attributions for a recent personal drinking episode and for the drinking behavior of three target individuals (an abstinent alcoholic, a nonabstinent alcololic, and a nonalcoholic). Results showed that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects tended to make external attributions for their own drinking behavior. Subjects' attributons for the target individuals depended on bot the targest' and subjects' drinking histories. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance to models of alcoholism and to actor-observer differences in casual attribution processes.

  18. Three Studies on Drinking Game Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jennifer Marie

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college students consume alcohol. Some college students consume heavily and these abusive patterns of alcohol use can be associated with substantial negative consequences. Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with high levels of alcohol consumption and an increased…

  19. Three Studies on Drinking Game Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jennifer Marie

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college students consume alcohol. Some college students consume heavily and these abusive patterns of alcohol use can be associated with substantial negative consequences. Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with high levels of alcohol consumption and an increased…

  20. Correlates of Teenage Drinking Behavior in Two Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjepkes, Phyllis Kathleen; Hayden, Davis C.

    A survey of research literature on teenage alcohol use will reveal many variables related to teenage drinking. This study compared these variables in two separate communities to ascertain their global validity. To investigate factors leading to teenage alcohol use, 218 high school seniors from Washington and Iowa were surveyed. Dependent variables…

  1. The impact of defensiveness and incident reactions on post-sanction drinking behaviors among mandated students

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Diane E.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prior studies with mandated students (students referred for an intervention following violation of a campus alcohol policy) have suggested that decreases in drinking behaviors may occur before clinical intervention. Others studies have suggested that greater reductions were associated with lower defensiveness and stronger incident reactions, such as responsibility and aversiveness. The current study sought to integrate these findings and examine the influence of pre-sanction drinking and perceptions on mandated students’ post-sanction drinking levels prior to attending a brief intervention. Methods Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of brief interventions in a mandated student sample (N = 61, 43% female, 97% White). Participants completed demographic measures, scales measuring incident reactions and defensiveness, and a Time Line Follow Back assessing drinking quantity and frequency both pre-and post-sanction. Results Analyses revealed significant post-sanction decreases in quantity (average total drinks per month) and frequency (number of monthly drinking days). Pre-sanction drinking quantity and frequency significantly predicted post-sanction quantity and frequency, respectively. Interaction effects suggest higher post-sanction quantities among moderate and heavier drinkers with higher defensiveness and lower aversiveness perceptions, while perceptions did not influence outcomes among light drinkers. None of the interactions involving blame or responsibility, or predicting post-sanction frequency, were significant. Conclusions These findings suggest a complex relationship between pre-sanction drinking and student reactions. Implications for mandated student interactions and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25935718

  2. The impact of defensiveness and incident reactions on post-sanction drinking behaviors among mandated students.

    PubMed

    Logan, Diane E; Lewis, Melissa A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Prior studies with mandated students (students referred for an intervention following violation of a campus alcohol policy) have suggested that decreases in drinking behaviors may occur before clinical intervention. Others studies have suggested that greater reductions were associated with lower defensiveness and stronger incident reactions, such as responsibility and aversiveness. The current study sought to integrate these findings and examine the influence of pre-sanction drinking and perceptions on mandated students' post-sanction drinking levels prior to attending a brief intervention. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of brief interventions in a mandated student sample (N=61, 43% female, 97% White). Participants completed demographic measures, scales measuring incident reactions and defensiveness, and a Time Line Follow Back assessing drinking quantity and frequency both pre- and post-sanction. Analyses revealed significant post-sanction decreases in quantity (average total drinks per month) and frequency (number of monthly drinking days). Pre-sanction drinking quantity and frequency significantly predicted post-sanction quantity and frequency, respectively. Interaction effects suggest higher post-sanction quantities among moderate and heavier drinkers with higher defensiveness and lower aversiveness perceptions, while perceptions did not influence outcomes among light drinkers. None of the interactions involving blame or responsibility, or predicting post-sanction frequency, were significant. These findings suggest a complex relationship between pre-sanction drinking and student reactions. Implications for mandated student interactions and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavior and perceptions related to drink-driving among an international sample of company vehicle drivers.

    PubMed

    Guppy, A; Adams-Guppy, J R

    1995-05-01

    The study examined reported behavior, perceptions and attitudes related to drink-driving among company vehicle drivers located across eight countries. An additional aim of the research was to identify important predictors of drink-driving. A cross-sectional mailshot questionnaire survey was undertaken on all drivers of company vehicle identified by the collaborating companies. Responses to items concerning reported drink-driving, perceived consumption limits, perceived risk and reported restraint were examined for a total of 600 male drivers, representing an overall response rate of 55%. Driving after any alcohol consumption was found to be relatively common across most of the sample, while driving when over the legal limit at least once in the previous 12 months was reported by approximately one-third of the drivers. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the strongest predictors of reported drink-driving behavior were associated with perceived limits of personal alcohol consumption and a "moral attachment" to non-drink-driving associated with alcohol consumption restraint. This general prediction model seemed to be relatively consistent across the different national groups. The results suggest that longer term cognitive components of decision making such as "moral attachment" may form fundamental elements in the decision to drive after excessive drinking. It was suggested that company-based policies and programs may have a useful role in promoting safer driving practices, particularly in relation to driving after drinking.

  4. Friend or foe: Personal use and friends' use of protective behavioral strategies and spring break drinking.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa A; Sheng, Elisa; Geisner, Irene M; Rhew, Isaac C; Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined associations between use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by college students and their friends and drinking-related outcomes during Spring Break (SB). Moreover, this study examined the influence of friends' own PBS use on participants' PBS use during SB. Participants included college students (N = 694) and their nominated friends (N = 131) who were part of a larger study of SB drinking. Data were collected via web-based surveys that participants and friends took after SB, which assessed SB PBS, drinking, and related negative consequences. Results indicated that higher levels of Serious Harm Reduction (SHR) strategies and Limiting/Stopping (LS) strategies were associated with increased consumption, higher likelihood of experiencing any consequences, and an increased number of consequences. A different pattern emerged for Manner of Drinking (MD) strategy use; participants utilizing higher levels of MD strategies drank less and had fewer consequences. LS and MD strategies used by the participant's friends appeared to have less of an impact on the participant's drinking outcomes. However, greater friends' use of SHR strategies was associated with increased alcohol use by the participant, but not with consequences. Greater friends' use of SHR strategies was associated with greater SHR strategy use by the participant. Friends' LS and MD strategies were not associated with participant drinking, consequences, or PBS. These findings highlight the potential utility of interventions that focus on drinking behaviors on specific high-risk occasions for those at risk as well as for their friends.

  5. Drinking settings, alcohol consumption, and sexual risk behavior among gay men.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Smolenski, Derek; Brady, Sonya; Wilkerson, Michael; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-03-01

    We sought to 1) describe the settings or groups of settings where men who have sex with men (MSM) consume alcohol in 16 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSA); and 2) investigate whether certain drinking settings or groups of settings are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and sexual risk behavior. Latent class analysis was used to develop our measure of drinking settings. The final latent class model consisted of four distinct classes which captured the typical settings where MSM consumed alcohol: "home" "social," "bar/social," and "general" drinkers (i.e., drinks in all settings). Regression models showed that "general" drinkers were more likely than "social" drinkers to engage in frequent heavy drinking. Compared to 'social' drinkers, general drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAIMP) and UAIMP with men met in bars and other venues (e.g., private parties, bath houses) while intoxicated. Assessment of drinking settings may be a means of identifying MSM who are at greater risk for frequent, heavy drinking and related sexual risk behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drinking motives, protective behavioral strategies, and experienced consequences: Identifying students at risk.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2011-03-01

    The association between drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies was explored, including whether individuals with different drinking motives were more or less likely to utilize protective behavioral strategies and whether the combination of drinking motives and use of protective strategies may help identify individuals at elevated risk for alcohol-related problems. The final sample included 358 college students (59.2% female; M=18.47 years old, SD=.58). Individuals who had greater enhancement and social motives for drinking used protective strategies less frequently, controlling for number of drinks per week; those who had greater conformity motives used protective strategies more frequently. Coping motives were not significantly correlated with the mean of protective factors, but were associated with less frequently using individual strategies. Using protective strategies more frequently was associated with consuming fewer drinks and having lower RAPI scores. Interactions of drinking motives with the number of protective strategies tended to be non-significant; however, significant interactions indicated that greater coping and conformity motives were especially associated with negative outcomes among individuals who used fewer protective strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drinking Settings, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Smolenski, Derek; Brady, Sonya S.; Wilkerson, Michael; Rosser, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We sought to 1) describe the settings or groups of settings where men who have sex with men (MSM) consume alcohol in 16 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSA); and 2) investigate whether certain drinking settings or groups of settings are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and sexual risk behavior. Latent class analysis was used to develop our measure of drinking settings. The final latent class model consisted of four distinct classes which captured the typical settings where MSM consumed alcohol: “home” “social,” “bar/social,” and “general” drinkers (i.e., drinks in all settings). Regression models showed that “general” drinkers were more likely than “social” drinkers to engage in frequent heavy drinking. Compared to `social' drinkers, general drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAIMP) and UAIMP with men met in bars and other venues (e.g., private parties, bath houses) while intoxicated. Assessment of drinking settings may be a means of identifying MSM who are at greater risk for frequent, heavy drinking and related sexual risk behavior. PMID:23261495

  8. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  9. Ethnic Variation in Drinking, Drug Use, and Sexual Behavior among Adolescents in Hawaii.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in substance use and sexual behavior and whether drinking and drug use constitute risk factors for unsafe sexual practices among Native Hawaiian (NH), Caucasian, and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) high school students in Hawaii. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1997 and 1999) using a…

  10. Ethnic Variation in Drinking, Drug Use, and Sexual Behavior among Adolescents in Hawaii.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in substance use and sexual behavior and whether drinking and drug use constitute risk factors for unsafe sexual practices among Native Hawaiian (NH), Caucasian, and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) high school students in Hawaii. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1997 and 1999) using a…

  11. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  12. Defining Irresponsible Drinking Behaviors: An Exploratory Study Using the Viewpoint of Five Diverse Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Patricia C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed viewpoints of 63 university students, 58 law enforcement officers, 48 bartenders, 26 beer distributor employees, and 46 health educators regarding level of irresponsibility perceived to be associated with specific alcohol-related behaviors. Subjects agreed that drinking behavior resulting in physical injury, legal trouble, or failure to…

  13. Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

  14. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S.; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage=16.15; SD=.75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modelling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. PMID:26073673

  15. Parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors: The mediating role of family functioning.

    PubMed

    Finan, Laura J; Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-08-01

    This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage = 16.15; SD = .75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding soft drink consumption among female adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O; Lee, Jerry W; Modeste, Naomi N; Johnston, Patricia K

    2003-06-01

    This study identified factors that influence regular soda consumption among 707 female students, aged 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. Almost all of the participants, 96.3%, reported that they currently drink soda; 50.1% reported drinking 2 glasses of soda or more per day during the past year. Students reported drinking regular soda more than diet soda and reported drinking phosphoric acid-containing soda more than non-phosphoric acid-containing soda. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control had statistically significant positive associations with intention, and were each significant predictors of intention to drink regular soda and together explained 64% of its variance. The strongest predictor was attitude, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce soda consumption among female adolescents should include parents and friends. It is also important that soda should not be excessively available at home or widely accessible to teenagers at schools. Healthy eating messages for adolescents need to be developed and incorporated into existing and future campaigns to reinforce the perception that there are other healthier drinks that quench thirst and that taste good as well.

  17. The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking among undergraduate students: assessing the impact of habit strength.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul

    2011-05-01

    The present study sought to apply the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the prediction of binge drinking intentions and behavior among undergraduate students and to test whether habit strength explains additional variance in binge drinking behavior. Undergraduate students (N=137) completed measures of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, perceived control, and intention) and habit strength (Self-Report Habit Index) in relation to binge drinking. Frequency of binge drinking was assessed one month later (n=109). The TPB explained 75% of the variance in binge drinking intentions, with attitude and self-efficacy making significant contributions, and 35% of the variance in binge drinking behavior at one-month follow-up, with only intention making a significant contribution. Habit strength explained additional variance in binge drinking behavior (∆R(2)=.06), although intention remained as a significant predictor. The results suggest that binge drinking among undergraduate students is under the control of both intentional and habitual processes. Interventions to reduce binge drinking should therefore focus on the motivational determinants (e.g., perceived positive and negative consequences) of binge drinking as well as the environmental factors (i.e., contextual cues) that promote binge drinking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Drinking Protective Behavioral Strategies and Sexual Perceptions and Behaviors in U.S. College Students

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Diane E.; Koo, Kelly H.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students is linked to an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviors, including casual sex and unprotected sex. These behaviors increase college students' risks for negative social and health-related consequences. This study examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and protective behavioral strategies (PBS), expectancies and perceptions of sexual risk, and actual alcohol-related sexual behaviors and consequences. Sexually active college students completed web-based self-report measures of drinking behaviors and use of PBS, alcohol expectancies and perceptions of risk, sexual behaviors and related consequences (n = 524; 57.1% women). Findings indicated that PBS were related to lower expectancies of sexual risk and sexual disinhibition, and among lighter drinkers, lower expectancies of sexual enhancement from alcohol. PBS were also related to decreased perceptions of sexual-related risks, some alcohol-related sexual behaviors, including number of drinks before/during sex, and number of sexual consequences, but were not related to abstaining during sex, frequency of alcohol-related sexual behavior, or general condom use. These findings demonstrate a disconnect between perceived and actual risks among college students, such that decreased perceptions of risk may not be associated with protective behaviors. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. PMID:25350078

  19. Perceived Agency in Retirement and Retiree Drinking Behavior: Job Satisfaction as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    BACHARACH, SAMUEL; BAMBERGER, PETER; HOROWITZ-ROZEN, MICKEY

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent findings that post-retirement adjustment may be influenced by the conditions leading up to the decision to retire, we examine the impact of individual agency in the retirement decision on problematic drinking behavior, as well as the extent to which such an effect may itself depend upon the valence of the pre-retirement work experience. Using a sample of 304 blue-collar retirees, our findings indicate that, when controlling for pre-retirement drinking behavior, perceptions of retirement as the result of a more forced or involuntary decision are associated with greater alcohol consumption, while perceptions of retirement as the result of a more volitional or voluntary process are associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and a lower risk of problematic drinking behavior. Our results also indicate that pre-retirement job satisfaction amplifies the former relationship, while attenuating the latter one. PMID:19956364

  20. Invulnerability and the intention to drink and drive: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daphne C N; Wu, Anise M S; Hung, Eva P W

    2010-11-01

    The present study aims at an examination, based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), of the psychological antecedents of young Chinese people's intentions to drive after drinking. One hundred and twenty-four licensed drivers (aged from 19 to 35 years) successfully completed an online questionnaire. Using path analysis, we found the most proximal predictors of intention to be attitudes and perceived behavioral control, whereas invulnerability as well as subjective norms indirectly influenced intention by promoting favorable attitudes toward and greater perceived behavioral control over driving after alcohol use. The total explained variances in the intention to drink and drive reached 79%. The present findings highlight irrational beliefs of invulnerability and the three TPB components as potentially valid targets for prevention and intervention efforts against drinking and driving among young Chinese drivers.

  1. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference.

  2. Binge drinking, reflection impulsivity, and unplanned sexual behavior: impaired decision-making in young social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Townshend, Julia M; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Griffin, Alison; Hunt, Frances J; Milani, Raffaella M

    2014-04-01

    The repeated pattern of heavy intoxication followed by withdrawal from alcohol (i.e., "binge drinking") has been found to have substantial adverse effects on prefrontal neural systems associated with decision-making and impulse control. Repeated binge drinking has been linked to risky and unplanned sexual behavior; however few studies have examined the role of impulsivity and related cognitive processes in understanding this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking, "reflection impulsivity" (deficits in gathering and evaluating information during decision-making), alcohol-related expectancies, and unplanned sexual behavior in a sample of young social drinkers. Ninety-two university students completed the alcohol use questionnaire (AUQ) to measure alcohol intake and binge drinking. Two groups (low-binge and high-binge) were generated from the AUQ data. The Information Sampling Task (IST) was used to measure reflection impulsivity; the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) for alcohol outcome expectancies; and an unplanned sexual behavior questionnaire, which asked about the number of unplanned sexual events. When compared to the low-binge drinking group, the high-binge drinkers had significantly more unplanned sexual encounters and were impaired on the IST, reflection-impulsivity task. They scored higher on the alcohol expectancy factors of sociability, risk and aggression, negative self-perception, and in particular liquid courage. In a regression analysis, number of unplanned sexual encounters, binge drinking score, and liquid courage were all significantly related. These results support the role of binge drinking in reduced impulse control and decision-making deficits. The findings indicate that high-binge drinkers demonstrate impairments on an impulse control task similar to that observed in dependent samples and this may be a factor in understanding the negative behavioral consequences associated with excessive

  3. Associations between LGBTQ-affirmative school climate and adolescent drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Robert W S; Birkett, Michelle; Corliss, Heather L; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mustanski, Brian; Stall, Ron D

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adolescents drank alcohol less frequently if they lived in jurisdictions with school climates that were more affirmative of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. Data from the 2010 School Health Profile survey, which measured LGBTQ school climate (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and gay-straight alliances), were linked with pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which measured sexual orientation identity, demographics, and alcohol use (number of drinking days, drinking days at school, and heavy episodic drinking days) in 8 jurisdictions. Two-level Poisson models tested the associations between school climate and alcohol use for each sexual-orientation subgroup. Living in jurisdictions with more (versus less) affirmative LGBTQ school climates was significantly associated with: fewer heavy episodic drinking days for gay/lesbian (incidence-rate ratio [IRR]=0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 0.87; p=0.001) and heterosexual (IRR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.83; p<0.001) adolescents; and fewer drinking days at school for adolescents unsure of their sexual orientation (IRR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.93; p=0.024). Fostering LGBTQ-affirmative school climates may reduce certain drinking behaviors for gay/lesbian adolescents, heterosexual adolescents, and adolescents unsure of their sexual orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between LGBTQ-Affirmative School Climate and Adolescent Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Robert W.S.; Birkett, Michelle; Corliss, Heather L.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mustanski, Brian; Stall, Ron D.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether adolescents drank alcohol less frequently if they lived in jurisdictions with school climates that were more affirmative of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. Methods Data from the 2010 School Health Profile survey, which measured LGBTQ school climate (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and gay-straight alliances), were linked with pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which measured sexual orientation identity, demographics, and alcohol use (number of drinking days, drinking days at school, and heavy episodic drinking days) in 8 jurisdictions. Two-level Poisson models tested the associations between school climate and alcohol use for each sexual-orientation subgroup. Results Living in jurisdictions with more (versus less) affirmative LGBTQ school climates was significantly associated with: fewer heavy episodic drinking days for gay/lesbian (incidence-rate ratio [IRR]=0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 0.87; p=0.001) and heterosexual (IRR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.83; p<0.001) adolescents; and fewer drinking days at school for adolescents unsure of their sexual orientation (IRR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.93; p=0.024). Conclusions Fostering LGBTQ-affirmative school climates may reduce some drinking behaviors for gay/lesbian adolescents, heterosexual adolescents, and adolescents unsure of their sexual orientation. PMID:26946989

  5. The Association between Cultural Orientation and Drinking Behaviors among University Students in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongxiu; Cai, Weibin; Wang, Hongjing; Zhang, Qing; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F.; Newman, Ian M.; Yin, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR = 1.80, P<0.05) and marginal orientation (OR = 1.64, P<0.05) increased the likelihood of the student being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR = 4.40, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than females, graduate students (OR = 2.59, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than undergraduates, students from urban areas (OR = 1.79, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than those from towns/rural areas, and students attending key universities (OR = 0.48, P<0.05) had a lower likelihood of regular drinking than those attending general universities. Conclusions Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender

  6. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  7. Relationship between masculinity and feminity in drinking in alcohol-related behavior in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cantú, M A; Medina-Mora, M E; Gutiérrez, C E

    1990-08-01

    The relationship between gender-related personality traits, on one hand and drinking, permissiveness towards drinking, and social as well as personal problems associated to drinking on the other, was studied in a general population sample from the City of Morelia, Mexico. Four gender-related traits scales were used for measuring assertive and aggressive masculinity and affective and submissive feminity, in addition to a standardized questionnaire for assessing drinking and other associated behavior. Some of the main results showed that people with high scores in affective feminity were less willing to allow drinking. Men who adopted a submissive feminine role and women with high masculine aggressive scores were more permissive as regards drinking. Among men, assertive masculine and affective feminine traits were more characteristic among those who drank than among abtainers. Drinking among women was related to liberal attitudes towards drinking and to aggressive masculinity. As regards the number of drinks consumed per month, assertive masculinity and liberal attitudes among men and affective feminity and liberal attitudes among women predicted the number of drinks. Affective feminity was negatively related to drinking. Regarding drinking-associated problems, frequency of drunkenness and submissive feminity among males predicted greater personal and social problems. Among women, drunkenness frequency and number of drinks were the most significant predictors. Contrary to what has been found in other countries, gender was a better drinking predictor than gender-related personality traits.

  8. Does drinking lead to sex? Daily alcohol-sex behaviors and expectancies among college students.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2009-09-01

    A within-person multilevel approach was used to model the links between alcohol use and sexual behavior among first-year college students, using up to 14 days of data for each person with occasions (Level 1, N = 2879 days) nested within people (Level 2, N = 218 people; 51.4% male). Between-persons (Level 2) effects were gender, relationship status, person means of alcohol use, and alcohol-sex expectancies for sexual affect and sexual drive. Within-person (Level 1) effects were weekend days, number of drinks consumed, and the interaction between drinks consumed and alcohol-sex expectancies. Independent of average alcohol use, consuming more drinks on a given day was associated with a greater likelihood of oral sex and with experiencing more positive consequences of sex that day. Significant Alcohol Use x Alcohol-Sex Expectancies interactions were found for oral sex and total sex behaviors, indicating that individuals with more positive expectancies were more likely to have sex after drinking. The negative association between drinks and condom use was at a trend level of significance. Results support the potential for promoting sexual health by focusing on cross-behavior expectancies among late adolescents. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Tool-use for drinking water by immature chimpanzees of Mahale: prevalence of an unessential behavior.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, Takahisa; Nishie, Hitonaru; Shimada, Masaki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Zamma, Koichiro; Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2006-04-01

    Use of leaves or sticks for drinking water has only rarely been observed during long-term study of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale. Recently, however, we observed 42 episodes of tool-use for drinking water (73 tools and two cases of using "tool-sets") between 1999 and 2004. Interestingly, all of the performers were immature chimpanzees aged from 2 to 10 years. Immature chimpanzees sometimes observed the tool-using performance of others and subsequently reproduced the behavior, while adults usually paid no attention to the performance. This tool-use did not seem to occur out of necessity: (1) chimpanzees often used tools along streams where they could drink water without tools, (2) they used tools for drinking water from tree holes during the wet season when they could easily obtain water from many streams, and (3) the tool-using performance sometimes contained playful aspects. Between-site comparisons revealed that chimpanzees at drier habitats used tools for drinking water more frequently and in a more "conventional" manner. However, some variations could not be explained by ecological conditions. Such variations and the increase in this tool-use in recent years at Mahale strongly suggest that social learning plays an important role in the process of acquiring the behavior. We should note here that such behaviors that lack obvious benefits or necessity can be prevalent in a group.

  10. Craving Predicts Within Session Drinking Behavior Following Placebo

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Tiffany’s (1990) cognitive processing model postulates that craving will only occur when access to alcohol is blocked. To test a hypothesis based on this model, we analyzed data from a naturalistic laboratory alcohol challenge study involving moderate-to-heavy drinking young adults (N = 174) with a focus on the placebo beverage condition of this study. Our hypothesis was that self-reports of “wanting more alcohol” (i.e., craving) in the lab, following placebo, would predict subsequent ad libitum consumption because placebo administration would constitute partial blocking of access to alcohol. We also tested the possibility that craving might mediate associations between personality traits and ad libitum consumption. Both trait disinhibition and reports of craving following the placebo beverage significantly predicted ad libitum consumption. Further, craving partially mediated the association between trait disinhibition and ad libitum consumption. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20161258

  11. Using behavioral theories of choice to predict drinking outcomes following a brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Correia, Christopher J; Colby, Suzanne M; Vuchinich, Rudy E

    2005-05-01

    Behavioral theories of choice predict that substance use is partly a function of the relative value of drugs in relation to other available reinforcers. This study evaluated this hypothesis in the context of predicting drinking outcomes following an alcohol abuse intervention. Participants (N = 54, 69% female, 31% male) were college student heavy drinkers who completed a single-session motivational intervention. Students completed a baseline measure of substance-related and substance-free activity participation and enjoyment. Only women showed a significant reduction in drinking at the 6-month follow-up, and the ratio of substance-related to substance-free reinforcement accounted for unique variance in their drinking outcomes. Women who at baseline derived a smaller proportion of their total reinforcement from substance use showed lower levels of follow-up drinking, even after the authors controlled for baseline drinking level. Male and female participants who reduced their drinking showed increased proportional reinforcement from substance-free activities. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Feeding and drinking behavior of mares and foals with free access to pasture and water.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Houpt, K A; Carnevale, J

    1985-04-01

    The feeding and drinking behavior of 11 mares and 15 foals living on pasture with free access to water was recorded during 2,340 15-min focal samples taken over 2 yr. Lactating mares on pasture spent about 70% of the day feeding. Foals began feeding on their first day of life. As they grew older, they spent progressively more time feeding, but still spent only 47 +/- 6% of the time feeding by 21 wk of age. Foals fed primarily during the early morning and evening. While grass formed the major proportion of the diet of both foals and mares, they also ate clay, humus, feces, bark, leaves and twigs. Almost all feeding by foals was done while their mothers were feeding. Movement to water sources was frequently, but not invariably, carried out by an entire herd. Frequency (P = .005) but not duration (P greater than .05) of drinking bouts by mares increased as the temperature increased. Frequency was greatest at 30 to 35 C, at which temperature mares drank once every 1.8 h. Frequency of drinking varied with the time of day (P less than .01), being rarest during the early morning (0500 to 0900 h eastern daylight time) and most frequent during the afternoon (1300 to 1700 h). Drinking by foals was very rare. The youngest age at which a foal was observed to drink was 3 wk, and 8 of 15 foals were never observed to drink before weaning.

  13. Ignoring Norms with a Little Help from My Friends: Social Support Reduces Normative Influence on Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, Jerry; O'Grady, Megan; Sandoval, Patricia; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol norms are strong predictors of drinking. However, the extent to which norms influence behavior depends on how closely people attend to them; people are more likely to attend to norms when their affiliation needs are unfulfilled by members of their social networks (Cullum, O'Grady, & Tennen, 2011). Therefore, we predicted that Perceived Social Support (PSS) would moderate the relationship between norms and drinking such that people with low levels of PSS would be more motivated to attend to norms. College students (N = 498) completed measures of PSS and peer alcohol norms and then reported on their drinking behavior daily for 30 days. As predicted, we found when PSS was low, student drinking was strongly influenced by peer norms, but there was no relationship between norms and drinking when PSS was high. Findings suggest that when affiliation needs are high, norms are more influential on drinking behavior. PMID:27536011

  14. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  15. Differences in Drinking Behavior and Access to Alcohol between Native American and White Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We investigated differences in drinking behaviors and sources of alcohol among Native American (n = 361) and White adolescents (n = 1,735), ages 11 to 19. Native American youth were more likely to have consumed alcohol in their lifetime and been intoxicated in the last 30 days than Whites. Native American drinkers were almost twice as likely to…

  16. Perceived Agency in Retirement and Retiree Drinking Behavior: Job Satisfaction as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel; Bamberger, Peter; Biron, Michal; Horowitz-Rozen, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent findings that post-retirement adjustment may be influenced by the conditions leading up to the decision to retire, we examine the impact of individual agency in the retirement decision on problematic drinking behavior, as well as the extent to which such an effect may itself depend upon the valence of the pre-retirement work…

  17. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  18. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  19. Behavioral Consequences of Drinking: An Investigation of Factorial Invariance across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin C.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the gender invariance of an a priori four-factor solution of behavioral consequences of drinking. Results evidenced strong partial measurement invariance, with marginal structural invariance, which signals that the underlying constructs possessed the same theoretical structure for both men and women.

  20. Disinhibited personality and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement: independent correlates of drinking behavior in sons of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Conrod, P J; Petersen, J B; Pihl, R O

    1997-10-01

    Thirty nonalcoholic young (18 to 30 years) males with extensive multigenerational family histories of male alcoholism and 29 age-matched, family history-negative controls completed a variety of trait personality questionnaires, participated in a competitive stress task (while sober and alcohol-intoxicated), and were assessed for self-report and laboratory drinking behavior. Low academic achievement, disinhibited personality (as measured by the P Scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement were significant and powerful independent predictors of self-report (approximate R2 = 0.40, p < 0.0001) and laboratory (approximate R2 = 0.20, p < 0.0001) drinking behavior. There seemed to be some specificity with respect to the facets of drinking behavior accounted for by each independent variable: low academic achievement and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement were more related to quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of excessive consumption, whereas psychoticism was more related to self-reported negative consequences with alcohol. A cluster analysis on three identified correlates of drinking behavior indicated that the two experimental groups could be more accurately subdivided into three homogeneous types. Multigenerational family history males were disproportionately represented in two of these groups: one characterized by enhanced sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement and the other characterized by high psychoticism scores and alcohol-related problems.

  1. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  2. The Moderating Role of Cognitive Capacities in the Association Between Social Norms and Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Samuel N.; Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The literature documents two related yet distinct social normative influences on adolescent drinking. Descriptive norms refer to perceptions of how much others engage in a particular behavior whereas injunctive norms refer to the extent to which others approve of a particular behavior. Theoretical formulations suggest that whether descriptive or injunctive norms guide drinking behavior depends on cognitive factors related to executive functioning. Cognitive capacities, specifically inhibitory control and preplanning, were tested as moderators of the association between social norms and alcohol use using a longitudinal design and community sample of adolescents. Method This longitudinal study included 387 adolescents and three annual waves of data. Behavioral tasks assessed inhibitory control (Stop Signal Task) and preplanning (Tower of London) and social norms and drinking were assessed using self-report measures. Results Significant interactions were found for descriptive and injunctive norms with preplanning and descriptive norms with inhibitory control. As hypothesized, descriptive norms were stronger prospective predictors of alcohol use at low levels of cognitive preplanning whereas injunctive norms were stronger prospective predictors at high levels of cognitive preplanning. Descriptive norms prospectively predicted alcohol use at high, but not at low levels of inhibitory control. Conclusion These findings highlight the complexity of normative influences and suggest that descriptive and injunctive norms have differential effects on future drinking for individuals with different cognitive capacities. PMID:26009807

  3. Perceived Agency in Retirement and Retiree Drinking Behavior: Job Satisfaction as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel; Bamberger, Peter; Biron, Michal; Horowitz-Rozen, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent findings that post-retirement adjustment may be influenced by the conditions leading up to the decision to retire, we examine the impact of individual agency in the retirement decision on problematic drinking behavior, as well as the extent to which such an effect may itself depend upon the valence of the pre-retirement work…

  4. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  5. Drinking behavior among low-income older adults: a multimethod approach to estimating alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Clapp, John D; Reed, Mark B; Martel, Brandi; Gonzalez, Maria C; Ruderman, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    Substance abuse is the fastest growing health concern for older adults. Heavy drinking among older persons is associated with an increased risk of health consequences such as diabetes, cognitive impairment, sleep issues, and depression. It is important to note, however, the prevalence estimates of alcohol use among older adults are often based on inconsistent methodology. To address these potential methodological shortcomings, this study examines drinking patterns among low-income older adults using both self-report and unobtrusive methods. The study was conducted in a low-income residential senior center in the United States. A total of 174 participants, aged 60 years or older, completed 2 self-administered cross-sectional surveys. A bogus recycling program was implemented to assess the amount of alcohol consumed by residents. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to model predictors of drinking status and to determine predictors of 3 category Alcohol Use and Disorders Identification Test scores. Bivariate associations that predicted associations with alcohol use were included in the final multivariate model. Alcohol containers collected from recycling were converted to standard drink estimates in order to calculate the capital consumption of residents. About 40% of respondents reported consuming alcohol and 25% reported drinking at least once a week. On average, a total of 1,079 drinks were consumed per month. There were 3 significant predictors of drinking status: age, education, and diagnosis of diabetes. Additionally, there appears to be an increase in recycled alcohol containers coinciding with the time residents received their social security checks. Overall, the combination of self-report and unobtrusive measures of alcohol consumption has potential to highlight different aspects of drinking behavior with a population living in a single dwelling such as a senior center apartment complex, residential hall, and the like. Copyright © 2014 by the Research

  6. Examining the Effects of Drinking and Interpersonal Protective Behaviors on Unwanted Sexual Experiences in College Women

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Nichole M.; Turrisi, Rob; Scaglione, Nichole M.; Hultgren, Brittney A.; Mallett, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent evidence suggests interpersonal protective behaviors (IPBs) may be more effective than alcohol-based strategies at decreasing alcohol-related sexual consequences. However, no studies have examined individual IPBs to assess their unique influences on specific sexual consequences. The current study used a longitudinal design to examine the direct effects of typical weekly drinking and specific IPBs on unwanted sex. IPBs were also examined as moderators of the relationship between drinking and unwanted sex. Methods Randomly sampled female drinkers attending a northeastern university (N = 191) completed a baseline survey measuring typical weekly drinking and IPBs and a six-month follow-up assessing unwanted sex. Bootstrapped regression examined the effects. Results Drinking predicted unwanted sex after accounting for IPBs (range of bs = .008-.009, SE = .005, 95% CI [.000, .02]). Vigilance-related IPBs were negatively associated with unwanted sex after controlling for drinking (b = −.052, SE = .025, 95% CI [−.107, −.008]). The IPB “Talking to people who know one’s potential dating or sexual partner to find out what s/he is like” significantly moderated the drinking - unwanted sex relationship (b = −.009, SE = .004, 95% CI [−.018, −.003]). At above- average drinking levels, women who used this IPB more frequently reported fewer episodes of unwanted sex. Conclusion Findings revealed obtaining information about a potential partner significantly reduced the impact of drinking on unwanted sex for heavier drinkers. Future research examining how women implement this IPB may clarify its role in reducing unwanted sex. PMID:26706612

  7. Lobeline and cytisine reduce voluntary ethanol drinking behavior in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Ravi K; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2011-01-15

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in the rewarding effects of ethanol and other drugs of abuse. The present study examined the effects of two important nicotinic ligands that target nAChRs, on ethanol consumption in drinking-in-the-dark or continuous access two-bottle choice drinking procedures in C57BL/6J mice. Nicotinic alkaloids such as lobeline or cytisine were administered via subcutaneous (s.c.) injections about 25 min before offering ethanol solutions. Pretreatment with lobeline (4 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) or cytisine (1.5 or 3mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced ethanol drinking-in-the-dark (g/kg) post 2-h and 4-h treatment, relative to control. In continuous access drinking procedure, pretreatment with lobeline (4 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced ethanol consumption post 1-h, 2-h, 4-h and 12-h treatment and pretreatment with cytisine (0.5, 1.5 or 3mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced ethanol consumption across 4-h post treatment, relative to control. Neither lobeline nor cytisine significantly affected water or sucrose solution (10% w/v) intake during drinking-in-the-dark or continuous drinking procedures, relative to control. These findings provide evidence that nAChR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in ethanol drinking behavior in mice and nicotinic ligands have therapeutic potential for cessation of binge-like ethanol drinking and dependence in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Medicine, Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility . Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies ...

  9. Social-cognitive correlates of protective drinking behaviors and alcohol-related consequences in college students.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anne E; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Beau; Peters, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    Although heavy episodic drinkers are at risk to experience alcohol-related consequences, studies show that a large percentage of student drinkers do not experience problems as a result of their drinking. The present study was a more in-depth examination of factors beyond just drinking quantity and frequency to explain why students experience consequences. The current research examined the relationship between the use of protective behaviors, alcohol use, and alcohol related consequences, as well as the relationship between attitudinal and cognitive predictors of engaging in protective behaviors when drinking. We hypothesized there would be a significant direct effect of protective behaviors on consequences after taking into account the effect of alcohol use and that cognitive predictors, including perceived self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness, and subjective norm, would be associated with the attitude and frequency of engaging in protective behaviors. Results supported both hypotheses, indicating good model fit for all models and significant paths between constructs (p's<.05). These findings extend the literature on protective behaviors by providing insight as to their utility in preventing harm and why students choose to engage in these behaviors. Implications for interventions are also discussed.

  10. Sexual assault history and its association with the use of drinking protective behavioral strategies among college women.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Lewis, Melissa A; Granato, Hollie F; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-05-01

    The current study examined the relationship between sexual assault history and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS). Given the relationship between sexual assault history and alcohol use, we hypothesized that after we controlled for drinking behavior, women with a childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history would use fewer drinking PBS than those without a CSA history. We also hypothesized that a history of adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) involving incapacitation and force would be associated with lower use of drinking PBS after controlling for CSA history and drinking behavior. A total of 800 undergraduate college women completed a survey online. Regression analyses indicated that the only sexual assault history type that was consistently related to all three types of drinking PBS was ASA involving incapacitation. Women with a history of incapacitated ASA were less likely to use any type of drinking PBS than women without such history. A history of other types of sexual assault (CSA, physically forced ASA, and verbally coerced ASA) was associated only with lower use of serious harm-reduction drinking PBS, such as going home with a friend or knowing the location of your drink. This was the first study to examine the relationship between different sexual assault histories and drinking PBS, and it furthers our understanding of the relationship between alcohol and sexual assault. Possible reasons for this relationship between ASA and PBS use are discussed.

  11. Sexual Assault History and Its Association With the Use of Drinking Protective Behavioral Strategies Among College Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Granato, Hollie F.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the relationship between sexual assault history and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS). Given the relationship between sexual assault history and alcohol use, we hypothesized that after we controlled for drinking behavior, women with a childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history would use fewer drinking PBS than those without a CSA history. We also hypothesized that a history of adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) involving incapacitation and force would be associated with lower use of drinking PBS after controlling for CSA history and drinking behavior. Method: A total of 800 undergraduate college women completed a survey online. Results: Regression analyses indicated that the only sexual assault history type that was consistently related to all three types of drinking PBS was ASA involving incapacitation. Women with a history of incapacitated ASA were less likely to use any type of drinking PBS than women without such history. A history of other types of sexual assault (CSA, physically forced ASA, and verbally coerced ASA) was associated only with lower use of serious harm-reduction drinking PBS, such as going home with a friend or knowing the location of your drink. Conclusions: This was the first study to examine the relationship between different sexual assault histories and drinking PBS, and it furthers our understanding of the relationship between alcohol and sexual assault. Possible reasons for this relationship between ASA and PBS use are discussed. PMID:25978833

  12. Impulsive sensation seeking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related consequences: Do protective behavioral strategies help high risk adolescents?

    PubMed

    Doumas, Diana M; Miller, Raissa; Esp, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a moderator of the relationship between impulsive sensation seeking and binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of high school seniors (N=346). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that impulsive sensation seeking was a significant predictor of binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences and that PBS moderated these relationships. Specifically, manner of drinking moderated the relationships such that among students with high impulsive sensation seeking, those using strategies related to how they drink (e.g. avoiding rapid and excessive drinking) reported lower levels of binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences than those using fewer of these strategies. Clinical implications are discussed including using personality-targeted interventions that equip high impulsive sensation seeking adolescents with specific strategies to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences.

  13. Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on drinking and eating behaviors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Umezu, T.; Suzuki, A.K.; Miura, T.; Koizumi, A. )

    1993-04-01

    Male ICR mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 7 days to examine the effects on drinking and eating behaviors. Ozone at 0.1 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 47.7, 12.8, and 3.0% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively, and eating activity decreased to 35.2 and 8.7% of the control value at 0.4 and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. Body weight also decreased markedly by 2.0, 4.6, and 7.5 g at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. However, alterations in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient, leading to recovery during the continuous O3 exposures. The recovery processes were dependent on the concentrations of O3. Nitrogen dioxide at 4 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 56.8, 8.3, and 18.7% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively, and eating activity decreased markedly to 21.8 and 16.4% at 8 and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. Body weight also decreased by 2.5, 5.5, and 6.1 g at 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. As in the O3 exposures, the decrements in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient and recovered during the continuous exposures to NO2 depending on the concentrations of NO2. Drinking and eating activities and body weights of mice that had been previously exposed to 12 ppm NO2 for 7 days did not show changes when the mice were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 9 days after NO2 exposure. The present study demonstrates that photochemical oxidants suppress drinking and eating behaviors in mice and that they recover thereafter under the continuous exposure conditions.

  14. Mosquitoes drink with a burst in reserve: explaining pumping behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through the proboscis. Experimental observations with synchrotron x-ray imaging indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an occasional, isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is 10 to 30 times larger than in the continuous mode. We have used a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this variation in drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is more energetically efficient, whereas the burst mode creates a large pressure drop across the proboscis, which could potentially be used to clear blockages. Comparisons with pump knock-out configurations demonstrate different functional roles of the pumps in mosquito feeding. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant No. #0938047.

  15. Alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity as predictors of behavioral economic demand for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jason J; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Baldwin, Scott A; Murphy, James G; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral economic demand curve indices of alcohol consumption reflect decisions to consume alcohol at varying costs. Although these indices predict alcohol-related problems beyond established predictors, little is known about the determinants of elevated demand. Two cognitive constructs that may underlie alcohol demand are alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate implicit and explicit measures of these constructs as predictors of alcohol demand curve indices. College student drinkers (N = 223, 59% female) completed implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations at 3 time points separated by 3-month intervals, and completed the Alcohol Purchase Task to assess demand at Time 3. Given no change in our alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity measures over time, random intercept-only models were used to predict 2 demand indices: Amplitude, which represents maximum hypothetical alcohol consumption and expenditures, and Persistence, which represents sensitivity to increasing prices. When modeled separately, implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations positively predicted demand indices. When implicit and explicit measures were included in the same model, both measures of drinking identity predicted Amplitude, but only explicit drinking identity predicted Persistence. In contrast, explicit measures of alcohol-approach inclinations, but not implicit measures, predicted both demand indices. Therefore, there was more support for explicit, versus implicit, measures as unique predictors of alcohol demand. Overall, drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations both exhibit positive associations with alcohol demand and represent potentially modifiable cognitive constructs that may underlie elevated demand in college student drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Alcohol-Approach Inclinations and Drinking Identity as Predictors of Behavioral Economic Demand for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jason J.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Murphy, James G.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand curve indices of alcohol consumption reflect decisions to consume alcohol at varying costs. Although these indices predict alcohol-related problems beyond established predictors, little is known about the determinants of elevated demand. Two cognitive constructs that may underlie alcohol demand are alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate implicit and explicit measures of these constructs as predictors of alcohol demand curve indices. College student drinkers (N = 223, 59% female) completed implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations at three timepoints separated by three-month intervals, and completed the Alcohol Purchase Task to assess demand at Time 3. Given no change in our alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity measures over time, random intercept-only models were used to predict two demand indices: Amplitude, which represents maximum hypothetical alcohol consumption and expenditures, and Persistence, which represents sensitivity to increasing prices. When modeled separately, implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations positively predicted demand indices. When implicit and explicit measures were included in the same model, both measures of drinking identity predicted Amplitude, but only explicit drinking identity predicted Persistence. In contrast, explicit measures of alcohol-approach inclinations, but not implicit measures, predicted both demand indices. Therefore, there was more support for explicit, versus implicit, measures as unique predictors of alcohol demand. Overall, drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations both exhibit positive associations with alcohol demand and represent potentially modifiable cognitive constructs that may underlie elevated demand in college student drinkers. PMID:27379444

  17. Risky drinking behaviors among women with eating disorders-A longitudinal community-based study.

    PubMed

    Mustelin, Linda; Latvala, Antti; Raevuori, Anu; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Eating disorders and alcohol use disorders often co-occur, but few prospective studies have examined their relationship. Using a large population-based twin sample, we investigated how the drinking behaviors of women with lifetime eating disorders unfold from adolescence to adulthood. We identified 182 women with a lifetime eating disorder assessed at mean age 24, including 92 women with DSM-5 anorexia nervosa and 58 women with DSM-5 bulimia nervosa, from the 1975-1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (N = 2,825 women). Frequency of drinking and intoxicating were assessed at ages 16, 24, and 34. Drinking problems were assessed at ages 24 and 34 by the Malmö-modified Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (Mm-Mast) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI). At age 16, proportionately more women with eating disorders reported being severely intoxicated when they last drank (25% vs.16%, P = 0.001), and at both surveys in adulthood, they reported more frequent intoxication and more alcohol-related problems than their unaffected peers. Those who had recovered from their eating disorder at age 24 still reported more alcohol-related problems in their 30s than did other women. The age of drinking onset, number of monthly drinking days, or frequency of intoxication in adolescence did not differ between women with lifetime eating disorders and unaffected women. Women with eating disorders scored higher than their unaffected peers on scales measuring alcohol dependence, alcohol-related problems, and intoxication. These differences persisted from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Women with eating disorders should be assessed routinely for drinking behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:563-571). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence of Heavy Drinking and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Adult Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aim was to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among emergency department (ED) patients in community hospitals. Methods Systematic screening of ED patients (N = 6,486; 56.5% female) was conducted in 2 community hospitals in the northeast during times with high patient volume, generally between the hours of 10 AM to 8 PM, Monday through Saturday. Screening occurred from May 2011 through November 2013. Assessment included validated measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior. Results Overall results identified high rates of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and their co-occurrence in this sample of ED patients. Specifically, ED patients in between the ages of 18 and 35 were consistently highest in hazardous alcohol use (positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or endorsing heavy episodic drinking [HED]), sexual risk behaviors, and the co-occurrence of alcohol and sex-risk behaviors. Conclusions Findings show a high co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and unprotected sex among ED patients and highlight the role of HED as a factor associated with sexual risk behavior. Efforts to integrate universal screening for the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behavior in ED settings are warranted; brief interventions delivered to ED patients addressing the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors have the potential to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among a large number of patients. PMID:26332359

  19. Understanding the Antecedents of Korean High School Students’ Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy: Parental Influence, Peer Influence, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, NamAuk; Yoo, Jina

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents’ drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. PMID:22980099

  20. Understanding the antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy: parental influence, peer influence, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, Namauk; Yoo, Jina

    2011-12-29

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents' drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy.

  1. Drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows and prediction of their water intake.

    PubMed

    Cardot, V; Le Roux, Y; Jurjanz, S

    2008-06-01

    The water intake of 41 lactating dairy cows managed according to current dairy farm practices was individually and continuously monitored to 1) investigate drinking behavior and 2) determine factors affecting water intake. The cows were housed in a free-stall barn and fed once daily with a corn silage and concentrate-based total mixed ration (48% dry matter content; 20.6 +/- 3.3 kg/d of dry matter intake). Cows were milked twice daily, with a yield of 26.5 +/- 5.9 kg/d. The daily free water intake (FWI) was 83.6 +/- 17.1 L, achieved during 7.3 +/- 2.8 drinking bouts. The drinking bout water intake was 12.9 +/- 5.0 L. Almost three-fourths of the FWI occurred during working hours (0600 to 1900 h). Consumption peaks corresponded to feeding and milking times. More than one quarter of the daily FWI was met during the 2 h after each milking. About 75% of the present cows visited the watering point at least once during the 2 h after the evening milking. It is probable that drinking behavior evolved with lactation, but further studies are required to identify the relationship between lactation stage and drinking behavior. The most relevant factors affecting the daily FWI of lactating cows were best combined according to the following predictive equation: (R(2) = 0.45; n = 41 cows, n = 1,837): FWI, L/d = 1.53 x dry matter intake (kg/d) + 1.33 x milk yield (kg/d) + 0.89 x dry matter content (%) + 0.57 x minimum temperature ( degrees C) - 0.30 x rainfall (mm/d) - 25.65. The results obtained using these equations were in agreement with the equations developed by other researchers.

  2. Underage College Students' Drinking Behavior, Access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Nelson, Toben F.; Kuo, Meichun

    2002-01-01

    Used data from college alcohol surveys conducted between 1993-01 to compare underage students' and older students' drinking behaviors, access to alcohol, and exposure to prevention. While underage drinking rates decreased, binge drinking rates remained constant. Underage students' frequent binge drinking and related problems increased. College…

  3. Underage College Students' Drinking Behavior, Access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Nelson, Toben F.; Kuo, Meichun

    2002-01-01

    Used data from college alcohol surveys conducted between 1993-01 to compare underage students' and older students' drinking behaviors, access to alcohol, and exposure to prevention. While underage drinking rates decreased, binge drinking rates remained constant. Underage students' frequent binge drinking and related problems increased. College…

  4. Cabergoline Decreases Alcohol Drinking and Seeking Behaviors Via Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K.; Bartlett, Selena E.; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    Background Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPγS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). Results We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders. PMID:19232578

  5. A randomized controlled trial of a behavioral economic supplement to brief motivational interventions for college drinking.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P; Colby, Suzanne M; Martens, Matthew P

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a standard alcohol brief motivational interviewing (BMI) session for heavy-drinking college students. Participants were 82 first-year college students (50% female; 81.7% White/European American; M age = 18.5 years, SD = 0.71) who reported 2 or more past-month heavy drinking episodes. After completing a baseline assessment and an individual alcohol-focused BMI, participants were randomized to either the SFAS or to a Relaxation Training (RT) control session. The SFAS was delivered in an MI style and attempted to increase the salience of delayed academic and career rewards and the patterns of behavior leading to those rewards. The combination of an alcohol BMI plus the SFAS was associated with significantly greater reductions in alcohol problems compared with an alcohol BMI plus RT at the 1-month and 6-month follow-up assessments (p = .015, ηp² = .07), an effect that was partially mediated by increases in protective behavioral strategies. BMI + SFAS was also associated with greater reductions in heavy drinking among participants who at baseline reported low levels of substance-free reinforcement or symptoms of depression. These results are consistent with behavioral economic theory and suggest that a single session focused on increasing engagement in alternatives to drinking can enhance the effects of brief alcohol interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Does resilience moderate the associations between parental problem drinking and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors? A study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Hwa; Cranford, James A

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the main and interactive effects of parental problem drinking and resilience on problem (externalizing and internalizing) behaviors among Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 482 adolescents (mean age=14.4 years, 57% girls) from four middle schools in two urban areas in Korea. A revised version of Kim's measure (2003) and Hyun's Problems Behaviors Profiles (2000) were employed to measure resilience and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that parental problem drinking was directly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Further, the effects of parental problem drinking on both outcomes were moderated by resilience, such that the negative effects of parental problem drinking decreased in magnitude as resilience increased. Simple slope analyses showed that (1) the effects of parental problem drinking on externalizing behaviors were significant only at low levels of resilience and (2) the effects of parental problem drinking on internalizing behaviors were significant at low and average levels of resilience. Resilience may confer some protection against the adverse effects of parental problem drinking among Korean adolescents, but these protective effects are small in magnitude. Results highlight the importance of further research on culture-specific dimensions of resilience among Korean Children of Alcoholics (COAs).

  7. Differences in Drinking Expectancies and Motives for Regular Education and Special Education High School Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Jeff; Harbke, Colin R.; Blake, Dawn; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies and drinking motives were compared for regular education students (n = 159) and students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) receiving special education services (n = 51). Differences existed between groups with respect to expected negative social consequences and emotional and physical outcomes associated with drinking.…

  8. Learning about Drinking Water: How Important Are the Three Dimensions of Knowledge That Can Change Individual Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremerey, Christian; Bogner, Franz X.

    2014-01-01

    Clean drinking water, our most important resource, needs comprehensive protection. Due to its ubiquitous availability, the awareness of the importance of clean drinking water has partially vanished. Therefore, sensitizing within this context and improving individual ecological behavior has become an important issue in science curricula. We…

  9. Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…

  10. Binge-Drinking Attitudes and Behaviors among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic College Students: Suggestions for Tailoring Health Campaign Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Julie Delaney; Archiopoli, Ashley M.; Bentley, Joshua M.; Weiss, David; Hoffmann, Jeffrey; White, Judith McIntosh; Sharp, Mercedes Kelsey; Hong, Zhibin; Kimura, Miwa

    2016-01-01

    This study explores binge-drinking behaviors and attitudes among Hispanic and non-Hispanic college students. The authors surveyed students at the same large Hispanic-serving university used in a 1999 study by Bennett et al., partially replicating that earlier research. While the percentage of students who reported binge drinking in the present…

  11. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…

  12. Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…

  13. Differences in Drinking Expectancies and Motives for Regular Education and Special Education High School Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Jeff; Harbke, Colin R.; Blake, Dawn; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies and drinking motives were compared for regular education students (n = 159) and students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) receiving special education services (n = 51). Differences existed between groups with respect to expected negative social consequences and emotional and physical outcomes associated with drinking.…

  14. Parental Influence on Drinking Behaviors at the Transition to College: The Mediating Role of Perceived Friends' Approval of High-Risk Drinking.

    PubMed

    Rulison, Kelly L; Wahesh, Edward; Wyrick, David L; DeJong, William

    2016-07-01

    This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.

  15. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The Relationships of Sexual Identity, Hazardous Drinking, and Drinking Expectancies with Risky Sexual Behaviors in a Community Sample of Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Cho, Young Ik; Hughes, Tonda; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Johnson, Timothy; Martin, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, sexual identity, hazardous drinking, and sexuality/intimacy enhancement alcohol expectancies on rates of risky sexual behaviors in a community sample of women who self-identified as lesbian, mostly lesbian and bisexual (N = 349). Structured interview data were collected as part of a larger longitudinal study of sexual minority women’s health, the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. We used structural equation modeling, controlling for demographic characteristics, to evaluate the influence of sexual identity, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related sexuality/intimacy enhancement expectancies on sexual risk behaviors. Controlling for demographic characteristics and for sexual identity, higher levels of both hazardous drinking and sexuality/intimacy enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with higher sexual risk scores. The final model predicted 36% of the variance in risky sexual behavior scores. Our findings regarding the central role of alcohol use and sexuality/intimacy enhancement expectancies in sexual risk behaviors among sexual minority women (SMW) are consistent with previous research focusing on predominantly heterosexual women. Future efforts at sexual risk reduction in SMW will need to address the influences of alcohol use and drinking-related expectancies on sexual behaviors and decision-making. PMID:24071822

  17. Relationships of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotypes with alcohol sensitivity, drinking behavior and problem drinking in Japanese older men.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Marowa; Watanabe, Masutaka; Uematsu, Yuji; Hattori, Sonomi; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Utsumi, Miyoko; Oka, Mayumi; Hayashida, Mariko; Kinoshita, Kenji; Arita, Mikio; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Many East Asians have the genetic polymorphisms rs1229984 in alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and rs671 in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Here we analyzed the relationships of the two genotypes with alcohol sensitivity, drinking behavior and problem drinking among older and younger men living in rural areas of Japan. The subjects were 718 Japanese men aged 63.3 ± 10.8 (mean ± SD), categorized into the older (≥65 years, n = 357) and younger (<65 years, n = 361) groups. Facial flushing frequency, drinking behavior and positive CAGE results were compared among the genotypes using Bonferroni-corrected χ(2) test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, BMI and lifestyle factors. The frequency of 'always' facial flushing among the ADH1B*1/*2 carriers was significantly lower than that among the ADH1B*2/*2 carriers in the older group (P < 0.01). The alcohol consumption (unit/day) in the ADH1B*1/*2 carriers tended to be higher compared with that in the ADH1B*2/*2 carriers among the older group (P = 0.050). In the younger group, no significant differences in alcohol sensitivity and drinking habits were generally found among the ADH1B genotypes. The ADH1B*1/*1 genotype tended to be positively associated with problem drinking in the older group (P = 0.080) but not in the younger group. The ALDH2 genotypes consistently and strongly affected the alcohol sensitivity, drinking behavior and problem drinking in both the younger and older group. We for the first time observed a significant difference in alcohol sensitivity between ADH1B*1/*2 and ADH1B*2/*2 in older men aged 65 and above.

  18. Serotonin2C receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in enhanced alcohol-drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Masaki; Kimura, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens (ACC) and ventral tegmental area of the mesoaccumbens reward pathways have been implicated in the mechanisms underlying development of alcohol dependence. We used a C57BL/6J mouse model with increased voluntary alcohol-drinking behavior by exposing the mice to alcohol vapor for 20 consecutive days. In the alcohol-exposed mice, the expression of 5-HT2C receptor mRNA increased in the ACC, caudate nucleus and putamen, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), hippocampus and lateral hypothalamus, while the protein level of 5-HT2C receptor significantly increased in the ACC. The expression of 5-HT7 receptor mRNA increased in the ACC and DRN. Contents of 5-HT decreased in the ACC shell (ACCS) and DRN of the alcohol-exposed mice. The basal extracellular releases of dopamine (DA) and 5-HT in the ACCS increased more in the alcohol-exposed mice than in alcohol-naïve mice. The magnitude of the alcohol-induced ACCS DA and 5-HT release in the alcohol-exposed mice was increased compared with the control mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration or local injection into ACCS of the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB-242084, suppressed voluntary alcohol-drinking behavior in the alcohol-exposed mice. But the i.p. administration of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-258719, did not have significant effects on alcohol-drinking behavior in the alcohol-exposed mice. The effects of the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist were not observed in the air-exposed control mice. These results suggest that adaptations of the 5-HT system, especially the upregulation of 5-HT2C receptors in the ACCS, are involved in the development of enhanced voluntary alcohol-drinking behavior. PMID:22512261

  19. Serotonin2C receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in enhanced alcohol-drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Masaki; Kimura, Minoru

    2012-04-01

    Dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens (ACC) and ventral tegmental area of the mesoaccumbens reward pathways have been implicated in the mechanisms underlying development of alcohol dependence. We used a C57BL/6J mouse model with increased voluntary alcohol-drinking behavior by exposing the mice to alcohol vapor for 20 consecutive days. In the alcohol-exposed mice, the expression of 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA increased in the ACC, caudate nucleus and putamen, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), hippocampus and lateral hypothalamus, while the protein level of 5-HT(2C) receptor significantly increased in the ACC. The expression of 5-HT(7) receptor mRNA increased in the ACC and DRN. Contents of 5-HT decreased in the ACC shell (ACC(S) ) and DRN of the alcohol-exposed mice. The basal extracellular releases of dopamine (DA) and 5-HT in the ACC(S) increased more in the alcohol-exposed mice than in alcohol-naïve mice. The magnitude of the alcohol-induced ACC(S) DA and 5-HT release in the alcohol-exposed mice was increased compared with the control mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration or local injection into ACC(S) of the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, SB-242084, suppressed voluntary alcohol-drinking behavior in the alcohol-exposed mice. But the i.p. administration of the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, SB-258719, did not have significant effects on alcohol-drinking behavior in the alcohol-exposed mice. The effects of the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist were not observed in the air-exposed control mice. These results suggest that adaptations of the 5-HT system, especially the upregulation of 5-HT(2C) receptors in the ACC(S) , are involved in the development of enhanced voluntary alcohol-drinking behavior.

  20. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  1. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction.

  2. The Theory of Planned Behavior as a Model of Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a simultaneous, confirmatory test of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting heavy episodic drinking (HED) among college students. It was hypothesized that past HED, drinking attitudes, subjective norms and drinking refusal self-efficacy would predict intention, which would in turn predict future HED. Participants consisted of 131 college drinkers (63% female) who reported having engaged in HED in the previous two weeks. Participants were recruited and completed questionnaires within the context of a larger intervention study (see Collins & Carey, 2005). Latent factor structural equation modeling was used to test the ability of the TPB to predict HED. Chi-square tests and fit indices indicated good fit for the final structural models. Self-efficacy and attitudes but not subjective norms significantly predicted baseline intention, and intention and past HED predicted future HED. Contrary to hypotheses, however, a structural model excluding past HED provided a better fit than a model including it. Although further studies must be conducted before a definitive conclusion is reached, a TPB model excluding past behavior, which is arguably more parsimonious and theory driven, may provide better prediction of HED among college drinkers than a model including past behavior. PMID:18072832

  3. The theory of planned behavior as a model of heavy episodic drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E; Carey, Kate B

    2007-12-01

    This study provided a simultaneous confirmatory test of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting heavy episodic drinking (HED) among college students. It was hypothesized that past HED, drinking attitudes, subjective norms, and drinking refusal self-efficacy would predict intention, which would, in turn, predict future HED. Participants consisted of 131 college drinkers (63% women) who reported having engaged in HED in the previous 2 weeks. Participants were recruited and completed questionnaires within the context of a larger intervention study (see Collins & Carey, 2005). Latent factor structural equation modeling was used to test the ability of the TPB to predict HED. Chi-square tests and fit indices indicated good fit for the final structural models. Self-efficacy and attitudes but not subjective norms significantly predicted baseline intention, and intention and past HED predicted future HED. Contrary to hypotheses, however, a structural model excluding past HED provided a better fit than a model including it. Although further studies must be conducted before a definitive conclusion is reached, a TPB model excluding past behavior, which is arguably more parsimonious and theory driven, may predict HED among college drinkers better than a model including past behavior.

  4. Social processes underlying acculturation: a study of drinking behavior among immigrant Latinos in the Northeast United States

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHRISTINA S.; LÓPEZ, STEVEN REGESER; COBLY, SUZANNE M.; TEJADA, MONICA; GARCÍA-COLL, CYNTHIA; SMITH, MARCIA

    2010-01-01

    Study Goals To identify social processes that underlie the relationship of acculturation and heavy drinking behavior among Latinos who have immigrated to the Northeast United States of America (USA). Method Community-based recruitment strategies were used to identify 36 Latinos who reported heavy drinking. Participants were 48% female, 23 to 56 years of age, and were from South or Central America (39%) and the Caribbean (24%). Six focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Results Content analyses indicated that the social context of drinking is different in the participants’ countries of origin and in the United States. In Latin America, alcohol consumption was part of everyday living (being with friends and family). Nostalgia and isolation reflected some of the reasons for drinking in the USA. Results suggest that drinking in the Northeastern United States (US) is related to Latinos’ adaptation to a new sociocultural environment. Knowledge of the shifting social contexts of drinking can inform health interventions. PMID:20376331

  5. Attachment theory and theory of planned behavior: an integrative model predicting underage drinking.

    PubMed

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D; Berger, Dale E; Alvaro, Eusebio M

    2013-08-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of planned behavior (TPB). The predictive contribution of both theories was examined in the context of underage adult alcohol use. Using full structural equation modeling, results substantiated the hypotheses that secure peer attachment positively predicted norms and behavioral control toward alcohol, but secure maternal attachment inversely predicted attitudes and behavioral control toward alcohol. Alcohol attitudes, norms, and behavioral control each uniquely explained alcohol intentions, which anticipated an increase in alcohol behavior 1 month later. The hypothesized processes were statistically corroborated by tests of indirect and total effects. These findings support recommendations for programs designed to curtail risky levels of underage drinking using the tenets of attachment theory and TPB.

  6. The cost of minority stress: Risky alcohol use and coping-motivated drinking behavior in African American college students.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J; Kaur, Paramjit; Obasi, Ezemenari M

    2017-07-14

    A motivational drinking framework is utilized to understand the relationship between minority stressors (e.g., race-related stress and acculturative stress) and alcohol use behaviors (risky alcohol use and coping-motivated drinking) among a large sample of Black American college students. Six hundred forty-nine Black college students from 8 colleges and universities in the United States were recruited as part of a large, multiwave, cross-sectional study investigating the stress and coping experiences of Black emerging adults. Results from the current investigation provide support for the independent contributions of acculturative stress and race-related stress to the risky alcohol use behavior of Black college students, while acculturative stress significantly predicted coping-motivated drinking behaviors in the sample. Findings underscore the need to better understand the unique relationships between minority stress and risky alcohol use behaviors of Black college students, namely, relationships not shared by their nonminority peers that increase their risk of problem drinking.

  7. Sexual risk-taking behaviors, gambling, and heavy drinking among U.S. College athletes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the prevalence patterns of sexual risk-taking behaviors (i.e., unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners) in relation to levels of gambling problems and heavy episodic drinking (HED) status among U.S. college athletes. Data from a representative national sample of 20,739 U.S. college athletes were derived from the first National Collegiate Athletic Association national survey of problem gambling and health-risk behaviors. Among college athletes who were sexually active during the past year, males reported significantly higher prevalence of unprotected sex (10.2%) and multiple sex partners (14.6%) than females (7.9% and 9.3%, respectively). Using the DSM-IV Gambling Screen classification, as the level of gambling severity increased, the prevalence of sexual risk-taking behaviors also increased among female athletes, but decreased among male athletes. As regards the effect of heavy drinking, while both male and female HED athletes reported elevated sexual risk-taking, the effect of HED was twice as large in females as in males. It is important to note that the definitions of sexual risk behaviors in this study took into account committed sexual relationship status; hence, the results of this study need to be interpreted with the refined sexual risk measures in mind. Further investigations are warranted to help us better understand and explicate the interrelationships of sexual risk-taking behaviors, gambling, and heavy drinking among these college athletes. Findings from this exploratory study suggest new directions for future research and practice and also highlight the importance of a more inclusive multi-component approach to address these co-occurring youth risk behaviors.

  8. Alcohol expectancies, perceived norms, and drinking behavior among college students: examining the reciprocal determinism hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-03-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N = 557; 67% women) completed online measures of PAEs, norms, and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not for frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students and may help to inform norm-based interventions.

  9. EFFECTS OF BEVERAGE-SPECIFIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON DRINKING BEHAVIORS AMONG URBAN YOUTH*

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic regression tested the effects of beverage-specific use on consequences (e.g., alcohol use in the past month, week, heavy drinking, and ever drunkenness). Compared to wine users, adolescents who reported drinking hard liquor during their last drinking occasion had increased odds of alcohol use during the past month (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.01–2.05), past week (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.39–8.18), and ever drunkenness (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.07–2.29). Use of hard liquor was associated with increased risk of alcohol-related consequences. Early selection of certain alcoholic beverages (e.g., hard liquor) may result in negative health outcomes and problematic alcohol use over time. PMID:21313986

  10. Alcohol Expectancy Priming and Drinking Behavior: The Role of Compatibility between Prime and Expectancy Content

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ronald S.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Hicks, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memorythat may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants were initially assessed on three distinct domains of positive alcohol expectancies. Approximately one week later, they completed an ad libitum drinking study during which only a single expectancy domain (sociability) was primed in the experimental condition. Consistent with predictions, following exposure to sociability primes, but not control primes, individuals with stronger expectancies that alcohol would enhance sociability uniquely showed increased placebo consumption of nonalcoholic beer. These results, which demonstrate the moderating role of compatibility between the specific content of primes and that of underlying expectancies, offer new, direct support for memory network-based models of drinking behavior. PMID:19586149

  11. Mosquito drinking with a burst in reserve: explaining behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through a long drinking channel, or proboscis. Experimental observations indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is several orders of magnitude larger than in the continuous mode. We use a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this naturally occurring drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is the more efficient mode in terms of energy expenditure, and the burst mode creates a large pressure difference across the proboscis. We speculate that the mosquito uses this pressure drop to clear blockages in the proboscis. We compared the two-pump system with one-pump configurations, as found in some other insects like butterflies, and show that the two pumps have unique roles in mosquito feeding.

  12. Predictors of hazardous drinking behavior in 1,340 adult trauma patients: a computerized alcohol screening and intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Tyler; Barrios, Cristobal; Lau, Cecilia; Patel, Madhukar S; Cui, Eric; Garcia, Stephanie Diana; Kong, Allen; Lotfipour, Shahram; Lekawa, Michael; Malinoski, Darren

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is used to decrease alcohol consumption, health care costs, and injury recidivism in trauma patients. Despite SBI being mandated for trauma centers, various concerns have led many centers to conduct SBI only on patients with a detectable blood alcohol concentration (BAC). We sought to determine the predictive nature of BAC on hazardous drinking behavior. Adult trauma patients were included if they received an SBI before discharge. SBI was administered using a computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI) system with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Data regarding demographics, injuries, and BAC were prospectively collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of hazardous drinking behavior. Data were complete for 1,340 patients, with a mean age of 43 years (SD 20 years). Sixty-eight percent were male, 33% had detectable BAC, and 19% had hazardous drinking behavior. Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97 per year), male sex (OR 3.1), BAC (OR 1.009 per mg/dL), detectable BAC (OR 3.9), and legal intoxication (OR 7.8) as independent predictors of hazardous drinking behavior. Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity was a significant negative predictor (OR 0.53) compared with white. Thirty-eight percent of patients with hazardous drinking behavior had no detectable BAC. Younger age, male sex, and higher BAC are early predictors of hazardous drinking behavior in adult trauma patients. Asian/Pacific Islander patients are half as likely to report hazardous drinking behavior compared with white patients. More than one-third of patients with hazardous drinking behavior do not have detectable BAC on admission and are not receiving interventions in centers that screen solely based on BAC. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AKT Signaling Pathway in the Nucleus Accumbens Mediates Excessive Alcohol Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Neasta, Jérémie; Ben Hamida, Sami; Yowell, Quinn V.; Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroadaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been implicated in molecular mechanisms underlying the development and/or maintenance of alcohol abuse disorders. We recently reported that the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway in the NAc of rodents, following exposure to alcohol, contributes to alcohol drinking behaviors. The kinase AKT, is the main upstream activator of the mTORC1 pathway. We therefore hypothesized that the activation of AKT in the NAc in response to alcohol exposure plays an important role in mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption. Methods Western blot analysis was used to assess the phosphorylation levels of enzymes. Acute exposure of mice to alcohol was achieved by the administration of 2 g/kg alcohol intraperitoneally, (i.p.). Two-bottle choice and operant self-administration procedures were used to assess drinking behaviors in rats. Results We found that acute systemic administration of alcohol and recurring cycles of excessive voluntary consumption of alcohol and withdrawal result in the activation of AKT signaling in the NAc of rodents. Importantly, we show that inhibition of AKT, or its upstream activator, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), within the NAc of rats attenuates binge drinking as well as alcohol but not sucrose operant self-administration. Conclusions Our results suggest that the activation of the AKT pathway in the NAc in response to alcohol exposure is an important contributor to the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviors. AKT signaling pathway inhibitors are therefore potential candidates for drug development for the treatment of alcohol use and abuse disorders. PMID:21549353

  14. AKT signaling pathway in the nucleus accumbens mediates excessive alcohol drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Neasta, Jérémie; Ben Hamida, Sami; Yowell, Quinn V; Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit

    2011-09-15

    Neuroadaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been implicated in molecular mechanisms underlying the development and/or maintenance of alcohol abuse disorders. We recently reported that the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway in the NAc of rodents, after exposure to alcohol, contributes to alcohol drinking behaviors. The kinase AKT is a main upstream activator of the mTORC1 pathway. We therefore hypothesized that the activation of AKT in the NAc in response to alcohol exposure plays an important role in mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption. Western blot analysis was used to assess the phosphorylation levels of enzymes. Acute exposure of mice to alcohol was achieved by the administration of 2 g/kg alcohol intraperitoneally (i.p.). Two-bottle choice and operant self-administration procedures were used to assess drinking behaviors in rats. We found that acute systemic administration of alcohol and recurring cycles of excessive voluntary consumption of alcohol and withdrawal result in the activation of AKT signaling in the NAc of rodents. We show that inhibition of AKT or its upstream activator, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), within the NAc of rats attenuates binge drinking as well as alcohol but not sucrose operant self-administration. Our results suggest that the activation of the AKT pathway in the NAc in response to alcohol exposure is an important contributor to the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviors. AKT signaling pathway inhibitors are therefore potential candidates for drug development for the treatment of alcohol use and abuse disorders. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Paternal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Increases Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol Selectively in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. “epigenetic inheritance,” is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors. PMID:24896617

  16. Paternal alcohol exposure reduces alcohol drinking and increases behavioral sensitivity to alcohol selectively in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. "epigenetic inheritance," is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors.

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  18. The effects of binge drinking and socio-economic status on sober driving behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guozhen; Wu, Changxu; Houston, Rebecca J; Creager, Whitney

    2010-08-01

    Drinking and driving is a primary cause of traffic fatalities and it has been suggested that binge drinkers comprise a major portion of those drivers involved in drinking and driving accidents. Although several experimental studies have investigated the driving behavior of binge drinkers (particularly college students and/or young adults) under the influence of alcohol, few studies have focused on a comparison of sober driving behavior of the general population between binge and non-binge drinkers with a consideration of drivers' income levels. In addition, these studies have not taken other potentially influential factors into account such as socio economic status. A driving simulator study was conducted with a 2 x 2 factorial design (binge vs. non-binge drinker; low vs. high income). Sixty-two participants who were not under the influence of alcohol or drugs were asked to operate a driving simulator following traffic rules. Multiple aspects of participants' driving behaviors were measured in a sober driving situation. To control the potential effects of confounding factors, factors (e.g., age, gender, etc.) that were significantly correlated to the driving behavior were all entered into the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as covariates. Significant interaction effects were found between effects of binge drinking and income levels. Analyses indicated that binge drinkers-independent of their income levels-exhibited more speeding exceedances and longer speeding duration than those of non-binge drinkers with a high income. Individuals characterized as non-binge drinkers with a low income also exhibited more speeding behaviors. Cognitive deficits and problems in vehicle control resulting from chronic alcohol consumption may impact binge drinkers' abilities to perform adequately, even in a sober driving situation. In addition, non-binge drinkers with a low income were more prone to make unsafe choices compared to non-binge drinkers with a high income

  19. Differences in the Drinking Behaviors of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese College Students*

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Chris; Corliss, Heather L.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Lui, Camillia K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol drinking behaviors across ethnic subgroups of Asian college students by gender, foreign-born status, and college-related living arrangements. Method: Univariate and ordinal logistic regression analyses were employed to explore male and female Asian subgroup differences in alcohol drinking behaviors. The sample included 753 male and female undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 27 years who self-identified as Chinese, Filipino, Korean, or Vietnamese and who varied in their foreign-born status. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on their alcohol drinking practices. Results: Ordinal regression analysis assessed risks for increased consumption and found that Korean and Filipino students reported higher levels of alcohol consumption compared with other Asian subgroups. Students living in on-campus dormitories and in off-campus apartments reported higher alcohol consumption than did those living at home. Being born in the United States was a significant predictor of higher levels of alcohol consumption for women but not for men. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate the need for campus alcohol education and prevention programs capable of responding to specific Asian subgroup needs. PMID:19515297

  20. Dutch adolescent private drinking places: prevalence, alcohol consumption, and other risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Joris J; Mulder, Joost; Korte, Jojanneke; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of 'gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)', with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were conducted. The first consisted of field research in which 51 barracks were visited and group-interviews were held. The second was an Internet study in which 442 barracks' websites were analyzed using content analysis. The third consisted of a questionnaire completed by 1457 adolescents, aged 15-17, in order to explore differences in behavior between barracks visitors and non-visitors. There was wide variation in barracks' characteristics and culture. Barracks' members and visitors also organize diverse activities that are publicly shown on the websites. Barracks are associated with various legal issues, such as alcohol sales to minors, lack of parental supervision, and illicit drug use. Barracks' visitors drink alcohol more frequently, drink more alcohol per occasion (up to fifteen bottles of beer a night), and have been drunk more frequently than non-visitors. Policymakers must be aware of the barracks phenomenon and use their powers in adjacent political and legal areas (such as in binge drinking, illicit drug use, and public safety) to intervene and create solid, responsible, and tailor-made policies.

  1. Sexual behaviors and drinking patterns among middle school and high school students in southeastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; Bullers, Susan; Maume, Michael; Demski, Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Considering that current trends in sexual behavior and alcohol use among adolescents pose a significant public health risk, more research is needed in this area. Using a cross-sectional design, this study examined sex and alcohol behaviors among middle school and high school students in southeastern North Carolina. The findings suggested that there were strong associations between overall drinking patterns and sexual behaviors. Further analyses examined the effect of several demographic and behavioral factors on sexual experience and condom use for both middle and high school students. Alcohol, race, and age were significant determinants of sexual experience for all students while gender was significant for middle school students. None of the measured factors, including AIDS education, significantly increased condom use among sexually active students. The results suggested that sexuality and alcohol education methods and content should be re-evaluated and should begin in or before middle school.

  2. Predicting Treatment Seekers Readiness to Change their Drinking Behavior in the COMBINE Study

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Carlo C.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Donovan, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Background Initial motivation and readiness to change are complex constructs and have been important but inconsistent predictors of treatment attendance and drinking outcomes in studies of alcoholism treatment. Motivation can be described in multiple ways as simply the accumulation of consequences that push change, a shift in intentions, or engagement in various tasks that are part of a larger process of change. Method Using baseline data from participants in the COMBINE Study, this study re-evaluated the psychometric properties of a 24-item, measure of motivation derived from the URICA that yielded four subscales representing attitudes and experiences related to tasks of stages of Precontemplation, Contemplation, Action, and Maintenance Striving as well as a second order factor score representing a multidimensional view of readiness to change drinking. A variety of hypothesized predictors of readiness and the stage subscales were examined using multiple regression analyses in order to better understand the nature of this measure of motivation. Results Findings supported the basic subscale structure and the overall motivational readiness score derived from this measure. Readiness to change drinking behavior was predicted by baseline measures of perceived stress, drinking severity, psychiatric co-morbidity, self-efficacy, craving, and with positive treatment outcome expectancies. However, absolute values were small indicating that readiness for change is not explained simply by demographic, drinking severity, treatment, change process, or contextual variables. Conclusion This measure demonstrated good psychometric properties and results supported the independence as well as convergent and divergent validity of the measured constructs. Predictors of overall readiness and subscale scores indicate that a variety of personal and contextual factors contribute to treatment seekers motivation to change in an understandable but complex manner. PMID:19320633

  3. Dehydration and drinking behavior of the marine file snake Acrochordus granulatus.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Heatwole, Harold; Sheehy, Coleman M

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration and drinking behaviors were investigated in the little file snake (Acrochordus granulatus) collected from marine populations in the Philippines and in Australia. File snakes dehydrate in seawater and do not drink seawater when dehydrated in air and offered seawater to drink. Dehydrated file snakes drink freshwater, and the threshold of dehydration for first drinking response is a deficit of -7.4% ± 2.73% (mean ± SD) of original body mass. The thirst mechanism in this species is more sensitive than that recently studied in sea snakes. The volume of water ingested increases with increasing dehydration. Mean plasma osmolality was 278.89 ± 33.17 mMol/kg, mean hematocrit was 59% ± 5.45%, and both decreased in snakes that drank freshwater following acclimation in seawater. Snakes always drank freshwater at the water's surface, testing water with tongue flicks between each swallowing of water. Some snakes ingested large volumes of freshwater, approaching 50% of body mass. Visual observations and measurements of osmolality in plasma and stomach fluids suggest that water is taken up from the gut and dilutes body fluids slowly over the course of 48 h or longer. Eighty percent of snakes that were collected during the dry season (following >4 mo of drought) in Australia drank freshwater immediately following their capture, indicating that snakes were dehydrated in their marine environment even when known to have been feeding at the time. Snakes kept in seawater maintained a higher state of body condition when freshwater was periodically available. These results support a growing conclusion that diverse taxa of marine snakes require environmental sources of freshwater to maintain water balance, contrary to earlier belief. Identifying the freshwater requirements of secondarily marine vertebrates is important for better understanding how they maintain water balance in marine habitats, especially with respect to conservation in changing environments.

  4. Abstinence following Alcohol Drinking Produces Depression-Like Behavior and Reduced Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennie R; Schroeder, Jason P; Nixon, Kimberly; Besheer, Joyce; Crews, Fulton T; Hodge, Clyde W

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism and depression show high degrees of comorbidity. Clinical evidence also indicates that depression that emerges during abstinence from chronic alcohol use has a greater negative impact on relapse than pre-existing depression. Although no single neurobiological mechanism can account for the behavioral pathologies associated with these devastating disorders, converging evidence suggests that aspects of both alcoholism and depression are linked to reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we report results from a novel preclinical behavioral model showing that abstinence from voluntary alcohol drinking leads to the emergence of depression-like behavior and reductions in neurogenesis. C57BL/6J mice were allowed to self-administer ethanol (10% v/v) vs H2O in the home cage for 28 days. Alcohol was then removed for 1 or 14 days, and mice were tested in the forced swim test to measure depression-like behavior. After 14 days, but not 1 day of abstinence from alcohol drinking, mice showed a significant increase in depression-like behavior. The significant increase in depression-like behavior during abstinence was associated with a reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus indicating that both the number of proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPC) and immature neurons were reduced, respectively. The number of NPCs that were labeled with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at the beginning of alcohol exposure was not altered indicating that survival of NPCs is not linked to abstinence-induced depression. Chronic treatment (14 days) with the antidepressant desipramine during abstinence prevented both the emergence of depression-like behavior and the reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis indicating that abstinence-induced depression is associated with structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Overall, the results of this study support the conclusion that profound functional (ie

  5. Alcohol-related mortality, drinking behavior, and business cycles: are slumps really dry seasons?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Edvard; Böckerman, Petri; Prättälä, Ritva; Uutela, Antti

    2006-09-01

    This paper explores the connection between alcohol-related mortality, drinking behavior, and macroeconomic conditions in Finland using both aggregate and microlevel data from recent decades. The aggregate data reveal that an improvement in economic conditions produces a decrease in alcohol-related mortality. Microlevel data show that alcohol consumption increases during economic expansion while the probability of being a drinker remains unchanged. This demonstrates that alcohol-related mortality and self-reported alcohol consumption may be delinked in the short-run business cycle context. One explanation for this paradox is that most harmful forms of drinking are not captured in survey-based data used to study the effect of macroeconomic conditions on alcohol consumption. Our evidence does not overwhelmingly support the conclusions reported for the United States that temporary economic downturns are good for health.

  6. Weekly Energy Drink Use Is Positively Associated with Delay Discounting and Risk Behavior in a Nationwide Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink use is associated with increased risk behavior among adolescents and college students. This study examined this relationship in a nationwide sample of young adults and also examined relations between energy drink use and delay discounting. Methods: Participants were 874 U.S. adults 18–28 years of age with past 30-day consumption of caffeine and alcohol. Participants completed an online survey of energy drink use, drug use, sexual activity, alcohol misuse (alcohol use disorders identification test [AUDIT]), sensation seeking (four-item Brief Sensation Seeking Scale [BSSS-4]), and delay discounting of monetary rewards and condom use. Results: Over one-third of participants (n = 303) reported consuming energy drinks at least once per week. Weekly energy drink users were more likely than less-than-weekly energy drink users to report a recent history of risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking (56% vs. 28%, p < 0.0001), illicit stimulant use (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001), and unprotected sex (63% vs. 45%, p < 0.0001). Covariate-adjusted analyses found that weekly energy drink users did not have significantly higher BSSS-4 scores (3.5 vs. 3.1, p = 0.098), but they had higher mean AUDIT scores (8.0 vs. 4.8, p < 0.0001), and they more steeply discounted delayed monetary rewards. Although weekly energy drink users did not show steeper discounting of delayed condom use, they showed a lower likelihood of using a condom when one was immediately available. Conclusions: This study extends findings that energy drink use is associated with risk behavior, and it is the first study to show that energy drink use is associated with monetary delay discounting. PMID:26989563

  7. Weekly Energy Drink Use Is Positively Associated with Delay Discounting and Risk Behavior in a Nationwide Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Steven E; Sweeney, Mary M; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2016-03-01

    Background: Energy drink use is associated with increased risk behavior among adolescents and college students. This study examined this relationship in a nationwide sample of young adults and also examined relations between energy drink use and delay discounting. Methods: Participants were 874 U.S. adults 18-28 years of age with past 30-day consumption of caffeine and alcohol. Participants completed an online survey of energy drink use, drug use, sexual activity, alcohol misuse (alcohol use disorders identification test [AUDIT]), sensation seeking (four-item Brief Sensation Seeking Scale [BSSS-4]), and delay discounting of monetary rewards and condom use. Results: Over one-third of participants (n = 303) reported consuming energy drinks at least once per week. Weekly energy drink users were more likely than less-than-weekly energy drink users to report a recent history of risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking (56% vs. 28%, p < 0.0001), illicit stimulant use (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001), and unprotected sex (63% vs. 45%, p < 0.0001). Covariate-adjusted analyses found that weekly energy drink users did not have significantly higher BSSS-4 scores (3.5 vs. 3.1, p = 0.098), but they had higher mean AUDIT scores (8.0 vs. 4.8, p < 0.0001), and they more steeply discounted delayed monetary rewards. Although weekly energy drink users did not show steeper discounting of delayed condom use, they showed a lower likelihood of using a condom when one was immediately available. Conclusions: This study extends findings that energy drink use is associated with risk behavior, and it is the first study to show that energy drink use is associated with monetary delay discounting.

  8. Strain differences in circadian drinking behaviors of ethanol and water in rats.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Powell, E W; Halberg, F

    1987-01-01

    Voluntary drinking responses to an alternating three-bottle, two-choice paradigm to tap water or to 5% ethanol were measured in adult male Fisher (Fshr; N = 14) and spontaneously hypertensive (SP; N = 16) rats for 6-9 days. All animals were singly caged and housed separately in isolation chambers. The animals received light from 0600 to 1800 (CST) daily (LD 12:12) or remained in constant darkness (DD) at room temperature (23 degrees C). Food was freely available. Water and ethanol bottles were changed daily, and volumes of the respective fluids consumed by each rat were measured. A dim red light (approximately 0.5 lux) was used in handling animals in the dark. SP rats demonstrated significant (P less than 0.05) circadian drinking patterns of water and ethanol consumption under LD and DD lighting conditions. Fshr rats, however, exhibited a circadian pattern (P less than 0.02) only with regard to water consumption under an LD 12:12 lighting schedule; they did not exhibit circadian patterns of drinking water (P less than 0.054) in DD or ethanol in LD (P less than 0.24) or in DD (P less than 0.67) conditions. Volumes of ethanol consumption were also greater (P less than 0.05) in SP rats than in Fshr rats. It is concluded that differences exist in circadian drinking behaviors for both water and ethanol intake in two strains of rats. Perhaps variation in circadian patterns is an evolutionary mechanism that programs behavior over an appropriate time span for differences in physiological needs of nocturnal animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Changes in feeding, drinking, and standing behavior of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2005-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine how measures of feeding, drinking, and standing behavior change over the period around calving, to derive objective meal and drinking bout criteria for transition cows, and to describe the within-cow consistency of these behavioral measures. Fifteen transition dairy cows were monitored from 10 d before until 10 d after calving. Meal criteria were calculated for each cow in both the pre- and postcalving periods and varied among cows from 5.3 to 105.2 min. There was a tendency for the average number of meals per day to be higher after calving than before calving, but time spent eating declined from 87 to 62 min/d from the precalving to the postcalving period. Time spent drinking before calving averaged 5.5 min/d and increased gradually after calving to an average of 6.8 min/d. Total daily standing times remained reasonably similar over the transition period but were highest at around calving (14.4 h) and lowest during the precalving period (12.3 h). On the day of calving, there was a dramatic increase in the number of standing bouts (21.8 bouts) compared with the pre- and postcalving averages of 11.7 and 13.1 bouts, respectively. In summary, changes in feeding behavior may help account for the well-documented changes in feed intake during transition. Documented changes in standing behavior suggest that cow comfort may be particularly important during the time around calving.

  10. Underestimating protection and overestimating risk: examining descriptive normative perceptions and their association with drinking and sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Cronce, Jessica M; Blayney, Jessica A; Gilmore, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms-behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms-behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed.

  11. Urocortins: CRF's siblings and their potential role in anxiety, depression and alcohol drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, Andrey E; Tsoory, Michael M; Kozicz, Tamas; Thiele, Todd E; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Chen, Alon; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Giardino, William J; Kaur, Simranjit

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that stress, anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse-related disorders are in large part controlled by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. However, evidence is accumulating that some of the actions on these receptors are mediated not by CRF, but by a family of related Urocortin (Ucn) peptides Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3. The initial narrow focus on CRF as the potential main player acting on CRF receptors appears outdated. Instead it is suggested that CRF and the individual Ucns act in a complementary and brain region-specific fashion to regulate anxiety-related behaviors and alcohol consumption. This review, based on a symposium held in 2011 at the research meeting on "Alcoholism and Stress" in Volterra, Italy, highlights recent evidence for regulation of these behaviors by Ucns. In studies on stress and anxiety, the roles of Ucns, and in particular Ucn1, appear more visible in experiments analyzing adaptation to stressors rather than testing basal anxiety states. Based on these studies, we propose that the contribution of Ucn1 to regulating mood follows a U-like pattern with both high and low activity of Ucn1 contributing to high anxiety states. In studies on alcohol use disorders, the CRF system appears to regulate not only dependence-induced drinking, but also binge drinking and even basal consumption of alcohol. While dependence-induced and binge drinking rely on the actions of CRF on CRFR1 receptors, alcohol consumption in models of these behaviors is inhibited by actions of Ucns on CRFR2. In contrast, alcohol preference is positively influenced by actions of Ucn1, which is capable of acting on both CRFR1 and CRFR2. Because of complex distribution of Ucns in the nervous system, advances in this field will critically depend on development of new tools allowing site-specific analyses of the roles of Ucns and CRF.

  12. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Deborah L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Fagan, Pebbles; Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M

    2012-07-11

    Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  13. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  14. Individual and spousal unemployment as predictors of smoking and drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M. Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971-2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further. PMID:24727666

  15. Individual and spousal unemployment as predictors of smoking and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-06-01

    The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971 to 2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of neurobehavioral incentive valence and magnitude on alcohol drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; Corbly, Christine R.; DeSantis, Stacia; Lee, Dustin C.; Baik, Grace; Kiser, Seth; Jiang, Yang; Lynam, Donald R.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    The monetary incentive delay (MID) task is a widely used probe for isolating neural circuitry in the human brain associated with incentive motivation. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 82 young adults, characterized along dimensions of impulsive sensation seeking, completed a MID task. fMRI and behavioral incentive functions were decomposed into incentive valence and magnitude parameters, which were used as predictors in linear regression to determine whether mesolimbic response is associated with problem drinking and recent alcohol use. Alcohol use was best explained by higher fMRI response to anticipation of losses and feedback on high gains in the thalamus. In contrast, problem drinking was best explained by reduced sensitivity to large incentive values in meso-limbic regions in the anticipation phase and increased sensitivity to small incentive values in the dorsal caudate nucleus in the feedback phase. Altered fMRI responses to monetary incentives in mesolimbic circuitry, particularly those alterations associated with problem drinking, may serve as potential early indicators of substance abuse trajectories. PMID:25261001

  17. Health and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

    PubMed

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-06-26

    Heavy drinking among university students has been globally recognized as a major public health burden. In the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, studies on this issue have been scant, country-specific and in different time frames. The aim of this study was to identify social and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 8809 undergraduate university students from 13 universities in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam using self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the associated factors. More than half (62.3%) of the study sample were female with a mean age of 20.5 (SD = 2.0) years. Of total, 12.8% were infrequent (drinking remained significantly associated with being in older age groups, living with parents or guardians, lower level of non-organized religious activity, lack of knowledge on alcohol-heart disease relationship, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, poor subjective health status, lower level of life satisfaction, tobacco and illicit drug use, depressive symptoms and high level physical activity. Among females, higher prevalence of binge drinking remained significantly associated with being in the older age groups, poorer family background, living in an upper-middle- or high-income country, lower level of non-organized religious activity, lack of knowledge on alcohol-heart disease relationship, lack of knowledge on alcohol-high blood pressure relationship, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, lower level of life satisfaction, use of other substances such as tobacco and illicit drug, depressive symptoms and high level of physical activity. Findings from

  18. Effects of an electrolyte additive on hydration and drinking behavior during wildfire suppression.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Ham, Julie A; Harger, Stephanie G; Slivka, Dustin R; Ruby, Brent C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a water + electrolyte solution versus plain water on changes in drinking behaviors, hydration status, and body temperatures during wildfire suppression. Eight participants consumed plain water, and eight participants consumed water plus an electrolyte additive during 15 hours of wildfire suppression. Participants wore a specially outfitted backpack hydration system equipped with a digital flow meter system affixed inline to measure drinking characteristics (drinking frequency and volume). Body weight and urine-specific gravity were collected pre- and postshift. Ambient, core, and skin temperatures were measured continuously using a wireless system. Work output was monitored using accelerometry. There were no differences between groups for body weight, drinking frequency, temperature data, activity, or urine-specific gravity (1.019 +/- 0.007 to 1.023 +/- 0.010 vs. 1.019 +/- 0.005 to 1.024 +/- 0.009 for water and water + electrolyte groups pre- and postshift, respectively; P < .05). There was a main effect for time for body weight, demonstrating an overall decrease (78.1 +/- 13.3 and 77.3 +/- 13.3 kg pre- and postshift, respectively; P < .05) across the work shift. The water group consumed more total fluid (main effect for treatment) than the water + electrolyte group (504 +/- 472 vs. 285 +/- 279 mL.h(-1) for the water and water + electrolyte groups, respectively; P < .05). The addition of an electrolyte mixture to plain water decreased the overall fluid consumption of the water + electrolyte group by 220 mL.h(-1) (3.3 L.d(-1)). Supplementing water with electrolytes can reduce the amount of fluid necessary to consume and transport during extended activity. This can minimize carrying excessive weight, possibly reducing fatigue during extended exercise.

  19. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N = 326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations and ethnic identity was controlled in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese- and Korean American young adults to cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE. PMID:23811062

  20. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  1. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  2. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Qrunfleh, Abeer M; Alazizi, Adnan; Sari, Youssef

    2013-06-01

    Relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior depends on increased glutamate transmission in the mesocorticolimbic motive circuit. Extracellular glutamate is regulated by a number of glutamate transporters. Of these transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We have recently reported that ceftriaxone (CEF) treatment (i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic known to elevate GTL1 expression, reduced ethanol intake in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We investigated here whether CEF treatment attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior. P rats were exposed to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol for 5 weeks and treated with CEF (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) during the last 5 days of the 2-week deprivation period. Rats treated with CEF during the deprivation period showed a reduction in ethanol intake compared with saline-treated rats upon re-exposure to ethanol; this effect persisted for 9 days. Moreover, CEF-mediated attenuation in relapse to ethanol-drinking behavior was associated with upregulation of GLT1 level in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core. GLT1 upregulation was revealed only at the higher dose of CEF. In addition, CEF has no effect on relapse-like sucrose-drinking behavior. These findings suggest that ceftriaxone might be used as a potential therapeutic treatment for the attenuation of relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior.

  3. Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.

    PubMed

    Boles, Myde; Adams, Adelle; Gredler, Amy; Manhas, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n=402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. αCaMKII Autophosphorylation Controls the Establishment of Alcohol Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Easton, Alanna C; Lucchesi, Walter; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Lenz, Bernd; Solati, Jalal; Golub, Yulia; Lewczuk, Piotr; Fernandes, Cathy; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Dawirs, Ralph R; Moll, Gunther H; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frank, Josef; Hoffmann, Per; Soyka, Michael; Kiefer, Falk; Schumann, Gunter; Peter Giese, K; Müller, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    The α-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) is a crucial enzyme controlling plasticity in the brain. The autophosphorylation of αCaMKII works as a ‘molecular memory' for a transient calcium activation, thereby accelerating learning. We investigated the role of αCaMKII autophosphorylation in the establishment of alcohol drinking as an addiction-related behavior in mice. We found that alcohol drinking was initially diminished in αCaMKII autophosphorylation-deficient αCaMKIIT286A mice, but could be established at wild-type level after repeated withdrawals. The locomotor activating effects of a low-dose alcohol (2 g/kg) were absent in αCaMKIIT286A mice, whereas the sedating effects of high-dose (3.5 g/kg) were preserved after acute and subchronic administration. The in vivo microdialysis revealed that αCaMKIIT286A mice showed no dopamine (DA) response in the nucleus accumbens to acute or subchronic alcohol administration, but enhanced serotonin (5-HT) responses in the prefrontal cortex. The attenuated DA response in αCaMKIIT286A mice was in line with altered c-Fos activation in the ventral tegmental area after acute and subchronic alcohol administration. In order to compare findings in mice with the human condition, we tested 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CAMK2A gene for their association with alcohol dependence in a population of 1333 male patients with severe alcohol dependence and 939 controls. We found seven significant associations between CAMK2A SNPs and alcohol dependence, one of which in an autophosphorylation-related area of the gene. Together, our data suggest αCaMKII autophosphorylation as a facilitating mechanism in the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior with changing the DA–5-HT balance as a putative mechanism. PMID:23459588

  5. Different forms of bullying and their association to smoking and drinking behavior in Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-07-01

    Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle and secondary school students (49.9% girls) randomly selected. The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist forms of bullying. For each form, 3 categories were created and compared with students "not involved in bullying": bully, victim, and bully-victim. Logistic regressions were applied to test the connections among the 3 forms of involvement in different types of bullying and smoking and drinking. Prevalence of having been bullied or having bullied others at school at least once in the last 2 months was 11.6% for physical, 52% for verbal, 47.9% for relational, 18.5% for sexual, 19.4% for cyber, and 9.4% for racist bullying. Compared to girls, boys were more likely to be involved in physical bullying; moreover, boys were more involved as bullies in verbal, sexual, cyber, and racist bullying. In contrast, girls were more likely to be victims of verbal, relational, sexual, and cyber bullying than were boys. Logistic regressions showed the connection between the different forms of involvement in bullying and smoking and drinking. Our results indicate that all forms of bullying behavior are associated with legal substance use. Implication for prevention program was discussed. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  6. Protein tyrosine phosphatase α in the dorsomedial striatum promotes excessive ethanol-drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, Sami; Darcq, Emmanuel; Wang, Jun; Wu, Su; Phamluong, Khanhky; Kharazia, Viktor; Ron, Dorit

    2013-09-04

    We previously found that excessive ethanol drinking activates Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) (Wang et al., 2010; Gibb et al., 2011). Ethanol-mediated Fyn activation in the DMS leads to the phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, to the enhancement of the channel's activity, and to the development and/or maintenance of ethanol drinking behaviors (Wang et al., 2007, 2010). Protein tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα) is essential for Fyn kinase activation (Bhandari et al., 1998), and we showed that ethanol-mediated Fyn activation is facilitated by the recruitment of PTPα to synaptic membranes, the compartment where Fyn resides (Gibb et al., 2011). Here we tested the hypothesis that PTPα in the DMS is part of the Fyn/GluN2B pathway and is thus a major contributor to the neuroadaptations underlying excessive ethanol intake behaviors. We found that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated PTPα knockdown in the DMS reduces excessive ethanol intake and preference in rodents. Importantly, no alterations in water, saccharine/sucrose, or quinine intake were observed. Furthermore, downregulation of PTPα in the DMS of mice significantly reduces ethanol-mediated Fyn activation, GluN2B phosphorylation, and ethanol withdrawal-induced long-term facilitation of NMDAR activity without altering the intrinsic features of DMS neurons. Together, these results position PTPα upstream of Fyn within the DMS and demonstrate the important contribution of the phosphatase to the maladaptive synaptic changes that lead to excessive ethanol intake.

  7. Behavioral and physiologic adverse effects in adolescent and young adult emergency department patients reporting use of energy drinks and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Deidrya A E; Cotter, Bradford V; Merchant, Roland C; Babu, Kavita M; Baird, Janette R; Nirenberg, Ted; Linakis, James G

    2013-08-01

    This pilot study assessed the prevalence of physiologic and behavioral adverse effects among adolescent (13-17 years) and adult (18-25 years) emergency department patients who reported energy drink and/or caffeinated-only beverage use within the 30 days prior to emergency department presentation. It was hypothesized that energy drink users would report more adverse effects than those who used only traditional caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, or soft drinks. This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in two urban emergency departments, one adult and one pediatric. Eligible patients were enrolled during a 6-week period between June and August 2010. Participants completed a tablet computer-based, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire about their past 30-day energy drink and/or caffeinated-only beverage use, substance use, and experience of 10 physiologic and 10 behavioral symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression and negative binomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, and substance use, were created to compare the occurrence of each adverse effect between energy drink and caffeinated-only beverage users. Odds ratios (ORs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated. Of those enrolled, 53.3% reported consuming energy drinks, 39.1% caffeinated-only beverages, and 7.6% no energy drinks or caffeinated-only beverages within the past 30 days. In multivariable logistic regression models, energy drink users were more likely than caffeinated-only beverage users to report having "gotten into trouble at home, school, or work" in the past 30 days (OR: 3.12 [1.24-7.88]). In the negative binomial regression multivariable models, more behavioral effects were reported among drug users (IRR: 1.50 [1.18-1.93]), and more physiologic effects were reported among tobacco users (IRR: 1.42 [1.13-1.80]) and females (IRR: 1.48 [1.21-1.80]), but not among energy drink users. Energy drink users and substance users are more likely to report specific physiologic

  8. [Association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse: a study in Japanese college freshmen].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya; Wada, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the prevalence of risky drinking and the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse among college freshmen. A total of 376 college freshmen (126 boys and 248 girls) in a Japanese university participated in the study. The subjects were asked to complete self-administered, anonymous questionnaires during their class. The number of participants who had used drugs was small. The following 2 items for substance abuse were included in the questionnaires: (1) those who had drug using peers who used drugs and (2) those who had been persuaded to use drugs by their peers. On the basis of the responses, the participants were classified into 3 groups: (1) high-risk group (HRG), which accounted for 1.4% of the subjects and comprised those who answered "yes" to both the above-mentioned two items; (2) risk group (RG), which accounted for 7.4% and comprised participants who answered "yes" to one of the two items; and (3) control group (CG), which accounted for 91.2% and comprised those who did not answer "yes" to either of the two items. Bivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse. The results of our study indicated that 87.0% of the participants reported lifetime alcohol use, and 69.4% reported the consumption of alcohol during the past 30 days. Of the former group, 21.4% had engaged in binge drinking, 8.6% had experienced alcohol-related harassment, 9.5% had experienced alcohol-induced blackouts, and 82.0% had experienced drinking alcohol with peers without adults. There were significant associations between risk groups of substance abuse and risky drinking such as binge drinking (p = 0.001), alcohol-induced blackouts (p = 0.020), alcohol-related harassment (p = 0.012), alcohol consumption during the past 30 days (p = 0.047). However, lifetime alcohol use (p = 0.264) and experience of drinking alcohol with peers without adults (p = 0

  9. Explaining adolescents' smoking and drinking behavior: the concept of smoker and drinker prototypes in relation to variables of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vitale, Salvatore; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that social image factors play an important role in the course of adolescent's substance use, that is, smoking and drinking. The concept of social images or prototypes is embedded into a theoretical model called the prototype/willingness model. The present study addresses the relative value of the prototype/willingness model in relation to the theory of planned behavior. To study relations between prototypes and adolescents' willingness and intention to engage in smoking and drinking behavior, cross-sectional data among 2814 adolescents (12-16 years) were gathered. Results show that adolescents describe daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers generally as slightly well adjusted, slightly rebellious, not really cool, and not really attractive. Positive relations were observed between smoker and drinker prototypes and adolescents' intention and willingness to smoke and drink in the future. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that prototypes of daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers explained a significant part of the variance in intention and willingness to smoke and drink, and added significantly to the variance explained by the variables of the theory of planned behavior.

  10. The effects of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) on traffic behaviors among Brazilian college students: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Eckschmidt, Frederico; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; dos Santos, Bernardo; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Drinking alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) may be contributing to hazardous drinking practices and risk-taking behaviors among college students. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the frequency of AmED consumption in a national sample of Brazilian college students and to estimate the risk that energy drinks pose on drinking and traffic behaviors. A sample of 12,711 college students from across the country was asked to complete a research questionnaire on the use of drugs and other behaviors. Students who reported drinking in the previous 12 months (N = 8672) were divided into 2 groups: (a) those who reported drinking only alcohol (N = 4192) and (b) those who reported drinking AmED (N = 1119). The college students who reported the use of at least one illicit drug were excluded from data analysis. Descriptive and inferential analyses were subsequently carried out using the R library survey software 2.15.0. The null hypothesis was rejected at the level of P < .05. AmED users are more likely to be hazardous drinkers. Being male, single, and involved with high-risk drinking behaviors are associated to AmED. After adjusting for demographic and drinking variables, the odds of being involved in high-risk traffic behaviors--for example, driving at high speed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; P < .001) and driving after binge drinking (OR = 2.8; P < .001)--were higher among AmED users than alcohol only users (AUs). The current findings are consistent with the results of previous studies. Drinking AmED may make college students more vulnerable to the occurrence of risky drinking and traffic behaviors. Educational campaigns targeted to young people should be developed warning them about the potential risks of mixing alcohol with energy drinks.

  11. The influence of religious factors on drinking behavior among young indigenous Sami and non-Sami peers in northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Spein, Anna Rita; Melhus, Marita; Kristiansen, Roald E; Kvernmo, Siv E

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that Laestadianism has contributed to the less drinking observed among indigenous Sami. This paper further investigates the bivariate protective influence of Sami ethnicity on youth drinking behavior using logistic regressions. We simultaneously controlled for the influence of religious revival movements (Laestadianism or evangelic) and religious importance (being personally Christian), in addition to socio-demographics and parental factors. Cross-sectional data from the 1994/95 North Norwegian Youth Study including 2,950 (675 Sami) 15-19 year-old high school students (RR: 85%) was used. Sami ethnicity was statistically significant for two out of six alcohol outcome measures, after adjustment for religiosity and other covariates, indicating less current drinking and party drinking. Religiousness was associated with higher youth and parental abstinence across ethnicities. Generally, stronger protective influences on drinking behavior were found for religious importance (being personally Christian) than religious affiliation (Laestadianism). The non-significance between Sami and non-Sami drinking may partly be explained by ethnic differences in religiosity, but also socio-demographics (e.g., residing in the Sami Highland) and parental factors (e.g., abstinence) contributed to such a result. Laestadianism`s profound impact on Sami culture, and its strong anti-alcohol norms may have contributed to a religious-socio-cultural context of abstinence.

  12. [Relationship between behavior of weekly alcohol drinking and the prevalence of hypertension in adults of Suzhou city].

    PubMed

    Tao, Ran; Su, Jian; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Yang, Jie; Wu, Ming; Hu, Yi-He; Zhou, Ren-Xian; Yang, Ling; Du, Huai-Dong; Chen, Zheng-Ming; Li, Li-Ming; Guo, Yu

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relationship between weekly alcohol drinking behavior and the prevalence of hypertension. Data was collected in a Kadoorie study of chronic disease in Wuzhong district, Suzhou city of Jiangsu province, China. Data from the baseline survey was used to describe the status of alcohol drinking and the prevalence of hypertension among local residents. Relationships between the frequency of alcohol drinking, consumption of alcohol, age when initiating weekly drinking behavior, drinking-related adverse conditions and the prevalence of hypertension, were studied by logistic regression. The rates on weekly alcohol drinking in the studied population were 40.7% in men and 0.6% in women. The amount of weekly average alcohol intake showed as 250.8 g in males and 47.2 g in females, with statistical significance seen between genders (P < 0.01). The prevalence rates of hypertension among male and female were 39.7% and 36.1% respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.01). Data from Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that when the frequency of alcohol drinking > or = 3 days per week or the weekly average alcohol intake > or = 100 grams, the risk would be higher to develop hypertension than in those non-drinkers (P < 0.01). The age of initiating behavior as weekly alcohol drinking younger than 20 years old or the dinking-related adverse condition appeared to be more than two kinds. The risks of developing hypertension were 1.50 times and 3.27 times than those non-drinkers in men but not in women. The frequency of drinking alcohol and the amount of alcohol intake per week was different between males and females. Along with the following factors as: increase of frequency on alcohol drinking per week, the amount of alcohol intake also increased. The advance of age related to the initiation of weekly drinking and the increase of alcohol-related adverse condition was also seen, the risk of hypertension showed an upward trend in males but not in females.

  13. Reciprocal Control of Drinking Behavior by Median Preoptic Neurons in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Stephen B. G.; Machado, Natalia L. S.; Geerling, Joel C.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of glutamatergic neurons in the subfornical organ drives drinking behavior, but the brain targets that mediate this response are not known. The densest target of subfornical axons is the anterior tip of the third ventricle, containing the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), a region that has also been implicated in fluid and electrolyte management. The neurochemical composition of this region is complex, containing both GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, but the possible roles of these neurons in drinking responses have not been addressed. In mice, we show that optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic neurons in MnPO/OVLT drives voracious water consumption, and that optogenetic stimulation of GABAergic neurons in the same region selectively reduces water consumption. Both populations of neurons have extensive projections to overlapping regions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and hindbrain that are much more extensive than those from the subfornical organ, suggesting that the MnPO/OVLT serves as a key link in regulating drinking responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) are known to regulate fluid/electrolyte homeostasis, but few studies have examined this issue with an appreciation for the neurochemical heterogeneity of these nuclei. Using Cre-Lox genetic targeting of Channelrhodospin-2 in transgenic mice, we demonstrate that glutamate and GABA neurons in the MnPO/OVLT reciprocally regulate water consumption. Stimulating glutamatergic MnPO/OVLT neurons induced water consumption, whereas stimulating GABAergic MnPO neurons caused a sustained and specific reduction in water consumption in dehydrated mice, the latter highlighting a heretofore unappreciated role of GABAergic MnPO neurons in thirst regulation. These observations represent an important advance in our understanding of the neural circuits involved in

  14. Drinking and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Impaired Driving Behaviors Among U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug–impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug–impaired drivers (RWI). Method: The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Results: Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p < .001) and RWI (OR = 3.92, p < .001) after controlling for parenting practices and selected covariates. Father’s monitoring knowledge predicted lower DWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates and teenage substance use (OR = 0.66, p < .001). In contrast, mother’s monitoring knowledge predicted lower RWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates only (OR = 0.67, p < .05), but the effect was reduced to nonsignificance when controlling for teen substance use. Conclusions: Heavy episodic drinking predicted DWI and RWI. In addition, parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors. PMID:24411792

  15. Drinking and parenting practices as predictors of impaired driving behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug-impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug-impaired drivers (RWI). The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009-2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p < .001) and RWI (OR = 3.92, p < .001) after controlling for parenting practices and selected covariates. Father's monitoring knowledge predicted lower DWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates and teenage substance use (OR = 0.66, p < .001). In contrast, mother's monitoring knowledge predicted lower RWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates only (OR = 0.67, p < .05), but the effect was reduced to nonsignificance when controlling for teen substance use. Heavy episodic drinking predicted DWI and RWI. In addition, parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors.

  16. Soft Drinks Consumption is Associated with Behavior Problems in 5-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739

  17. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study tested the comparative effectiveness of Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the two, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce, but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N=200) were recruited and urn randomized to one of two medication conditions, NTX or placebo (PBO) and either MSBCT or no behavioral intervention, yielding four conditions: PBO, NTX, MSBCT, and NTX+MSBCT. In addition, all participants received a brief medication compliance intervention. Participants were treated for 12 weeks and assessed one week after treatment completion. Two primary outcomes - sum of standard drinks and number of heavy drinking days - and one secondary outcome - percentage of those drinking in a non-hazardous manner (NoH) - were selected a-priori. Results: There was a significant main effect for MBSCT (all ps < .01), but not NTX on all three outcomes. In addition, the combination of NTX and MBSCT was not more effective than either MSCBT or PBO. There was a significant interaction effect on NoH, such that NTX significantly increased the likelihood (OR = 3.3) of achieving a non-hazardous drinking outcome relative to PBO. In addition, NTX was significantly more effective than PBO on a descriptive outcome: negative consequences of drinking. Conclusions There was no advantage to adding NTX to MBSCT. In addition, MBSCT showed stronger evidence of efficacy than NTX. At the same time, NTX delivered in the context of a minimal medication compliance intervention was significantly more effective than PBO on an important clinical indicator. Results provide new information to guide the treatment of problem drinking, including in primary care settings. PMID:22612306

  18. Factors associated with alcohol drinking behavior of cancer survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyeonyoung; Song, Yun-Mi; Shin, Jin-Young

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with drinking behavior of cancer survivors after cancer diagnosis. The study subjects were 906 adult cancer survivors who had reportedly drunk alcohol before cancer diagnosis and participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2007 to 2013. Among them, 360 abstained from alcohol drinking after cancer diagnosis. We categorized remaining 546 persistent drinkers into high-risk drinker (consuming≥7 glasses of alcohol for men and≥5 glasses of alcohol for women at one sitting at the frequency of at least once a month) or moderate drinker. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate risk factors associated with drinking behavior. The high-risk drinkers occupied 27.1% (148 survivors) of the persistent alcohol drinking survivors. Age increase (OR=0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99), female sex (OR=0.15; 95% CI 0.08-0.28), and increase of time lapse (by 1-year) after cancer diagnosis (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.92-0.97) were associated with a lower risk of high-risk drinking as compared with moderate drinking. Meanwhile,≤9years of education (OR=1.99; 95% CI 1.10-3.60), alcohol-related cancer (OR=2.09; 95% CI 1.23-3.56), and current smoking (OR=1.92; 95% CI 1.03-3.59) were associated with increased risk of high-risk drinking of cancer survivors. These findings suggest that greater efforts for preventing high-risk drinking should be laid on the cancer survivors, with consideration of individual sociodemographic characteristics, especially when the survivors had been diagnosed with alcohol-related cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Relationship between Parental Behaviors and Children's Sugary Drink Consumption Is Moderated by a Television in the Child's Bedroom

    PubMed Central

    Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Luedicke, Joerg; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the link between perceived authoritative parenting behaviors and sugary drink consumption among children from low-income families who do or do not have televisions (TVs) in their bedrooms. Methods: Middle school students (N = 480) completed a baseline survey in sixth grade and a follow-up survey in seventh grade. The students were recruited from 12 schools in a low-income, predominantly black (33%) and Latino (48%), urban school district. The survey assessed the children's perception of their parents' controlling and nurturing behaviors, the presence of a TV in their bedrooms, and their level of sugary drink consumption on the previous school day. Children's report of specific controlling and nurturing parental behaviors were used to create an “authoritative parenting” score. Regression analyses were used to test the main and interactive effects of authoritative parenting behaviors and having a TV in the bedroom with sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and sugary drink consumption in sixth grade. Results: A significant interaction emerged: The authoritative parenting score predicted lower levels of sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, but this relationship was moderated by whether or not there was a TV in the child's bedroom. Conclusion: A TV in the child's bedroom may weaken the positive influence of authoritative parenting behaviors on limiting sugary drink consumption among middle school children from low-income families. Stronger initiatives are recommended to educate parents and help them refrain from placing TVs in their children's bedrooms. PMID:26317365

  20. The Relationship between Parental Behaviors and Children's Sugary Drink Consumption Is Moderated by a Television in the Child's Bedroom.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Henderson, Kathryn E; Luedicke, Joerg; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the link between perceived authoritative parenting behaviors and sugary drink consumption among children from low-income families who do or do not have televisions (TVs) in their bedrooms. Middle school students (N = 480) completed a baseline survey in sixth grade and a follow-up survey in seventh grade. The students were recruited from 12 schools in a low-income, predominantly black (33%) and Latino (48%), urban school district. The survey assessed the children's perception of their parents' controlling and nurturing behaviors, the presence of a TV in their bedrooms, and their level of sugary drink consumption on the previous school day. Children's report of specific controlling and nurturing parental behaviors were used to create an "authoritative parenting" score. Regression analyses were used to test the main and interactive effects of authoritative parenting behaviors and having a TV in the bedroom with sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and sugary drink consumption in sixth grade. A significant interaction emerged: The authoritative parenting score predicted lower levels of sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, but this relationship was moderated by whether or not there was a TV in the child's bedroom. A TV in the child's bedroom may weaken the positive influence of authoritative parenting behaviors on limiting sugary drink consumption among middle school children from low-income families. Stronger initiatives are recommended to educate parents and help them refrain from placing TVs in their children's bedrooms.

  1. Fluctuations in Nucleus Accumbens Extracellular Glutamate and Glucose during Motivated Glucose-drinking Behavior: Dissecting the Neurochemistry of Reward

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Myal, Stephanie E.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    While motivated behavior involves multiple neurochemical systems, few studies have focused on the role of glutamate, the brain’s excitatory neurotransmitter, and glucose, the energetic substrate of neural activity in reward-related neural processes. Here, we used high-speed amperometry with enzyme-based substrate-sensitive and control, enzyme-free biosensors to examine second-scale fluctuations in the extracellular levels of these substances in the nucleus accumbens shell during glucose-drinking behavior in trained rats. Glutamate rose rapidly after the presentation of a glucose-containing cup and before the initiation of drinking (reward seeking), decreased more slowly to levels below baseline during consumption (sensory reward), and returned to baseline when the ingested glucose reached the brain (metabolic reward). When water was substituted for glucose, glutamate rapidly increased with cup presentation and in contrast to glucose drinking, increased above baseline after rats tasted the water and refused to drink further. Therefore, extracellular glutamate show distinct changes associated with key events of motivated drinking behavior and opposite dynamics during sensory and metabolic components of reward. In contrast to glutamate, glucose increased at each stimulus and behavioral event, showing a sustained elevation during the entire behavior and a robust post-ingestion rise that correlated with the gradual return of glutamate levels to their baseline. By comparing active drinking with passive intra-gastric glucose delivery, we revealed that fluctuations in extracellular glucose are highly dynamic, reflecting a balance between rapid delivery due to neural activity, intense metabolism, and the influence of ingested glucose reaching the brain. PMID:25393775

  2. Binge drinking prior to pregnancy detection in a nonhuman primate; behavioral evaluation of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimal scientific information is available to inform public health policy on binge drinking prior to pregnancy detection. The nonhuman primate provides a valuable animal model for examining consequences to reproduction and offspring function that may result from this common pattern of alcohol abuse. Methods Adult female rhesus monkeys were dosed with 1.5 g/kg-d ethanol by gavage two days/week beginning seven months prior to mating and continuing to pregnancy detection at 19–20 days gestation. Postnatal evaluation of control (n=6) and ethanol treated (n=4) infants included a neonatal neurobehavioral assessment, a visual paired comparison (cognitive) test at 35 days of age and mother-infant interaction at 100–112 days of age. Results Alcohol-exposed neonates did not differ from controls in posture and reflex measures. Longer durations of visual fixation, suggesting slower visual processing, and greater novelty preference were seen in the alcohol group. At early weaning age, as infants spent more time away from their dams, more of the reunions between mother and infant were initiated by the mothers in the alcohol-exposed group, suggesting a more immature mother-infant interaction. Conclusion Intermittent high dose alcohol exposure (binge drinking) discontinued at early pregnancy detection in rhesus monkey can result in altered behavioral function in the infant. Mediating effects on ovum, reproductive tract and early embryo can be explored in this model. Studies of longer-term consequences in human populations and animal models are needed. PMID:24164332

  3. Interventions to reduce college student drinking: State of the evidence for mechanisms of behavior change.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Kate B

    2015-08-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions.

  4. Interventions to Reduce College Student Drinking: State of the Evidence for Mechanisms of Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions. PMID:26164065

  5. Distractibility moderates the relation between automatic alcohol motivation and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Farris, Suzan R; Ostafin, Brian D; Palfai, Tibor P

    2010-03-01

    Research suggests that alcohol use is influenced by (a) the strength of automatic motivational responses to alcohol cues and (b) individual differences in self-control. The current study was designed to examine whether the self-control skill of inhibiting response to distracting stimuli would moderate the relation between automatic alcohol motivation and alcohol use. Eighty-seven hazardous drinkers completed baseline measures of automatic alcohol motivation and trait self-control and reported their drinking at a follow-up session 6 weeks later. Regression analyses demonstrated an interaction such that greater distractibility strengthens a positive relation between alcohol use and automatic alcohol motivation. These results contribute to a growing body of work indicating that self-control resources may help to inhibit the influence of automatic processes on alcohol behavior.

  6. The role of brain somatostatin receptor 2 in the regulation of feeding and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Taché, Yvette

    2015-07-01

    Somatostatin was discovered four decades ago as hypothalamic factor inhibiting growth hormone release. Subsequently, somatostatin was found to be widely distributed throughout the brain and to exert pleiotropic actions via interaction with five somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) that are also widely expressed throughout the brain. Interestingly, in contrast to the predominantly inhibitory actions of peripheral somatostatin, the activation of brain sst2 signaling by intracerebroventricular injection of stable somatostatin agonists potently stimulates food intake and independently, drinking behavior in rodents. The orexigenic response involves downstream orexin-1, neuropeptide Y1 and μ receptor signaling while the dipsogenic effect is mediated through the activation of the brain angiotensin 1 receptor. Brain sst2 activation is part of mechanisms underlying the stimulation of feeding and more prominently water intake in the dark phase and is able to counteract the anorexic response to visceral stressors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Patricia J; Cabral, Christie; Colford, John M

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination). Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72%) among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention) suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to improve water management is currently equivocal. Rigorous

  8. Dissemination of Drinking Water Contamination Data to Consumers: A Systematic Review of Impact on Consumer Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Patricia J.; Cabral, Christie; Colford, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. Methods/Principal Findings A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination). Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26–72%) among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0–0.46] 6–12 months post intervention) suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. Conclusion Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to

  9. Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students’ alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  10. Does the How Mediate the Why? A Multiple Replication Examination of Drinking Motives, Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Adrian J.; Prince, Mark A.; Pearson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study attempted to assess the evidence of use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a mediator in the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol outcomes. Specifically, to understand various statistical approaches in modeling this proposed mediation model (e.g., drinking motives to PBS use to alcohol outcomes), we tried to replicate models based on earlier research. Method: To maximize the robustness of our replication attempts, we conducted each replication attempt across two distinct data sets whenever possible. Participants were recruited from psychology department research pools at a large southeastern U.S. university (Sample 1; n = 774) and a large southwestern U.S. university (Sample 2; n = 594). We matched the original articles’ analytic procedures as closely as possible including overall analysis approach, measurement of variables, and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results: Consistent with previous studies, we found that PBS use may be a mechanism through which both positively reinforcing (i.e., social and enhancement) motives and coping motives relate to alcohol outcomes (e.g., alcohol-related consequences). Specifically, students who tend to drink for these specific motives appear to use fewer PBS, which may place them at risk for heavier, more problematic drinking. Conclusions: Our results suggest that when drinking motives are examined separately, they demonstrate differential relationships with PBS use and alcohol outcomes. Overall, it is clear that PBS use plays a role in the drinking motives–alcohol outcomes relationship, but this role varies by type of motive. PMID:26562595

  11. Dating Violence Victimization: Associated Drinking and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Caucasian High School Students in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie; Caetano, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups such as Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) and native populations in Hawaii are seldom studied in the area of intimate relationships. Using the 1999 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey, this study examined gender and ethnic differences in experiencing physical dating violence and whether drinking (early initiation, binge…

  12. Differences in African American and White College Students' Drinking Behaviors: Consequences, Harm Reduction Strategies, and Health Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Darcy Clay; Wilke, Dina J.; Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors explored the differences between African American and White college students' drinking behaviors and their attitudes toward consequences, harm-reduction strategies, and health information sources. They collected data from a randomly selected sample of 1,110 students in a large public university to examine the effects of a high-risk…

  13. The role of minority stress in second-generation Black emerging adult college students' high-risk drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Delishia M; Cho Kim, Sara; Hunter, Carla D; Obasi, Ezemenari M

    2017-07-01

    This study used a minority stress framework to investigate the relationships between multiple stressors (e.g., general life stress, race related stress, and acculturative stress) and high-risk drinking behaviors in a sample of second-generation Black emerging adult college students across the United States. Participants (n = 148) were recruited from U.S. colleges and universities as part of a large, multiwave cross-sectional study. Findings from this study mirrored those in the extant literature: the positive relationship between race-related stress and high-risk drinking behaviors found in other marginalized groups. However, when all stressors were entered into the model, acculturative stress accounted for significant variance in high-risk drinking behaviors above and beyond general life and race-related stressors in second generation Black emerging adult college students. Findings underscore the need to better understand the influence of acculturative stress on high-risk drinking behaviors among second-generation Black emerging adult college students: an understudied population in both the acculturation and alcohol use literatures. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Differences in African American and White College Students' Drinking Behaviors: Consequences, Harm Reduction Strategies, and Health Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Darcy Clay; Wilke, Dina J.; Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors explored the differences between African American and White college students' drinking behaviors and their attitudes toward consequences, harm-reduction strategies, and health information sources. They collected data from a randomly selected sample of 1,110 students in a large public university to examine the effects of a high-risk…

  15. Do as I Say, Not as I Do: Drinking Behaviors and Perceptions of Peer Counselors Working With Mandated College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Diane E.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Wood, Mark D.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the drinking behaviors and perceptions of the peers facilitating campus alcohol interventions. The current study examined these trajectories in peer counselors (N = 12) providing personalized normative feedback interventions to undergraduates mandated to clinical services. Peer counselors completed four monthly…

  16. Alcohol-Focused Spouse Involvement and Behavioral Couples Therapy: Evaluation of Enhancements to Drinking Reduction Treatment for Male Problem Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of alcohol-focused spouse involvement and behavioral couples therapy (BCT) in group drinking reduction treatment for male problem drinkers. Sixty-four male clients and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: treatment for problem drinkers only (PDO), couples alcohol-focused treatment, or…

  17. Dating Violence Victimization: Associated Drinking and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Caucasian High School Students in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie; Caetano, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups such as Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) and native populations in Hawaii are seldom studied in the area of intimate relationships. Using the 1999 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey, this study examined gender and ethnic differences in experiencing physical dating violence and whether drinking (early initiation, binge…

  18. Manganese Exposure from Drinking Water and Children’s Classroom Behavior in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Khalid; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Wasserman, Gail A.; Liu, Xinhua; Ahmed, Ershad; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence of neurological, cognitive, and neuropsychological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure from drinking water (WMn) in children has generated widespread public health concern. At elevated exposures, Mn has been associated with increased levels of externalizing behaviors, including irritability, aggression, and impulsivity. Little is known about potential effects at lower exposures, especially in children. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially arsenic (As). Objectives: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 201 children to investigate associations of Mn and As in tube well water with classroom behavior among elementary school children, 8–11 years of age, in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods: Data on exposures and behavioral outcomes were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of child intelligence. Study children were rated by their school teachers on externalizing and internalizing items of classroom behavior using the standardized Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher’s Report Form (CBCL-TRF). Results: Log-transformed WMn was positively and significantly associated with TRF internalizing [estimated β = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08–1.56; p = 0.03], TRF externalizing (estimated β = 2.59; 95% CI, 0.81–4.37; p =0.004), and TRF total scores (estimated β = 3.35; 95% CI, 0.86–5.83; p = 0.008) in models that adjusted for log-transformed water arsenic (WAs) and sociodemographic covariates. We also observed a positive monotonic dose–response relationship between WMn and TRF externalizing and TRF total scores among the participants of the study. We did not find any significant associations between WAs and various scales of TRF scores. Conclusion: These observations reinforce the growing concern regarding the neurotoxicologic effects of WMn in children. PMID:21493178

  19. Manganese exposure from drinking water and children's classroom behavior in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Wasserman, Gail A; Liu, Xinhua; Ahmed, Ershad; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H

    2011-10-01

    Evidence of neurological, cognitive, and neuropsychological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure from drinking water (WMn) in children has generated widespread public health concern. At elevated exposures, Mn has been associated with increased levels of externalizing behaviors, including irritability, aggression, and impulsivity. Little is known about potential effects at lower exposures, especially in children. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially arsenic (As). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 201 children to investigate associations of Mn and As in tube well water with classroom behavior among elementary school children, 8-11 years of age, in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Data on exposures and behavioral outcomes were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of child intelligence. Study children were rated by their school teachers on externalizing and internalizing items of classroom behavior using the standardized Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher's Report Form (CBCL-TRF). Log-transformed WMn was positively and significantly associated with TRF internalizing [estimated β = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08-1.56; p = 0.03], TRF externalizing (estimated β = 2.59; 95% CI, 0.81-4.37; p =0.004), and TRF total scores (estimated β = 3.35; 95% CI, 0.86-5.83; p = 0.008) in models that adjusted for log-transformed water arsenic (WAs) and sociodemographic covariates. We also observed a positive monotonic dose-response relationship between WMn and TRF externalizing and TRF total scores among the participants of the study. We did not find any significant associations between WAs and various scales of TRF scores. These observations reinforce the growing concern regarding the neurotoxicologic effects of WMn in children.

  20. The Negative Consequences of Other Students’ Drinking: Inventory Development and Assessment of Differences by Student Characteristics and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Omli, Morrow R.; Cohen, Gail M.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; DuRant, Robert H.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    College students continue to report being disrupted by other students’ alcohol use. Objective: This study was designed to develop measures to document the consequences resulting from other students’ drinking and identify differences in experiencing these consequences by student characteristics and drinking behaviors. Study group: A stratified random sample of undergraduate students (N = 3,908) from ten universities in North Carolina, USA, completed a web-based assessment. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the random first split-half sample (n = 1,954) to identify factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the remaining half sample (n = 1,954) using structural equation modeling. Results: EFA revealed two inventories: interpersonal and community consequences of others’ drinking inventories. CFA on the second split-half sample identified model fits for the two factor structure suggested by EFA. Of 3,908 participants, 78% reported experiencing one or more consequences due to others’ drinking during the past 30 days. Multivariable generalized linear mixed modeling further validated the inventories and resulted in several associations. Male students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more interpersonal consequences from others’ drinking (p < .001). Minority students, students who lived on campus and students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more community consequences from others’ drinking (p < .01). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that 4 out of 5 college students experience consequences from others’ drinking, and consequences vary for different subgroups of students. Although these inventories should be tested further, these findings propose standardized measures that may be useful to assess the consequences of others’ drinking among college students. PMID:20306764

  1. The negative consequences of other students' drinking: inventory development and assessment of differences by student characteristics and risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P; Omli, Morrow R; Cohen, Gail M; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Durant, Robert H; Vissman, Aaron T; Wolfson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    College students continue to report being disrupted by other students' alcohol use. This study was designed to develop measures to document the consequences resulting from other students' drinking and identify differences in experiencing these consequences by student characteristics and drinking behaviors. A stratified random sample of undergraduate students (N = 3,908) from ten universities in North Carolina, USA, completed a web-based assessment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the random first split-half sample (n = 1,954) to identify factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the remaining half sample (n = 1,954) using structural equation modeling. EFA revealed two inventories: interpersonal and community consequences of others' drinking inventories. CFA on the second split-half sample identified model fits for the two factor structure suggested by EFA. Of 3,908 participants, 78% reported experiencing one or more consequences due to others' drinking during the past 30 days. Multivariable generalized linear mixed modeling further validated the inventories and resulted in several associations. Male students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more interpersonal consequences from others' drinking (p < .001). Minority students, students who lived on campus and students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more community consequences from others' drinking (p < .01). These findings demonstrate that 4 out of 5 college students experience consequences from others' drinking, and consequences vary for different subgroups of students. Although these inventories should be tested further, these findings propose standardized measures that may be useful to assess the consequences of others' drinking among college students.

  2. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-10-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Drinking Protective Behavioral Strategies in Association to Sex-Related Alcohol Negative Consequences: The Mediating Role of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Rees, Michiko; Logan, Diane E.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Kilmer, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor for sexual negative consequences, such as unprotected sexual intercourse. The present research was conducted to examine the relationship between drinking protective behavioral strategies and consensual sex-related alcohol negative consequences, and whether this relationship varied by gender. Additionally, typical number of drinks during sexual behavior was evaluated as a potential mediator of this association. Heavy drinking, sexually active college students (N = 297, 50.2% female) completed self-report measures of drinking protective behavioral strategies, alcohol consumption, and sex-related alcohol negative consequences. Findings indicated that women who used drinking protective behavioral strategies more frequently were less likely to experience sex-related alcohol negative consequences whereas this relationship was not significant for men. For women, this relationship was mediated by the typical number of drinks consumed during sexual behavior. The current research demonstrates that use of drinking protective behavioral strategies is related to a reduction in women's sex-related risks when drinking. Findings are discussed in terms of alcohol myopia theory. Implications for interventions aimed to reduce higher risk sexual behavior among college students are discussed. PMID:20565149

  4. When the party for some becomes a problem for others: the effect of perceived secondhand consequences of drinking behavior on drinking norms.

    PubMed

    Trockel, Mickey; Wall, Andrew; Williams, Sunyna S; Reis, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of fraternity men's expectancies regarding secondhand consequences of excessive drinking behavior on normative standards regarding alcohol use and consumption levels. Participants were 381 men from 26 chapters of 2 national fraternities. One organization participated in a brief intervention involving discussion of secondhand consequences of excessive drinking. Immediate influence of the intervention on perceived secondhand consequences of alcohol use was assessed using a posttest-only, randomized groups design. Results supported a hypothesized measurement model with 1 overall secondhand consequence expectancy construct and 4 subfactors: (a) Noise Disruptive of Sleep and Study, (b) Violence, (c) Sexual Assault, and (d) Property Damage. Cross-sectional analysis at the chapter and individual levels demonstrated that secondhand expectancies had an indirect effect on alcohol consumption, mediated by personal consumption standards for limiting alcohol consumption. The intervention had an effect on secondhand expectancies. Findings suggest that interventions with intact groups can increase secondhand expectancies regarding excessive drinking and may lead to a reduction in excessive alcohol consumption.

  5. Preference and drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows offered water with different concentrations, valences, and sources of iron.

    PubMed

    Genther, O N; Beede, D K

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water can contain high concentrations of Fe, mainly of the ferrous (Fe(2+)) valence. The current recommended upper tolerable concentration of Fe in drinking water for cattle (0.3mg/L) comes from guidelines for human palatability, but cattle may be able to tolerate higher concentrations. Our objective was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of ferrous (Fe(2+)) or ferric (Fe(3+)) iron and Fe salt source on lactating dairy cows' preferences for and drinking behavior of water offered as choices ad libitum. In 4 separate experiments, cows were offered pairs of water treatments for 22-h periods and water intake and drinking behavior were recorded. In experiment 1, treatments were 0, 4, or 8 mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous lactate. Cows exhibited no preference between water with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L, but water intake was less with 8 compared with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L. Also, cows spent less time drinking water containing 8 mg of Fe/L. Total time spent drinking correlated positively with water intake when pooled across treatments. In experiment 2, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from either ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)) or ferric sulfate [Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)]. Water intake did not differ among treatments. In experiment 3, treatments were 0 (control), 12.5, or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) or ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), respectively. Again, cows exhibited no preference among treatments. In experiment 4, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate [Fe(C(3)H(5)O(3))(2)], ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), or ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)). Cows preferred to drink water without added Fe, but did not exhibit any preference among waters containing the Fe sources with different anionic moieties. Cows spent less time drinking and drank less frequently when offered water containing 12.5mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous chloride compared with 8.0mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate or ferrous sulfate. Water intake correlated positively with both

  6. Risk behaviors and drug use: a latent class analysis of heavy episodic drinking in first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Chiauzzi, Emil; Dasmahapatra, Pronabesh; Black, Ryan A

    2013-12-01

    Examining individual characteristics may not yield an understanding of the complex array of factors that affect college student alcohol use. Utilizing a latent class analysis, the present study investigated an alcohol and drug use database of first-year college students at 89 U.S. colleges and universities (N = 21,945). These data were collected between December, 2010 and September, 2011. This study identified: (1) classes based on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related behaviors, and past-year use of illegal drugs and nonmedical use of prescriptions medications (NMUPM); (2) demographic covariates of these classes; and (3) differential social norms awareness, perceived harmfulness of illegal drugs and NMUPM, and protective strategies. Four classes were identified: (1) Low Risk Drinking/Low Prevalence Drug Use (Class 1); (2) Lower Intake Drinking/Moderate Prevalence Drug Use (Class 2); (3) Moderate Risk Drinking/Moderate Prevalence Drug Use (Class 3); and (4) High Risk Drinking/High Prevalence Drug Use (Class 4). Classes differed in self-reported typical week drinking, estimated peak blood alcohol content over the past 2 weeks, high-risk alcohol use, negative alcohol-related consequences, driving under the influence or riding with drinking drivers, alcohol-related protective behaviors, and past-year substance use. Of particular interest was the identification of a latent class (Class 2) composed primarily of females with a relatively low alcohol intake, but with a high probability of past-year other substance use. This group reported negative alcohol-related consequences despite their relatively low intake. To our knowledge, this is the first latent class analysis of college student alcohol use that includes a drug use indicator and compares social norms awareness, harmfulness perceptions, and alcohol-related protective behaviors between classes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Role of Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-Inducible, Beta (GADD45b) in Alcohol Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, David P.; Kusumo, Handojo; Zhang, Huaibo; Guidotti, Alessandro; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The contribution of epigenetic factors, such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation, to the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior has been increasingly recognized over the last several years. GADD45b is a protein demonstrated to be involved in DNA demethylation at neurotrophic factor gene promoters, including at Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) which has been highly implicated in alcohol drinking behavior. Methods DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1), 3a, and 3b, and Gadd45a, b, and g mRNA were measured in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental areas (VTA) of high ethanol consuming C57BL/6J (C57) and low alcohol consuming DBA/2J (DBA) mice using qRT-PCR. In the NAc GADD45b protein was measured via immunohistochemistry and Bdnf9a mRNA using in situ PCR. Bdnf9a promoter histone H3 acetylated at lysines 9 and 14 (H3K9,K14ac) was measured using chromatin immunoprecipitation, and 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation. Alcohol drinking behavior was evaluated in Gadd45b haplodeficient (+/−) and null mice (−/−) utilizing drinking in the dark (DID) and 2-bottle free-choice paradigms. Results C57 mice had lower levels of Gadd45b and g mRNA and GADD45b protein in the NAc relative to the DBA strain. C57 mice had lower NAc shell Bdnf9a mRNA levels, Bdnf9a promoter H3K9,K14ac, and higher Bdnf9a promoter 5HMC and 5MC. Acute ethanol increased GADD45b protein, Bdnf9a mRNA, and histone acetylation and decreased 5HMC in C57 mice. Gadd45b +/− mice displayed higher drinking behavior relative to wild-type littermates in both DID and 2-bottle free-choice paradigms. Conclusions These data indicate the importance of the DNA demethylation pathway and its interactions with histone post-translational modifications in alcohol drinking behavior. Further, we suggest that lower DNA demethylation protein GADD45b levels may affect Bdnf expression possibly leading to altered alcohol drinking behavior

  8. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  9. The Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Descriptive Peer Norms and Eating and Drinking Behavior: An Initial Examination in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew; Robinson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Experimental and cross-sectional studies indicate that perceptions of the eating and drinking behavior of one's peers (perceived descriptive peer norms) are associated with the types, frequency and quantity of food, and beverages a person chooses to consume. At present, we know very little about the longitudinal association between perceived descriptive peer norms and future eating or drinking behavior. In this study, we examined whether perceived descriptive peer norms for different food/beverage types predicted frequency of consumption of food/beverages in university students. Three hundred and forty participants completed measures at baseline and follow-up for frequency of consumption of cakes/pastries, sugar containing beverages, and alcoholic beverages, as well as measures of perceived descriptive peer norms at both time points. Perceived descriptive peer norms predicted consumption of pastries/cakes at follow up when controlling for changes in these perceptions over time; believing that one's peers frequently consumed cakes/pastries was associated with an increased frequency of consumption over time, although the magnitude of this effect was small. There was no significant association between perceived descriptive peer norms and changes in frequency of consumption of sugar containing beverages or alcohol over time. In the present longitudinal study of young adults, beliefs about how often one's peers eat or drink specific food and beverages types had limited effect on future eating and drinking behavior. PMID:28167922

  10. New Implications for the Melanocortin System in Alcohol Drinking Behavior in Adolescents: The Glial Dysfunction Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Juan A; Cerpa, Waldo; Carvajal, Maria F; Lerma-Cabrera, José M; Karahanian, Eduardo; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence causes physical, social, and moral harms and currently represents an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcoholism is the third leading cause of death worldwide, after tobacco consumption and hypertension. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a growing trend in alcohol abuse among adolescents, characterized by the consumption of large doses of alcohol over a short time period. Since brain development is an ongoing process during adolescence, short- and long-term brain damage associated with drinking behavior could lead to serious consequences for health and wellbeing. Accumulating evidence indicates that alcohol impairs the function of different components of the melanocortin system, a major player involved in the consolidation of addictive behaviors during adolescence and adulthood. Here, we hypothesize the possible implications of melanocortins and glial cells in the onset and progression of alcohol addiction. In particular, we propose that alcohol-induced decrease in α-MSH levels may trigger a cascade of glial inflammatory pathways that culminate in altered gliotransmission in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The latter might potentiate dopaminergic drive in the NAc, contributing to increase the vulnerability to alcohol dependence and addiction in the adolescence and adulthood.

  11. New Implications for the Melanocortin System in Alcohol Drinking Behavior in Adolescents: The Glial Dysfunction Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Juan A.; Cerpa, Waldo; Carvajal, Maria F.; Lerma-Cabrera, José M.; Karahanian, Eduardo; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence causes physical, social, and moral harms and currently represents an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcoholism is the third leading cause of death worldwide, after tobacco consumption and hypertension. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a growing trend in alcohol abuse among adolescents, characterized by the consumption of large doses of alcohol over a short time period. Since brain development is an ongoing process during adolescence, short- and long-term brain damage associated with drinking behavior could lead to serious consequences for health and wellbeing. Accumulating evidence indicates that alcohol impairs the function of different components of the melanocortin system, a major player involved in the consolidation of addictive behaviors during adolescence and adulthood. Here, we hypothesize the possible implications of melanocortins and glial cells in the onset and progression of alcohol addiction. In particular, we propose that alcohol-induced decrease in α-MSH levels may trigger a cascade of glial inflammatory pathways that culminate in altered gliotransmission in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The latter might potentiate dopaminergic drive in the NAc, contributing to increase the vulnerability to alcohol dependence and addiction in the adolescence and adulthood. PMID:28424592

  12. Energy drink use and high-risk behaviors: Research evidence and knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.

    2014-01-01

    Sales of caffeine-containing energy drinks (CCEDs) have increased rapidly since their introduction to the marketplace. Despite the health concerns raised about highly caffeinated CCEDs, surprisingly little data are available to estimate the prevalence of use. This paper presents the results of secondary data analyses of a nationally representative dataset of US schoolchildren. Approximately one-third of students are recent CCED users with substantial variation by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Among the health and safety concerns related to CCED use is the possibility of potentiation of risk-taking behaviors. A review of the research reveals that although there appears to be a strong and consistent positive association between CCED use and risk-taking behavior, all but one study have used cross-sectional designs, limiting their ability to make inferences about the temporal nature of the association. More research is needed to understand the nature of this association and how CCEDs might impact adolescent health and safety, especially given the high prevalence of use among youth. PMID:25293548

  13. Marketing responsible drinking behavior: comparing the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages tailored to three possible "personality" conceptualizations.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Miller, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether a thoroughly personalized message (tailored to a person's "Big Five" personality traits) or a message matched to an alternate form of self-schema (ideal self-schema) would be more influential than a self-schema matched message (that has been found to be effective) at marketing responsible drinking. We expected the more thoroughly personalized Big Five matched message to be more effective than the self-schema matched message. However, neither the Big Five message nor the ideal self-schema message was more effective than the actual self-schema message. Therefore, research examining self-schema matching should be pursued rather than more complex Big Five matching.

  14. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  15. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and high-risk sexual behavior among drinking adults in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Scott D.; Katamba, Achilles; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Sethi, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a risk factor for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered high in Uganda. The study was conducted to determine whether sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol help explain the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors in a population-based sample of adults in Kampala. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to identify residents in one division of Kampala for a cross-sectional study. Associations between alcohol use (current and higher-risk drinking) and high-risk sexual behaviors (multiple regular partners and casual sex) were tested. Final models included a sex-related alcohol outcome expectancy (AOE) summary score. In age-sex-adjusted models, having multiple regular partners was associated with current drinking (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)=1.15, 6.63) and higher-risk drinking (OR=3.35, 95%CI=1.28,8.71). Associations were similar but not statistically significant for having a causal sex partner. Sex-related AOE were associated with both alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior and attenuated relationships between multiple regular partners and both current drinking (OR=1.94, 95%CI=0.57,6.73) and higher-risk drinking (OR=2.44, 95%CI=0.68,8.80). In this setting sexual behaviors related with alcohol consumption were explained, in part, by sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol. These expectations could be an important component to target in HIV education campaigns. PMID:26315308

  16. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Bardgett, Mark E; Howard, Meagan A

    2011-07-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmED have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Participants (n=56) attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment, and level of intoxication, and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. An energy drink appears to alter some of the objective and subjective impairing effects of alcohol, but not others. Thus, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for the drinker. The mix of impaired behavioral

  17. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: Risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Howard, Meagan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmEDs have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n=56) attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of four doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment and level of intoxication were recorded. Results Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment and level of intoxication and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. Conclusions An energy drink appears to alter some of alcohol’s objective and subjective impairing effects, but not others. Thus AmEDs may contribute to a high risk scenario for the drinker

  18. The Impact of Alcohol Outlet Density on the Geographic Clustering of Underage Drinking Behaviors within Census Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background The regulation of alcohol outlet density has been considered as a potential means of reducing alcohol consumption and related harms among underage youth. Whereas prior studies have examined whether alcohol outlet density was associated with an individual’s alcohol consumption and related harms, this study examines whether it is related to the co-occurrence, or clustering, of these behaviors within geographic areas, specifically census tracts. Methods The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided cross-sectional telephone survey data in 2006 and 2007 from 10,754 youth aged 14–20 from 5 states residing in 1556 census tracts. The alternating logistic regression approach was used to estimate pairwise odds ratios between responses from youth residing in the same census tract and to model them as a function of alcohol outlet density. Results Riding with a drinking driver, making an alcohol purchase attempt and making a successful alcohol purchase attempt clustered significantly within census tracts with the highest off-premise alcohol outlet density while frequent drinking clustered within census tracts with the greatest on-premise density. Driving after drinking and experiencing non-violent alcohol-related consequences clustered marginally within census tracts with the greatest on-premise and off-premise alcohol outlet density, respectively. Conclusions Although youth primarily receive alcohol from social sources, commercial alcohol access is geographically concentrated within census tracts with the greatest off-premise outlet density. A potentially greater concern is the clustering of more frequent drinking and drinking and driving within census tracts with the greatest on-premise outlet density which may necessitate alternative census tract level initiatives to reduce these potentially harmful behaviors. PMID:21463343

  19. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  20. Energy Drinks and Alcohol: Links to Alcohol Behaviors and Consequences Across 56 Days

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. Methods A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Results Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. Conclusions The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. PMID:24309196

  1. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Drinking Behaviors and Life Course Socioeconomic Status During the Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood Among Whites and Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Ford, Chandra L; Grella, Christine E; Mulia, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to determine how socioeconomic status (SES) changes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood, and to understand the effects of SES on drinking behaviors in early adulthood among U.S. Whites and Blacks. Method: Secondary data analysis was conducted using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a school-based sample of adolescents (Grades 7–12) followed through adulthood (age range: 25–31 years). Through latent class analysis, SES was operationalized as economic (i.e., income, home ownership) and human capital (i.e., education, occupation). Drinking behavior was categorized into no past-year use, current drinking without weekly heavy episodic drinking (HED), and weekly HED. Models were stratified by race: Whites (n = 5,248) and Blacks (n = 1,875). Results: For Whites, four economic capital groups (persistently low, upward, downward, and persistently high) and five human capital groups (persistently low, upward with work, upward with school, downward with work, and persistently high) were found. Blacks had roughly similar SES groups as Whites but with lower economic and human capital levels across all groups and without downward groups in either domain. Among both Whites and Blacks, lower economic and human capital groups reported higher abstinence. Persistently low Blacks, however, reported higher HED, whereas persistently low Whites did not. Moreover, economically upward Whites reported lower HED, whereas upwardly mobile Blacks did not. Conclusions: Racial disparities were evident by economic and human capital during the transition into adulthood. Although abstinence profiles were similar for Whites and Blacks, both persistently low and upward trajectory groups signified differential HED risks. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which SES trajectories affect drinking behaviors. PMID:25486395

  3. Modeling Drinking Behavior Progression in Youth: a Non-identified Probability Discrete Event System Using Cross-sectional Data

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xingdi; Chen, Xinguang; Cook, Robert L.; Chen, Ding-Geng; Okafor, Chukwuemeka

    2016-01-01

    Background The probabilistic discrete event systems (PDES) method provides a promising approach to study dynamics of underage drinking using cross-sectional data. However, the utility of this approach is often limited because the constructed PDES model is often non-identifiable. The purpose of the current study is to attempt a new method to solve the model. Methods A PDES-based model of alcohol use behavior was developed with four progression stages (never-drinkers [ND], light/moderate-drinker [LMD], heavy-drinker [HD], and ex-drinker [XD]) linked with 13 possible transition paths. We tested the proposed model with data for participants aged 12–21 from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The Moore-Penrose (M-P) generalized inverse matrix method was applied to solve the proposed model. Results Annual transitional probabilities by age groups for the 13 drinking progression pathways were successfully estimated with the M-P generalized inverse matrix approach. Result from our analysis indicates an inverse “J” shape curve characterizing pattern of experimental use of alcohol from adolescence to young adulthood. We also observed a dramatic increase for the initiation of LMD and HD after age 18 and a sharp decline in quitting light and heavy drinking. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the developmental perspective regarding the dynamics of underage drinking, demonstrating the utility of the M-P method in obtaining a unique solution for the partially-observed PDES drinking behavior model. The M-P approach we tested in this study will facilitate the use of the PDES approach to examine many health behaviors with the widely available cross-sectional data. PMID:26511344

  4. Drinking behaviors and life course socioeconomic status during the transition from adolescence to adulthood among Whites and Blacks.

    PubMed

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Ford, Chandra L; Grella, Christine E; Mulia, Nina

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine how socioeconomic status (SES) changes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood, and to understand the effects of SES on drinking behaviors in early adulthood among U.S. Whites and Blacks. Secondary data analysis was conducted using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a school-based sample of adolescents (Grades 7-12) followed through adulthood (age range: 25-31 years). Through latent class analysis, SES was operationalized as economic (i.e., income, home ownership) and human capital (i.e., education, occupation). Drinking behavior was categorized into no past-year use, current drinking without weekly heavy episodic drinking (HED), and weekly HED. Models were stratified by race: Whites (n = 5,248) and Blacks (n = 1,875). For Whites, four economic capital groups (persistently low, upward, downward, and persistently high) and five human capital groups (persistently low, upward with work, upward with school, downward with work, and persistently high) were found. Blacks had roughly similar SES groups as Whites but with lower economic and human capital levels across all groups and without downward groups in either domain. Among both Whites and Blacks, lower economic and human capital groups reported higher abstinence. Persistently low Blacks, however, reported higher HED, whereas persistently low Whites did not. Moreover, economically upward Whites reported lower HED, whereas upwardly mobile Blacks did not. Racial disparities were evident by economic and human capital during the transition into adulthood. Although abstinence profiles were similar for Whites and Blacks, both persistently low and upward trajectory groups signified differential HED risks. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which SES trajectories affect drinking behaviors.

  5. Predicting the potential for risky behavior among those "too young" to drink as the result of appealing advertising.

    PubMed

    Austin, E W; Knaus, C

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 273 children in Washington state used a predrinking behavior index as a behavioral outcome to assess media effects on precursors to drinking among children for whom alcohol consumption is not yet occurring. It also examined age trends in relevant beliefs and behaviors. Perceptions of advertising desirability, the extent to which it seemed appealing, increased steadily from third to ninth grade, whereas identification with portrayals, the degree to which individuals wanted to emulate portrayals, leveled off after sixth grade. Expectancies, positive social benefits perceived to be associated with drinking alcohol, also increased with age, particularly between sixth and ninth grade. When demographics and grade level were controlled, desirability predicted identification, and both predicted expectancies, which is consistent with media decision-making theory. Expectancies correlated with alcohol predrinking behavior, and expectancies predicted risky behavior, with demographics and grade level controlled. Predrinking behavior and reported risky behavior were correlated. The results provide cross-sectional support for the view that beliefs and desires developing by third grade prime children for future decisions regarding substance use.

  6. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors.

  7. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  8. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  9. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Gina M.; Stewart, William N.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6–8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood–EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  10. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gina M; Stewart, William N; Savage, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6-8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood-EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan.

  11. Targeted Naltrexone Treatment Moderates the Relations Between Mood and Drinking Behavior Among Problem Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, Henry P.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fifty-three problem drinkers were randomly assigned to receive naltrexone 50 mg or placebo on a daily or targeted (to high-risk drinking situations) basis. Using structured nightly diaries, participants recorded negative and positive mood, desire to drink, and alcohol consumption over 8 weeks. Results indicated that individuals engaged…

  12. The Effect of a Birthday Card Intervention on 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.; Lee, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21st birthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher estimated…

  13. The Effect of a Birthday Card Intervention on 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.; Lee, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21st birthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher estimated…

  14. Proximal Norms, Selected Sociodemographics, and Drinking Behavior among University Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Paladino, Derrick A.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined social norm theory with subpopulations of college students. In this study, the authors examined the relationships between social norms and student-athlete drinking. Results suggest drinking is a function of proximal norms, particularly related to teammates. Implications for counselor interventions are discussed. (Contains…

  15. Does Religious Involvement Protect against Early Drinking? A Behavior Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent involvement in religious organizations has been hypothesized to protect against early age at first drink. However, the correlation between adolescent religiosity and later age at first drink may be confounded by environmental or genetic differences between families. This study tests whether, after controlling for shared…

  16. Does Religious Involvement Protect against Early Drinking? A Behavior Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent involvement in religious organizations has been hypothesized to protect against early age at first drink. However, the correlation between adolescent religiosity and later age at first drink may be confounded by environmental or genetic differences between families. This study tests whether, after controlling for shared…

  17. [Drinking behavior and c-fos expression induced by chemical or electrical stimulation of SFO in rat brain].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Ping; Jiang, Xing-Hong

    2002-08-01

    To compare the drinking behavior and c-fos expression induced by chemical or electrical stimulation of subfornical organ (SFO) in rat brain. L-glutamic acid microinjection and constant electrical current were used as chemical and electrical stimulation of SFO, respectively. The water intake over 1 h was recorded and Fos expression was examined immunohistochemically. A similar volume of water intake and Fos expression pattern were induced by both methods of stimulation of SFO. These include 11 forebrain areas (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area, paraventricular nucleus, reunions nucleus and central medial nucleus of thalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, perifornical dorsal area and substantia innominata) and 4 areas of hindbrain (area postrema, nucleus solitary tract, lateral parabrachial nucleus and dorsal raphe nucleus). The drinking behavior and Fos expression in brain induced by SFO stimulation are the results of activation of the neuronal bodies in SFO.

  18. Sip-sizing behaviors in natural drinking conditions compared to instructed experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Janice W; Van Lieshout, Pascal H H M; Pelletier, Cathy A; Steele, Catriona M

    2009-06-01

    To understand disordered physiology, it is first necessary to determine what constitutes normal function. Liquid sip size during swallowing in healthy individuals has been investigated with varied results. Bolus size is a variable that is manipulated in both research studies and clinical swallowing assessments, so defining normal sip size has relevance in both domains. This study looked at sip size under instruction in experimental tasks and compared it to sip size in free drinking while participants were unaware that drinking was being observed. A statistically significant difference was found in water sip volume between natural drinking (mean = 16 ml) and instructed experimental drinking tasks (mean = 6.6-6.8 ml). This difference far exceeded the magnitude of sip-size variation observed between instructed drinking tasks using different stimuli and as a function of participant's gender or age group.

  19. Drinking Behavior and Mental Illness Among Evacuees in Fukushima Following the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yuka; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Fujii, Senta; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Harigane, Mayumi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence from alcohol and trauma studies suggests that disasters are associated with increases in the consumption of alcohol. The Great East Japan Earthquake and the associated nuclear disaster have continued to affect the mental health of evacuees from Fukushima. This study aimed to extend these findings by examining the relationship between drinking behaviors and the risk of mental illness after the compound disaster. We conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey with 56,543 evacuees. Kessler's K6 was used to assess the risk of mental illness, and logistic regression models were applied to analyze how drinking behavior patterns influence the risk of serious mental illness after adjustment for confounding variables. Logistic regression analysis evidenced that beginning heavy and light drinkers had the highest and a higher risk of serious mental illness, respectively. Individuals who were nondrinkers pre- and postdisaster had the lowest proportional risk of mental illness. Abstainers also had some risk to their mental health after the compound disaster. The results of this study highlight that beginning drinkers have a high risk of serious mental illness. Thus, mental health professionals should pay attention to the drinking behaviors of evacuees, which might predict increased risk of serious mental illness and consequently indicate a need for psychological intervention. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Alcohol drinking behaviors and alcohol management policies under outsourcing work conditions: A qualitative study of construction workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-02-01

    Workplace alcohol policies are crucial for workers' health and safety. The practice of outsourcing is gaining popularity around the world and was found to be associated with poorer health in the working population. This study aimed to examine how outsourcing complicates the implementation of workplace alcohol policies and affects workers' drinking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 outsource workers, 3 subcontractors and 3 worksite supervisors. Information regarding workers' drinking behaviors, their knowledge, and attitudes toward workplace alcohol policy were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis. Factors associated with poor workplace alcohol management included smaller size and private ownership of outsourcers, subcontractors' own drinking behavior and positive attitude to alcohol, and precarious employment conditions of outsourcing workers. The multilateral relationship between outsourcers, subcontractors, and workers complicated and impaired the implementation of workplace alcohol policies. The implementation of workplace alcohol management policies was hampered in outsourcing work conditions due to poor coordination of supervisors in the subcontract chain. The enforcement of alcohol policies in the workplace should be strengthened by consolidating management responsibilities of outsourcers and subcontractors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cued recall of alcohol advertising on television and underage drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Tanski, Susanne E; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15-17, 18-20, and 21-23 years of age; P < .005). The transition to binge and hazardous drinking occurred for 29% and 18% of youth 15 to 17 years of age and for 29% and 19% of youth 18 to 20 years years of age, respectively

  2. The College and Noncollege Experience: A Review of the Factors That Influence Drinking Behavior in Young Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashlee C.; Brandon, Karen Obremski; Goldman, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place college drinking within its larger developmental context, we reviewed studies that compare drinking behavior among college students with that of their age-matched non-student peers. Among the recurrent themes identified across these studies, we particularly noted discrepancies in the conceptualization and operationalization of both college status and noncollege status. These discrepancies, and other methodological variations, were then examined because they influence conclusions about drinking outcomes. Method: Eighteen studies directly comparing college students with nonstudents were reviewed. Results: College students drank more than noncollege peers and, in general, drank more frequently than did noncollege peers, although these differences were likely the result of factors other than college attendance itself. Younger people drank more than older peers in both groups. College students also tended to be more at risk for alcohol-related problems, including alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, again likely the result of factors other than college attendance per se. Conclusions: This review highlights the lack of consensus in the conceptualization and operationalization of college and noncollege status across studies, as well as the importance of variables such as living situation, age, full-time and part-time status, and type of college, which may be more directly related to variations in alcohol consumption than is college status itself. Future investigations of college drinking should place this phenomenon within the larger context of developmental processes associated with this time of life. PMID:20731981

  3. Bullying Victimization, Binge Drinking, and Marijuana Use among Adolescents: Results from the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Priesman, Emily; Newman, Rameika; Ford, Jason A

    2017-09-22

    The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying. We estimated logistic regression models, by gender, to examine the association between bullying victimization and substance use. About 25% of the sample reported bullying victimization, including 10.39% for only traditional, 5.47% for only cyber, and 9.26% for both. Traditional bullying was not significantly associated with binge drinking, but was negatively related to marijuana use. Being the victim of cyberbullying and both types of bullying was significantly associated with binge drinking and marijuana use. We also found important gender differences. The current research adds to a growing list of studies that suggests that cyberbullying is associated with more adverse outcomes than traditional bullying. Bullying prevention and intervention efforts should focus on reducing cyberbullying and providing adolescents with the skills needed to effectively deal with cyberbullying.

  4. THE USE OF PROTECTIVE BEHAVIORAL STRATEGIES IS RELATED TO REDUCED RISK IN HEAVY DRINKING COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH POORER MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH*

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample of heavy drinking college students (N = 1,820). In this high risk sample, multiple regression analyses showed that stronger social health was related to increased drinking, while poorer physical, mental, and social health were related to increased alcohol negative consequences. Further, moderation effects revealed that increasing the use of protective behaviors was associated with significantly less drinking in those with stronger social health, as well as significantly lower numbers of negative consequences among participants with poorer physical and mental health. Implications for college counselors and medical personnel are discussed. PMID:21381463

  5. Daily Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Heterosexual, Heavy Drinking Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Tyler B.; Celio, Mark A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Monti, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Global association and experimental studies suggest that alcohol use may increase sexual behavior that poses risk for exposure to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) among heterosexual men and women. However, results from longitudinal and daily recall studies exploring the co-occurrence of alcohol use with various sexual risk outcomes in more naturalistic contexts have been mixed, and the bulk of this research has focused on college students. Methods The current study enrolled heavy-drinking emergency department (ED) patients and used a cross-sectional, 30-day Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to examine the daily co-occurrence between alcohol use and three sexual behavior outcomes: Any sex, unprotected intercourse (UI), and UI with casual partners (vs. protected intercourse [PI] with casual partners, or UI/PI with steady partners). Results Results indicated that increasing levels of alcohol use on a given day increased the odds of engaging in any sexual activity and that heavy drinking (but not very heavy drinking) on a given day was associated with an increased odds of engaging in UI with either steady or casual partners. However, day-level alcohol use was not associated with an increased odds of UI with casual partners. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol may play an important role in increasing risk for HIV/STIs among heterosexuals, and support the continued need to target heavy drinking in sex risk reduction interventions. However, our results also suggest that alcohol may not universally result in unprotected sex with casual partners, a behavior posing perhaps the highest risk for HIV/STI transmission. PMID:25962789

  6. Daily co-occurrence of alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among heterosexual, heavy drinking emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Celio, Mark A; Kahler, Christopher W; Barnett, Nancy P; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Operario, Don; Monti, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    Global association and experimental studies suggest that alcohol use may increase sexual behavior that poses risk for exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI) among heterosexual men and women. However, results from longitudinal and daily recall studies exploring the co-occurrence of alcohol use with various sexual risk outcomes in more naturalistic contexts have been mixed, and the bulk of this research has focused on college students. The current study enrolled heavy-drinking emergency department (ED) patients and used a cross-sectional, 30-day Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to examine the daily co-occurrence between alcohol use and three sexual behavior outcomes: Any sex, unprotected intercourse (UI), and UI with casual partners (versus protected intercourse [PI] with casual partners, or UI/PI with steady partners). Results indicated that increasing levels of alcohol use on a given day increased the odds of engaging in any sexual activity and that heavy drinking (but not very heavy drinking) on a given day was associated with an increased odds of engaging in UI with either steady or casual partners. However, day-level alcohol use was not associated with an increased odds of UI with casual partners. These findings suggest that alcohol may play an important role in increasing risk for HIV/STIs among heterosexuals, and support the continued need to target heavy drinking in sex risk reduction interventions. However, our results also suggest that alcohol may not universally result in unprotected sex with casual partners, a behavior posing perhaps the highest risk for HIV/STI transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiles of College Drinkers Defined by Alcohol Behaviors at the Week Level: Replication Across Semesters and Prospective Associations With Hazardous Drinking and Dependence-Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Anne M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lanza, Stephanie T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Types of college drinkers have been identified using traditional measures (e.g., 12-month drinking frequency). We used an alternative multidimensional approach based on daily reports of alcohol behaviors to identify college drinker statuses, each with a unique behavioral profile. The current study aimed to (a) identify drinker statuses at the week level across four semesters, (b) examine the predictive utility of drinker status by testing associations with senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms, and (c) identify concurrent predictors (gender, drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, any dependence symptoms) of senior-year drinker status. We also compared the week-level drinker statuses with drinker statuses identified using traditional measures. Method: A multi-ethnic sample of U.S. college students completed 14-day bursts of daily web surveys across college (91%–96% completed ≥6 daily reports of the sampled week). Analyses focus on nine alcohol-related behaviors (including estimated blood alcohol concentration, pregaming, and drinking games) assessed daily in spring/sophomore year to fall/senior year and drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, and dependence symptoms assessed fall/senior year (n = 569; 56% women). Results: Four week-level drinker statuses were replicated across semesters: Nondrinker, Light Weekend, Heavy Weekend, and Heavy Frequent. Across semesters, drinker status was associated with senior-year hazardous drinking and any dependence symptoms. Senior-year fun/social motivations were also associated with senior-year drinker status. Differences in behavioral profiles between week-level drinker statuses and those identified using traditional measures were found. Conclusions: Replicable week-level drinker statuses were identified, suggesting consistency in possible types of drinking weeks. Drinker statuses were predictive of senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms. PMID:26751353

  8. The Present Projects Past Behavior into the Future while the Past Projects Attitudes into the Future: How Verb Tense Moderates Predictors of Drinking Intentions.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo; Fernández, Itziar; Albarracín, Dolores

    2012-09-01

    Three studies examined how the use of the present versus the past tense in recalling a past experience influences behavioral intentions. Experiment 1 revealed a stronger influence of past behaviors on drinking intentions when participants self-reported an episode of excessive drinking using the present tense. Correspondingly, there was a stronger influence of attitudes towards excessive drinking when participants self-reported the episode in the past tense. Experiments 2 and 3 liked this effect to changes in construal level (Liberman, Trope, & Stephan, 2007; Trope & Liberman, 2003), with the present tense being similar to a concrete construal level and the past tense being similar to an abstract construal level.

  9. The Present Projects Past Behavior into the Future while the Past Projects Attitudes into the Future: How Verb Tense Moderates Predictors of Drinking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo; Fernández, Itziar; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined how the use of the present versus the past tense in recalling a past experience influences behavioral intentions. Experiment 1 revealed a stronger influence of past behaviors on drinking intentions when participants self-reported an episode of excessive drinking using the present tense. Correspondingly, there was a stronger influence of attitudes towards excessive drinking when participants self-reported the episode in the past tense. Experiments 2 and 3 liked this effect to changes in construal level (Liberman, Trope, & Stephan, 2007; Trope & Liberman, 2003), with the present tense being similar to a concrete construal level and the past tense being similar to an abstract construal level. PMID:23606757

  10. Sex-Specific Regulation of Depression, Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Alcohol Drinking in Mice Lacking ENT1.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Christina L; Walker, Denise L; An, Joyce; Kim, Jason; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2011-12-25

    OBJECTIVES: Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders including alcoholism, depression, and anxiety. Adenosine levels are controlled in part by transport across the cell membrane by equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). Recent evidence showed that a polymorphism in the gene encoding ENT1 is associated with comorbid depression and alcoholism in women. We have previously shown that deletion of ENT1 reduces ethanol intoxication and elevates alcohol intake in mice. Interestingly, ENT1 null mice display decreased anxiety-like behavior compared to wild-type littermates. However, our behavioral studies were performed only in male mice. Here, we extend our research to include female mice, and test the effect of ENT1 knockout on other behavioral correlates of alcohol drinking, including depressive and compulsive behavior, in mice. METHODS: To assess depression-like behavior, we used a forced swim test modified for mice. We examined anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in open field chambers, and perseverant behavior using the marble-burying test. Finally, we investigated alcohol consumption and preference in female mice using a two-bottle choice paradigm. RESULTS: ENT1 null mice of both sexes showed reduced immobility time in the forced swim test and increased time in the center of the open field compared to wild-type littermates. ENT1 null mice of both sexes showed similar locomotor activity levels and habituation to the open field chambers. Female ENT1 null mice displayed increased marble-burying compared to female wild-types, but no genotype difference was evident in males. Female ENT1 null mice showed increased ethanol consumption and preference compared to female wild-types. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ENT1 contributes to several important behaviors involved in psychiatric disorders. Inhibition of ENT1 may be beneficial in treating depression and anxiety, while enhancement of ENT1 function

  11. Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents' drinking behaviors and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Paschall, Mallie J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W

    2014-03-01

    To examine relationships between characteristics of the local alcohol environment and adolescent alcohol use and beliefs in 50 California cities. The study used longitudinal survey data collected from adolescents; city-level measures of local alcohol policy comprehensiveness, policy enforcement, adult drinking and bar density; and multi-level modeling with three levels (city, individual, time), allowing for random effects. Models included interaction terms (time × alcohol environment characteristics) and main effects, controlling for city and youth demographic characteristics. Analyses also examined possible mediating effects of alcohol-related beliefs. Fifty California cities (50000-500000 population). Random samples of 1478 adolescents and 8553 adults. Past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking, and alcohol-related beliefs (e.g. perceived alcohol availability) among adolescents; past 28-day alcohol use among adults; ratings of local alcohol control policies; funding for enforcement activities; bars per roadway mile. Local alcohol policy comprehensiveness and enforcement were associated with lower levels of past-year alcohol use (betas=-0.003 and -0.085, P<0.05). Bar density was associated with a higher level of past-year alcohol use (beta=1.086, P<0.01). A greater increase in past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking over time was observed among adolescents living in cities with higher levels of adult drinking (betas=0.224 and 0.108, P<0.01). Effects of bar density appeared to be mediated through perceived alcohol availability and perceived approval of alcohol use. Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking are related to characteristics of the local alcohol environment, including alcohol control policies, enforcement, adult drinking and bar density. Change in adolescents' drinking appears to be influenced by community-level adult drinking. Bar density effects appear to be mediated through perceived alcohol availability and approval of alcohol use. © 2013 Society

  12. Drinking behavior among older adults in a planned retirement community: results from The Villages survey.

    PubMed

    Fishleder, Sarah; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Corvin, Jaime; Tyler, Susan; VandeWeerd, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Research indicates increasing trends among older adults toward heavy and abusive drinking, often associated with depressive symptoms. Possible exceptions are residents of planned retirement communities, whose drinking may be associated with social activities. To better understand these relationships, this study examined the relationship of depressive symptoms and drinking in a large retirement community. The Villages, a retirement community in central Florida with a focus on healthy, active living, has almost 90,000 residents. In 2012, a population-based needs assessment was conducted in partnership with University of South Florida Health. In the present study, 11,102 surveys were completed and returned. A structural equation model was utilized to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol use as measured by the three-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Hazardous drinking was reported in 15.4% of respondents, somewhat higher than the general population of older adults (around 10%). Variables of depressive symptoms, physical activity, total health problems, and poor general health loaded significantly into the factor of depression indicators, which was shown to have a significant, negative correlation with risk of hazardous drinking (λ = 0.16, p < 0.000, R(2) = 0.02). Results suggest at-risk drinking among respondents was not associated with depression, in contrast to studies of older adults living alone where alcohol abuse was often associated with depression. Implications for successful aging are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students.

    PubMed

    Nasui, Bogdana Adriana; Popa, Monica; Popescu, Codruta Alina

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students' alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour.

  14. Differences in drinking expectancies and motives for regular education and special education high school students with emotional/behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Jeff; Harbke, Colin R; Blake, Dawn; Catanzaro, Salvatore J

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies and drinking motives were compared for regular education students (n=159) and students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) receiving special education services (n=51). Differences existed between groups with respect to expected negative social consequences and emotional and physical outcomes associated with drinking. Across groups, drinkers reported more positive alcohol expectancies than non-drinkers, while non-drinkers reported more negative alcohol expectancies than drinkers. Differences also existed between the regular education and EBD students who drank with respect to coping, conformity, and social motives. Accounting for sample sizes differences, the relationship between alcohol use and negative physical effect was stronger for regular education students, while the relationship between alcohol use and conformity motives was stronger for the EBD group.

  15. Cued Recall of Alcohol Advertising on Television and Underage Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; McClure, Auden C.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. OBJECTIVE To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. RESULTS Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15–17, 18–20, and 21–23 years of age; P < .005). The transition to binge and hazardous drinking occurred for 29% and 18% of

  16. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  17. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... persons under the age of 21 die from causes related to underage drinking. These deaths include about 1,600 homicides and 300 suicides. Alcohol also plays a significant role in risky sexual behavior and increases the risk of physical and sexual assault. Among college students under age 21, 50,000 ...

  18. Alcohol abuse as a rite of passage: the effect of beliefs about alcohol and the college experience on undergraduates' drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lizabeth A; Novak, Katherine B

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative studies of alcohol's ritual influences indicate that college undergraduates who drink heavily tend to view alcohol use as integral to the student role and feel entitled to drink irresponsibly. Our analyses, based on a standardized measure of these beliefs administered to approximately 300 students, confirmed these findings. Among our sample, beliefs about alcohol and the college experience had an effect on levels of alcohol consumption similar in magnitude to that of other variables commonly associated with a risk for heavy drinking. Moreover, the alcohol beliefs index moderated the effects of three risk factors--gender, high school drinking, and friends' use of alcohol--on respondents' drinking behaviors. These findings are discussed within the context of the anthropological literature on liminality and rites of passage and with regard to strategies for intervention that address the structural roots of the widespread abuse of alcohol on college campuses.

  19. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    PubMed

    Huchting, Karie K; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2011-12-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher than Greeks on conformity reason for drinking. Tests of independent correlations indicated the magnitude of the past behavior to intention link was considerably stronger for Greeks. Greeks experienced significantly more social problems from drinking. Several group by gender ANOVA models found significant main effects with highest drinking rates, usually among Greek males, and lowest among female athletes. Understanding these specific group differences informs recommendations for group-specific and tailored educational interventions, which are discussed.

  20. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Huchting, Karie K.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher than Greeks on conformity reason for drinking. Tests of independent correlations indicated the magnitude of the past behavior to intention link was considerably stronger for Greeks. Greeks experienced significantly more social problems from drinking. Several group by gender ANOVA models found significant main effects with highest drinking rates, usually among Greek males, and lowest among female athletes. Understanding these specific group differences informs recommendations for group-specific and tailored educational interventions, which are discussed. PMID:25698846

  1. Predicting drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems among fraternity and sorority members: examining the role of descriptive and injunctive norms.

    PubMed

    Larimer, Mary E; Turner, Aaron P; Mallett, Kimberly A; Geisner, Irene Markman

    2004-09-01

    The authors examined the relation between Greek students' perceptions of alcohol consumption in their pledge classes (descriptive norms) and acceptability of drinking (injunctive norms) and the ability of these normative influences to predict drinking behavior, alcohol-related negative consequences, and symptoms of alcohol dependence concurrently and prospectively over 1 year. Participants were 279 men and 303 women recruited from incoming pledge classes of 12 fraternities and 6 sororities, who completed measures of descriptive and injunctive norms, alcohol use, and consequences. Results revealed that descriptive norms significantly predicted concurrent drinking. After controlling for baseline drinking, injunctive norms significantly predicted drinking 1 year later and predicted alcohol-related consequences and dependency symptoms at baseline and follow-up. The potential to incorporate injunctive norms into preventive interventions is discussed.

  2. Predicting Drinking Behavior and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Fraternity and Sorority Members: Examining the Role of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Larimer, Mary E.; Turner, Aaron P.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Geisner, Irene Markman

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between Greek students’ perceptions of alcohol consumption in their pledge classes (descriptive norms) and acceptability of drinking (injunctive norms) and the ability of these normative influences to predict drinking behavior, alcohol-related negative consequences, and symptoms of alcohol dependence concurrently and prospectively over 1 year. Participants were 279 men and 303 women recruited from incoming pledge classes of 12 fraternities and 6 sororities, who completed measures of descriptive and injunctive norms, alcohol use, and consequences. Results revealed that descriptive norms significantly predicted concurrent drinking. After controlling for baseline drinking, injunctive norms significantly predicted drinking 1 year later and predicted alcohol-related consequences and dependency symptoms at baseline and follow-up. The potential to incorporate injunctive norms into preventive interventions is discussed. PMID:15482075

  3. Does social trust at school affect students' smoking and drinking behavior in Japan?

    PubMed

    Takakura, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the individual and contextual effects of cognitive social capital at school on cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in Japanese high school students. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 3248 students in grades 10-12 (aged 15-18 years) at 29 public high schools across Okinawa, Japan in 2008. The individual-level cognitive social capital studied was generalized trust. Using multi-level logistic regression models, the effects of individual- and contextual-level cognitive social capital on smoking and drinking were analyzed. Contextual-level cognitive social capital was measured on the basis of aggregated individual responses to the trust question at school level. After adjustment for the covariates, individual-level trust was negatively associated with smoking and drinking among boys and girls. Similarly, after adjustment for the covariates, school-level trust showed an inverse association with smoking for girls. A similar but not statistically significant association was observed for boys. On the other hand, school-level trust was not associated with drinking among boys or girls. After adjustment for individual-level trust and the covariates, these findings were in the same direction, but the school-level trust for girls no longer had a significant contextual effect on smoking. The findings suggest evidence of the individual effect of cognitive social capital on adolescents' smoking and drinking, and that the contextual effect of social capital on smoking was inconclusive. In addition, no association of contextual-level social capital with drinking was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students

    PubMed Central

    NASUI, Bogdana Adriana; POPA, Monica; POPESCU, Codruta Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. Results The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Conclusion Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students’ alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour. PMID:27647090

  5. [The integrating role of biological motivation in the realization of feeding and drinking behaviors].

    PubMed

    Kromin, A A

    1991-01-01

    In chronic experiments on rabbits with preliminary alimentary or water deprivation electrical and mechanic activity was studied of the chewer muscle proper and of the esophagus in the process of animals food or water taking. It has been established that in patterns of electrical and mechanic activity of the chewer muscle proper and esophagus specific differences of alimentary and drinking behaviour of animals are reflected. Dominating motivation of different biological properties determines the specific integration of motoneurones of chewing and swallowing centers and peripheral contraction elements of digestive tract in the functional systems of alimentary and drinking behaviour.

  6. Alcohol use in New York after the terrorist attacks: A study of the effects of psychological trauma on drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Research has suggested that exposure to psychological trauma is associated with increased abuse of psychoactive substances, particularly alcohol. To assess this, we analyzed alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence among a random sample of 1681 New York City adults 1 year and 2 years after the September 11 attacks. In multivariate models controlling for demographic factors, other stressor exposures, social psychological resources, and history of anti-social behavior, we found that greater exposure to the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) was associated with greater alcohol consumption at 1 year and 2 years after this event. In addition, our analyses also indicated that exposure to the WTCD was associated with binge drinking at 1 year after but not 2 years after this event. Alcohol dependence, assessed as present in either year 1 or year 2, also was positively associated with greater WTCD exposures. Posttraumatic stress disorder was not associated with alcohol use, once WTCD exposure and other covariates were controlled. Our study suggests that exposure to psychological trauma may be associated with increases in problem drinking long after exposure and deserves further investigation. PMID:15982827

  7. The Use of Drinking and Sexual Assault Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations With Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among College Women

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Elizabeth C.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Pinsky, Hanna T.; Shepard, Molly E.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants’ sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women. PMID:26345223

  8. Prevalence and correlates of depression and drinking behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults in a suburban emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Rikki; Lau, Chung Hin (Joshua); Blow, Frederic C; Ranney, Megan; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background Both alcohol use and depression are concerning health issues among youth. The Emergency Department (ED) is a critical location to access youth with depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Objectives To inform future interventions in the ED, this study examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and depressive symptoms among youth seeking ED care. Methods Youth ages 14-20 were recruited from a level-1 trauma ED located in the Midwest as part of a larger ongoing study. Participants completed an electronic screening survey, which included assessment of alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and demographic variables. Two logistic regression models were conducted to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms with alcohol consumption and specific alcohol-related consequences. Results Among 3,659 participants, bivariate analysis indicated that individuals screening positive for depression were more likely to be female, non-white, receive public assistance, and report higher scores on both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Regression analyses indicated alcohol consumption, inability to stop drinking once starting, and feelings of guilt or remorse after drinking were significantly positively related to screening positive for depression. Conclusions/Importance Current findings support use of the ED as a location for identifying youth who are experiencing co-morbid alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of brief intervention in the ED that focuses on the co-occurrence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms among youth. PMID:26669633

  9. The Use of Drinking and Sexual Assault Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations With Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among College Women.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Elizabeth C; Gilmore, Amanda K; Pinsky, Hanna T; Shepard, Molly E; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H

    2015-09-07

    Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants' sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women.

  10. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L.; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms. PMID:24078780

  11. Behavioral impulsivity mediates the relationship between decreased frontal gray matter volume and harmful alcohol drinking: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Gröpper, Sonja; Spengler, Stephanie; Stuke, Heiner; Gawron, Christiane K; Parnack, Jenny; Gutwinski, Stefan; Wiers, Corinde E; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) with harmful drinking patterns is on the one hand characterized by impulsive behavior and is on the other hand known to involve structural brain alterations with lower gray matter volume (GMV), especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). So far it is unclear whether frontal brain volumes are associated to harmful alcohol drinking and impulsivity, while controlling simultaneously for a wide array of important confounding factors, which are related to alcohol consumption. We used voxel-based morphometry in 99 adults ranging within a continuum of normal to harmful drinking behavior and alcohol dependence, measured by the 'Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test', to examine whether the severity of harmful drinking is correlated with structural markers, in particular in the PFC and whether such markers are linked to self-reported impulsivity. We included alcohol and nicotine lifetime exposure, age, education, and BMI as covariates to control that GMV decreases were not related to those factors. Harmful drinking was associated with lower GMV in the right frontal pole, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobe. GMV loss in the PFC regions was correlated with increased impulsivity. Follow-up mediation analyses showed that the relationship between GMV in the frontal pole and harmful drinking was mediated by impulsivity. Our findings show that PFC reductions are associated with harmful drinking and impulsivity. Our data suggest that reduced frontal pole GM, independent of a number of alcohol drinking associated covariates, e.g. lifetime alcohol consumption, is related to impaired top-down control of alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms.

  13. The Disparity between Social Drinking Motives and Social Outcomes: A New Perspective on College Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Midwestern University. Social drinking motives were significantly associated with drinking behaviors; however, drinking behaviors were not associated with the number of new casual or close friends students made at college. Consistent with previous research, social motives predicted drinking behaviors; however drinking behaviors were unrelated to friendship outcomes. Drinking prevention campaigns might incorporate these findings in an effort to alter college freshmen’s social alcohol expectancies. PMID:24634551

  14. Drinking and Driving PSAs: A Content Analysis of Behavioral Influence Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Study randomly samples 66 drinking and driving television public service announcements that were then coded using a categorical and dimensional scheme. Data set reveals that informational/testimonial messages made up almost half of the total; positive appeals were the next most common, followed by empathy, fear, and modeling appeals. (Contains 34…

  15. Alcohol-Free Alternative Activities for University Students: Modeling Associated Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maney, Dolores W.; Mortensen, Sharon; Powell, M. Paige; Lozinska-Lee, Monika; Kennedy, Susan; Moore, Betty

    2002-01-01

    An exploration of the linear relationships among alcohol use, participation in late-night alcohol-free entertainment options, perceived drinking norms, social identity, perception of university policy, and demographics was conducted. The sample was 1,074 college students enrolled in introductory psychology courses. Alcohol use was measured using…

  16. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  17. Differences in College Greek Members' Binge Drinking Behaviors: A Dry/Wet House Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Furr, Susan

    2015-01-01

    College Greek life students self-report high rates of binge drinking and experience more alcohol-related problems than students who are not members of the Greek system. But little research has been conducted to measure differences in alcohol-free housing (dry) and alcohol-allowed housing (wet). The purpose of this quantitative study was to…

  18. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  19. Drinking and Driving PSAs: A Content Analysis of Behavioral Influence Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Study randomly samples 66 drinking and driving television public service announcements that were then coded using a categorical and dimensional scheme. Data set reveals that informational/testimonial messages made up almost half of the total; positive appeals were the next most common, followed by empathy, fear, and modeling appeals. (Contains 34…

  20. An Event-Level Analysis of Drinking Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Anne Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that alcohol use is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States and results in approximately 79,000 deaths annually. College students are at particular risk of alcohol-related consequences due to their heavy drinking tendencies, with multiple studies indicating over 40%…

  1. Neurocognitive, psychological and behavioral correlates of binge drinking and use of alcohol with caffeinated beverages in college-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Todd D; Sweeney, John F; Louis, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    We examined event-related potential (ERP), behavioral and psychological correlates of binge drinking and the use of alcohol mixed with caffeinated beverages (AmCBs) in college-aged (18-26 years) adults. Our objective was to delineate the neurocognitive correlates of different patterns of risky alcohol use in this population. We collected ERP data while an initial sample of 60 participants completed visual oddball and go/no-go tasks. We also collected self-report data measuring levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drinking-induced disinhibition. In our primary analyses between binge drinker (N = 17) and comparison participants (N = 29), we used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to control for monthly marijuana usage and excluded participants who reported using other illicit drugs. As separate, exploratory analyses, we compared participants who reported using AmCBs (n = 14) and those who did not (n = 46), co-varying for monthly marijuana and recreational drug use. We found that binge drinkers and AmCB users reported significantly higher levels of sensation seeking and drinking-induced disinhibition. In addition, we found that binge drinkers exhibited greater P3a/b amplitudes in the oddball task. In contrast, AmCB users exhibited significantly attenuated P3a amplitudes to distracter stimuli in the oddball task. However, we found no statistically significant differences in the amplitudes of P2(00) or N2(00) components between binge drinkers and comparison participants or between AmCB users and nonusers. Overall, these data suggest that binge drinking and AmCB use are associated with P3 alterations, but the specific effects may differ for individuals with different patterns of risky alcohol use.

  2. Adolescent binge drinking alters adult brain neurotransmitter gene expression, behavior, brain regional volumes, and neurochemistry in mice

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Leon G.; He, Jun; Lee, Joohwi; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge-drinking is common in human adolescents. The adolescent brain is undergoing structural maturation and has a unique sensitivity to alcohol neurotoxicity. Therefore, adolescent binge ethanol may have long-term effects on the adult brain that alter brain structure and behaviors that are relevant to alcohol use disorders. Methods In order to determine if adolescent ethanol binge drinking alters the adult brain, male C57BL/6 mice were treated with either water or ethanol during adolescence (5g/kg/day i.g., post-natal days P28-37) and assessed during adulthood (P60-P88). An array of neurotransmitter-specific genes, behavioral tests (i.e. reversal learning, prepulse inhibition, and open field), and post-mortem brain structure using MRI and immunohistochemistry, were employed to assess persistent alterations in adult brain. Results At P38, 24 hours after adolescent ethanol (AE) binge, many neurotransmitter genes, particularly cholinergic and dopaminergic, were reduced by ethanol treatment. Interestingly, dopamine receptor type 4 mRNA was reduced and confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Normal control maturation (P38-P88) resulted in decreased neurotransmitter mRNA, e.g. an average decrease of 56%. Following adolescent ethanol treatment, adults showed greater gene expression reductions than controls, averaging 73%. Adult spatial learning assessed in the Morris water maze was not changed by adolescent ethanol treatment, but reversal learning experiments revealed deficits. Assessment of adult brain region volumes using MRI indicated that the olfactory bulb and basal forebrain were smaller in adults following adolescent ethanol. Immunohistochemical analyses found reduced basal forebrain area and fewer basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Conclusions Adolescent binge ethanol treatment reduces adult neurotransmitter gene expression, particularly cholinergic genes, reduces basal forebrain and olfactory bulb volumes, and causes a reduction in the density of basal

  3. Brief internet-based cognitive behavior therapy program with a supplement drink improved anxiety and somatic symptoms in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Nonaka, Yuji; Takano, Jiro; Abe, Keiichi; Adachi, So-Ichiro; Adachi, Shohei; Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Self-help cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a useful approach for the treatment of psychological problems. Recent research on the effectiveness of self-help internet-based CBT (ICBT) indicates that the paradigm moderately improves psychological problems. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that food and drinks containing supplements improve various health conditions. We investigated the effect of a brief self-help ICBT administered with a supplement drink on psychological well-being and somatic symptoms. In total, 101 healthy workers were enrolled in the 4-week ICBT program, which consisted of psychoeducation on stress management, behavior activation, and cognitive restructuring. The supplement soft drink was taken every day during the program. The participants were instructed to watch on-demand video clips and read the self-help guidebook and supporting comic strip weekly on the Internet or smartphone. The Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after completion of the program. Scores on the POMS tension-anxiety (POMS-TA), depression (POMS-D), and fatigue (POMS-F) subscales were used to assess the effect of the program. Somatic symptoms were assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. In total, 75 participants continued the program for 4 weeks; however, of those, 27 failed to complete all weekly tasks or meet the post-assessment deadlines. Therefore, the data of 48 participants were included in the analysis. Pre-post intervention comparisons using paired t-tests revealed significant improvement on the POMS-TA, but not the POMS-D or POMS-F subscales. Moreover, participants reported a significant reduction in the severity of low back pain. Our brief intervention moderately improved anxiety levels and the symptom of low back pain. These findings suggest that the brief ICBT program is effective in non-patient populations. Future directions for brief ICBT are discussed. This study was registered on February 10

  4. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  5. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use.

  6. Binge drinking and risky sexual behavior among HIV-negative and unknown HIV status men who have sex with men, 20 US cities.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kristen L; Chavez, Pollyanna R; Kanny, Dafna; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Lansky, Amy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent over half of new HIV infections in the United States. It is important to understand the factors associated with engaging in risky sexual behavior to develop effective prevention interventions. Binge drinking (≥5 drinks on ≥1 occasion) is the most common form of excessive alcohol consumption. This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual risk behaviors among MSM who are current drinkers and who were either HIV-negative or unaware of their HIV status. Using the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system and multivariable Poisson models with robust error estimates, we assessed the association between binge drinking and sexual risk behaviors among current drinkers. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Overall, 85% of MSM were current drinkers, and 59% of MSM who drank reported ≥1 episode of binge drinking in the preceding 30 days. In multivariable models, binge drinking was associated with condomless anal intercourse (CAI) at last sex with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (receptive: PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6; insertive: PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), having exchanged sex for money or drugs at last sex (PR: 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), having concurrent partners in the past year (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2), and having more CAI partners in the past year (PR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4) compared to non-binge drinkers. Evidence-based strategies for reducing binge drinking could help reduce risky sexual behavior among MSM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Acute tolerance to alcohol impairment of behavioral and cognitive mechanisms related to driving: drinking and driving on the descending limb.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2012-04-01

    Alcohol effects on behavioral and cognitive mechanisms influence impaired driving performance and decisions to drive after drinking (Barry 1973; Moskowitz and Robinson 1987). To date, research has focused on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve, and there is little understanding of how acute tolerance to impairment of these mechanisms might influence driving behavior on the descending limb. To provide an integrated examination of the degree to which alcohol impairment of motor coordination and inhibitory control contributes to driving impairment and decisions to drive on the ascending and descending limbs of the blood alcohol curve. Social-drinking adults (N = 20) performed a testing battery that measured simulated driving performance and willingness to drive, as well as mechanisms related to driving: motor coordination (grooved pegboard), inhibitory control (cued go/no-go task), and subjective intoxication. Performance was tested in response to placebo and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) twice at comparable blood alcohol concentrations: once on the ascending limb and again on the descending limb. Impaired motor coordination and subjective intoxication showed acute tolerance, whereas driving performance and inhibitory control showed no recovery from impairment. Greater motor impairment was associated with poorer driving performance under alcohol, and poorer inhibitory control was associated with more willingness to drive. Findings suggest that acute tolerance to impairment of motor coordination is insufficient to promote recovery of driving performance and that the persistence of alcohol-induced disinhibition might contribute to risky decisions to drive on the descending limb.

  8. “I Thought There Was No Hope for Me”: A Behavioral Intervention for Urban Mothers With Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    de Guzman, Rebecca; Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Young, Rebecca; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Arredondo, Gricel; Riedel, Marion

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate the effects of a behavioral intervention for mothers with problem drinking who were infected with, or at risk for, HIV. They randomly selected 25 mothers from a larger longitudinal randomized controlled intervention trial for a qualitative interview. The authors found that mothers’ participation in the program was facilitated by the development of a strong therapeutic alliance with the intervention facilitator and the use of a harm reduction approach toward alcohol and/or drug abuse. Mothers also reported that training in coping skills and the emphasis on parent-adolescent relationships were beneficial for program engagement and behavior change. The authors conclude from these results that treatment approaches that take into account the complexity of urban mothers’ lives and substance use patterns can successfully engage and treat these women at high risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:17038756

  9. Emotionally Up and Down, Behaviorally To and Fro: Drinking Motives Mediate the Synergistic Effects of Urgency and Emotional Instability on Alcohol Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Lamis, Dorian A; Pearson, Matthew R; Stevenson, Brittany L

    2015-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th editionAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In Study 1, college drinkers (n = 621) completed alcohol involvement and behavioral/emotional functioning assessments. There was an indirect association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms via both coping and enhancement drinking motives which was potentiated by trait urgency. In Study 2, college drinkers (n = 510) completed alcohol involvement, behavioral/emotional functioning, and AUD criteria assessments. A significant indirect effect from emotional instability to the likelihood of meeting AUD criteria, via drinking to cope was found, again potentiated by urgency.

  10. Emotionally up and down, behaviorally to and fro: Drinking motives mediate the synergistic effects of urgency and emotional instability on alcohol outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms and DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder. In Study 1, college drinkers (n = 621) completed alcohol involvement and behavioral/emotional functioning assessments. There was an indirect association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms via both coping and enhancement drinking motives which was potentiated by trait urgency. In Study 2, college drinkers (n = 510) completed alcohol involvement, behavioral/emotional functioning, and AUD criteria assessments. A significant indirect effect from emotional instability to the likelihood of meeting AUD criteria, via drinking to cope was found, again potentiated by urgency. PMID:27075609

  11. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  12. The role of college students' use of protective behavioral strategies in the relation between binge drinking and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Borden, Lindsay A; Martens, Matthew P; McBride, Michael A; Sheline, Kelly T; Bloch, Kristen K; Dude, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has examined protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or cognitive-behavioral strategies that may be employed when using alcohol to reduce consumption and related problems, as an important predictor of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. More recently, studies have explored the mediating and moderating role of PBS on the relationships between key alcohol-related risk factors (i.e., drinking motives, depressive symptoms, binge drinking) and alcohol problems; however, current research examining PBS as a moderator of the relationship between alcohol use and related problems has methodological limitations. The purpose of the present study was to extend previous literature to examine the moderating effect of PBS on the relationship between binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected and analyzed from 4,154 students at 13 midwestern universities. Findings indicated that PBS moderated the binge drinking-alcohol problems relationship for each of the four measures of binge drinking. However, effects were strongest when binge drinking was measured dichotomously versus continuously. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effects of sex and deletion of neuropeptide Y2 receptors from GABAergic neurons on affective and alcohol drinking behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Nora M.; Sprow, Gretchen M.; Delpire, Eric; Thiele, Todd E.; Kash, Thomas L.; Pleil, Kristen E.

    2013-01-01

    A large literature has demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates many emotional and reward-related behaviors via its primary receptors, Y1R and Y2R. Classically, NPY actions at postsynaptic Y1R decrease anxiety, depression, and alcohol drinking, while its actions at presynaptic Y2R produce the opposite behavioral phenotypes. However, emerging evidence suggests that activation of Y2R can also produce anxiolysis in a brain region and neurotransmitter system-dependent fashion. Further, numerous human and rodent studies have reported that females display higher levels of anxiety, depression, and alcohol drinking. In this study, we evaluated sex differences and the role of Y2R on GABAergic transmission in these behaviors using a novel transgenic mouse that lacks Y2R specifically in VGAT-expressing neurons (VGAT-Y2R knockout). First, we confirmed our genetic manipulation by demonstrating that Y2R protein expression was decreased and that a Y2R agonist could not alter GABAergic transmission in the extended amygdala, a limbic brain region critically implicated in the regulation of anxiety and alcohol drinking behaviors, using immunofluorescence and slice electrophysiology. Then, we tested male and female VGAT-Y2R knockout mice on a series of behavioral assays for anxiety, depression, fear, anhedonia, and alcohol drinking. We found that females displayed greater basal anxiety, higher levels of ethanol consumption, and faster fear conditioning than males, and that knockout mice exhibited enhanced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Together, these results confirm previous studies that demonstrate higher expression of negative affective and alcohol drinking behaviors in females than males, and they highlight the importance of Y2R function in GABAergic systems in the expression of depressive-like behavior. PMID:24399943

  14. Manganese in Drinking Water and Cognitive Abilities and Behavior at 10 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bölte, Sven; Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Vahter, Marie

    2016-07-22

    Cross-sectional studies have indicated impaired neurodevelopment by elevated drinking water manganese concentrations (W-Mn), but potential susceptible exposure windows are unknown. To prospectively evaluate effects of W-Mn, from fetal life to school-age, on children's cognitive abilities and behavior. We assessed cognitive abilities using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and behavior using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 1,265 ten-year-old children in rural Bangladesh. Manganese in drinking water, used during pregnancy and by the children at 5 and 10 years, was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median W-Mn was 0.20 mg/L (range 0.001-6.6) during pregnancy and 0.34 mg/L (<0.001-8.7) at 10 years. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, restricted to children with low arsenic exposure, none of the W-Mn exposures were associated with the children's cognitive abilities. Stratifying by gender (p for interaction in general <0.081) showed that prenatal W-Mn (<3 mg/L) was positively associated with cognitive ability measures in girls, but not in boys. W-Mn at all time-points was associated with increased risk of conduct problems, especially in boys (range 24-43% per mg/L). At the same time, the prenatal W-Mn was associated with a decreased risk of emotional problems (OR: 0.39, 95% CI 0.19, 0.82) in the boys. In girls, W-Mn was mainly associated with low prosocial scores (prenatal W-Mn: OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06, 1.88). Elevated prenatal W-Mn exposure was positively associated with cognitive function in girls, while boys appeared unaffected. However, early-life W-Mn exposure appeared to adversely affect children's behavior.

  15. Behavioral predictors of alcohol drinking in a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia and co-occurring alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Todd, Travis P

    2017-03-09

    Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and contributes greatly to its morbidity. Unfortunately, the neural and behavioral underpinnings of alcohol drinking in these patients are not well understood. In order to begin to understand the cognitive and reward-related changes that may contribute to alcohol drinking, this study was designed to address: 1) latent inhibition; 2) conditioning; and 3) extinction of autoshaping in a neurodevelopmental rat model with relevance to co-occurring schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders, the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesioned (NVHL) rat. NVHL lesions (or sham surgeries) were performed on post-natal day 7 (PND7) and animals were given brief exposure to alcohol during adolescent (PND 28-42). Latent inhibition of autoshaping, conditioning and extinction were assessed between PND 72-90. On PND90 animals were given alcohol again and allowed to establish stable drinking. Latent inhibition of autoshaping was found to be prolonged in the NVHL rats; the NVHL rats pre-exposed to the lever stimulus were slower to acquire autoshaping than sham pre-exposed rats. NVHL rats that were not pre-exposed to the lever stimulus did not differ during conditioning, but were slower to extinguish conditioned responding compared to sham controls. Finally, the NVHL rats from both groups drank significantly more alcohol than sham rats, and the extent of latent inhibition predicted future alcohol intake in the pre-exposed animals. These findings suggest that the latent inhibition of autoshaping procedure can be used to model cognitive- and reward-related dysfunctions in schizophrenia, and these dysfunctions may contribute to the development of co-occurring alcohol use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.

  17. l-Cysteine reduces oral ethanol self-administration and reinstatement of ethanol-drinking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Peana, Alessandra T; Muggironi, Giulia; Calvisi, Giovanna; Enrico, Paolo; Mereu, Maddalena; Nieddu, Maria; Boatto, Gianpiero; Diana, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Our previous findings have shown that l-cysteine, a non essential amino acid, prevented ethanol (EtOH) induced conditioned place preference. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of l-cysteine on the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration and on the reinstatement of EtOH-drinking behavior in Wistar rats. Rats were pretreated intraperitoneally with saline or l-cysteine (20 and 40 mg/kg) 30 min before each acquisition trial, in an operant nose-poking paradigm where they were given the opportunity to orally self-administer tap water or EtOH (5-10% v/v). Further, to evaluate if l-cysteine reduces the acquired oral EtOH self-administration, we carried out an independent experiment in which rats were trained to self-administer EtOH (10%); after all groups of rats developed similarly stable oral EtOH self-administration, the effect of l-cysteine (0, 40, 60, 80 and 100mg/kg) was tested. An additional group of rats was pretreated with saline or l-cysteine (80 mg/kg) and tested on reinstatement after EtOH extinction and, at the end of last reinstatement session, were utilized to measure blood and brain EtOH levels. The animals that had access to EtOH solution discriminated between the active and inactive nose-pokes and showed rates of active nose-pokes significantly higher than the tap water group. Furthermore, rats self-administering EtOH (10%) also demonstrated extinction behavior and gradually reinstated active nose-poke responding when EtOH was reintroduced. l-cysteine reduced both the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration. The reduced reinstatement of EtOH-drinking behavior was paralleled by a significant reduction of EtOH intake and correlated with blood and brain EtOH levels. The efficacy of l-cysteine on the various phases of alcohol drinking in rats, could represent an interesting pharmacological approach and could open a new line of research for the development of therapies to reduce EtOH intake in

  18. mTORC1-dependent translation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 drives neuroadaptations underlying excessive alcohol-drinking behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F; Laguesse, S; Legastelois, R; Morisot, N; Ben Hamida, S; Ron, D

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has an essential role in dendritic mRNA translation and participates in mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking and reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories. Here, we report that excessive alcohol consumption increases the translation of downstream targets of mTORC1, including collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. We show that alcohol-mediated induction of CRMP-2 translation is mTORC1-dependent, leading to increased CRMP-2 protein levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that alcohol intake also blocks glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)-phosphorylation of CRMP-2, which results in elevated binding of CRMP-2 to microtubules and a concomitant increase in microtubule content. Finally, we show that systemic administration of the CRMP-2 inhibitor lacosamide, or knockdown of CRMP-2 in the NAc decreases excessive alcohol intake. These results suggest that CRMP-2 in the NAc is a convergent point that receives inputs from two signaling pathways, mTORC1 and GSK-3β, that in turn drives excessive alcohol-drinking behaviors. PMID:26952865

  19. Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

    2002-01-01

    Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes.

  20. Students' drinking behavior and perceptions towards introducing alcohol policies on university campus in Denmark: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ladekjær Larsen, Eva; Smorawski, Gitte Andsager; Kragbak, Katrine Lund; Stock, Christiane

    2016-04-29

    High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies. The aim of this study is to explore students' perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines and limiting consumption during the introduction week primarily due to avoiding social exclusion of students who do not drink. Some international students perceived the level of consumption as too high and distinguished between situations where they perceived drinking as unusual. The study showed that alcohol is a central part of students' lives. When developing and implementing alcohol policies on campus, seeking student input in the process and addressing alcohol policies in the larger community will likely improve the success of the policies.

  1. High-risk cocktails and high-risk sex: examining the relation between alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption, sexual behavior, and drug use in college students.

    PubMed

    Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption has garnered considerable attention in the literature in recent years. Drinking AmED beverages has been associated with a host of negative outcomes. The present study sought to examine associations between AmED consumption and high-risk sexual behaviors in a sample of young adults. Participants (N=704; 59.9% female) completed an online survey assessing AmED consumption, other drug use, and sexual behavior. A total of 19.4% of the entire sample (and 28.8% of those who reported using alcohol) reported consuming AmED. Participants who reported consuming AmED were significantly more likely to report marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy use. Those who reported consuming AmED also had increased odds of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex while under the influence of drugs, and sex after having too much to drink. Relationships between AmED consumption and sexual behavior remained significant after accounting for the influence of demographic factors and other substance use. Results add to the literature documenting negative consequences for AmED consumers, which may include alcohol dependence, binge drinking, and the potential for sexually transmitted infections via high-risk sexual behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do changes in social and economic factors lead to changes in drinking behavior in young adults? Findings from three waves of a population based panel study.

    PubMed

    van der Deen, Frederieke S; Carter, Kristie N; McKenzie, Sarah K; Blakely, Tony

    2014-09-08

    Social and economic measures in early childhood or adolescence appear to be associated with drinking behavior in young adulthood. Yet, there has been little investigation to what extent drinking behavior of young adults changes within young adulthood when they experience changes in social and economic measures in this significant period of their life. The impact of changes in living arrangement, education/employment, income, and deprivation on changes in average weekly alcohol units of consumption and frequency of hazardous drinking sessions per month in young adults was investigated. In total, 1,260 respondents of the New Zealand longitudinal Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE) aged 18-24 years at baseline were included. Young adults who moved from a family household into a single household experienced an increase of 2.32 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.63) standard drinks per week, whereas those young adults who became parents experienced a reduction in both average weekly units of alcohol (β = -3.84, 95% CI -5.44 to -2.23) and in the frequency of hazardous drinking sessions per month (β = -1.17, 95% CI -1.76 to -0.57). A one unit increase in individual deprivation in young adulthood was associated with a 0.48 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.86) unit increase in average alcohol consumption and a modest increase in the frequency of hazardous drinking sessions (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.39). This analysis suggests that changes in living arrangement and individual deprivation are associated with changes in young adult's drinking behaviors. Alcohol harm-minimization interventions therefore need to take into account the social and economic context of young people's lives to be effective.

  3. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Wiers, Reinout W; Jansen, Anita

    2011-07-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: In the beer/no-go condition, participants performed a go/no-go task that consistently paired alcohol-related stimuli with a stopping response, to increase response inhibition for alcohol-related stimuli. In the beer/go condition, in contrast, participants were always required to respond to alcohol-related stimuli during the go/no-go task. Before and after the go/no-go manipulation, we measured weekly alcohol intake and implicit attitudes toward alcohol. In addition, we measured alcohol consumption during a taste test immediately after the go/no-go manipulation. Following the manipulation, participants in the beer/no-go condition demonstrated significantly increased negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol, and a significant reduction in weekly alcohol intake, while participants in the beer/go condition showed a non-significant increase in implicit positive attitudes toward alcohol and a significant increase in weekly alcohol intake. This study demonstrates that repeatedly stopping prepotent responses toward alcohol-related stimuli can be an effective strategy to reduce excessive alcohol use.

  4. Behavior of sulfate reducing bacteria under oligotrophic conditions and oxygen stress in particle-free systems related to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bade; Manz; Szewzyk

    2000-06-01

    The response of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) to oxygen stress under oligotrophic conditions in particle-free systems was studied in (i) sterile Berlin drinking water; (ii) mineral medium; and (iii) in coculture experiments with aerobic bacteria. Using a polyphasic approach including anaerobic cultivation, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital image analysis, the behavior of the strains zt3l and zt10e, isolated from Berlin groundwater and affiliated to the family Desulfovibrionaceae, was compared to the type strains Desulfomicrobium baculatum and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Anaerobic deep agar dilution series were performed for the determination of cell culturability. FISH and subsequent digital image analysis of probe-conferred fluorescence intensities were used for the assessment of metabolic activity. For the in situ identification of both isolates in coculture tests, two strain-specific oligonucleotides were developed and evaluated. The total cell counts of stressed SRB in drinking water decreased during the course of the assay dependent on the strain. Both environmental isolates could be cultured for a longer period than cells of D. baculatum and D. desulfuricans, respectively. The FISH intensities showed a strain-specific behavior. When exposed to simultaneous oxygen stress and carbon limitation in mineral medium, total cell counts of all four strains remained constant throughout a period of 72 days. The rate of culturability differed between the investigated strains. The decrease of metabolic activity as assessed by FISH was a strain-specific property. Exposure of SRB to oxygen stress and carbon starvation in coculture experiments with Aquabacterium commune resulted in strain dependent prolonged culturability and a delayed decrease of the metabolic activity compared to pure culture tests for all strains tested. Total cell counts of SRB were constant throughout the whole experiment.

  5. Acute tolerance to alcohol impairment of behavioral and cognitive mechanisms related to driving: drinking and driving on the descending limb

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol effects on behavioral and cognitive mechanisms influence impaired driving performance and decisions to drive after drinking (Barry 1973; Moskowitz and Robinson 1987). To date, research has focused on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve, and there is little understanding of how acute tolerance to impairment of these mechanisms might influence driving behavior on the descending limb. Objectives To provide an integrated examination of the degree to which alcohol impairment of motor coordination and inhibitory control contributes to driving impairment and decisions to drive on the ascending and descending limbs of the blood alcohol curve. Methods Social-drinking adults (N=20) performed a testing battery that measured simulated driving performance and willingness to drive, as well as mechanisms related to driving: motor coordination (grooved pegboard), inhibitory control (cued go/no-go task), and subjective intoxication. Performance was tested in response to placebo and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) twice at comparable blood alcohol concentrations: once on the ascending limb and again on the descending limb. Results Impaired motor coordination and subjective intoxication showed acute tolerance, whereas driving performance and inhibitory control showed no recovery from impairment. Greater motor impairment was associated with poorer driving performance under alcohol, and poorer inhibitory control was associated with more willingness to drive. Conclusions Findings suggest that acute tolerance to impairment of motor coordination is insufficient to promote recovery of driving performance and that the persistence of alcohol-induced disinhibition might contribute to risky decisions to drive on the descending limb. PMID:21960182

  6. Not early drinking but early drunkenness is a risk factor for problem behaviors among adolescents from 38 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Rossow, Ingeborg; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kokkevi, Anna; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have reported that the earlier the age at first drink (AFDrink) the higher the later drinking levels and related problems. However, unless adolescents proceed into drunkenness, it is unclear why consuming small quantities at early age should lead to later problems. This study investigates the link between AFDrink and problem behaviors (smoking, cannabis use, injuries, fights, and low academic performance) among 15-year-olds who did and did not proceed into drunkenness. Among those with drunkenness experience, we tested whether AFDrink predicted problem behaviors over and above the age at first drunkenness (AFDrunk). Multilevel structural equation models were estimated based on a sample of 44,801 alcohol-experienced 15-year-olds from 38 North American and European countries and regions who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-national survey. Overall, there was a significant association between AFDrink and all 5 problem behaviors. However, this was the case only among those with drunkenness experiences but not among those never drunk. Among the former, AFDrunk was a strong predictor for all 5 problem behaviors, but time from first drink to first drunk did not predict problem behaviors. Not early alcohol initiation but early drunkenness was a risk factor for various adolescent problem behaviors at the age of 15, that is, there was not consistent relationship for the time before the first drunkenness (i.e., since first drinking). Besides targeting early drinking, particular efforts are needed to impede early drunkenness to prevent associated harm in adolescence and beyond. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Drinking Behavior from High School to Young Adulthood: Differences by College Education

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Tang, Xianli

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent serious alcohol-related events have raised public awareness of the prevalence of at-risk alcohol use among college undergraduates, but heavy alcohol consumption during late adolescence and young adulthood is not limited to college students. Alcohol consumption typically peaks in young adulthood regardless of education level, and risks related to alcohol misuse are shared by young adults, regardless of their educational choices. Differences in alcohol risk between college-attending and non-college-attending young adults are generally small, and emphasize the need for research examining the drinking patterns of both of these groups. Methods: To better understand patterns of at-risk alcohol use and its association with education, this study compared at-risk alcohol use from 12th grade to young adulthood (age 24) in a sample of never-married young adults. Three groups were formed based on completed education when the survey was administered in young adulthood: high school or less, postsecondary education without a four-year college degree, and completed college. Results: Men who completed college experienced the greatest increase in at-risk drinking from grade 12 to young adulthood; however, their at-risk alcohol use did not differ markedly from men in the other education groups in young adulthood. Men who did not complete college had high levels of alcohol risk in 12th grade and maintained or increased those levels in young adulthood, demonstrating a pattern of prolonged risk. Women whose completed education was high school or less experienced the fewest increases in at-risk alcohol use. Education group differences were not explained by place of residence or employment status. Conclusions: These results emphasize the need to intervene early to prevent at-risk alcohol use, and emphasize that at-risk alcohol use is neither unique, nor necessarily the highest among individuals who complete college. PMID:16385187

  8. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7.

  9. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  10. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

  12. Transitions in first-year college student drinking behaviors: does pre-college drinking moderate the effects of parent- and peer-based intervention components?

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Michael J; Lanza, Stephanie T; Ray, Anne E; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    This study used Latent Transition Analysis (LTA) to examine a stage-sequential model of alcohol use among a sample of high-risk matriculating college students (N=1,275). Measures of alcohol use were collected via web-administered surveys during the summer before entering college and followed-up during the fall semester of college. Seven indicators of alcohol use were used in the LTA models, including temporal measures of typical drinking throughout the week. The results indicated that four latent statuses characterized patterns of drinking at both times, though the proportion of students in each status changed during the transition to college: (a) nondrinkers; (b) weekend nonbingers; (c) weekend bingers; and (d) heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers were distinguished by heavy episodic drinking (HED), and increased likelihood of drinking throughout the week, especially on Thursdays. Covariates were added to the LTA model to examine the main and interaction effects of parent- and peer-based intervention components. Results indicated that participants in the parent and peer conditions were least likely to transition to the heavy drinkers status. Results also indicated that the parent condition was most effective at preventing baseline nondrinkers from transitioning to heavy drinkers whereas the peer condition was most effective at preventing escalation of use among weekend nonbingers. The results underscore the value of considering multiple dimensions of alcohol use within a person-centered approach. Differential treatment effects were found across baseline drinking class, suggesting the benefit for tailored intervention programs to reduce high-risk drinking among college students. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Emotionally Up and Down, Behaviorally to and fro: Drinking Motives Mediate the Synergistic Effects of Urgency and Emotional Instability on Alcohol Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of "Diagnostic…

  14. High-Risk Driving Behaviors Among 12th Grade Students: Differences Between Alcohol-Only and Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drink Users.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Woolsey, Conrad L; Sather, Thomas E

    2017-08-04

    About 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of risky driving among college students. The purpose of this study was to: (a) examine AmED-use in a sample of high school students and (b) to specifically investigate differences in risky driving behaviors between 12th grade students who engaged in AmED-use and those who consumed alcohol only. Differences in risky driving behaviors were investigated by utilizing secondary data analyses of nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study (N = 1305). 12th grade AmED users were significantly more likely to be in a motor vehicle accident (p <.001) and receive a ticket for a traffic violation (p <.05). Additionally, 12th grade AmED users were significantly less likely to wear a seatbelt as a driver or passenger (p <.001). Conclusions/Importance: Although this study does not link risky driving behaviors to specific drinking events, it does indicate a relationship between AmED-use and high-risk driving. Because traffic accidents are the highest cause of mortality among U.S. teenagers, drug education efforts to reduce high-risk driving behaviors should include information on the decision-making and synergistic effects of energy drinks when mixed with alcohol.

  15. Emotionally Up and Down, Behaviorally to and fro: Drinking Motives Mediate the Synergistic Effects of Urgency and Emotional Instability on Alcohol Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of "Diagnostic…

  16. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior among STD clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women’s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476

  17. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among STD Clinic Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants.

  18. Associations of subclinical hypocalcemia at calving with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and standing behaviors around parturition in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jawor, P E; Huzzey, J M; LeBlanc, S J; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations of subclinical hypocalcemia with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and resting behavior during the period around calving. Blood was sampled within 24h of calving and analyzed for serum total calcium. Fifteen Holstein dairy cows were classified as having subclinical hypocalcemia (serum calcium concentration ≤ 1.8 mmol/L, without clinical milk fever) and were matched with 15 control cows (serum calcium concentration >1.8 mmol/L) based on parity and presence of other diseases. Daily feeding and drinking behavior were monitored using an electronic feeding system (Insentec, BV, Marknesse, the Netherlands) and summarized by week relative to calving (wk -3, -2, -1, +1, +2, and +3). Standing behavior was monitored from 7 d before until 7 d after calving using dataloggers. Daily milk yields were obtained for all cows up to 280 d in milk (DIM). These data were summarized by week for the first 4 wk of lactation to assess short-term differences in milk yield, and were summarized into 4-wk periods to assess long-term (280 DIM) differences in milk yield between groups. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia produced, on average, 5.7 kg/d more milk during wk 2, 3, and 4 compared with control cows; however, only subclinically hypocalcemic cows in their third lactation sustained greater milk yields throughout 280 DIM. Despite greater milk yield during the weeks following calving, cows with subclinical hypocalcemia did not consume more water after calving and tended to have greater dry matter intake only during wk 2. However, these animals made fewer visits to the water bins during the first 2 wk after calving and tended to make fewer visits to the feed bins during wk 1 and 3, suggesting that they used these resources more efficiently. Dry matter intake was, on average, 1.7 kg/d greater during wk -2 and -1 among cows subsequently diagnosed with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with control cows but neither group was

  19. Adenosine Transporter ENT1 Regulates the Acquisition of Goal-Directed Behavior and Ethanol Drinking Through A2A Receptor in the Dorsomedial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Hinton, David J.; Kang, Na Young; Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Moonnoh R.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Adams, Chelsea; Ruby, Christina L.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit development has not been established. Here, we identified that decreased A2AR-mediated CREB activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) enhanced initial behavioral acquisition of goal-directed behaviors and the vulnerability to progress to excessive ethanol drinking during operant conditioning in mice lacking ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter ENT1 (ENT1−/−). Utilizing mice expressing β-galactosidase (lacZ) under the control of seven-repeated CRE sites in both genotypes (CRE-lacZ/ENT1+/+ mice and CRE-lacZ/ENT1−/− mice) as well as dnCREB (dominant negative form of CREB), we found that reduced CREB activity in the DMS is causally associated with decreased A2AR signaling and increased goal-directed ethanol drinking. Finally, we demonstrated that A2AR antagonist (ZM241385) dampened PKA-activity mediated signaling in the DMS and promoted excessive ethanol drinking in ENT1+/+ mice, but not in ENT1−/− mice. Taken together, our studies indicate that A2AR-mediated CREB signaling in the DMS is a key determinant to enhance the development of goal-directed ethanol drinking in mice. PMID:23467349

  20. "Binge" Drinking: Not the Word of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…

  1. "Binge" Drinking: Not the Word of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…

  2. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509

  3. Risk of Learning and Behavioral Disorders Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mothers completed a questionnaire on disorders of attention, learning and behavior in their children and on potential confounding variables. The final cohort consisted of 2,086 children. Results of crude and multivariate analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure and receiving tutoring for reading or math, being placed on an Individual Education Plan, or repeating a school grade (adjusted Odds Ratios (OR)=1.0–1.2). There was also no consistent pattern of increased risk for receiving a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactive Disorder (HD), special class placement for academic or behavioral problems, or lower educational attainment. Modest associations were observed for the latter outcomes only in the low exposure group (e.g., adjusted ORs for ADD were 1.4 and 1.0 for low and high exposure, respectively). (All ORs are based on an unexposed referent group.) Results for postnatal exposure through age five years were similar to those for prenatal exposure. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure is not associated with disorders of attention, learning and behavior identified on the basis of questionnaire responses and at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18353612

  4. [A teaching-learning experience: changes in beliefs and behaviors in the management of drinking water].

    PubMed

    Rancich, A M; Ferrarini, S O; Homero Palma, N

    1989-06-01

    It was studied a change in the children's beliefs and behaviour with regard to their handling of drinking-water by using a teaching-learning experience by means of microscopic observation of polluted water. A structured pre-test on problem-solving were administered to 63 6th and 7th grade elementary school children (28 boys and 35 girls). An of these children came from an underprivileged population in the north of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Their average age was of 12 years 8 months and SD = 1 year 1 month. Each adequate aspect of their behaviour scored one point: hygiene and protection of containers for collection and storage, water treatment (boiling or the addition of chlorine) and the conservation period. The best beliefs ("to avoid the water contamination that produces illness") scored two points. The number of pupils that changed their beliefs and and behaviour in the post-test was established and the significant difference was found by means of Chi square test (X2). The children did not, in general, improve their behaviour or beliefs. They maintained adequate hygienic behaviour, but did not put into practice the protection of the containers used for the collection. Behaviour regarding storage was still inadequate. The pupils did acquire correct behaviour as regards storage was still inadequate. The pupils did acquire correct behaviour as regards treatment by the boiling of water or the addition of chlorine (P less than 0.01). However, the beliefs involved did not change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Actions of amylin on subfornical organ neurons and on drinking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Riediger, T; Rauch, M; Schmid, H A

    1999-02-01

    Amylin, a peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic beta-cells after food intake, contributes to metabolic control by regulating nutrient influx into the blood, whereas insulin promotes nutrient efflux and storage. We now report that amylin activates neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO), a structure in which the lack of a functional blood-brain barrier and the presence of a high density of amylin receptors may render it accessible and sensitive to circulating amylin. In an in vitro slice preparation of the rat SFO, 73% of 78 neurons were excited by superfusion with rat amylin (10(-8)-10(-7) M); the remainder were insensitive. The threshold concentration for the excitatory response of amylin was <10(-8) M and thus similar in potency to a previously reported excitatory effect of ANG II on the same neurons. The excitatory effect of amylin was completely blocked by coapplication of the selective amylin receptor antagonist AC-187 (10(-6)-10(-5) M) but was not affected by losartan (10(-5) M). Subcutaneous injections of 40 nmol of amylin significantly increased water intake in euhydrated rats, as did an equimolar dose of ANG II, which is a well-described SFO-mediated effect of circulating ANG II. These results point to the SFO as a sensory central nervous target for amylin released systemically in response to metabolic changes. Furthermore, we suggest that amylin release during food intake may stimulate prandial drinking.

  6. Manganese in Drinking Water and Cognitive Abilities and Behavior at 10 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bölte, Sven; Derakhshani Hamadani, Jena; Vahter, Marie

    2017-05-26

    Cross-sectional studies have indicated impaired neurodevelopment with elevated drinking water manganese concentrations (W-Mn), but potential susceptible exposure windows are unknown. We prospectively evaluated the effects of W-Mn, from fetal life to school age, on children's cognitive abilities and behavior. We assessed cognitive abilities and behavior in 1,265 ten-year-old children in rural Bangladesh using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), respectively. Manganese in drinking water used during pregnancy and by the children at 5 y and 10 y was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The median W-Mn was 0.20 mg/L (range 0.001–6.6) during pregnancy and 0.34mg/L (<0.001–8.7) at 10 y. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, restricted to children with low arsenic (As) exposure, none of the W-Mn exposures was associated with the children’s cognitive abilities. Stratifying by gender (p for interaction in general <0.081) showed that prenatal W-Mn (3 mg/L) was positively associated with cognitive ability measures in girls but not in boys. W-Mn at all time points was associated with an increased risk of conduct problems, particularly in boys (range 24–43% per mg/L). At the same time, the prenatal W-Mn was associated with a decreased risk of emotional problems [odds ratio (OR)=0.39 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.82)] in boys. In girls, W-Mn was mainly associated with low prosocial scores [prenatal W-Mn: OR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.88)]. Elevated prenatal W-Mn exposure was positively associated with cognitive function in girls, whereas boys appeared to be unaffected. Early life W-Mn exposure appeared to adversely affect children's behavior. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP631.

  7. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors.

  8. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Icard, Larry D; Jemmott, John B; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G Anita

    2014-02-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18-45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Having friends and feeling lonely: a daily process examination of transient loneliness, socialization, and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Arpin, Sarah N; Mohr, Cynthia D; Brannan, Debi

    2015-05-01

    Loneliness is a well-known indicator of relationship deficits, with potentially severe consequences on health and well-being (Perlman & Peplau, 1981). Research has used cross-sectional methods to examine behavioral consequences of loneliness (e.g., Cacioppo et al., 2002). However, within-person associations between daily fluctuations in loneliness and subsequent behavioral outcomes have yet to be explored. Using a sample of community-dwelling adults, the authors examined associations between daily loneliness on daily time with others, and subsequent context-specific alcohol consumption (i.e., social and solitary consumption), and individual differences in these patterns of behavior. Daytime loneliness significantly and uniquely predicted patterns of social behavior and context-specific consumption; time with others mediated loneliness-social consumption associations, but not loneliness-solitary consumption relationships. These findings contribute to existing literature by demonstrating the unique properties of solitary versus social consumption as behavioral responses to loneliness, thus addressing inconsistent findings regarding the effects of loneliness on alcohol consumption.

  10. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2016-09-15

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4(+) removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4(+) loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4(+) removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4(+) removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4(+) removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4(+) removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4(+). Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining the Role of Abstainer Prototype Favorability as a Mediator of the Abstainer Norms-Drinking Behavior Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Dana M.; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has indicated that peer influence is associated with risky health behaviors, such as alcohol and other substance use (e.g., Maxwell, 2002; Santor, Messevey, & Kusumakar, 2000). Specifically, research has indicated that believing that more of one's peers use alcohol predicts more favorable prototypes (risk images) of the typical alcohol user (Litt & Stock, 2011; Teunnisen et al., 2014). However, it is unclear if this same relationship would hold when considering abstainer (i.e. people who don't use alcohol) cognitions. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether normative perceptions of peer abstinence from alcohol predict alcohol consumption, and whether this relationship is mediated by abstainer prototypes. Results from 2,095 college students (42% male) indicated that the relation between abstainer norms and drinking behavior was mediated by abstainer prototypes such that believing that more peers abstained from alcohol use predicted more favorable prototypes of the typical alcohol abstainer, which in turn predicted lower alcohol use. Results from this study provide important first steps to delineating the relationship between abstainer cognitions and alcohol use. PMID:25437152

  12. Evaluation of an educational intervention upon knowledge, attitudes, and behavior concerning drinking/drugged driving.

    PubMed

    Kooler, J M; Bruvold, W H

    1992-01-01

    The Contra Costa County educational program for juveniles found guilty of driving under the influence (DUI) was evaluated. Over 600 juveniles convicted of DUI from 1983 to 1988 formed the study group for this research and of these over 100 participated in the educational program. Assessment of program participants was conducted for knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Participants demonstrated increased knowledge, stronger attitudes against driving under the influence, and less risky alcohol and automobile related behaviors. County juvenile records analyzed by the logit procedure showed that class participants had a significantly lower number of repeat offenses compared to non-program participants that could not be explained by race, offense severity, age or gender.

  13. [Studies of genetic polymorphism of CYP450 2E1 among the Tibetan populations in Qinghai Province and its effect on drinking behavior].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lili; Liu, Hui; Jia, Shizhong; Zhang, Benzhong

    2013-05-01

    In order to explore the effect of genetic polymorphism of CYP450 2El among the Tibetan population in Qinghai and its relationship to drinking behavior. By the self-reported questionnaires of 325 Tibetan male who contain 193 drinkers and 132 non-drinkers, we analyzed the relationship between drinking behavior and the genetic polymorphism of CYP450 2El by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. So does the 266 Han nationalism. Single variable analysis showed the drinking prevalence was related to occupation, educational status, economic income, marital status and smoking (P<0.05). There were no statistical significant differences of genotypes and alleles between male Tibetan and Han population (P>0.05). The three genotypes (cl/cl, cl/c2, c2/c2) and the two alleles (cl, c2) of CYP450 2El had statistical significant differences (P<0.05) between drinkers and non-drinkers in Tibetan population, and the drinkers had higher frequencies of cl/c2 genotype and c2 allele than that of the opposite group. Compared with safe drinkers, the frequency of c2 allele in the group of dangerous was higher. The related degree of drinking behavior and amount with c2 allele were 0.17 and 0.20. The multivariate statistical analysis showed that CYP450 2E1, incomes and smoking were independent. CYP450 2E1 is the mostly influence factor to drinking behavior in male Tibetan population.

  14. Teenage Drinking and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lis-Marie

    1975-01-01

    This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)

  15. Teenage Drinking and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lis-Marie

    1975-01-01

    This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)

  16. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  17. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  19. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons’ Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954

  20. A Behavioral Economic Reward Index Predicts Drinking Resolutions: Moderation Revisited and Compared with Other Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Roth, David L.; Vignolo, Mary J.; Westfall, Andrew O.

    2009-01-01

    Data were pooled from 3 studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1- to 2-year prospective follow-up…

  1. Evaluation of an Educational Intervention upon Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Concerning Drinking/Drugged Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooler, James M.; Bruvold, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated educational program for juveniles found guilty of driving under the influence (DUI). Of 600 juveniles convicted of DUI, 100 participated in program. Participants demonstrated increased knowledge, stronger attitudes against DUI, and less risky alcohol- and automobile-related behaviors following intervention. Class participants had…

  2. Drinking Motives, Alcohol Expectancies, Self-Efficacy, and Drinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wiers, Reinout; Lemmers, Lex; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2005-01-01

    The current study focused on the associations between drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and drinking behavior in a representative sample of 553 Dutch adolescents and adults. Data were gathered by means of self-report questionnaires and a 14-days drinking diary. A model was postulated in which negative expectancies and…

  3. How much can you drink before driving? The influence of riding with impaired adults and peers on the driving behaviors of urban and rural youth.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Foran, Kathleen; Grove-White, Aidan

    2008-04-01

    Following an ecological model to specify risks for impaired driving, we assessed the effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults and peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on the youths' own driving after drinking or using cannabis. Participants were 2594 students in grades 10 and 12 (mean age = 16 years and 2 months; 50% girls) from public high schools in urban (994) and rural communities (1600) on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada; 1192 of these were new drivers with restricted licenses. Self-report data were collected in anonymous questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults or peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on youth driving. Youth driving risk behaviors were associated independently with their own high-risk attitudes and experiences riding with peers who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. However, risks were highest for the youth who also report more frequent experiences of riding with adults who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. Prevention efforts should be expanded to include the adults and peers who are role models for new drivers and to increase youths' awareness of their own responsibilities for their personal safety as passengers.

  4. Contribution of time of drinking onset and family history of alcohol problems in alcohol and drug use behaviors in Argentinean college students.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, Angelina; Caneto, Florencia; Garimaldi, Javier Alejandro; Vera, Belén Del Valle; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze independent and potential interactive effects of age at drinking onset and family history of alcohol abuse on subsequent patterns of alcohol drinking, alcohol-related problems and substance use. Participants were college students (60.3% females, mean age = 20.27 ± 2.54 years) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several measures were used to assess alcohol, tobacco and drug use. The Spanish version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire was used to assess alcohol-related problems. Factorial analyses of variance, or its non-parametric equivalent, were performed to explore differences in substance use behaviors and alcohol-related problems in subjects with early or late drinking onset and with or without family history of alcohol abuse. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the association between these two risk factors and categorical measures of alcohol, tobacco and drug use. Early onset of drinking was associated with amount of consumption of alcohol including up to hazardous levels, as well as tobacco and drug use. However, the frequency of alcohol problems and frequency of episodes of alcohol intoxication were only related to age of onset in those with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Delaying drinking debut is particularly important in the prevention of future alcohol problems in those adolescents who have a family history of such problems.

  5. Reducing Drinking Among Junior Enlisted Air Force Members in Five Communities: Early Findings of the EUDL Program's Influence on Self-Reported Drinking Behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Christopher; Franklin, Keita; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Kunz, John F.; Szoc, Ronald Z.; Thomas, Randall K.; Cambridge, Milton H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the fall of 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention awarded discretionary grants to five communities in four states as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. These 3-year grants were designed to support implementation of a set of interventions using an environmental strategies approach to reduce drinking and associated alcohol-related misconducts among active-duty Air Force members ages 18–25, with a specific focus on the underage population. The current article presents findings from Year 1 of the evaluation. Method: Data on alcohol use were obtained from a large-scale, anonymous survey that fielded in the spring of 2006 (i.e., pretest) and the spring of 2008 (i.e., posttest) from a stratified random sample of Air Force members at five demonstration and five comparison communities. Results: The percentage of junior enlisted personnel at risk for an alcohol problem dropped 6.6% in the Air Force overall during the last 2 years but dropped as much as 13.6% and 9.8% in two Arizona demonstration communities that implemented the intervention. Conclusions: The first-year results suggest that the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws intervention may have been one factor that helped to reduce the percentage of junior enlisted Air Force members at risk for an alcohol problem in the demonstration communities. PMID:20409431

  6. Drinking refusal self-efficacy and tension-reduction alcohol expectancies moderating the relationship between generalized anxiety and drinking behaviors in young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Abigail A; Thompson, Rachel D; Black, Jessica J; Tran, Giao Q; Smith, Joshua P

    2012-03-01

    Despite the substantial comorbidity between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD), little is known about contributing factors to this relationship. This lack of knowledge has limited the development of theoretical models explicating the interesting yet complex relationship between GAD and AUD. The current study examined the roles of generalized anxiety, tension-reduction alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy in accounting for the variance of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of young adult drinkers (N = 474; 18-25 years of age, median age 19, 66% female) from a large, urban Midwestern university. Results showed that generalized anxiety level interacted with both tension-reduction alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy to predict alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Findings support the assessment of both alcohol-related consequences and alcohol consumption, and highlight the importance of drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is a currently underexamined variable. Study results also enhance the knowledge about the underlining mechanisms of GAD and AUD comorbidity, which facilitates the development of an empirically based theoretical paradigm for their relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. NMDA Receptor Antagonism: Escalation of Aggressive Behavior in Alcohol-drinking Mice

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Emily L.; Chu, Adam; Bahamón, Brittany; Takahashi, Aki; DeBold, Joseph F.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Memantine is a potential treatment for alcoholic patients, yet few studies investigate the effect of concurrent treatment with memantine and ethanol on aggression. We evaluated aggressive behavior following ethanol consumption and treatment with glutamatergic drugs to characterize interactions between these compounds. Objective To use rodent models of aggression to examine interactions between glutamatergic compounds and ethanol. Materials and Methods Once male CFW mice reliably self-administered 1 g/kg ethanol or water, they were assessed for aggression in resident-intruder confrontations. Alternatively, aggression was evaluated following a social-instigation procedure. Animals were then injected with memantine, ketamine, neramexane, MTEP or LY379268 before aggressive confrontations. Effects of the pharmacological manipulations on salient aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed. Results Moderate doses of memantine, neramexane and MTEP interacted with ethanol to increase the frequency of attack bites while ketamine did not. The highest dose of LY379268, an mGluR2/3 agonist, reduced both aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors after water and ethanol self-administration. Attack bites increased with social instigation and decreased with administration of high doses of MTEP and LY379268. Memantine and MTEP both reduced attack bite frequency in the instigation condition without reducing locomotor behavior. Conclusions Memantine and neramexane interacted with ethanol to heighten aggression. The binding characteristics of these compounds allow for ‘partial trapping’ by which some NMDARs are unblocked between depolarizations. We propose that this feature may contribute to the differential aggression-heightening interactions between these compounds and ethanol. MTEP also interacted with ethanol to escalate aggression, possibly through inhibition of mGluR5 modulation of NMDARs. PMID:22588250

  8. Teenage Drinking: Does Advertising Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed teenagers (grades 7-12) about their drinking behavior, their exposure to alcohol advertising, relevant demographic information, and other communication influences. Concluded that exposure to alcohol advertising is significantly associated with teenage drinking behavior and intentions. (PD)

  9. Continuous and Intermittent Alcohol Free-Choice from Pre-gestational Time to Lactation: Focus on Drinking Trajectories and Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brancato, Anna; Plescia, Fulvio; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation induces detrimental consequences, that are not limited to the direct in utero effects of the drug on fetuses, but extend to maternal care. However, the occurrence and severity of alcohol toxicity are related to the drinking pattern and the time of exposure. The present study investigated in female rats long-term alcohol drinking trajectories, by a continuous and intermittent free-choice paradigm, during pre-gestational time, pregnancy, and lactation; moreover, the consequences of long-term alcohol consumption on the response to natural reward and maternal behavior were evaluated. Methods: Virgin female rats were exposed to home-cage two-bottle continuous- or intermittent “alcohol (20% v/v) vs. water” choice regimen along 12 weeks and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Animals were tested for saccharin preference, and maternal behavior was assessed by recording dams' undisturbed spontaneous home-cage behavior in the presence of their offspring. Results: Our results show that the intermittent alcohol drinking-pattern induced an escalation in alcohol intake during pre-gestational time and lactation more than the continuous access, while a reduction in alcohol consumption was observed during pregnancy, contrarily to the drinking trajectories of the continuous access-exposed rats. Long-term voluntary alcohol intake induced a decreased saccharin preference in virgin female rats and a significant reduction in maternal care, with respect to control dams, although the intermittent drinking produced a greater impairment than the continuous-access paradigm. Conclusion: The present data indicate that both alcohol-drinking patterns are associated to modifications in the drinking trajectories of female rats, in pre-gestational time, during pregnancy and lactation. Moreover, long-lasting alcohol intake can affect sensitivity to natural rewarding stimuli and maternal behavior and sensitivity to natural rewarding

  10. Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  11. Effects of central administration of oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin on chronic inflammation and feeding/drinking behaviors in adjuvant arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takanori; Kawasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Motojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Ueno, Hiromichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Sabanai, Ken; Mori, Toshiharu; Ohnishi, Hideo; Sakai, Akinori; Ueta, Yoichi

    2016-05-16

    An increase in the arthritis index as a marker of chronic inflammation and suppression of food intake are observed in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rats. Our previous study demonstrated that central oxytocin (OXT)-ergic pathways were activated potently in AA rats. In the present study, OXT-saporin (SAP) cytotoxin, which chemically disrupts OXT signaling was administered centrally to determine whether central OXT may be involved in the developments of chronic inflammation and alteration of feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. The arthritis index was significantly enhanced in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered intrathecally (i.t.) but not intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Suppression of food intake was significantly attenuated transiently in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered i.c.v. but not i.t. Suppression of drinking behavior was not affected by i.t. or i.c.v. administration of OXT-SAP in AA rats. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of an OXT receptor antagonist did not change the arthritis index or feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. These results suggest that central OXT-ergic pathways may be involved in anti-inflammation at the spinal level and suppression of feeding behavior at the forebrain-brainstem level in AA rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Romano, Megan E; Gallagher, Lisa G; Winter, Michael R; Martin, Brett R; Vieira, Veronica M; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Ozonoff, David M

    2011-12-02

    Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood. These findings should be confirmed in follow

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Traumatic Experiences and Drinking Behavior Among Women Attending Alcohol-Serving Venues in a South African Township

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. Method: A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0–7) and drinking behavior. Results: The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0–34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17–85, SD = 16.3), with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the “other” category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Conclusions: Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address

  14. Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces drinking behavior and is differentially engaged by water and food intakes in rats.

    PubMed

    McKay, Naomi J; Galante, Daniela L; Daniels, Derek

    2014-12-03

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the ileum and the nucleus of the solitary tract. It is well known that GLP-1 controls food intake, but there is a growing literature indicating that GLP-1 also is involved in fluid intake. It is not known, however, if the observed effects are pharmacological or if endogenous GLP-1 and its receptor contribute to physiological fluid intake control. Accordingly, we blocked endogenous GLP-1 by application of a receptor antagonist and measured subsequent drinking. Furthermore, we measured changes in GLP-1-associated gene expression after water intake, and compared the effects of fluid intake to those caused by food intake. Rats injected with the antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) drank more fluid in response to either subcutaneous hypertonic saline or water deprivation with partial rehydration than did vehicle-treated rats. Analysis of licking behavior showed that Ex-9 increased fluid intake by increasing the number of licking bursts, without having an effect on the number of licks per burst, suggesting that endogenous GLP-1 suppresses fluid intake by influencing satiety. Subsequent experiments showed that water intake had a selective effect on central GLP-1-related gene expression, unlike food intake, which affected both central and peripheral GLP-1. Although water and food intakes both affected central GLP-1-relevant gene expression, there were notable differences in the timing of the effect. These results show a novel role of the endogenous GLP-1 system in fluid intake, and indicate that elements of the GLP-1 system can be engaged separately by different forms of ingestive behavior.

  15. Sensitivity to reward and adolescents' unhealthy snacking and drinking behavior: the role of hedonic eating styles and availability.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Goossens, Lien; De Clercq, Bart; Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Huybregts, Lieven; Vervoort, Leentje; Eggermont, Steven; Maes, Lea; Braet, Caroline; Deforche, Benedicte; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2016-02-09

    Although previous research found a positive association between sensitivity to reward (SR) and adolescents' unhealthy snacking and drinking behavior, mechanisms explaining these associations remain to be explored. The present study will therefore examine whether the associations between SR and unhealthy snack and/or sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake are mediated by external and/or emotional eating and if this mediation is moderated by availability at home or at school. Cross-sectional data on snacking, availability of snacks at home and at school, SR (BAS drive scale) and external and emotional eating (Dutch eating behavior questionnaire) of Flemish adolescents (n = 1104, mean age = 14.7 ± 0.8 years; 51 % boys; 18.0% overweight) in 20 schools spread across Flanders were collected. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted using generalized structural equation modeling in three steps: (1) direct association between SR and unhealthy snack or SSB intake, (2) mediation of either external or emotional eating and (3) interaction of home or school availability and emotional or external eating. Partial mediation of external eating (a*b = 0.69, p < 0.05) and of emotional eating (a*b = 0.92, p < 0.01) in the relation between SR and intake of unhealthy snacks was found (step 2). The relation between SR and SSB intake was not mediated by external or emotional eating (step 2). No moderation effects of home or school availability were found (step 3). Our findings indicate that the association between SR and the consumption of unhealthy snacks is partially explained by external and emotional eating in a population-based sample of adolescents irrespective of the home or school availability of these foods.

  16. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  17. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  18. Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984–2010

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Kerr, William C.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women. Methods Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed. Results Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men. Conclusions Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes. PMID:25395917

  19. Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984-2010.

    PubMed

    Polcin, Douglas L; Korcha, Rachael A; Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women. Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed. Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men. Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes.

  20. Acamprosate {monocalcium bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate)} reduces ethanol-drinking behavior in rats and glutamate-induced toxicity in ethanol-exposed primary rat cortical neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Oka, Michiko; Hirouchi, Masaaki; Tamura, Masaru; Sugahara, Seishi; Oyama, Tatsuya

    2013-10-15

    Acamprosate, the calcium salt of bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate), contributes to the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients, but its mechanism of action in the central nervous system is unclear. Here, we report the effect of acamprosate on ethanol-drinking behavior in standard laboratory Wistar rats, including voluntary ethanol consumption and the ethanol-deprivation effect. After forced ethanol consumption arranged by the provision of only one drinking bottle containing 10% ethanol, the rats were given a choice between two drinking bottles, one containing water and the other containing 10% ethanol. In rats selected for high ethanol preference, repeated oral administration of acamprosate diminished voluntary ethanol drinking. After three months of continuous access to two bottles, rats were deprived of ethanol for three days and then presented with two bottles again. After ethanol deprivation, ethanol