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Sample records for drive neutralization escape

  1. Complete mapping of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying viral mutations that confer escape from antibodies is crucial for understanding the interplay between immunity and viral evolution. We describe a high-throughput approach to quantify the selection that monoclonal antibodies exert on all single amino-acid mutations to a viral protein. This approach, mutational antigenic profiling, involves creating all replication-competent protein variants of a virus, selecting with antibody, and using deep sequencing to identify enriched mutations. We use mutational antigenic profiling to comprehensively identify mutations that enable influenza virus to escape four monoclonal antibodies targeting hemagglutinin, and validate key findings with neutralization assays. We find remarkable mutation-level idiosyncrasy in antibody escape: for instance, at a single residue targeted by two antibodies, some mutations escape both antibodies while other mutations escape only one or the other. Because mutational antigenic profiling rapidly maps all mutations selected by an antibody, it is useful for elucidating immune specificities and interpreting the antigenic consequences of viral genetic variation. PMID:28288189

  2. Neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks is reviewed. Experiments are discussed where neutral beams have been used to drive current directly and also indirectly through neoclassical effects. Application of the theory to an experimental test reactor is described. It is shown that neutral beams formed from negative ions accelerated to 500 to 700 keV are needed for this device.

  3. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Bates, John T; Keefer, Christopher J; Slaughter, James C; Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R; Crowe, James E

    2014-04-01

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (Kon) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (Koff) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced Kon with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased Kon found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants.

  4. Power threshold for neutral beam current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Politzer, P.A. ); Porter, G.D. )

    1989-10-02

    For fully noninductive current drive in tokamaks using neutral beams, there is a power and density threshold condition, setting a minimum value for P{sup 3/2}/n{sup 2}. If this condition is not met, stationary state cannot occur, and a tokamak discharge will collapse. This is a consequence of the coupling between current and electron temperature, or between current drive efficiency and energy confinement time. 4 figs.

  5. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schief, William R.

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  6. Escape From Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Affects Henipavirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Borisevich, Viktoriya; Lee, Benhur; Hickey, Andrew; DeBuysscher, Blair; Broder, Christopher C; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2016-02-01

    Henipaviruses are zoonotic viruses that can cause severe and acute respiratory diseases and encephalitis in humans. To date, no vaccine or treatments are approved for human use. The presence of neutralizing antibodies is a strong correlate of protection against lethal disease in animals. However, since RNA viruses are prone to high mutation rates, the possibility that these viruses will escape neutralization remains a potential concern. In the present study, we generated neutralization-escape mutants, using 6 different monoclonal antibodies, and studied the effect of these neutralization-escape mutations on in vitro and in vivo fitness. These data provide a mechanism for overcoming neutralization escape by use of cocktails of cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize residues within the glycoprotein that are important for virus replication and virulence.

  7. Escape From Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Affects Henipavirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Borisevich, Viktoriya; Lee, Benhur; Hickey, Andrew; DeBuysscher, Blair; Broder, Christopher C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Henipaviruses are zoonotic viruses that can cause severe and acute respiratory diseases and encephalitis in humans. To date, no vaccine or treatments are approved for human use. The presence of neutralizing antibodies is a strong correlate of protection against lethal disease in animals. However, since RNA viruses are prone to high mutation rates, the possibility that these viruses will escape neutralization remains a potential concern. In the present study, we generated neutralization-escape mutants, using 6 different monoclonal antibodies, and studied the effect of these neutralization-escape mutations on in vitro and in vivo fitness. These data provide a mechanism for overcoming neutralization escape by use of cocktails of cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize residues within the glycoprotein that are important for virus replication and virulence. PMID:26357909

  8. JC polyomavirus mutants escape antibody-mediated neutralization.

    PubMed

    Ray, Upasana; Cinque, Paola; Gerevini, Simonetta; Longo, Valeria; Lazzarin, Adriano; Schippling, Sven; Martin, Roland; Buck, Christopher B; Pastrana, Diana V

    2015-09-23

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) persistently infects the urinary tract of most adults. Under conditions of immune impairment, JCV causes an opportunistic brain disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV strains found in the cerebrospinal fluid of PML patients contain distinctive mutations in surface loops of the major capsid protein, VP1. We hypothesized that VP1 mutations might allow the virus to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Consistent with this hypothesis, neutralization serology revealed that plasma samples from PML patients neutralized wild-type JCV strains but failed to neutralize patient-cognate PML-mutant JCV strains. This contrasted with serological results for healthy individuals, most of whom robustly cross-neutralized all tested JCV variants. Mice administered a JCV virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine initially showed neutralizing "blind spots" (akin to those observed in PML patients) that closed after booster immunization. A PML patient administered an experimental JCV VLP vaccine likewise showed markedly increased neutralizing titer against her cognate PML-mutant JCV. The results indicate that deficient humoral immunity is a common aspect of PML pathogenesis and that vaccination may overcome this humoral deficiency. Thus, vaccination with JCV VLPs might prevent the development of PML.

  9. CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody selection of HIV-1 escape mutants.

    PubMed

    Dreja, Hanna; Pade, Corinna; Chen, Lei; McKnight, Áine

    2015-07-01

    All human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) viruses use CD4 to enter cells. Consequently, the viral envelope CD4-binding site (CD4bs) is relatively conserved, making it a logical neutralizing antibody target. It is important to understand how CD4-binding site variation allows for escape from neutralizing antibodies. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identifies residues in antigenic sites, whereas escape mutant selection identifies viable mutants. We selected HIV-1 to escape CD4bs neutralizing mAbs b12, A12 and HJ16. Viruses that escape from A12 and b12 remained susceptible to HJ16, VRC01 and J3, whilst six different viruses that escape HJ16 remained sensitive to A12, b12 and J3. In contrast, their sensitivity to VRC01 was variable. Triple HJ16/A12/b12-resistant virus proved that HIV-1 could escape multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, but still retain sensitivity to VRC01 and the llama-derived J3 nanobody. This antigenic variability may reflect that occurring in circulating viruses, so studies like this can predict immunologically relevant antigenic forms of the CD4bs for inclusion in HIV-1 vaccines.

  10. Distribution and escape of the major neutral species from Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Tucker, Orenthal; Borovikov, Dmitry; Combi, Michael R.

    2016-10-01

    Titan possesses the most significant atmosphere among all satellites in the Solar system, and is an important source of material for the Saturn's magnetosphere. Understanding of the neutral species distribution and escape is important for further understanding of the Titan's atmosphere evolution and loss.The first in situ observations of the Titan's atmosphere were performed by Voyager and continued by Cassini, which measured the atmospheric composition, velocity and temperature, as well as the energy spectra of neutral species, ions and electrons. Analysis and interpretation of the acquired data involves coupled modeling of the Saturn magnetosphere and Titan's atmosphere.Having that in mind we have undertaken numerical modeling of the major neutral species (N2 and CH4) in Titan's upper atmosphere to investigate the effect of the solar EUV and magnetospheric ion energy deposition on the neutral species atmospheric distribution and escape. This modeling combines MHD simulation of the Saturn's magnetosphere plasma interacting with Titan's atmosphere, fluid type simulation of the neutral species in Titan's lower atmosphere, and kinetic modeling of the upper atmosphere and exosphere. Here we present estimations of the neutral species escape rate, and discuss the effect of the magnetospheric ion energy deposition on the atmospheric escape concluded from the results of our modeling.This work was supported by NASA Outer Planet Research grant NNX13AL04G.

  11. Two Escape Mechanisms of Influenza A Virus to a Broadly Neutralizing Stalk-Binding Antibody.

    PubMed

    Chai, Ning; Swem, Lee R; Reichelt, Mike; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Luis, Elizabeth; Park, Summer; Fouts, Ashley; Lupardus, Patrick; Wu, Thomas D; Li, Olga; McBride, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Michael; Xu, Min; Tan, Man-Wah

    2016-06-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the stalk region of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) are effective in blocking virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. The highly conserved epitopes recognized by these antibodies are critical for the membrane fusion function of HA and therefore less likely to be permissive for virus mutational escape. Here we report three resistant viruses of the A/Perth/16/2009 strain that were selected in the presence of a broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibody. The three resistant viruses harbor three different mutations in the HA stalk: (1) Gln387Lys; (2) Asp391Tyr; (3) Asp391Gly. The Gln387Lys mutation completely abolishes binding of the antibody to the HA stalk epitope. The other two mutations, Asp391Tyr and Asp391Gly, do not affect antibody binding at neutral pH and only slightly reduce binding at low pH. Interestingly, they enhance the fusion ability of the HA, representing a novel mechanism that allows productive membrane fusion even in the presence of antibody and hence virus escape from antibody neutralization. Therefore, these mutations illustrate two different resistance mechanisms used by IAV to escape broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibodies. Compared to the wild type virus, the resistant viruses release fewer progeny viral particles during replication and are more sensitive to Tamiflu, suggesting reduced viral fitness.

  12. Two Escape Mechanisms of Influenza A Virus to a Broadly Neutralizing Stalk-Binding Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ning; Swem, Lee R.; Reichelt, Mike; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Luis, Elizabeth; Park, Summer; Fouts, Ashley; Lupardus, Patrick; Wu, Thomas D.; Li, Olga; McBride, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Michael; Xu, Min; Tan, Man-Wah

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the stalk region of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) are effective in blocking virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. The highly conserved epitopes recognized by these antibodies are critical for the membrane fusion function of HA and therefore less likely to be permissive for virus mutational escape. Here we report three resistant viruses of the A/Perth/16/2009 strain that were selected in the presence of a broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibody. The three resistant viruses harbor three different mutations in the HA stalk: (1) Gln387Lys; (2) Asp391Tyr; (3) Asp391Gly. The Gln387Lys mutation completely abolishes binding of the antibody to the HA stalk epitope. The other two mutations, Asp391Tyr and Asp391Gly, do not affect antibody binding at neutral pH and only slightly reduce binding at low pH. Interestingly, they enhance the fusion ability of the HA, representing a novel mechanism that allows productive membrane fusion even in the presence of antibody and hence virus escape from antibody neutralization. Therefore, these mutations illustrate two different resistance mechanisms used by IAV to escape broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibodies. Compared to the wild type virus, the resistant viruses release fewer progeny viral particles during replication and are more sensitive to Tamiflu, suggesting reduced viral fitness. PMID:27351973

  13. HIV-1 resistance to neutralizing antibodies: Determination of antibody concentrations leading to escape mutant evolution.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Carsten; Reh, Lucia; Trkola, Alexandra

    2016-06-15

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are considered vital components of novel therapeutics and blueprints for vaccine research. Yet escape to even the most potent of these antibodies is imminent in natural infection. Measures to define antibody efficacy and prevent mutant selection are thus urgently needed. Here, we derive a mathematical framework to predict the concentration ranges for which antibody escape variants can outcompete their viral ancestors, referred to as mutant selection window (MSW). When determining the MSW, we focus on the differential efficacy of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in two canonical infection routes, free-virus infection and cell-cell transmission. The latter has proven highly effective in vitro suggesting its importance for both in vivo spread as well as for escaping targeted intervention strategies. We observed a range of MSW patterns that highlight the potential of mutants to arise in both transmission pathways and over wide concentration ranges. Most importantly, we found that only when the arising mutant has both, residual sensitivity to the neutralizing antibody and reduced infectivity compared to the parental virus, antibody dosing outside of the MSW to restrict mutant selection is possible. Emergence of mutants that provide complete escape and have no considerable fitness loss cannot be prevented by adjusting antibody doses. The latter may in part explain the ubiquitous resistance to neutralizing antibodies observed in natural infection and antibody treatment. Based on our findings, combinations of antibodies targeting different epitopes should be favored for antibody-based interventions as this may render complete resistance less likely to occur and also increase chances that multiple escapes result in severe fitness loss of the virus making longer-term antibody treatment more feasible.

  14. Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Virus Escape

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Katharine J.; Tsao, Chun-yen; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Decker, Julie M.; Yang, Yongping; Bonsignori, Mattia; Chen, Xi; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Hraber, Peter; Fischer, William; Li, Hui; Wang, Shuyi; Sterrett, Sarah; Keele, Brandon F.; Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Perelson, Alan S.; Korber, Bette T.; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Pavlicek, Jeffrey W.; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kwong, Peter D.; Shaw, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab) responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC50) selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1–V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical infection is typically

  15. Neutralization escape mutants define a dominant immunogenic neutralization site on hepatitis A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.T.; Lemon, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an hepatotrophic human picornavirus which demonstrates little antigenic variability. To topologically map immunogenic sites on hepatitis A virus which elicit neutralizing antibodies, eight neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were evaluated in competition immunoassays employing radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and HM-175 virus. Whereas two antibodies (K3-4C8 and K3-2F2) bound to intimately overlapping epitopes, the epitope bound by a third antibody (B5-B3) was distinctly different as evidenced by a lack of competition between antibodies for binding to the virus. The other five antibodies variably blocked the binding of both K3-4C8-K3-2F2 and B5-B3, suggesting that these epitopes are closely spaced and perhaps part of a single neutralization immunogenic site. Several combinations of monoclonal antibodies blocked the binding of polyclonal human convalescent antibody by greater than 96%, indicating that the neutralization epitopes bound by these antibodies are immunodominant in humans. Spontaneously arising HM-175 mutants were selected for resistance to monoclonal antibody-mediated neutralization. Neutralization resistance was associated with reduced antibody binding. These results suggest that hepatitis A virus may differ from poliovirus in possessing a single, dominant neutralization immunogenic site and therefore may be a better candidate for synthetic peptide or antiidiotype vaccine development.

  16. Non-linear diffusion of cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnants - I. The effect of neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Gabici, S.; Marcowith, A.; Morlino, G.; Ptuskin, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the main sources of galactic cosmic rays (CR). Within this framework, particles are accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and then released in the interstellar medium. The mechanism through which CRs are released and the way in which they propagate still remain open issues. The main difficulty is the high non-linearity of the problem: CRs themselves excite the magnetic turbulence that confines them close to their sources. We solve numerically the coupled differential equations describing the evolution in space and time of the escaping particles and of the waves generated through the CR streaming instability. The warm ionized and warm neutral phases of the interstellar medium are considered. These phases occupy the largest fraction of the disc volume, where most supernovae explode, and are characterized by the significant presence of neutral particles. The friction between those neutrals and ions results in a very effective wave damping mechanism. It is found that streaming instability affects the propagation of CRs even in the presence of ion-neutral friction. The diffusion coefficient can be suppressed by more than a factor of ˜2 over a region of few tens of pc around the remnant. The suppression increases for smaller distances. The propagation of ≈10 GeV particles is affected for several tens of kiloyears after escape, while ≈1 TeV particles are affected for few kiloyears. This might have a great impact on the interpretation of gamma-ray observations of molecular clouds located in the vicinity of supernova remnants.

  17. Precipitation of energetic neutral atoms and induced non-thermal escape fluxes from the Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V.

    2014-08-01

    The precipitation of energetic neutral atoms, produced through charge exchange collisions between solar wind ions and thermal atmospheric gases, is investigated for the Martian atmosphere. Connections between parameters of precipitating fast ions and resulting escape fluxes, altitude-dependent energy distributions of fast atoms and their coefficients of reflection from the Mars atmosphere, are established using accurate cross sections in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Distributions of secondary hot (SH) atoms and molecules, induced by precipitating particles, have been obtained and applied for computations of the non-thermal escape fluxes. A new collisional database on accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections, required for description of the energy-momentum transfer in collisions of precipitating particles and production of non-thermal atmospheric atoms and molecules, is reported with analytic fitting equations. Three-dimensional MC simulations with accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections have been carried out to track large ensembles of energetic atoms in a time-dependent manner as they propagate into the Martian atmosphere and transfer their energy to the ambient atoms and molecules. Results of the MC simulations on the energy-deposition altitude profiles, reflection coefficients, and time-dependent atmospheric heating, obtained for the isotropic hard sphere and anisotropic quantum cross sections, are compared. Atmospheric heating rates, thermalization depths, altitude profiles of production rates, energy distributions of SH atoms and molecules, and induced escape fluxes have been determined.

  18. Neutral beam current drive scaling in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G.D.; Bhadra, D.K.; Burrell, K.H.; Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Ferron, J.R.; James, R.A.; Kellman, A.G.; Kim, J.; Matsuoka, M.

    1989-03-01

    Neutral beam current drive scaling experiments have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. These experiments were performed using up to 10 MW of 80 keV hydrogen beams. Previous current drive experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated beam driven currents up to 340 kA. In the experiments reported here we achieved beam driven currents of at least 500 kA, and have obtained operation with record values of poloidal beta (epsilon..beta../sub p/ = 1.4). The beam driven current reported here is obtained from the total plasma current by subtracting an estimate of the residual Ohmic current determined from the measured loop voltage. In this report we discuss the scaling of the current drive efficiency with plasma conditions. Using hydrogen neutral beams, we find the current drive efficiency is similar in Deuterium and Helium target plasmas. Experiments have been performed with plasma electron temperatures up to T/sub e/ = 3 keV, and densities in the range 2 /times/ 10/sup 19/m/sup /minus/3/ < n/sub e/ < 4 /times/ 10/sup 19/m/sup /minus/3/. The current drive efficiency (nIR/P) is observed to scale linearly with the energy confinement time on DIII-D to a maximum of 0.05 /times/ 10/sup 20/m/sup /minus/2/ A/W. The measured efficiency is consistent with a 0-D theoretical model. In addition to comparison with this simple model, detailed analysis of several shots using the time dependent transport code ONETWO is discussed. This analysis indicates that bootstrap current contributes approximately 10--20% of the the total current. Our estimates of this effect are somewhat uncertain due to limited measurements of the radial profile of the density and temperatures. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Characterization of Poliovirus Neutralization Escape Mutants of Single-Domain Antibody Fragments (VHHs)

    PubMed Central

    Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Strauss, Mike; Filman, David J.; Rombaut, Bart

    2015-01-01

    To complete the eradication of poliovirus and to protect unvaccinated people subsequently, the development of one or more antiviral drugs will be necessary. A set of five single-domain antibody fragments (variable parts of the heavy chain of a heavy-chain antibody [VHHs]) with an in vitro neutralizing activity against poliovirus type 1 was developed previously (B. Thys, L. Schotte, S. Muyldermans, U. Wernery, G. Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, and B. Rombaut, Antiviral Res 87:257–264, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.05.012), and their mechanisms of action have been studied (L. Schotte, M. Strauss, B. Thys, H. Halewyck, D. J. Filman, M. Bostina, J. M. Hogle, and B. Rombaut, J Virol 88:4403–4413, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03402-13). In this study, neutralization escape mutants were selected for each VHH. Sequencing of the P1 region of the genome showed that amino acid substitutions are found in the four viral proteins of the capsid and that they are located both in proximity to the binding sites of the VHHs and in regions further away from the canyon and hidden beneath the surface. Characterization of the mutants demonstrated that they have single-cycle replication kinetics that are similar to those of their parental strain and that they are all drug (VHH) independent. Their resistant phenotypes are stable, as they do not regain full susceptibility to the VHH after passage over HeLa cells in the absence of VHH. They are all at least as stable as the parental strain against heat inactivation at 44°C, and three of them are even significantly (P < 0.05) more resistant to heat inactivation. The resistant variants all still can be neutralized by at least two other VHHs and retain full susceptibility to pirodavir and 35-1F4. PMID:26014941

  20. Neutral and Selective Processes Drive Population Differentiation for Iris hexagona

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow among widespread populations can be reduced by geographical distance or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation. In this study, we tested for the divergence of phenotypes and genotypes among 8 populations of Iris hexagona. Using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach, we generated a panel of 750 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used population genetic analyses to determine what may affect patterns of divergence across I. hexagona populations. Specifically, genetic differentiation was compared between populations at neutral and nonneutral SNPs and detected significant differences between the 2 types of markers. We then asked whether loci with the strongest degree of population genetic differentiation were also the loci with the strongest association to morphology or climate differences, allowing us to test if pollinators or climate drive population differentiation or some combination of both. We found 2 markers that were associated with morphology and 1 marker associated with 2 of the environmental variables, which were also identified in the outlier analysis. We then show that the SNPs putatively under selection were positively correlated with both geographic distance and phenotypic distance, albeit weakly to phenotypic distance. Moreover, neutral SNPs were only correlated with geographic distance and thus isolation-by-distance was observed for neutral SNPs. Our data suggest that both deterministic and neutral processes have contributed to the evolutionary trajectory of I. hexagona populations. PMID:26163584

  1. Direct activation of the Mauthner cell by electric field pulses drives ultrarapid escape responses

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Kathryn M.; Bergeron, Sadie A.; Horstick, Eric J.; Jordan, Diana C.; Aho, Vilma; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Haspel, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Rapid escape swims in fish are initiated by the Mauthner cells, giant reticulospinal neurons with unique specializations for swift responses. The Mauthner cells directly activate motoneurons and facilitate predator detection by integrating acoustic, mechanosensory, and visual stimuli. In addition, larval fish show well-coordinated escape responses when exposed to electric field pulses (EFPs). Sensitization of the Mauthner cell by genetic overexpression of the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN5 increased EFP responsiveness, whereas Mauthner ablation with an engineered variant of nitroreductase with increased activity (epNTR) eliminated the response. The reaction time to EFPs is extremely short, with many responses initiated within 2 ms of the EFP. Large neurons, such as Mauthner cells, show heightened sensitivity to extracellular voltage gradients. We therefore tested whether the rapid response to EFPs was due to direct activation of the Mauthner cells, bypassing delays imposed by stimulus detection and transmission by sensory cells. Consistent with this, calcium imaging indicated that EFPs robustly activated the Mauthner cell but only rarely fired other reticulospinal neurons. Further supporting this idea, pharmacological blockade of synaptic transmission in zebrafish did not affect Mauthner cell activity in response to EFPs. Moreover, Mauthner cells transgenically expressing a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel retained responses to EFPs despite TTX suppression of action potentials in the rest of the brain. We propose that EFPs directly activate Mauthner cells because of their large size, thereby driving ultrarapid escape responses in fish. PMID:24848468

  2. A transmission/escape probabilities model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W.M.

    1992-12-01

    A new computational model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak plasma chamber is presented. The model is based on the calculation of transmission and escape probabilities using first-flight integral transport theory and the balancing of fluxes across the surfaces bounding the various regions. The geometrical complexity of the problem is included in precomputed probabilities which depend only on the mean free path of the region.

  3. Effects of MHD instabilities on neutral beam current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Podestà, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; White, R. B.

    2015-04-17

    One of the primary tools foreseen for heating, current drive (CD) and q-profile control in future fusion reactors such as ITER and a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility is the neutral beam injection (NBI). However, fast ions from NBI may also provide the drive for energetic particle-driven instabilities (e.g. Alfvénic modes (AEs)), which in turn redistribute fast ions in both space and energy, thus hampering the control capabilities and overall efficiency of NB-driven current. Based on experiments on the NSTX tokamak (M. Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), the effects of AEs and other low-frequency magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on NB-CD efficiency are investigated. When looking at the new fast ion transport model, which accounts for particle transport in phase space as required for resonant AE perturbations, is utilized to obtain consistent simulations of NB-CD through the tokamak transport code TRANSP. It is found that instabilities do indeed reduce the NB-driven current density over most of the plasma radius by up to ~50%. Moreover, the details of the current profile evolution are sensitive to the specific model used to mimic the interaction between NB ions and instabilities. Finally, implications for fast ion transport modeling in integrated tokamak simulations are briefly discussed.

  4. Effects of MHD instabilities on neutral beam current drive

    DOE PAGES

    Podestà, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Darrow, D. S.; ...

    2015-04-17

    One of the primary tools foreseen for heating, current drive (CD) and q-profile control in future fusion reactors such as ITER and a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility is the neutral beam injection (NBI). However, fast ions from NBI may also provide the drive for energetic particle-driven instabilities (e.g. Alfvénic modes (AEs)), which in turn redistribute fast ions in both space and energy, thus hampering the control capabilities and overall efficiency of NB-driven current. Based on experiments on the NSTX tokamak (M. Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), the effects of AEs and other low-frequency magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on NB-CDmore » efficiency are investigated. When looking at the new fast ion transport model, which accounts for particle transport in phase space as required for resonant AE perturbations, is utilized to obtain consistent simulations of NB-CD through the tokamak transport code TRANSP. It is found that instabilities do indeed reduce the NB-driven current density over most of the plasma radius by up to ~50%. Moreover, the details of the current profile evolution are sensitive to the specific model used to mimic the interaction between NB ions and instabilities. Finally, implications for fast ion transport modeling in integrated tokamak simulations are briefly discussed.« less

  5. Broad CTL Response in Early HIV Infection Drives Multiple Concurrent CTL Escapes.

    PubMed

    Leviyang, Sivan; Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the ability of HIV to escape from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses that concurrently target multiple viral epitopes. Yet, the viral dynamics involved in such escape are incompletely understood. Previous analyses have made several strong assumptions regarding HIV escape from CTL responses such as independent or non-concurrent escape from individual CTL responses. Using experimental data from evolution of HIV half genomes in four patients we observe concurrent viral escape from multiple CTL responses during early infection (first 100 days of infection), providing confirmation of a recent result found in a study of one HIV-infected patient. We show that current methods of estimating CTL escape rates, based on the assumption of independent escapes, are biased and perform poorly when CTL escape proceeds concurrently at multiple epitopes. We propose a new method for analyzing longitudinal sequence data to estimate the rate of CTL escape across multiple epitopes; this method involves few parameters and performs well in simulation studies. By applying our novel method to experimental data, we find that concurrent multiple escapes occur at rates between 0.03 and 0.4 day(-1), a relatively broad range that reflects uncertainty due to sparse sampling and wide ranges of parameter values. However, we show that concurrent escape at rates 0.1-0.2 day(-1) across multiple epitopes is consistent with our patient datasets.

  6. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE. V. THE IMPACT OF NEUTRAL ISM KINEMATICS AND GEOMETRY ON Lyα ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Adamo, Angela; Orlitová, Ivana; Verhamme, Anne; Schaerer, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Cannon, John M.; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Atek, Hakim; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; and others

    2015-05-20

    We present high-resolution far-UV spectroscopy of the 14 galaxies of the Lyα Reference Sample; a sample of strongly star-forming galaxies at low redshifts (0.028 < z < 0.18). We compare the derived properties to global properties derived from multi-band imaging and 21 cm H i interferometry and single-dish observations, as well as archival optical SDSS spectra. Besides the Lyα line, the spectra contain a number of metal absorption features allowing us to probe the kinematics of the neutral ISM and evaluate the optical depth and and covering fraction of the neutral medium as a function of line of sight velocity. Furthermore, we show how this, in combination with the precise determination of systemic velocity and good Lyα spectra, can be used to distinguish a model in which separate clumps together fully cover the background source, from the “picket fence” model named by Heckman et al. We find that no one single effect dominates in governing Lyα radiative transfer and escape. Lyα escape in our sample coincides with a maximum velocity-binned covering fraction of ≲0.9 and bulk outflow velocities of ≳50 km s{sup −1}, although a number of galaxies show these characteristics and yet little or no Lyα escape. We find that Lyα peak velocities, where available, are not consistent with a strong backscattered component, but rather with a simpler model of an intrinsic emission line overlaid by a blueshifted absorption profile from the outflowing wind. Finally, we find a strong anticorrelation between Hα equivalent width and maximum velocity-binned covering factor, and propose a heuristic explanatory model.

  7. HIV-1 clade C escapes broadly neutralizing autologous antibodies with N332 glycan specificity by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Suprit; Patil, Shilpa; Kumar, Rajesh; Hermanus, Tandile; Murugavel, Kailapuri G; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Solomon, Suniti; Morris, Lynn; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2016-08-30

    The glycan supersite centered on N332 in the V3 base of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) is a target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) such as PGT121 and PGT128. In this study, we examined the basis of resistance of HIV-1 clade C Envs obtained from broadly cross neutralizing (BCN) plasma of an Indian donor with N332 specificity. Pseudotyped viruses expressing autologous envs were found to be resistant to autologous BCN plasma as well as to PGT121 and PGT128 mAbs despite the majority of Envs containing an intact N332 residue. While resistance of one of the Envs to neutralization by autologous plasma antibodies with shorter V1 loop length was found to be correlated with a N332S mutation, resistance to neutralization of rest of the Envs was found to be associated with longer V1 loop length and acquisition of protective N-glycans. In summary, we show evidence of escape of circulating HIV-1 clade C in an individual from autologous BCN antibodies by three distinct mechanisms.

  8. Glycan shifting on hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein is a mechanism for escape from broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pantua, Homer; Diao, Jingyu; Ultsch, Mark; Hazen, Meredith; Mathieu, Mary; McCutcheon, Krista; Takeda, Kentaro; Date, Shailesh; Cheung, Tommy K; Phung, Qui; Hass, Phil; Arnott, David; Hongo, Jo-Anne; Matthews, David J; Brown, Alex; Patel, Arvind H; Kelley, Robert F; Eigenbrot, Charles; Kapadia, Sharookh B

    2013-06-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Glycan shielding has been proposed to be a mechanism by which HCV masks broadly neutralizing epitopes on its viral glycoproteins. However, the role of altered glycosylation in HCV resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies is not fully understood. Here, we have generated potent HCV neutralizing antibodies hu5B3.v3 and MRCT10.v362 that, similar to the previously described AP33 and HCV1, bind to a highly conserved linear epitope on E2. We utilize a combination of in vitro resistance selections using the cell culture infectious HCV and structural analyses to identify mechanisms of HCV resistance to hu5B3.v3 and MRCT10.v362. Ultra deep sequencing from in vitro HCV resistance selection studies identified resistance mutations at asparagine N417 (N417S, N417T and N417G) as early as 5days post treatment. Comparison of the glycosylation status of soluble versions of the E2 glycoprotein containing the respective resistance mutations revealed a glycosylation shift from N417 to N415 in the N417S and N417T E2 proteins. The N417G E2 variant was glycosylated neither at residue 415 nor at residue 417 and remained sensitive to MRCT10.v362. Structural analyses of the E2 epitope bound to hu5B3.v3 Fab and MRCT10.v362 Fab using X-ray crystallography confirmed that residue N415 is buried within the antibody-peptide interface. Thus, in addition to previously described mutations at N415 that abrogate the β-hairpin structure of this E2 linear epitope, we identify a second escape mechanism, termed glycan shifting, that decreases the efficacy of broadly neutralizing HCV antibodies.

  9. The Lyman Alpha Reference Sample. V. The Impact of Neutral ISM Kinematics and Geometry on Lyα Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Orlitová, Ivana; Verhamme, Anne; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Schaerer, Daniel; Cannon, John M.; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Melinder, Jens

    2015-05-01

    We present high-resolution far-UV spectroscopy of the 14 galaxies of the Lyα Reference Sample; a sample of strongly star-forming galaxies at low redshifts (0.028 < z < 0.18). We compare the derived properties to global properties derived from multi-band imaging and 21 cm H i interferometry and single-dish observations, as well as archival optical SDSS spectra. Besides the Lyα line, the spectra contain a number of metal absorption features allowing us to probe the kinematics of the neutral ISM and evaluate the optical depth and and covering fraction of the neutral medium as a function of line of sight velocity. Furthermore, we show how this, in combination with the precise determination of systemic velocity and good Lyα spectra, can be used to distinguish a model in which separate clumps together fully cover the background source, from the “picket fence” model named by Heckman et al. We find that no one single effect dominates in governing Lyα radiative transfer and escape. Lyα escape in our sample coincides with a maximum velocity-binned covering fraction of ≲0.9 and bulk outflow velocities of ≳50 km s-1, although a number of galaxies show these characteristics and yet little or no Lyα escape. We find that Lyα peak velocities, where available, are not consistent with a strong backscattered component, but rather with a simpler model of an intrinsic emission line overlaid by a blueshifted absorption profile from the outflowing wind. Finally, we find a strong anticorrelation between Hα equivalent width and maximum velocity-binned covering factor, and propose a heuristic explanatory model. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO 11522, GO 11727, GO 12027, and GO 12583.

  10. Trivalency of a Nanobody Specific for the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein Drastically Enhances Virus Neutralization and Impacts Escape Mutant Selection.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Detalle, Laurent; Depla, Erik; Cano, Olga; Vázquez, Mónica; Stortelers, Catelijne; Melero, José A

    2016-11-01

    ALX-0171 is a trivalent Nanobody derived from monovalent Nb017 that binds to antigenic site II of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) fusion (F) glycoprotein. ALX-0171 is about 6,000 to 10,000 times more potent than Nb017 in neutralization tests with strains of hRSV antigenic groups A and B. To explore the effect of this enhanced neutralization on escape mutant selection, viruses resistant to either ALX-0171 or Nb017 were isolated after serial passage of the hRSV Long strain in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of the respective Nanobodies. Resistant viruses emerged notably faster with Nb017 than with ALX-0171 and in both cases contained amino acid changes in antigenic site II of hRSV F. Detailed binding and neutralization analyses of these escape mutants as well as previously described mutants resistant to certain monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) offered a comprehensive description of site II mutations which are relevant for neutralization by MAbs and Nanobodies. Notably, ALX-0171 showed a sizeable neutralization potency with most escape mutants, even with some of those selected with the Nanobody, and these findings make ALX-0171 an attractive antiviral for treatment of hRSV infections.

  11. Exploring drive for thinness as a perfectionistic strategy to escape from shame experiences.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Ornelas, Luísa

    2015-05-20

    Perfectionistic self-presentation defines the attempt at presenting the self as perfect through the public concealment of personal defects and/or through the display of attributes perceived as capable to gather positive attention of others. Although perfectionism has long been considered a central aspect of eating psychopathology mediational studies between this construct and these conditions are scarce. This study aimed at examining the mediational role of body image-related perfectionistic self-presentation in the effects of external shame and internal shame on drive for thinness, in a sample of young women. Results revealed body image-related perfectionistic self-presentation as a significant mediator (p < .05) of the relationships between external and internal shame, and drive for thinness. Furthermore, 86% and 69% of the effects of external shame and internal shame, respectively, were explained by their indirect effects through body image-related perfectionistic self-presentation on drive for thinness (95% CI). These results highlight that the control over eating may emerge as a maladaptive strategy to deal with shame when mediated by an endorsement in the belief that presenting a perfect body image is crucial to be accepted and valued by others. Study findings suggest that this perfectionistic strategy should be targeted while treating eating psychopathology.

  12. Off-axis Neutral Beam Current Drive for Advanced Scenario Development in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M; Park, J; Petty, C; Luce, T; Heidbrink, W; Osborne, T; Wade, M; Austin, M; Brooks, N; Budny, R; Challis, C; DeBoo, J; deGrassie, J; Ferron, J; Gohil, P; Hobirk, J; Holcomb, C; Hollmann, E; Hong, R; Hyatt, A; Lohr, J; Lanctot, M; Makowski, M; McCune, D; Politzer, P; Prater, R; John, H S; Suzuki, T; West, W; Unterberg, E; Van Zeeland, M; Yu, J

    2008-10-13

    Modification of the two existing DIII-D neutral beam lines is proposed to allow vertical steering to provide off-axis neutral beam current drive (NBCD) as far off-axis as half the plasma radius. New calculations indicate very good current drive with good localization off-axis as long as the toroidal magnetic field, B{sub T}, and the plasma current, I{sub p}, are in the same direction (for a beam steered downward). The effects of helicity can be large: e.g., ITER off-axis NBCD can be increased by more than 20% if the B{sub T} direction is reversed. This prediction has been tested by an off-axis NBCD experiment using reduced size plasmas that are vertically shifted with the existing NBI on DIII-D. The existence of off-axis NBCD is evident in sawtooth and internal inductance behavior. By shifting the plasma upward or downward, or by changing the sign of the toroidal field, measured off-axis NBCD profiles, determined from MSE data, are consistent with predicted differences (40%-45%) arising from the NBI orientation with respect to the magnetic field lines. Modification of the DIII-D NB system will strongly support scenario development for ITER and future tokamaks as well as providing flexible scientific tools for understanding transport, energetic particles and heating and current drive.

  13. Limited naturally occurring escape in broadly neutralizing antibody epitopes in hepatitis C glycoprotein E2 and constrained sequence usage in acute infection.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Walker, Melanie R; Leung, Preston; Eltahla, Auda A; Grebely, Jason; Dore, Gregory J; Applegate, Tanya; Page, Kimberly; Dwivedi, Sunita; Bruneau, Julie; Morris, Meghan D; Cox, Andrea L; Osburn, William; Kim, Arthur Y; Schinkel, Janke; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lauer, Georg M; Maher, Lisa; Hellard, Margaret; Prins, Maria; Luciani, Fabio; Lloyd, Andrew R; Bull, Rowena A

    2017-04-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been associated with spontaneous clearance of the hepatitis C infection as well as viral persistence by immune escape. Further study of neutralizing antibody epitopes is needed to unravel pathways of resistance to virus neutralization, and to identify conserved regions for vaccine design. All reported broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb) epitopes in the HCV Envelope (E2) glycoprotein were identified. The critical contact residues of these epitopes were mapped onto the linear E2 sequence. All publicly available E2 sequences were then downloaded and the contact residues within the BNAb epitopes were assessed for the level of conservation, as well as the frequency of occurrence of experimentally-proven resistance mutations. Epitopes were also compared between two sequence datasets obtained from samples collected at well-defined time points from acute (<180days) and chronic (>180days) infections, to identify any significant differences in residue usage. The contact residues for all BNAbs were contained within 3 linear regions of the E2 protein sequence. An analysis of 1749 full length E2 sequences from public databases showed that only 10 out of 29 experimentally-proven resistance mutations were present at a frequency >5%. Comparison of subtype 1a viral sequences obtained from samples collected during acute or chronic infection revealed significant differences at positions 610 and 655 with changes in residue (p<0.05), and at position 422 (p<0.001) with a significant difference in variability (entropy). The majority of experimentally-described escape variants do not occur frequently in nature. The observed differences between acute and chronically isolated sequences suggest constraints on residue usage early in infection.

  14. PAK6 targets to cell–cell adhesions through its N-terminus in a Cdc42-dependent manner to drive epithelial colony escape

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Elizabeth M.; Sun, Xiaowen; Olberding, Jordan R.; Ha, Byung Hak; Boggon, Titus J.; Calderwood, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The six serine/threonine kinases in the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family are important regulators of cell adhesion, motility and survival. PAK6, which is overexpressed in prostate cancer, was recently reported to localize to cell–cell adhesions and to drive epithelial cell colony escape. Here we report that PAK6 targeting to cell–cell adhesions occurs through its N-terminus, requiring both its Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain and an adjacent polybasic region for maximal targeting efficiency. We find PAK6 localization to cell–cell adhesions is Cdc42-dependent, as Cdc42 knockdown inhibits PAK6 targeting to cell–cell adhesions. We further find the ability of PAK6 to drive epithelial cell colony escape requires kinase activity and is disrupted by mutations that perturb PAK6 cell–cell adhesion targeting. Finally, we demonstrate that all type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5 and PAK6) target to cell–cell adhesions, albeit to differing extents, but PAK1 (a type I PAK) does not. Notably, the ability of a PAK isoform to drive epithelial colony escape correlates with its targeting to cell–cell adhesions. We conclude that PAKs have a broader role in the regulation of cell–cell adhesions than previously appreciated. PMID:26598554

  15. Applying antibody-sensitive hypervariable region 1-deleted hepatitis C virus to the study of escape pathways of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody AR5A

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Moctezuma, Rodrigo; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of end-stage liver diseases. With 3–4 million new HCV infections yearly, a vaccine is urgently needed. A better understanding of virus escape from neutralizing antibodies and their corresponding epitopes are important for this effort. However, for viral isolates with high antibody resistance, or antibodies with moderate potency, it remains challenging to induce escape mutations in vitro. Here, as proof-of-concept, we used antibody-sensitive HVR1-deleted (ΔHVR1) viruses to generate escape mutants for a human monoclonal antibody, AR5A, targeting a rare cross-genotype conserved epitope. By analyzing the genotype 1a envelope proteins (E1/E2) of recovered Core-NS2 recombinant H77/JFH1ΔHVR1 and performing reverse genetic studies we found that resistance to AR5A was caused by substitution L665W, also conferring resistance to the parental H77/JFH1. The mutation did not induce viral fitness loss, but abrogated AR5A binding to HCV particles and intracellular E1/E2 complexes. Culturing J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 (genotype 2a), for which fitness was decreased by L665W, with AR5A generated AR5A-resistant viruses with the substitutions I345V, L665S, and S680T, which we introduced into J6/JFH1 and J6/JFH1ΔHVR1. I345V increased fitness but had no effect on AR5A resistance. L665S impaired fitness and decreased AR5A sensitivity, while S680T combined with L665S compensated for fitness loss and decreased AR5A sensitivity even further. Interestingly, S680T alone had no fitness effect but sensitized the virus to AR5A. Of note, H77/JFH1L665S was non-viable. The resistance mutations did not affect cell-to-cell spread or E1/E2 interactions. Finally, introducing L665W, identified in genotype 1, into genotypes 2–6 parental and HVR1-deleted variants (not available for genotype 4a) we observed diverse effects on viral fitness and a universally pronounced reduction in AR5A sensitivity. Thus, we were able to take advantage of the neutralization-sensitive HVR1

  16. Substitution at aspartic acid 1128 in the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein mediates escape from a S2 domain-targeting neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Keng, Choong-Tat; Leung, Cynthia Sau-Wai; Peiris, J S Malik; Poon, Leo Lit Man; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent for the infectious disease, SARS, which first emerged 10 years ago. SARS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has crossed the species barriers to infect humans. Bats, which harbour a diverse pool of SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs), are believed to be the natural reservoir. The SARS-CoV surface Spike (S) protein is a major antigenic determinant in eliciting neutralizing antibody production during SARS-CoV infection. In our previous work, we showed that a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the S2 subunit of the S protein are capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV infection in vitro (Lip KM et al, J Virol. 2006 Jan; 80(2): 941-50). In this study, we report our findings on the characterization of one of these mAbs, known as 1A9, which binds to the S protein at a novel epitope within the S2 subunit at amino acids 1111-1130. MAb 1A9 is a broadly neutralizing mAb that prevents viral entry mediated by the S proteins of human and civet SARS-CoVs as well as bat SL-CoVs. By generating mutant SARS-CoV that escapes the neutralization by mAb 1A9, the residue D1128 in S was found to be crucial for its interaction with mAb 1A9. S protein containing the substitution of D1128 with alanine (D1128A) exhibited a significant decrease in binding capability to mAb 1A9 compared to wild-type S protein. By using a pseudotyped viral entry assay, it was shown that the D1128A substitution in the escape virus allows it to overcome the viral entry blockage by mAb 1A9. In addition, the D1128A mutation was found to exert no effects on the S protein cell surface expression and incorporation into virion particles, suggesting that the escape virus retains the same viral entry property as the wild-type virus.

  17. Substitution at Aspartic Acid 1128 in the SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Mediates Escape from a S2 Domain-Targeting Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Keng, Choong-Tat; Leung, Cynthia Sau-Wai; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Poon, Leo Lit Man; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent for the infectious disease, SARS, which first emerged 10 years ago. SARS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has crossed the species barriers to infect humans. Bats, which harbour a diverse pool of SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs), are believed to be the natural reservoir. The SARS-CoV surface Spike (S) protein is a major antigenic determinant in eliciting neutralizing antibody production during SARS-CoV infection. In our previous work, we showed that a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the S2 subunit of the S protein are capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV infection in vitro (Lip KM et al, J Virol. 2006 Jan; 80(2): 941–50). In this study, we report our findings on the characterization of one of these mAbs, known as 1A9, which binds to the S protein at a novel epitope within the S2 subunit at amino acids 1111–1130. MAb 1A9 is a broadly neutralizing mAb that prevents viral entry mediated by the S proteins of human and civet SARS-CoVs as well as bat SL-CoVs. By generating mutant SARS-CoV that escapes the neutralization by mAb 1A9, the residue D1128 in S was found to be crucial for its interaction with mAb 1A9. S protein containing the substitution of D1128 with alanine (D1128A) exhibited a significant decrease in binding capability to mAb 1A9 compared to wild-type S protein. By using a pseudotyped viral entry assay, it was shown that the D1128A substitution in the escape virus allows it to overcome the viral entry blockage by mAb 1A9. In addition, the D1128A mutation was found to exert no effects on the S protein cell surface expression and incorporation into virion particles, suggesting that the escape virus retains the same viral entry property as the wild-type virus. PMID:25019613

  18. Neutral stellar winds that drive bipolar outflows in low-mass protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizano, Susana; Heiles, Carl; Koo, Bon-Ghul; Shu, Frank H.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    1988-01-01

    The Arecibo radio telescope at the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen has been used to detect a neutral atomic wind in the bipolar flow source HH 7-11. An atomic mass of about 0.015 solar associated with the rapidly flowing gas is deduced. The stellar mass-loss rate is roughly 3 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr if the crossing time of the decelerating wind is 5000 yr. The excess emission in the H I line core gives a total duration of the outflow of about 70,000 yr. A detailed analysis of the H I line shape yields a reasonable deceleration rate for the atomic wind if the stellar wind continuously entrains ambient molecular gas as it propagates from the protostar. A stellar wind with the described characteristics and a terminal velocity of 170 km/s would be more than sufficient to drive the known extended CO bipolar outflow in HH 7-11.

  19. Dust escape from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  20. Non-random escape pathways from a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody map to a highly conserved region on the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein encompassing amino acids 412-423.

    PubMed

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Angus, Allan G N; Wang, Wenyan; Lau, Patrick; Wang, Yong; Gatherer, Derek; Patel, Arvind H; Foung, Steven K H

    2014-08-01

    A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412-423 is conserved and antibodies to 412-423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that cannot be neutralized by a murine but by human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) against 412-423. To determine whether HCV escapes from these antibodies, we analyzed variants that emerged when cell culture infectious HCV virions (HCVcc) were passaged under increasing concentrations of a specific HMAb, HC33.1. Multiple nonrandom escape pathways were identified. Two pathways occurred in the context of an N-glycan shift mutation at N417T. At low antibody concentrations, substitutions of two residues outside of the epitope, N434D and K610R, led to variants having improved in vitro viral fitness and reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 binding and neutralization. At moderate concentrations, a S419N mutation occurred within 412-423 in escape variants that have greatly reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 but compromised viral fitness. Importantly, the variants generated from these pathways differed in their stability. N434D and K610R-associated variants were stable and became dominant as the virions were passaged. The S419N mutation reverted back to N419S when immune pressure was reduced by removing HC33.1. At high antibody concentrations, a mutation at L413I was observed in variants that were resistant to HC33.1 neutralization. Collectively, the combination of multiple escape pathways enabled the virus to persist under a wide range of antibody concentrations. Moreover, these findings pose a different challenge to vaccine development beyond the identification of highly conserved epitopes. It will be necessary for a vaccine to induce high potency antibodies that prevent the formation of escape variants, which

  1. Atmospheric escape from unmagnetized bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, D. A.; Bagenal, F.; Ma, Y.-J.; Nilsson, H.; Stenberg Wieser, G.

    2016-12-01

    The upper atmospheres of unmagnetized solar system bodies interact more directly with their local plasma environment than their counterparts on magnetized bodies such as Earth. One consequence of this interaction is that atmospheric particles can gain energy from the flowing plasma, as well as solar photons, and escape to space. Escape proceeds through a number of different mechanisms that can remove neutral particles (Jeans escape, photochemical escape, and sputtering) and mechanisms that can remove ions (ion pickup, magnetic shear and tension-related escape, and pressure gradients). Here we discuss the plasma interactions and escape processes and rates from five solar system objects spanning 3 orders of magnitude in size: comets, Pluto, Titan, Mars, and Venus. We describe similarities and differences in escape for the different objects and provide four open questions that should be addressed in the coming years.

  2. Modeling of neutral beam injection heating and current drive during the ramp-up phase in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzolo, L.

    2014-06-01

    For flexible control of the plasma pressure and the current profiles, which are essential for a high performance plasma with long pulse operation, KSTAR is going to implement several heating and current systems, which include Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heting (ICRH)/Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD), Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), and Eclectron Cyclotron Heating (ECH)/Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD). Here, the NBI system is typically used for the central heating and current drive. For the time being, only one NBI device (composed of 3 sources) is available in KSTAR. The first two sources were successfully commissioned in 2010 and 2013. The last source will be installed in 2014. In this work, we present a simulation study of the heating and current drive of the first NBI system (3 sources) during the ramp-up phase. We consider two different NBI configurations (low and high beam energy). The simulation is performed with NUBEAM, a well-recognized Monte-Carlo code. Several different types of KSTAR target equilibria (scan from lower to higher plasma density) are used for the calculation of the current drive, the heating and the different NB losses (shinethrough, charge exchange and bad orbit). The study shows the dependency of those quantities on the plasma density, the position of the NB source and the beam energy. It also shows that because of the shinethrough loss is too high, each NB source cannot be used when the plasma density is under a certain threshold. This study can be used to determine the starting time of the different NB sources during the KSTAR ramp-up phase.

  3. The Influence of Neutral Beam Injection on the Heating and Current Drive with Electron Cyclotron Wave on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pengxiang; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Yingying; Wang, Xiaoguang; Xu, Handong; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Hailin; Hao, Baolong; Yang, Zhen; Zheng, Ting; Hu, Chundong

    2016-11-01

    Both neutral beam injection (NBI) and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have been applied on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in the 2015 campaign. In order to achieve more effective heating and current drive, the effects of NBI on the heating and current drive with electron cyclotron wave (ECW) are analyzed utilizing the code TORAY and experimental data in the shot #54411 and #54417. According to the experimental and simulated results, for the heating with ECW, NBI can improve the heating efficiency and move the power deposition place towards the inside of the plasma. On the other hand, for the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), NBI can also improve the efficiency of ECCD and move the place of ECCD inward. These results will be valuable for the center heating, the achievement of fully non-inductive current drive operation and the suppression of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities with ECW on EAST or ITER with many auxiliary heating methods. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB101001 and 2014DFG61950) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405212 and 11175211)

  4. Recombinant Receptor-Binding Domains of Multiple Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronaviruses (MERS-CoVs) Induce Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies against Divergent Human and Camel MERS-CoVs and Antibody Escape Mutants.

    PubMed

    Tai, Wanbo; Wang, Yufei; Fett, Craig A; Zhao, Guangyu; Li, Fang; Perlman, Stanley; Jiang, Shibo; Zhou, Yusen; Du, Lanying

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) via the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD contains critical neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important vaccine target. Since RBD mutations occur in different MERS-CoV isolates and antibody escape mutants, cross-neutralization of divergent MERS-CoV strains by RBD-induced antibodies remains unknown. Here, we constructed four recombinant RBD (rRBD) proteins with single or multiple mutations detected in representative human MERS-CoV strains from the 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 outbreaks, respectively, and one rRBD protein with multiple changes derived from camel MERS-CoV strains. Like the RBD of prototype EMC2012 (EMC-RBD), all five RBDs maintained good antigenicity and functionality, the ability to bind RBD-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and the DPP4 receptor, and high immunogenicity, able to elicit S-specific antibodies. They induced potent neutralizing antibodies cross-neutralizing 17 MERS pseudoviruses expressing S proteins of representative human and camel MERS-CoV strains identified during the 2012-2015 outbreaks, 5 MAb escape MERS-CoV mutants, and 2 live human MERS-CoV strains. We then constructed two RBDs mutated in multiple key residues in the receptor-binding motif (RBM) of RBD and demonstrated their strong cross-reactivity with anti-EMC-RBD antibodies. These RBD mutants with diminished DPP4 binding also led to virus attenuation, suggesting that immunoevasion after RBD immunization is accompanied by loss of viral fitness. Therefore, this study demonstrates that MERS-CoV RBD is an important vaccine target able to induce highly potent and broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies against infection by divergent circulating human and camel MERS-CoV strains.

  5. A Single Residue within the V5 Region of HIV-1 Envelope Facilitates Viral Escape from the Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody VRC01*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C.; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-01-01

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization. PMID:23100255

  6. A single residue within the V5 region of HIV-1 envelope facilitates viral escape from the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody VRC01.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-12-14

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Escape from Cyclotriazadisulfonamide-Induced CD4-Targeted Entry Inhibition Is Associated with Increased Neutralizing Antibody Susceptibility▿

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Kurt; Van Laethem, Kristel; Janssens, Wouter; Bell, Thomas W.; Schols, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Continuous specific downmodulation of CD4 receptor expression in T lymphocytes by the small molecule cyclotriazadisulfonamide (CADA) selected for the CADA-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NL4.3 virus containing unique mutations in the C4 and V5 regions of gp120, likely stabilizing the CD4-binding conformation. The amino acid changes in Env were associated with decreased susceptibility to anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody treatment of the cells and with higher susceptibility of the virus to soluble CD4. In addition, the acquired ability of a CADA-resistant virus to infect cells with low CD4 expression was associated with an increased susceptibility of the virus to neutralizing antibodies from sera of several HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:19570853

  8. Mechanisms of Ionospheric Mass Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of ionospheric O+ escape flux on electromagnetic energy flux and electron precipitation into the ionosphere is derived for a hypothetical ambipolar pick-up process, powered the relative motion of plasmas and neutral upper atmosphere, and by electron precipitation, at heights where the ions are magnetized but influenced by photo-ionization, collisions with gas atoms, ambipolar and centrifugal acceleration. Ion pick-up by the convection electric field produces "ring-beam" or toroidal velocity distributions, as inferred from direct plasma measurements, from observations of the associated waves, and from the spectra of incoherent radar echoes. Ring-beams are unstable to plasma wave growth, resulting in rapid relaxation via transverse velocity diffusion, into transversely accelerated ion populations. Ion escape is substantially facilitated by the ambipolar potential, but is only weakly affected by centrifugal acceleration. If, as cited simulations suggest, ion ring beams relax into non-thermal velocity distributions with characteristic speed equal to the local ion-neutral flow speed, a generalized "Jeans escape" calculation shows that the escape flux of ionospheric O+ increases with Poynting flux and with precipitating electron density in rough agreement with observations.

  9. Control of power, torque, and instability drive using in-shot variable neutral beam energy in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, D. C.; Collins, C. S.; Crowley, B.; Grierson, B. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Pawley, C.; Rauch, J.; Scoville, J. T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Zhu, Y. B.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-01-01

    A first-ever demonstration of controlling power and torque injection through time evolution of neutral beam energy has been achieved in recent experiments at the DIII-D tokamak (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614). Pre-programmed waveforms for the neutral beam energy produce power and torque inputs that can be separately and continuously controlled. Previously, these inputs were tailored using on/off modulation of neutral beams resulting in large perturbations (e.g. power swings of over 1 MW). The new method includes, importantly for experiments, the ability to maintain a fixed injected power while varying the torque. In another case, different beam energy waveforms (in the same plasma conditions) produce significant changes in the observed spectrum of beam ion-driven instabilities. Measurements of beam ion loss show that one energy waveform results in the complete avoidance of coherent losses due to Alfvénic instabilities. This new method of neutral beam operation is intended for further application in a variety of DIII-D experiments including those concerned with high-performance steady state scenarios, fast particle effects, and transport in the low torque regime. Developing this capability would provide similar benefits and improved plasma control for other magnetic confinement fusion facilities.

  10. Sputtering at Mars: MAVEN observations of precipitating and escaping oxygen during nominal and extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Leblanc, Francois; Modolo, Ronan; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Hara, Takuya; Halekas, Jasper; Dong, Yaxue; Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Eparvier, Frank; Lillis, Robert J.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Sputtering is believed to be one of the dominant escape mechanisms during the early epochs of our solar system when the solar activity and EUV intensities were much higher than the present day. Mars lacks a global dynamo magnetic field, which creates a scenario where the solar wind directly interacts with the upper atmosphere and newly created ions can be picked up and swept away by the background convection electric field. These pick-up ions can directly escape or precipitate back into the atmosphere and induce atmospheric sputtering of neutrals.The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetic topology and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during numerous Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) impacts spanning from March 2015 to June 2016. ICMEs are associated with enhanced solar wind velocities, densities and magnetic field strength, and often drive heavy ion precipitation at much higher rates than during nominal conditions. Thus, ICMEs provide a unique environment for observing sputtering. We will compare MAVEN observations of heavy ion precipitation during nominal conditions as well as during ICMEs. Additionally, we will present global MHD and test particle simulations of the ICMEs in order to calculate sputtering escape rates for oxygen. Finally, we will use the observed and modeled sputtering escape rates to provide an initial estimate of the total sputtered atmospheric escape from Mars over billions of years.

  11. Observational Constraints on a Pluto Torus of Circumsolar Neutral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. E.; Kollmann, P.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Smith, H. T.; Bagenal, F.; Brown, L. E.; Elliott, H. A.; Haggerty, D. K.; Horanyi, M.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kusterer, M. B.; Lisse, C. M.; McComas, D. J.; Piquette, M. R.; Sidrow, E. J.; Strobel, D. F.; Szalay, J.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Zirnstein, E.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the concept of a neutral gas torus surrounding the Sun, aligned with Pluto's orbit, and place observational constraints based primarily on comparison of New Horizons (NH) measurements with a 3-D Monte Carlo model adapted from analogous satellite tori surrounding Saturn and Jupiter. Such a torus, or perhaps partial torus, should result from neutral N2 escaping from Pluto's exosphere. Unlike other more massive planets closer to the Sun, neutrals escape Pluto readily owing, e.g., to the high thermal speed relative to the escape velocity. Importantly, escaped neutrals have a long lifetime due to the great distance from the Sun, ~100 years for photoionization of N2 and ~180 years for photoionization of N, which results from disassociated N2. Despite the lengthy 248-year orbit, these long e-folding lifetimes may allow an enhanced neutral population to form an extended gas cloud that modifies the N2 spatial profile near Pluto. These neutrals are not directly observable by NH but once ionized N2+ or N+ are picked up by the solar wind, reaching ~50 keV, making these pickup ions (PUIs) detectable by NH's Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument. PEPSSI observations analyzed to date may constrain the N2 density; the remaining ~95% of the encounter data, scheduled for downlink in August along with similarly anticipated data from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) experiment, should help determine the Pluto outgassing rates. Measurements from SWAP include the solar wind speed, a quantity that greatly enhances PUI studies by enabling us to directly account for the PUI distribution's sensitive dependence on plasma speed. Note that anomalous cosmic ray Si observed at Voyager is overabundant by a factor of ~3000 relative to interstellar composition. This might be related to "outer source" PUIs, but the fact that N2 and Si are indistinguishable in many instruments could mean that N2 is actually driving this apparent Si discrepancy.

  12. Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Bonsignori, Mattia; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Cai, Fangping; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Song, Hongshuo; Zhou, Tongqing; Lynch, Rebecca M; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Ferrari, Guido; Berrong, Mark; Kelsoe, Garnett; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Montefiori, David C; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S; Hraber, Peter; Kwong, Peter D; Korber, Bette T; Mascola, John R; Kepler, Thomas B; Haynes, Barton F

    2014-07-31

    Development of strategies for induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) by vaccines is a priority. Determining the steps of bnAb induction in HIV-1-infected individuals who make bnAbs is a key strategy for immunogen design. Here, we study the B cell response in a bnAb-producing individual and report cooperation between two B cell lineages to drive bnAb development. We isolated a virus-neutralizing antibody lineage that targeted an envelope region (loop D) and selected virus escape mutants that resulted in both enhanced bnAb lineage envelope binding and escape mutant neutralization-traits associated with increased B cell antigen drive. Thus, in this individual, two B cell lineages cooperated to induce the development of bnAbs. Design of vaccine immunogens that simultaneously drive both helper and broadly neutralizing B cell lineages may be important for vaccine-induced recapitulation of events that transpire during the maturation of neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  13. Soil and plant factors driving the community of soil-borne microorganisms across chronosequences of secondary succession of chalk grasslands with a neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Kuramae, Eiko; Gamper, Hannes; van Veen, Johannes; Kowalchuk, George

    2011-08-01

    Although soil pH has been shown to be an important factor driving microbial communities, relatively little is known about the other potentially important factors that shape soil-borne microbial community structure. This study examined plant and microbial communities across a series of neutral pH fields (pH=7.0-7.5) representing a chronosequence of secondary succession after former arable fields were taken out of production. These fields ranged from 17 to >66 years since the time of abandonment, and an adjacent arable field was included as a reference. Hierarchical clustering analysis, nonmetric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity of 52 different plant species showed that the plant community composition was significantly different in the different chronosequences, and that plant species richness and diversity increased with time since abandonment. The microbial community structure, as analyzed by phylogenetic microarrays (PhyloChips), was significantly different in arable field and the early succession stage, but no distinct microbial communities were observed for the intermediate and the late succession stages. The most determinant factors in shaping the soil-borne microbial communities were phosphorous and NH(4)(+). Plant community composition and diversity did not have a significant effect on the belowground microbial community structure or diversity.

  14. MAVEN measurements of photochemical escape of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, R. J.; Deighan, J.; Fox, J. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Cravens, T. E.; Lee, Y.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Benna, M.; Elrod, M. K.; Andersson, L.; McFadden, J.

    2015-10-01

    One of the primary goals of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) mission is to characterize rates of atmospheric escape at the present epoch and relate those escape rates to solar drivers [1]. One of the major escape processes is known as photochemical escape, which is broadly defined as a process by which a) an exothermic reaction in the atmosphere/ionosphere results in an upward-traveling neutral particle whose velocity exceeds planetary escape velocity and b) the particle is not prevented from escaping through any subsequent collisions[2].At Mars, photochemical escape of oxygen is expected to be a significant channel for atmospheric escape, particularly in the early solar system when extreme ultraviolet (EUV) fluxes were much higher[3]. Thus characterizing this escape process is central to understanding the role escape to space has played in Mars' climate evolution.

  15. Gated escaping of ligand out of protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen

    2000-01-01

    We construct a new gating model and develop a new theory to study the escaping process of a ligand out of a spherical cavity with a puncture (or gate) on the surface. The gate undulation can be regulated by any time-dependent function and the motion of the ligand inside the spherical cavity is mapped into a two-dimensional entropy potential surface. Hence the driving force of our model is entropy only. For a static gate, the escaping process corresponds to climbing a two-dimensional entropy barrier. When the gate open angle is small, the escaping rate is proportional to the square of the opening angle. The prefactor of the escaping rate constant depends on the curvature of the entropy potential surface. For coherent gating, the survival time depends not only on the gate undulation frequency but also on how the initial state is defined. On the escaping from protein, our escaping rate shows it is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result of ligand recombination in myoglobin.

  16. Structured Observations Reveal Slow HIV-1 CTL Escape

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Hannah E.; Hurst, Jacob; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Flanagan, Peter; Vass, Laura; Fidler, Sarah; Weber, Jonathan; Babiker, Abdel; Phillips, Rodney E.; McLean, Angela R.; Frater, John

    2015-01-01

    The existence of viral variants that escape from the selection pressures imposed by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in HIV-1 infection is well documented, but it is unclear when they arise, with reported measures of the time to escape in individuals ranging from days to years. A study of participants enrolled in the SPARTAC (Short Pulse Anti-Retroviral Therapy at HIV Seroconversion) clinical trial allowed direct observation of the evolution of CTL escape variants in 125 adults with primary HIV-1 infection observed for up to three years. Patient HLA-type, longitudinal CD8+ T-cell responses measured by IFN-γ ELISpot and longitudinal HIV-1 gag, pol, and nef sequence data were used to study the timing and prevalence of CTL escape in the participants whilst untreated. Results showed that sequence variation within CTL epitopes at the first time point (within six months of the estimated date of seroconversion) was consistent with most mutations being transmitted in the infecting viral strain rather than with escape arising within the first few weeks of infection. Escape arose throughout the first three years of infection, but slowly and steadily. Approximately one third of patients did not drive any new escape in an HLA-restricted epitope in just under two years. Patients driving several escape mutations during these two years were rare and the median and modal numbers of new escape events in each patient were one and zero respectively. Survival analysis of time to escape found that possession of a protective HLA type significantly reduced time to first escape in a patient (p = 0.01), and epitopes escaped faster in the face of a measurable CD8+ ELISpot response (p = 0.001). However, even in an HLA matched host who mounted a measurable, specific, CD8+ response the average time before the targeted epitope evolved an escape mutation was longer than two years. PMID:25642847

  17. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert E.

    2010-06-20

    Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

  18. Natural Selection and Neutral Evolution Jointly Drive Population Divergence between Alpine and Lowland Ecotypes of the Allopolyploid Plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.; Rogers, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074–0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041–0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence. PMID:23874801

  19. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  20. Strong purifying selection at genes escaping X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chungoo; Carrel, Laura; Makova, Kateryna D

    2010-11-01

    To achieve dosage balance of X-linked genes between mammalian males and females, one female X chromosome becomes inactivated. However, approximately 15% of genes on this inactivated chromosome escape X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Here, using a chromosome-wide analysis of primate X-linked orthologs, we test a hypothesis that such genes evolve under a unique selective pressure. We find that escape genes are subject to stronger purifying selection than inactivated genes and that positive selection does not significantly affect the evolution of these genes. The strength of selection does not differ between escape genes with similar versus different expression levels in males versus females. Intriguingly, escape genes possessing Y homologs evolve under the strongest purifying selection. We also found evidence of stronger conservation in gene expression levels in escape than inactivated genes. We hypothesize that divergence in function and expression between X and Y gametologs is driving such strong purifying selection for escape genes.

  1. The Aeronomy of Mars: Characterization by MAVEN of the Upper Atmosphere Reservoir That Regulates Volatile Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Cravens, T. E.; Grebowsky, J.; Luhmann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars thermosphere-ionosphere-exosphere (TIE) system constitutes the atmospheric reservoir (i.e. available cold and hot planetary neutral and thermal ion species) that regulates present day escape processes from the planet. The characterization of this TIE system, including its spatial and temporal (e.g., solar cycle, seasonal, diurnal, episodic) variability is needed to determine present day escape rates. Without knowledge of the physics and chemistry creating this TIE region and driving its variations, it is not possible to constrain either the short term or long term histories of atmosphere escape from Mars. MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission) will make both in-situ and remote measurements of the state variables of the Martian TIE system. A full characterization of the thermosphere (˜100-250 km) and ionosphere (˜100-400 km) structure (and its variability) will be conducted with the collection of spacecraft in-situ measurements that systematically span most local times and latitudes, over a regular sampling of Mars seasons, and throughout the bottom half of the solar cycle. Such sampling will far surpass that available from existing spacecraft and ground-based datasets. In addition, remote measurements will provide a systematic mapping of the composition and structure of Mars neutral upper atmosphere and coronae (e.g. H, C, N, O), as well as probe lower altitudes. Such a detailed characterization is a necessary first step toward answering MAVEN's three main science questions (see Jakosky et al. 2014, this issue). This information will be used to determine present day escape rates from Mars, and provide an estimate of integrated loss to space throughout Mars history.

  2. Neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in acute versus chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: evidence for a constraint on the ability of HIV to completely evade neutralizing antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Steven G; Schweighardt, Becky; Wrin, Terri; Galovich, Justin; Hoh, Rebecca; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hunt, Peter; McCune, Joseph M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Petropoulos, Christos J; Hecht, Frederick M

    2006-06-01

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the rapid development of neutralization escape mutations. The degree to which viral evolution persists in chronic infection has not been well characterized, nor is it clear if all patients develop high-level neutralization antibody escape. We therefore measured neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in a cohort of acutely and chronically infected subjects (n = 65). Neutralizing antibody responses against both autologous virus and heterologous viruses were lower among individuals with acute infection than among those with chronic infection. Among chronically infected individuals, there was a negative correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against autologous virus and the level of viremia. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against a panel of heterologous viruses and the level of viremia. Viral evolution, as defined by the presence of higher neutralizing titers directed against earlier viruses than against contemporaneous viruses, was evident for subjects with recent infection but absent for those with chronic infection. In summary, neutralizing antibody responses against contemporaneous autologous viruses are absent in early HIV infection but can be detected at low levels in chronic infection, particularly among those controlling HIV in the absence of therapy. HIV replication either directly or indirectly drives the production of increasing levels of antibodies that cross-neutralize heterologous primary isolates. Collectively, these observations indicate that although HIV continuously drives the production of neutralizing antibodies, there may be limits to the capacity of the virus to evolve continuously in response to these antibodies. These observations also suggest that the neutralizing antibody response may contribute to the long-term control of HIV in some patients while protecting

  3. MEMO: Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Langlais, B.; Leblanc, F.; Sotin, C.; Barabash, S.; Dehant, V.; Dougherty, M.; Lammer, H.; Mandea, M.; Vennerstrom, S.

    There are several reasons to believe that Mars could have become an Earth like planet rather than the present dry and cold planet. In particular, many elements suggest the presence of liquid water at the Martian surface during a relatively short period at an early stage of its history. Since liquid water may have been the birthplace for life on Earth, the fate of Martian water is one of the major key and yet unanswered question to be solved. Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO) is a low periapsis orbiter of Mars devoted to the measurement of present escape and the characterization of the fossil magnetic field of Mars. The use of a low periapsis altitude orbit (120-150 km) is required to detect and quantify all populations of atoms and molecules involved in escape. It is also required to measure the magnetic field of Mars with an unprecedented spatial resolution that would allow getting a more precise timing of the dynamo and its disappearance. Achieving a full characterization of atmospheric escape, and extrapolating it back to the past requires: (i) to measure escape fluxes of neutral and ion species, and characterize the dynamics and chemistry of the regions of the atmosphere where escape occurs (thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere), as well as their responses to solar activity, and (ii) to characterize the lateral variations of the magnetic field of lithospheric origin, and by extension, the timing of the Martian dynamo. Of particular interest is the extinction of the dynamo that is thought to have enhanced the atmospheric escape processes still operating today. The proposed low-periapsis orbiter will consist of the following elements: • An "Escape Package" to characterize by both in-situ and remote measurements the thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere and solar wind interaction regions (from one hundred to several thousand km), including thermal, suprathermal 1 and energetic particles. • A "Magnetic Field Package", to characterize the magnetization of the

  4. Triton: topside ionosphere and nitrogen escape.

    PubMed

    Yung, Y L; Lyons, J R

    1990-09-01

    The principal ion in the ionosphere of Triton is N+. Energetic electrons of magnetospheric origin are the primary source of ionization, with a smaller contribution due to photoionization. To explain the topside plasma scale height, we postulate that N+ ions escape from Triton. The loss rate is 3.4 x 10(7) cm-2 s-1 or 7.9 x 10(24) ions s-1. Dissociative recombination of N2+ produces neutral exothermic fragments that can escape from Triton. The rate is estimated to be 8.6 x 10(6) N cm-2 s-1 or 2.0 x 10(24) atoms s-1. Implications for the magnetosphere of Neptune and Triton's evolution are discussed.

  5. [Escape mutants of hepatitis B virus].

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos Mario; Navas, María-Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem worldwide. Considering HBV morbidity and mortality and the economic consequences .of this infection, policies and strategies to control it have been implemented, especially in regions where HBV infection is endemic, with high rates of vertical and horizontal infection. One of these strategies is the development of the recombinant vaccine. A 92% of the countries in the world have implemented the vaccine with a global coverage of 69%. The escape variants of HBV correspond to isolates with mutations in the sequence coding for the "a" determinant; these mutations result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the surface antigen (HBsAg) that prevent neutralization of viral particles by antibodies generated in response to vaccination or infection. The escape variants can infect vaccinated individuals and have been identified in the population of countries with different epidemiological patterns.

  6. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  7. Extended Neutral Cloud around Pluto’s Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidrow, Evan; Bagenal, F.

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies estimate the approximate escape rate of molecular nitrogen from Pluto as well as its ionization rate. In this study, we focus on the implications of this escaping nitrogen and the resulting extended neutral cloud around Pluto’s orbit by simulating the escaping nitrogen with a numerical model. Several unknown parameters are varied, including the dependence of Pluto’s production rate on orbital distance and the distribution of speeds at which nitrogen is escaping Pluto.

  8. Orbiter escape pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Winston D. (Inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (Inventor); Becker, Bruce H. (Inventor); Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor); Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); McManamen, John P. (Inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A Shuttle type of aircraft (10) with an escape hatch (12) has an arcuately shaped pole housing (16) attachable to an interior wall and ceiling with its open end adjacent to the escape hatch. The pole housing 16 contains a telescopically arranged and arcuately shaped primary pole member (22) and extension pole member (23) which are guided by roller assemblies (30,35). The extension pole member (23) is slidable and extendable relative to the primary pole member (22). For actuation, a spring actuated system includes a spring (52) in the pole housing. A locking member (90) engages both pole members (22,23) through notch portions (85,86) in the pole members. The locking member selectively releases the extension pole member (23) and the primary pole member (22). An internal one-way clutch or anti-return mechanism prevents retraction of the extension pole member from an extended position. Shock absorbers (54)(150,152) are for absoring the energy of the springs. A manual backup deployment system is provided which includes a canted ring (104) biased by a spring member (108). A lever member (100) with a slot and pin connection (102) permits the mechanical manipulation of the canted ring to move the primary pole member. The ring (104) also prevents retraction of the main pole. The crew escape mechanism includes a magazine (60) and a number of lanyards (62), each lanyard being mounted by a roller loop (68) over the primary pole member (22). The strap on the roller loop has stitching for controlled release, a protection sheath (74) to prevent tangling and a hook member (69) for attachment to a crew harness.

  9. Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.

  10. Lyman-Werner UV escape fractions from primordial haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2015-12-01

    Population III (Pop III) stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby haloes, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own haloes, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H2 in other haloes, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic haloes by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9-120 M⊙ Pop III stars in 105-107 M⊙ haloes with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H2 in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0 to 85 per cent. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18-13.6 eV energy range, which can be redshifted into the LW lines at cosmological distances, are generally much higher, being above 60 per cent for all but the least massive stars in the most massive haloes. We find that shielding of H2 by neutral hydrogen, which has been neglected in most studies to date, produces escape fractions that are up to a factor of 3 smaller than those predicted by H2 self-shielding alone.

  11. Reconstructing the Alcatraz escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; Hoes, O.; Hut, R.; Donchyts, G.; van Leeuwen, E.

    2014-12-01

    In the night of June 12, 1962 three inmates used a raft made of raincoatsto escaped the ultimate maximum security prison island Alcatraz in SanFrancisco, United States. History is unclear about what happened tothe escapees. At what time did they step into the water, did theysurvive, if so, where did they reach land? The fate of the escapees has been the subject of much debate: did theymake landfall on Angel Island, or did the current sweep them out ofthe bay and into the cold pacific ocean? In this presentation, we try to shed light on this historic case using avisualization of a high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation of the San Francisco Bay, combined with historical tidal records. By reconstructing the hydrodynamic conditions and using a particle based simulation of the escapees we show possible scenarios. The interactive model is visualized using both a 3D photorealistic and web based visualization. The "Escape from Alcatraz" scenario demonstrates the capabilities of the 3Di platform. This platform is normally used for overland flooding (1D/2D). The model engine uses a quad tree structure, resulting in an order of magnitude speedup. The subgrid approach takes detailed bathymetry information into account. The inter-model variability is tested by comparing the results with the DFlow Flexible Mesh (DFlowFM) San Francisco Bay model. Interactivity is implemented by converting the models from static programs to interactive libraries, adhering to the Basic ModelInterface (BMI). Interactive models are more suitable for answeringexploratory research questions such as this reconstruction effort. Although these hydrodynamic simulations only provide circumstantialevidence for solving the mystery of what happened during the foggy darknight of June 12, 1962, it can be used as a guidance and provides aninteresting testcase to apply interactive modelling.

  12. Perforin and Fas cytolytic pathways coordinately shape the selection and diversity of CD8+-T-cell escape variants of influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Price, Graeme E; Huang, Lei; Ou, Rong; Zhang, Menghua; Moskophidis, Demetrius

    2005-07-01

    Antigenic variation is a viral strategy exploited to promote survival in the face of the host immune response and represents a major challenge for efficient vaccine development. Influenza viruses are pathogens with high transmissibility and mutation rates, enabling viral escape from immunity induced by prior infection or vaccination. Intense selection from neutralizing antibody drives antigenic changes in the surface glycoproteins, resulting in emergence of new strains able to reinfect hosts immune to previously circulating viruses. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) also provide protective immunity from influenza virus infection and may contribute to the antigenic evolution of influenza viruses. Utilizing mice transgenic for an influenza virus NP366-374 peptide-specific T-cell receptor, we demonstrated that the respiratory tract is a suitable site for generation of escape variants of influenza virus selected by CTL in vivo. In this report the contributions of the perforin and Fas pathways utilized by influenza virus-specific CTLs in viral clearance and selection of CTL escape variants have been evaluated. While transgenic CTLs deficient in either perforin- or Fas-mediated pathways are efficient in initial pulmonary viral control, variant virus emergence was observed in all the mice studied, although the spectrum of viral CTL escape variants selected varied profoundly. Thus, a less-restricted repertoire of escape variants was observed in mice with an intact perforin cytotoxic pathway compared with a limited variant diversity in perforin pathway-deficient mice, although maximal variant diversity was observed in mice having both Fas and perforin pathways intact. We conclude that selection of viral CTL escape variants reflects coordinate action between the tightly controlled perforin/granzyme pathway and the more promiscuous Fas/FasL pathway.

  13. Structural acid-base chemistry in the metallic state: how μ3-neutralization drives interfaces and helices in Ti21Mn25.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2013-08-05

    Intermetallic phases remain a large class of compounds whose vast structural diversity is unaccounted for by chemical theory. A recent resurgence of interest in intermetallics, due to their potential in such applications as catalysis and thermoelectricity, has intensified the need for models connecting their compositions to their structures and stability. In this Article, we illustrate how the μ3-acidity model, an extension of the acid/base concept based on the Method of Moments, offers intuitive explanations for puzzling structural progressions occurring in intermetallics formed between transition metals. Simple CsCl-type structures are frequently observed for phases with near 1:1 ratios of transition metals. However, in two compounds, TiCu and Ti21Mn25, structures are adopted which deviate from this norm. μ3-Acidity analysis shows that the formation of CsCl-type phases in these exceptional systems would yield an imbalance in the acid/base strength pairing, resulting in overneutralization of the weaker partner and thus instability. Intriguing geometrical features emerge in response, which serve to improve the neutralization of the constituent elements. In both TiCu and Ti21Mn25, part of the structure shields weaker acids or bases from their stronger partners by enhancing homoatomic bonding in the sublattice of the weaker acid or base. In TiCu, this protection is accomplished by developing doubled layers of Ti atoms to reduce their heteroatomic contacts. In Ti21Mn25 the structural response is more extreme: Ti-poor TiMn2 domains are formed to guard Mn from the Ti atoms, while the remaining Ti segregates to regions between the TiMn2 domains. The geometrical details of this arrangement fine-tune the acid/base interactions for an even greater level of stability. The most striking of these occurs in the Ti-rich region, where a paucity of Mn neighbors leads to difficulty in achieving strong neutralization. The Ti atoms arrange themselves in helical tubes, maximizing

  14. HIV Evolution and Escape.

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.; Wrin, Terri; Petropoulos, Christos; Wong, Joseph K.

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exemplifies the principles of Darwinian evolution with a telescoped chronology. Because of its high mutation rate and remarkably high rates of replication, evolution can be appreciated over periods of days in contrast to the durations conceived of by Darwin. Certain selective pressures that drive the evolution of HIV include chemotherapy, anatomic compartmentalization and the immune response. Examples of these selective forces on HIV evolution are described. Images Fig. 5 PMID:17060974

  15. Escape from Vela X

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, J.; Funk, S.; Parsons, R.D.; Ohm, S.; /Leicester U. /Leeds U.

    2012-02-15

    While the Vela pulsar and its associated nebula are often considered as the archetype of a system powered by a {approx} 10{sup 4} year old isolated neutron star, many features of the spectral energy distribution of this pulsar wind nebula are both puzzling and unusual. Here we develop a model that for the first time relates the main structures in the system, the extended radio nebula (ERN) and the X-ray cocoon through continuous injection of particles with a fixed spectral shape. We argue that diffusive escape of particles from the ERN can explain the steep Fermi-LAT spectrum. In this scenario Vela X should produce a distinct feature in the locally-measured cosmic ray electron spectrum at very high energies. This prediction can be tested in the future using the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). If particles are indeed released early in the evolution of PWNe and can avoid severe adiabatic losses, PWN provide a natural explanation for the rising positron fraction in the local CR spectrum.

  16. Bursty Escape on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Woch, J.; Lundin, R.; Wei, J.; Barabash, S.

    2011-10-01

    Bursty or filamentary structuring of plasma flows is a typical feature of the Martian space. This phenomenon is revealed during time periods when MEX-ASPERA- 3 is operating in the high temporal resolution mode. Frequency of oscillations is about 10-50 mHz. Amplitude of flux variations reaches a factor of 10-30. Bursty origin of fluxes of oxygen ions can be the important process for solar wind induced escape on Mars. There are several mechanisms which can be responsible for the observed periodic bursts. Large-amplitude coherent pressure pulses generated by ion beams upstream the bow shock impact the magnetosphere and produce periodic pulses in forces pushing planetary plasma. Pressure pulses can arise downstream the bow shock - in the magnetosheath, which becomes to be decomposed into a sequence of periodic compressive waves. A wavy dynamics can also appear due to a multi-ion origin of the interacting plasmas since such a medium behaves as a specific rotator. At last, not at least, K-H or other types of large-scale MHD instabilities probably excited in the interface region can generate surface waves which will also modulate the tension forces. We present the different observations which can be interpreted in a favor of all the above mechanisms implying a complex and diverse plasma wave environment at Mars.

  17. ESCAPE FROM VELA X

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, J. A.; Ohm, S.; Funk, S.; Parsons, R. D.

    2011-12-10

    While the Vela pulsar and its associated nebula are often considered as the archetype of a system powered by a {approx}10{sup 4} year old isolated neutron star, many features of the spectral energy distribution of this pulsar wind nebula (PWN) are both puzzling and unusual. Here we develop a model that for the first time relates the main structures in the system, the extended radio nebula (ERN) and the X-ray cocoon through continuous injection of particles with a fixed spectral shape. We argue that diffusive escape of particles from the ERN can explain the steep Fermi-LAT spectrum. In this scenario Vela X should produce a distinct feature in the locally measured cosmic ray (CR) electron spectrum at very high energies. This prediction can be tested in the future using the Cherenkov Telescope Array. If particles are indeed released early in the evolution of PWNe and can avoid severe adiabatic losses, PWN provides a natural explanation for the rising positron fraction in the local CR spectrum.

  18. Photochemical escape of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere: first results from MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, Rob; Deigan, Justin; Fox, Jane; Bougher, Steve; Lee, Yuni; Cravens, Thomas; Rahmati, Ali; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of the MAVEN mission is to characterize rates of atmospheric escape at the present epoch and relate those escape rates to solar drivers. One of the major escape processes is known as photochemical escape, which is broadly defined as a process by which a) an exothermic reaction in the atmosphere results in an upward-traveling neutral particle whose velocity exceeds planetary escape velocity and b) the particle is not prevented from escaping through any subsequent collisions. At Mars, photochemical escape of oxygen is expected to be a significant channel for atmospheric escape, particularly in the early solar system when extreme ultraviolet (EUV) fluxes were much higher. Thus characterizing this escape process is central to understanding the role escape to space has played in Mars' climate evolution. Because escaping hot atoms cannot easily be directly measured, models of production and transport (through the atmosphere) of such atoms must be used to constrain escape rates. These models require altitude profiles of neutral densities and electron and ion densities and temperatures, as well as compositional information. All the relevant quantities upon which photochemical escape depends will be measured by MAVEN at the relevant altitudes (150-250 km). LPW will measure electron density and temperature, NGIMS will measure neutral and ion density and STATIC will measure ion density and temperature. 4 separate calculations must be made for every altitude profile: Profiles of O2+dissociative recombination (DR) rates will be calculated straightforwardly from electron temperature, electron density and O2+density. Profiles of rotational and vibrational distributions of O2+ ions will be calculated from profiles of CO2, O, O2, O+, CO2+ and CO+ via a lookup table from an empirical model. Profiles of energy distributions of hot O atoms will be calculated from the results of step 2 and from profiles of electron and ion temperatures. Profiles of all neutral

  19. Orbital Effects on Mercury's Escaping Sodium Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.; Wilson, Jody K.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present results from coronagraphic imaging of Mercury's sodium tail over a 7 deg field of view. Several sets of observations made at the McDonald Observatory since May 2007 show a tail of neutral sodium atoms stretching more than 1000 Mercury radii (R(sub m)) in length, or a full degree of sky. However, no tail was observed extending beyond 120 R(sub m) during the January 2008 MESSENGER Fly-by period, or during a similar orbital phase of Mercury in July 2008. Large changes in Mercury's heliocentric radial velocity cause Doppler shifts about the Fraunhofer absorption features; the resultant change in solar flux and radiation pressure is the primary cause of the observed variation in tail brightness. Smaller fluctuations in brightness may exist due to changing source rates at the surface, but we have no explicit evidence for such changes in this data set. The effects of radiation pressure on Mercury's escaping atmosphere are investigated using seven observations spanning different orbital phases. Total escape rates of atmospheric sodium are estimated to be between 5 and 13 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s and show a correlation to radiation pressure. Candidate sources of Mercury's sodium exosphere include desorption by UV sunlight, thermal desorption, solar wind channeled along Mercury's magnetic field lines, and micro-meteor impacts. Wide-angle observations of the full extent of Mercury's sodium tail offer opportunities to enhance our understanding of the time histories of these source rates.

  20. Characterizing Atmospheric Escape from Mars Today and Through Time, with MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, R. J.; Brain, D. A.; Bougher, S. W.; Leblanc, F.; Luhmann, J. G.; Jakosky, B. M.; Modolo, R.; Fox, J.; Deighan, J.; Fang, X.; Wang, Y. C.; Lee, Y.; Dong, C.; Ma, Y.; Cravens, T.; Andersson, L.; Curry, S. M.; Schneider, N.; Combi, M.; Stewart, I.; Clarke, J.; Grebowsky, J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Yelle, R.; Nagy, A. F.; Baker, D.; Lin, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Two of the primary goals of the MAVEN mission are to determine how the rate of escape of Martian atmospheric gas to space at the current epoch depends upon solar influences and planetary parameters and to estimate the total mass of atmosphere lost to space over the history of the planet. Along with MAVEN's suite of nine science instruments, a collection of complementary models of the neutral and plasma environments of Mars' upper atmosphere and near-space environment are an indispensable part of the MAVEN toolkit, for three primary reasons. First, escaping neutrals will not be directly measured by MAVEN and so neutral escape rates must be derived, via models, from in situ measurements of plasma temperatures and neutral and plasma densities and by remote measurements of the extended exosphere. Second, although escaping ions will be directly measured, all MAVEN measurements are limited in spatial coverage, so global models are needed for intelligent interpolation over spherical surfaces to calculate global escape rates. Third, MAVEN measurements will lead to multidimensional parameterizations of global escape rates for a range of solar and planetary parameters, but further global models informed by MAVEN data will be required to extend these parameterizations to the more extreme conditions that likely prevailed in the early solar system, which is essential for determining total integrated atmospheric loss. We describe these modeling tools and the strategies for using them in concert with MAVEN measurements to greater constrain the history of atmospheric loss on Mars.

  1. Photochemical escape of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere: new insights from MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, R. J.; Deighan, J.; Bougher, S. W.; Cravens, T.; Fox, J. L.; Lee, Y.; Rahmati, A.; McFadden, J. P.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elrod, M. K.; Andersson, L.; Fowler, C. M.; Curry, S.; Gröller, H.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the primary goals of the MAVEN mission is to characterize rates of atmospheric escape from Mars at the present epoch and relate those escape rates to solar drivers. One of the known escape processes is photochemical escape, where a) an exothermic chemical reaction in the atmosphere results in an upward-traveling neutral particle whose velocity exceeds planetary escape velocity and b) the particle is not prevented from escaping through any subsequent collisions. Because escaping hot atoms are not directly measured, models of production and transport (through the atmosphere) of such atoms must be used to constrain photochemical escape rates. These models require altitude profiles of neutral densities and electron and ion densities and temperatures, as well as compositional information, all of which are measured by MAVEN instruments at the relevant altitudes (150-300 km). For every altitude profile: Profiles of O2+ dissociative recombination (DR) rates will be calculated from electron temperature, electron density and O2+ density. Profiles of energy distributions of hot O atoms will be calculated from profiles of electron and ion temperatures. Profiles of all neutral densities will be input into models of hot O transport in order to calculate photochemical escape fluxes from DR of O2+. We will present photochemical escape fluxes as a function of several factors, in particular solar zenith angle and EUV flux. This, combined with further simulations with progressively higher EUV fluxes, will eventually enable a total integrated loss estimate over the course of Martian history and hence a determination of the impact of this loss process on the evolution of the Martian climate.

  2. Escape of water molecular from Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaxi; Li, Wenfeng; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-03-01

    Understanding and controlling the transport of water molecules through nanopores have attracted great interest due to potential applications for designing novel nanofluidic devices, machines and sensors. In this work, we theoretically investigate the effects of an external nonuniform electric field on the escape of water molecules through single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by using of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. When polar water molecules are placed in the gradient electric field, the electric force is experienced that can drive the water molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the escape probability of water obeys the Boltzmann distribution. Our results show that energy barrier delta E is independent of temperature which indicates that it is a single-barrier system. From the MD results statistics, the key parameters could be determined such that the relationship between energy barrier delta E and diameter of SWNTs and nozzle distance of the charge r would be revealed that could deepen our current theoretical understanding on transport of water molecular inside SWNTs with the nonuniform electric field.

  3. MAVEN in situ measurements of photochemical escape of oxygen from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, Robert; Deighan, Justin; Fox, Jane; Bougher, Stephen; Lee, Yuni; Cravens, Thomas; Rahmati, Ali; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Groller, Hannes; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    One of the primary goals of the MAVEN mission is to characterize rates of atmospheric escape from Mars at the present epoch and relate those escape rates to solar drivers. One of the known escape processes is photochemical escape, where a) an exothermic chemical reaction in the atmosphere results in an upward-traveling neutral particle whose velocity exceeds planetary escape velocity and b) the particle is not prevented from escaping through subsequent collisions. At Mars, photochemical escape of oxygen is expected to be a significant channel for atmospheric escape, particularly in the early solar system when extreme ultraviolet (EUV) fluxes were much higher. Thus characterizing this escape process and its variability with solar drivers is central to understanding the role escape to space has played in Mars' climate evolution. We use near-periapsis (<400 km altitude) data from three MAVEN instruments: the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument measures electron density and temperature, the Suprathermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) experiment measures ion temperature and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measures neutral and ion densities. For each profile of in situ measurements, we make several calculations, each as a function of altitude. The first uses electron and temperatures and simulates the dissociative recombination of both O2+ and CO2+ to calculate the probability distribution for the initial energies of the resulting hot oxygen atoms. The second is a Monte Carlo hot atom transport model that takes that distribution of initial O energies and the measured neutral density profiles and calculates the probability that a hot atom born at that altitude will escape. The third takes the measured electron and ion densities and electron temperatures and calculates the production rate of hot O atoms. We then multiply together the profiles of hot atom production and escape probability to get profiles of the production rate of escaping atoms

  4. Escaping from Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Raymond J.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Those engaged in clinical transplantation and transplantation immunology have always taken as a central objective the elucidation of means to prevent graft rejection by the recipient immune system. Conceptually, such mechanisms stem from the concept of Paul Ehrlich that all organisms can selectively avoid autotoxicity; i.e. they exhibit horror autotoxicus. Some mechanisms of horror autotoxicus now understood. T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes recognize foreign antigens but not some auto-antigens. Clonal deletion generates lacunae in what is otherwise a virtually limitless potential to recognize antigens. We call this mechanism structural tolerance. Where imperfections in structural tolerance allow self-recognition, the full activation of lymphocytes and generation of effector activity depends on delivery of accessory signals generated by infection and/or injury. The absence of accessory signals prevents or even suppresses immunological responses. We call this dichotomy of responsiveness conditional tolerance. When, despite structural and conditional tolerance, effector activity perturbs autologous cells, metabolism changes in ways that protect against injury. We use the term accommodation to refer to this acquired protection against injury. Structural and conditional tolerance and accommodation overlap in such a way that potentially toxic products can be generated to control microorganisms and neutralize toxins without overly damaging adjacent cells. The central challenge in transplantation, then, should be the orchestration of structural and conditional tolerance and accommodation in such a way that toxic products can still be generated for defense while preserving graft function and survival. Since the earliest days of transplantation, immunobiologists have sought means by which to prevent recognition and rejection of foreign tissue. The goal of these strategies is the retention of recipient immune function while selectively avoiding graft injury. While

  5. On the hydrodynamic model of thermal escape from planetary atmospheres and its comparison with kinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Parkers' model of thermal escape implies the search of solutions of one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations for an inviscid but thermally conducting gas with a critical point and vanishing temperature far from the source. The properties of solutions of this model are studied for neutral mon- and diatomic gases with the viscosity index varying from 1/2 to 1. The domains of existence and uniqueness of solutions in terms of the source Jeans escape parameter and Knudsen number are established. The solutions are found to exist only in a narrow range of the critical point Jeans parameter. The lower and upper limits of this range correspond to solutions that are dominated by either heat conduction or adiabatic expansion. Thermal escape described by Parker's model occurs in two asymptotic regimes: the low-density (LD) regime, when escape is dominated by heat conduction, and the high-density (HD) regime, when escape is dominated by adiabatic expansion. Expressions for the mass and energy escape rates in these regimes are found theoretically. The comparison of results of hydrodynamic and kinetic simulations performed in identical conditions shows that Parker's model is capable of describing thermal escape only in the HD regime, providing decent agreement with the kinetic model in terms of the atmospheric structure below the exobase and the mass and energy escape rates. In the LD regime, Parker's model predicts a much faster drop in atmospheric temperature and less extended atmospheres, and can both over- and underestimate the escape rates in orders of magnitude.

  6. In situ and remote measurements of ions escaping from Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Brandt, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Venus is thought to lose a large fraction of its atmosphere in the form ions, mainly via pickup. The relative loss rate of the exosphere as neutrals or ions is not known, nor is the flux of escaping ions well constrained. Knowledge of these processes will shed light on the role an intrinsic magnetic field has in atmospheric erosion. We use the complementary in-situ plasma and energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements from the Venus Express (VEx) spacecraft in order to constrain the ion escape. VEx completed about 2500 orbits to date and reached altitudes as low as 200km. The ASPERA/IMA instrument measured directional proton and oxygen ion spectra in the 10eV to 40keV range. We bin the data accumulated over the mission in space and bulk flow direction, yielding a direct measure of the local ion escape flux. While such in-situ measurements provide data without ambiguity, they are limited by the orbital coverage. This is why we include remote ENA measurements from the ASPERA/NPD (100eV to 10keV) instrument to our study. ENAs are created when escaping ions charge exchange with the high atmosphere atoms or molecules. We have done an exhaustive analysis of the data, excluding time periods of instrument contamination. Most ENA emission originates from low altitudes above Venus' limb. These measurements will be compared with the in-situ data, which allows constraining the atmospheric density at high altitudes. Interestingly, there are also ENA emissions from other directions, which were not sampled in-situ. This allows us to put a lower limit to the escape from these regions.

  7. The Role of Ionosphere/Thermosphere Coupling Processes in the Escape of Species from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. L.; Bougher, S. W.

    2004-12-01

    We discuss coupled ionosphere/thermosphere models of Mars and implications for the photochemical escape processes of the atomic species O, C and N. Escape also occurs by ion outflow, and the relative rates of ion loss are determined by ion-neutral chemistry. The escape flux of ions has been computed by a number of investigators, including Ma et al. and S. Brecht, and some measurements are available from the Phobos spacecraft. The relative escape rates of ions depend on the composition of the ionosphere, which is determined by ion-neutral chemistry. Photochemical escape of atoms often occurs by processes that involves ions, such as dissociative recombination of O2+, N2+, CO+, and NO+, which yields fragments of various energies, many of which exceed the escape energy for Mars. Ions other than N2+ are formed mostly or partially by ion-molecule reactions. Except for NO+, the ions may be destroyed by ion-molecule reactions also. The ratio of ion-molecule reactions to dissociative recombination depends on the presence or absence of neutral species with which the ions can react. At high altitudes, the densities of neutral species is smaller than at lower altitudes. Therefore, above the ``exobase", dissociative recombination may be more important. Since many ions react with H2, its density profile is important in determining the photochemical escape of heavy ions. Earlier in the history of Mars, the atmosphere may have been more reducing. A larger abundance of H2 would decrease the densities of O+, N2+, CO+, and CO2+, which react with H2. We model the ionosphere and photochemical escape mechanisms for the higher solar fluxes and more reducing atmosphere of early Mars.

  8. Identification of human neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV and their role in virus adaptive evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xian-Chun; Agnihothram, Sudhakar S.; Jiao, Yongjun; Stanhope, Jeremy; Graham, Rachel L.; Peterson, Eric C.; Avnir, Yuval; Tallarico, Aimee St. Clair; Sheehan, Jared; Zhu, Quan; Baric, Ralph S.; Marasco, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    The newly emerging Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-like disease with ∼43% mortality. Given the recent detection of virus in dromedary camels, zoonotic transfer of MERS-CoV to humans is suspected. In addition, little is known about the role of human neutralizing Ab (nAb) pressure as a driving force in MERS-CoV adaptive evolution. Here, we used a well-characterized nonimmune human Ab-phage library and a panning strategy with proteoliposomes and cells to identify seven human nAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV Spike protein. These nAbs bind to three different epitopes in the RBD and human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) interface with subnanomolar/nanomolar binding affinities and block the binding of MERS-CoV Spike protein with its hDPP4 receptor. Escape mutant assays identified five amino acid residues that are critical for neutralization escape. Despite the close proximity of the three epitopes on the RBD interface, escape from one epitope did not have a major impact on neutralization with Abs directed to a different epitope. Importantly, the majority of escape mutations had negative impacts on hDPP4 receptor binding and viral fitness. To our knowledge, these results provide the first report on human nAbs against MERS-CoV that may contribute to MERS-CoV clearance and evolution. Moreover, in the absence of a licensed vaccine or antiviral for MERS, this panel of nAbs offers the possibility of developing human mAb-based immunotherapy, especially for health-care workers. PMID:24778221

  9. 42 CFR 84.51 - Entry and escape, or escape only; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... during entry into a hazardous atmosphere, and for escape from a hazardous atmosphere; or (b) Escape only. Respirators designed and approved for use only during escape from a hazardous atmosphere....

  10. 42 CFR 84.51 - Entry and escape, or escape only; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... during entry into a hazardous atmosphere, and for escape from a hazardous atmosphere; or (b) Escape only. Respirators designed and approved for use only during escape from a hazardous atmosphere....

  11. 42 CFR 84.51 - Entry and escape, or escape only; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... during entry into a hazardous atmosphere, and for escape from a hazardous atmosphere; or (b) Escape only. Respirators designed and approved for use only during escape from a hazardous atmosphere....

  12. 42 CFR 84.51 - Entry and escape, or escape only; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... during entry into a hazardous atmosphere, and for escape from a hazardous atmosphere; or (b) Escape only. Respirators designed and approved for use only during escape from a hazardous atmosphere....

  13. 42 CFR 84.51 - Entry and escape, or escape only; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... during entry into a hazardous atmosphere, and for escape from a hazardous atmosphere; or (b) Escape only. Respirators designed and approved for use only during escape from a hazardous atmosphere....

  14. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  15. DYNAMICS OF THE ESCAPE RESPONSE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    requirements. It has been shown that force is a lawful response measure under positive reinforcement (Notterman and Mintz, 1965). Subjects will adjust...concluded that response force in an escape situation is a lawful response measure, and that it operates in a manner similar to force under positive reinforcement .

  16. Magnetic buoyancy and the escape of magnetic fields from stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1984-06-01

    Magnetic buoyancy causes the azimuthal magnetic fields of stars to rise rapidly to the surface, from where they are generally assumed to escape freely into space. However, a closer look at the problem reveals the simple fact that disengagement of the field from the gas, and escape into space, require a convoluted field configuration, producing neutral point reconnection of the flux in the tenuous gas above the surface of the star. Only that flux which reconnects can escape. Recent observations of the magnetic fields emerging through the surface of the Sun show that even at sunspot maximum the gaps in longitude between bipolar magnetic regions are so wide as to limit severely the reconnection between regions. We suggest from the observations that no more than perhaps 3% of the flux that is observed to emerge through the surface is able to reconnect and escape. Hence the surface of the Sun approximates to an impenetrable barrier rather than an open surface, with quantitative consequences for theoretical dynamo models. Recent observations of the retraction of bipolar fields at the end of their appearance at the surface suggest active dynamical control by the convection beneath the surface.

  17. Solar forcing and planetary ion escape from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Fedorov, A.; Holmström, M.; Nilsson, H.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Yamauchi, M.

    2008-05-01

    The variability of planetary ion escape from Mars is studied using data from the Ion Mass Analyzer, IMA, on Mars Express (MEX). 42 orbits were selected during 17 months for different solar wind conditions, focusing on the low energy (~30 - 800 eV) heavy ion (e.g. O+, O2 + and CO2 +) outflow. A strong correlation is found between solar wind forcing of the obstacle, the cross-sectional area enclosing the ion outflow from Mars and the total heavy ion escape flux. The at least one order of magnitude changes of the ion outflow on the short term (hours, days), is directly connected with the variability of solar wind, solar soft x-ray and solar EUV (XEUV). The latter was first inferred from an analysis of how the obstacle size changes with changing solar wind and solar XEUV forcing. The 17-month trend of decreasing ion outflow with EUV during a declining phase of solar cycle 23, the EUV determined from the Neutral Particle Imager (NPI) on MEX, illustrates the influence of solar EUV forcing. On the basis of this we conclude that changes in solar wind- and solar XEUV forcing governs the variable ion escape from Mars. Both forcing terms appear to be equally important for the escape rate. Considering the difference in travel time for XEUV and the solar wind to Mars, the XEUV effect will precede the solar wind effect by several (3-9) days.

  18. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  19. Cold Ion Escape from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränz, M.; Dubinin, E.; Wei, Y.; Morgan, D.; Andrews, D.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.; Fedorov, A.

    2013-09-01

    It has always been challenging to observe the flux of ions with energies of less than 10eV escaping from the planetary ionospheres. We here report on new measurements of the ionospheric ion flows at Mars by the ASPERA-3 experiment on board Mars Express in combination with the MARSIS radar experiment. We first compare calculations of the mean ion flux observed by ASPERA-3 alone with previously published results. We then combine observations of the cold ion velocity by ASPERA-3 with observations of the cold plasma density by MARSIS since ASPERA-3 misses the cold core of the ion distribution. We show that the mean density of the nightside plasma observed by MARSIS is about two orders higher than observed by ASPERA-3 (Fig.1). Combining both datasets we show that the main escape channel is along the shadow boundary on the tailside of Mars (Fig. 2). At a distance of about 0.5 R_M the flux settles at a constant value (Fig. 3) which indicates that about half of the transterminator ionospheric flow escapes from the planet. Possible mechanism to generate this flux can be the ionospheric pressure gradient between dayside and nightside or momentum transfer from the solar wind via the induced magnetic field since the flow velocity is in the Alfvénic regime.

  20. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  1. On ion escape from Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvinen, R.

    2011-04-01

    This doctoral thesis is about the solar wind influence on the atmosphere of the planet Venus. A numerical plasma simulation model was developed for the interaction between Venus and the solar wind to study the erosion of charged particles from the Venus upper atmosphere. The developed model is a hybrid simulation where ions are treated as particles and electrons are modelled as a fluid. The simulation was used to study the solar wind induced ion escape from Venus as observed by the European Space Agency's Venus Express and NASA's Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. Especially, observations made by the ASPERA-4 particle instrument onboard Venus Express were studied. The thesis consists of an introductory part and four peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals. In the introduction Venus is presented as one of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System and the main findings of the work are discussed within the wider context of planetary physics.Venus is the closest neighbouring planet to the Earth and the most earthlike planet in its size and mass orbiting the Sun. Whereas the atmosphere of the Earth consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, Venus has a hot carbon dioxide atmosphere, which is dominated by the greenhouse effect. Venus has all of its water in the atmosphere, which is only a fraction of the Earth's total water supply. Since planets developed presumably in similar conditions in the young Solar System, why Venus and Earth became so different in many respects?One important feature of Venus is that the planet does not have an intrinsic magnetic field. This makes it possible for the solar wind, a continuous stream of charged particles from the Sun, to flow close to Venus and to pick up ions from the planet's upper atmosphere. The strong intrinsic magnetic field of the Earth dominates the terrestrial magnetosphere and deflects the solar wind flow far away from the atmosphere. The region around Venus where the planet's atmosphere interacts with the

  2. On ion escape from Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvinen, Riku

    2011-04-01

    This doctoral thesis is about the solar wind influence on the atmosphere of the planet Venus. A numerical plasma simulation model was developed for the interaction between Venus and the solar wind to study the erosion of charged particles from the Venus upper atmosphere. The developed model is a hybrid simulation where ions are treated as particles and electrons are modelled as a fluid. The simulation was used to study the solar wind induced ion escape from Venus as observed by the European Space Agency's Venus Express and NASA's Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. Especially, observations made by the ASPERA-4 particle instrument onboard Venus Express were studied. The thesis consists of an introductory part and four peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals. In the introduction Venus is presented as one of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System and the main findings of the work are discussed within the wider context of planetary physics. Venus is the closest neighbouring planet to the Earth and the most earthlike planet in its size and mass orbiting the Sun. Whereas the atmosphere of the Earth consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, Venus has a hot carbon dioxide atmosphere, which is dominated by the greenhouse effect. Venus has all of its water in the atmosphere, which is only a fraction of the Earth's total water supply. Since planets developed presumably in similar conditions in the young Solar System, why Venus and Earth became so different in many respects? One important feature of Venus is that the planet does not have an intrinsic magnetic field. This makes it possible for the solar wind, a continuous stream of charged particles from the Sun, to flow close to Venus and to pick up ions from the planet's upper atmosphere. The strong intrinsic magnetic field of the Earth dominates the terrestrial magnetosphere and deflects the solar wind flow far away from the atmosphere. The region around Venus where the planet's atmosphere interacts with the

  3. Malaria Parasites: The Great Escape

    PubMed Central

    Rénia, Laurent; Goh, Yun Shan

    2016-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27872623

  4. Helium escape from the Earth's atmosphere - The charge exchange mechanism revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lie-Svendsen, O.; Rees, M. H.; Stamnes, K.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the escape of neutral helium from the terrestrial atmosphere through exothermic charge exchange reactions between He(+) ions and the major atmospheric constituents N2, O2 and O. Elastic collisions with the neutral background particles were treated quantitatively using a recently developed kinetic theory approach. An interhemispheric plasma transport model was employed to provide a global distribution of He(+) ions as a function of altitude, latitude and local solar time and for different levels of solar ionization. Combining these ion densities with neutral densities from an MSIS model and best estimates for the reaction rate coefficients of the charge exchange reactions, we computed the global distribution of the neutral He escape flux. The escape rates show large diurnal and latitudinal variations, while the global average does not vary by more than a factor of three over a solar cycle. We find that this escape mechanism is potentially important for the overall balance of helium in the Earth's atmosphere. However, more accurate values for the reaction rate coefficients of the charge exchange reactions are required to make a definitive assessment of its importance.

  5. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

  6. Wind-Induced Atmospheric Escape: Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Sittler, Edward, Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Simpson, David

    2012-01-01

    Rapid thermospheric flows can significantly enhance the estimates of the atmospheric loss rate and the structure of the atmospheric corona of a planetary body. In particular, rapid horizontal flow at the exobase can increase the corresponding constituent escape rate. Here we show that such corrections, for both thermal and non-thermal escape, cannot be ignored when calculating the escape of methane from Titan, for which drastically different rates have been proposed. Such enhancements are also relevant to Pluto and exoplanets.

  7. Model of a mechanical clock escapement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moline, David; Wagner, John; Volk, Eugene

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical tower clock originated in Europe during the 14th century to sound hourly bells and later display hands on a dial. An important innovation was the escapement mechanism, which converts stored energy into oscillatory motion for fixed time intervals through the pendulum swing. Previous work has modeled the escapement mechanism in terms of inelastic and elastic collisions. We derive and experimentally verify a theoretical model in terms of impulsive differential equations for the Graham escapement mechanism in a Seth Thomas tower clock. The model offers insight into the clock's mechanical behavior and the functionality of the deadbeat escapement mechanism.

  8. Escape of Hot Oxygen Atoms from the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, A.; Croxell, J. A.; Cravens, T.; Pothapragada, S.; Nagy, A. F.; Ledvina, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of the production of hot oxygen atoms in the Martian atmosphere is the dissociative recombination (DR) reaction of O2+ ions with electrons. In this study, the primary production rate of hot O atoms is found for four energy channels of DR reaction. The one-dimensional energy and altitude dependent up and down flux differential equations are solved using a two-stream transport method, by taking into account the primary, secondary and cascade productions of hot O and also, the interactions with the background atmosphere. The forward and backward scattering probabilities and energy loss coefficients for 12 neutral target species are found using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The neutral target species are H, H2, He, C, N, O, CO, N2, NO, O2, Ar and CO2 for which the density profiles appropriate for Viking landers condition are used. From the up and down fluxes, the energy distribution function of hot O atoms and the escape flux at the exobase of Mars is calculated and by using the Liouville equation, the density profile of hot O is found above the exobase, extending out to several Martian radii. The results are used to study the interaction of escaping hot O atoms with the solar wind and specifically, the fluxes of energetic O+ pickup ions are determined.

  9. Guidance strategies for microburst escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Atilla

    This study compares three escape guidance laws for microburst encounters during final landing approach: Altitude-Guidance, Dive-Guidance, and Pitch-Guidance from the point of view of safety. It also introduces Modified Altitude- and Dive-Guidance laws. In this study, we use a full, 6-DOF, nonlinear, rigid-body aircraft model, including the effects of windshear and wind vorticity, and a model of microburst with turbulence. We also model the effect of stall prevention on the escape path. We first construct a new safety metric that quantifies the aircraft upward force capability in a microburst encounter. In the absence of turbulence, the safety factor is analytically proven to be a decreasing function of altitude. This suggests that descending to a low altitude may improve safety in the sense that the aircraft will have more upward force capability to maintain its altitude. In the presence of stochastic turbulence, the safety factor is treated as a random variable and its probability distribution function is analytically approximated as a function of altitude. This approximation reveals that the probability of safety factor being less than a given value has a minimum, i.e. safety increases as the altitude decreases up to a certain altitude, then starts decreasing. In the dissertation, two different approaches are used for comparison. (1) In a sample analysis approach, typical samples of the time histories of various variables are analyzed. Additionally, an animation of an aircraft escaping a microburst is produced and the behavior of the aircraft along with its inertial velocity and airspeed vectors are studied. (2) In a statistical approach, the probability distribution of the minimum altitude is estimated by the Monte Carlo Method when the statistical properties of the microburst parameters are known. Both approaches suggest that, within the modeling assumptions of this dissertation, and in the absence of human factors, altitude and dive guidance with low commanded

  10. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  11. Inhibition of chaotic escape from a potential well by incommensurate escape-suppressing excitations.

    PubMed

    Chacón, R; Martínez, J A

    2002-03-01

    Theoretical results are presented concerning the reduction of chaotic escape from a potential well by means of a harmonic parametric excitation that satisfies an ultrasubharmonic resonance condition with the escape-inducing excitation. The possibility of incommensurate escape-suppressing excitations is demonstrated by studying rational approximations to the irrational escape-suppressing frequency. The analytical predictions for the suitable amplitudes and initial phases of the escape-suppressing excitation are tested against numerical simulations based on a high-resolution grid of initial conditions. These numerical results indicate that the reduction of escape is reliably achieved for small amplitudes and at, and only at, the predicted initial phases. For the case of irrational escape-suppressing frequencies, the effective escape-reducing initial phases are found to lie close to the accumulation points of the set of suitable initial phases that are associated with the complete series of convergents up to the convergent giving the chosen rational approximation.

  12. Analysis of variola and vaccinia virus neutralization assays for smallpox vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christine M; Newman, Frances K; Davidson, Whitni B; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Yan, Lihan; Frey, Sharon E; Belshe, Robert B; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2012-07-01

    Possible smallpox reemergence drives research for third-generation vaccines that effectively neutralize variola virus. A comparison of neutralization assays using different substrates, variola and vaccinia (Dryvax and modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA]), showed significantly different 90% neutralization titers; Dryvax underestimated while MVA overestimated variola neutralization. Third-generation vaccines may rely upon neutralization as a correlate of protection.

  13. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... in the past year. Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol ...

  14. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

  15. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves).

  16. Escape as Reinforcement and Escape Extinction in the Treatment of Feeding Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, Robert H.; Stewart, Victoria; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Patel, Meeta R.; Zeleny, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Given the effectiveness of putative escape extinction as treatment for feeding problems, it is surprising that little is known about the effects of escape as reinforcement for appropriate eating during treatment. In the current investigation, we examined the effectiveness of escape as reinforcement for mouth clean (a product measure of…

  17. Energetic neutral particles from Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft has detected energetic neutral particles escaping from the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. These energetic neutrals are created in charge exchange reactions between radiation belt ions and ambient atoms or molecules in the magnetosphere. If the Io torus is assumed to be the dominant Jovian source region for energetic neutrals, the Voyager observations can be used to infer upper limits to the average ion intensities there below about 200 keV. No readily interpretable in-situ measurements are available in the Io torus at these energies. The middle and outer Jovian magnetospheres may also be a significant source of energetic neutrals. At Saturn, the observed neutral particle count rates are too high to be explained by charge exchange between fast protons and H atoms of the Titan torus. Most of the energetic neutrals may be produced by charge exchanges between heavy ions and a neutral cloud containing H2O in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. If so, the Voyager measurements of energetic neutral fluxes would be the first detected emissions from this region of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  18. Escaping in Literature. Teaching in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Otis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the "escape" genre of children's literature, and recommends and describes several books that deal with such topics as escape from prison camps, from slavery, from the Holocaust, from war, and from Utopian societies. These books should provoke meaningful classroom discussions and allow children to view their own world from different…

  19. Submarine 'safe to escape' studies in man.

    PubMed

    Jurd, K M; Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Blogg, S L; Stansfield, M R D; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The Royal Navy requires reliable advice on the safe limits of escape from a distressed submarine (DISSUB). Flooding in a DISSUB may cause a rise in ambient pressure, increasing the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and decreasing the maximum depth from which it is safe to escape. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure/depth limits to escape following saturation at raised ambient pressure. Exposure to saturation pressures up to 1.6 bar (a) (160 kPa) (n = 38); escapes from depths down to 120 meters of sea water (msw) (n = 254) and a combination of saturation followed by escape (n = 90) was carried out in the QinetiQ Submarine Escape Simulator, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. Doppler ultrasound monitoring was used to judge the severity of decompression stress. The trials confirmed the previously untested advice, in the Guardbook, that if a DISSUB was lying at a depth of 90 msw, then it was safe to escape when the pressure in the DISSUB was 1.5 bar (a), but also indicated that this advice may be overly conservative. This study demonstrated that the upper DISSUB saturation pressure limit to safe escape from 90 msw was 1.6 bar (a), resulting in two cases of DCS.

  20. 30 CFR 57.11051 - Escape routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Escape routes. 57.11051 Section 57.11051 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... read direction signs that clearly indicate the ways of escape....

  1. 30 CFR 57.11051 - Escape routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Escape routes. 57.11051 Section 57.11051 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... read direction signs that clearly indicate the ways of escape....

  2. Atmospheric escape, redox evolution, and planetary habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catling, D. C.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Through the greenhouse effect, the presence and composition of an atmosphere is critical for defining a (conventional) circumstellar habitable zone in terms of planetary surface temperatures suitable for liquid water. Lack of knowledge of planetary atmospheres is likely to frustrate attempts to say with any certainty whether detected terrestrial-sized exoplanets may or may not be habitable. Perhaps an underappreciated role in such considerations is the evolutionary effect of atmospheric escape for determining atmospheric composition or whether an atmosphere exists in the first place. Whether atmospheres exist at all on planets is demonstrably connected to the effect of integrated atmospheric escape. When we observe our own Solar System and transiting exoplanets, the existence of an atmosphere is clearly delineated by a relative vulnerability to thermal escape and impact erosion. The prevalence of thermal escape as a key evolutionary determinant for the presence of planetary atmosphere is shown by a relationship between the relative solar (or stellar) heating and the escape velocity. Those bodies with too much stellar heating and too smaller escape velocity end up devoid of atmospheres. Impact erosion is evident in the relationship between impact velocity and escape velocity. Escape due to impacts is particularly important for understanding the large differences in the atmospheres of giant planet moons, such as Ganymede versus Titan. It is also significant for Mars-sized planets. The oxidation state of atmospheres is important for some theories of the origin of life (where an early reducing atmosphere is helpful for organic synthesis) and the evolution of advanced life (where free molecular oxygen is the best source of high energy metabolism). Surfaces on some relatively small planets and moons are observed to have evolved to an oxidized state, which theory and observation can explain through atmospheric escape. There are several examples in the Solar System where a

  3. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies developed by an HIV-positive elite neutralizer exact a replication fitness cost on the contemporaneous virus.

    PubMed

    Sather, D Noah; Carbonetti, Sara; Kehayia, Jenny; Kraft, Zane; Mikell, Iliyana; Scheid, Johannes F; Klein, Florian; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 1% of those infected with HIV-1 develop broad and potent serum cross-neutralizing antibody activities. It is unknown whether or not the development of such immune responses affects the replication of the contemporaneous autologous virus. Here, we defined a pathway of autologous viral escape from contemporaneous potent and broad serum neutralizing antibodies developed by an elite HIV-1-positive (HIV-1(+)) neutralizer. These antibodies potently neutralize diverse isolates from different clades and target primarily the CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) of the viral envelope glycoprotein. Viral escape required mutations in the viral envelope glycoprotein which limited the accessibility of the CD4-binding site to the autologous broadly neutralizing anti-CD4-BS antibodies but which allowed the virus to infect cells by utilizing CD4 receptors on their surface. The acquisition of neutralization resistance, however, resulted in reduced cell entry potential and slower viral replication kinetics. Our results indicate that in vivo escape from autologous broadly neutralizing antibodies exacts fitness costs to HIV-1.

  5. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  6. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  7. Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10(exp 24) Mx of net azimuthal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is consistent with rates derived from other indicators of flux escape, including coronal mass ejections and filament eruptions. The toroidal flux escape rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed approximately 2 x 10(exp 45) of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx(exp 2)cm(exp -3) at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations.

  8. Statin escape phenomenon: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Barkas, Fotios; Elisaf, Moses; Klouras, Eleftherios; Dimitriou, Theodora; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Liberopoulos, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the presence of the so called “statin escape” phenomenon among hyperlipidemic subjects attending a lipid clinic. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of 1240 hyperlipidemic individuals followed-up for ≥ 3 years. We excluded those individuals meeting one of the following criteria: Use of statin therapy at baseline visit, discontinuation of statin treatment at most recent visit, change in statin treatment during follow-up and poor compliance to treatment. Statin escape phenomenon was defined as an increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at the most recent visit by > 10% compared with the value at 6 mo following initiation of statin treatment. RESULTS Of 181 eligible subjects, 31% exhibited the statin escape phenomenon. No major differences regarding baseline characteristics were found between statin escapers and non-statin escapers. Both escapers and non-escapers had similar baseline LDL-C levels [174 (152-189) and 177 (152-205) mg/dL, respectively]. In comparison with non-escapers, statin escapers demonstrated lower LDL-C levels at 6 mo after treatment initiation [88 (78-97) mg/dL vs 109 (91-129) mg/dL, P < 0.05], but higher levels at the most recent visit [103 (96-118) mg/dL vs 94 (79-114) mg/dL, P < 0.05]. CONCLUSION These data confirm the existence of an escape phenomenon among statin-treated individuals. The clinical significance of this phenomenon remains uncertain. PMID:28261552

  9. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  10. Isotopic Fractionation by Gravitational Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, H. S. J.

    2003-04-01

    Present natural data bases for abundances of the isotopic compositions of noble gases, carbon and nitrogen inventories can be found in the Sun, the solar wind, meteorites and the planetary atmospheres and crustal reservoirs. Mass distributions in the various volatile reservoirs provide boundary conditions which must be satisfied in modelling the history of the present atmospheres. Such boundary conditions are constraints posed by comparison of isotopic ratios in primordial volatile sources with the isotopic pattern which was found on the planets and their satellites. Observations from space missions and Earth-based spectroscopic telescope observations of Venus, Mars and Saturn's major satellite Titan show that the atmospheric evolution of these planetary bodies to their present states was affected by processes capable of fractionating their elements and isotopes. The isotope ratios of D/H in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars indicate evidence for their planetary water inventories. Venus' H2O content may have been at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean. Analysis of the D/H ratio on Mars imply that a global H2O ocean with a depth of ≤ 30 m was lost since the end of hydrodynamic escape. Calculations of the time evolution of the 15N/14N isotope anomalies in the atmospheres of Mars and Titan show that the Martian atmosphere was at least ≥ 20 times denser than at present and that the mass of Titan's early atmosphere was about 30 times greater than its present value. A detailed study of gravitational fractionation of isotopes in planetary atmospheres furthermore indicates a much higher solar wind mass flux of the early Sun during the first half billion years.

  11. The fast escaping set for quasiregular mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergweiler, Walter; Drasin, David; Fletcher, Alastair

    2014-06-01

    The fast escaping set of a transcendental entire function is the set of all points which tend to infinity under iteration as fast as possible compatible with the growth of the function. We study the analogous set for quasiregular mappings in higher dimensions and show, among other things, that various equivalent definitions of the fast escaping set for transcendental entire functions in the plane also coincide for quasiregular mappings. We also exhibit a class of quasiregular mappings for which the fast escaping set has the structure of a spider's web.

  12. The Neuroethology of C. elegans Escape

    PubMed Central

    Pirri, Jennifer K.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Escape behaviors are crucial to survive predator encounters. Touch to the head of C. elegans induces an escape response where the animal rapidly backs away from the stimulus and suppresses foraging head movements. The coordination of head and body movements facilitates escape from predacious fungi that cohabitate with nematodes in organic debris. An appreciation of the natural habitat of laboratory organisms, like C. elegans, enables a comprehensive neuroethological analysis of behavior. In this review we discuss the neuronal mechanisms and the ecological significance of the C. elegans touch response. PMID:22226513

  13. Interspecific evaluation of octopus escape behavior.

    PubMed

    Wood, James B; Anderson, Roland C

    2004-01-01

    The well-known ability of octopuses to escape enclosures is a behavior that can be fatal and, therefore, is an animal welfare issue. This study obtained survey data from 38 participants-primarily scientists and public aquarists who work with octopuses-on 25 described species of octopus. The study demonstrates that the likeliness to escape is species specific (p =.001). The study gives husbandry techniques to keep captive octopuses contained. This first interspecific study of octopus escape behavior allows readers to make informed species-specific husbandry choices.

  14. Antigenic structure of human hepatitis A virus defined by analysis of escape mutants selected against murine monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ping, L H; Lemon, S M

    1992-01-01

    We examined the antigenic structure of human hepatitis A virus (HAV) by characterizing a series of 21 murine monoclonal-antibody-resistant neutralization escape mutants derived from the HM175 virus strain. The escape phenotype of each mutant was associated with reduced antibody binding in radioimmunofocus assays. Neutralization escape mutations were identified at the Asp-70 and Gln-74 residues of the capsid protein VP3, as well as at Ser-102, Val-171, Ala-176, and Lys-221 of VP1. With the exception of the Lys-221 mutants, substantial cross-resistance was evident among escape mutants tested against a panel of 22 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the involved residues contribute to epitopes composing a single antigenic site. As mutations at one or more of these residues conferred resistance to 20 of 22 murine antibodies, this site appears to be immunodominant in the mouse. However, multiple mutants selected independently against any one monoclonal antibody had mutations at only one or, at the most, two amino acid residues within the capsid proteins, confirming that there are multiple epitopes within this antigenic site and suggesting that single-amino-acid residues contributing to these epitopes may play key roles in the binding of individual antibodies. A second, potentially independent antigenic site was identified by three escape mutants with different substitutions at Lys-221 of VP1. These mutants were resistant only to antibody H7C27, while H7C27 effectively neutralized all other escape mutants. These data support the existence of an immunodominant neutralization site in the antigenic structure of hepatitis A virus which involves residues of VP3 and VP1 and a second, potentially independent site involving residue 221 of VP1. PMID:1312628

  15. Distracted driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... the road Your hands on the wheel Your mind on driving Distracted driving occurs when something gets in the way of you doing all 3 things. Examples include: Talking on a cell phone Reading or sending text messages Eating and drinking Grooming ( ...

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of escape from biomedical intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Yoh; Michor, Franziska; Nowak, Martin A

    2003-01-01

    Viruses, bacteria, eukaryotic parasites, cancer cells, agricultural pests and other inconvenient animates have an unfortunate tendency to escape from selection pressures that are meant to control them. Chemotherapy, anti-viral drugs or antibiotics fail because their targets do not hold still, but evolve resistance. A major problem in developing vaccines is that microbes evolve and escape from immune responses. The fundamental question is the following: if a genetically diverse population of replicating organisms is challenged with a selection pressure that has the potential to eradicate it, what is the probability that this population will produce escape mutants? Here, we use multi-type branching processes to describe the accumulation of mutants in independent lineages. We calculate escape dynamics for arbitrary mutation networks and fitness landscapes. Our theory shows how to estimate the probability of success or failure of biomedical intervention, such as drug treatment and vaccination, against rapidly evolving organisms. PMID:14728779

  17. Biogeochemistry: Nocturnal escape route for marsh gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Katey Walter; MacIntyre, Sally

    2016-07-01

    A field study of methane emissions from wetlands reveals that more of the gas escapes through diffusive processes than was thought, mostly at night. Because methane is a greenhouse gas, the findings have implications for global warming.

  18. Polymer escape from a confining potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mökkönen, Harri; Ikonen, Timo; Jónsson, Hannes; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2014-02-07

    The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.

  19. Submarine tower escape decompression sickness risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Loveman, G A M; Seddon, E M; Thacker, J C; Stansfield, M R; Jurd, K M

    2014-01-01

    Actions to enhance survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either men or goats to raised pressure. Body mass was used to scale DCS risk. The calibration data included more than 1,000 actual or simulated submarine escape exposures and no exposures with substantial staged decompression. Cases of pulmonary barotrauma were removed from the calibration data. The calibrated model was used to estimate the likelihood of DCS occurrence following submarine escape from the United Kingdom Royal Navy tower escape system. Where internal DISSUB pressure remains at - 0.1 MPa, escape from DISSUB depths < 200 meters is estimated to have DCS risk < 6%. Saturation at raised DISSUB pressure markedly increases risk, with > 60% DCS risk predicted for a 200-meter escape from saturation at 0.21 MPa. Using the calibrated model to predict DCS for direct ascent from saturation gives similar risk estimates to other published models.

  20. Atomic hydrogen escape rate due to charge exchange with hot plasmaspheric ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maher, L. J.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Data on ion and electron temperatures and concentrations to several thousand kilometers of altitude were obtained from the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite for 1974 and to 850 km from Arecibo incoherent scatter radar measurements. These data were used to normalize diffusive equilibrium profiles. From these profiles and by using the neutral atmospheric model of Jacchia (1971) and a new hydrogen model, the charge-exchange-induced neutral hydrogen escape fluxes for equatorial and middle latitudes were calculated. The data confirm earlier estimates that the charge exchange loss is more important than Jeans escape for the earth. It is also found that inside the plasmapause this charge exchange process with hot plasmapheric ions is the major production and loss process for the satellite population in the hydrogen geocorona.

  1. Escape of Hydrogen from the Exosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Clarke, John T.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Mayyasi-Matta, Majd A.

    2016-10-01

    After decades of exploration, the martian neutral hydrogen exosphere has remained largely uncharacterized even today. In my dissertation I have attempted to constrain the characteristics of the martian hydrogen exosphere using Hubble Space Telescope observations obtained during October-November 2007 and 2014. These observations reveal short-term seasonal changes exhibited by the martian hydrogen exosphere that are inconsistent with the diffusion-limited escape scenario. This seasonal behavior adds a new element towards backtracking the history of water loss from Mars. Modeling of the data also indicates the likely presence of a superthermal population of hydrogen created by non-thermal processes at Mars, another key element to understand the present-day escape. Exploration of the latitudinal symmetry of the martian exosphere indicates that it is symmetric above 2.5 martian radii and asymmetric below this altitude, which could be due to temperature differences between the day and night sides. Finally, the large uncertainties in determining the characteristics of the martian exosphere after decades of exploration is due to various assumptions about the intrinsic characteristics of the martian exosphere in the modeling process, degeneracy in the two modeling parameters temperature and density of the hydrogen atoms, unaccounted seasonal effects, and uncertainties introduced from spacecraft instrumentation as well as their viewing geometry.

  2. Localized reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates inhibit escape of Listeria monocytogenes from vacuoles in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jesse T; Tsang, Albert W; Swanson, Joel A

    2003-11-15

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) evades being killed after phagocytosis by macrophages by escaping from vacuoles into cytoplasm. Activated macrophages are listericidal, in part because they can retain Lm in vacuoles. This study examined the contribution of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) to the inhibition of Lm escape from vacuoles. Lm escaped from vacuoles of nonactivated macrophages within 30 min of infection. Macrophages activated with IFN-gamma, LPS, IL-6, and a neutralizing Ab against IL-10 retained Lm within the vacuoles, and inhibitors of ROI and RNI blocked inhibition of vacuolar escape to varying degrees. Measurements of Lm escape in macrophages from gp91(phox-/-) and NO synthase 2(-/-) mice showed that vacuolar retention required ROI and was augmented by RNI. Live cell imaging with the fluorogenic probe dihydro-2',4,5,6,7,7'-hexafluorofluorescein coupled to BSA (DHFF-BSA) indicated that oxidative chemistries were generated rapidly and were localized to Lm vacuoles. Chemistries that oxidized DHFF-BSA were similar to those that retained Lm in phagosomes. Fluorescent conversion of DHFF-BSA occurred more efficiently in smaller vacuoles, indicating that higher concentrations of ROI or RNI were generated in more confining volumes. Thus, activated macrophages retained Lm within phagosomes by the localization of ROI and RNI to vacuoles, and by their combined actions in a small space

  3. Developing a self-consistent description of Titan's upper atmosphere without hydrodynamic escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jared M.; Hunter Waite, J.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Perryman, Rebecca; Mandt, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we develop a best fit description of Titan's upper atmosphere between 500 km and 1500 km, using a one-dimensional (1-D) version of the three-dimensional (3-D) Titan Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model. For this modeling, we use constraints from several lower atmospheric Cassini-Huygens investigations and validate our simulation results against in situ Cassini Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements of N2, CH4, H2, 40Ar, HCN, and the major stable isotopic ratios of 14N/15N in N2. We focus our investigation on aspects of Titan's upper atmosphere that determine the amount of atmospheric escape required to match the INMS measurements: the amount of turbulence, the inclusion of chemistry, and the effects of including a self-consistent thermal balance. We systematically examine both hydrodynamic escape scenarios for methane and scenarios with significantly reduced atmospheric escape. Our results show that the optimum configuration of Titan's upper atmosphere is one with a methane homopause near 1000 km and atmospheric escape rates of 1.41-1.47 ×1011 CH4 m-2 s-1 and 1.08 ×1014 H2 m-2 s-1 (scaled relative to the surface). We also demonstrate that simulations consistent with hydrodynamic escape of methane systematically produce inferior fits to the multiple validation points presented here.

  4. Dementia & Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Resource Center Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support Groups Caregiver Stories Connections e-Newsletter FCA+(plus) Services ... be like if you could no longer drive. Support groups provide a good venue for both the caregivers ...

  5. Strong Constraint on Human Genes Escaping X-Inactivation Is Modulated by their Expression Level and Breadth in Both Sexes.

    PubMed

    Slavney, Andrea; Arbiza, Leonardo; Clark, Andrew G; Keinan, Alon

    2016-02-01

    In eutherian mammals, X-linked gene expression is normalized between XX females and XY males through the process of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). XCI results in silencing of transcription from one ChrX homolog per female cell. However, approximately 25% of human ChrX genes escape XCI to some extent and exhibit biallelic expression in females. The evolutionary basis of this phenomenon is not entirely clear, but high sequence conservation of XCI escapers suggests that purifying selection may directly or indirectly drive XCI escape at these loci. One hypothesis is that this signal results from contributions to developmental and physiological sex differences, but presently there is limited evidence supporting this model in humans. Another potential driver of this signal is selection for high and/or broad gene expression in both sexes, which are strong predictors of reduced nucleotide substitution rates in mammalian genes. Here, we compared purifying selection and gene expression patterns of human XCI escapers with those of X-inactivated genes in both sexes. When we accounted for the functional status of each ChrX gene's Y-linked homolog (or "gametolog"), we observed that XCI escapers exhibit greater degrees of purifying selection in the human lineage than X-inactivated genes, as well as higher and broader gene expression than X-inactivated genes across tissues in both sexes. These results highlight a significant role for gene expression in both sexes in driving purifying selection on XCI escapers, and emphasize these genes' potential importance in human disease.

  6. Stellar wind interaction and pick-up ion escape of the Kepler-11 "super-Earths"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Johnstone, C. P.; Odert, P.; Erkaev, N. V.; Lammer, H.; Lüftinger, T.; Holmström, M.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Güdel, M.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We study the interactions between stellar winds and the extended hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres of planets. We estimate the resulting escape of planetary pick-up ions from the five "super-Earths" in the compact Kepler-11 system and compare the escape rates with the efficiency of the thermal escape of neutral hydrogen atoms. Methods: Assuming the stellar wind of Kepler-11 is similar to the solar wind, we use a polytropic 1D hydrodynamic wind model to estimate the wind properties at the planetary orbits. We apply a direct simulation Monte Carlo model to model the hydrogen coronae and the stellar wind plasma interaction around Kepler-11b-f within a realistic expected heating efficiency range of 15-40%. The same model is used to estimate the ion pick-up escape from the XUV heated and hydrodynamically extended upper atmospheres of Kepler-11b-f. From the interaction model, we study the influence of possible magnetic moments, calculate the charge exchange and photoionization production rates of planetary ions, and estimate the loss rates of pick-up H+ ions for all five planets. We compare the results between the five "super-Earths" and the thermal escape rates of the neutral planetary hydrogen atoms. Results: Our results show that a huge neutral hydrogen corona is formed around the planet for all Kepler-11b-f exoplanets. The non-symmetric form of the corona changes from planet to planet and is defined mostly by radiation pressure and gravitational effects. Non-thermal escape rates of pick-up ionized hydrogen atoms for Kepler-11 "super-Earths" vary between ~6.4 × 1030 s-1 and ~4.1 × 1031 s-1, depending on the planet's orbital location and assumed heating efficiency. These values correspond to non-thermal mass loss rates of ~1.07 × 107 g s-1 and ~6.8 × 107 g s-1 respectively, which is a few percent of the thermal escape rates.

  7. Compensatory escape mechanism at low Reynolds number

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, Brad J.; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite high predation pressure, planktonic copepods remain one of the most abundant groups on the planet. Their escape response provides one of most effective mechanisms to maximize evolutionary fitness. Owing to their small size (100 µm) compared with their predators (>1 mm), increasing viscosity is believed to have detrimental effects on copepods’ fitness at lower temperature. Using high-speed digital holography we acquire 3D kinematics of the nauplius escape including both location and detailed appendage motion. By independently varying temperature and viscosity we demonstrate that at natural thermal extremes, contrary to conventional views, nauplii achieve equivalent escape distance while maintaining optimal velocity. Using experimental results and kinematic simulations from a resistive force theory propulsion model, we demonstrate that a shift in appendage timing creates an increase in power stroke duration relative to recovery stroke duration. This change allows the nauplius to limit losses in velocity and maintain distance during escapes at the lower bound of its natural thermal range. The shift in power stroke duration relative to recovery stroke duration is found to be regulated by the temperature dependence of swimming appendage muscle groups, not a dynamic response to viscosity change. These results show that copepod nauplii have natural adaptive mechanisms to compensate for viscosity variations with temperature but not in situations in which viscosity varies independent of temperature, such as in some phytoplankton blooms. Understanding the robustness of escapes in the wake of environmental changes such as temperature and viscosity has implications in assessing the future health of performance compensation. PMID:23487740

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Escape from Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesca; Gisslen, Magnus; Cinque, Paola; Price, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, secondary CSF escape, which may be even more uncommon, is defined by an increase of CSF HIV replication in association with a concomitant non-HIV infection, as a consequence of the local inflammatory response. Understanding these CSF escape settings not only is important for clinical diagnosis and management but also may provide insight into the CNS HIV reservoir.

  9. Residential smoke alarms and fire escape plans.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, P A; Sacks, J J; Ryan, G W; Bender, P F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of U.S. homes with installed smoke alarms, smoke alarms on the same floor as occupants' bedrooms, and fire escape plans. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on smoke alarm use and fire escape planning from a 1994 stratified random telephone survey of 5238 U.S. households. RESULTS: Respondents from 91% of surveyed households reported the presence of at least one installed smoke alarm, and 94% of respondents reported having an alarm on the same level of the home as their sleeping area. The prevalence of installed smoke alarms varied by highest education level in the household and income level. Sixty percent of all households had designed or discussed a fire escape plan at least once; only 17% of these households had actually practiced one. CONCLUSIONS: Although overall use of smoke alarms was high, certain population subgroups were less likely to have smoke alarms or to have them installed on the same floor as bedrooms. Fire escape planning, another important safety measure, was somewhat less common, and very few respondents reported having practiced a fire escape plan with the members of their household. PMID:9769771

  10. Genes that escape from X inactivation.

    PubMed

    Berletch, Joel B; Yang, Fan; Xu, Jun; Carrel, Laura; Disteche, Christine M

    2011-08-01

    To achieve a balanced gene expression dosage between males (XY) and females (XX), mammals have evolved a compensatory mechanism to randomly inactivate one of the female X chromosomes. Despite this chromosome-wide silencing, a number of genes escape X inactivation: in women about 15% of X-linked genes are bi-allelically expressed and in mice, about 3%. Expression from the inactive X allele varies from a few percent of that from the active allele to near equal expression. While most genes have a stable inactivation pattern, a subset of genes exhibit tissue-specific differences in escape from X inactivation. Escape genes appear to be protected from the repressive chromatin modifications associated with X inactivation. Differences in the identity and distribution of escape genes between species and tissues suggest a role for these genes in the evolution of sex differences in specific phenotypes. The higher expression of escape genes in females than in males implies that they may have female-specific roles and may be responsible for some of the phenotypes observed in X aneuploidy.

  11. Antibody neutralization of retargeted measles viruses.

    PubMed

    Lech, Patrycja J; Pappoe, Roland; Nakamura, Takafumi; Tobin, Gregory J; Nara, Peter L; Russell, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The measles virus (MV) vaccine lineage is a promising oncolytic but prior exposure to the measles vaccine or wild-type MV strains limits treatment utility due to the presence of anti-measles antibodies. MV entry can be redirected by displaying a polypeptide ligand on the Hemagglutinin (H) C-terminus. We hypothesized that retargeted MV would escape neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the H receptor-binding surface and be less susceptible to neutralization by human antisera. Using chimeric H proteins, with and without mutations that ablate MV receptor binding, we show that retargeted MVs escape mAbs that target the H receptor-binding surface by virtue of mutations that ablate infection via SLAM and CD46. However, C-terminally displayed domains do not mediate virus entry in the presence of human antibodies that bind to the underlying H domain. In conclusion, utility of retargeted oncolytic measles viruses does not extend to evasion of human serum neutralization.

  12. Enhanced Endosomal Escape by Light-Fueled Liquid-Metal Transformer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Lin, Yiliang; Chen, Zhaowei; Hu, Quanyin; Liu, Yang; Yu, Shuangjiang; Gao, Wei; Dickey, Michael D; Gu, Zhen

    2017-03-22

    Effective endosomal escape remains as the "holy grail" for endocytosis-based intracellular drug delivery. To date, most of the endosomal escape strategies rely on small molecules, cationic polymers, or pore-forming proteins, which are often limited by the systemic toxicity and lack of specificity. We describe here a light-fueled liquid-metal transformer for effective endosomal escape-facilitated cargo delivery via a chemical-mechanical process. The nanoscale transformer can be prepared by a simple approach of sonicating a low-toxicity liquid-metal. When coated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the resulting nanospheres demonstrate the ability to absorb and convert photoenergy to drive the simultaneous phase separation and morphological transformation of the inner liquid-metal core. The morphological transformation from nanospheres to hollow nanorods with a remarkable change of aspect ratio can physically disrupt the endosomal membrane to promote endosomal escape of payloads. This metal-based nanotransformer equipped with GQDs provides a new strategy for facilitating effective endosomal escape to achieve spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery with enhanced efficacy.

  13. Escape as reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of feeding problems.

    PubMed

    LaRue, Robert H; Stewart, Victoria; Piazza, Cathleen C; Volkert, Valerie M; Patel, Meeta R; Zeleny, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Given the effectiveness of putative escape extinction as treatment for feeding problems, it is surprising that little is known about the effects of escape as reinforcement for appropriate eating during treatment. In the current investigation, we examined the effectiveness of escape as reinforcement for mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing), escape as reinforcement for mouth clean plus escape extinction (EE), and EE alone as treatment for the food refusal of 5 children. Results were similar to those of previous studies, in that reinforcement alone did not result in increases in mouth clean or decreases in inappropriate behavior (e.g., Piazza, Patel, Gulotta, Sevin, & Layer, 2003). Increases in mouth clean and decreases in inappropriate behavior occurred when the therapist implemented EE independent of the presence or absence of reinforcement. Results are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement in the etiology and treatment of feeding problems.

  14. Thermal escape from extrasolar giant planets

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Tommi T.; Lavvas, Panayotis; Harris, Matthew J.; Yelle, Roger V.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism and mass loss rate from EGPs depend on a complex interplay between photochemistry and radiative transfer driven by the stellar UV radiation. In this study, we explore how these processes change under different levels of irradiation on giant planets with different characteristics. We confirm that there are two distinct regimes of thermal escape from EGPs, and that the transition between these regimes is relatively sharp. Our results have implications for thermal mass loss rates from different EGPs that we discuss in the context of currently known planets and the detectability of their upper atmospheres. PMID:24664923

  15. Thermal escape from extrasolar giant planets.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Tommi T; Lavvas, Panayotis; Harris, Matthew J; Yelle, Roger V

    2014-04-28

    The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism and mass loss rate from EGPs depend on a complex interplay between photochemistry and radiative transfer driven by the stellar UV radiation. In this study, we explore how these processes change under different levels of irradiation on giant planets with different characteristics. We confirm that there are two distinct regimes of thermal escape from EGPs, and that the transition between these regimes is relatively sharp. Our results have implications for thermal mass loss rates from different EGPs that we discuss in the context of currently known planets and the detectability of their upper atmospheres.

  16. Exploring potential Pluto-generated neutral tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Hill, Matthew; KollMann, Peter; McHutt, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    The NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto is providing unprecedented insight into this mysterious outer solar system body. Escaping molecular nitrogen is of particular interest and possibly analogous to similar features observed at moons of Saturn and Jupiter. Such escaping N2 has the potential of creating molecular nitrogen and N (as a result of molecular dissociation) tori or partial toroidal extended particle distributions. The presence of these features would present the first confirmation of an extended toroidal neutral feature on a planetary scale in our solar system. While escape velocities are anticipated to be lower than those at Enceladus, Io or even Europa, particle lifetimes are much longer in Pluto’s orbit because as a result of much weaker solar interaction processes along Pluto’s orbit (on the order of tens of years). Thus, with a ~248 year orbit, Pluto may in fact be generating an extended toroidal feature along it orbit.For this work, we modify and apply our 3-D Monte Carlo neutral torus model (previously used at Saturn, Jupiter and Mercury) to study/analyze the theoretical possibility and scope of potential Pluto-generated neutral tori. Our model injects weighted particles and tracks their trajectories under the influence of all gravitational fields with interactions with other particles, solar photons and Pluto collisions. We present anticipated N2 and N tori based on current estimates of source characterization and environmental conditions. We also present an analysis of sensitivity to assumed initial conditions. Such results can provide insight into the Pluto system as well as valuable interpretation of New Horizon’s observational data.

  17. Statistical theory of asteroid escape rates.

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Charles; Ross, Shane D; Lo, Martin W; Marsden, Jerrold; Farrelly, David; Uzer, T

    2002-07-01

    Transition states in phase space are identified and shown to regulate the rate of escape of asteroids temporarily captured in circumplanetary orbits. The transition states, similar to those occurring in chemical reaction dynamics, are then used to develop a statistical semianalytical theory for the rate of escape of asteroids temporarily captured by Mars. Theory and numerical simulations are found to agree to better than 1%. These calculations suggest that further development of transition state theory in celestial mechanics, as an alternative to large-scale numerical simulations, will be a fruitful approach to mass transport calculations.

  18. Bacillus anthracis factors for phagosomal escape.

    PubMed

    Tonello, Fiorella; Zornetta, Irene

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, B. anthracis secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of B. anthracis toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  19. Disk Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

  20. Martian Atmospheric and Ionospheric plasma Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Rickard

    2016-04-01

    Solar forcing is responsible for the heating, ionization, photochemistry, and erosion processes in the upper atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the terrestrial planets. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the only one with a fully developed biosphere, while our kin Venus and Mars have evolved into arid inhabitable planets. As for Mars, there are ample evidences for an early Noachian, water rich period on Mars. The question is, what made Mars evolve so differently compared to the Earth? Various hydrosphere and atmospheric evolution scenarios for Mars have been forwarded based on surface morphology, chemical composition, simulations, semi-empiric (in-situ data) models, and the long-term evolution of the Sun. Progress has been made, but the case is still open regarding the changes that led to the present arid surface and tenuous atmosphere at Mars. This presentation addresses the long-term variability of the Sun, the solar forcing impact on the Martian atmosphere, and its interaction with the space environment - an electromagnetic wave and particle interaction with the upper atmosphere that has implications for its photochemistry, composition, and energization that governs thermal and non-thermal escape. Non-thermal escape implies an electromagnetic upward energization of planetary ions and molecules to velocities above escape velocity, a process governed by a combination of solar EUV radiation (ionization), and energy and momentum transfer by the solar wind. The ion escape issue dates back to the early Soviet and US-missions to Mars, but the first more accurate estimates of escape rates came with the Phobos-2 mission in 1989. Better-quality ion composition measurement results of atmospheric/ionospheric ion escape from Mars, obtained from ESA Mars Express (MEX) instruments, have improved our understanding of the ion escape mechanism. With the NASA MAVEN spacecraft orbiting Mars since Sept. 2014, dual in-situ measurement with plasma instruments are now

  1. Extinction Correction Significantly Influences the Estimate of the Lyα Escape Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fang Xia; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Hao, Cai-Na; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2017-02-01

    The Lyα escape fraction is a key measure to constrain the neutral state of the intergalactic medium and then to understand how the universe was fully reionized. We combine deep narrowband imaging data from the custom-made filter NB393 and the {{{H}}}2S1 filter centered at 2.14 μm to examine the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at the same redshift z = 2.24. The combination of these two populations allows us to determine the Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24. Over an area of 383 arcmin2 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), 124 Lyα emitters are detected down to NB393 = 26.4 mag at the 5σ level, and 56 Hα emitters come from An et al. Of these, four have both Lyα and Hα emissions (LAHAEs). We also collect the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at z = 2.24 in the COSMOS field from the literature, and increase the number of LAHAEs to 15 in total. About one-third of them are AGNs. We measure the individual/volumetric Lyα escape fraction by comparing the observed Lyα luminosity/luminosity density to the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity/luminosity density. We revisit the extinction correction for Hα emitters using the Galactic extinction law with color excess for nebular emission. We also adopt the Calzetti extinction law together with an identical color excess for stellar and nebular regions to explore how the uncertainties in extinction correction affect the estimate of individual and global Lyα escape fractions. In both cases, an anti-correlation between the Lyα escape fraction and dust attenuation is found among the LAHAEs, suggesting that dust absorption is responsible for the suppression of the escaping Lyα photons. However, the estimated Lyα escape fraction of individual LAHAEs varies by up to ∼3 percentage points between the two methods of extinction correction. We find the global Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24 to be (3.7 ± 1.4)% in the ECDFS. The variation in the color excess of the extinction causes a discrepancy of ∼1 percentage

  2. Upper limits on carbon group ions near the orbit of Titan: Implications for methane escape from Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, Frank; Smith, H. Todd; Reisenfeld, Daniel; Young, Dave

    High neutral methane escape rates from Titan (˜3x109 cm-2 s-1 ) have been inferred from Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer observations [Yelle et al., 2008]. This is much higher than past predictions (e.g. due to Jeans loss). To investigate this hypothesis, we have examined Cassini Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) data obtained near Titan's orbit. We have used the CAPS linear electric field (LEF) mass spectra, which provide high resolution measurements of atomic ions and the atomic constituents of molecular ions. The expected lifetime of neutral methane is sufficiently long that escaping molecules would not ionize in Titan's immediate vicinity. However, ionospheric methane ions are observed in Titan's atmosphere. To distinguish between these two possible sources of methane ions, we have examined spectra obtained within five Saturn radii of Titan's orbit, but at distances of over one Saturn radius from Titan itself. Between March 2005 and Dec. 2009, 5466 LEF spectra were obtained in this region. These data show a clear oxygen peak, either from atomic O+ or from fragmentation of oxygen-bearing molecular ions. A weaker nitrogen peak, with 5.9% the amplitude of the oxygen peak, is also present. At the instrument's noise level, no carbon peak is present. This non-detection corresponds to an abundance of carbon ions and carbon-bearing molecular ions under 0.28% that of oxygen and oxygen-bearing ions. Estimates of the neutral and ion loss rates, and ion production rates, allow us to convert this upper limit into an upper limit on the escape rate of neutral methane from Titan. Unless there is some currently unknown and efficient loss process for neutral methane (i.e. other than ionization), this upper limit is several orders of magnitude lower than the escape rate determined by Yelle et al., 2008.

  3. Constraining the Metallicity and Escape Fraction of Two z≈3.1 Lyman-Alpha Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, E. M.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.; Levesque, E. M.

    2012-05-01

    We observed two z≈3.1 Lyman-α emitting galaxies (LAE) using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) at Gemini North, specifically looking for [OIII] 4960 & 5008Å, [OII] 3727Å, and H-β 4863Å. We detected the [OIII] doublet in both objects, determined upper limits for [OII] for both objects, and determined upper limits for H-β for one object. With the detections and upper limits we use the [OIII]/[OII] and R23 line diagnostic to attempt to constrain the metallicity and escape fraction of Ly-α. These metallicity constraints are needed to explore the behaviour of the Mass-Metallicty relation in the low-mass regime and also give insight into the star formation histories of LAE which are known to host young stellar populations. The escape fraction, when combined with an extinction correction, gives insight into the presence of neutral gas. This neutral gas is responsible for resonantly scattering any escaped Ly-α photons, increasing its optical depth to dust. For one object we constrain the metallicity to be Z≤ 0.4Z⊙ and constrain the escape fraction of Ly-α to be Fesc ≤ 30%. For the second object we are only able to constrain its escape fraction, finding 6% ≤ Fesc ≤ 40%. We would like to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for their financial support through a post-graduate fellowship.

  4. On the escape of CH4 from Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, T. T.; Erwin, J. T.; Yelle, R. V.

    2015-09-01

    We adapted a multispecies escape model, developed for close-in extrasolar planets, to calculate the escape rates of CH4 and N2 from Pluto. In the absence of escape, CH4 should overtake N2 as the dominant species below the exobase. The CH4 profile depends strongly on the escape rate, however, and the typical escape rates predicted for Pluto lead to a nearly constant mixing ratio of less than 1% below the exobase. In this case the CH4 escape rate is only 5-10% of the N2 escape rate. Observations of the CH4 profile by the New Horizons/ALICE spectrograph can constrain the CH4 escape rate and provide a unique test for escape models.

  5. Analysis of Wave and Particle Signatures Observed in Plasma Escape at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Intriligator, D. S.; Crider, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric gases escape from Venus as neutral and ionized atoms and molecules. Ion escape, considered here, occurs through ion pickup or collective plasma processes. The latter can arise from upward flow of nightside ionospheric plasma into the ionotail, day to night ionospheric flow into the ionotail, and scavenging of ionospheric plasma by ionosphere-magnetosheath instabilities at the ionopause. These plasma processes produce differing signatures in ion velocity and energy distributions and in ULF waves in the magnetic field. Using plasma ion spectra measured by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA) and magnetic field fluctuations observed by the PVO Orbiter Magnetometer (OMAG) along with the expected particle and field signatures, various ion escape processes occurring along Pioneer Venus orbits are identified. In particular, OPA ion energy distributions are used in parallel with magnetic field power spectra and wave phase angles derived from OMAG measurements to study the characteristics of escaping ions. The principle ions observed escaping the influence of Venus are H+, He+ and 0'. In the ion energy distributions of the OPA, pickup ions appear hot relative to the much cooler ions flowing away from Venus in the ionotail and in the plasma clouds detached from the ionopause. This energy contrast is particularly evident downstream when PVO crosses the ionotail boundary from the hot solar wind plasma to the much cooler plasma within the tail. Magnetic field signatures accompanying the escaping ions appear as peaks in the power spectra at the corresponding ion cyclotron frequencies. Also, coherent wave trains at the same frequencies are observed in the phase angle plots of magnetic field fluctuations about the mean field.

  6. Escape from Albuquerque: An Apache Memorate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfeld, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Clarence Hawkins, a White Mountain Apache, escaped from the Albuquerque Indian School around 1920. His 300-mile trip home, made with two other boys, exemplifies the reaction of many Indian youths to the American government's plans for cultural assimilation. The tale is told in the form of traditional Apache narrative. (TD)

  7. Nociception and escape behavior in planarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoetz Collins, Eva-Maria

    2015-03-01

    Planarians are famous and widely studied for their regenerative capabilities. When a moving planarian is cut through the middle, the resulting head and tail pieces instantaneously retract and exhibit a characteristic escape response that differs from normal locomotion. In asexual animals, a similar reaction is observed when the planarian undergoes fission, suggesting that reproduction through self-tearing is a rather traumatic event for the animal. Using a multiscale approach, we unravel the dynamics, mechanics, and functional aspects of the planarian escape response. This musculature-driven gait was found to be a dominating response that supersedes the urge to feed or reproduce and quantitatively differs from other modes of planarian locomotion (gliding, peristalsis). We show that this escape gait constitutes the animal's pain response mediated by TRP like receptors and the neurotransmitter histamine, and that it can be induced through adverse thermal, mechanical, electrical or chemical stimuli. Ultimately, we will examine the neuronal subpopulations involved in mediating escape reflexes in planarians and how they are functionally restored during regeneration, thereby gaining mechanistic insight into the neuronal circuits required for specific behaviors. Supported by BWF CASI and Sloan Foundation.

  8. Centrifugally Stimulated Exospheric Ion Escape at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcourt, Dominique; Seki, K.; Terada, N.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the transport of ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere magnetosphere of Mercury. We show that, because of small spatial scales, the centrifugal effect due to curvature of the E B drift paths can lead to significant particle energization in the parallel direction. We demonstrate that because of this effect, ions with initial speed smaller than the escape speed such as those produced via thermal desorption can overcome gravity and escape into the magnetosphere. The escape route of this low-energy exosphere originating material is largely controlled by the magnetospheric convection rate. This escape route spreads over a narrower range of altitudes when the convection rate increases. Bulk transport of low-energy planetary material thus occurs within a limited region of space once moderate magnetospheric convection is established. These results suggest that, via release of material otherwise gravitationally trapped, the E B related centrifugal acceleration is an important mechanism for the net supply of plasma to the magnetosphere of Mercury.

  9. Animal escapology II: escape trajectory case studies

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Bacon, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Escape trajectories (ETs; measured as the angle relative to the direction of the threat) have been studied in many taxa using a variety of methodologies and definitions. Here, we provide a review of methodological issues followed by a survey of ET studies across animal taxa, including insects, crustaceans, molluscs, lizards, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. Variability in ETs is examined in terms of ecological significance and morpho-physiological constraints. The survey shows that certain escape strategies (single ETs and highly variable ETs within a limited angular sector) are found in most taxa reviewed here, suggesting that at least some of these ET distributions are the result of convergent evolution. High variability in ETs is found to be associated with multiple preferred trajectories in species from all taxa, and is suggested to provide unpredictability in the escape response. Random ETs are relatively rare and may be related to constraints in the manoeuvrability of the prey. Similarly, reports of the effect of refuges in the immediate environment are relatively uncommon, and mainly confined to lizards and mammals. This may be related to the fact that work on ETs carried out in laboratory settings has rarely provided shelters. Although there are a relatively large number of examples in the literature that suggest trends in the distribution of ETs, our understanding of animal escape strategies would benefit from a standardization of the analytical approach in the study of ETs, using circular statistics and related tests, in addition to the generation of large data sets. PMID:21753040

  10. Developing the E-Scape Software System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Most innovations have contextual pre-cursors that prompt new ways of thinking and in their turn help to give form to the new reality. This was the case with the e-scape software development process. The origins of the system existed in software components and ideas that we had developed through previous projects, but the ultimate direction we took…

  11. Escape driven by α -stable white noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, B.; Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Hänggi, P.

    2007-02-01

    We explore the archetype problem of an escape dynamics occurring in a symmetric double well potential when the Brownian particle is driven by white Lévy noise in a dynamical regime where inertial effects can safely be neglected. The behavior of escaping trajectories from one well to another is investigated by pointing to the special character that underpins the noise-induced discontinuity which is caused by the generalized Brownian paths that jump beyond the barrier location without actually hitting it. This fact implies that the boundary conditions for the mean first passage time (MFPT) are no longer determined by the well-known local boundary conditions that characterize the case with normal diffusion. By numerically implementing properly the set up boundary conditions, we investigate the survival probability and the average escape time as a function of the corresponding Lévy white noise parameters. Depending on the value of the skewness β of the Lévy noise, the escape can either become enhanced or suppressed: a negative asymmetry parameter β typically yields a decrease for the escape rate while the rate itself depicts a non-monotonic behavior as a function of the stability index α that characterizes the jump length distribution of Lévy noise, exhibiting a marked discontinuity at α=1 . We find that the typical factor of 2 that characterizes for normal diffusion the ratio between the MFPT for well-bottom-to-well-bottom and well-bottom-to-barrier-top no longer holds true. For sufficiently high barriers the survival probabilities assume an exponential behavior versus time. Distinct non-exponential deviations occur, however, for low barrier heights.

  12. Escape from viscosity: the kinematics and hydrodynamics of copepod foraging and escape swimming.

    PubMed

    van Duren, Luca A; Videler, John J

    2003-01-01

    Feeding and escape swimming in adult females of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis Müller were investigated and compared. Swimming velocities were calculated using a 3-D filming setup. Foraging velocities ranged between 2 and 6 mm s(-1), while maximum velocities of up to 80 mm s(-1) were reached during escape responses. Foraging took place at Reynolds numbers between 2 and 6, indicating that viscous forces are considerable during this swimming mode. Inertial forces are much more important during escape responses, when Reynolds numbers of more than 100 are reached. High-speed film recordings at 500 frames s(-1) of the motion pattern of the feeding appendages and the escape movement of the swimming legs revealed that the two swimming modes are essentially very different. While foraging, the first three mouth appendages (antennae, mandibular palps and maxillules) create a backwards motion of water with a metachronal beating pattern. During escape movements the mouth appendages stop moving and the swimming legs beat in a very fast metachronal rhythm, accelerating a jet of water backwards. The large antennules are folded backwards, resulting in a streamlined body shape. Particle image velocimetry analysis of the flow around foraging and escaping copepods revealed that during foraging an asymmetrical vortex system is created on the ventral side of the animal. The feeding motion is steady over a long period of time. The rate of energy dissipation due to viscous friction relates directly to the energetic cost of the feeding current. During escape responses a vortex ring appears behind the animal, which dissipates over time. Several seconds after cessation of swimming leg movements, energy dissipation can still be measured. During escape responses the rate of energy dissipation due to viscous friction increases by up to two orders of magnitude compared to the rate when foraging.

  13. Two Regimes of Interaction of a Hot Jupiter’s Escaping Atmosphere with the Stellar Wind and Generation of Energized Atomic Hydrogen Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Prokopov, P. A.; Berezutsky, A. G.; Zakharov, Yu. P.; Posukh, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction of escaping the upper atmosphere of a hydrogen-rich non-magnetized analog of HD 209458b with a stellar wind (SW) of its host G-type star at different orbital distances is simulated with a 2D axisymmetric multi-fluid hydrodynamic (HD) model. A realistic Sun-like spectrum of X-ray and ultraviolet radiation, which ionizes and heats the planetary atmosphere, together with hydrogen photochemistry, as well as stellar-planetary tidal interaction are taken into account to generate self-consistently an atmospheric HD outflow. Two different regimes of the planetary and SW interaction have been modeled. These are: (1) the “captured by the star” regime, when the tidal force and pressure gradient drive the planetary material beyond the Roche lobe toward the star, and (2) the “blown by the wind” regime, when sufficiently strong SW confines the escaping planetary atmosphere and channels it into the tail. The model simulates in detail the HD interaction between the planetary atoms, protons and the SW, as well as the production of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) around the planet due to charge exchange between planetary atoms and stellar protons. The revealed location and shape of the ENA cloud, either as a paraboloid shell between the ionopause and bowshock (for the “blown by the wind” regime), or a turbulent layer at the contact boundary between the planetary stream and SW (for the “captured by the star” regime) are of importance for the interpretation of Lyα absorption features in exoplanetary transit spectra and characterization of the plasma environments.

  14. Biphasic CD8+ T-Cell Defense in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Control by Acute-Phase Passive Neutralizing Antibody Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Iseda, Sumire; Takahashi, Naofumi; Poplimont, Hugo; Nomura, Takushi; Seki, Sayuri; Nakane, Taku; Nakamura, Midori; Shi, Shoi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Shota; Harada, Shigeyoshi; Naruse, Taeko K.; Kimura, Akinori; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) control mechanisms by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is critical for anti-HIV-1 strategies. Recent in vivo studies on animals infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and related viruses have shown the efficacy of postinfection NAb passive immunization for viremia reduction, and one suggested mechanism is its occurrence through modulation of cellular immune responses. Here, we describe SIV control in macaques showing biphasic CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses following acute-phase NAb passive immunization. Analysis of four SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaque pairs matched with major histocompatibility complex class I haplotypes found that counterparts receiving day 7 anti-SIV polyclonal NAb infusion all suppressed viremia for up to 2 years without accumulating viral CTL escape mutations. In the first phase of primary viremia control attainment, CD8+ cells had high capacities to suppress SIVs carrying CTL escape mutations. Conversely, in the second, sustained phase of SIV control, CTL responses converged on a pattern of immunodominant CTL preservation. During this sustained phase of viral control, SIV epitope-specific CTLs showed retention of phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)hi/phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)lo subpopulations, implying their correlation with SIV control. The results suggest that virus-specific CTLs functionally boosted by acute-phase NAbs may drive robust AIDS virus control. IMPORTANCE In early HIV infection, NAb responses are lacking and CTL responses are insufficient, which leads to viral persistence. Hence, it is important to identify immune responses that can successfully control such HIV replication. Here, we show that monkeys receiving NAb passive immunization in early SIV infection strictly control viral replication for years. Passive infusion of NAbs with CTL cross-priming capacity resulted in induction of functionally

  15. Escape of asteroids from the main belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a < 4.1 au is essentially complete, with an absolute magnitude limit ranging from HV < 15.9 in the inner belt (a < 2.5 au) to HV < 14.4 in the outer belt (2.5 au < a < 4.1 au). We modeled the semimajor-axis drift caused by the Yarkovsky force and assigned four different sizes (diameters of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 km) and random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical

  16. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  17. 34. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION OF BLISTERS IN 1959, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  18. 23. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TWOLOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TWO-LOCK RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER IN PASSAGEWAY FROM ELEVATOR TO CUPOLA - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  19. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING HOLDDOWN RODS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING HOLD-DOWN RODS, LOOKING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  20. 15. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING EAST ACROSS MEZZANINE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING EAST ACROSS MEZZANINE, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO SUBMARINE SECTION AT 110-FOOT LEVEL - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  1. 21. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING INTERIOR OF CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING INTERIOR OF CUPOLA AND TOP OF THE TANK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  2. 18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM 50-FOOT LOCK TO ELEVATOR, LOOKING WEST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  3. 17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ELEVATOR TO 18-FOOT LOCK, LOOKING EAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  4. Phenotypic Mismatches Reveal Escape from Arms-Race Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Hanifin, Charles T; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2008-01-01

    Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts) and predator traits (tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes) to assess the degree of phenotypic mismatch across the range of their coevolutionary interaction. Geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration were similar in prey and predators, with most phenotypically elevated localities occurring along the central Oregon coast and central California. Contrary to expectations, however, these areas of elevated traits did not coincide with the most intense coevolutionary selection. Measures of functional trait mismatch revealed that over one-third of sampled localities were so mismatched that reciprocal selection could not occur given current trait distributions. Estimates of current locality-specific interaction selection gradients confirmed this interpretation. In every case of mismatch, predators were “ahead” of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed. The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction. This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race. PMID:18336073

  5. Escape of atmospheres and loss of water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Donahue, T. M.; Walker, J. C. G.; Kasting, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The properties and limitations of several loss processes for atmospheric gases are presented and discussed. They include thermal loss (Jeans and hydrodynamic); nonthermal loss (all processes involve charged particles); and impact erosion, including thermal escape from a molten body heated by rapid accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, or 'blowoff', is of particular interest because it offers the prospect of processing large quantities of gas and enriching the remainder in heavy elements and isotopes. In a second part, the water budgets and likely evolutionary histories of Venus, Earth and Mars are assessed. Although it is tempting to associate the great D/H enrichment on Venus with loss of a large initial endowment, a steady state with juvenile water (perhaps from comets) is equally probable.

  6. Fixed-ratio escape reinforcement1

    PubMed Central

    Azrin, N. H.; Holz, W. C.; Hake, D. F.; Ayllon, T.

    1963-01-01

    Escape responses of squirrel monkeys were reinforced according to a fixed-ratio schedule. The reinforcement was a period of safety from a stimulus that signalled the delivery of intermittent pain-shocks. When the frequency of shock was gradually reduced, the performance remained at a high level until the shocks were quite infrequent. Similarly, the duration of the period of safety could be reduced to a few seconds with little loss of behavior. Thus, the responses appeared to be reinforced by even a brief period of safety, the actual degree of shock reduction being fairly slight. The changes in responding during this fixed-ratio escape procedure were comparable to the response changes typically obtained during fixed-ratio food procedures. PMID:13965780

  7. Methane in the lunar exosphere: Implications for solar wind carbon escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, , R. Richard

    2016-07-01

    A positive identification of methane in the lunar exosphere has been made in data from the neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Like argon-40, methane is adsorbed on the lunar surface during nighttime. However, higher activation energies for methane delay its desorption at sunrise by about an hour local time, creating a postsunrise bulge with peak concentration of approximately 400-450 molecules cm-3 at a reference altitude of 12 km, which is just above the highest topographic feature on the Moon. The rate of escape of carbon as methane derived from the LADEE data is estimated to be in the range 1.5-4.5 × 1021 s-1. A lower bound for solar carbon escape derived separately from Apollo sample analyses is 3.4 × 1021 s-1.

  8. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    3 o Increase the likelihood of successfully salvaging the ship, and o Increase the likelihood that the crew is rescued safely. It will be possible...spans the period before the event that triggers ship abandonment. Escape routes can be configured based on two factors: 6 o “Crew distribution...crewmembers but the guards are resting in cabins and berthing rooms. This is a plausible scenario at night when the ship is in a non-home port. o

  9. 30 CFR 75.382 - Mechanical escape facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.382 Mechanical escape facilities. (a) Mechanical escape facilities shall be provided with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical escape facilities. 75.382 Section...

  10. 30 CFR 75.382 - Mechanical escape facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical escape facilities. 75.382 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.382 Mechanical escape facilities. (a) Mechanical escape facilities shall be provided with overspeed, overwind, and automatic...

  11. 30 CFR 75.382 - Mechanical escape facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical escape facilities. 75.382 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.382 Mechanical escape facilities. (a) Mechanical escape facilities shall be provided with overspeed, overwind, and automatic...

  12. 30 CFR 75.382 - Mechanical escape facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical escape facilities. 75.382 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.382 Mechanical escape facilities. (a) Mechanical escape facilities shall be provided with overspeed, overwind, and automatic...

  13. 30 CFR 75.382 - Mechanical escape facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical escape facilities. 75.382 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.382 Mechanical escape facilities. (a) Mechanical escape facilities shall be provided with overspeed, overwind, and automatic...

  14. 46 CFR 108.153 - Location of means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of means of escape. 108.153 Section 108.153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.153 Location of means of escape....

  15. 46 CFR 108.153 - Location of means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of means of escape. 108.153 Section 108.153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.153 Location of means of escape....

  16. Avoidance, escape and microstructural adaptations of the tea green leafhopper to water droplets

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meizhen; Vasseur, Liette; Yang, Guang; Gurr, Geoff M.; You, Minsheng

    2016-01-01

    Rain and dew droplets can dislodge or drown small insects and may be important factors that drive adaptations for avoidance and escape. Studying the microstructure of small insects and insect behaviour can help understand these adaptations. We quantified avoidance behaviour and entrapment of nymphs and adults of the tea green leafhopper (Empoasca onukii) using simulated rainfall onto host plant foliage and made observations of pretarsi and abdomen microstructures. Adults responded rapidly to simulated rainfall and escaped by jumping whilst most young nymphs were washed from water-sprayed leaves though older nymphs tended to remain on leaves and subsequently escaped from water droplets. Adults had denser covering of water-repelling brochosomes on pretarsi and abdomen surface than nymphs, and were able to stand on water film whilst most nymphs had multiple penetrating tarsi. Removal of brochosomes from the abdomen of adults reduced hydrophobicity, demonstrating the hydrophobic significance of brochosomes in the capacity of leafhopper to escape from water droplets. Nymphs exhibited a higher pull-off force than adults. This research is one of the few studies to focus on the wettability and water avoidance of small insect pests and has implications for pest management. PMID:27845388

  17. Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish Capable of Escape Maneuvers Using Fluidic Elastomer Actuators.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Andrew D; Onal, Cagdas D; Rus, Daniela

    2014-03-01

    In this work we describe an autonomous soft-bodied robot that is both self-contained and capable of rapid, continuum-body motion. We detail the design, modeling, fabrication, and control of the soft fish, focusing on enabling the robot to perform rapid escape responses. The robot employs a compliant body with embedded actuators emulating the slender anatomical form of a fish. In addition, the robot has a novel fluidic actuation system that drives body motion and has all the subsystems of a traditional robot onboard: power, actuation, processing, and control. At the core of the fish's soft body is an array of fluidic elastomer actuators. We design the fish to emulate escape responses in addition to forward swimming because such maneuvers require rapid body accelerations and continuum-body motion. These maneuvers showcase the performance capabilities of this self-contained robot. The kinematics and controllability of the robot during simulated escape response maneuvers are analyzed and compared with studies on biological fish. We show that during escape responses, the soft-bodied robot has similar input-output relationships to those observed in biological fish. The major implication of this work is that we show soft robots can be both self-contained and capable of rapid body motion.

  18. Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish Capable of Escape Maneuvers Using Fluidic Elastomer Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Onal, Cagdas D.; Rus, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this work we describe an autonomous soft-bodied robot that is both self-contained and capable of rapid, continuum-body motion. We detail the design, modeling, fabrication, and control of the soft fish, focusing on enabling the robot to perform rapid escape responses. The robot employs a compliant body with embedded actuators emulating the slender anatomical form of a fish. In addition, the robot has a novel fluidic actuation system that drives body motion and has all the subsystems of a traditional robot onboard: power, actuation, processing, and control. At the core of the fish's soft body is an array of fluidic elastomer actuators. We design the fish to emulate escape responses in addition to forward swimming because such maneuvers require rapid body accelerations and continuum-body motion. These maneuvers showcase the performance capabilities of this self-contained robot. The kinematics and controllability of the robot during simulated escape response maneuvers are analyzed and compared with studies on biological fish. We show that during escape responses, the soft-bodied robot has similar input–output relationships to those observed in biological fish. The major implication of this work is that we show soft robots can be both self-contained and capable of rapid body motion. PMID:27625912

  19. Xenon Fractionation and Archean Hydrogen Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Xenon is the heaviest gas found in significant quantities in natural planetary atmospheres. It would seem the least likely to escape. Yet there is more evidence for xenon escape from Earth than for any element other than helium and perhaps neon. The most straightforward evidence is that most of the radiogenic Xe from the decay of (129)I (half-life 15.7 Myr) and (244)Pu (half-life 81 Myr) that is Earth's birthright is missing. The missing xenon is often attributed to the impact erosion of early atmospheres of Earth and its ancestors. It is obvious that if most of the radiogenic xenon were driven off by impacts, most of the rest of the atmophiles fared the same fate. The other line of evidence is in the nonradiogenic isotopes of xenon and its silent partner, krypton. Atmospheric xenon is strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) compared to any known solar system source (Figure 1). This is in stark contrast to krypton, which may not be fractionated at all: atmospheric Kr is slightly heavier than solar Kr (at about 0.5% per amu), but it is the same as in carbonaceous chondrites. Nonradiogenic xenon is also under abundant relative to krypton (the so-called "missing xenon" problem). Together these observations imply that xenon has been subject to fractionating escape and krypton not.

  20. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians.

    PubMed

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2015-09-10

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, 'scrunching', which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration.

  1. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, ‘scrunching’, which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration.

  2. Escape behavior and escape circuit activation in juvenile crayfish during prey-predator interactions.

    PubMed

    Herberholz, Jens; Sen, Marjorie M; Edwards, Donald H

    2004-05-01

    The neural systems that control escape behavior have been studied intensively in several animals, including mollusks, fish and crayfish. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the activation and the utilization of escape circuits during prey-predator interactions. To complement the physiological and anatomical studies with a necessary behavioral equivalent, we investigated encounters between juvenile crayfish and large dragonfly nymphs in freely behaving animals using a combination of high-speed video-recordings and measurements of electric field potentials. During attacks, dragonfly nymphs rapidly extended their labium, equipped with short, sharp palps, to capture small crayfish. Crayfish responded to the tactile stimulus by activating neural escape circuits to generate tail-flips directed away from the predator. Tail-flips were the sole defense mechanism in response to an attack and every single strike was answered by tail-flip escape behavior. Crayfish used all three known types of escape tail-flips during the interactions with the dragonfly nymphs. Tail-flips generated by activity in the giant neurons were predominantly observed to trigger the initial escape responses to an attack, but non-giant mediated tail-flips were often generated to attempt escape after capture. Attacks to the front of the crayfish triggered tail-flips mediated either by the medial giant neuron or by non-giant circuitry, whereas attacks to the rear always elicited tail-flips mediated by the lateral giant neuron. Overall, tail flipping was found to be a successful behavior in preventing predation, and only a small percentage of crayfish were killed and consumed.

  3. Selection and characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus escape mutants resistant to a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Lorena; Frabasile, Sandra; Candia, Claudia; Pittini, Alvaro; Farina, Natalia; Melero, José Antonio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-06-01

    A human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) neutralization escape mutant was obtained after 56 serial passages in the presence of a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this escape mutant virus revealed two amino acid substitutions: Asn268Ile and Val533Met. When this virus was allowed to grow in the absence of the anti-F polyclonal serum, only the mutation Asn268Ile was stably maintained. Both the double and single escape mutant viruses lost reactivity with mAbs belonging to antigenic site II of the fusion protein of RSV. Mutation Asn268Ile has already been reported in RS viruses that are resistant to mAbs 47F and 11 and palivizumab (PZ). We have thus identified a novel mutation (Val533Met) in the transmembrane domain of the F protein that was selected under immune pressure.

  4. Energy distributions of sputtered copper neutrals and ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Direct quantitative analysis of surfaces by secondary ion mass spectrometry will depend on an understanding of the yield ratio of ions to neutrals. This ratio as a function of the energy of the sputtered particles has been obtained for a clean polycrystalline copper surface sputtered by 1000-3000 eV Ar(+). The energy distributions of both neutral and ionized copper were measured with a retarding potential analyzer using potential modulation differentiation and signal averaging. The maximum for both distributions is identical and occurs near 2.5 eV. The energy distributions of neutrals is more sharply peaked than that of the ions, presumably as a consequence of more efficient nutralization of slow escaping ions by the mobile electrons of copper. The ion-neutral ratio is compared with results from various ionization models.

  5. Risks incurred by hydrogen escaping from containers and conduits

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Grilliot, E.S.; Swain, M.N.

    1998-08-01

    This paper is a discussion of a method for hydrogen leak classification. Leaks are classified as; gas escapes into enclosed spaces, gas escapes into partially enclosed spaces (vented), and gas escapes into unenclosed spaces. Each of the three enclosure classifications is further divided into two subclasses; total volume of hydrogen escaped and flow rate of escaping hydrogen. A method to aid in risk assessment determination in partially enclosed spaces is proposed and verified for several enclosure geometries. Examples are discussed for additional enclosure geometries.

  6. Plasma heating with multi-MeV neutral atom beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Eubank, H.P.

    1981-10-01

    We explore the utility and feasibility of neutral beams of greater than or equal to 6 AMU formed from negative ions, and also of D/sup 0/ formed from D/sup -/. The negative ions would be accelerated to approx. 1 to 2 MeV/AMU and neutralized, whereupon the neutral atoms would be used to heat and, perhaps, to drive current in magnetically confined plasmas. Such beams appear feasible and offer the promise of significant advantages relative to conventional neutral beams based on positive deuterium ions at approx. 150 keV.

  7. A single amino acid deletion in the matrix protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus confers resistance to a polyclonal swine antibody with broadly neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Trible, Benjamin R; Popescu, Luca N; Monday, Nicholas; Calvert, Jay G; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of virus neutralization (VN) activity in 176 pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) identified one pig with broadly neutralizing activity. A Tyr-10 deletion in the matrix protein provided escape from broad neutralization without affecting homologous neutralizing activity. The role of the Tyr-10 deletion was confirmed through an infectious clone with a Tyr-10 deletion. The results demonstrate differences in the properties and specificities of VN responses elicited during PRRSV infection.

  8. Heating and acceleration of escaping planetary ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Hans

    2010-05-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth acts like a shield against the solar wind, leading to a magnetopause position many planetary radii away from the planet, in contrast to the situation at non- or weakly magnetized planets such as Mars and Venus. Despite this there is significant ion outflow due to solar wind interaction from the cusp and polar cap regions of the Earth's ionosphere. Effective interaction regions form, in particular in the ionospheric projection of the cusp, where ionospheric plasma flows up along the field-lines in response to magnetospheric energy input. Strong wave-particle interaction at altitudes above the ionosphere further accelerates the particles so that gravity is overcome. For the particles to enter a direct escape path they must be accelerated along open magnetic field lines so that they cross the magnetopause or reach a distance beyond the region of return flow in the tail. This return flow may also be either lost to space or returned to the atmosphere. Throughout this transport chain the heating and acceleration experienced by the particles will have an influence on the final fate of the particles. We will present quantitative estimates of centrifugal acceleration and perpendicular heating along the escape path from the cusp, through the high altitude polar cap/mantle, based on Cluster spacecraft data. We will open up for a discussion on the benefits of a ponderomotive force description of the acceleration affecting the ion circulation and escape. Finally we will compare with the situation at the unmagnetized planets Mars and Venus and discuss to what extent a magnetic field protects an atmosphere from loss through solar wind interaction.

  9. Suicide as escape from psychotic panic.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Mark J; Ronningstam, Elsa; Schechter, Mark; Herbstman, Benjamin; Maltsberger, John T

    2016-01-01

    Suicides of patients in states of acute persecutory panic may be provoked by a subjective experience of helpless terror threatening imminent annihilation or dismemberment. These patients are literally scared to death and try to run away. They imagine suicide is survivable and desperately attempt to escape from imaginary enemies. These states of terror occur in a wide range of psychotic illnesses and are often associated with command hallucinations and delusions. In this article, the authors consider the subjective experience of persecutory panic and the suicide response as an attempt to flee from danger.

  10. Evolutionary escape from the prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Worden, Lee; Levin, Simon A

    2007-04-07

    The classic prisoner's dilemma model of game theory is modified by introducing occasional variations on the options available to players. Mutation and selection of game options reliably change the game matrix, gradually, from a prisoner's dilemma game into a byproduct mutualism one, in which cooperation is stable, and "temptation to defect" is replaced by temptation to cooperate. This result suggests that when there are many different potential ways of interacting, exploring those possibilities may make escape from prisoner's dilemmas a common outcome in the world. A consequence is that persistent prisoner's dilemma structures may be less common than one might otherwise expect.

  11. Modeling Fluorescence Escape from Tissue Phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Craig Morris

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation represents a contribution to the field of quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue. The absorption and scattering properties of a turbid medium affect the propagation of fluorescence to the medium surface. Optical properties also affect the amount of light reaching a detector placed to monitor fluorescence non-invasively. These facts have in part limited fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media to a qualitative science. To study the general characteristics of turbid medium fluorescence, a Monte Carlo algorithm of fluorescence light propagation was developed. Modifications to the general algorithm were made to study several specific light distribution quantities associated with optical fiber fluorescent measurement devices. The Monte Carlo-based studies were also used to develop simple, accurate expressions describing the one -dimensional distribution of excitation light within a turbid medium and the escape of fluorescence from the medium. The expressions have accuracy comparable to solutions of the radiative transport equation. The two expressions were combined to derive a simple expression relating the fluorescence power escaping a turbid medium due to surface excitation, to the medium intrinsic fluorescence coefficient, as a function of the medium optical properties. Based on this expression and a description of the fluorescence escape power intercepted by a distant detector, a method was developed to recover the intrinsic fluorescence coefficient from surface measurements of fluorescence and optical properties. Experiments with water-based, turbid media verified the recovery method. The method used to recover the intrinsic fluorescence coefficient was modified for use with a clinical measurement geometry, specifically a small diameter optical fiber probe. Modification required a calibration method to estimate two optical property variables from two unique surface measurements of diffuse reflectance made with the optical

  12. Neutral Beam Injection in the Electric Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.; Taylor, R. J.; White, A. E.; Yates, T. F.

    2004-11-01

    The Electric Tokamak (ET) at UCLA (Bt=0.25T, R=5m, a=1m, Te(0)=300eV, tau(0)=1s) is now running long shots (5s). A new development program was started last year to include a neutral beam in the daily operations of the machine. As a result, a 10kV neutral beam injector was built to deal with plasma and measurement issues. The design and parameters of the beam are discussed. The source is based on an RF generated plasma, with a single extraction grid providing an accel-decel configuration. Plasma neutralization efficiency is also presented. Co- or counter injection is now possible using a single beam. The construction of a second beam is planned for simultaneous co- and counter injections for toroidal momentum input control. Plasma toroidal and poloidal rotation, particle diffusion and current drive effects will be presented.

  13. The effects of steady swimming on fish escape performance.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sanam B; Cathcart, Kelsey; Darakananda, Karin; Gaing, Ashley N; Shin, Seo Yim; Vronay, Xena; Wright, Dania N; Ellerby, David J

    2016-06-01

    Escape maneuvers are essential to the survival and fitness of many animals. Escapes are frequently initiated when an animal is already in motion. This may introduce constraints that alter the escape performance. In fish, escape maneuvers and steady, body caudal fin (BCF) swimming are driven by distinct patterns of curvature of the body axis. Pre-existing muscle activity may therefore delay or diminish a response. To quantify the performance consequences of escaping in flow, escape behavior was examined in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) in both still-water and during steady swimming. Escapes executed during swimming were kinematically less variable than those made in still-water. Swimming escapes also had increased response latencies and lower peak velocities and accelerations than those made in still-water. Performance was also lower for escapes made up rather than down-stream, and a preference for down-stream escapes may be associated with maximizing performance. The constraints imposed by pre-existing motion and flow, therefore, have the potential to shape predator-prey interactions under field conditions by shifting the optimal strategies for both predators and prey.

  14. Investigating the Consequences of Interference between Multiple CD8+ T Cell Escape Mutations in Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Victor; Feldman, Marcus W.; Regoes, Roland R.

    2016-01-01

    During early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection multiple CD8+ T cell responses are elicited almost simultaneously. These responses exert strong selective pressures on different parts of HIV’s genome, and select for mutations that escape recognition and are thus beneficial to the virus. Some studies reveal that the later these escape mutations emerge, the more slowly they go to fixation. This pattern of escape rate decrease(ERD) can arise by distinct mechanisms. In particular, in large populations with high beneficial mutation rates interference among different escape strains –an effect that can emerge in evolution with asexual reproduction and results in delayed fixation times of beneficial mutations compared to sexual reproduction– could significantly impact the escape rates of mutations. In this paper, we investigated how interference between these concurrent escape mutations affects their escape rates in systems with multiple epitopes, and whether it could be a source of the ERD pattern. To address these issues, we developed a multilocus Wright-Fisher model of HIV dynamics with selection, mutation and recombination, serving as a null-model for interference. We also derived an interference-free null model assuming initial neutral evolution before immune response elicitation. We found that interference between several equally selectively advantageous mutations can generate the observed ERD pattern. We also found that the number of loci, as well as recombination rates substantially affect ERD. These effects can be explained by the underexponential decline of escape rates over time. Lastly, we found that the observed ERD pattern in HIV infected individuals is consistent with both independent, interference-free mutations as well as interference effects. Our results confirm that interference effects should be considered when analyzing HIV escape mutations. The challenge in estimating escape rates and mutation-associated selective coefficients posed by

  15. The escape problem for mortal walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, D. S.; Rupprecht, J.-F.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce and investigate the escape problem for random walkers that may eventually die, decay, bleach, or lose activity during their diffusion towards an escape or reactive region on the boundary of a confining domain. In the case of a first-order kinetics (i.e., exponentially distributed lifetimes), we study the effect of the associated death rate onto the survival probability, the exit probability, and the mean first passage time. We derive the upper and lower bounds and some approximations for these quantities. We reveal three asymptotic regimes of small, intermediate, and large death rates. General estimates and asymptotics are compared to several explicit solutions for simple domains and to numerical simulations. These results allow one to account for stochastic photobleaching of fluorescent tracers in bio-imaging, degradation of mRNA molecules in genetic translation mechanisms, or high mortality rates of spermatozoa in the fertilization process. Our findings provide a mathematical ground for optimizing storage containers and materials to reduce the risk of leakage of dangerous chemicals or nuclear wastes.

  16. F111 Crew Escape Module pilot parachute

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    A successfully deployment of a parachute system highly depends on the efficiency of the deployment device and/or method. There are several existing methods and devices that may be considered for a deployment system. For the F111 Crew Escape Module (CEM), the recovery parachute system deployment is initiated by the firing of a catapult that ejects the complete system from the CEM. At first motion of the pack, a drogue gun is fired, which deploys the pilot parachute system. The pilot parachute system then deploys the main parachute system, which consists of a cluster of three 49-ft diameter parachutes. The pilot parachute system which extracts the F111 Crew Escape Module recovery parachute system must provide reasonable bag strip velocities throughout the flight envelope (10 psf to 300 psf). The pilot parachute system must, therefore, have sufficient drag area at the lower dynamic pressures and a reduced drag area at the high end of the flight envelope. The final design that was developed was a dual parachute system which consists of a 5-ft diameter guide surface parachute tethered inside a 10-ft diameter flat circular parachute. The high drag area is sustained at the low dynamic pressures by keeping both parachutes intact. The drag area is reduced at the higher extreme by allowing the 10-ft parachute attachment to fail. The discussions to follow describe in detail how the system was developed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Escape mechanisms of dust in Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, A.

    The injection of material into the jovian magnetosphere through Io's volcanic activity makes possible the formation of structures such as the plasma torus and the dust ballerina skirt. Io's high temperature volcanism produces spectacular plumes, but even the tallest plumes, as those of Pelen Patera, will not produce enough energy to defeat the gravitational attraction of Io. The fact is that dust escapes from Io, which implies that a second mechanism is acting on the grains. Grains brought to the top of the highest plumes by the volcanic forces are still under Io's gravitational pull, but need only a minimum charge (~10-1 4 C) so that the Lorentz force due to the Jovian magnetic field equilibrates this attraction. In the volcanic vents, the escape velocity of the ejected material and its own density produces enough collisions to create charges. On top of the highest plumes (~500km) charged grains are exposed to the plasma torus that co-rotates rigidly with Jupiter and, due to the relative velocity among Io and the torus, the grains will be dragged away from Io. As it is well known, these dust grains will also be dragged away from Jupiter.

  18. A New Maneuver for Escape Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation put forth a new maneuver for escape trajectories and specifically sought to find an analytical approximation for medium thrust trajectories. In most low thrust derivations the idea is that escape velocity is best achieved by accelerating along the velocity vector. The reason for this is that change in specific orbital energy is a function of velocity and acceleration. However, Levin (1952) suggested that while this is a locally optimal solution it might not be a globally optimal one. Turning acceleration inward would drop periapse giving a higher velocity later in the trajectory. Acceleration at that point would be dotted against a higher magnitude V giving a greater rate of change of mechanical energy. The author then hypothesized that decelerating from the initial orbit and then accelerating at periapse would not lead to a gain in greater specific orbital energy--however, the hypothesis was incorrect. After considerable derivation it was determined that this new maneuver outperforms a direct burn when the overall DeltaV budget exceeds the initial orbital velocity (the author has termed this the Heinlein maneuver). The author provides a physical explanation for this maneuver and presents optimization analyses.

  19. Effects of escape to alone versus escape to enriched environments on adaptive and aberrant behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Golonka, Z; Wacker, D; Berg, W; Derby, K M; Harding, J; Peck, S

    2000-01-01

    Escape-maintained aberrant behavior may be influenced by two outcomes: (a) a break from the activity and (b) subsequent access to preferred activities. To assess this hypothesis, a treatment was developed that analyzed response allocation across two break options: break alone and break with access to preferred social activities. The break with preferred activities decreased aberrant behavior and increased appropriate behavior. PMID:10885532

  20. Synthesizing within-host and population-level selective pressures on viral populations: the impact of adaptive immunity on viral immune escape

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Igor; Pepin, Kim M.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of viruses to escape prevailing host immunity involves selection at multiple integrative scales, from within-host viral and immune kinetics to the host population level. In order to understand how viral immune escape occurs, we develop an analytical framework that links the dynamical nature of immunity and viral variation across these scales. Our epidemiological model incorporates within-host viral evolutionary dynamics for a virus that causes acute infections (e.g. influenza and norovirus) with changes in host immunity in response to genetic changes in the virus population. We use a deterministic description of the within-host replication dynamics of the virus, the pool of susceptible host cells and the host adaptive immune response. We find that viral immune escape is most effective at intermediate values of immune strength. At very low levels of immunity, selection is too weak to drive immune escape in recovered hosts, while very high levels of immunity impose such strong selection that viral subpopulations go extinct before acquiring enough genetic diversity to escape host immunity. This result echoes the predictions of simpler models, but our formulation allows us to dissect the combination of within-host and transmission-level processes that drive immune escape. PMID:20335194

  1. Characterization of epitopes on the rabies virus glycoprotein by selection and analysis of escape mutants.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Firouzeh; Wandeler, Alexander I; Nadin-Davis, Susan A

    2016-07-15

    The glycoprotein (G) is the only surface protein of the lyssavirus particle and the only viral product known to be capable of eliciting the production of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the isolation of escape mutants resistant to monoclonal antibody (Mab) neutralization was attempted by a selection strategy employing four distinct rabies virus strains: the extensively passaged Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth (ERA) strain and three field isolates representing two bat-associated variants and the Western Canada skunk variant (WSKV). No escape mutants were generated from either of the bat-associated viral variants but two neutralization mutants were derived from the WSKV isolate. Seven independent ERA mutants were recovered using Mabs directed against antigenic sites I (four mutants) and IIIa (three mutants) of the glycoprotein. The cross-neutralization patterns of these viral mutants were used to determine the precise location and nature of the G protein epitopes recognized by these Mabs. Nucleotide sequencing of the G gene indicated that those mutants derived using Mabs directed to antigenic site (AS) III all contained amino acid substitutions in this site. However, of the four mutants selected with AS I Mabs, two bore mutations within AS I as expected while the remaining two carried mutations in AS II. WSKV mutants exhibited mutations at the sites appropriate for the Mabs used in their selection. All ERA mutant preparations were more cytopathogenic than the parental virus when propagated in cell culture; when in vivo pathogenicity in mice was examined, three of these mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity while the remaining four mutants exhibited comparable pathogenic properties to those of the parent virus.

  2. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Pace, D. C.; Grierson, B. A.

    2015-10-15

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  3. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Pace, D C

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  4. Non-thermal production and escape of OH from the upper atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, M.; Lewkow, N.; Kharchenko, V.

    2017-03-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of formation and kinetics of hot OH molecules in the upper atmosphere of Mars produced in reactions of thermal molecular hydrogen and energetic oxygen atoms. Two major sources of energetic O considered are the photochemical production, via dissociative recombination of O2+ ions, and energizing collisions with fast atoms produced by the precipitating Solar Wind (SW) ions, mostly H+ and He2+ , and energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) originating in the charge-exchange collisions between the SW ions and atmospheric gases. Energizing collisions of O with atmospheric secondary hot atoms, induced by precipitating SW ions and ENAs, are also included in our consideration. The non-thermal reaction O + H2(v, j) → H + OH(v‧, j‧) is described using recent quantum-mechanical state-to-state cross sections, which allow us to predict non-equilibrium distributions of excited rotational and vibrational states (v‧, j‧) of OH and expected emission spectra. A fraction of produced translationally hot OH is sufficiently energetic to overcome Mars' gravitational potential and escape into space, contributing to the hot corona. We estimate its total escape flux from the dayside of Mars for low solar activity conditions at about 1.1 × 1023 s-1 , or about 0.1% of the total escape rate of atomic O and H. The described non-thermal OH production mechanism is general and expected to contribute to the evolution of atmospheres of the planets, satellites, and exoplanets with similar atmospheric compositions.

  5. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  6. Impact of Clade, Geography, and Age of the Epidemic on HIV-1 Neutralization by Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hraber, Peter; Korber, Bette T.; Lapedes, Alan S.; Bailer, Robert T.; Seaman, Michael S.; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli M.; McCutchan, Francine; Williamson, Carolyn; Kim, Jerome H.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Swanstrom, Ronald; Thomson, Michael M.; Gao, Feng; Harris, Linda; Giorgi, Elena; Hengartner, Nicholas; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mascola, John R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are a high priority for vaccines that aim to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Vaccine effectiveness will depend on the extent to which induced antibodies neutralize the global diversity of circulating HIV-1 variants. Using large panels of genetically and geographically diverse HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses and chronic infection plasma samples, we unambiguously show that cross-clade nAb responses are commonly induced in response to infection by any virus clade. Nonetheless, neutralization was significantly greater when the plasma clade matched the clade of the virus being tested. This within-clade advantage was diminished in older, more-diverse epidemics in southern Africa, the United States, and Europe compared to more recent epidemics in Asia. It was most pronounced for circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC, which is common in China and is the least-divergent lineage studied; this was followed by the slightly more diverse Asian CRF01_AE. We found no evidence that transmitted/founder viruses are generally more susceptible to neutralization and are therefore easier targets for vaccination than chronic viruses. Features of the gp120 V1V2 loop, in particular, length, net charge, and number of N-linked glycans, were associated with Env susceptibility and plasma neutralization potency in a manner consistent with neutralization escape being a force that drives viral diversification and plasma neutralization breadth. The overall susceptibility of Envs and potencies of plasma samples were highly predictive of the neutralization outcome of any single virus-plasma combination. These findings highlight important considerations for the design and testing of candidate HIV-1 vaccines that aim to elicit effective nAbs. IMPORTANCE An effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to overcome the extraordinary variability of the virus, which is most pronounced in the envelope glycoproteins (Env), which are the sole targets for neutralizing

  7. INDIRECT EVIDENCE FOR ESCAPING IONIZING PHOTONS IN LOCAL LYMAN BREAK GALAXY ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik; Leitherer, Claus

    2015-09-10

    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear, however, what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing (Lyman continuum) photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV (FUV) spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 low-redshift galaxies that are good analogs to typical star-forming galaxies at high redshift. We measure three parameters that provide indirect evidence of the escape of ionizing radiation (leakiness): (1) the residual intensity in the cores of saturated interstellar low-ionization absorption lines, which indicates incomplete covering by that gas in the galaxy; (2) the relative amount of blueshifted Lyα line emission, which can indicate the existence of holes in the neutral hydrogen on the front-side of the galaxy outflow, and (3) the relative weakness of the [S ii] optical emission lines that trace matter-bounded H ii regions. We show that our residual intensity measures are only negligibly affected by infilling from resonance emission lines. We find all three diagnostics agree well with one another. We use these diagnostics to rank-order our sample in terms of likely leakiness, noting that a direct measure of escaping Lyman continuum has recently been made for one of the leakiest members of our sample. We then examine the correlations between our ranking and other proposed diagnostics of leakiness. We find a good correlation with the equivalent width of the Lyα emission line, but no significant correlations with either the flux ratio of the [O iii]/[O ii] emission lines or the ratio of star-formation rates derived from the (dust-corrected) FUV and Hα luminosities. Turning to galaxy properties, we find the strongest correlations with leakiness are with the compactness of the star

  8. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  9. The atmospheric escape at Mars: complementing the scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, Jean; Simon, Cyril; Barthélémy, Mathieu; Thissen, Roland; Ehrenreich, David; Gronoff, Guillaume; Witasse, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In the recent years, the presence of dications in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Earth and Titan has been modeled and assessed. These studies also suggested that these ions could participate to the escape of the planetary atmospheres because a large fraction of them is unstable and highly ener- getic. When they dissociate, their internal energy is transformed into kinetic energy which may be larger than the escape energy. This study assesses the impact of the doubly-charged ions in the escape of CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres and to compare it to the escape of thermal photo-ions.We solve a Boltzmann transport equation at daytime taking into account the dissociative states of CO++ for a simplified single constituent atmosphere of a 2 case-study planet. We compute the escape of fast ions using a Beer-Lambert approach. We study three test-cases. On a Mars-analog planet in today's conditions, we retrieve the measured electron escape flux. When comparing the two mechanisms (i.e. excluding solar wind effects, sputtering ...), the escape due to the fast ions issuing from the dissociation of dications may account for up to 6% of the total and the escape of thermal ions for the remaining. We show that these two mechanisms cannot explain the escape of the atmosphere since the magnetic field vanished but complement the other processes and allow writing the scenario of the Mars escape. We show that the atmosphere of a Mars analog planet would empty in another giga years and a half. At Venus orbit, the contribution of the dications in the escape rate is negligible.When simulating the hot Jupiter HD209458b, the two processes cannot explain the measured escape flux of C+.

  10. Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, M.  Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus  C.; Amos, Joshua  D.; Kumar, Amit; Hora, Bhavna; Marshall, Dawn  J.; Whitesides, John  F.; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey  E.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Lu, Xiaozhi; Bonsignori, Mattia; Finzi, Andrés; Vandergrift, Nathan  A.; Alam, S.  Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia  D.; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron  S.; Sam, Noel  E.; Kapiga, Saidi; Gray, Elin S.; Tumba, Nancy  L.; Morris, Lynn; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw  K.; Mascola, John  R.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George  M.; Sodroski, Joseph  G.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C.; Hraber, Peter T.; Korber, Bette T.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-09-09

    The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the viral envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in HIV-1-infected individuals. In chronic infection, virus escape mutants repopulate the plasma and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize, but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.

  11. Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses

    DOE PAGES

    Moody, M.  Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus  C.; ...

    2015-09-09

    The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the viral envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in HIV-1-infected individuals. In chronic infection, virus escape mutants repopulate the plasma and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize, but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tiermore » 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.« less

  12. Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses.

    PubMed

    Moody, M Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Amos, Joshua D; Kumar, Amit; Hora, Bhavna; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Lu, Xiaozhi; Bonsignori, Mattia; Finzi, Andrés; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Alam, S Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S; Sam, Noel E; Kapiga, Saidi; Gray, Elin S; Tumba, Nancy L; Morris, Lynn; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Mascola, John R; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Sodroski, Joseph G; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C; Hraber, Peter T; Korber, Bette T; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-09-09

    The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the HIV-1 envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in infected individuals. In chronic infection, HIV-1 escape mutants repopulate the plasma, and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3 and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.

  13. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  14. Feedback regulated escape of ionising radiation from high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebitsch, M.; Blaizot, J.

    2016-12-01

    Small galaxies are thought to provide the bulk of the radiation necessary to reionise the Universe by z ˜ 6. Their ionising efficiency is usually quantified by their escape fraction f_{esc}, but it is extremely hard to constrain from observations. With the goal of studying the physical processes that determine the values of the escape fraction, we have run a series of high resolution, cosmological, radiative hydrodynamics simulations centred on three galaxies. We find that the variability of the escape fraction follows that of the star formation rate, and that local feedback is necessary for radiation to escape.

  15. Managing Pacific salmon escapements: The gaps between theory and reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, Cleveland R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Williams, Jack E.; Reiser, Dudley W.

    1999-01-01

    There are myriad challenges to estimating intrinsic production capacity for Pacific salmon populations that are heavily exploited and/or suffering from habitat alteration. Likewise, it is difficult to determine whether perceived decreases in production are due to harvest, habitat, or hatchery influences, natural variation, or some combination of all four. There are dramatic gaps between the true nature of the salmon spawner/recruit relationship and the theoretical basis for describing and understanding the relationship. Importantly, there are also extensive practical difficulties associated with gathering and interpreting accurate escapement and run-size information and applying it to population management. Paradoxically, certain aspects of salmon management may well be contributing to losses in abundance and biodiversity, including harvesting salmon in mixed population fisheries, grouping populations into management units subject to a common harvest rate, and fully exploiting all available hatchery fish at the expense of wild fish escapements. Information on U.S. Pacific salmon escapement goal-setting methods, escapement data collection methods and estimation types, and the degree to which stocks are subjected to mixed stock fisheries was summarized and categorized for 1,025 known management units consisting of 9,430 known populations. Using criteria developed in this study, only 1% of U.S. escapement goals are by methods rated as excellent. Escapement goals for 16% of management units were rated as good. Over 60% of escapement goals have been set by methods rated as either fair or poor and 22% of management units have no escapement goals at all. Of the 9,430 populations for which any information was available, 6,614 (70%) had sufficient information to categorize the method by which escapement data are collected. Of those, data collection methods were rated as excellent for 1%, good for 1%, fair for 2%, and poor for 52%. Escapement estimates are not made for 44

  16. Simulating dynamical features of escape panic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Farkas, Illés; Vicsek, Tamás

    2000-09-01

    One of the most disastrous forms of collective human behaviour is the kind of crowd stampede induced by panic, often leading to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Sometimes this behaviour is triggered in life-threatening situations such as fires in crowded buildings; at other times, stampedes can arise during the rush for seats or seemingly without cause. Although engineers are finding ways to alleviate the scale of such disasters, their frequency seems to be increasing with the number and size of mass events. But systematic studies of panic behaviour and quantitative theories capable of predicting such crowd dynamics are rare. Here we use a model of pedestrian behaviour to investigate the mechanisms of (and preconditions for) panic and jamming by uncoordinated motion in crowds. Our simulations suggest practical ways to prevent dangerous crowd pressures. Moreover, we find an optimal strategy for escape from a smoke-filled room, involving a mixture of individualistic behaviour and collective `herding' instinct.

  17. Species ages in neutral biodiversity models.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; O'Dwyer, James P

    2014-05-01

    Biogeography seeks to understand the mechanisms that drive biodiversity across long temporal and large spatial scales. Theoretical models of biogeography can be tested by comparing their predictions of quantities such as species ages against empirical estimates. It has previously been claimed that the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography predicts species ages that are unrealistically long. Any improved theory of biodiversity must rectify this problem, but first it is necessary to quantify the problem precisely. Here we provide analytical expressions for species ages in neutral biodiversity communities. We analyse a spatially implicit metacommunity model and solve for both the zero-sum and non-zero-sum cases. We explain why our new expressions are, in the context of biodiversity, usually more appropriate than those previously imported from neutral molecular evolution. Because of the time symmetry of the spatially implicit neutral model, our expressions also lead directly to formulas for species persistence times and species lifetimes. We use our new expressions to estimate species ages of forest trees under a neutral model and find that they are about an order of magnitude shorter than those predicted previously but still unrealistically long. In light of our results, we discuss different models of biogeography that may solve the problem of species ages.

  18. Non-thermal escape of H2 and OH from the upper atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Kharchenko, Vasili

    2016-10-01

    Two major sources of energetic O atoms in the upper atmosphere of Mars are photochemical production, via dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+ and CO2+ molecular ions, and energizing collisions with fast energetic neutral atoms (ENA) produced by the precipitating solar wind ions. The non-thermal O atoms can either directly escape to space, forming a hot oxygen corona, or participate in collisions with background thermal atmospheric gases, such as H2. In this study we present a theoretical analysis of formation and kinetics of hot OH molecules in the upper atmosphere of Mars, produced in reactions of thermal molecular hydrogen and suprathermal oxygen atoms energized by both DR and ENAs. The non-thermal chemical reaction O + H2(v',j') → H + OH(v',j') is described using recent quantum-mechanical state-to-state cross sections[1], which allow us to predict non-equilibrium distributions of excited rotational and vibrational states (v',j') of OH and expected emission spectra for different geometry and solar activity conditions. A potential consequence is appearance or enhancement of faint Meinel bands in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Moreover, a fraction of produced translationally hot H2 and OH are sufficiently energetic to overcome Mars' gravitational potential and escape into space, contributing to the hot corona. The described non-thermal mechanisms produce estimated total escape fluxes of OH and H2 from dayside of Mars, for low solar activity conditions, equal to about 5×1022 s-1 for OH, or about 0.1% of the total escape rate of atomic O and H, and 1023 s-1 for H2 [2]. If HD molecules are considered instead of H2, the non-thermal mechanisms are about 30 times more efficient than Jeans escape, contribute about 5-10% of the total D escape rate, potentially of interest in atmospheric models of water evolution on Mars.[1] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 4324 (2014)[2] M. Gacesa, P. Zhang, V. Kharchenko, Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10203 (2012).

  19. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  20. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  1. Energy-limited escape revised. The transition from strong planetary winds to stable thermospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salz, M.; Schneider, P. C.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience photoevaporative mass loss. The energy-limited escape concept is generally used to derive estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our photoionization hydrodynamics simulations of the thermospheres of hot gas planets show that the energy-limited escape concept is valid only for planets with a gravitational potential lower than log 10(-ΦG)< 13.11 erg g-1 because in these planets the radiative energy input is efficiently used to drive the planetary wind. Massive and compact planets with log 10(-ΦG) ≳ 13.6 erg g-1 exhibit more tightly bound atmospheres in which the complete radiative energy input is re-emitted through hydrogen Lyα and free-free emission. These planets therefore host hydrodynamically stable thermospheres. Between these two extremes the strength of the planetary winds rapidly declines as a result of a decreasing heating efficiency. Small planets undergo enhanced evaporation because they host expanded atmospheres that expose a larger surface to the stellar irradiation. We present scaling laws for the heating efficiency and the expansion radius that depend on the gravitational potential and irradiation level of the planet. The resulting revised energy-limited escape concept can be used to derive estimates for the mass-loss rates of super-Earth-sized planets as well as massive hot Jupiters with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres.

  2. Ions and neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.

    After a short presentation of intensity limitations examples due to trapped ions, the processes of ionization and neutralization build up in particle accelerators and storage rings are briefly reviewed. The tolerable limits in neutralization are then assessed at the light of current theories of incoherent and coherent effects driven by ions. Finally the usual antidotes such as clearing electrodes, missing bunch schemes and beam shaking are presented.

  3. Studies on Neutral Beam Injection into the SSPX Spheromak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, R; Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Fowler, T K; Hill, D N; Hudson, B; McLean, H; Moller, J

    2007-10-19

    In the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, (SSPX) ['Improved operation of the SSPX spheromak', R.D. Wood, D.N. Hill, E.B. Hooper, S. Woodruff1, H.S. McLean and B.W. Stallard, Nucl. Fusion 45 1582-1588 (2005)], plasmas with core electron temperatures reaching up to 500 eV at densities of 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} have been sustained for several milliseconds, making them suitable as targets for neutral beam injection. High performance and further progress in understanding Spheromak plasma physics are expected if neutral beams are injected into the plasma. This paper presents the results of numerical 1.5 D modeling of the plasma to calculate neutral beam current drive and ion and electron heating. The results are presented for varying initial conditions of density, temperatures and profiles and beam energy, injection angle and power. Current drive efficiency (Ampere/Watt of absorbed power) of up to 0.08 can be achieved with best performance SSPX shots as target. Analyses of neutral beam heating indicate that ion temperatures of up to 1.5 keV and electron temperatures of up to 750 eV can be obtained with injection of about 1 MW of neutral beam for 5-10 ms and with diffusivities typically observed in SSPX. Injection targeting near the magnetic axis appears to be the best for heating and current drive. Effect of the current drive and evolution of SSPX equilibrium are discussed.

  4. Energy Release, Acceleration, and Escape of Solar Energetic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nolfo, G. A.; Ireland, J.; Ryan, J. M.; Young, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar flares are prodigious producers of energetic particles, and thus a rich laboratory for studying particle acceleration. The acceleration occurs through the release of magnetic energy, a significant fraction of which can go into the acceleration of particles. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) certainly produce shocks that both accelerate particles and provide a mechanism for escape into the interplanetary medium (IP). What is less well understood is whether accelerated particles produced from the flare reconnection process escape, and if so, how these same particles are related to solar energetic particles (SEPs) detected in-situ. Energetic electron SEPs have been shown to be correlated with Type III radio bursts, hard X-ray emission, and EUV jets, making a very strong case for the connection between acceleration at the flare and escape along open magnetic field lines. Because there has not been a clear signature of ion escape, as is the case with the Type III radio emission for electrons, sorting out the avenues of escape for accelerated flare ions and the possible origin of the impulsive SEPs continues to be a major challenge. The key to building a clear picture of particle escape relies on the ability to map signatures of escape such as EUV jets at the Sun and to follow the progression of these escape signatures as they evolve in time. Furthermore, nuclear γ-ray emissions provide critical context relating ion acceleration to that of escape. With the advent observations from Fermi as well as RHESSI and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the challenge of ion escape from the Sun can now be addressed. We present a preliminary study of the relationship of EUV jets with nuclear γ-ray emission and Type III radio observations and discuss the implications for possible magnetic topologies that allow for ion escape from deep inside the corona to the interplanetary medium.

  5. Influenza virus resistance to human neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Crowe, James E

    2012-01-01

    The human antibody repertoire has an exceptionally large capacity to recognize new or changing antigens through combinatorial and junctional diversity established at the time of V(D)J recombination and through somatic hypermutation. Influenza viruses exhibit a relentless capacity to escape the human antibody response by altering the amino acids of their surface proteins in hypervariable domains that exhibit a high level of structural plasticity. Both parties in this high-stakes game of shape shifting drive structural evolution of their functional proteins (the B cell receptor/antibody on one side and the viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins on the other) using error-prone polymerase systems. It is likely that most of the genetic mutations that occur in these systems are deleterious, resulting in the failure of the B cell or virus with mutations to propagate in the immune repertoire or viral quasispecies. A subset of mutations is tolerated in functional surface proteins that enter the B cell or virus progeny pool. In both cases, selection occurs in the population of mutated and unmutated species. In cases where the functional avidity of the B cell receptor is increased significantly, that clone may be selected for preferential expansion. In contrast, an influenza virus that "escapes" the inhibitory effect of secreted antibodies may represent a high proportion of the progeny virus in that host. The recent paper by O'Donnell et al. [C. D. O'Donnell et al., mBio 3(3):e00120-12, 2012] identifies a mechanism for antibody resistance that does not require escape from binding but rather achieves a greater efficiency in replication.

  6. How many ions have escaped the Martian atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, David; McFadden, James; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, J. E. P.; Eparvier, Frank; Mitchell, David; Bougher, Stephen W.; Bowers, Charlie; Curry, Shannon; Dong, Chuanfei; Dong, Yaxue; Egan, Hilary; Fang, Xiaohua; Harada, Yuki; Jakosky, Bruce; Lillis, Robert; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan; Modolo, Ronan; Weber, Tristan

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission has been making science measurements of the Martian upper atmosphere and its escape to space since November 2014. A key part of this effort is the measurement of the escape rates of charged particles (ions) at present and over solar system history. The lack of a global dynamo magnetic field at Mars leaves its upper atmosphere more directly exposed to the impinging solar wind than magnetized planets such as Earth. For this reason it is thought that ion escape at Mars may have played a significant role in long term climate change. MAVEN measures escaping planetary ions directly, with high energy, mass, and time resolution.With nearly two years of observations in hand, we will report the average ion escape rate and the spatial distribution of escaping ions as measured by MAVEN and place them in context with previous measurements of ion loss by other spacecraft (e.g. Phobos 2 and Mars Express). We will then report on the measured variability in ion escape rates with different drivers (e.g. solar EUV, solar wind pressure, etc.). Finally, we will use these results to provide an initial estimate of the total ion escape from Mars over billions of years.

  7. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Wang, Junxian

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  8. The Origins and Underpinning Principles of E-Scape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the context within which we developed project e-scape and the early work that laid the foundations of the project. E-scape (e-solutions for creative assessment in portfolio environments) is centred on two innovations. The first concerns a web-based approach to portfolio building; allowing learners to build their…

  9. 46 CFR 116.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this section, each space accessible to passengers or used by the crew on a regular basis, must have at... escape must be widely separated and, if possible, at opposite ends or sides of the space to minimize the... windows. (d) The number and dimensions of the means of escape from each space must be sufficient for...

  10. 46 CFR 116.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... least two means of escape, one of which must not be a watertight door. (b) The two required means of... clothing, or damage life jackets. (f) The minimum clear opening of a door or passageway used as a means of escape must not be less than 810 millimeters (32 inches) in width, however, doors or passageways...

  11. 7. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING UP SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING UP SOUTH SIDE FROM 50-FOOT PASSAGEWAY, SHOWING 25-FOOT BLISTER AT LEFT, 18-FOOT PASSAGEWAY AND PLATFORM AT RIGHT - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  12. 22. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING WEST FROM EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING WEST FROM EAST SIDE OF CUPOLA TOWARD ELEVATOR. TWO-LOCK RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER AT REAR - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  13. 29. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION AT POINT JUST ABOVE THE SUBMARINE SECTION AT THE 110-FOOT LEVEL 1929-1930 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  14. 36. VIEW OF CUPOLA, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ROVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VIEW OF CUPOLA, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ROVING RESCUE BELL SUSPENDED ABOVE TANK, WITH TWO-LOCK RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER AT REAR, LOOKING WEST. Photo taken after installation of recompression chamber in 1956. - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  15. 35. INTERIOR VIEW OF EQUIPMENT HOUSE, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR VIEW OF EQUIPMENT HOUSE, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, PRIOR TO ENLARGEMENT OF ROOM AND INSTALLATION OF TRIPLE-LOCK RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER IN 1957 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  16. 31. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION OF THE ELEVATOR AND PASSAGEWAYS TO THE 18- AND 50-FOOT LOCKS AND CUPOLA 1932 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  17. 33 CFR 143.101 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Means of escape. 143.101 Section 143.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.101 Means of escape. (a) “Primary...

  18. 46 CFR 169.313 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a hold-back to hold the scuttle in an open position. (e) The required means of escape must not have... escape is acceptable provided that— (1) There is no source of fire in the space, such as a galley stove... back of the ladder; and (4) Except when unavoidable obstructions are encountered, there must be...

  19. Escape rate scaling in infinite measure preserving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Sara; Knight, Georgie

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the scaling of the escape rate from piecewise linear dynamical systems displaying intermittency due to the presence of an indifferent fixed point. Strong intermittent behaviour in the dynamics can result in the system preserving an infinite measure. We define a neighbourhood of the indifferent fixed point to be a hole through which points escape and investigate the scaling of the rate of this escape as the length of the hole decreases, both in the finite measure preserving case and infinite measure preserving case. In the infinite measure preserving systems we observe logarithmic corrections to and polynomial scaling of the escape rate with hole length. Finally we conjecture a relationship between the wandering rate and the observed scaling of the escape rate.

  20. Split-second escape decisions in blue tits (Parus caeruleus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Johan; Kaby, Ulrika; Jakobsson, Sven

    2002-07-01

    Bird mortality is heavily affected by birds of prey. Under attack, take-off is crucial for survival and even minor mistakes in initial escape response can have devastating consequences. Birds may respond differently depending on the character of the predator's attack and these split-second decisions were studied using a model merlin (Falco columbarius) that attacked feeding blue tits (Parus caeruleus) from two different attack angles in two different speeds. When attacked from a low attack angle they took off more steeply than when attacked from a high angle. This is the first study to show that escape behaviour also depends on predator attack speed. The blue tits responded to a high-speed attack by dodging sideways more often than when attacked at a low speed. Escape speed was not significantly affected by the different treatments. Although they have only a split-second before escaping an attack, blue tits do adjust their escape strategy to the prevailing attack conditions.

  1. Nonlinear response of a linear chain to weak driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, D.; Mulhern, C.; Burbanks, A. D.; Schimansky-Geier, L.

    2014-01-01

    We study the escape of a chain of coupled units over the barrier of a metastable potential. It is demonstrated that a very weak external driving field with a suitably chosen frequency suffices to accomplish speedy escape. The latter requires passage through a transition state, the formation of which is triggered by permanent feeding of energy from a phonon background into humps of localized energy and elastic interaction of the arising breather solutions. In fact, cooperativity between the units of the chain entailing coordinated energy transfer is shown to be crucial for enhancing the rate of escape in an extremely effective and low-energy cost way where the effects of entropic localization and breather coalescence conspire.

  2. Immune Escape Strategies of Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Pollyanna S.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Rivera-Correa, Juan; Freire-De-Lima, Celio G.; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins, and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission. PMID:27799922

  3. Escaping the resource curse in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shixiong; Li, Shurong; Ma, Hua; Sun, Yutong

    2015-02-01

    Many societies face an income gap between rich regions with access to advanced technology and regions that are rich in natural resources but poorer in technology. This "resource curse" can lead to a Kuznets trap, in which economic inequalities between the rich and the poor increase during the process of socioeconomic development. This can also lead to depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, social instability, and declining socioeconomic development. These problems will jeopardize China's achievements if the current path continues to be pursued without intervention by the government to solve the problems. To mitigate the socioeconomic development gap between western and eastern China, the government implemented its Western Development Program in 2000. However, recent data suggest that this program has instead worsened the resource curse. Because each region has its own unique strengths and weaknesses, China must escape the resource curse by accounting for this difference; in western China, this can be done by improving education, promoting high-tech industry, adjusting its economic strategy to balance regional development, and seeking more sustainable approaches to socioeconomic development.

  4. WANDERING STARS: AN ORIGIN OF ESCAPED POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Teyssier, Maureen; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Shara, Michael M.

    2009-12-10

    We demonstrate that stars beyond the virial radii of galaxies may be generated by the gravitational impulse received by a satellite as it passes through the pericenter of its orbit around its parent. These stars may become energetically unbound (escaped stars), or may travel to further than a few virial radii for longer than a few Gyr, but still remain energetically bound to the system (wandering stars). Larger satellites (10%-100% the mass of the parent), and satellites on more radial orbits are responsible for the majority of this ejected population. Wandering stars could be observable on Mpc scales via classical novae, and on 100 Mpc scales via Type Ia supernova. The existence of such stars would imply a corresponding population of barely bound, old, high-velocity stars orbiting the Milky Way, generated by the same physical mechanism during the Galaxy's formation epoch. Sizes and properties of these combined populations should place some constraints on the orbits and masses of the progenitor objects from which they came, providing insight into the merging histories of galaxies in general and the Milky Way in particular.

  5. Sensitization of the Tritonia escape swim.

    PubMed

    Frost, W N; Brandon, C L; Mongeluzi, D L

    1998-03-01

    When repeatedly elicited, the oscillatory escape swim of the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea undergoes habituation of the number of cycles per swim. Previous work has shown that this habituation is accompanied by sensitization of another feature of the behavior: latency to swim onset. Here we focused on the behavioral features of sensitization itself. Test swims elicited 5 min after a strong sensitizing head stimulus differed in several ways from control swims: sensitized animals had shorter latencies for gill and rhinophore withdrawal, a shorter latency for swim onset, a lower threshold for swim initiation, and an increased number of cycles per swim. Sensitized animals did not, however, swim any faster (no change in cycle period). A separate experiment found that swim onset latency also sensitized when Tritonia came into contact with one of their natural predators, the seastar Pycnopodia helianthoides, demonstrating the ecological relevance of this form of nonassociative learning. These results define the set of behavioral changes to be explained by cellular studies of sensitization in Tritonia.

  6. Immune Escape Strategies of Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Pollyanna S; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Rivera-Correa, Juan; Freire-De-Lima, Celio G; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins, and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission.

  7. Dications and thermal ions in planetary atmospheric escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, J.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Barthélémy, M.; Thissen, R.; Ehrenreich, D.; Gronoff, G.; Witasse, O.

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, the presence of dications in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Earth and Titan has been modeled and assessed. These studies also suggested that these ions could participate to the escape of the planetary atmospheres because a large fraction of them is unstable and highly energetic. When they dissociate, their internal energy is transformed into kinetic energy which may be larger than the escape energy. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the doubly-charged ions in the escape of CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres and to compare it to the escape of thermal photo-ions. We solve a Boltzmann transport equation at daytime taking into account the dissociative states of CO2++ for a simplified single constituent atmosphere of a case-study planet. We compute the escape of fast ions using a Beer-Lambert approach. We study three test-cases. On a Mars-analog planet in today's conditions, we retrieve the measured electron escape flux. When comparing the two mechanisms (i.e. excluding solar wind effects, sputtering, etc.), the escape due to the fast ions issuing from the dissociation of dications may account for up to 6% of the total and the escape of thermal ions for the remaining. We show that these two mechanisms cannot explain the escape of the atmosphere since the magnetic field vanished and even contribute only marginally to this loss. We show that with these two mechanisms, the atmosphere of a Mars analog planet would empty in another giga years and a half. At Venus orbit, the contribution of the dications in the escape rate is negligible. When simulating the hot Jupiter HD 209458 b, the two processes cannot explain the measured escape flux of C+. This study shows that the dications may constitute a source of the escape of planetary atmospheres which had not been taken into account until now. This source, although marginal, is not negligible. The influence of the photoionization is of course large, but cannot explain alone the loss of Mars

  8. Coaxial Redundant Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissette, R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic drives allow redundancy and high out put torque in small package. If main drive fails, standby drive takes over and produces torque along same axis as main drive. Uses include power units in robot for internal pipeline inspection, manipulators in deep submersible probes or other applications in which redundancy protects against costly failures.

  9. On geometric factors for neutral particle analyzers.

    PubMed

    Stagner, L; Heidbrink, W W

    2014-11-01

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) detect neutralized energetic particles that escape from plasmas. Geometric factors relate the counting rate of the detectors to the intensity of the particle source. Accurate geometric factors enable quick simulation of geometric effects without the need to resort to slower Monte Carlo methods. Previously derived expressions [G. R. Thomas and D. M. Willis, "Analytical derivation of the geometric factor of a particle detector having circular or rectangular geometry," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5(3), 260 (1972); J. D. Sullivan, "Geometric factor and directional response of single and multi-element particle telescopes," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 95(1), 5-11 (1971)] for the geometric factor implicitly assume that the particle source is very far away from the detector (far-field); this excludes applications close to the detector (near-field). The far-field assumption does not hold in most fusion applications of NPA detectors. We derive, from probability theory, a generalized framework for deriving geometric factors that are valid for both near and far-field applications as well as for non-isotropic sources and nonlinear particle trajectories.

  10. On geometric factors for neutral particle analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2014-11-15

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) detect neutralized energetic particles that escape from plasmas. Geometric factors relate the counting rate of the detectors to the intensity of the particle source. Accurate geometric factors enable quick simulation of geometric effects without the need to resort to slower Monte Carlo methods. Previously derived expressions [G. R. Thomas and D. M. Willis, “Analytical derivation of the geometric factor of a particle detector having circular or rectangular geometry,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5(3), 260 (1972); J. D. Sullivan, “Geometric factor and directional response of single and multi-element particle telescopes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 95(1), 5–11 (1971)] for the geometric factor implicitly assume that the particle source is very far away from the detector (far-field); this excludes applications close to the detector (near-field). The far-field assumption does not hold in most fusion applications of NPA detectors. We derive, from probability theory, a generalized framework for deriving geometric factors that are valid for both near and far-field applications as well as for non-isotropic sources and nonlinear particle trajectories.

  11. Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Measurements from Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Niemann, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Kasprzak, W.; Cravens, T.; Luhmann, J.; McNutt, R.; Ip, W.-H.; Gell, D.; Muller-Wordag, I. C. F.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) aboard the Cassini orbiter has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in its first flyby of Titan. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon s upper atmosphere do not appear to be changed since the Voyager flyby in 1979. However, the more sensitive techniques provided by modern in-situ mass spectrometry also give evidence for large-spatial-scale large-amplitude atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and for a plethora of stable carbon-nitrile compounds above 1174 km. Furthermore, they allow the first direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which provide interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The atmosphere was first accreted as ammonia and ammonia ices from the Saturn sub-nebula. Subsequent photochemistry likely converted the atmosphere into molecular nitrogen. The early atmosphere was 1.5 to 5 times more substantial and was lost via escape over the intervening 4.5 billion years due to the reduced gravity associated with the relatively small mass of Titan. Carbon in the form of methane has continued to outgas over time from the interior with much of it being deposited in the form of complex hydrocarbons on the surface and some of it also being lost to space.

  12. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-06

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  13. Modelling the Evolution and Spread of HIV Immune Escape Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Helen R.; Frater, John; Duda, Anna; Roberts, Mick G.; Phillips, Rodney E.; McLean, Angela R.

    2010-01-01

    During infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), immune pressure from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) selects for viral mutants that confer escape from CTL recognition. These escape variants can be transmitted between individuals where, depending upon their cost to viral fitness and the CTL responses made by the recipient, they may revert. The rates of within-host evolution and their concordant impact upon the rate of spread of escape mutants at the population level are uncertain. Here we present a mathematical model of within-host evolution of escape mutants, transmission of these variants between hosts and subsequent reversion in new hosts. The model is an extension of the well-known SI model of disease transmission and includes three further parameters that describe host immunogenetic heterogeneity and rates of within host viral evolution. We use the model to explain why some escape mutants appear to have stable prevalence whilst others are spreading through the population. Further, we use it to compare diverse datasets on CTL escape, highlighting where different sources agree or disagree on within-host evolutionary rates. The several dozen CTL epitopes we survey from HIV-1 gag, RT and nef reveal a relatively sedate rate of evolution with average rates of escape measured in years and reversion in decades. For many epitopes in HIV, occasional rapid within-host evolution is not reflected in fast evolution at the population level. PMID:21124991

  14. Efficiently estimating salmon escapement uncertainty using systematically sampled data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Joel H.; Woody, Carol Ann; Gove, Nancy E.; Fair, Lowell F.

    2007-01-01

    Fish escapement is generally monitored using nonreplicated systematic sampling designs (e.g., via visual counts from towers or hydroacoustic counts). These sampling designs support a variety of methods for estimating the variance of the total escapement. Unfortunately, all the methods give biased results, with the magnitude of the bias being determined by the underlying process patterns. Fish escapement commonly exhibits positive autocorrelation and nonlinear patterns, such as diurnal and seasonal patterns. For these patterns, poor choice of variance estimator can needlessly increase the uncertainty managers have to deal with in sustaining fish populations. We illustrate the effect of sampling design and variance estimator choice on variance estimates of total escapement for anadromous salmonids from systematic samples of fish passage. Using simulated tower counts of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka escapement on the Kvichak River, Alaska, five variance estimators for nonreplicated systematic samples were compared to determine the least biased. Using the least biased variance estimator, four confidence interval estimators were compared for expected coverage and mean interval width. Finally, five systematic sampling designs were compared to determine the design giving the smallest average variance estimate for total annual escapement. For nonreplicated systematic samples of fish escapement, all variance estimators were positively biased. Compared to the other estimators, the least biased estimator reduced bias by, on average, from 12% to 98%. All confidence intervals gave effectively identical results. Replicated systematic sampling designs consistently provided the smallest average estimated variance among those compared.

  15. The Impacts of Orbital Distance on Exoplanetary Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Guo, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Driven by the high energy radiation of host stars, atmospheric escape is very important for planet evolution. While the flux drops dramatically with the increase of orbital distance, it is essential to study the impacts of orbital distance on atmospheric escape. We consider the hydrodynamic escape of exoplanets driven by the XUV (X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet) radiation of their host stars. We aim to study the mass-loss rate, the transition of escape mechanism, the structures of temperature and velocity, based on a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model which includes radiative transfer processes and photochemical reactions. As the stellar XUV emission varies with the stellar evolution, we use XSPEC (X-Ray Spectral Fitting Package) to construct the XUV spectra of solar-type stars at different ages. We find that with the increase of orbital distance, the mass-loss rates drop significantly, and when the stellar XUV flux is too small to preserve the hydrodynamic escape, it will turn to Jeans escape. This transition occurs in larger distance for younger and smaller planets. For young planets, hydrodynamic escape can occur in 1-2 au. For very young and close-in planets, the relation between mass-loss rate and stellar flux is not as significant as planets that are not close to their host stars, and the energy-limited equation can lead to large overestimate.

  16. The Connection Between Reddening, Gas Covering Fraction, and the Escape of Ionizing Radiation at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Bogosavljević, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.

    2016-09-01

    Using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed z∼ 3 galaxies, we establish an empirical relationship between reddening (E(B-V)), neutral gas covering fraction ({f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}})), and the escape of ionizing (Lyman continuum, LyC) photons. Our sample includes 933 galaxies at z∼ 3,121 of which have deep spectroscopic observations (≳ 7 hr) at 850≲ {λ }{{rest}}≲ 1300 Å with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on Keck. The high covering fraction of outflowing optically thick {{H}} {{I}} indicated by the composite spectra of these galaxies implies that photoelectric absorption, rather than dust attenuation, dominates the depletion of LyC photons. By modeling the composite spectra as the combination of an unattenuated stellar spectrum including nebular continuum emission with one that is absorbed by {{H}} {{I}} and reddened by a line-of-sight extinction, we derive an empirical relationship between E(B-V) and {f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}}). Galaxies with redder UV continua have larger covering fractions of {{H}} {{I}} characterized by higher line-of-sight extinctions. We develop a model which connects the ionizing escape fraction with E(B-V), and which may be used to estimate the ionizing escape fraction for an ensemble of galaxies. Alternatively, direct measurements of the escape fraction for our sample allow us to constrain the intrinsic LyC-to-UV flux density ratio to be < S(900 \\mathring{{A}} )/S(1500 \\mathring{{A}} ){> }{{int}}≳ 0.20, a value that favors stellar population models that include weaker stellar winds, a flatter initial mass function, and/or binary evolution. Last, we demonstrate how the framework discussed here may be used to assess the pathways by which ionizing radiation escapes from high-redshift galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous

  17. Emergence of Ebola Virus Escape Variants in Infected Nonhuman Primates Treated with the MB-003 Antibody Cocktail.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Kugelman-Tonos, Johanny; Ladner, Jason T; Pettit, James; Keeton, Carolyn M; Nagle, Elyse R; Garcia, Karla Y; Froude, Jeffrey W; Kuehne, Ana I; Kuhn, Jens H; Bavari, Sina; Zeitlin, Larry; Dye, John M; Olinger, Gene G; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F

    2015-09-29

    MB-003, a plant-derived monoclonal antibody cocktail used effectively in treatment of Ebola virus infection in non-human primates, was unable to protect two of six animals when initiated 1 or 2 days post-infection. We characterized a mechanism of viral escape in one of the animals, after observation of two clusters of genomic mutations that resulted in five nonsynonymous mutations in the monoclonal antibody target sites. These mutations were linked to a reduction in antibody binding and later confirmed to be present in a viral isolate that was not neutralized in vitro. Retrospective evaluation of a second independent study allowed the identification of a similar case. Four SNPs in previously identified positions were found in this second fatality, suggesting that genetic drift could be a potential cause for treatment failure. These findings highlight the importance selecting different target domains for each component of the cocktail to minimize the potential for viral escape.

  18. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczewski, Artur P.

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism.

  19. Escape of Pluto's Atmosphere: In Situ Measurements from New Horizons and Remote Observations from Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Hill, M. E.; Kollmann, P.; Krimigis, S. M.; Brown, L. E.; Kusterer, M. B.; Lisse, C. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Vandegriff, J. D.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Ennico Smith, K.; Horanyi, M.; Olkin, C.; Piquette, M. R.; Stern, A.; Strobel, D. F.; Szalay, J.; Valek, P. W.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Weidner, S.; Young, L. A.; Zirnstein, E.; Wolk, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The escape rate of Pluto's atmosphere is of significant scientific interest. It is a Group 1 science goal of the New Horizons mission. In addition, a Group 3 science goal of the mission has been to characterize the energetic particle environment of the Pluto system. The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) is a compact, energy by time-of-flight (TOF) instrument developed to address both of these science goals. Pluto is known to have an atmosphere, and current models postulate a majority N2 composition with free escape of up to ~1028 molecules/sec. This is very similar to the physical situation of a variety comets observed in the inner heliosphere. However, the gravitational field of Pluto exerts a significant effect on the escaping neutrals, unlike at a comet. The ionization of neutrals emitted from comets results in heavy ions, which are accelerated by the convective solar-wind electric field. The expected major ionization product near Pluto is singly ionized N2 molecules with pickup energies sufficient to be measured with PEPSSI. In the process of measuring the local energetic particle environment, such measurements will also provide constraints on the local density of Pluto's extended atmosphere, which, along with plasma measurements from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument also on New Horizons should allow the inference of the strengh and extent of mass-loading of the solar wind due to Pluto's atmosphere. Pluto's neutral atmosphere also provides a source population for charge exchange of highly ionized, minor ions in the solar wind, such as O, C, and N. This process allows these ions to capture one electron and be left in an excited state. That state, in turn decays with the emission of a low-energy (100 eV to 1 keV) X-ray, which can be detected at Earth. Such observations have been made of comets since the X-ray emission discovery in 1996 and used to infer cometary outgassing rates. Similar observatins have been made

  20. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF SUBMARINE SECTION AT 110FOOT LEVEL, ESCAPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF SUBMARINE SECTION AT 110-FOOT LEVEL, ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING LADDER TO ESCAPE TANK, LOOKING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  1. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  2. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  3. Structure of Rotavirus Outer-Layer Protein VP7 Bound with a Neutralizing Fab

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Scott T.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Trask, Shane D.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Dormitzer, Philip R.

    2009-06-17

    Rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. Removal of free calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) dissociates VP7 trimers into monomers, releasing VP7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, VP4. We report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of VP7 bound with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The Fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains two Ca{sup 2+} sites. Mutations that escape neutralization by other antibodies suggest that the same region bears the epitopes of most neutralizing antibodies. The monovalent Fab is sufficient to neutralize infectivity. We propose that neutralizing antibodies against VP7 act by stabilizing the trimer, thereby inhibiting the uncoating trigger for VP4 rearrangement. A disulfide-linked trimer is a potential subunit immunogen.

  4. Calculation of the resonance escape factor of magnesium spectral line shapes in the case of a MgCl{sub 2}--water plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph.; Gleizes, A.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.; Taieeb, G.

    2007-09-19

    The resonance escape factors for the lines emitted by a neutral magnesium atom MgI at 285.2127 nm (3 {sup 1}S-3 {sup 1}P) and of ionic magnesium MgII at 279.5528 nm (3 {sup 2}S-3 {sup 2}P) are calculated assuming a Voigt profile and in the case of MgCl{sub 2}-water plasma. The dependence of the escape factor on the optical thickness {tau}{sub 0} from the line center which itself depends on the two main spectral line shape broadening mechanisms (pressure and Doppler effects) are considered. The variation of the resonance escape factors with the temperature and the MgCl{sub 2} molar proportion are also investigated. This calculation is useful for the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the quantitative analysis of elemental composition.

  5. Monitoring the Escape of DNA from a Nanopore Using an Alternating Current Signal

    PubMed Central

    Lathrop, Daniel K.; Ervin, Eric N.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Keehan, Michael G.; Kawano, Ryuji; Krupka, Michael A.; White, Henry S.; Hibbs, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    We present the use of an alternating current (AC) signal as a means to monitor the conductance of an α-hemolysin (αHL) pore as a DNA hairpin with a polydeoxyadenosine tail is driven into and released from the pore. Specifically, a 12 base pair DNA hairpin attached to a 50-nucleotide poly-A tail (HP-A50) is threaded into an αHL channel using a DC driving voltage. Once the HP-A50 molecule is trapped within the αHL channel, the DC driving voltage is turned off and the conductance of the channel is monitored using an AC voltage. The escape time, defined as the time it takes the HP-A50 molecule to transport out of the αHL channel, is then measured. This escape time has been monitored as a function of AC amplitude (20 to 250 mVac), AC frequency (60–200 kHz), DC drive voltage (0 to 100 mVdc), and temperature (−10 to 20 °C), in order to determine their effect on the predominantly diffusive motion of the DNA through the nanopore. The applied AC voltage used to monitor the conductance of the nanopore has been found to play a significant role in the DNA/nanopore interaction. The experimental results are described by a one-dimensional asymmetric periodic potential model that includes the influence of the AC voltage. An activation enthalpy barrier of 1.74 × 10−19 J and a periodic potential asymmetry parameter of 0.575 are obtained for the diffusion at zero electrical bias of a single nucleotide through αHL. PMID:20099878

  6. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  7. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    DOE PAGES

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; ...

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V,more » implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.« less

  8. Neutral gas outflows in nearby [U]LIRGs via optical NaD feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzoli, S.; Arribas, S.; Maiolino, R.; Colina, L.

    2016-05-01

    We studied the properties of the neutral gas in a sample of 38 local luminous and ultra luminous infrared galaxies ([U]LIRGs, 51 individual galaxies at z ≤ 0.09), which mainly covers the less explored LIRG luminosity range. This study is based on the analysis of the spatially integrated and spatially resolved spectra of the NaDλλ 5890, 5896 Å feature obtained with the integral field unit (IFU) of VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope. Analyzing spatially integrated spectra, we find that the contribution of the stars to the observed NaD equivalent width is small (<35%) for about half of the sample, and therefore this feature is dominated by inter stellar medium (ISM) absorption. After subtracting the stellar contribution, we find that the pure-ISM integrated spectra generally show blueshifted NaD profiles, indicating neutral gas outflow velocities, V, in the range 65-260 km s-1. Excluding the galaxies with powerful AGNs, V shows a dependency with the star formation rate (SFR) of the type V ∝ SFR0.15, which is in rather good agreement with previous results. The spatially resolved analysis could be performed for 40 galaxies, 22 of which have neutral gas velocity fields dominated by noncircular motions with signatures of cone-like winds. However, a large number of targets (11/40) show disk rotation signatures. Based on a simple model, we found that the wind masses are in the range 0.4-7.5 × 108 M⊙, reaching up to ~3% of the dynamical mass of the host. The mass rates are typically only ~0.2-0.4 times the corresponding global SFR indicating that, in general, the mass loss is too small to slow down the star formation significantly. In the majority of cases, the velocity of the outflowing gas is not sufficient to escape the host potential well and, therefore, most of the gas rains back into the galaxy disk. On average V/vesc is higher in less massive galaxies, confirming that the galaxy mass has a primary role in shaping the recycling of gas and metals. The

  9. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alarm signals, and applicable procedures to be followed in case of fire. (c) Plans for escape and evacuation shall include the designation and proper maintenance of adequate means for exit from all...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alarm signals, and applicable procedures to be followed in case of fire. (c) Plans for escape and evacuation shall include the designation and proper maintenance of adequate means for exit from all...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alarm signals, and applicable procedures to be followed in case of fire. (c) Plans for escape and evacuation shall include the designation and proper maintenance of adequate means for exit from all...

  12. Survey of space escape/rescue/survivability capabilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisig, R.; Bolger, P. H.; Heath, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of preventive or remedial systems to achieve safer space flight operations. Escape, rescue, and survival systems are defined by categories: on board, prepositioned aid, and earth-launched concepts. The survey considers separable escape or survival capsules; standby escape or rescue systems; and earth-launched manned and unmanned rescue systems. Reports covering such systems are listed, and the contents are classified as to scope of investigation, space mission, and design approach. Mission classes considered are earth orbit, lunar, and interplanetary. Results of the space escape, rescue, and survivability investigations are summarized in terms of system features and performance, including apparent voids or limitations in rescue capability. Recovery requirements and resources for space rescue are discussed.

  13. Experimental Analysis and Extinction of Self-Injurious Escape Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Brian A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three studies investigated environmental correlates of self-injurious behavior in seven developmentally disabled children and adolescents which were then later used for treatment. Correlates investigated included positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, automatic reinforcement, and control. "Escape extinction" was successfully…

  14. Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) (high altitude pressure garment) life preserver unit (LPU) on forward port side of middeck above potable water tank. Fullerton also adjusts lapbelt fitting and helmet holddown strap.

  15. Dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on threat escapability.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David

    2015-11-01

    Evolution has provided us with a highly flexible neuroendocrine threat system which, depending on threat imminence, switches between active escape and passive freezing. Cortisol, the "stress-hormone", is thought to play an important role in both fear behaviors, but the exact mechanisms are not understood. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated how cortisol modulates the brain's fear systems when humans are under virtual-predator attack. We show dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on whether escape from threat is possible. During inescapable threat cortisol reduces fear-related midbrain activity, whereas in anticipation of active escape cortisol boosts activity in the frontal salience network (insula and anterior cingulate cortex), which is involved in autonomic control, visceral perception and motivated action. Our findings suggest that cortisol adjusts the human neural threat system from passive fear to active escape, which illuminates the hormone's crucial role in the adaptive flexibility of fear behaviors.

  16. Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

  17. 14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the rear of the "Sleeping Quarters", facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. Electron yields and escape depths from spacecraft materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics and photoelectron yields were determined for several insulating materials used onboard a space shuttle. These materials are: kapton, teflon, spaceshuttle tiles, and space suit cloth. Secondary electron escape depth and photoelectron escape depth from kapton were calculated from the experimental data. Sternglass' theory and Dionne's method were used in the calculation. Some semi-empirical theories of SEE and three-step theory of photoemission were reviewed. Pulsed beam techniques were used to reduce surface charging problems. Three ..mu..sec pulses of electrons were used in SEE experiments, and 100 msec to 1 sec pulses were used in photoemission experiments. The maximum SEE yields of the materials studied range from 1.75 ro 2.70. The secondary electron escape depth in kapton was calculated to be 55 +/- 5 A. All samples have photoyields lower than 1.0%. The photoelectrons excited by 21-eV photons have 87 +/- 30 A escape depth in kapton.

  19. Oxygen Escape from Venus During High Dynamic Pressure ICMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnulty, Tess; Luhmann, J. G.; Brain, D. A.; Fedorov, A.; Jian, L. K.; Russell, C. T.; Zhang, T.; Möstl, C.; Futaana, Y.; de Pater, I.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies using data from Pioneer Venus suggested that oxygen ion escape flux may be enhanced by orders of magnitude during Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections. However, this large enhancement has been ambiguous in Venus Express ion data - with some analyses showing no flux enhancement or a small enhancement (within 2 times undisturbed cases). One possible explanation is that high escape flux may be due to high dynamic pressure in the solar wind, and the dynamic pressure has been lower during the VEX time period. So, we focus on ICMEs with the largest dynamic pressure and with VEX sampling of the escaping ions during the sheath of the ICMEs (during which the highest dynamic pressures in the solar wind occur). We will show the characteristics of these large events measured by VEX, and compare them to the largest ICMEs measured by PVO. We will then discuss estimates of the oxygen ion escape flux during these events.

  20. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  1. Heating and current drive systems for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.; Goranson, P.; Halle, A. von; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1994-05-24

    The heating and current drive (H and CD) system proposed for the TPX tokamak will consist of ion cyclotron, neutral beam, and lower hybrid systems. It will have 17.5 MW of installed H and CD power initially, and can be upgraded to 45 MW. It will be used to explore advanced confinement and fully current-driven plasma regimes with pulse lengths of up to 1,000 s.

  2. Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) Ionosphere Evidence for Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Hoegy, W. R.

    2009-12-01

    An early estimate of escape of H2O from Venus [McElroy et al., 1982] using observed hot oxygen densities inferred by Nagy et al. [1981] from PVO OUVS 1304 Å dayglow and using ionization rates from photoionization and electron impact. This resulted in an estimated oxygen ionization rate planet-wide above the plasmapause of 3x1025 atoms/s. Based on the energetic O+ being swept up and removed by solar wind, McElroy et al. [1982] gave an estimate of a loss rate for O of 6x106 atoms/cm2/s. Using a different method of estimating escape based data in the ionotail of Venus, Brace et al. [1987] estimated a total planetary O+ escape rate of 5x1025 ions/s. Their estimate was based on PVO measurements of superthermal O+ (energy range 9-16 eV) in the tail ray plasma between 2000 and 3000 km. Their estimated global mean flux was 107 atoms/cm2/s. The two escape rates are remarkably close considering all the errors involved in such estimates of escape. A study of escape by Luhmann et al. [2008] using VEX observations at low solar activity finds modest escape rates, prompting the authors to reconsider the evidence from both PVO and VEX of the possibility of enhanced escape during extreme interplanetary conditions. We reexamine the variation of escape under different solar wind conditions using ion densities and plasma content in the dayside and nightside of Venus using PVO ionosphere density during times of high solar activity. Citations: Brace, L.H., W. T. Kasprzak, H.A. Taylor, R. F. Theis, C. T. Russess, A. Barnes, J. D. Mihalov, and D. M. Hunten, "The Ionotail of Venus: Its Configuration and Evidence for Ion Escape", J. Geophys. Res. 92, 15-26, 1987. Luhmann, J.G., A. Fedorov, S. Barabash, E. Carlsson, Y. Futaana, T.L. Zhang, C.T. Russell, J.G. Lyon, S.A. Ledvina, and D.A. Brain, “Venus Express observations of atmospheric oxygen escape during the passage of several coronal mass ejections”, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 2008. McElroy, M. B., M. J. Prather, J. M. Rodiquez, " Loss

  3. Photoelectron escape fluxes over the equatorial and midlatitude regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasingarao, B. C.; Singh, R. N.; Maier, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite measurements of photoelectron escape flux around noontime made by Explorer 31 in 600-800 km altitude range are reported for the equatorial and midlatitude regions. The pitch angle distributions and the spectral distributions are derived from the data. Analyzed data show that the flux for equatorial regions is lower by a factor 2 to 3 in comparison to that of midlatitude regions. Theoretical calculations are also made to compare with observed escape fluxes.

  4. Ion escape from Venus using statistical distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, T.; Stenberg, G.; Nilsson, H.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.

    2012-04-01

    We use more than three years of data from the ASPERA-4 instrument onboard Venus Express to compile statistical distribution functions of ion flux in and around induced magnetosphere of Venus. We present samples of statistical distribution functions, as well average flux patterns in the near Venus space based on the statistical distribution functions. The statistical distribution functions allows for a compensation of biased sampling regarding both position and angular coverage of the instrument. Protons and heavy ions (mass/charge > 16) are the major ion species escaping from Venus. The escape is due to acceleration of planetary ions by energy transfer from the solar wind. The ion escape appears to exclusively take place in the induced magnetotail region and no heavy ions are present in the magnetosheath. Protons of solar wind origin are travelling around the planet and penetrating the tail, resulting in a mix of planetary and solar wind protons inside the induced magnetosphere boundary. The escape rates of ions inside the tail agree with results from recent published studies, where other analysis methods have been used. We also compare our results for Venus with a recent study of ion escape from Mars, where the same analysis method has been applied to data from the ASPERA-3 instrument on Mars Express. Both Mars and Venus are unmagnetized planets and are expected to interact similarly with the solar wind. On Mars the heavy ions are seen escaping in both the magnetosheath and tail regions as opposed to Venus where escape only takes place inside the tail. A possible explanation is that the magnetosphere of Mars is smaller compared to the ion gyroradius, making it easier for the ions to pass through the induced magnetosphere boundary. On both planets the escape rates of heavy ions in the tail are constant with increasing tail distance, verifying that the ions are leaving the planet in this region.

  5. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  6. Optimal escapement in stage-structured fisheries with environmental stochasticity.

    PubMed

    Holden, Matthew H; Conrad, Jon M

    2015-11-01

    Stage-structured population models are commonly used to understand fish population dynamics and additionally for stock assessment. Unfortunately, there is little theory on the optimal harvest of stage-structured populations, especially in the presence of stochastic fluctuations. In this paper, we find closed form optimal equilibrium escapement policies for a three-dimensional, discrete-time, stage-structured population model with linear growth, post-harvest nonlinear recruitment, and stage-specific pricing and extend the analytic results to structured populations with environmental stochasticity. When only fishing reproductive adults, stochasticity does not affect optimal escapement policies. However, when harvesting immature fish, the addition of stochasticity can increase or decrease optimal escapement depending on the second and third derivative of the recruitment function. For logistic recruitment, stochasticity reduces optimal immature escapement by a multiplicative factor of one over one plus the variance of the environmental noise. Using hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, as an example and assuming Beverton-Holt recruitment, we show that optimal fishing of hard clam targets the immature stage class exclusively and that environmental stochasticity increases optimal escapement for low discount rates and decreases optimal escapement for high discount rates.

  7. Group chase and escape with sight-limited chasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huodong; Han, Wenchen; Yang, Junzhong

    2017-01-01

    We study group chase and escape with sight-limited chasers. Two search strategies, random-walk-strategy and relocation-strategy, are introduced for chasers when escapers are out of their fields of vision. There exist two regimes for the group lifetime of escapers. In the narrow sight regime, the group lifetime is a decreasing function of chasers' sight range. In the wide sight regime, the group lifetime stays at a constant when chasers adopting random-walk-strategy while increases with the sight range when chasers adopting relocation-strategy. The impacts of the two search strategies on group chase and escape are studied by investigating the lifetime distribution of all escapers and the dependence of the minimum lifetime on the number of chasers. We also find that, to reach the most efficient and the lowest energy cost chase for chasers, the ratio between the number of chasers and escapers stays at around 6 under random-walk-strategy. However, the optimal number of chasers vanishes and the energy cost monotonically increases with increasing the number of chasers under relocation-strategy.

  8. Extreme hydrodynamic atmospheric loss near the critical thermal escape regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkaev, N. V.; Lammer, H.; Odert, P.; Kulikov, Yu. N.; Kislyakova, K. G.

    2015-04-01

    By considering martian-like planetary embryos inside the habitable zone of solar-like stars we study the behaviour of the hydrodynamic atmospheric escape of hydrogen for small values of the Jeans escape parameter β < 3, near the base of the thermosphere, that is defined as a ratio of the gravitational and thermal energy. Our study is based on a 1D hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model that calculates the volume heating rate in a hydrogen-dominated thermosphere due to the absorption of the stellar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) flux. In case of a monatomic gas, we find that when the β value near the mesopause/homopause level exceeds a critical value of ˜2.5, there exists a steady hydrodynamic solution with a smooth transition from subsonic to supersonic flow. For a fixed XUV flux, the escape rate of the upper atmosphere is an increasing function of the temperature at the lower boundary. Our model results indicate a crucial enhancement of the atmospheric escape rate, when the Jeans escape parameter β decreases to this critical value. When β becomes ≤2.5, there is no stationary hydrodynamic transition from subsonic to supersonic flow. This is the case of a fast non-stationary atmospheric expansion that results in extreme thermal atmospheric escape rates.

  9. Foraging behavior delays mechanically-stimulated escape responses in fish.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez-Herrera, Jimena; Kawano, Sandy M; Domenici, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Foraging and the evasion of predators are fundamental for the survival of organisms, but they impose contrasting demands that can influence performance in each behavior. Previous studies suggested that foraging organisms may experience decreased vigilance to attacks by predators; however, little is known about the effect of foraging on escape performance with respect to the kinematics and the timing of the response. This study tested the hypothesis that engaging in foraging activities affected escape performance by comparing fast-start escape responses of silver-spotted sculpins Blepsias cirrhosus under three conditions: (1) control (no foraging involved), (2) while targeting prey, and (3) immediately after capture of prey. Escape response variables (non-locomotor and locomotor) were analyzed from high-speed videos. Responsiveness was lower immediately after capturing a prey item compared with the other two treatments, and latency of performance was higher in the control treatment than in the other two. Locomotor variables such as maximum speed, maximum acceleration, and turning rates did not show statistical differences among the three groups. Our results demonstrate that foraging can negatively affect two fundamental components of the escape response: (1) responsiveness and (2) latency of escape, suggesting that engaging in foraging may decrease an individual's ability to successfully evade predators.

  10. Link between intraphagosomal biotin and rapid phagosomal escape in Francisella

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Brooke A.; Meyer, Lena; Bina, James E.; Miller, Mark A.; Sjöstedt, Anders; Weiss, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic bacterial pathogens require extensive metabolic adaptations within the host to replicate intracellularly and cause disease. In phagocytic cells such as macrophages, these pathogens must respond rapidly to nutrient limitation within the harsh environment of the phagosome. Many cytosolic pathogens escape the phagosome quickly (15–60 min) and thereby subvert this host defense, reaching the cytosol where they can replicate. Although a great deal of research has focused on strategies used by bacteria to resist antimicrobial phagosomal defenses and transiently pass through this compartment, the metabolic requirements of bacteria in the phagosome are largely uncharacterized. We previously identified a Francisella protein, FTN_0818, as being essential for intracellular replication and involved in virulence in vivo. We now show that FTN_0818 is involved in biotin biosynthesis and required for rapid escape from the Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP). Addition of biotin complemented the phagosomal escape defect of the FTN_0818 mutant, demonstrating that biotin is critical for promoting rapid escape during the short time that the bacteria are in the phagosome. Biotin also rescued the attenuation of the FTN_0818 mutant during infection in vitro and in vivo, highlighting the importance of this process. The key role of biotin in phagosomal escape implies biotin may be a limiting factor during infection. We demonstrate that a bacterial metabolite is required for phagosomal escape of an intracellular pathogen, providing insight into the link between bacterial metabolism and virulence, likely serving as a paradigm for other cytosolic pathogens. PMID:23071317

  11. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support.

  12. Glutamate Utilization Couples Oxidative Stress Defense and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Francisella Phagosomal Escape

    PubMed Central

    Ramond, Elodie; Gesbert, Gael; Rigard, Mélanie; Dairou, Julien; Dupuis, Marion; Dubail, Iharilalao; Meibom, Karin; Henry, Thomas; Barel, Monique; Charbit, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have developed a variety of strategies to avoid degradation by the host innate immune defense mechanisms triggered upon phagocytocis. Upon infection of mammalian host cells, the intracellular pathogen Francisella replicates exclusively in the cytosolic compartment. Hence, its ability to escape rapidly from the phagosomal compartment is critical for its pathogenicity. Here, we show for the first time that a glutamate transporter of Francisella (here designated GadC) is critical for oxidative stress defense in the phagosome, thus impairing intra-macrophage multiplication and virulence in the mouse model. The gadC mutant failed to efficiently neutralize the production of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, virulence of the gadC mutant was partially restored in mice defective in NADPH oxidase activity. The data presented highlight links between glutamate uptake, oxidative stress defense, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and phagosomal escape. This is the first report establishing the role of an amino acid transporter in the early stage of the Francisella intracellular lifecycle. PMID:24453979

  13. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  14. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  15. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  16. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  17. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  18. Ocular disease and driving.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A

    2016-09-01

    As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment resulting from ocular disease will increase given the age-related prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. This review summarises current research regarding the impact of common ocular diseases on driving ability and safety, with particular focus on cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, hemianopia and diabetic retinopathy. The evidence considered includes self-reported driving outcomes, driving performance (on-road and simulator-based) and various motor vehicle crash indices. Collectively, this review demonstrates that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular disease; however, further research is needed in this area. Older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits.

  19. Dementia and driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on this page, ... their independence is being taken away. Signs That Driving May No Longer be Safe People with signs ...

  20. Safe driving for teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/25837240 . Simons-Morton B, Ouimet MC. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16788109 . Simons-Morton B. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: rationale, evidence of effects, ...

  1. Trade-offs between performance and variability in the escape responses of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Amanda C.; Chen, Tiffany; Connolly, Erin; Darakananda, Karin; Jeong, Janet; Quist, Arbor; Robbins, Allison; Ellerby, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Successful predator evasion is essential to the fitness of many animals. Variation in escape behaviour may be adaptive as it reduces predictability, enhancing escape success. High escape velocities and accelerations also increase escape success, but biomechanical factors likely constrain the behavioural range over which performance can be maximized. There may therefore be a trade-off between variation and performance during escape responses. We have used bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) escape responses to examine this potential trade-off, determining the full repertoire of escape behaviour for individual bluegill sunfish and linking this to performance as indicated by escape velocity and acceleration. Fish escapes involve an initial C-bend of the body axis, followed by variable steering movements. These generate thrust and establish the escape direction. Directional changes during the initial C-bend were less variable than the final escape angle, and the most frequent directions were associated with high escape velocity. Significant inter-individual differences in escape angles magnified the overall variation, maintaining unpredictability from a predator perspective. Steering in the latter stages of the escape to establish the final escape trajectory also affected performance, with turns away from the stimulus associated with reduced velocity. This suggests that modulation of escape behaviour by steering may also have an associated performance cost. This has important implications for understanding the scope and control of intra- and inter-individual variation in escape behaviour and the associated costs and benefits. PMID:25910940

  2. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  3. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  4. Atmospheric Escape and Climate Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, F.; Chassefière, E.; Leblanc, F.; Brain, D.

    The climate of a planet is primarily determined by its orbital distance from its star, the luminosity of the star, the existence of oceans, the pressure of its atmosphere, and the composition of its atmosphere. The last two components are what could be impacted by atmosphere escape. The Sun, as the dominant energy source driving the climate of terrestrial planets, was not always as bright as it is today. Stellar evolution theory predicts that the luminosity of the young Sun was 75% of its present luminosity, at approximately 4 b.y. ago (4 Ga) (Gough, 1981). Although the Sun could have lost some of its mass, thus making the very young Sun somewhat more massive than it is now and therefore could have emitted more energy, most of this mass loss was completed prior to 4 Ga (Wood et al., 2005). Thus the Sun has provided increasingly more energy to solar system planets during the past 4 b.y. Contrary to the evolutionary trend of the total luminosity increasing with time, the young Sun should have emitted much stronger EUV, soft X-ray, and far-UV photons than at present. These photons are from the upper atmosphere of the Sun and are linked to solar magnetic activity. Generally speaking, a young star rotates much faster and thus has stronger magnetic activity. Observations of solar-type stars with different ages show that the EUV energy flux from a 0.5-b.y.-old solar-type star could be as much as 20 times that of the present Sun (Ribas et al., 2005). Accompanying this much-enhanced solar extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is a much stronger solar wind, with mass flux up to 1000 times more intense than the present solar wind flux (Wood et al., 2005). It can be expected that many more energetic-particle events were caused by the young Sun. The fate of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in such an environment and the consequences for their climates are the focus of this chapter.

  5. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  6. Magnetic drive coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The driving and driven members of a magnetic drive are separated by en enlarged gap to provide clearance for a conduit or other member. Flux pins in the gap maintain the torque transmitting capability of the drive. The spacing between two of the flux pins is increased to provide space for the conduit.

  7. Grieving while Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data from 84 people in 2 interview studies shows that some bereaved people grieve actively while driving. The grief can be intense, even years after a death. Grief while driving may erupt spontaneously or be set off by a wide range of reminders. Some bereaved people seem to save their grieving for times when they drive,…

  8. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free…

  9. A mechanism of hypoxia-mediated escape from adaptive immunity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Ivraym B; Smallwood, Chelsea A; Siemens, D Robert; Graham, Charles H

    2014-02-01

    Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer in which mechanistic knowledge is incomplete. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which hypoxia contributes to tumoral immune escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Exposure of human or murine cancer cells to hypoxia for 24 hours led to upregulation of the immune inhibitory molecule programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1; also known as B7-H1), in a manner dependent on the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In vivo studies also demonstrated cellular colocalization of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in tumors. Hypoxia-induced expression of PD-L1 in cancer cells increased their resistance to CTL-mediated lysis. Using glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), an agonist of nitric oxide (NO) signaling known to block HIF-1α accumulation in hypoxic cells, we prevented hypoxia-induced PD-L1 expression and diminished resistance to CTL-mediated lysis. Moreover, transdermal administration of GTN attenuated tumor growth in mice. We found that higher expression of PD-L1 induced in tumor cells by exposure to hypoxia led to increased apoptosis of cocultured CTLs and Jurkat leukemia T cells. This increase in apoptosis was prevented by blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1, the PD-L1 receptor on T cells, or by addition of GTN. Our findings point to a role for hypoxia/HIF-1 in driving immune escape from CTL, and they suggest a novel cancer immunotherapy to block PD-L1 expression in hypoxic-tumor cells by administering NO mimetics.

  10. Selectionism and Neutralism in Molecular Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nei, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Charles Darwin proposed that evolution occurs primarily by natural selection, but this view has been controversial from the beginning. Two of the major opposing views have been mutationism and neutralism. Early molecular studies suggested that most amino acid substitutions in proteins are neutral or nearly neutral and the functional change of proteins occurs by a few key amino acid substitutions. This suggestion generated an intense controversy over selectionism and neutralism. This controversy is partially caused by Kimura's definition of neutrality, which was too strict (|2Ns| ≤ 1). If we define neutral mutations as the mutations that do not change the function of gene products appreciably, many controversies disappear because slightly deleterious and slightly advantageous mutations are engulfed by neutral mutations. The ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution to that of synonymous substitution is a useful quantity to study positive Darwinian selection operating at highly variable genetic loci, but it does not necessarily detect adaptively important codons. Previously, multigene families were thought to evolve following the model of concerted evolution, but new evidence indicates that most of them evolve by a birth-and-death process of duplicate genes. It is now clear that most phenotypic characters or genetic systems such as the adaptive immune system in vertebrates are controlled by the interaction of a number of multigene families, which are often evolutionarily related and are subject to birth-and-death evolution. Therefore, it is important to study the mechanisms of gene family interaction for understanding phenotypic evolution. Because gene duplication occurs more or less at random, phenotypic evolution contains some fortuitous elements, though the environmental factors also play an important role. The randomness of phenotypic evolution is qualitatively different from allele frequency changes by random genetic drift. However, there is

  11. Rare HLA Drive Additional HIV Evolution Compared to More Frequent Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, David W.; Listgarten, Jennifer; Maley, Stephen N.; Kadie, Carl; Learn, Gerald H.; Nickle, David C.; Heckerman, David E.; Deng, Wenjie; Brander, Christian; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Coovadia, Hoosen; Goulder, Philip J.R.; Korber, Bette T.; Walker, Bruce D.; Mullins, James I.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 can evolve HLA-specific escape variants in response to HLA-mediated cellular immunity. HLA alleles that are common in the host population may increase the frequency of such escape variants at the population level. When loss of viral fitness is caused by immune escape variation, these variants may revert upon infection of a new host who does not have the corresponding HLA allele. Furthermore, additional escape variants may appear in response to the nonconcordant HLA alleles. Because individuals with rare HLA alleles are less likely to be infected by a partner with concordant HLA alleles, viral populations infecting hosts with rare HLA alleles may undergo a greater amount of evolution than those infecting hosts with common alleles due to the loss of preexisting escape variants followed by new immune escape. This hypothesis was evaluated using maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees of each gene from 272 full-length HIV-1 sequences. Recent viral evolution, as measured by the external branch length, was found to be inversely associated with HLA frequency in nef (p < 0.02), env (p < 0.03), and pol (p ≤ 0.05), suggesting that rare HLA alleles provide a disproportionate force driving viral evolution compared to common alleles, likely due to the loss of preexisting escape variants during early stages postinfection. PMID:19327049

  12. Dynamics of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter A.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams. Here we present experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a FEPS plasma. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Near-complete charge neutralization is established 5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS, and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub- μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS suggest that plasma can be generated for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. This is confirmed by fast photography of the plasma in the 1-meter long FEPS on NDCX-II, where effective charge neutralization of the beam was achieved with the optimized FEPS timing. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC0209CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  13. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Dijkstra, Mark; Wang, JunXian

    2016-01-01

    In star-forming galaxies, a lot of Lyα photons were generated in HII regions surrounding massive stars. The escape of Lyα photons from galaxies is a key issue in studying high redshift galaxies and probing cosmic reionization with Lyα. To understand Lyα escape, it is valuable to study high quality Lyα profiles in Lyα emitters. However, such studies are rare due to the faintness of high-z Lyα emitters and the lack of local analogs with high Lyα equivalent width. Here we show that "Green Pea" galaxies are the best local analogs of high-z Lyα emitters and their high quality Lyα profiles demonstrate low HI column density is the key to Lyα escape. The Lyα escape fraction shows correlations with the ratio of Lyα blue peak velocity to Hα line width, the normalized flux density at valley of Lyα profile, and a few other features of Lyα profiles. We compared the Lyα profiles with outflowing HI shell radiative transfer model and found that the best-fit HI column density is anti-correlated with the Lyα escape fraction. We also found an anti-correlation between Lyα escape fraction and galactic metallicity. Our results support that LAEs with high Lyα escape fraction have low metallicity, low HI column density, and mild HI gas outflow.

  14. Oxygen or carbogen breathing before simulated submarine escape.

    PubMed

    Gennser, M; Blogg, S L

    2008-01-01

    Raised internal pressure in a distressed submarine increases the risk of bubble formation and decompression illness after submarine escape. The hypothesis that short periods of oxygen breathing before submarine escape would reduce decompression stress was tested, using Doppler-detectable venous gas emboli as a measure. Twelve goats breathed oxygen for 15 min at 0.1 MPa before exposure to a simulated submarine escape profile to and from 2.5 MPa (240 m/seawater), whereas 28 control animals underwent the same dive without oxygen prebreathe. No decompression sickness (DCS) occurred in either of these two groups. Time with high bubble scores (Kisman-Masurel >or=3) was significantly (P < 0.001) shorter in the prebreathe group. In a second series, 30 goats breathed air at 0.2 MPa for 6 h. Fifteen minutes before escape from 2.5 MPa, animals were provided with either air (n = 10), oxygen (n = 12), or carbogen (97.5% O(2) and 2.5% CO(2)) gas (n = 8) as breathing gas. Animals breathed a hyperoxic gas (60% O(2)-40% N(2)) during the escape. Two animals (carbogen group) suffered oxygen convulsions during the escape but recovered on surfacing. Only one case of DCS occurred (carbogen group). The initial bubble score was reduced in the oxygen group (P < 0.001). The period with bubble score of Kisman-Masurel >or=3 was also significantly reduced in the oxygen group (P < 0.001). Oxygen breathing before submarine escape reduces initial bubble scores, although its significance in reducing central nervous system DCS needs to be investigated further.

  15. Syncope and Driving.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan C; Morillo, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of syncope while driving has obvious implications for personal and public safety. Neurally mediated syncope is the most common type of syncope in general and, thereby, also while driving. The presence of structural heart disease (reduced ejection fraction, previous myocardial infarction, significant congenital heart disease) potentially leads to high risk and should determine driving restrictions pending clarification of underlying heart disease and etiology of syncope. The clinical approach to syncope evaluation and recommendations for driving should not differ, whether or not the syncopal spell occurred while driving.

  16. Fin-tail coordination during escape and predatory behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Phil; Troup, Michael; Scott, Ethan K

    2012-01-01

    Larval zebrafish innately perform a suite of behaviors that are tightly linked to their evolutionary past, notably escape from threatening stimuli and pursuit and capture of prey. These behaviors have been carefully examined in the past, but mostly with regard to the movements of the trunk and tail of the larvae. Here, we employ kinematics analyses to describe the movements of the pectoral fins during escape and predatory behavior. In accord with previous studies, we find roles for the pectoral fins in slow swimming and immediately after striking prey. We find novel roles for the pectoral fins in long-latency, but not in short-latency C-bends. We also observe fin movements that occur during orienting J-turns and S-starts that drive high-velocity predatory strikes. Finally, we find that the use of pectoral fins following a predatory strike is scaled to the velocity of the strike, supporting a role for the fins in braking. The implications of these results for central control of coordinated movements are discussed, and we hope that these results will provide baselines for future analyses of cross-body coordination using mutants, morphants, and transgenic approaches.

  17. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  18. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  19. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  20. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  1. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  2. Random perturbations of a periodically driven nonlinear oscillator: escape from a resonance zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingala, Nishanth; Sri Namachchivaya, N.; Pavlyukevich, Ilya

    2017-04-01

    For nonlinear oscillators, frequency of oscillations depends on the oscillation amplitude. When a nonlinear oscillator is periodically driven, the phase space consists of many resonance zones where the oscillator frequency and the driving frequency are commensurable. It is well known that, a small subset of initial conditions can lead to capture in one of the resonance zones. In this paper we study the effect of weak noise on the escape from a resonance zone. Using averaging techniques we obtain the mean exit time from a resonance zone and study the dependence of the exit rate on the parameters of the oscillator. Paper dedicated to Professor Peter W Sauer of University of Illinois on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  3. Single-File Escape of Colloidal Particles from Microfluidic Channels.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Emanuele; Pierno, Matteo; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Tan, Yizhou; Pagliara, Stefano

    2016-07-15

    Single-file diffusion is a ubiquitous physical process exploited by living and synthetic systems to exchange molecules with their environment. It is paramount to quantify the escape time needed for single files of particles to exit from constraining synthetic channels and biological pores. This quantity depends on complex cooperative effects, whose predominance can only be established through a strict comparison between theory and experiments. By using colloidal particles, optical manipulation, microfluidics, digital microscopy, and theoretical analysis we uncover the self-similar character of the escape process and provide closed-formula evaluations of the escape time. We find that the escape time scales inversely with the diffusion coefficient of the last particle to leave the channel. Importantly, we find that at the investigated microscale, bias forces as tiny as 10^{-15}  N determine the magnitude of the escape time by drastically reducing interparticle collisions. Our findings provide crucial guidelines to optimize the design of micro- and nanodevices for a variety of applications including drug delivery, particle filtering, and transport in geometrical constrictions.

  4. History of oxygen and carbon escape from the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, M. H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Bougher, S. W.; Nagy, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    A fraction of the oxygen in the Martian atmosphere continually escapes to space because dissociative recombination of the O2(+) ions in the ionosphere can impart sufficient energy to the product O atoms. In addition, ionization of the extended atomic oxygen corona resulting from the above process adds to escape since the solar wind can carry away O(+) ions born above a few hundred km altitude. A further by-product of this ion-pickup by the solar wind is an additional population of escaping oxygen atoms that are sputtered from the atmosphere near the exobase by pickup ions that are on reentry rather than escaping trajectories. This sputtering process can also remove carbon in the form of intact or dissociated CO2 since all atoms and molecules in the 'target' gas are subject to the collisional energy transfer that characterizes sputtering. We have estimated the present rates of escape of oxygen and carbon due to these mechanisms, as well as the rates at several epochs in the history of the solar system.

  5. Enhancing Endosomal Escape for Intracellular Delivery of Macromolecular Biologic Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Peter; Kacsinta, Apollo D.; Cui, Xian-Shu; Hamil, Alexander S.; Kaulich, Manuel; Gogoi, Khirud; Dowdy, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive macromolecular peptides and oligonucleotides have significant therapeutic potential. However, due to their size, they have no ability to enter the cytoplasm of cells. Peptide/Protein transduction domains (PTDs), also called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), can promote uptake of macromolecules via endocytosis. However, overcoming the rate-limiting step of endosomal escape into the cytoplasm remains a major challenge. Hydrophobic amino acid R groups are known to play a vital role in viral escape from endosomes. Here we utilize a real-time, quantitative live cell split-GFP fluorescence complementation phenotypic assay to systematically analyze and optimize a series of synthetic endosomal escape domains (EEDs). By conjugating EEDs to a TAT-PTD/CPP spilt-GFP peptide complementation assay, we were able to quantitatively measure endosomal escape into the cytoplasm of live cells via restoration of GFP fluorescence by intracellular molecular complementation. We found that EEDs containing two aromatic indole rings or one indole ring and two aromatic phenyl groups at a fixed distance of six polyethylene glycol (PEG) units from the TAT-PTD-cargo significantly enhanced cytoplasmic delivery in the absence of cytotoxicity. EEDs address the critical rate-limiting step of endosomal escape in delivery of macromolecular biologic peptide, protein and siRNA therapeutics into cells. PMID:27604151

  6. Enhancing Endosomal Escape for Intracellular Delivery of Macromolecular Biologic Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lönn, Peter; Kacsinta, Apollo D; Cui, Xian-Shu; Hamil, Alexander S; Kaulich, Manuel; Gogoi, Khirud; Dowdy, Steven F

    2016-09-08

    Bioactive macromolecular peptides and oligonucleotides have significant therapeutic potential. However, due to their size, they have no ability to enter the cytoplasm of cells. Peptide/Protein transduction domains (PTDs), also called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), can promote uptake of macromolecules via endocytosis. However, overcoming the rate-limiting step of endosomal escape into the cytoplasm remains a major challenge. Hydrophobic amino acid R groups are known to play a vital role in viral escape from endosomes. Here we utilize a real-time, quantitative live cell split-GFP fluorescence complementation phenotypic assay to systematically analyze and optimize a series of synthetic endosomal escape domains (EEDs). By conjugating EEDs to a TAT-PTD/CPP spilt-GFP peptide complementation assay, we were able to quantitatively measure endosomal escape into the cytoplasm of live cells via restoration of GFP fluorescence by intracellular molecular complementation. We found that EEDs containing two aromatic indole rings or one indole ring and two aromatic phenyl groups at a fixed distance of six polyethylene glycol (PEG) units from the TAT-PTD-cargo significantly enhanced cytoplasmic delivery in the absence of cytotoxicity. EEDs address the critical rate-limiting step of endosomal escape in delivery of macromolecular biologic peptide, protein and siRNA therapeutics into cells.

  7. Single-File Escape of Colloidal Particles from Microfluidic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Emanuele; Pierno, Matteo; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Tan, Yizhou; Pagliara, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Single-file diffusion is a ubiquitous physical process exploited by living and synthetic systems to exchange molecules with their environment. It is paramount to quantify the escape time needed for single files of particles to exit from constraining synthetic channels and biological pores. This quantity depends on complex cooperative effects, whose predominance can only be established through a strict comparison between theory and experiments. By using colloidal particles, optical manipulation, microfluidics, digital microscopy, and theoretical analysis we uncover the self-similar character of the escape process and provide closed-formula evaluations of the escape time. We find that the escape time scales inversely with the diffusion coefficient of the last particle to leave the channel. Importantly, we find that at the investigated microscale, bias forces as tiny as 10-15 N determine the magnitude of the escape time by drastically reducing interparticle collisions. Our findings provide crucial guidelines to optimize the design of micro- and nanodevices for a variety of applications including drug delivery, particle filtering, and transport in geometrical constrictions.

  8. Enhancing endosomal escape for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Da

    2014-05-01

    Gene therapy with siRNA is a promising biotechnology to treat cancer and other diseases. To realize siRNA-based gene therapy, a safe and efficient delivery method is essential. Nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery is of great importance to overcome biological barriers for systemic delivery in vivo. Based on recent discoveries, endosomal escape is a critical biological barrier to be overcome for siRNA delivery. This feature article focuses on endosomal escape strategies used for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery, including cationic polymers, pH sensitive polymers, calcium phosphate, and cell penetrating peptides. Work has been done to develop different endosomal escape strategies based on nanoparticle types, administration routes, and target organ/cell types. Also, enhancement of endosomal escape has been considered along with other aspects of siRNA delivery to ensure target specific accumulation, high cell uptake, and low toxicity. By enhancing endosomal escape and overcoming other biological barriers, great progress has been achieved in nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery.

  9. Escape rate and diffusion of a Stochastically Driven particle

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, Antonio; Pica Ciamarra, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical properties of a tracer repeatedly colliding with heat bath particles can be described within a Langevin framework provided that the tracer is more massive than the bath particles, and that the collisions are frequent. Here we consider the escape of a particle from a potential well, and the diffusion coefficient in a periodic potential, without making these assumptions. We have thus investigated the dynamical properties of a Stochastically Driven particle that moves under the influence of the confining potential in between successive collisions with the heat bath. In the overdamped limit, both the escape rate and the diffusion coefficient coincide with those of a Langevin particle. Conversely, in the underdamped limit the two dynamics have a different temperature dependence. In particular, at low temperature the Stochastically Driven particle has a smaller escape rate, but a larger diffusion coefficient. PMID:28120904

  10. Mean escape time in a system with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Valenti, Davide; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    2007-01-01

    We study the mean escape time in a market model with stochastic volatility. The process followed by the volatility is the Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross process which is widely used to model stock price fluctuations. The market model can be considered as a generalization of the Heston model, where the geometric Brownian motion is replaced by a random walk in the presence of a cubic nonlinearity. We investigate the statistical properties of the escape time of the returns, from a given interval, as a function of the three parameters of the model. We find that the noise can have a stabilizing effect on the system, as long as the global noise is not too high with respect to the effective potential barrier experienced by a fictitious Brownian particle. We compare the probability density function of the return escape times of the model with those obtained from real market data. We find that they fit very well.

  11. Kramers escape of a self-propelled particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiseler, Alexander; Hänggi, Peter; Schmid, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the escape rate of an overdamped, self-propelled spherical Brownian particle on a surface from a metastable potential well. Within a modeling in terms of a 1D constant speed of the particle's active dynamics we consider the associated rate using both numerical and analytical approaches. Regarding the properties of the stationary state in the potential well, two major timescales exist, each governing the translational and the rotational dynamics of the particle, respectively. The particle radius is identified to present the essential quantity in charge of regulating the ratio between those timescales. For very small and very large particle radii, approximate analytic expressions for the particle's escape rate can be derived, which, within their respective range of validity, compare favorably with the precise escape numerics of the underlying full two-dimensional Fokker-Planck description.

  12. Coexisting chaotic and periodic dynamics in clock escapements.

    PubMed

    Moon, Francis C; Stiefel, Preston D

    2006-09-15

    This paper addresses the nature of noise in machines. As a concrete example, we examine the dynamics of clock escapements from experimental, historical and analytical points of view. Experiments on two escapement mechanisms from the Reuleaux kinematic collection at Cornell University are used to illustrate chaotic-like noise in clocks. These vibrations coexist with the periodic dynamics of the balance wheel or pendulum. A mathematical model is presented that shows how self-generated chaos in clocks can break the dry friction in the gear train. This model is shown to exhibit a strange attractor in the structural vibration of the clock. The internal feedback between the oscillator and the escapement structure is similar to anti-control of chaos models.

  13. Social escape behaviors in children with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

    2006-10-01

    Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors were significantly more likely to occur during the interview and singing conditions. Higher levels of salivary cortisol were predictive of higher levels of fidgeting behavior and lower levels of eye contact in male participants. There were no associations between level of FMRP expression and social escape behaviors. These data suggest that specific antecedent biological and environmental factors evoke social escape behaviors in fragile X syndrome.

  14. Negative ion-based neutral injection on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, L.D.; Bhadra, D.K.; Colleraine, A.P.; Kim, J.

    1990-01-01

    High energy negative ion-based neutral beam injection is a strong candidate for heating and non-inductive current drive in tokamaks. Many of the questions related to the physics and engineering of this technique remain unanswered. In this paper, we consider the possibility of negative ion-based neutral beam injection on DIII-D. We establish the desired parameter space by examining physics trades. This is combined with potential design constraints and a survey of component technology options to establish an injector concept. Injector performance is estimated assuming particular component technologies, and concept flexibility with respect to incorporating alternate technologies is described. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Neutral winds above 200Km at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Motion from multiple chemical releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from 4 high latitude locations are analyzed. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic altitudes or = 65 deg suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. This conclusion is based on both the agreement between ion and neutral drift directions, and the fact that there are distinct changes in the wind associated with (a) the reversal in east-west ion drift at the Harang discontinuity, and (b) the transition from auroral belt, sunward ion drift and polar cap, anti-solar ion drift.

  16. Characterization of a Novel Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Against Ebola Virus GP.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Olivier; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    Ebola virus is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. As the only protein exposed on the surface of viral particles, the spike glycoprotein GP is the unique target for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. In this study, we demonstrate the strong neutralization capacity of the monoclonal antibody #3327 and characterize its activity. GP residues that are required for recognition and neutralization were found to be located both in the internal fusion loop and in the receptor-binding domain. Analysis of Ebola virus entry in the presence of #3327 allows us to hypothesize that this antibody binds to the virus particle before internalization and endosomal processing of GP and likely prevents the final viral fusion step. Importantly, #3327 is able to block entry of virions bearing GP that contain the Q508 escape mutation common to a number of virus-neutralizing antibodies, and therefore provides future perspectives for treatment strategies against Ebola virus infection.

  17. SOURCES AND SINKS OF NEUTRALS AND PLASMA IN THE SATURNIAN MAGNETOSPHERE (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    This talk will review current knowledge on the source and sinks of plasm and energy in Saturn's magnetosphere. Enceladus dominates the water group source, with most of the material escaping from the plume near the southern pole. The relatively low corotation energy in this region results in less energy being available to heat electrons. The electrons are too cold to ionize the neutrals and the inner magnetosphere is dominated by neutrals. In addition, Saturn's atmosphere is a large source of neutral H, the rings contribute O2, and Titan is a source whose magnitude is controversial. In the inner magnetosphere most particles and energy are removed as fast neutrals; transport is more important further out and may be dominated by fingers of inflow and outflow as at Jupiter.

  18. Paradoxical suppression of poly-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies in the presence of strain-specific neutralizing antibodies following HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ciupe, Stanca M; De Leenheer, Patrick; Kepler, Thomas B

    2011-05-21

    One of the first immunologic responses against HIV infection is the presence of neutralizing antibodies that seem able to inactivate several HIV strains. Moreover, in vitro studies have shown the existence of monoclonal antibodies that exhibit broad crossclade neutralizing potential. Yet their number is low and slow to develop in vivo. In this paper, we investigate the potential benefits of inducing poly-specific neutralizing antibodies in vivo throughout immunization. We develop a mathematical model that considers the activation of families of B lymphocytes producing poly-specific and strain-specific antibodies and use it to demonstrate that, even if such families are successful in producing neutralizing antibodies, the competition between them may limit the poly-specific response allowing the virus to escape. We modify this model to account for viral evolution under the pressure of antibody responses in natural HIV infection. The model can reproduce viral escape under certain conditions of B lymphocyte competition. Using these models we provide explanations for the observed antibody failure in controlling natural infection and predict quantitative measures that need to be satisfied for long-term control of HIV infection.

  19. Exploring the Escape of Hydrogen Ionizing Photons from Local Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jesse A.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass galaxies dominate the universe by number and many of these systems have large star formation rates per unit mass. Measurements of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from dwarf galaxies are an important input to cosmological simulations and theoretical studies but are largely unconstrained by observations. As a result, the role of low-mass galaxies in cosmological reionization and the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high and low redshifts remains poorly understood. Here we study a sample of 18 star-forming galaxies (12 from the Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample, Rivera-Thorsen et al. 2015; 6 from the KISS sample, Salzer et al. 2001), some of which are low-mass systems (10 with M_star < 5 x 10^9 M_sun). All of the sample galaxies were observed in the FUV with the HST/COS spectrograph and these measurements were used to derive limits on their escaping Lyman-alpha radiation (Rivera-Thorsen et al. 2015, Wofford et al. 2013). Using the numerical radiative transfer simulations of Yajima et al. 2014, we relate the escape of Lyman-alpha radiation to limits on the fraction of escaping H-ionizing radiation from these galaxies. This correlation is stronger for low-redshift galaxies (Yajima et al. 2014) and these galaxies are more accessible observationally for these studies. Although the Yajima et al. (2014) study focuses on high-mass galaxies, we derive tentative limits on the escape fraction for H-ionizing radiation for all of the galaxies in this sample. From our analysis, we find escape fractions of less than 5% in all but two extreme cases where the escape fractions are greater than 14%. Our sample averaged escape fraction is insufficient for what reionization requires, although our values are likely to be lower limits and the two outliers are two of the lowest mass systems from the LARS sample. We discuss future directions, including further modeling of the radiative transfer and the galaxy's physical conditions, to better understand the

  20. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  1. Case of escape in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    PubMed

    Nassar, N M A; Mendonza, M

    2017-02-08

    Two cassava escapes where collected from cultivated fields near natural habitat in Bolivia. They are described morphologically and analyzed cytogenetically in this study. It is suggested that they are the product of backcrosses of cassava interspecific hybrids with the cultigen itself, and that selective conditions have developed in which certain forms of cassava segregates have adapted to grow wildly in natural habitats near cassava fields. These segregates may hybridize with cultivated cassava upon coming in contact with such varieties. Because these escapes have incorporated useful genes from the wild into their genetic structure, they could be used for cassava improvement since their genetic barriers with other forms of cassava are very weak.

  2. Marihuana and driving.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, H

    1985-08-01

    A review was performed of the marihuana and driving literature, both epidemiological and experimental. It was noted that epidemiological studies face considerable difficulties in obtaining estimates of risks involved for drivers utilizing marihuana due to the rapid decline in blood levels of tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, experimental studies examining the relationship between administered marihuana dose and performance have identified many driving-related areas as exhibiting impairment. Areas impaired include coordination, tracking, perception, vigilance and performance in both driving simulators and on the road. Other behavioral areas of lesser importance for driving also exhibited evidence of impairment by marihuana. Areas for further research are suggested.

  3. Neutral polypropylene laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla

    2016-10-01

    The joining of polymeric materials is a technology used in many industrial applications, from transport to telecommunications and the medical sector. A new technology for the joining of polymers is the laser welding process. In particular, fibre laser welding is a flexible technology which allows high process speed and the realization of good quality joints. Despite its application becoming more widespread in the production of assemblies of high precision, the application of laser technology for the welding of polymers has not been the subject of many studies up to now. This study focused on the welding of neutral polypropylene. The window process parameter was identified, without the use of additives to increase radiation absorption, and a mechanical characterization was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the joints realized.

  4. Amino Acid Changes in the HIV-1 gp41 Membrane Proximal Region Control Virus Neutralization Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Todd; Trama, Ashley; Tumba, Nancy; Gray, Elin; Lu, Xiaozhi; Madani, Navid; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Eaton, Amanda; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Bowman, Cindy M; Barnett, Susan; Abdool-Karim, Salim S; Boyd, Scott D; Melillo, Bruno; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Gao, Feng; Bonsignori, Mattia; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M Anthony; Montefiori, David; Santra, Sampa; Morris, Lynn; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-10-01

    Most HIV-1 vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies that are active against highly sensitive (tier-1) viruses or rare cases of vaccine-matched neutralization-resistant (tier-2) viruses, but no vaccine has induced antibodies that can broadly neutralize heterologous tier-2 viruses. In this study, we isolated antibodies from an HIV-1-infected individual that targeted the gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) that may have selected single-residue changes in viral variants in the MPER that resulted in neutralization sensitivity to antibodies targeting distal epitopes on the HIV-1 Env. Similarly, a single change in the MPER in a second virus from another infected-individual also conferred enhanced neutralization sensitivity. These gp41 single-residue changes thus transformed tier-2 viruses into tier-1 viruses that were sensitive to vaccine-elicited tier-1 neutralizing antibodies. These data demonstrate that Env amino acid changes within the MPER bnAb epitope of naturally-selected escape viruses can increase neutralization sensitivity to multiple types of neutralizing antibodies, and underscore the critical importance of the MPER for maintaining the integrity of the tier-2 HIV-1 trimer.

  5. The DYNAMO Orbiter Project: High Resolution Mapping of Gravity/Magnetic Fields and In Situ Investigation of Mars Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Reme, H.; Mazelle, C.; Blelly, P. -L.; Acuna, M.; Connerney, J.; Purucker, M.; Lin, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamo is a small Mars orbiter planned to be launched in 2005 or 2007, in the frame of the NASA/CNES Mars exploration program. It is aimed at improving gravity and magnetic field resolution, in order to better understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars, and at characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained. These objectives are achieved by using a low periapsis orbit, similar to the one used by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during its aerobraking phases. The proposed periapsis altitude for Dynamo of 120-130 km, coupled with the global distribution of periapses to be obtained during one Martian year of operation, through about 5000 low passes, will produce a magnetic/gravity field data set with approximately five times the spatial resolution of MGS. Low periapsis provides a unique opportunity to investigate the chemical and dynamical properties of the deep ionosphere, thermosphere, and the interaction between the atmosphere and the solar wind, therefore atmospheric escape, which may have played a crucial role in removing atmosphere, and water, from the planet. There is much room for debate on the importance of current atmosphere escape processes in the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, as early "exotic" processes including hydrodynamic escape and impact erosion are traditionally invoked to explain the apparent sparse inventory of present-day volatiles. Yet, the combination of low surface gravity and the absence of a substantial internally generated magnetic field have undeniable effects on what we observe today. In addition to the current losses in the forms of Jeans and photochemical escape of neutrals, there are solar wind interaction-related erosion mechanisms because the upper atmosphere is directly exposed to the solar wind. The solar wind related loss rates, while now comparable to those of a modest comet, nonetheless occur continuously, with the intriguing possibility of important cumulative and

  6. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  7. Transient ion neutralization by electrons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems describing the lateral neutralization of ion beams for the cases that (1) an auxiliary electric field accelerates the electrons into the ion space, and (2) the electrons are injected into the ion space at a prescribed current density are treated. Analytical solutions are derived which give the position and speed of the neutralization front as a function of time, and the temporal development of the electron density, velocity, and electric fields during the neutralization process.

  8. A Mechanistic Understanding of Allosteric Immune Escape Pathways in the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Anurag; Tian, Jianhui; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Korber, Bette; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) spike, which consists of a compact, heterodimeric trimer of the glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, is the target of neutralizing antibodies. However, the high mutation rate of HIV-1 and plasticity of Env facilitates viral evasion from neutralizing antibodies through various mechanisms. Mutations that are distant from the antibody binding site can lead to escape, probably by changing the conformation or dynamics of Env; however, these changes are difficult to identify and define mechanistically. Here we describe a network analysis-based approach to identify potential allosteric immune evasion mechanisms using three known HIV-1 Env gp120 protein structures from two different clades, B and C. First, correlation and principal component analyses of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations identified a high degree of long-distance coupled motions that exist between functionally distant regions within the intrinsic dynamics of the gp120 core, supporting the presence of long-distance communication in the protein. Then, by integrating MD simulations with network theory, we identified the optimal and suboptimal communication pathways and modules within the gp120 core. The results unveil both strain-dependent and -independent characteristics of the communication pathways in gp120. We show that within the context of three structurally homologous gp120 cores, the optimal pathway for communication is sequence sensitive, i.e. a suboptimal pathway in one strain becomes the optimal pathway in another strain. Yet the identification of conserved elements within these communication pathways, termed inter-modular hotspots, could present a new opportunity for immunogen design, as this could be an additional mechanism that HIV-1 uses to shield vulnerable antibody targets in Env that induce neutralizing antibody breadth. PMID:23696718

  9. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  10. Specific features of measuring the isotopic composition of hydrogen ions in ITER plasma by using neutral particle diagnostics under neutral beam injection conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev, V. I.; Goncharov, P. R.; Mironov, M. I.; Nesenevich, V. G. Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, S. Ya.; Sergeev, V. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    Results of numerical simulation of signals from neutral particle analyzers under injection of the heating and diagnostic neutral beams in different operating modes of the ITER tokamak are presented. The distribution functions of fast ions in plasma are simulated, and the corresponding neutral particle fluxes escaping from the plasma along the line of sight of the analyzers are calculated. It is shown that the injection of heating deuterium (D{sup 0}) beams results in the appearance of an intense background signal hampering measurements of the ratio between the densities of deuterium and tritium fuel ions in plasma in the thermal energy range. The injection of a diagnostic hydrogen (H{sup 0}) beam does not affect measurements owing to the high mass resolution of the analyzers.

  11. Development of three-layered rumen escapable capsules for cattle

    PubMed Central

    SEYAMA, Tomohiro; HIRAYASU, Hirofumi; YAMAWAKI, Kenji; ADACHI, Takuhiko; SUGIMOTO, Takayuki; KASAI, Koji

    2016-01-01

    A new rumen escapable tool is presented for cattle in prospect of developing medical treatment or supplementing trace elements for disease prevention. This tool consists of a three-layered capsule that dissolves in the lower digestive tract, but not in the rumen. The capsule was manufactured by capsule-forming techniques through the use of liquid surface tension. This method does not involve high-temperature treatment, so the capsule can contain not only lipophilic substances but also hydrophilic or heat-sensitive substances. Furthermore, the capsule has a specific gravity of 1.3 and diameter of 6.0 mm, which were previously shown to be appropriate to avoid rumination. The objective of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of the capsule pertinent to rumen escaping. In order to validate rumen escape, capsules containing 30 g of water-soluble vitamin (thiamine hydrochloride) per head were administered to four lactating cows assigned in a crossover trial. In the group administered encapsulated thiamine hydrochloride, blood thiamine levels increased from 12.4 ± 1.03 ng/ml before administration to 54.8 ± 2.21 ng/ml at 6 hr following administration, whereas the level remained at 13.3 ± 2.05 ng/ml in the control group administered via aqueous solution. This indicates that the three-layered capsules passed through the rumen and dissolved in the lower digestive tract, thus functioning as a rumen escapable tool. PMID:27546371

  12. 46 CFR 177.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... escape must be widely separated and, if possible, at opposite ends or sides of the space to minimize the... elevator enclosures, elevated stages, bars, and cashier stands, but not including slot machines, tables, or... necessary for handling lifesaving equipment, anchor handling equipment, or line handling gear, or in way...

  13. 46 CFR 177.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... escape must be widely separated and, if possible, at opposite ends or sides of the space to minimize the... elevator enclosures, elevated stages, bars, and cashier stands, but not including slot machines, tables, or... necessary for handling lifesaving equipment, anchor handling equipment, or line handling gear, or in way...

  14. 46 CFR 177.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... escape must be widely separated and, if possible, at opposite ends or sides of the space to minimize the... elevator enclosures, elevated stages, bars, and cashier stands, but not including slot machines, tables, or... necessary for handling lifesaving equipment, anchor handling equipment, or line handling gear, or in way...

  15. 46 CFR 177.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... escape must be widely separated and, if possible, at opposite ends or sides of the space to minimize the... elevator enclosures, elevated stages, bars, and cashier stands, but not including slot machines, tables, or... necessary for handling lifesaving equipment, anchor handling equipment, or line handling gear, or in way...

  16. 46 CFR 177.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... escape must be widely separated and, if possible, at opposite ends or sides of the space to minimize the... elevator enclosures, elevated stages, bars, and cashier stands, but not including slot machines, tables, or... necessary for handling lifesaving equipment, anchor handling equipment, or line handling gear, or in way...

  17. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  18. Evolving Project E-Scape for National Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the opening paper in this Special Edition I outlined the major issues that led to the establishment of "project e-scape". The project was intended to develop systems and approaches that enabled learners to build real-time web-based portfolios of their performance (initially) in design & technology and additionally to build systems…

  19. 75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...FRA is proposing to amend its regulations related to occupational safety and health in locomotive cabs in three ways. First and foremost, pursuant to a 2008 Congressional mandate, FRA is proposing to include requirements that railroads provide an appropriate atmosphere-supplying emergency escape breathing apparatus (EEBA) to the members of the train crew and certain other employees while they......

  20. Enuresis Control through Fading, Escape, and Avoidance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Gordon D.

    1979-01-01

    A twin signal device that provides both escape and avoidance conditioning in enuresis control was documented with case studies of two enuretic children (eight and nine years old). In addition, a technique of fading as an adjunct to the process was utilized with one subject. (Author/SBH)

  1. 46 CFR 169.313 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Means of escape. 169.313 Section 169.313 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... apart, uniform for the length of the ladder; (3) At least 3 inches from the nearest permanent object...

  2. 46 CFR 169.313 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means of escape. 169.313 Section 169.313 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... apart, uniform for the length of the ladder; (3) At least 3 inches from the nearest permanent object...

  3. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING DETAILS OF FIRE ESCAPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING DETAILS OF FIRE ESCAPE NEAR CORNER OF MILLS HALL MAIN WING NORTH WALL, AND MILLS HALL NORTH WING WEST WALL. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles

    PubMed Central

    DeVault, Travis L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Lima, Steven L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Animal–vehicle collisions cause high levels of vertebrate mortality worldwide, and what goes wrong when animals fail to escape and ultimately collide with vehicles is not well understood. We investigated alert and escape behaviours of captive brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in response to virtual vehicle approaches of different sizes and at speeds ranging from 60 to 360 km h−1. Alert and flight initiation distances remained similar across vehicle speeds, and accordingly, alert and flight initiation times decreased at higher vehicle speeds. Thus, avoidance behaviours in cowbirds appeared to be based on distance rather than time available for escape, particularly at 60–150 km h−1; however, at higher speeds (more than or equal to 180 km h−1) no trend in response behaviour was discernible. As vehicle speed increased, cowbirds did not have enough time to assess the approaching vehicle, and cowbirds generally did not initiate flight with enough time to avoid collision when vehicle speed exceeded 120 km h−1. Although potentially effective for evading predators, the decision-making process used by cowbirds in our study appears maladaptive in the context of avoiding fast-moving vehicles. Our methodological approach and findings provide a framework to assess how novel management strategies could affect escape rules, and the sensory and cognitive abilities animals use to avoid vehicle collisions. PMID:25567648

  5. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  6. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  7. Brain size as a driver of avian escape strategy.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Pape Møller, Anders; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2015-07-03

    After detecting an approaching predator, animals make a decision when to flee. Prey will initiate flight soon after detecting a predator so as to minimize attentional costs related to on-going monitoring of the whereabouts of the predator. Such costs may compete with foraging and other maintenance activities and hence be larger than the costs of immediate flight. The drivers of interspecific variation in escape strategy are poorly known. Here we investigated the morphological, life history and natural history traits that correlate with variation in avian escape strategy across a sample of 96 species of birds. Brain mass, body size, habitat structure and group size were the main predictors of escape strategy. The direction of the effect of these traits was consistent with selection for a reduction of monitoring costs. Therefore, attentional costs depend on relative brain size, which determines the ability to monitor the whereabouts of potential predators and the difficulty of this task as reflected by habitat and social complexity. Thus brain size, and the cognitive functions associated with it, constitute a general framework for explaining the effects of body size, habitat structure and sociality identified as determinants of avian escape strategy.

  8. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  9. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  10. Spatial and Nonspatial Escape Strategies in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Fiona E.; Reiserer, Randall S.; Tomarken, Andrew J.; McDonald, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either…

  11. Seasonal Dependence of the Escape of Martian Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is to obtain ACS/SBC images and STIS spectra of the extended H Ly alpha and O 1304 emissions from H and O atoms in the atmosphere of Mars to study seasonal changes in the escape rate of H and O atoms, and thereby water. Prior HST observations have revealed a surprising rapid change in the H escape rate in late martian summer following a global dust storm, and have shown that STIS spectra can easily detect superthermal O atoms. The relative degree of influence of seasons and dust storms on the H density and escape flux are not known, and little is known about variations in the hot O density and escape rate. The timing of these observations is key to these scientific goals. Mars is now approaching the Sun, HST can observe Mars over a wide range of seasons from April - Nov 2014, and HST will not be able to observe Mars again until after the prime mission of MAVEN. These observations will provide strong support for the NASA MAVEN mission, scheduled to arrive at Mars in Sept. 2014. This proposal is for a single visit of 3 HST orbits in late sprign 2014 to establish the baseline conditions when Mars is far from the Sun.

  12. 46 CFR 116.500 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... escape must be widely separated and, if possible, at opposite ends or sides of the space to minimize the... millimeters (0.333 inches) multiplied by the number of passengers for which the space is designed. (g) A dead end passageway, or the equivalent, of more than 6.1 meters (20 feet) in length is prohibited. (h)...

  13. 6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape tunnel. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Escaping Embarrassment: Face-Work in the Rap Cipher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2009-01-01

    How do individuals escape embarrassing moments in interaction? Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and video recordings of weekly street corner ciphers (impromptu rap sessions), this paper expands Goffman's theory of defensive and protective face-work. The findings reveal formulaic and indirect dimensions of face-work. First,…

  15. Purinergic inhibition of ENaC produces aldosterone escape.

    PubMed

    Stockand, James D; Mironova, Elena; Bugaj, Vladislav; Rieg, Timo; Insel, Paul A; Vallon, Volker; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Pochynyuk, Oleh

    2010-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying "aldosterone escape," which refers to the excretion of sodium (Na(+)) during high Na(+) intake despite inappropriately increased levels of mineralocorticoids, are incompletely understood. Because local purinergic tone in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron downregulates epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity, we tested whether this mechanism mediates aldosterone escape. Here, urinary ATP concentration increased with dietary Na(+) intake in mice. Physiologic concentrations of ATP decreased ENaC activity in a dosage-dependent manner. P2Y(2)(-/-) mice, which lack the purinergic receptor, had significantly less increased Na(+) excretion than wild-type mice in response to high-Na(+) intake. Exogenous deoxycorticosterone acetate and deletion of the P2Y(2) receptor each modestly increased the resistance of ENaC to changes in Na(+) intake; together, they markedly increased resistance. Under the latter condition, ENaC could not respond to changes in Na(+) intake. In contrast, as a result of aldosterone escape, wild-type mice had increased Na(+) excretion in response to high-Na(+) intake regardless of the presence of high deoxycorticosterone acetate. These data suggest that control of ENaC by purinergic signaling is necessary for aldosterone escape.

  16. Purinergic Inhibition of ENaC Produces Aldosterone Escape

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Elena; Bugaj, Vladislav; Rieg, Timo; Insel, Paul A.; Vallon, Volker; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying “aldosterone escape,” which refers to the excretion of sodium (Na+) during high Na+ intake despite inappropriately increased levels of mineralocorticoids, are incompletely understood. Because local purinergic tone in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron downregulates epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) activity, we tested whether this mechanism mediates aldosterone escape. Here, urinary ATP concentration increased with dietary Na+ intake in mice. Physiologic concentrations of ATP decreased ENaC activity in a dosage-dependent manner. P2Y2−/− mice, which lack the purinergic receptor, had significantly less increased Na+ excretion than wild-type mice in response to high-Na+ intake. Exogenous deoxycorticosterone acetate and deletion of the P2Y2 receptor each modestly increased the resistance of ENaC to changes in Na+ intake; together, they markedly increased resistance. Under the latter condition, ENaC could not respond to changes in Na+ intake. In contrast, as a result of aldosterone escape, wild-type mice had increased Na+ excretion in response to high-Na+ intake regardless of the presence of high deoxycorticosterone acetate. These data suggest that control of ENaC by purinergic signaling is necessary for aldosterone escape. PMID:20813869

  17. Plasma amino acid response to graded levels of escape protein.

    PubMed

    Gibb, D J; Klopfenstein, T J; Britton, R A; Lewis, A J

    1992-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the potential of using plasma amino acid responses to graded levels of escape protein to determine limiting amino acids in cattle. Growing calves (n = 120; mean BW = 220 +/- 21 kg) were fed a basal diet of corncob:sorghum silage (61:39) and were individually supplemented with distillers' dried grains (DDG), heat-damaged DDG (H-DDG), feather meal (FTH), or urea. The urea supplement was mixed with DDG and H-DDG to allow 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, or 80% of the supplemental CP to come from distillers' protein and maintain an 11.5% CP diet. Urea supplement was mixed with FTH to allow 0, 22, 39, 56, 73, or 90% of the supplemental CP to come from FTH. Dietary CP ranged from 11.5% at the 0% level to 17.3% at the 90% level. Plasma concentration of most essential plasma amino acids responded (P less than .10) linearly and(or) quadratically to increased escape protein. The broken-line response of plasma methionine at low DDG intake suggested that methionine was limiting at low levels of escape protein. An initial decrease followed by a plateau fit by a broken line indicated that histidine became limiting in FTH diets, and lysine eventually became limiting for DDG, H-DDG, and FTH diets before maximum BW gain was reached. Results indicate that plasma amino acid responses may identify amino acids that become limiting with increasing escape protein.

  18. Social Escape Behaviors in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors…

  19. 46 CFR 28.390 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means of escape. 28.390 Section 28.390 Shipping COAST... emergency exits, passageways, stairways, ladders, deck scuttles, and windows. (b) At least one of the means... suitable for use in emergency conditions and must be of rigid construction. (f) A window or windshield...

  20. 46 CFR 28.390 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Means of escape. 28.390 Section 28.390 Shipping COAST... emergency exits, passageways, stairways, ladders, deck scuttles, and windows. (b) At least one of the means... suitable for use in emergency conditions and must be of rigid construction. (f) A window or windshield...

  1. 2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  3. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  4. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  5. Danger detection and escape behaviour in wood crickets.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Fabienne; Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-07-01

    The wind-sensitive cercal system of Orthopteroid insects that mediates the detection of the approach of a predator is a very sensitive sensory system. It has been intensively analysed from a behavioural and neurobiological point of view, and constitutes a classical model system in neuroethology. The escape behaviour is triggered in orthopteroids by the detection of air-currents produced by approaching objects, allowing these insects to keep away from potential dangers. Nevertheless, escape behaviour has not been studied in terms of success. Moreover, an attacking predator is more than "air movement", it is also a visible moving entity. The sensory basis of predator detection is thus probably more complex than the perception of air movement by the cerci. We have used a piston mimicking an attacking running predator for a quantitative evaluation of the escape behaviour of wood crickets Nemobius sylvestris. The movement of the piston not only generates air movement, but it can be seen by the insect and can touch it as a natural predator. This procedure allowed us to study the escape behaviour in terms of detection and also in terms of success. Our results showed that 5-52% of crickets that detected the piston thrust were indeed touched. Crickets escaped to stimulation from behind better than to a stimulation from the front, even though they detected the approaching object similarly in both cases. After cerci ablation, 48% crickets were still able to detect a piston approaching from behind (compared with 79% of detection in intact insects) and 24% crickets escaped successfully (compared with 62% in the case of intact insects). So, cerci play a major role in the detection of an approaching object but other mechanoreceptors or sensory modalities are implicated in this detection. It is not possible to assure that other sensory modalities participate (in the case of intact animals) in the behaviour; rather, than in the absence of cerci other sensory modalities can

  6. Plasma-induced Escape and Alterations of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Tucker, O. J.; Ewrin, J.; Cassidy, T. A.; Leblanc, F.

    2009-12-01

    The atmospheres of planets and planetary satellites are typically imbedded in space plasmas. Depending on the interaction with the induced or intrinsic fields energetic ions can have access to the thermosphere and the corona affecting their composition and thermal structure and causing loss to space. These processes are often lumped together as ‘atmospheric sputtering’ (Johnson 1994). In this talk I will review the results of simulations of the plasma bombardment at a number of solar system bodies and use those data to describe the effect on the upper atmosphere and on escape. Of considerable recent interest is the modeling of escape from Titan. Prior to Cassini’s tour of the Saturnian system, plasma-induced escape was suggested to be the dominant loss process, but recent models of enhanced thermal escape, often referred to as ‘slow hydrodynamic’ escape, have been suggested to lead to much larger Titan atmospheric loss rates (Strobel 2008; Cui et al. 2008). Such a process has been suggested to be active at some point in time on a number of solar system bodies. I will present hybrid fluid/ kinetic models of the upper atmosphere of certain bodies in order to test both the plasma-induced and thermal escape processes. Preliminary results suggest that the loss rates estimated using the ‘slow hydrodynamic’ escape process can be orders of magnitude too large. The implications for Mars, Titan and Pluto will be discussed. Background for this talk is contained in the following papers (Johnson 2004; 2009; Chaufray et al. 2007; Johnson et al. 2008; 2009; Tucker and Johnson 2009). References: Chaufray, J.Y., R. Modolo, F. Leblanc, G. Chanteur, R.E. Johnson, and J.G. Luhmann, Mars Solar Wind interaction: formation of the Martian corona and atmosphric loss to space, JGR 112, E09009, doi:10.1029/2007JE002915 (2007) Cui, J., Yelle, R. V., Volk, K. Distribution and escape of molecular hydrogen in Titan's thermosphere and exosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10

  7. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  8. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  9. Recording Field Potentials From Zebrafish Larvae During Escape Responses

    PubMed Central

    Monesson-Olson, Bryan D.; Troconis, Eileen L.; Trapani, Josef G.

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, startle responses are a ubiquitous method for alerting, and avoiding or escaping from alarming or dangerous stimuli. In zebrafish larvae, fast escape behavior is easily evoked through either acoustic or tactile stimuli. For example, a light touch to the head will excite trigeminal neurons that in turn excite a large reticulospinal neuron in the hindbrain called the Mauthner cell (M-cell). The M-cell action potential then travels down the contralateral trunk of the larva exciting motoneurons, which subsequently excite the entire axial musculature, producing a large amplitude body bend away from the source of the stimulus. This body conformation is known as the “C-bend” due to the shape of the larva during the behavior. As a result of the semi-synchronized activation of the M-cell, the population of motor neurons, and the axial trunk muscles, a large field potential is generated and can be recorded from free-swimming or fixed-position larvae. Undergraduate laboratories that record field potentials during escape responses in larval zebrafish are relatively simple to setup and allow students to observe and study the escape reflex circuit. Furthermore, by testing hypotheses, analyzing data and writing journal-style laboratory reports, students have multiple opportunities to learn about many neuroscience topics including vertebrate reflexes; sensory transduction; synaptic-, neuro-, and muscle-physiology; the M-cell mediated escape response; and the zebrafish as a model organism. Here, we detail the equipment, software, and recording setup necessary to observe field potentials in an undergraduate teaching lab. Additionally, we discuss potential advanced laboratory exercises and pedagogical outcomes. Finally, we note possible low-cost alternatives for recording field potentials. PMID:25565920

  10. Escape manoeuvres in the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Domenici, Paolo; Standen, Emily M; Levine, Robert P

    2004-06-01

    The locomotor performance of dogfish during escape responses was observed by means of high-speed video. Dogfish show C-type escape responses that are comparable with those shown previously in teleosts. Dogfish show high variability of turning rates of the anterior part of the body (head to centre of mass), i.e. with peak values from 434 to 1023 deg. s(-1). We suggest that this variability may be due to the presence of two types of escape manoeuvres, i.e. responses with high and low turning rates, as previously found in a teleost species. Fast responses (i.e. with high maximum turning rates, ranging between 766 and 1023 deg. s(-1)) showed significantly higher locomotor performance than slow responses (i.e. with low maximum turning rates, ranging between 434 and 593 deg. s(-1)) in terms of distance covered, speed and acceleration, although no differences were found in the turning radius of the centre of mass during the escape manoeuvres. The existence of two types of escape responses would have implications in terms of both neural control and muscular activation patterns. When compared with literature data for the locomotor performance of bony fishes, dogfish showed relatively low speed and acceleration, comparable turning rates and a turning radius that is in the low part of the range when compared with teleosts, indicating relatively high manoeuvrability. The locomotor performance observed in dogfish is consistent with their morphological characteristics: (1) low locomotor performance associated with low thrust developed by their relatively small posterior depth of section and (2) relatively high manoeuvrability associated with their high flexibility.

  11. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    PubMed

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries.

  12. Weak neutral current chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10{sup {minus}5} kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Weak neutral current chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10-5 kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production.

  14. The neutral upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. N.

    2002-07-01

    After World War II, Professor S.K. Mitra wrote a comprehensive book called The Upper Atmosphere, which dealt with information available from ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. As a result, topics such as day airglow were investigated and further ground-based experiments using incoherent back-scattering were carried out. These activities resulted in important new information on the ozonosphere. The dramatic discovery of ozone holes forms a new and exciting chapter in the discovery of atmospheric processes. While dealing with the limits of the atmosphere, reference may be made to interstellar molecules whose discovery has raised considerable scientific curiosity. Knowledge on the solar-terrestrial relationship advanced a great deal when more information on solar radiation became available by measuring higher energy photons in the UV, EUV, and even X-ray regime. All this information is incorporated in this volume and presented under the title The Neutral Upper Atmosphere. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-7923-6434-1

  15. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  16. An Empirical Investigation of Time-Out with and without Escape Extinction to Treat Escape-Maintained Noncompliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Gregory E.; Olmi, D. Joe; Edwards, Ron P.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of two time-out (TO) procedures in reducing escape-maintained noncompliance of 4 children. Noncompliant behavioral function was established via a functional assessment (FA), including indirect and direct descriptive procedures and brief confirmatory experimental analyses. Following FA, parents were…

  17. Formulation of a Cooperative-Confinement-Escape problem of multiple cooperative defenders against an evader escaping from a circular region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose and formulate the Cooperative-Confinement-Escape (CCE) problem of multiple cooperative defenders against an evader escaping from a circular region, in which the defenders are moving on the circle with attempt to prevent possible escape of a single evader who is initially located inside the circle. The main contributions are summarized as follows: (1) we first provide an effective formulation of the CCE problem, which is an emphasis of this paper, with design of two nonlinear control strategies for the cooperative defenders and the adversarial evader, respectively. Particularly, we consider to include a proper interaction between each pair of the nearest-neighbor defenders, and an adaptive trajectory prediction mechanism in the strategies of the defenders to increase the chance of successful confinement. (2) For the first attempt on analyzing the CCE dynamics which is unavoidably strongly nonlinear, we analyze the minimum energy of the evader for possible escape. (3) For understanding of the behaviors of the system under different parameters, (i) we illustrate the effectiveness of the confinement strategy using the adaptive trajectory prediction mechanism, and (ii) the physical roles of the system parameters with respect to the system dynamics, some of which may be unexpected or not straightforward. A separate paper will be presented for systematic analysis of the agents' behaviors with respect to the large intervals of the parameter settings.

  18. Energy Deposition and Escape Fluxes Induced by Energetic Solar Wind Ions and ENAs Precipitating into Mars Atmosphere: Accurate Consideration of Energy Transfer Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, V. A.; Lewkow, N.; Gacesa, M.

    2014-12-01

    Formation and evolution of neutral fluxes of atoms and molecules escaping from the Mars atmosphere have been investigated for the sputtering and photo-chemical mechanisms. Energy and momentum transfer in collisions between the atmospheric gas and fast atoms and molecules have been considered using our recently obtained angular and energy dependent cross sections[1]. We have showed that accurate angular dependent collision cross sections are critical for the description of the energy relaxation of precipitating keV energetic ions/ENAs and for computations of altitude profiles of the fast atom and molecule production rates in recoil collisions. Upward and escape fluxes of the secondary energetic He and O atoms and H2, N2, CO and CO2 molecules, induced by precipitating ENAs, have been determined and their non-thermal energy distribution functions have been computed at different altitudes for different solar conditions. Precipitation and energy deposition of the energetic H2O molecules and products of their dissociations into the Mars atmosphere in the Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) - Mars interaction have been modeled using accurate cross sections. Reflection of precipitating ENAs by the Mars atmosphere has been analyzed in detail. [1] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, "Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Escape Fluxes induced from the Mars Atmosphere, ApJ, v.790, p.98 (2014).

  19. Driving and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with an approach to driving safety concerns when older persons present with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinic. Main message One of the most challenging aspects of dementia care is the assessment of driving safety. Drivers with dementia are at higher risk of motor vehicle collisions, yet many drivers with mild dementia might be safely able to continue driving for several years. Because safe driving is dependent on multiple cognitive and functional skills, clinicians should carefully consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns affect driving safety. Specific findings on corroborated history and office-based cognitive testing might aid in the physician’s decisions to refer for comprehensive on-road driving evaluation and whether to notify transportation authorities in accordance with provincial reporting requirements. Sensitive communication and a person-centred approach are essential. Conclusion Primary care physicians must consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns might affect driving safety in older drivers. PMID:28115437

  20. A Generalized Escape System Simulation (GESS) Computer Program: GESS User’s Guide. Version II. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    4-14 4-7 Ocupant Alone Variable Fields ......................... 4-15 4-8 Rail Data Variable Fields ............................. 4...civilian management, and Navy personnel with greater ability to: - establish escape system performance requirements, -. . evaluate competitive escape...system proposals, z. evaluate escape system design modifications, ~. monitor escape system test programs, .. prepare fleet information on escape

  1. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  2. The Effects of Plasma-Neutral Interactions on Neutral Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, V.; Thayer, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma-neutral interactions are fundamental to the structure and behavior of the neutral thermosphere. This interaction, primarily through ion-neutral collisions, ties electrodynamics with hydrodynamics requiring a fully coupled ionosphere - thermosphere model to simulate and dissect the sequence of responses that occur in the neutral gas when a change occurs in the ionosphere. In particular, changes in the ion drag force prompt a hydrodynamic response that will alter several properties of the thermosphere, including neutral winds. Here, the fully coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIEGCM) is used to evaluate how changes in mechanical coupling, through the ion drag force, alter thermosphere properties, with a focus on thermospheric neutral winds. The equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) produces a transient wind system, and a dissection of the hydrodynamic processes responsible for its formation will be used to demonstrate the causal structure in neutral gas response to a change in field-aligned ion drag force. This well-behaved response elucidates processes that must be occurring in other regions of the thermosphere where more significant changes in the ion drag force occur.

  3. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Dwarf, Star-Forming Galaxies at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Hayes, Matthew; Salvato, Mara; Beck, Melanie; Mehta, Vihang; Pahl, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The dominant astrophysical source(s) of Lyman Continuum (LyC, λ<912Å) photons which reionized neutral Hydrogen in the IGM at high (z > 6) redshift remains uncertain. Unfortunately, the direct detection of LyC photons escaping from the analogs of such sources --- i.e., star-forming galaxies --- in the low redshift (z<~1) universe has proven to be remarkably difficult with space-based observatories. Motivated by the few (~2) direct detections of LyC in the local Universe and the results of recent cosmological simulations of galaxy evolution which demonstrate that low-mass (M<~109M⊙) star-forming galaxies may be uniquely suited to contribute to the ionizing, UV background, we present results of recent work to study the LyC escape fraction in z~1 dwarf, star-forming galaxies. We present an independent re-reduction of the WFC3 IR grism data obtained as part of the 3DHST and AGHAST surveys, and identify and select star-forming galaxies at z=0.9-1.4 by their Hα emission. At this redshift range, GALEX FUV and NUV images can be used to cleanly measure the ratio of LyC to UV non-ionizing continuum (i.e., LyCesc,rel) photons. We join our line and redshift identifications with public photometric-redshift catalogs made available by the 3DHST team in order to select an ideal sample of star-forming galaxies which excludes likely contaminants (e.g., AGN, low-redshift interlopers, etc.). Stacking archival GALEX images of ~500 UV non-detected star-forming (SFR<~5M⊙yr-1 ) galaxies, we measure an upper limit to fLyCesc,relequal to ~5%. With these data we are also able to directly constrain fLyCesc,rel for a population of isolated, high equivalent width (EW>200Å), dwarf (M<109M⊙) star-forming galaxies, measuring an upper limit of fLyCesc,rel< ~20% from an analysis of stacked data. We will discuss the implications for reionization of these escape fractions measured from the stacking analysis, as well as possible UV detections from individual dwarf galaxies.

  4. Fast ion behavior during neutral beam injection in ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; Rome, J.A.; England, A.C.; Fowler, R.H.; Aceto, S.C.

    1993-09-01

    In stellarators, single-particle confinement properties can be more complex than in their tokamak counterparts. Fast-ion behavior in tokamaks has been well characterized through an abundance of measurements on various devices and in general has been shown to be consistent with classical slowing-down theory, although anomalous ion behavior has been observed during intense beam injection in ISX-B, during fishbone instabilities in PDX, and in experiments on TFR. In contrast, fast ion behavior in stellarators is not as wel established experimentally with the primary experiments to date focusing o near-perpendicular or perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Wendelstein 7-A stellarator (91 and Heliotron-E. This paper addresses fast-ion confinement properties in a large-aspect-ratio, moderate-shear stellarator, the Advanced Toroidal Facility, during tangential NBI. The primary data used in this study are the experimentally measured energy spectra of charge-exchange neutrals escaping from the plasma, using a two-dimensional scanning neutral particle analyzer. This diagnostic method is well established, having been used on several devices since the early 1970`s. Various aspects of fast-ion behavior are investigated by comparing these data with computed theoretical spectra based on energeticion distributions derived from the fastion Fokker-Planck equation. Ion orbits are studied by computer orbit following, by the computation of J* surfaces, and by Monte Carlo calculations.

  5. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  6. Drive System Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Drive Systems Research will be presented. The primary purpose of this research is to improve performance, reliability, and integrity of aerospace drive systems and space mechanisms. The research is conducted through a combination of in-house, academia, and through contractors. Research is conducted through computer code development and validated through component and system testing. The drive system activity currently has four major thrust areas including: thermal behavior of high speed gearing, health and usage monitoring, advanced components, and space mechanisms.

  7. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  8. The Test Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory shows engineers rehearsing the sol 133 (June 8, 2004) drive into 'Endurance' crater by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Engineers and scientists have recreated the martian surface and slope the rover will encounter using a combination of bare and thinly sand-coated rocks, simulated martian 'blueberries' and a platform tilted at a 25-degree angle. The results of this test convinced engineers that the rover was capable of driving up and down a straight slope before it attempted the actual drive on Mars.

  9. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  10. Meiotic drive of chromosomal knobs reshaped the maize genome.

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, E S; Phelps-Durr, T L; Buckler, C S; Dawe, R K; Doebley, J F; Holtsford, T P

    1999-01-01

    Meiotic drive is the subversion of meiosis so that particular genes are preferentially transmitted to the progeny. Meiotic drive generally causes the preferential segregation of small regions of the genome; however, in maize we propose that meiotic drive is responsible for the evolution of large repetitive DNA arrays on all chromosomes. A maize meiotic drive locus found on an uncommon form of chromosome 10 [abnormal 10 (Ab10)] may be largely responsible for the evolution of heterochromatic chromosomal knobs, which can confer meiotic drive potential to every maize chromosome. Simulations were used to illustrate the dynamics of this meiotic drive model and suggest knobs might be deleterious in the absence of Ab10. Chromosomal knob data from maize's wild relatives (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and mexicana) and phylogenetic comparisons demonstrated that the evolution of knob size, frequency, and chromosomal position agreed with the meiotic drive hypothesis. Knob chromosomal position was incompatible with the hypothesis that knob repetitive DNA is neutral or slightly deleterious to the genome. We also show that environmental factors and transposition may play a role in the evolution of knobs. Because knobs occur at multiple locations on all maize chromosomes, the combined effects of meiotic drive and genetic linkage may have reshaped genetic diversity throughout the maize genome in response to the presence of Ab10. Meiotic drive may be a major force of genome evolution, allowing revolutionary changes in genome structure and diversity over short evolutionary periods. PMID:10471723

  11. Anatomy of an escape tectonic zone: Western Irian Jaya (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Ego, Frédéric

    2002-07-01

    The western fold-and-thrust belt of New Guinea in Irian Jaya is presently a complex boundary, dominated by the Bird's Head block escape from the collision between the Australian plate and the remnants of volcanic belts carried by the Pacific plate. The escape rate given by geodetic measurements is of the order of 7 cm/yr, and movement is accommodated by a broad shear zone. We analyze this shear pattern using fault slip analyses performed in the field from 1992 to 1996, combined with focal mechanism inversions, moment tensors summations, and surface trace of structures inferred from radar and multispectral satellite images. Time control of the deformation is attained by isotope dating of the recent syntectonic intrusives. The geometry of the macro and microstructures occurred in two stages from the early Pliocene to the Present. The first stage (5 to 2 Ma) is marked by flat-and-ramps structures guided by N60°E lateral ramps associated with a N60°E cleavage, affecting the whole of western Irian Jaya. The second stage (2 Ma to Present) shows the collapse of the western fold-and-thrust belt and the escape of the Bird's Head and the Lengguru belts along N60°E transtensile faults. In the latter stage, the strike-slip offset is distributed on the N60°E schistosity zone along which some fracture planes are reactivated as left-lateral transtensile faults. Shallow earthquakes moment tensors have been inverted for stress and summed to get strain rates to define contrasting structural provinces. The spatial variations in both stress and strain fields from earthquakes and microtectonics show that (1) they are consistent and are assumed to be coeval, (2) they reveal that oblique convergence is partitioned, and (3) they are influenced by the existence of a free boundary. We see no significant rotation of stress axes laterally along the escape zone. Instead, stresses change according to the different orientations of basement structures and thus undergo rapid spatial variations

  12. A Novel Universal Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against Enterovirus 71 That Targets the Highly Conserved “Knob” Region of VP3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the “knob” region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

  13. 20. DETAIL VIEW IN 18FOOT LOCK, ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW IN 18-FOOT LOCK, ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING DOOR INTO TANK AT RIGHT - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  14. [Driving and Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Roche, Jean

    2005-09-01

    Although most aged people remain safe drivers, a greater risk for crashes due to medical conditions is observed in the elderly. Impairment of important functions for safe driving such as visuospatial skills, attention, memory and judgement are observed in dementia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease. The accident rate increases from 9.4 accidents per million vehicle kilometers traveled for 80 to 85 year-old drivers, but raises to 163.6 for drivers with moderate AD. Patients and their families should be informed that patients with mild dementia related to Alzheimer's disease (stage 1 on the Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR), have a substantially increased rate of traffic accidents and therefore should not drive. But subjects in the pre-dementia phase (stage 0.5 at the CDR, mild cognitive impairment) also pose significant driving safety problems. In most States of the USA, and many European countries, but not in France, law requires regular investigating of driving performance in the elderly.

  15. [Driving and aging].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida

    2010-01-01

    The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries.

  16. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  17. Assessment: A Driving Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that educational assessment drives the curriculum. Thus, assessment is very important in contemplating reform in science education. Assessment should be an integral part of the instructional process, utilizing diagnostic testing, monitoring, and summative evaluations. (PR)

  18. Environmental neutralization of polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that two mechanisms of neutralization of the singly charged polonium ion exist. Charged Polonium-218 can be neutralized by reacting with oxygen to form a polonium oxide ion with a higher ionization potential than that of the polonium metal and then accepting an electron transferred from a lower ionization potential gas. In this present work, this mechanism has been verified by determining that the polonium oxide has an ionization potential in the range 10.35-10.53 eV. It was also previously reported that /sup 218/Po can be neutralized, in the absence of oxygen, by the scavenging of electrons by a trace gas such as water or nitrogen dioxide and their diffusion to the polonium ion. To verify this second neutralization mechanism, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen in the range of 50 ppb-1 ppm were examined for their ability to neutralize the polonium ion. Complete neutralization of /sup 218/Po was observed at nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 700 ppb. For concentrations below 700 ppb, the degree of neutralization was found to increase smoothly with the nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  19. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  20. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  1. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  2. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  3. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  4. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  5. Electric Drive Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Track-Laying Combat Vehicles , and (3) Parametric Study of Electric Drive Component Technologies. The technology survey results are given in a separate...and projections of future electric drive system improvements relative to combat vehicle applications. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...273 5.7.2.3.1 DC Homopolar Drum Machine, Design and Performance 5-278 APPENDIX A 19.5 TON AND 40.0 TON VEHICLE SPECIFICATION APPENDIX B ELECTRIC

  6. Analytic Solution for Self-regulated Collective Escape of Cosmic Rays from Their Acceleration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, M. A.; Diamond, P. H.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Aharonian, F. A.; Moskalenko, I. V.

    2013-05-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs), as the major contributors to the galactic cosmic rays (CRs), are believed to maintain an average CR spectrum by diffusive shock acceleration regardless of the way they release CRs into the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the interaction of the CRs with nearby gas clouds crucially depends on the release mechanism. We call into question two aspects of a popular paradigm of the CR injection into the ISM, according to which they passively and isotropically diffuse in the prescribed magnetic fluctuations as test particles. First, we treat the escaping CR and the Alfvén waves excited by them on an equal footing. Second, we adopt field-aligned CR escape outside the source, where the waves become weak. An exact analytic self-similar solution for a CR "cloud" released by a dimmed accelerator strongly deviates from the test-particle result. The normalized CR partial pressure may be approximated as {P}(p,z,t)=2[|z|^{5/3}+z_{dif}^{5/3}(p,t)]^{-3/5}\\exp [-z^{2}/4D_{ISM}(p)t], where p is the momentum of CR particle, and z is directed along the field. The core of the cloud expands as z_{dif}\\propto \\sqrt{D_{NL}\\left(p\\right)t} and decays in time as {P}\\propto 2z_{dif}^{-1}\\left(t\\right). The diffusion coefficient D NL is strongly suppressed compared to its background ISM value D ISM: D NL ~ D ISMexp (- Π) Lt D ISM for sufficiently high field-line-integrated CR partial pressure, Π. When Π Gt 1, the CRs drive Alfvén waves efficiently enough to build a transport barrier ( {P}\\approx 2/\\left|z\\right|—"pedestal") that strongly reduces the leakage. The solution has a spectral break at p = p br, where p br satisfies the equation D NL(p br) ~= z 2/t.

  7. Deformation-driven fluid escape in the Levant Basin, offshore southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eruteya, Ovie Emmanuel; Waldmann, Nicolas; Reshef, Moshe; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2016-04-01

    Submarine fluid emissions are global phenomena, which can be inferred from the presence of seafloor morphologies (e.g. pockmarks, mud volcanoes) occurring in various geological settings. However, despite the Levant Basin been a prolific hydrocarbon province, only a paucity of fluid escape morphologies have been identified on the present-day seafloor. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of a newly available high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset from offshore southern Israel. Evidences of subsurface fluid plumbing and escape are manifested here as present-day seafloor pockmarks, paleo-pockmarks, pipe structures and enhanced reflectivity patterns. Interestingly, these pockmarks are situated on and around bathymetric highs, which are ridges related to the Palmachim Disturbance. Our initial results show the fluid flow structures are spatially localized above a region of complex evaporites evacuation at depth, and likewise proximal to a shallower region characterized by high amplitude reflectors. The latter may be evidences for a shallow gas system. Our initial hypothesis proposes a dual shallow-source driven focused fluid flow system. Yet, we favour a deeper Messinian plumbing system driving fluid flow across the overburden in the study area. Corroborating this are fault systems characterized near the pipes feeding the seafloor pockmarks and paleo-pockmark, detaching in the upper Messinian evaporite. We further suggest that a combined supra-salt deformation system arising from the evacuation of the Messinian evaporites coupled with gravitational tectonics are in charge of modulating focused fluid flow. Under this scenario the emplaced mass transport complex acts as a transient reservoir for fluid flow, dewatering under deformation and channelling fluids towards the seafloor for expulsion. However, the contributions from microbially-generated methane in the shallow Quaternary overburden associated with the channel-levee complex cannot be neglected.

  8. Mechanism of transcription initiation and promoter escape by E. coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Kate L; Felth, Lindsey C; Molzahn, Cristen M; Shkel, Irina; Wang, Si; Chhabra, Munish; Ruff, Emily F; Bieter, Lauren; Kraft, Joseph E; Record, M Thomas

    2017-04-11

    To investigate roles of the discriminator and open complex (OC) lifetime in transcription initiation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP; α2ββ'ωσ(70)), we compare productive and abortive initiation rates, short RNA distributions, and OC lifetime for the λPR and T7A1 promoters and variants with exchanged discriminators, all with the same transcribed region. The discriminator determines the OC lifetime of these promoters. Permanganate reactivity of thymines reveals that strand backbones in open regions of long-lived λPR-discriminator OCs are much more tightly held than for shorter-lived T7A1-discriminator OCs. Initiation from these OCs exhibits two kinetic phases and at least two subpopulations of ternary complexes. Long RNA synthesis (constrained to be single round) occurs only in the initial phase (<10 s), at similar rates for all promoters. Less than half of OCs synthesize a full-length RNA; the majority stall after synthesizing a short RNA. Most abortive cycling occurs in the slower phase (>10 s), when stalled complexes release their short RNA and make another without escaping. In both kinetic phases, significant amounts of 8-nt and 10-nt transcripts are produced by longer-lived, λPR-discriminator OCs, whereas no RNA longer than 7 nt is produced by shorter-lived T7A1-discriminator OCs. These observations and the lack of abortive RNA in initiation from short-lived ribosomal promoter OCs are well described by a quantitative model in which ∼1.0 kcal/mol of scrunching free energy is generated per translocation step of RNA synthesis to overcome OC stability and drive escape. The different length-distributions of abortive RNAs released from OCs with different lifetimes likely play regulatory roles.

  9. Self-driving carsickness.

    PubMed

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels.

  10. Dementia and driving.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  11. Neutralization of reovirus: the gene responsible for the neutralization antigen

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The S1 genome segment of reovirus is linked to type specificity as determined by neutralization antibody. This gene segment codes for a minor outer capsid polypeptide (sigma1). Therefore, sigma1 is the peptide responsible for induction of neutralization antibody and confers type specificity. This biologic property of reovirus was defined using hybrid recombinants clones between reovirus types 1 and 3 and 2 and 3. PMID:925604

  12. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  13. The production and escape of nitrogen atoms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-02-01

    Updated rate coefficients and a revised ionosphere-thermosphere model are used to compute the production rates and densities of odd nitrogen species in the Martian atmosphere. Computed density profiles for N(4S), N(2D), N(2P), and NO are presented. The model NO densities are found to be about a factor of 2-3 less than those measured by the Viking 1 mass spectrometer. Revised values for the escape rates of N atoms from dissociative recombination and ionospheric reactions are also computed. Dissociative recombination is found to be comparable in importance to photodissociation at low solar activity, but it is still the most important escape mechanism for N-14 at high solar activity.

  14. The production and escape of nitrogen atoms on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Updated rate coefficients and a revised ionosphere-thermosphere model are used to compute the production rates and densities of odd nitrogen species in the Martian atmosphere. Computed density profiles for N(4S), N(2D), N(2P), and NO are presented. The model NO densities are found to be about a factor of 2-3 less than those measured by the Viking 1 mass spectrometer. Revised values for the escape rates of N atoms from dissociative recombination and ionospheric reactions are also computed. Dissociative recombination is found to be comparable in importance to photodissociation at low solar activity, but it is still the most important escape mechanism for N-14 at high solar activity.

  15. Escape rate of active particles in the effective equilibrium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Wittmann, R.; Brader, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The escape rate of a Brownian particle over a potential barrier is accurately described by the Kramers theory. A quantitative theory explicitly taking the activity of Brownian particles into account has been lacking due to the inherently out-of-equilibrium nature of these particles. Using an effective equilibrium approach [Farage et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 042310 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.042310] we study the escape rate of active particles over a potential barrier and compare our analytical results with data from direct numerical simulation of the colored noise Langevin equation. The effective equilibrium approach generates an effective potential that, when used as input to Kramers rate theory, provides results in excellent agreement with the simulation data.

  16. Review of the experimental papers at the IAEA conference on noninductive current drive, Culham, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    Three types of noninductive current drive experiments have been reported at this conference: (1) neutral beam (2) rf current drive, and (3) relativistic electron beams (REB). If we compare the effort to develop current drive to a horse race, the neutral beam horse was first out of the gates, but it quickly found greener pastures (heating) and has dropped temporarily out of the race. The lower hybrid horse now has a big lead at the first furlong (200 m), but the bulk of the race remains to be run. The fast wave and REB horses have yet to get up speed.

  17. Self-Organizing Reactive Fluid Escape from Dehydrating Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Pluemper, O.; Podladchikov, Y.; Vrijmoed, J. C.; Scambelluri, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water escape from dehydrating rocks within the Earth's interior is a key process for long-term global water and element cycles, eg. at subduction zones a fluid escape mechanism must exist that prevents ocean water to be drained into the mantle. Existing fluid flow models require a priori physical assumptions (eg. preexisting porosity) and cannot resolve the evolution from initial fluid production to flow channelization. In order to develop a model of this evolution, we need to unravel natural laboratories that display the incipient dehydration stages and the micro- to macro-scale fluid escape route evolution. The Erro-Tobbio meta-serpentinites (Italy) provide a unique snapshot into these early dehydration stages, recording the breakdown of hydrous antigorite to anhydrous olivine plus fluid and the formation of an olivine-vein network. We find that dehydration, fluid pooling, and flow initiation are controlled by micro-scale compositional rock differences. Our model starts with a rock in which all water is stored in solid and any preexisting porosity is negligible (zero-porosity case). As the rock descents into the mantle increasing T will initiate dehydration reactions, dividing the rock continuously into a dry solid and a fluid-filled porosity. Spatially variable reaction progress results in dynamically evolving porosity/permeability and heterogeneous fluid-pore pressure distributions. Fluid-pressure gradient relaxation causes fluid flow and its thermodynamic feedback triggers reactions to progress, resulting in a self-amplifying process. Our new thermodynamic-mechanical model for reaction-porosity waves shows that fluid flow occurs solely in the reaction products and self-organizes into channelized fluid escape networks. This holds the key to formulating future quantitative models that address spatiotemporal processes such as the coupling between fluid release at depth and volcanic eruptions and the amounts of structurally bound water transferred into deep Earth.

  18. On the Relative Contributions of Noncontingent Reinforcement and Escape Extinction in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Layer, Stacy A.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Bethke, Stephanie D.; Gutshall, Katharine A.

    2004-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), escape extinction, and a combination of NCR and escape extinction as treatment for the feeding problems exhibited by 4 children. For each participant, consumption increased only when escape extinction was implemented, independent of whether NCR…

  19. Escape Geography--Developing Middle-School Students' Sense of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.; Molina, Laurie E. S.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a social studies unit on escaping geography. Examines escape from dangerous places including an airliner, hotel fire, or war zone or from a social situation such as a boring speech or party. Describes historic escapes such as the Underground Railroad and the Berlin Wall. Lists learning strategies such as awareness of space and cognitive…

  20. CD8 epitope escape and reversion in acute HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Timm, Joerg; Lauer, Georg M; Kavanagh, Daniel G; Sheridan, Isabelle; Kim, Arthur Y; Lucas, Michaela; Pillay, Thillagavathie; Ouchi, Kei; Reyor, Laura L; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Chung, Raymond T; Bhardwaj, Nina; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D; Allen, Todd M

    2004-12-20

    In the setting of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, robust HCV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses are associated with initial control of viremia. Despite these responses, 70-80% of individuals develop persistent infection. Although viral escape from CD8 responses has been illustrated in the chimpanzee model of HCV infection, the effect of CD8 selection pressure on viral evolution and containment in acute HCV infection in humans remains unclear. Here, we examined viral evolution in an immunodominant human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B8-restricted NS3 epitope in subjects with acute HCV infection. Development of mutations within the epitope coincided with loss of strong ex vivo tetramer and interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunospot responses, and endogenous expression of variant NS3 sequences suggested that the selected mutations altered processing and presentation of the variant epitope. Analysis of NS3 sequences from 30 additional chronic HCV-infected subjects revealed a strong association between sequence variation within this region and expression of HLA-B8, supporting reproducible allele-specific selection pressures at the population level. Interestingly, transmission of an HLA-B8-associated escape mutation to an HLA-B8 negative subject resulted in rapid reversion of the mutation. Together, these data indicate that viral escape from CD8+ T cell responses occurs during human HCV infection and that acute immune selection pressure is of sufficient magnitude to influence HCV evolution.

  1. Comparison of operant escape and reflex tests of nociceptive sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Charles J; Yezierski, Robert P

    2015-04-01

    Testing of reflexes such as flexion/withdrawal or licking/guarding is well established as the standard for evaluating nociceptive sensitivity and its modulation in preclinical investigations of laboratory animals. Concerns about this approach have been dismissed for practical reasons - reflex testing requires no training of the animals; it is simple to instrument; and responses are characterized by observers as latencies or thresholds for evocation. In order to evaluate this method, the present review summarizes a series of experiments in which reflex and operant escape responding are compared in normal animals and following surgical models of neuropathic pain or pharmacological intervention for pain. Particular attention is paid to relationships between reflex and escape responding and information on the pain sensitivity of normal human subjects or patients with pain. Numerous disparities between results for reflex and operant escape measures are described, but the results of operant testing are consistent with evidence from humans. Objective reasons are given for experimenters to choose between these and other methods of evaluating the nociceptive sensitivity of laboratory animals.

  2. Oxygen and carbogen breathing following simulated submarine escape.

    PubMed

    Gennser, Mikael; Loveman, Geoff; Seddon, Fiona; Thacker, Julian; Blogg, S Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Escape from a disabled submarine exposes escapers to a high risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The initial bubble load is thought to emanate from the fast tissues; it is this load that should be lowered to reduce risk of serious neurological DCS. The breathing of oxygen or carbogen (5% CO2, 95% O2) post-surfacing was investigated with regard to its ability to reduce the initial bubble load in comparison to air breathing. Thirty-two goats were subject to a dry simulated submarine escape profile to and from 240 meters (2.5 MPa). On surfacing, they breathed air (control), oxygen or carbogen for 30 minutes. Regular Doppler audio bubble grading was carried out, using the Kisman Masurel (KM) scale. One suspected case of DCS was noted. No oxygen toxicity or arterial gas embolism occurred. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of the median peak KM grade or the period before the KM grade dropped below III. Time to disappearance of bubbles was significantly different between groups; oxygen showed faster bubble resolution than carbogen and air. This reduction in time to bubble resolution may be beneficial in reducing decompression stress, but probably does not affect the risk of fast-tissue DCS.

  3. The C. elegans touch response facilitates escape from predacious fungi

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sean M.; Clark, Christopher M.; Nunnari, John; Pirri, Jennifer K.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Predator-prey interactions are vital determinants in the natural selection of behavioral traits. However, we have few insights into both the neural mechanisms and the selective advantage of specific behavioral traits. Gentle touch to the anterior half of the body of Caenorhabditis elegans elicits an escape response in which the animal quickly reverses and suppresses exploratory head movements [1]. Even though the C. elegans touch response has provided one of the rare examples of how neural networks translate sensory input to a coordinated motor output [2], the ecological significance of the escape response is unclear. We investigate predator-prey relationships between C. elegans and predacious fungi that catch nematodes using constricting rings as trapping devices. We show that the constricting rings of Drechslerella doedycoides catch early larval stages with a diameter similar to the trap opening. There is a delay between the ring entry and ring closure, which allows the animal to withdraw from the trap before getting caught. Mutants that fail to suppress head movements in response to touch are caught more efficiently than the wild type in constricting fungal rings. Direct competition experiments show that the suppression of head movements in response to touch is an ecologically relevant behavior that allows the C. elegans to smoothly retract from a fungal noose and evade capture. These results suggest that selective pressures imposed by predacious fungi have shaped the evolution of C. elegans escape behavior. PMID:21802299

  4. Fleeing to refuge: Escape decisions in the race for life.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E

    2016-10-07

    Economic escape theory that predicts that flight initiation distance (FID=predator-prey distance when a prey begins to flee from an approaching predator) increases as predation risk increases has been overwhelmingly supported. However, the vast majority of empirical tests have focused on effects of single predation risk factors. Even studies that have included multiple risk factors have not predicted how they jointly affect FID. I present a model that predicts joint effects of several predation risk factors that affect the outcome of a race between predator and prey to the prey's refuge. As a prey's distance to refuge and predator attack speed increase, and as the prey's location forces it to flee more toward a predator to reach refuge, FID increases. A published model proposed and experiment showed that FID is longer when prey flee directly toward than directly away from a predator to a refuge. We present a new geometric model that predicts FID for all angles between the prey's and predator's paths to refuge, distance of the prey from refuge when escape begins, predator and prey speeds, and a margin of safety allowing the prey to reach refuge before the predator. The model provides many new, testable predictions about relationships among its variables and FID. Most notably, it predicts that FID increases sigmoidally as the angle between predator and prey paths to refuge increases. Although the model is not economic (cost-benefit), we discuss its relationship to economic escape theory.

  5. A Treatment Package without Escape Extinction to Address Food Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jessica; Gutierrez, Anibal

    2015-08-21

    Feeding difficulties and feeding disorders are a commonly occurring problem for young children, particularly children with developmental delays including autism. Behavior analytic interventions for the treatment of feeding difficulties oftentimes include escape extinction as a primary component of treatment. The use of escape extinction, while effective, may be problematic as it is also associated with the emergence of challenging behavior (e.g., extinction burst). Such challenging behavior may be an acceptable side effect in treatment cases where feeding problems are severe and chronic (e.g., failure to thrive). However, in more acute cases (e.g., selective eating), the negative side effect may be unwarranted and undesired. More recent research on the behavioral treatment of food selectivity has begun to evaluate treatments for feeding difficulties that do not include escape extinction (e.g., demand fading, behavioral momentum), with some success. However, research to date reveals individual differences in responsiveness to such treatments and no clear preferable treatment has emerged. This manuscript describes a multi-component treatment package that includes shaping, sequential presentation and simultaneous presentation, for the treatment of food selectivity in four young children with developmental delays. This treatment package extends the literature on the behavioral treatment for food selectivity and offers a multi-component treatment protocol that may be clinically applicable across a range of treatment scenarios and settings.

  6. Clustering and Phase Transitions on a Neutral Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Adam; King, Dawn; Maric, Nevena; Bahar, Sonya

    2012-02-01

    The problem of speciation and species aggregation on a neutral landscape, subject to random mutational fluctuations rather than selective drive, has been a focus of research since the seminal work of Kimura on genetic drift. These ideas have received increased attention due to the more recent development of a neutral ecological theory by Hubbell. De Aguiar et al. recently demonstrated, in a computational model, that speciation can occur under neutral conditions; this study bears some comparison with more mathematical studies of clustering on neutral landscapes in the context of branching and annihilating random walks. Here, we show that clustering can occur on a neutral landscape where the dimensions specify the simulated organisms' phenotypes. Unlike the De Aguiar et al. model, we simulate sympatric speciation: the organisms cluster phenotypically, but are not spatially separated. Moreover, we find that clustering occurs not only in the case of assortative mating, but also in the case of asexual fission. Clustering is not observed in a control case where organisms can mate randomly. We find that the population size and the number of clusters undergo phase-transition-like behavior as the maximum mutation size is varied.

  7. Spin-dependent electron emission from metals in the neutralization of He{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alducin, M.; Roesler, M.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2005-08-15

    We calculate the spin-polarization of electrons emitted in the neutralization of He{sup +} ions interacting with metals. All stages of the emission process are included: the spin-dependent perturbation induced by the projectile, the excitation of electrons in Auger neutralization processes, the creation of a cascade of secondaries, and the escape of the electrons through the surface potential barrier. The model allows us to explain in quantitative terms the measured spin-polarization of the yield in the interaction of spin-polarized He{sup +} ions with paramagnetic surfaces, and to disentangle the role played by each of the involved mechanisms. We show that electron-electron scattering processes at the surface determine the spin-polarization of the total yield. High energy emitted electrons are the ones providing direct information on the He{sup +} ion neutralization process and on the electronic properties of the surface.

  8. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Harpold, Daniel N.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carrigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Holmes, Vincent; Kellogg, James; Jaeger, Ferzan; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is designed to measure the composition, structure, and variability of the upper atmosphere of Mars. The NGIMS complements two other instrument packages on the MAVEN spacecraft designed to characterize the neutral upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the solar wind input to this region of the atmosphere. The combined measurement set is designed to quantify atmosphere escape rates and provide input to models of the evolution of the martian atmosphere. The NGIMS is designed to measure both surface reactive and inert neutral species and ambient ions along the spacecraft track over the 125-500 km altitude region utilizing a dual ion source and a quadrupole analyzer.

  9. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Harpold, Daniel N.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carrigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Melak, Anthony; Noreiga, Felix; Noriega, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Gundersen, Cynthia; Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Cooper, Curt; Edmonson, Charles; Nolan, J. Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is designed to measure the composition, structure, and variability of the upper atmosphere of Mars. The NGIMS complements two other instrument packages on the MAVEN spacecraft designed to characterize the neutral upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the solar wind input to this region of the atmosphere. The combined measurement set is designed to quantify atmosphere escape rates and provide input to models of the evolution of the martian atmosphere. The NGIMS is designed to measure both surface reactive and inert neutral species and ambient ions along the spacecraft track over the 125-500 km altitude region utilizing a dual ion source and a quadrupole analyzer.

  10. Observations of storm time midlatitude ion-neutral coupling using SuperDARN radars and NATION Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. P.; H. Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Makela, J. J.; Fisher, D. J.; Harding, B. J.; Frissell, N. A.; Thomas, E. G.

    2015-10-01

    Ion drag is known to play an important role in driving neutral thermosphere circulation at auroral latitudes, especially during the main phase of geomagnetic storms. During the recovery phase, the neutrals are known to drive the ions and generate ionospheric electric fields and currents via the disturbance dynamo mechanism. At midlatitudes, the precise interplay between ions and neutrals is less understood largely because of the paucity of measurements that have been available. In this work, we investigate ion-neutral coupling at middle latitudes using colocated ion drift velocity measurements obtained from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars and neutral wind velocity and temperature measurements obtained from the North American Thermosphere Ionosphere Observing Network (NATION) Fabry-Perot interferometers. We examine one recent storm period on 2-3 October 2013 during both the main phase and late recovery phase. By using ion-neutral momentum exchange theory and a time-lagged correlation analysis, we analyze the coupling time scales and dominant driving mechanisms. We observe that during the main phase the neutrals respond to the ion convection on a time scale of ˜84 min which is significantly faster than what would be expected from local ion drag momentum forcing alone. This suggests that other storm time influences are important for driving the neutrals during the main phase, such as Joule heating. During the late recovery phase, the neutrals are observed to drive the ion convection without any significant time delay, consistent with the so-called "neutral fly wheel effect" or disturbance dynamo persisting well into the late recovery phase.

  11. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  12. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  13. Vendor neutral archive in PACS.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-10-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  14. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE NEAR BUILDING 80 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  15. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  16. Driving anger in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Yong, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.

  17. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Escape/rescue analysis and plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the technical analysis of escape/rescue/survival situations, crew survival techniques, alternate escape/rescue approaches and vehicles, and the advantages and disadvantages of each for advanced lunar exploration. Candidate escape/rescue guidelines are proposed and elements of a rescue plan developed. The areas of discussions include the following: lunar arrival/departure operations, lunar orbiter operations, lunar surface operations, lunar surface base escape/rescue analysis, lander tug location operations, portable airlock, emergency pressure suit, and the effects of no orbiting lunar station, no lunar surface base, and no foreign lunar orbit/surface operations on the escape/rescue plan.

  18. The effect of gene drive on containment of transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M

    2009-05-21

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever continue to be a major health problem through much of the world. Several new potential approaches to disease control utilize gene drive to spread anti-pathogen genes into the mosquito population. Prior to a release, these projects will require trials in outdoor cages from which transgenic mosquitoes may escape, albeit in small numbers. Most genes introduced in small numbers are very likely to be lost from the environment; however, gene drive mechanisms enhance the invasiveness of introduced genes. Consequently, introduced transgenes may be more likely to persist than ordinary genes following an accidental release. Here, we develop stochastic models to analyze the loss probabilities for several gene drive mechanisms, including homing endonuclease genes, transposable elements, Medea elements, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia, engineered underdominance genes, and meiotic drive. We find that Medea and Wolbachia present the best compromise between invasiveness and containment for the six gene drive systems currently being considered for the control of mosquito-borne disease.

  19. Keck spectroscopy of gravitationally lensed z ≅ 4 galaxies: Improved constraints on the escape fraction of ionizing photons

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Tucker A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2013-12-10

    The fraction of ionizing photons that escape from young star-forming galaxies is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the role of galaxies in cosmic reionization. Yet traditional techniques for measuring this fraction are inapplicable at the redshifts of interest due to foreground screening by the Lyα forest. In an earlier study, we demonstrated a reduction in the equivalent width of low-ionization absorption lines in composite spectra of Lyman break galaxies at z ≅ 4 compared to similar measures at z ≅ 3. This might imply a lower covering fraction of neutral gas and hence an increase with redshift in the escape fraction of ionizing photons. However, our spectral resolution was inadequate to differentiate between several alternative explanations, including changes with redshift in the outflow kinematics. Here we present higher quality spectra of three gravitationally lensed Lyman break galaxies at z ≅ 4 with a spectral resolution sufficient to break this degeneracy of interpretation. We present a method for deriving the covering fraction of low-ionization gas as a function of outflow velocity and compare the results with similar quality data taken for galaxies at lower redshift. We find an interesting but tentative trend of lower covering fractions of low-ionization gas for galaxies with strong Lyα emission. In combination with the demographic trends of Lyα emission with redshift from our earlier work, our results provide new evidence for a reduction in the average H I covering fraction, and hence an increase in the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from Lyman break galaxies, with redshift.

  20. U.S. DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure.

  1. Ceramic vane drive joint

    DOEpatents

    Smale, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  2. The effects of escape from self and interpersonal relationship on the pathological use of Internet games.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hye; Chung, Chung-Suk; Lee, Jung

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Baumeister's escape from self theory may account for the pathological use of Internet games among Korean adolescents. A sample of 1,136 junior high school students completed measures assessing Internet game addiction (IGA), real-ideal self discrepancy, escape from self, current mood, peer relationships, perceived parent-child relationship, and parental supervision. IGA was significantly correlated with all of these variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that escape from self best explained the adolescents' IGA. A path model yielded significant paths from self-discrepancy to negative mood, from negative mood to escape from self, and from escape from self to IGA. These results support the validity of using the escape from self theory to explain the adolescents' IGA, thereby suggesting that adolescents become addicted to Internet games in an attempt to escape from self and reality.

  3. A comparison of positive and negative reinforcement for compliance to treat problem behavior maintained by escape.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Sarah K; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has shown that problem behavior maintained by escape can be treated using positive reinforcement. In the current study, we directly compared functional (escape) and nonfunctional (edible) reinforcers in the treatment of escape-maintained problem behavior for 5 subjects. In the first treatment, compliance produced a break from instructions. In the second treatment, compliance produced a small edible item. Neither treatment included escape extinction. Results suggested that the delivery of a positive reinforcer for compliance was effective for treating escape-maintained problem behavior for all 5 subjects, and the delivery of escape for compliance was ineffective for 3 of the 5 subjects. Implications and future directions related to the use of positive reinforcers in the treatment of escape behavior are discussed.

  4. Microlinear piezo drive experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand construction-design of the peripheral cord tensioner; the determined frequency characteristics and the identified resonant and actual frequencies of an oscillatory system under inertia load. A series of experiments has been conducted for both different preliminary voltages and inertia mass values.

  5. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  6. Neutral ISM, Lyα, and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Lyα line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Lyα, but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium. Based on observations with HST-COS, program GO 13017, obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX09AF08G and by other grants and

  7. A Measurement of Charged and Neutral Elementary Particles Emitted from Antiproton Annihilation at Rest in Heavy Nuclei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    1991 SUMMARY Yields and ,nergy spectra of nuclear fragments and mesons emitted from antiproton crnihilation at rest in carbon, bismuth and uranium...anti- proton annihilation at rest in nuclei (carbon and uranium). These particles include (charged) pions, kaons, protons, light nuclear fragments ...included in order to demonstrate as discussed in [10], and escape of excess neutral pions the effect of pion absorption in the nuclear environment , due to

  8. Escape erosion and relaxation of craters on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S.; Zangari, A.; Stern, A.

    2014-07-01

    Pluto and its major satellite Charon will be the most distant objects ever visited when NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flies past them in mid-2015. Both bodies should have suffered impacts from other transneptunian objects, though those impacts are of much lower velocity than typical on giant-planet satellites. New Horizons will image the illuminated hemispheres of Pluto and Charon seen at closest approach at better than 0.5 km/pix and 1.0 km/pix, respectively. We compare new different predictions of the impactor population on Pluto and Charon, including the effects of escape erosion from Pluto, and examine the crater size distributions those impactors would produce over the range observable to the imagers on New Horizons. The impact distribution models diverge the most for craters smaller than 10 km. We expect the crater size distribution on Charon to be determined by the impactor distribution and the rheology of the surface. Inverting the Charon size distribution seen by New Horizons will then constrain the overall size frequency distribution in the Kuiper belt, and the location of any break in that size frequency distribution. However, owing to escape erosion, craters on Pluto may be much more modified than on Charon. To constrain this modification, we present a range of possible Pluto crater distributions, as a function of impactor distribution, atmospheric escape rate, and surface ice viscosity. Pluto's atmosphere is primarily made of molecular nitrogen and is currently escaping at between 10^{27} and 10^{28} N_2/s according to model estimates. To sustain these escape rates for 3.5 billion years, a global layer of N_2 ice 0.3 to 3 km thick would need to have sublimated from the surface. We show that this gradual mass loss could have erased many of the smaller craters on Pluto, especially craters with diameters smaller than 10 km. This sublimation erosion process does not occur on Charon, which has a water ice surface and no observed atmosphere. We also show

  9. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''.

  10. Reduced neutral XLPE cable design

    SciTech Connect

    Valli, G.F.; Zawadzki, J.A.; Orton, H.E. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes the theoretical, laboratory and economic analyses undertaken to determine the optimum metallic concentric neutral design for its single conductor 750 and 500 kcmil aluminum XLPE 15 kV insulated concentric-neutral type feeder cables. The results suggest that reducing the cross-sectional area of this concentric neutral from the currently-recognized industry standard of 20 percent of the central conductor to 7% results in overall present-worth system cost saving of approximately $3 per conductor meter or approximately 22% of the cable first cost. The neutral configuration ultimately chosen to replace the previous standard 37 - number 14 AWG wires was 2 - 1 inch {times} 5 mil tinned copper tapes overlapped by 25%. Line voltage fault test were run in the high-power laboratory on samples with various neutral configurations to confirm they would successfully pass our worst-case fault duty of 10 kA for 20 cycles (i.e., .33 sec) with no reclosing.

  11. Selective neutrality and enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1997-10-01

    This article appeals to a recent theory of enzyme evolution to show that the properties, neutral or adaptive, which characterize the observed allelic variation in natural populations can be inferred from the functional parameters, substrate specificity, and reaction rate. This study delineates the following relations between activity variables, and the forces--adaptive or neutral--determining allelic variation: (1) Enzymes with broad substrate specificity: The observed polymorphism is adaptive; mutations in this class of enzymes can result in increased fitness of the organism and hence be relevant for positive selection. (2) Enzymes with absolute substrate specificity and diffusion-controlled rates: Observed allelic variation will be absolutely neutral; mutations in this class of enzymes will be either deleterious or have no effect on fitness. (3) Enzymes with absolute or group specificity and nondiffusion-controlled rates: Observed variation will be partially neutral; mutants which are selectively neutral may become advantageous under an appropriate environmental condition or different genetic background. We illustrate each of the relations between kinetic properties and evolutionary states with examples drawn from enzymes whose evolutionary dynamics have been intensively studied.

  12. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  13. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  14. Experimental analysis and extinction of self-injurious escape behavior.

    PubMed

    Iwata, B A; Pace, G M; Kalsher, M J; Cowdery, G E; Cataldo, M F

    1990-01-01

    Three studies are presented in which environmental correlates of self-injurious behavior were systematically examined and later used as the basis for treatment. In Study 1, 7 developmentally disabled subjects were exposed to a series of conditions designed to identify factors that maintain self-injurious behavior: attention contingent on self-injurious behavior (positive reinforcement), escape from or avoidance of demands contingent on self-injurious behaviour (negative reinforcement), alone (automatic reinforcement), and play (control). Results of a multielement design showed that each subject's self-injurious behavior occurred more frequently in the demand condition, suggesting that the behavior served an avoidance or escape function. Six of the 7 subjects participated in Study 2. During educational sessions, "escape extinction" was applied as treatment for their self-injurious behavior in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Results showed noticeable reduction or elimination of self-injurious behavior for each subject and an increase in compliance with instructions in all subjects for whom compliance data were taken. The 7th subject, whose self-injurious behavior during Study 1 occurred in response to medical demands (i.e., physical examinations), participated in Study 3. Treatment was comprised of extinction, as in Study 2, plus reinforcement for tolerance of the examination procedure, and was evaluated in a multiple baseline across settings design. Results showed that the treatment was successful in eliminating self-injurious behavior and that its effects transferred across eight new therapists and three physicians. General implications for the design, interpretation, and uses of assessment studies are discussed.

  15. Teachers with Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Celine; Diffenbaugh, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    For students in U.S. classrooms today, the odds of being assigned to an inexperienced teacher are higher than they have ever been because so many teachers, some in the top 20 percent of effectiveness are leaving the classroom in their first five years. Coggins and Diffenbaugh turn to Daniel Pink's work on drive to determine how to motivate…

  16. DrivePy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan; Guo, Yi

    2014-08-30

    DrivePy is physics-based drivetrain model that sizes drivetrain components based on aerodynamic and operational loads for use in a systems engineering model. It also calculates costs based on empirical data collected by NREL's National Wind Technology Center.

  17. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  18. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  19. Flywheel sickle drive mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, R.K.

    1989-03-21

    A releasable, eccentric drive mechanism is described, comprising: a first shaft extending along a central axis and presenting a generally cylindrical portion; a second shaft extending along a reference axis substantially parallel to the central axis in offset relation to the latter and having a generally cylindrical portion; a drive member having structure defining an opening including a first, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the first shaft portion and a second, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the second shaft portion, the second region being in side-by-side relationship to the first region and in open communication with the latter, the first shaft portion and the second shaft portion each including a substantially flat wall section extending in a plane substantially perpendicular to a reference plane passing through the central axis and the reference axis, each of the wall sections being inclined relative to the central axis in complemental, flat engagement with each other; and means coupled to one of the drive member and the second shaft for urging the first shaft in a longitudinal direction generally toward the second shaft in order to bring the wall section of the first shaft into a position of flat, wedging contact with the wall section of the second shaft and in contact with the structure defining the opening in order to securely interconnect the first shaft, the second shaft and the drive member.

  20. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…